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Sample records for spektr pogloshcheniya tonkikh

  1. Technical Note: SPEKTR 3.0—A computational tool for x-ray spectrum modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punnoose, J.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Siewerdsen, J. H., E-mail: jeff.siewerdsen@jhu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: A computational toolkit (SPEKTR 3.0) has been developed to calculate x-ray spectra based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) algorithm, updating previous work based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) spectral model. The toolkit includes a MATLAB (The Mathworks, Natick, MA) function library and improved user interface (UI) along with an optimization algorithm to match calculated beam quality with measurements. Methods: The SPEKTR code generates x-ray spectra (photons/mm{sup 2}/mAs at 100 cm from the source) using TASMICS as default (with TASMIP as an option) in 1 keV energy bins over beam energies 20–150 kV, extensible to 640 kV using the TASMICS spectra. An optimization tool was implemented to compute the added filtration (Al and W) that provides a best match between calculated and measured x-ray tube output (mGy/mAs or mR/mAs) for individual x-ray tubes that may differ from that assumed in TASMICS or TASMIP and to account for factors such as anode angle. Results: The median percent difference in photon counts for a TASMICS and TASMIP spectrum was 4.15% for tube potentials in the range 30–140 kV with the largest percentage difference arising in the low and high energy bins due to measurement errors in the empirically based TASMIP model and inaccurate polynomial fitting. The optimization tool reported a close agreement between measured and calculated spectra with a Pearson coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The computational toolkit, SPEKTR, has been updated to version 3.0, validated against measurements and existing models, and made available as open source code. Video tutorials for the SPEKTR function library, UI, and optimization tool are available.

  2. Technical Note: spektr 3.0—A computational tool for x-ray spectrum modeling and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, J.; Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A computational toolkit (spektr 3.0) has been developed to calculate x-ray spectra based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) algorithm, updating previous work based on the tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating polynomials (TASMIP) spectral model. The toolkit includes a matlab (The Mathworks, Natick, MA) function library and improved user interface (UI) along with an optimization algorithm to match calculated beam quality with measurements. Methods: The spektr code generates x-ray spectra (photons/mm2/mAs at 100 cm from the source) using TASMICS as default (with TASMIP as an option) in 1 keV energy bins over beam energies 20–150 kV, extensible to 640 kV using the TASMICS spectra. An optimization tool was implemented to compute the added filtration (Al and W) that provides a best match between calculated and measured x-ray tube output (mGy/mAs or mR/mAs) for individual x-ray tubes that may differ from that assumed in TASMICS or TASMIP and to account for factors such as anode angle. Results: The median percent difference in photon counts for a TASMICS and TASMIP spectrum was 4.15% for tube potentials in the range 30–140 kV with the largest percentage difference arising in the low and high energy bins due to measurement errors in the empirically based TASMIP model and inaccurate polynomial fitting. The optimization tool reported a close agreement between measured and calculated spectra with a Pearson coefficient of 0.98. Conclusions: The computational toolkit, spektr, has been updated to version 3.0, validated against measurements and existing models, and made available as open source code. Video tutorials for the spektr function library, UI, and optimization tool are available. PMID:27487888

  3. A technique for estimating the probability of radiation-stimulated failures of integrated microcircuits in low-intensity radiation fields: Application to the Spektr-R spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.

    2006-10-01

    In developing radio-electronic devices (RED) of spacecraft operating in the fields of ionizing radiation in space, one of the most important problems is the correct estimation of their radiation tolerance. The “weakest link” in the element base of onboard microelectronic devices under radiation effect is the integrated microcircuits (IMC), especially of large scale (LSI) and very large scale (VLSI) degree of integration. The main characteristic of IMC, which is taken into account when making decisions on using some particular type of IMC in the onboard RED, is the probability of non-failure operation (NFO) at the end of the spacecraft’s lifetime. It should be noted that, until now, the NFO has been calculated only from the reliability characteristics, disregarding the radiation effect. This paper presents the so-called “reliability” approach to determination of radiation tolerance of IMC, which allows one to estimate the probability of non-failure operation of various types of IMC with due account of radiation-stimulated dose failures. The described technique is applied to RED onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft to be launched in 2007.

  4. Optical Property Retention Methods for the T-170M Space Telescope Mirrors Surface in the Project «Spektr-UF» at the Preflight Preparation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F L. Chubarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrophysical observations in the ultraviolet band have many advantages. At present, the «Spektr-UF» project is under implementation to create a large space observatory for operation in the ultraviolet spectrum.Requirements for the ultraviolet telescope optics quality are extremely high. Therefore, both to manufacture such a large space telescope as the T-170M and to transport it to the launch complex are rather difficult challenges in terms of technology.When manufacturing optical elements of the telescope T-170M, a combination of Al+MgF2 coatings has been preferred. At the same time, atmospheric oxygen penetrates through the pores in the magnesium fluoride, thereby forming a Al2O3 oxide layer on the sputtered aluminum, which significantly degrades the UV reflectivity of the mirror surface. It is also necessary to fulfill the requirements for surface cleanliness of optical system elements of the telescope during the finished product transportation and its storage and to provide for the autonomous operation of the system that maintains atmosphere control.To solve the set tasks:1    a dust-proof-and-moisture-proof sheath (DPAMPS was designed to prevent the optical system mirror surfaces of the telescope from coming in contact with atmosphere;2    to provide a controlled atmosphere inside the DPAMPS the need is justified to blow gaseous nitrogen of special purity (grade 1 in accordance with GOST 9293-74 with a dew point temperature of -50°С, at most, inside the telescope; calculations have proved that charging with the super-atmospheric pressure of 10 kPa provides the optimal conditions for maintaining the optical properties of the space telescope mirrors surface, and also minimizes the loads on the easily damaging elements of the telescope;3    to ensure the required cleanliness of the optical system elements surfaces of the telescope inside the DPAMPS, a class of purity Class 7 ISO, at worst, is established in accordance with GOST

  5. The determination of sulphur in materials of high neutron absorption cross-section by fast-neutron activation analysis; Determination du soufre dans les matieres de forte section efficace d'absorption neutronique, au moyen d'une analyse par activation avec des neutrons rapides; Opredelenie sery v materialakh s bol'shim secheniem pogloshcheniya nejtronov metodom aktivatsionnogo analiza bystrykh nejtronov; Determinacion del azufre en sustancias de elevada seccion eficaz de absorcion neutronica mediante analisis por activacion con neutrones rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, D; Simpson, H [Wantage Research Laboratory (A.E.R.E.), Wantage, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    secciones eficaces de absorcion para los neutrones rapidos son mucho mas bajas que para los lentos lo cual reduce considerablemente los errores debidos al autoblindaje. La interferencia debida a la reaccion (n, {gamma}) causada por los neutrones lentos en el fosforo natural puede eliminarse gracias a una tecnica que consiste en efectuar irradiaciones dobles en regiones del reactor en que varien las razones del flujo de neutrones lentos a neutrones rapidos. El metodo se ha aplicado a la determinacion del azufre en cromo y arsenico. (author) [Russian] Proizvodstvo radiofosfora pri vzaimodejstvii bystrykh nejtronov (n, p) s seroj ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya sery s pomoshch'yu aktivatsionnogo analiza. Ispol'zovanie dannogo metoda pozvolyaet opredelit' nalichie sery v materialakh s bol'shim secheniem pogloshcheniya teplovykh nejtronov, t.k. sechenie pogloshcheniya bystrykh nejtronov, kak pravilo, znachitel'no men'she, chem medlennykh nejtronov, chto pozvolyaet zametno snizit' veroyatnost' oshibok iz-za samozashchity. Pomekhi iz-za reaktsii (n, {gamma}) na medlennykh nejtronakh s estestvennym fosforom ustranyayutsya metodom dvojnogo oblucheniya v mestakh s razlichnym otnosheniem potokov bystrykh i medlennykh nejtronov. Dannyj metod primenyalsya dlya opredeleniya sery v khrome i mysh'yake. (author)

  6. Establishment of the Processes of Absorption and Diffusion of Systemic Insecticides in Populus Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; L'etablissement des processus d'absorption et diffusion des insecticides systemiques au Populus x Euramericana Dode Guinier ''Robista; Opredelenie protsessov pogloshcheniya i diffuzii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u Populus x Euramerican a Dode Guinier ''Robusta''; Determinacion de los procesos de absorcion y difusion de los insecticidas sistemicos en el Populus x Euramericana Dope Guinier ''Robusta''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrina, I.; Popa, A.; Constantinesco, V.; Constantinesco, O.; Constantinesco, El.; Hulula, C. [Institut de Recherches Forestieres de Bucarest, Bucharest (Romania)

    1963-09-15

    observado que en el suelo queda gran cantidad de insecticida, los autores consideran que en la lucha contra los insectos que atacan a las especies lenosas es preferible verter en el suelo las soluciones de insecticidas de accion indirecta. (author) [Russian] Fosforoorganicheskie insektitsidy s somaticheskimi svojstvami, svyazannymi s ikh sposobnost'yu pronikat' v sok rastenij, vozdejstvuyut na nasekomykh, kotorye provodyat chast' svoej zhizni libo v kambial'noj zone mekhdu drevesinoj i koroj, libo v drevesine. Do poyavleniya ehtikh insektitsidov khimicheskaya bor'ba protiv ksilofagovykh nasekomykh, nakhodyashchikhsya v stvole rastenij, byla pochti nevozmozhnoj. Dlya izucheniya mekhanizma pogloshcheniya, diffuzii i lokalizatsii somaticheskikh insektitsidov u topolya i ivy, kotorye chasto podvergayutsya napadeniyu ksilofagovykh nasekomykh, byli provedeny issledovaniya s primeneniem mechenogo ''Dipterex'' na topole Robusta R-20. Mechenie insektitsida bylo proizvedeno v reaktore s ispol'zovaniem v kachestve misheni ''Dipterex'' v poroshke ( 1,5 g) pri potoke v {Phi} = 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2} sek i pri temperature v 30 - 40{sup o}C. Ehto prodolzhalos' do polucheniya absolyutnoj aktivnosti misheni {approx_equal} 1 mc. Chast' opytov provodilas' v laboratoriyakh, gde ispol'zovalis' rasteniya, vyrashchennye v vegetatsionnykh sosudakh. Drugaya chast' opytov provodilas' na pochve, v pitomnikakh, s ispol'zovaniem odnoletnikh i dvukhletnikh rastenij. V techenie 1 - 2 mesyatsev posle vvedeniya rastvorov mechenogo insektitsida rasteniya podvergalis' radiometricheskomu analizu. Pri provedenii opytov v laboratornykh usloviyakh insektitsid nakaplivalsya v znachitel'nykh kolichestvakh v listve i v neznachitel'nykh kolichestvakh - v drevesine. Pri provedenii opytov kak v laboratornykh usloviyakh, tak i na pochve insektitsid nakaplivalsya v bol'shem protsentnom otnoshenii v listve. Vmeste s tem otmechaetsya znachitel'nyj rost nakoplenij insektitsida v vetvyakh i v drevesine stvola, osobenno v

  7. Spektrální vlastnosti benzimidazolů

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Spectral Properties of Benzimidazoles Marie Lukešová Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry Abstract: This diploma thesis deals with the spectral properties of benzimidazoles. Most of benzimidazoles are anthelmintic active drug, used primarily in veterinary medicine. Some substances are used as fungicides. The main aim of this study was to clarify the influence of solvents on the absorption spectra and especially on ...

  8. Pozorování aktivity autonomního nervového systému prostřednictvím spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence u hráčů ledního hokeje Autonomic nervous system observation through to use of spectral analysis of heart rate variability in ice hockey players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Řehová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cílem studie bylo poodhalit vliv pravidelného sportovního tréninku na aktivitu autonomního nervového systému (ANS, která byla hodnocena pomocí spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV. K vyhodnocení výsledků SA HRV byly použity komplexní indexy (celkové skóre – TS, aktivita vagu – VA, sympatovagová balance – SVB a věkově standardizovaná hodnota celkového spektrálního výkonu (PT (Stejskal et al., 2002. Výzkumný soubor tvořili čtyři hráči ledního hokeje. Na základě získaných výsledků jsme došli k závěru, že kvalita sportovního tréninku ovlivňuje aktivitu ANS. Změny aktivity ANS, a tím velikosti adaptability sportovce, mohou významně ovlivnit sportovní výkon. Optimalizace adaptačních procesů prostřednictvím kontroly tréninkového zatížení na základě měření SA HRV může přinést nové aspekty řízení sportovního tréninku. The aim of our study was to investigate the infl uence of regular sport training on the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS and to disclose patterns of interrelations between them. The activity of the ANS was evaluated by means of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV. We used complex indices (total score – TS, vagal activity – VA, sympathovagal balance – SVB and age standardized values of total spectral power (PT for SA HRV results evaluation (Stejskal et al., 2002. The study group consisted of four ice hockey players, of whom all were 17 years old. The SA HRV was monitored by using VarCor PF7 hardware and VarCorMulti computer software, which enables four individuals to be measured at the same time. The examination of heart rate variability took place once a week in the morning. Information about the previous day’s training load, the duration and quality of sleep, and their self-reported health status (SRH was also obtained by completing a questionnaire before the SA HRV examination. Overall sports

  9. Volleyball players training intensity monitoring through the use of spectral analysis of heart rate variability during a training microcycle [Kontrola zatížení hráčů volejbalu metodou spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence během týdenního tréninkového mikrocyklu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jakubec

    2011-09-01

    optimalization and increase of training process efficiency should lead to a sports performance improvement, also in team sports games.[VÝCHODISKA: Pro volejbal platí, že z hlediska pohybového režimu i způsobu provedení herních činností jsou na hráče v jednotlivých hráčských specializacích kladeny specifické nároky. Tyto specifické nároky je nutné individualizovat podle úrovně trénovatelnosti (adaptability na trénink jednotlivých hráčů, která je závislá zejména na aktivitě autonomního nervového systému (ANS. Spektrální analýza variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV nám podává informace o regulaci srdeční aktivity, na níž se významně podílí aktivita ANS. Longitudinálním měřením SA HRV v průběhu určité části tréninkového období tedy můžeme sledovat dynamiku aktivity ANS a tím i změny adaptability (trénovatelnosti sledovaného hráče na tréninkové zatížení. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost optimalizace tréninkového zatížení hráčů volejbalu během týdenního tréninkového mikrocyklu na základě sledování dynamiky komplexních ukazatelů SA HRV. METODIKA: Metoda SA HRV byla použita pro hodnocení regulace srdeční aktivity. Testovaný soubor hráčů volejbalu (n = 8 absolvoval během sedmi dní 28 tréninkových jednotek zaměřených na rozvoj kondice a volejbalových dovedností. V tomto období podstoupili hráči sedm měření SA HRV. VÝSLEDKY: Výsledky ukazují, že u hráčů došlo vlivem tréninkových i mimotréninkových podnětů k výrazným a značně odlišným změnám v aktivitě ANS. Výsledky vyšetření dvou hráčů dokumentují vysokou aktivitu ANS, která umožňuje zvýšit intenzitu tréninku. U čtyř hráčů byla aktivita ANS na průměrné úrovni a svědčí o odpovídajícím tréninkovém zatížení. U zbývajících dvou hráčů byla aktivita ANS velmi nízká a dokumentovala jejich redukovanou adaptabilitu na tréninkové zatížení, kter

  10. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Critical Experiment and its Application to Thorium Absorption Rates; Experience Critique pour l'Etude d'un Reacteur a Haute Temperature, Refroidi par un Gaz et son Application a la Determination des Taux d'Absorption du Thorium; Kriticheskij opyt, postavlennyj na vysokotemperaturnom reaktore s gazovym okhlazhdeniem, i primenenie ego dlya opredeleniya stepeni pogloshcheniya toriya; Experimento Critico Efectuado en un Reactor de Elevada Temperatura Refrigerado por Gas y su Aplicacion para Calcular los Indices de Absorcion del Torio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardes, R. G.; Brown, J. R.; Drake, M. K.; Fischer, P. U.; Pound, D. C.; Sampson, J. B.; Stewart, H. B. [General Dynamics Corporation,San Diego, CA (United States)

    1964-04-15

    significativo debido a que en las obras publicadas subsiste cierta divergencia en los resultados obtenidos con ambas tecnicas. (author) [Russian] Pri razrabotke idei reaktora HTGR i ego pervogo prototipa v Pich- Bottome prishli k resheniju o neobhodimosti obespechit' sootvetstvujushhie ishodnye dannye dlja provedenija jadernogo analiza. Konkretnye potrebnosti teorii jadernogo proektirovanija na ishodnyh dannyh otnositel'no pogloshhenija torija priveli k sozdaniju jeksperimental'nogo proekta, sostojashhego iz kriticheskoj sborki tipa sborki s central'noj reshetkoj s okruzhajushhim ammortizatorom i peredvizhnymi aktivnymi zonami. Sborka takogo tipa, v kotoroj v sravnitel'no nebol'shoj central'noj reshetke s zhelaemoj geometriej mozhet byt' ustanovlen predstavljajushhij interes spektr, javljaetsja poleznoj ustanovkoj dlja poluchenija raznoobraznyh ishodnyh dannyh v celjah provedenija jadernogo analiza novyh idej. Obsuzhdajutsja konkretnye preimushhestva jetogo metoda po sravneniju so stroitel'stvom sborki-modeli, a takzhe rol' teorii v opredelenii, kakie opyty javljajutsja naibolee poleznymi i kak jeti opyty zatem ispol'zujutsja pri proverke metodov proektirovanija. - Byli razrabotany dva sravnitel'no novyh metoda dlja ispol'zovanija v sborke reshetok - metod izmerenija kolebanij reaktivnosti dlja opredelenija kojefficienta Dopplera dlja torija i metod aktivacii dlja opredelenija kak rezonansnogo integrala torija, dispergirovannogo v grafite, tak i ego zavisimosti ot temperatury (kojefficient aktivacii Dopplera). Pri izmerenii kojefficienta Dopplera putem opredelenija kolebanij reaktivnosti ves' central'nyj toplivnyj jelement ispol'zovalsja takim obrazom, chto byla vozmozhnost' osushhestvit' nagrev toplivnogo jelementa do 800 Registered-Sign F i tochno opredelit' opytnym putem teplovye jeffekty, t.e. te jeffekty, kotorye ne okazyvajut vlijanija na velichinu rezonansvogo zahvata torija. Sravnenie rezul'tatov s teoriej dlja rjada uslovij svidetel'stvuet o prekrasnom soglasovanii

  11. Direct measurement of the half-life of Rb{sup 87}; Mesure directe de la periode du rubidium-87; Pryamoe izmerenie poluraspada rubidiya-87; Medicion directa del periodo del {sup 87}Rb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNair, A; Wilson, H W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Aldermaston, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    'zovaniya: i) 4-{pi} proportsional'nogo schetchika dlya istochnika s bol'shoj poverkhnost'yu ploshchadi ({pi}o 100 cm{sup 2}), ii) operatsii antisovpadeniya dlya umen'sheniya fona i iii) obogashchennogo rubidiya-87, kotoryj umen'shaet tolshchinu istochnika dlya dannoj aktivnosti. EHtimi metodami izmeryalis' istochniki do 5 mikrogramm/cm{sup 2}. Issledovalas' takzhe svyaz' mezhdu periodom poluraspada i tolshchinoj istochnika s tem, chtoby mozhno bylo vnesti popravku dlya ochen' neznachitel'nogo ostavshegosya pogloshcheniya. EHffekt podkladki tolshchiny istochnika ne tak uzh bol'shoj i mozhet byt' vychislen iz: i) raznosti v skorostyakh scheta na lyuboj storone ispol'zuemykh tonkikh opor i ii) issledovaniya zavisimosti perioda poluraspada ot tolshchiny opor istochnika. EHti ehksperimenty dayut velichinu okolo 5,25 x 10{sup 10} let dlya perioda poluraspada. (author)

  12. On the energy spectrum of the Bethe-Salpeter equation; Ob ehnergeticheskom spektre uravneniya Bete-Solpitera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorkin, S M [Dal` nevostochnyj Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Kaptar` , L P; Semikh, S S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    1997-12-31

    The problem of calculating the energy spectrum of a two-fermion bound state within the Bethe-Salpeter formalism is discussed. An expansion of the kernel of the spinor-spinor Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation is found in terms of a bi-orthogonal basis of the generalized Gilbert-Schmidt series for symmetric equations of the Fredholm type. According to this expansion, a new method of solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation and finding the mass spectrum is proposed. Methodological result of numerical solutions of equations with scalar interaction is presented. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Observation of magnetostatic wave electron absorption in ferrite-high temperature superconductor structure. Nablyudenie ehlektronnogo pogloshcheniya magnitostaticheskikh voln v strukture ferrit-vysokotemperaturnyj sverkhprovodnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfinogenov, V B; Gulyaev, Yu V; Zil' berman, P E; Kotelyanskij, I M; Polzikova, N I; Sukhanov, A A [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Radiotekhniki i Ehlektroniki

    1989-07-26

    Conditions for magneto-static wave (MSW) propagation in laminar structures ferrite-high-temperature superconductor (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) and effect of transition into superconducting state under the temperature drop on these conditions are investigated. MSW electron absorption effrect in such structures (strongly dependent on the temperature) is detected and its interpretation is given.

  14. Stanovení vlastní frekvence budovy a podloží pomocí metod spektrálních poměrů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 69-78 ISSN 1803-1447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-07027P Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : resonance frequency * spectral ratio method * SSR * HVSR * ambient noise Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www.caag.cz/

  15. Treatment of radiostrontium uptake in man; Traitement de la fixation de radiostrontium chez l'homme; Lechenie posledstvij pogloshcheniya radioaktivnogo strontsiya u cheloveka; Tratamiento de la radiotoxemla humana causada por absorcion de radioestroncio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volf, V. [Department of Ionizing Radiation Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Disease, Prague, CSSR (Czech Republic)

    1963-02-15

    In short-term experiments on rats the passage of radioactive strontium through the intestinal wall was modified by oral treatment using barium sulphate and normal calcium phosphate. However, in rats on a diet containing barium sulphate there was no change in the absorption of Sr{sup 90} given in drinking water. It was concluded that this substance could be of value in first-aid treatment only. In two cases of slight internal contamination following accidental Sr{sup 90} nitrate inhalation, barium sulphate (Skiabaryum Spofa) was administered orally within 10 and 30 min after the inhalation of Sr{sup 90}. The effectiveness of this treatment was tested in model experiments on rats performed under similar conditions as in the accidents. More recently, experiments on similar lines have been carried out on several cancer patients, in order to investigate further possibilities of first-aid treatment following acute internal radiostrontium contamination in man. (author) [French] Dans des experiences de breve duree sur les rats, le passage de radiostrontium a travers la paroi de l'intestin etait modifie par l'administration par voie buccale de sulfate de baryum et de phosphate de calcium normal. Toutefois, chez des rats dont le regime alimentaire contenait du sulfate de baryum, il n'y a pas eu de modification de l'absorption de {sup 90}Sr melange a l'eau de boisson. On en conclut que cette substance ne peut etre utile que pour un traitement de premiere urgence. Dans deux cas de legere contamination interne par inhalation accidentelle de {sup 90}Sr sous forme de nitrate, on a administre du sulfate de baryum (Skiabaryum Spofa) par voie buccale dans les 10 et les 30 min qui ont suivi l'inhalation de {sup 90}Sr. L'efficacite de ce traitement a ete etudiee au cours d'experiences temoins effectuees sur des rats dans des conditions identiques a celles des accidents. Plus recemment, on a procede a des experiences analogues sur plusieurs cancereux en vue de trouver d'autres possibilites de traitement de premiere urgence de la contamination interne aigue par le radiostrontium chez l'homme. (author) [Spanish] En experimentos de corta duracion realizados con ratas, se ha modificado la absorcion del radioestroncio a traves de la pared intestinal por tratamiento oral con sulfato barico y fosfato calcico normal. Por el contrario, ha permanecido inalterada la absorcion del ''9''0Sr administrado con el agua de bebida a ratas sometidas a un regimen que comprendia sulfato barico. De ello se deduce que esta sustancia solo puede ser de alguna utilidad en un tratamiento de primeros auxilios. En dos casos de ligera contaminacion interna consecutiva a la inhalacion accidental de nitrato de {sup 90}Sr se ha administrado suliato barico (Skiabaryum Spoia) por via oral a los 10 y 30 minutos de ocurrir la inhalacion. La eficacia de este tratamiento se ha verificado en experimentos realizados con ratas en las mismas condiciones en que se produjeron los accidentes. En fecha mas reciente, se han efectuado experimentos analogos en varios enfermos de cancer para estudiar otras posibilidades que ofrece el tratamiento de primeros auxilios, administrado a raiz de una contaminacion interna aguda causada por el radioestroncio en el organismo humano. (author) [Russian] V neprodolzhitel'nykh ehksperimentakh na krysakh izuchalos' izmenenie prokhozhdeniya radiostrontsiya cherez kishechnuyu stenku pod vliyaniem skarmlivaniya sernokislogo bariya i normal'nogo fosfornokislogo kal'tsiya. Odnako u krys, soderzhashchikhsya na diete, vklyuchayushchej sernokislyj barij, ne obnaruzheno izmenenij vsasyvaniya strontsiya-90, kotoryj zhivotnye poluchali s pit'evoj vodoj. Sdelan vyvod, chto ehto veshchestvo mozhet primenyat'sya lish' dlya okazaniya pervoj pomoshchi. V dvukh sluchayakh legkogo vnutrennego zarazheniya posle sluchajnogo vdykhaniya nitrata strontsiya-90 sernokislyj barij (Skiabarij Spofa) davalsya vnutr' cherez 10 i 30 minut posle vdykhaniya strontsiya-90. Ehivnoot' ehtogo lecheniya proveryalas' v ehksperimente na krysakh v tekh zhe usloviyakh, kotorye imeli mesto vo vremya intsidenta. Pozdnee byli issledovany neskol'ko rakovykh bol'nykh s tsel'yu izucheniya dal'nejshikh vozmozhnostej okazaniya pervoj pomoshchi pri ostrom vnutrennem otravlenii radiostrontsiem u cheloveka. (author)

  16. Investigation into CdS nanocrystal growth regularities in silicate glass and in the thin films SiO{sub 2} at the initial stages of solid solution phase decomposi8tion; Issledovanie zakonomernostej rosta nanokristalov CdS v silikatnom stekle i v tonkikh plenkakh SiO{sub 2} na nachal`nykh stadiyakh fazovogo raspada tverdogo rastvora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, S A; Ekimov, A I; Kudryavtsev, I A [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1994-05-01

    Regularities of CdS semiconductor hanocrystal growth in amorphous media (silicate glasses and SiO{sub 2} thin films) are investigated. Dependences of crystal mean dimension on the annealing time show that in accordance with the theory of phase decomposition the crystal growth has the successive stages of nuclei formation and diffusion growth. By means of the nuclei mean radius dependences on the annealing temperature are determined the temperatures of CdS solubility in the matrix material. Effect of the annealing atmosphere composition on the growth and optical properties of CdS nanocrystals is shown.

  17. Frequency Spectrum of Liquids and Cold Neutron Scattering; Spectre de frequences des liquides et diffusion de neutrons froids; Chastotnyj spektr zhidkostej i rasseyanie kholodnykh nejtronov; Espectro de frecuencias de los liquidos y dispersion de neutrones frios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singwi, K S; Sjolander, A; Rahman, A [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1963-01-15

    An important question which arises in connection with slow neutron scattering by liquids is: does there exist a frequency spectrum tor liquids analogous to that in solids? The answer to this question is given by showing that the width function {gamma}(t) of the Gaussian space-time self-correlation function G{sub s}(r,t) can be expressed, by using the frequency spectrum of the velocity auto-correlation function, in a form which is formally identical with that of a harmonic solid. Thus a knowledge of the frequency spectrum of the velocity auto-correlation function should enable one to calculate slow neutron scattering by liquids as has been emphasized by Egelstaff and co-workers. Using a stochastic model of a liquid, the frequency spectrum f({omega}) of the velocity auto-correlation function is calculated for water at 300{sup o}K and for liquid lead at 620{sup o}K. In the case of water a maximum in f({omega}) corresponding to {Dirac_h} 75{sup o}K is predicted. For lead the maximum also occurs at nearly the same {omega}-value. There also occurs a minimum in f({omega})in both cases. Larsson and Dahlborg have observed a maximum in f({omega}) at the above predicted {omega}-value. A recent observation in liquid lead of Cotter et al. probably confirms our prediction too. (author) [French] Dans le domaine de la diffusion des neutrons lents par des liquides une question importante se pose: existe-t-il un spectre de frequences pour les liquides analogue au spectre pour les solides? On peut repondre d cette quesnon en montrant que la fonction de largeur {gamma}(t) de la fonction gaussienne spatio-temporelle d'auto-correlation G{sub s}(r,t) peut etre exprimee, en employant le spectre de frequences de la fonction d'auto-correlation des vitesses, sous uune forme qui presente le membe aspect formel que celle d'un solide harmonique. par consequent, la connaissance du spectre de frequences de la fonction d'auto-correlation des vitesses devrait permettre de calculer la diffusion des neutrons lents par les liquides comme l'ont souligne Egelstaff et ses colllaborateurs. Les auteurs calculent, a l'aide d'un modele stochastique, le spectre des frequences f({omega}) de la fonction d'auto-correlation des vitesses dans l'eau a 300{sup o}K et dans le plomb liquide a 620{sup o}K. Dans le cas de l'eau ils prevoient un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) correspondant a {Dirac_h} {omega}75{sup o}K. Dans le plomb, le maximum se manifeste a une valeur a peu pres analogue. II existe aussi un minimum de la fonction f({omega}) dans les deux cas. Larsson et Dahlborg ont observe un maximum de la fonction f({omega}) a la valeur d'{omega} prevue ci-dessus. Des observations faites recemment dans du plomb liquide par Cotter et al. confirment vraisemblablement les previsions des auteurs. (author) [Spanish] Una cuestion importante que se plantea respecto de la dispersion de neeutrones lentos por los liquidos es la siguiente: Existe un espectro de frecuencia de los liquidos analogo al de los solidos? para contestar a esta pregunta, basta demostrar que la funcion de amplitud {gamma}(t) de la funcion gaussiana de autocorrelacion espacio G{sup s}(r,t) puede expresarse, utilizando el espectro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorreclation de velocidad, en form identica a la correspondiente a un solido armonico. Es decir, si se conoce el especro de frecuencias de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, se debe poder calcular la dispersion de neutrones lentos por los liquidos, como han senalado Egelstaff y colaboradores. Los autores calculan, utilizando un modelo estocastico de liquido, el espectro de frecuencia f({omega}) de la funcion de autocorrelacion de velocidad, en el caso del agua a 300{sup o}K y del plomo liquido a 620{sup o}K. Predicen para la primera un maximo de f({omega}) correspondiente a {Dirac_h}{omega} 75{sup o}K. Enel caso del plomo, el maximo se presenta tambien para el mismo valor de oj, aproximadamente. Ademas, en ambos casos f({omega})pasa por un minimo. Larsson y Dahlborg han observado un maximo de f({omega}) para el valor de {omega} previsto por los autores. Al parecer una comprobacion recientemente efectuada por Cotter y colaboradores en el caso del plomo liquido tambien confirma la prevision de los autores acerca de este metal. (author)

  18. Spektrální radiometry pro měření světelných podmínek pro růst rostlin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oupický, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2006), s. 270-273 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS100820502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Radiometer * spectral * plant * growth Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Identification of solution products of lanthanoid (3) diethyldithiocarbamatohexamethyl phosphotriamide compounds from IR, electron and sup 1 H, sup 13 C, sup 31 P NMR absorption spectra. Identifikatsiya produktov rastvoreniya diehtilditiokarbamatogeksametil fosfotriamidnykh soedinenij lantanoidov (3) po IK, ehlektronnym i YaMR sup 1 H, sup 13 C, sup 31 P spektram pogloshcheniya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V V; Savost' yanova, A F; Trachevskij, V V; Gorbalyuk, A D; Sukhan, T A [Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Kiev (Ukrainian SSR)

    1991-01-01

    By the methods of conductometry, IR, electron and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy nonaqueous solutions of the compounds (La(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2})Hmpa{sub 5})(BPh{sub 4}){sub 2}, Hmpa=OP(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3}; (Ln(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}){sub 2}Hmpa{sub 3})BPh{sub 4}, Ln=Y, La-Lu; (Ln(S{sub 2}CNEt{sub 2}){sub 3}Hmpa{sub 2}), Ln=La-Gd, have been investigated. It is ascertained that bis-dithiocarbamate compounds are dissolved in all the studied solvents with preservation of composition and structure of lanthanide (3) inner coordination sphere. Tris-dithiocarbamates in nonaqueous solutions are subjected to reactions of ligand redistribution according to schemes depending on the solvent nature. In the process of dissolving of lanthanum monodithiocarbamate bond isomerization of dithiocarbamate groups occurs, which is pronounced in splitting of {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR signals.

  20. Anomalous component of absorption function of relativistic fragments produced in interactions of magnesium nuclei with plexiglas at 4. 5A GeV/c momentum. Anomal'naya komponenta funktsii pogloshcheniya relyativistskikh fragmentov, obrazovannykh vo vzaimodejstviyakh yader magniya c pleksiglasom pri impul'se 4. 5A GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karev, A G; Morozov, B A; Petukhov, Yu P; Povtorejko, A A; Sukhanov, A Yu [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the Cherenkov spectrometer results on the fragmentation of the magnesium nuclei with momenta 4.5A GeV/c interacting with plexiglas show the presence of a short-range component in the fragment absorption function. For fragments with Z=6-10 (Z is the charge) the mean free paths in plexiglas for normal and anomalous component are estimated to be {lambda}{sub n}=141.7 {plus minus} 1.9 mm and {lambda}{sub a}=1.9 {plus minus} 0.8 mm. The anomalous component admixture at fixed {lambda}{sub a}=2 mm is {alpha}=0.084 {plus minus} 0.027. The parameter estimates are stable for various criteria applied to selecting the events.

  1. Příprava funkcionalizovaných nanočástic a studum jejich uspořádání, spektrálních vlastností a schopnosti přenášet náboj

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, Jiří; Bělohradský, Martin; Hadravová, Romana; Matějka, P.; Matějková, Stanislava; Prokopec, V.; Rybáček, Jiří; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2016), s. 68 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /16./. 10.05.2016-13.05.2016, Milovy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-08327S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gold nanoparticles * molecular electronics * spectral study Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Resonance absorption of nuclear gamma radiation; Absorption par resonance des rayons gamma; Rezonansnaya absorbtsiya i rasseyanie yadernogo gamma-izlucheniya; Absorcion por resonancia de las radiaciones gamma en los nucleos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S S; Perlow, G J [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-01-15

    radiacion do resonancia con y sin polarizacion. Estos estudios les han conducido a una interpretacion de la estructura hiperfina en funcion de las propiedades de los estados nucleares y de la interaccion hiperfina en el hierro. Tambien han investigado los efectos de un campo magnetico externo sobre la estructura hiperfina. Por otra parte, la absorcion por resonancia en el {sup 57}Fe permitio estudiar la relacion entre la cronologia de la desintegracion de im estado nuclear y el espectro de la radiacion observada. Se realizaron observaciones detalladas sobre el espectro de las radiaciones de resonancia filtradas, en funcion del tiempo, en condiciones muy diversas. (author) [Russian] Kak pokazal Messbauehr, ispuskanie i pogloshchenie yadernogo izlucheniya bez otdachi yadra obespechivaet prostoj metod izucheniya vzaimodejstviya yader s ehlektromagnitnym izlucheniem i, chto ochen' vazhno, yavlyaetsya chrezvychajno chuvstvitel'nym sredstvom issledovaniya bol'shogo kolichestva fizicheskikh zadach. V sluchae yader zheleza-57 sozdaetsya ves'ma blagopriyatnoe polozhenie, tak kak v ehtom sluchae rezonansnoe pogloshchenie mozhet ispol'zovat'sya v kachestve ochen' chuvstvitel'nogo detektora izmeneniya chastoty ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya. Detal'no izuchalos' rezonansnoe pogloshchenie v zheleze-57. Intensivnost' pogloshcheniya, forma i liniya sdviga nablyudalis' v zavisimosti ot temperatury. Polyarizatsiya radioaktivnogo izlucheniya nablyudalas' posredstvom ehksperimentov s namagnichennymi istochnikami i poglotitelyami. Sverkhtonkij spektr rezonansnoj radiatsii analizirovalsya s polyarizatsiej i bez nee. EHti issledovaniya priveli k tolkovaniyu sverkhtonkoj struktury v otnoshenii svojstv yadernykh sostoyanij i sverkhtonkogo vzaimodejstviya v zheleze. Bylo rassmotreno takzhe vliyanie vneshnego magnitnogo polya na sverkhtonkuyu strukturu. Rezonansnoe pogloshchenie v zheleze-57 bylo ispol'zovano dlya izucheniya svyazi mezhdu razvitiem raspada yadernogo sostoyaniya vo vremeni i spektrom

  3. "Aprel" prihodit v marte / Jevgeni Sharomov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharomov, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Kunstnike ühenduse "Aprill" liikme fotograaf Nadezhda Popolitova ja tema õpilaste tööde näitus Sillamäe muuseumis. Nadezhda Popolitova juhendab Sillamäe õpilaste fotoklubi "Spektr". Näitus tähistab Popolitova 25-aastast loomingulist tegevust

  4. Ekstraksi Dan Uji Stabilitas Zat Warna Alami Dari Bunga Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis L) Dan Bunga Rosela (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L)

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Yusraini Dian Inayati; Nurlela, Nurlela

    2011-01-01

    Ekstraksi dan Uji Stabilitas Zat Warna Alami dari Bunga Kembang Sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L) dan Bunga Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) telah dilakukan. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengekstraksi bunga kembang sepatu dan bunga rosella dengan mencari temperatur dan konsentrasi yang optimum untuk mendapatkan pigmen dari bunga kembang sepatu dan bunga rosella dengan pelarut air dan etanol, selain itu dilakukan juga uji stabilitas zat warna. Analisa kadar zat warna dilakukan dengan metode spektr...

  5. Metody pro redukci dimenze v mnohorozměrné statistice a jejich výpočet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalina, Jan; Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2014), s. 13-29 ISSN 1210-8022 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : redukce dimense * spektrální rozklad * numerická stabilita Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.statspol.cz/cs/wp-content/uploads/2014/4/IB_1_2014.pdf

  6. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  7. Evaluation of outdoor advertising effect in kaunas

    OpenAIRE

    Zamblauskaitė, Evelina

    2009-01-01

    Viena iš plačiai paplitusių reklamos rūšių yra išorinė arba lauko reklama, kuri pasiekia plačią auditoriją. Lauko reklama veikia vartotoją per jo pažinimą, emocijas ir elgesį. Atsižvelgiant į šias dimensijas, reklamos taikomos įvairioms auditorijoms, jas veikiant įvairiais būdais. Problemos ištyrimo lygis. Nuolat kintančioje aplinkoje reklamos industrijos problematika yra aktuali, nes suteikia galimybę didinti įmonių pardavimus bei plėsti paslaugų spektrą. Tačiau labai sudėtinga išmatuoti pov...

  8. On Absolute Measurements of {beta}-Emitting Radionuclides; Mesures absolues d'emetteurs {beta}; Absolyutnye izmereniya {beta} izluchayushchikh radioizotopov; Sobre la medicion absoluta de los emisores {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, A M [Centro de Estudos de Fisica, Comisao de Estudos de Energia Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1960-06-15

    {sup 210} (RaE). La memoria termina con una nota sobre el problema de las perdidas por absorcion en las hojas en el recuento absoluto por centelleo. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie detektorov 4 {pi} G. M. i privodyatsya nekotorye ikh kharakteristiki. Otsutstvie lozhnykh impul'sov pokazano putem izmereniya vozrastaniya intervalov mezhdu impul'sami. Rassmatrivayuts ya nekotorye problemy, otnosyashchiesya k pogloshcheniyu fol'gi i istochnika pri pomoshchi Sr{sup 90} i Y{sup 90}. Predstavlen takzhe ehksperimental'ny j metod s ispol'zovaniem parnykh istochnikov, napravlennyj na popravku ischislyaemykh poter' v fol'ge i do nekotoroj stepeni v istochnike pogloshcheniya. Daetsya opisanie podgotovki standartov Bi{sup 210} (RaE). Predstavleno primechanie o probleme poter' fol'gi ot pogloshcheniya pri stsintillyatsionno m absolyutnom schete. (author)

  9. Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, Prague, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Franci, Luca, E-mail: offelius@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.

  10. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L.; Chen, C. H. K.; Zastenker, G. N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s 1 bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  11. Evaluation of beam tracking strategies for the THOR-CSW solar wind instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Johan; Lavraud, Benoit; Prech, Lubomir; Neefs, Eddy; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Beeckman, Bram; Maggiolo, Romain; Fedorov, Andrei; Baruah, Rituparna; Wong, King-Wah; Amoros, Carine; Mathon, Romain; Génot, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    We compare different beam tracking strategies for the Cold Solar Wind (CSW) plasma spectrometer on the ESA M4 THOR mission candidate. The goal is to intelligently select the energy and angular windows the instrument is sampling and to adapt these windows as the solar wind properties evolve, with the aim to maximize the velocity distribution acquisition rate while maintaining excellent energy and angular resolution. Using synthetic data constructed using high-cadence measurements by the Faraday cup instrument on the Spektr-R mission (30 ms resolution), we test the performance of energy beam tracking with or without angular beam tracking. The algorithm can be fed both by data acquired by the plasma spectrometer during the previous measurement cycle, or by data from another instrument, in casu the Faraday Cup (FAR) instrument foreseen on THOR. We verify how these beam tracking algorithms behave for different sizes of the energy and angular windows, and for different data integration times, in order to assess the limitations of the algorithm and to avoid situations in which the algorithm loses track of the beam.

  12. POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF FLUCTUATIONS OF BULK AND THERMAL SPEEDS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-10

    This paper analyzes solar wind power spectra of bulk and thermal speed fluctuations that are computed with a time resolution of 32 ms in the frequency range of 0.001–2 Hz. The analysis uses measurements of the Bright Monitor of the Solar Wind on board the Spektr-R spacecraft that are limited to 570 km s{sup 1} bulk speed. The statistics, based on more than 42,000 individual spectra, show that: (1) the spectra of bulk and thermal speeds can be fitted by two power-law segments; (2) despite their large variations, the parameters characterizing frequency spectrum fits computed on each particular time interval are very similar for both quantities; (3) the median slopes of the bulk and thermal speeds of the segment attributed to the MHD scale are 1.43 and 1.38, respectively, whereas they are 3.08 and 2.43 in the kinetic range; (4) the kinetic range slopes of bulk and thermal speed spectra become equal when either the ion density or magnetic field strength are high; (5) the break between MHD and kinetic scales seems to be controlled by the ion β parameter; (6) the best scaling parameter for bulk and thermal speed variations is a sum of the inertial length and proton thermal gyroradius; and (7) the above conclusions can be applied to the density variations if the background magnetic field is very low.

  13. Decay of Solar Wind Turbulence behind Interplanetary Shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitňa, Alexander; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdeněk; Franci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the decay of magnetic and kinetic energies behind IP shocks with motivation to find a relaxation time when downstream turbulence reaches a usual solar wind value. We start with a case study that introduces computation techniques and quantifies a contribution of kinetic fluctuations to the general energy balance. This part of the study is based on high-time (31 ms) resolution plasma data provided by the Spektr-R spacecraft. On the other hand, a statistical part is based on 92 s Wind plasma and magnetic data and its results confirm theoretically established decay laws for kinetic and magnetic energies. We observe the power-law behavior of the energy decay profiles and we estimated the power-law exponents of both kinetic and magnetic energy decay rates as −1.2. We found that the decay of MHD turbulence does not start immediately after the IP shock ramp and we suggest that the proper decay of turbulence begins when a contribution of the kinetic processes becomes negligible. We support this suggestion with a detailed analysis of the decay of turbulence at the kinetic scale.

  14. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silapetere A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas, un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas un šūnu augšanu veicinošu serumu (FBS. Šūnu kultivēšanai nepieciešamas vismaz divas nedēļas. Šajā slāņainajā struktūrā ir iespējams pievienot ādas hromoforu simulējošus iekļāvumus. Optiskajā diapazonā no 450-900 nm ādas hromoforas, kurām ir visizteiktākais spektrs, ir bilirubīns, melanīns un hemoglobīns. Lai simulētu ādas hromoforu spektrālās īpašības, tika izmantots sintezēts bilirubīns, eritrocītu masa un nigrozīns. Lai izpētītu šī maketa iekārtu kalibrēšanas potenciālu, tika izveidoti 76 paraugi, kur katros 24 paraugos bija pievienots viens no absorbentiem ar dažādām koncentrācijām. Pilna ādas maketa audzēšanai nepieciešamas divas nedēļas, lai ātrāk tiktu iegūti pirmie rezultāti tika veidoti maketi bez dermālo un epiderm

  15. Use of alpha-radiation for the industrial measurement of surface weight; Utilisation du rayonnement alpha pour les mesures industrielles de poids superficiel; Primenenie al'fa-oblucheniya dlya promyshlennogo izmereniya vesa naruzhnogo pokrova; Empleo industrial de los rayos alfa para la medicion de pesos por unidad de superficie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perette, J; Maugest, J [Compagnie d' Applications et Recherches Atomiques, Saint-Denis (France)

    1962-01-15

    los rayos alfa para llevar a cabo mediciones industriales del peso por unidad de superficie de materiales de espesor reducido. El aprovechamiento industrial de estas tecnicas pudo desarrollarse gracias al perfeccionamiento de nuevos aparatos que, si bien aplican tecnicas tradicionales, fueron especialmente disenados para el empleo de rayos alfa. Para compensar las variaciones de la capacidad de absorcion en el intervalo que media entre la fuente y el detector, es indispensable emplear un metodo diferencial de dos recorridos. La alimentacion de las camaras de ionizacion con corriente alterna permite utilizar circuitos de amplificacion y de deteccion alternos sin necesidad de transformar previamente la corriente de ionizacion. El intervalo de medicion abarca de 6 a 55 gramos por metro cuadrado, con una aproximacion del 1 por ciento en condiciones de perfecta estabilidad. Los autores describen el dispositivo completo utilizado para efectuar mediciones continuas en las maquinas industriales. La tecnica descrita puede adaptarse igualmente a los rayos beta. (author) [Russian] Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya al'fa-oblucheniya dlya promyshlennogo izmereniya vesa naruzhnogo pokrova tonkikh materialov uzhe neodnokratno izlagalis'. Primenenie ehtikh metodov v promyshlennosti stalo vozmozhno blagodarya issledovaniyam, proizvedennym s pomoshch'yu novoj apparatury, kotoraya naryadu s ispol'zovaniem ee v obychnykh usloviyakh spetsial'no prisposoblena dlya primeneniya al'fa-oblucheniya. Primenenie differentsial'nogo metoda s dvumya kanalami neobkhodimo dlya uravnoveshivaniya kolebanij, kotorye mogut byt' pogloshcheny rasstoyaniem mezhdu istochnikom i detektorom. Peremennoe snabzhenie ionizatsionnykh kamer pozvolyaet ispol'zovat' pere- mennye usilitel'nye kontury i provodit' obnaruzhenie bez predvaritel'nogo prevrashcheniya ionizatsionnogo toka. Izmerenie provoditsya shkaloj s deleniem ot shesti do 55 grammov na kvadratnyj metr s tochnost'yu do odnogo protsenta v usloviyakh khoroshej

  16. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 07: Optimizing dual-energy x-ray parameters using a single filter for both high and low-energy images to enhance soft-tissue imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Wesley; Sattarivand, Mike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University at Nova Scotia Health Authority, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University at Nova Scotia Health Authority (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Objective: To optimize dual-energy parameters of ExacTrac stereoscopic x-ray imaging system for lung SBRT patients Methods: Simulated spectra and a lung phantom were used to optimize filter material, thickness, kVps, and weighting factors to obtain bone subtracted dual-energy images. Spektr simulations were used to identify material in the atomic number (Z) range [3–83] based on a metric defined to separate spectrums of high and low energies. Both energies used the same filter due to time constraints of image acquisition in lung SBRT imaging. A lung phantom containing bone, soft tissue, and a tumor mimicking material was imaged with filter thicknesses range [0–1] mm and kVp range [60–140]. A cost function based on contrast-to-noise-ratio of bone, soft tissue, and tumor, as well as image noise content, was defined to optimize filter thickness and kVp. Using the optimized parameters, dual-energy images of anthropomorphic Rando phantom were acquired and evaluated for bone subtraction. Imaging dose was measured with dual-energy technique using tin filtering. Results: Tin was the material of choice providing the best energy separation, non-toxicity, and non-reactiveness. The best soft-tissue-only image in the lung phantom was obtained using 0.3 mm tin and [140, 80] kVp pair. Dual-energy images of the Rando phantom had noticeable bone elimination when compared to no filtration. Dose was lower with tin filtering compared to no filtration. Conclusions: Dual-energy soft-tissue imaging is feasible using ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging system utilizing a single tin filter for both high and low energies and optimized acquisition parameters.

  17. Influence of the neutron flux shape on the value of absorbed neutron dose; Uticaj oblika neutronskog spektra na vrednost apsorbovane doze neutrona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miric, I; Miric, P [Institute of nuclear sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1974-07-01

    This paper deals with the study od specific doses dependence on the type and approximation procedures of neutron spectra. Values of specific dose rates (dose per neutron cm{sub 2}) were analysed for neutron spectra from RB reactor in Vinca, Crac facility in Valduc (France) and HPRR reactor in Oak Ridge (USA). Data used in this analysis were obtained by methods used in Harwell (AERE), Oak Ridge (ORNL), Chalk River (AECL), CEN de Cadarache (CEA) and in the Boris Kidric Institute (IBK). Specific absorbed neutron doses were determined for each of the estimated spectra and presented in the form of kerma/(n.cm{sup -2}) and rad/((n.cm{sup -2}) units. The obtained results have shown the influence of the flux approximation procedure on the values of conversion factors for obtaining neutron doses from neutron flux. U okviru ovog rada radjeno je na ispitivanju zavisnosti specificnih doza od vrste i nacina aproksimacije neutronskog spektra. U radu su analizirane vrednosti specificnih doza (doza po n.cm{sup -2}) za neutronske spektre koji se dobijaju oko sledecih nuklearnih postrojenja: reaktora RB u Vinci, postrojenja CRAC u Valduc-u (Francuska), reaktora HPRR u Oak Ridge-u (SAD). Za analizu su korisceni podaci dobijeni metodama koje se koriste u nuklearnim centrima Harwell (AERE), Oak Ridge-u (ORNL), Chalk River-u (AECL), CEN de Cadarache (CEA) i Institutu Boris Kidric (IBK). Za svaki procenjeni spektar odredjene su specificne apsorbovane doze neutrona izrazene u kerma/(n.cm{sup -2}) i rad/(n.cm{sup -2}) jedinicama. Dobijeni rezultati su pokazali koliko nacin aproksimacije spektra utice na vrednost konverzionih faktora koji sluze za prelazak sa fluksa na dozu neutrona (author)

  18. Sci-Thur AM: YIS – 07: Optimizing dual-energy x-ray parameters using a single filter for both high and low-energy images to enhance soft-tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Wesley; Sattarivand, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To optimize dual-energy parameters of ExacTrac stereoscopic x-ray imaging system for lung SBRT patients Methods: Simulated spectra and a lung phantom were used to optimize filter material, thickness, kVps, and weighting factors to obtain bone subtracted dual-energy images. Spektr simulations were used to identify material in the atomic number (Z) range [3–83] based on a metric defined to separate spectrums of high and low energies. Both energies used the same filter due to time constraints of image acquisition in lung SBRT imaging. A lung phantom containing bone, soft tissue, and a tumor mimicking material was imaged with filter thicknesses range [0–1] mm and kVp range [60–140]. A cost function based on contrast-to-noise-ratio of bone, soft tissue, and tumor, as well as image noise content, was defined to optimize filter thickness and kVp. Using the optimized parameters, dual-energy images of anthropomorphic Rando phantom were acquired and evaluated for bone subtraction. Imaging dose was measured with dual-energy technique using tin filtering. Results: Tin was the material of choice providing the best energy separation, non-toxicity, and non-reactiveness. The best soft-tissue-only image in the lung phantom was obtained using 0.3 mm tin and [140, 80] kVp pair. Dual-energy images of the Rando phantom had noticeable bone elimination when compared to no filtration. Dose was lower with tin filtering compared to no filtration. Conclusions: Dual-energy soft-tissue imaging is feasible using ExacTrac stereoscopic imaging system utilizing a single tin filter for both high and low energies and optimized acquisition parameters.

  19. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-02: Validation of a CT X-Ray Source Characterization Technique for Dose Computation Using An Anthropomorphic Thorax Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, M; Tambasco, M [San Diego State University, San Diego, CA (United States); Poirier, Y [CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To experimentally validate a rotational kV x-ray source characterization technique by computing CT dose in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom using an in-house dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc). Methods: The lateral variation in incident energy spectra of a GE Optima big bore CT scanner was found by measuring the HVL along the internal, full bow-tie filter axis. The HVL and kVp were used to generate the x-ray spectra using Spektr software, while beam fluence was derived by dividing the integral product of the spectra and in-air mass-energy absorption coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the bow-tie filter axis. Beams produced by the GE Optima scanner were modeled at 80 and 140 kVp tube settings. kVDoseCalc calculates dose by solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation using a combination of deterministic and stochastic methods. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima scanner were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber, and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. Results: The agreement in relative dose between dose computation and measurement for points of interest (POIs) within the primary path of the beam was within experimental uncertainty for both energies, however points outside the primary beam were not. The average absolute percent difference for POIs within the primary path of the beam was 1.37% and 5.16% for 80 and 140 kVp, respectively. The minimum and maximum absolute percent difference for both energies and all POIs within the primary path of the beam was 0.151% and 6.41%, respectively. Conclusion: The CT x-ray source characterization technique based on HVL measurements and kVp can be used to accurately compute CT dose in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom.

  20. The administration of the Rorschach inkblot method and changes in autonomic nervous system activity [Aplikace Rorschachovy metody a změny v aktivitě autonomního nervového systému

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Šiška

    2009-09-01

    ím dopadem na zdraví. CÍLE: Cílem této studie bylo zjistit, zda aplikace Rorschachovy metody (Rorschach Inkblot Method – RIM může ovlivnit aktivitu autonomního nervového systému (ANS ve smyslu posunu autonomní rovnováhy směrem k sympatiku. METODIKA: Test RIM byl aplikován u 39 zdravých žen (22,8 ± 2,4 roku. Aktivita ANS byla hodnocena pomocí spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV před testem RIM, v jeho průběhu a po jeho ukončení. Stejný postup byl zachován i v souboru 30 zdravých žen (21,41 ± 1,7 roku, avšak test RIM byl zaměněn za Stroopův test (Stroop color word test – SCWT, který se používá jako uznávaný zátěžový faktor ovlivňující významně aktivitu ANS. Pro hodnocení aktivity ANS bylo použito pět relativních ukazatelů SA HRV: percentuální podíl komponent VLF, LF a HF na celkovém spektrálním výkonu a poměry mezi komponentami (VLF/HF a LF/HF. Tyto poměry byly použity pro porovnání změn aktivity ANS, ke kterým došlo při použití obou psychologických testů (RIM a SWCT. VÝSLEDKY: Během aplikace testu RIM došlo k významnému poklesu spektrálního výkonu HF (%, významnému vzestupu VLF a LF (% a významnému vzestupu poměrů VLF/HF a LF/HF. Mezi testy RIM a SCWT nebyly shledány žádné rozdíly v dynamice VLF/HF (ukazatel stresu. ZÁVĚRY: Aplikace testu RIM může vyvolat silnou stresovou reakci spojenou s významným poklesem vagové aktivity a posunem autonomní rovnováhy směrem k sympatiku. Aplikace testů RIM a SCWT může vyvolat stres podobné intenzity a s podobným dopadem na aktivitu ANS.

  1. Use of Radioactive Tracers in the Study of Insect-Plant Relationships; Emploi des radioindicateurs dans l'etude des relations insecte-plante; Ispol'zovanie radioaktivnykh indikatorov dlya izucheniya vzaimnoj svyazi mezhdu nasekomymi ch rasteniyami; Empleo de marcadores radiactivos para estudiar las relaciones insecto-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr., D. A. [Radiation Ecology Section, Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1963-09-15

    habian pasaco la hibernacion de los adultos nuevos, porque la eliminacion del cesio en los primeros era mas rapida. En los estudios sobre poblaciones formadas por varias especies, la relacion entre el tamano del insecto y el indice de eliminacion sirvio para calcular el periodo medio biologico para la eliminacion del radiocesio por insectos harbivoros en una zona tratada con {sup 137}Ce. Este periodo medio y los datos sobre las masas biologicas vegetales e insectiles y sobre las concentraciones de radiocesio han permitido calcular el consumo de vegetales de una poblacion entera de insectos. Del mismo modo, se ha podido calcular el consumo de insectos de los artropodos depredadores basandose en las concentraciones estacionarias de radiocesio en los depredadores y en las victimas, las masas biologicas y el indice medio de eliminacion. (author) [Russian] Pri bolee rannem ispol'zovanii radioaktivnykh indikatorov v ehkologicheskikh issledovaniyakh nasekomykh-vreditelej ikh rasseyaniya i migratsii izuchalis' pri pomoshchi radioizotopov, kotorymi markirovalis' otdel'nye nasekomye. V poslednee vremya poluchilo rasprostranenie ispol'zovanie radioizotopov dlya izucheniya biologicheskoj assotsiatsii nasekomykh i rastenij, a takkhe khishchnykh nasekomykh i ikh dobychi, iskhodya iz opredeleniya potrebleniya imi pishchi. Biologicheskoe vydelenie radioizotopov, kotoroe meshaet izucheniyu rasseyaniya nasekomykh, ispol'zuetsya v nastoyashchee vremya dlya izmereniya kolichestva potrebleniya pishchi. Kak v polevykh issledovaniyakh, tak i v laboratornykh ehksperimentakh nasekomym daetsya vozmozhnost' dostich' v protsesse pitaniya sostoyaniya ustojchivoj kontsentratsii radioizotopov. V ehtikh usloviyakh temp pogloshcheniya dannogo radioizotopa raven tempu ego vydeleniya: (temp pogloshcheniya) = (velichine ustojchivogo sostoyaniya) x (skorost' poteri); Izmereniya tempov vydeleniya (biologicheskogo poluraspada) pozvolyayut perevodit' sostoyaniya ustojchivoj kontsentratsii v funktsii tempov

  2. A Comparison of Radioisotope Methods for River Flow Measurement; Comparaison de methodes radioisotopiques de mesure du debit des cours d'eau; Sravnenie radioizotopnykh metodov izmereniya rechnykh stokov; Comparacion de los metodos radioisotopicos para medir el caudal de los rios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, C. G.; Smith, D. B. [Wantage Research Laboratory Atomic Energy Research Establishment Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1963-08-15

    indikatornykh metodov izmereniya stoka rasstoyanie mezhdu tochkoj izmereniya i tochkoj vvedeniya indikatora dolzhno byt' dostatochno bol'shim, poskol'ku dolzhno proizojti polnoe smeshivanie. V to zhe vremya ehto rasstoyanie ne dolzhno byt' slishkom bol'shim, chtoby izbezhat' znachitel'noj prodol'noj dispersii ili poteri indikatora v rezul'tate pogloshcheniya ego dnom reki. Dispersiya zavisit ot gidravlicheskikh kharakteristik stoka, i ona kharakterna dlya ehtogo metoda. Pogloshchenie zavisit ot vybora indikatora i ot geologicheskoj prirody dna reki. Imenno s ehtoj tochki zreniya N{sup 3} yavlyaetsya ideal'nym indikatorom, poskol'ku on ne pogloshchaetsya. Odnako ego trudno izmeryat', i ego prokhozhdenie v reke ne mozhet byt' proslezheno neposredstvenno. Drugie indikatory bolee udobny, no oni mogut pogloshchat'sya. Stepen' pogloshcheniya Na{sup 24},Br{sup 82} i R{sup 32} v vide NaHC0{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}Br i NaN{sub 2}R0{sub 4} izuchalas' putem sravneniya dannykh izmerenij v neskol'kikh tochkakh vniz po techeniyu o obshchej tochki vvedeniya i putem vvedeniya mechennoj tritiem vody (NTO) odnovremenno s vvedeniem kazhdogo iz trekh indikatorov. Ustanovleno, chto R{sup 32}, kotoryj, kak ozhidalos', budet sil'no pogloshchat'sya khimicheski, yavlyaetsya na samom dele neprigodnym v kachestve indikatora bez nositelya dlya izmereniya rechnykh stokov, khotya s nositelem oshibka izmerenij znachitel'no men'she. Na{sup 24} i Br{sup 82} ne proyavlyayut priznakov pogloshcheniya ikh na znachitel'nykh rasstoyaniyakh, bol'she chem neobkhodimo dlya gorizontal'nogo smeshivaniya; na rasstoyanii svyshe 660 m v reke s samym medlennym techeniem obnaruzhivayutsya priznaki ischeznoveniya Na{sup 24}. Predstavleny nekotorye nablyudeniya otnositel'no stepeni gorizontal'noj i prodol'noj dispersii, kotoraya otrazhaetsya na obshchem primenenii indikatornykh metodov dlya izmerenij rechnykh stokov. Delaetsya vyvod, chto vse tri metoda mogut uspeshno primenyat'sya. Odnako metod nepreryvnogo otbora prob v konechnom

  3. Return to play after health complications associated with infectious mononucleosis guided on autonomic nervous system activity in elite athlete: A case study [Rekonvalescence po infekční mononukleóze řízená na základě aktivity autonomního nervového systému u vrcholového sportovce: Kazuistika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Větvička

    2012-06-01

    transaminase level. We suggest that a combination of both non-invasive SA HRV and periodic assessment of biochemical indicators of liver state seems to be a promising strategy for determination of safe application of training load during convalescence after IM.[VÝCHODISKA: Infekční mononukleóza (InM je závažným onemocněním vyvolané Epstein-Barr virem, které vyžaduje okamžité přerušení tréninku. CÍLE: Hlavním cílem naší práce bylo vytvořit optimální rekondiční program pro vrcholového sportovce po recidivě InM, který povede k jeho bezpečnému návratu do vrcholového sportu. METODIKA: Řízená rekonvalescence trvala téměř tři měsíce. Dávkování zatížení bylo podřízeno aktuální úrovni aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, která byla opakovaně diagnostikována metodou spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA VSF. Hodnoceny byly individuální parametry: spektrální výkon v oblasti velmi nízké frekvence (PVLF (0,02-0,05 Hz; výkon v oblasti nízké frekvence (PLF (0,05-0,15 Hz; výkon v oblasti vysoké frekvence (PHF (0,15-0,50 Hz; celkový spektrální výkon (PT (0,02-0,50 Hz; poměry PVLF/PHF a PLF/PHF a srdeční frekvence (SF. Dále byla aktivita ANS posuzována pomocí komplexních indexů SA HRV: indexu vagové aktivity, sympatovagové balance a celkového skóre. V práci bylo hodnoceno i subjektivní vnímání zatížení společně s ranní únavou. Prováděny byly také biochemické analýzy aktivity vybraných jaterních enzymů. VÝSLEDKY: Během rekonvalescence došlo ke zvýšení průměrné hodnoty PT, které doprovázelo zvýšení poměru PVLF/PHF a PLF/PHF. Mezi jednotlivými etapami rekonvalescence nedošlo k signifikantním změnám u žádného z komplexních indexů SA HRV. V lehu a především ve stoji byl zaznamenán signifikantní pokles SF. Dále byl během rekonvalescence pozorován signifikantní vzestup subjektivně vnímaného zatížení a v poslední etapě do

  4. ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SAFETY OF CHILLED MEAT USING THE METHOD OF ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Timakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world practice, the radiation technologies for food product processing are extensively used; with that, free radicals are found in products. Scientists have not made a final conclusion about the complete safety of the method of radiation sterilization, so it is very important to control irradiated food products to determinea fact of irradiation and residual effects. The experimental data obtained on the domestic spectrometer EPR series Labrador Expert X, which was developed by Spektr LLC with the assistance of the research team of the authors from the Institute of Natural Sciences of UrFU named after Yeltsin B. N., indicate the presence of free radicals in the samples of boneless beef, which is probably associated with °Ccurrence of ante-mortem technological and slaughter stress in animals. Irradiation of the chicken meat samples carried out in laboratory conditions allows a comparison of the spectra before and after irradiation. The dose of irradiation of poultry was 12 kGy. This dose was selected based on the practice of recognizing the radiation doses of 10-12 kGy as safe, which was established in many countries. It was found that in the range of the magnetic fields from 3272 to 3280 Gs, there was a weak EPR signal with an amplitude of 7.28 e-05 and D less than 1. Such a background signal can be explained by stress in the birds, peculiarities of feeding and other factors. After irradiation at a dose of 12 kGy, the ESR signal increased in the range of the magnetic fields from 3273 to 3286 Gs and D was higher than 1. This technology or, in other words, radappertization, is an industrialsterilization of food products for long storage at positive temperatures, which precludes re-contamination by microorganisms. After irradiation, the fivefold increase in the amplitude of the ESR signal was observed and two additional signals with small amplitude appeared. The fact of irradiation/absence of irradiation of the samples was also confirmed by

  5. SU-C-204-06: Monte Carlo Dose Calculation for Kilovoltage X-Ray-Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mein, S [Duke University Medical Physics Graduate Program (United States); Gunasingha, R [Department of Radiation Safety, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Nolan, M [Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University (United States); Oldham, M; Adamson, J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-PACT is an experimental cancer therapy where kV x-rays are used to photo-activate anti-cancer therapeutics through phosphor intermediaries (phosphors that absorb x-rays and re-radiate as UV light). Clinical trials in pet dogs are currently underway (NC State College of Veterinary Medicine) and an essential component is the ability to model the kV dose in these dogs. Here we report the commissioning and characterization of a Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning simulation tool to calculate X-PACT radiation doses in canine trials. Methods: FLUKA multi-particle MC simulation package was used to simulate a standard X-PACT radiation treatment beam of 80kVp with the Varian OBI x-ray source geometry. The beam quality was verified by comparing measured and simulated attenuation of the beam by various thicknesses of aluminum (2–4.6 mm) under narrow beam conditions (HVL). The beam parameters at commissioning were then corroborated using MC, characterized and verified with empirically collected commissioning data, including: percent depth dose curves (PDD), back-scatter factors (BSF), collimator scatter factor(s), and heel effect, etc. All simulations were conducted for N=30M histories at M=100 iterations. Results: HVL and PDD simulation data agreed with an average percent error of 2.42%±0.33 and 6.03%±1.58, respectively. The mean square error (MSE) values for HVL and PDD (0.07% and 0.50%) were low, as expected; however, longer simulations are required to validate convergence to the expected values. Qualitatively, pre- and post-filtration source spectra matched well with 80kVp references generated via SPEKTR software. Further validation of commissioning data simulation is underway in preparation for first-time 3D dose calculations with canine CBCT data. Conclusion: We have prepared a Monte Carlo simulation capable of accurate dose calculation for use with ongoing X-PACT canine clinical trials. Preliminary results show good agreement with measured data and hold

  6. Probing the innermost regions of AGN jets and their magnetic fields with RadioAstron. II. Observations of 3C 273 at minimum activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, G.; Gómez, J. L.; Casadio, C.; Lobanov, A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lisakov, M. M.; Bach, U.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.; Anderson, J. M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Savolainen, T.; Vega-García, L.; Fuentes, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lee, S.-S.; Lu, R.-S.; Pérez-Torres, M.; Ros, E.

    2017-08-01

    Context. RadioAstron is a 10 m orbiting radio telescope mounted on the Spektr-R satellite, launched in 2011, performing Space Very Long Baseline Interferometry (SVLBI) observations supported by a global ground array of radio telescopes. With an apogee of 350 000 km, it is offering for the first time the possibility to perform μas-resolution imaging in the cm-band. Aims: The RadioAstron active galactic nuclei (AGN) polarization Key Science Project (KSP) aims at exploiting the unprecedented angular resolution provided by RadioAstron to study jet launching/collimation and magnetic-field configuration in AGN jets. The targets of our KSP are some of the most powerful blazars in the sky. Methods: We present observations at 22 GHz of 3C 273, performed in 2014, designed to reach a maximum baseline of approximately nine Earth diameters. Reaching an angular resolution of 0.3 mas, we study a particularly low-activity state of the source, and estimate the nuclear region brightness temperature, comparing with the extreme one detected one year before during the RadioAstron early science period. We also make use of the VLBA-BU-BLAZAR survey data, at 43 GHz, to study the kinematics of the jet in a 1.5-yr time window. Results: We find that the nuclear brightness temperature is two orders of magnitude lower than the exceptionally high value detected in 2013 with RadioAstron at the same frequency (1.4 × 1013 K, source-frame), and even one order of magnitude lower than the equipartition value. The kinematics analysis at 43 GHz shows that a new component was ejected 2 months after the 2013 epoch, visible also in our 22 GHz map presented here. Consequently this was located upstream of the core during the brightness temperature peak. Fermi-LAT observations for the period 2010-2014 do not show any γ-ray flare in conjunction with the passage of the new component by the core at 43 GHz. Conclusions: These observations confirm that the previously detected extreme brightness temperature in

  7. Measurements of the Asymptotic Spectrum of a Multiplying Medium; Mesures du Spectre Asymptotique d'Un Milieu Multiplicateur; Izmereniya asimptoticheskogo spektra umnozhayushchej sredy; Mediciones del Espectro Asintotico en un Medio Multiplicador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovacek, R. E.; Cerbone, R. J.; Gaerttner, E. R.; Fullwood, R. R.; Bach, D. R. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1965-08-15

    'presenta una distribucion espacial persistente que se presta mas al analisis, los autores estiman que la tecnica de medicion del espectro asintotico aplicada a sistemas multiplicadores ha de resultar en extremo util en el estudio del problema del espectro espacial en un amplio intervalo energetico. (author) [Russian] Asimptoticheskij (po vremeni) spektr umnozhajushhej sredy predstavljaet interes ne tol'ko dlja provedenija jeksperimentov po analizu pul'sirujushhih nejtronov, no i takzhe dlja izuchenija svojstv nejtronnoj diffuzii sredy. Dlja izmerenija asimptoticheskogo nejtronnogo spektra v razmnozhajushhej sisteme razrabotan istochnik pul'sirujushhih nejtronov-mehanicheskij preryvatel'. Osushhestvleno izmerenie poverhnosti i centra (skaljara) spektra kazhdoj iz chetyreh razmnozhajushhih sistem, daetsja sravnenie s raschetami spektra. Vo vseh razmnozhajushhih sistemah v kachestve zamedlitelja ispol'zovalsja obogashhennyj uran-235 i vodorod. Dve sistemy byli izgotovleny iz toplivnyh sterzhnej, pokrytyh cirkoniem v vode; dve drugih sistemy byli izgotovleny iz smesi poroshkov UO{sub 2} i ZrO{sub 2}, dispergirovannyh v parafine. Razmery i proporcii vodoroda po otnosheniju k uranu-235 brali razlichnye s tem, chtoby raznoobrazit' absorbciju, utechku i rassejanie. Skaljarnyj spektr vyschityvali na osnovanii teorii staticheskoj diffuzii. Sovpadenija mezhdu izmerennym i skaljarnym spektrom okazyvalis' udovletvoritel'nymi, kogda dlja vychislenija spektra ispol'zovalas' izmerennaja velichina asimptoticheskoj postojannoj raspada. Najdeno, chto vyschitannyj asimptoticheskij spektr javljaetsja chrezvychajno chuvstvitel'nym k postojannoj raspada; 7%-noe izmenenie v postojannoj raspada dlja odnoj iz sistem dalo v rezul'tate 47%-noe izmenenie v teplovom sostojanii k zamedleniju otnoshenija potokov. Poverhnostnyj spektr dlja dvuh iz sistem poluchen pri ispol'zovanii dvojnogo vychislenija R1. Vychislenie poverhnostnogo spektra sovpalo s dannymi v teplovoj oblasti do 0,2 ev. Odnako pri

  8. Zirconium Micro-Arc Oxidation as a Method for Producing Heat Insulation Elements in Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Shatalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of coatings on the surface of materials as well as their composition and structure control in the near-surface layer enables us to use properties of base material and modified layers in the most rational and profitable way and save expensive and rare metals and alloys.The space telescope of T-170M will be the main tool of the international space observatory "Spektr-UF".It is being understood that the main mirror shade, which is in the outer space and has a considerable height will act as a radiator cooling a unit (cage of the main mirror. Therefore it is necessary to create heat insulation between the shade of the main mirror and the frame of the main mirror unit. From the thermal calculations a detail to provide heat insulation must possess thermal conductivity, at most, 2,5 and a conditional limit of fluidity for compression, at least, 125 MPas to ensure that the shade diaphragms position of the main mirror is stable with respect to the optical system of telescope.Considering that oxide of zirconium possesses one of the lowest thermal conductivities among oxides of metals, it is offered to use zirconium, as a material of base, and to put the MAO-covering (micro-arc oxide on its surface.As a result of studying the features of MAO-coverings on zirconium it is:1 found that the composite material consisting of zirconium and MAO-covering on it, has low thermal conductivity (less than 2 , and thus, because of small oxide layer thickness against the thickness of base material, possesses the mechanical properties which are slightly different from the pure zirconium ones;2 found that the composite material possesses the low gas release, allowing its use in the outer space conditions; the material processed in two electrolytes i.e. phosphate and acid ones has the lowest gas release;3 found that with growing thickness of MAO-covering its porosity decreases, thus the average pore diameter grows thereby leading to increasing thermal

  9. Autonomic nervous system activity assessment in recreational half marathon runners [Hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému u rekreačních účastníků půlmaratonského běhu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smékal

    2011-03-01

    competition. It is evident that the causes of soreness or fatigue do not markedly affect ANS activity during a later phase of recovery.[VÝCHODISKA: Spektrální analýza (SA variability srdeční frekvence (VSF je považována za neinvazivní metodu kvantifikace autonomní kardiální regulace sinoatriálního uzlu. Je známo, že autonomní regulace je ovlivňována různými stresory jako například nervozitou nebo tělesnou prací. CÍLE: Cílem předložené studie bylo zhodnotit vliv předstartovního stavu na aktivitu autonomního nervového systému (ANS a dále pak monitorovat časový průběh zotavení ANS paralelně se subjektivně vnímanou únavou v průběhu 24 hodin od ukončení půlmaratonu u amatérských běžců. METODIKA: Autonomní kardiální regulace byla posuzována pomocí metody SA VSF. Aktivita ANS byla hodnocena jeden týden před závodem a v den závodu. Po ukončení závodu proběhla měření aktivity ANS v 1., 12. a 24. hodině. Aktivita ANS byla reprezentována standardními spektrálními parametry a také komplexními indexy SA HRV. K hodnocení velikosti předstartovní nervozity byla využita modifikovaná Likertova 10bodová škála. Subjektivně vnímaná únava byla hodnocena na 6bodové škále. VÝSLEDKY: Vnímání nervozity bylo signifikantně vyšší v den závodu než týden před závody. Signifikantní pokles komplexního indexu sympatovagové balance v den závodu nepřímo svědčil o vzestupu aktivity sympatiku. Ve 12. ani 24. hodině zotavení se již žádný ze sledovaných parametrů VSF signifikantně nelišil od obou vstupních vyšetření. Subjektivně vnímaná únava zůstala zvýšená ještě 24 hodin od ukončení závodu. ZÁVĚRY: Naše práce ukázala, že zvýšená předzávodní nervozita vede k převaze sympatiku v autonomní regulaci zejména během orthostatické stimulace. Dále bylo zjištěno, že aktivita ANS se navrátila na předzátěžovou úroveň během 12. hodiny od ukončení z

  10. Beta-Excited Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation; Sources de rayonnements electromagnetiques excites par des particules beta; Vozbuzhdennye beta-chastitsami istochniki ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya; Fuentes de radiacion electromagnetica excitadas por particulas beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J F; Rhodes, J R [Physics Group, Isotope Research Division, (AERE), Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage, Berks (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    incluyen cuadros que permiten escoger la fuente optima para absorbentes de distintos espesores. (author) [Russian] Avtory dayut opisanie vozbuzhdennykh beta-chastitsami istochnikov ehlektromagnitnogo izlucheniya v ehnergeticheskom rajone ot 1 do 200 kehv i prigodnykh dlya promyshlennogo ispol'zovaniya. V kachestve istochnikov beta-chastits byli vzyaty tritij, prometij-147, kripton-85, tallij-204 i strontsij-90+ ittrij-90, poskol'ku oni imeyut prodolzhitel'nyj period poluraspada, nebol'shuyu stoimost', vysokuyu udel'nuyu aktivnost' i legkost' ikh polucheniya. Dlya izgotovleniya vozbuzhdennykh beta-chastitsami istochnikov staralis' dostignut' kompromissa mezhdu prakticheskimi trebovaniyami konstruktsii i nailuchshej teoreticheskoj ehffektivnost'yu v dannoj ehnergeticheskoj zone. V dannoj annotatsii avtory raz{sup y}asnyayut putem podscheta kolichestva protonov, izluchaemykh beta-chastitsami, i predusmatrivayut vnesenie izmenenij v ehti podschety dlya samoabsorbtsii rentgenovskogo izlucheniya. EHti podschety uchityvayut v to zhe samoe vremya tormoznoe izluchenie i kharakteristicheskie flyuorestsentnye luchi, maksimal'nyj vykhod kharakteristicheskikh luchej, dostigaemyj dlya mishenej Z ot 40 do 60. Nakonets, oni utverzhdayut, chto v zhelaemoj ehnergeticheskoj zone poluchayut kak luchshij vykhod fotonnogo izlucheniya so ''sloenymi'' mishenyami, sloj polovinnogo oslableniya kotorogo sootvetstvuet dline probega 1-2 beta. Alyuminij, serebro i zoloto s proizvodstvennoj tochki zreniya yavlyayutsya podkhodyashchimi ehlementami dlya pokrytiya istochnikov. Oni takzhe dayut udovletvoritel'nye vykhody tormoznogo izlucheniya i rentgenovskogo izlucheniya i raspredelenie po razlichnym ehnergeticheskim zonam v radiuse ot 0 do 200 kehv pri pravil'nom ob{sup e}dinenii s vysheukazannymi beta-izluchatelyami. Dayutsya nekotorye ehnergeticheskie spektry i privodyatsya krivye pogloshcheniya v alyuminii i zheleze dlya nailuchshikh kombinatsij istochnikov mishenej. Byla obnaruzhena neznachitel

  11. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    materiales de alta resistencia, tales como el Inconel-X y el molibdeno pueden soportar la presion de los gases de fision a las temperaturas de funcionamiento corrientes. Desgraciadamente , la seccion eficaz de absorcion de estos materiales es superior a la del acero inoxidable. El autor presenta los resultados de calculos, realizados segun una teoria de varios grupos, que permite conocer el efecto de la utilizacion de estos materiales y de la disminucion de la densidad del combustible, sobre la masa critica y sobre la razon de reproduccion en los reactores reproductores de pequenas y medianas dimensiones. (author) [Russian] Na stoimost' toplivnogo tsikla i na vremya udvoeniya reaktorovbriderov na bystrykh nejtronakh sil'no vliyaet stepen' dostigaemogo vygoraniya topliva. Ispol'zovani e oksidnogo ili karbidnogo topliva daet vozmozhnost' dostignut' vygoraniya poryadka 100 000 mvt-n/t. V toplivnykh ehlementakh s pokrytiem ogranichivayushchi m faktorom yavlyaetsya rost gazov produktov deleniya. Pri rassmatrivaemo m vysokom vygoranii poddayushchayasya otsenke fraktsiya gazov, obrazuemykh pri delenii, popadaet v pory i tem samym uvelichivaet davlenie na obolochku. Iskhodya iz izvestnykh vykhodov produktov deleniya i tsepochek raspada bylo vychisleno kolichestvo obrazuyushchegosya gaza i sozdavaemoe im davlenie. Pri raschete davleniya, dejstvuyushchego na obolochku, byli ispol'zovany tri fizicheskikh modeli: i) gaz soderzhalsya v svyazanykh mezhdu soboj porakh, ii) v otdel'nykh porakh i iii) v tsentral'nom otverstii. Budet rassmotrena zavisimost' davleniya ot svobodnogo ob{sup e}ma (plotnost' topliva) i temperatury. Obolochki, izgotovlennye iz vysokoprochnykh materialov, naprimer, iz inkonelya-Kh i molibdena, mogli by vyderzhat' pri rabochikh temperaturakh davlenie gazov, vydelyayushchikhsya v rezul'tate deleniya. K sozhaleniyu, ehti materialy obladayut bolee vysokimi poperechnymi secheniyami pogloshcheniya, chem nerzhaveyushchaya stal'. Budut dany rezul'taty mnogogruppovog o

  12. Uptake, retention and excretion of strontium in man; Assimilation, retention et excretion du strontium chez l'homme; Pogloshchenie, zaderzhka i vydelenie strontsiya organizmom cheloveka; Absorcion, retencion y excrecion del estroncio en el hombre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G. E. [Radiobiological Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-02-15

    estroncio en el esqueleto y sugiere que existen por lo menos tres grados de fijacion del estroncio radiactivo en los huesos. Estudia particularmente la retencion despues de varios meses de aplicada la dosis y la relacion existente entre esta retencion y la dosis de radiacion de {sup 90}Sr recibida por el esqueleto. Propone por ultimo una formula para evaluar la retencion en el organismo de una dosis de estroncio radiactivo a partir del valor de la radiactividad excretada con la orina. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdaetsya vopros o vsasyvanii strontsiya iz zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta v svyazi s dietoj i razlichnymi komponentami khlebnomolochnoj diety. Privodyatsya rezul'taty, poluchennye pri ispol'zovanii kompleksnykh soedinenij, i diety s vysokim soderzhaniem kal'tsiya dlya umen'sheniya pogloshcheniya strontsiya. Obsutdaetsya sootnoshenie strontsiya i kal'tsiya v razlichnykh chastyakh tela u vzroslogo cheloveka. Privodyatsya rezul'taty nedavnikh ehksperimental'nykh issledovanij, provedennykh u zdorovykh lyudej na postoyannoj diete, pri ehtom osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya vydeleniyu s mochoj i zaderzhke strontsiya-85, soderzhashchegosya v ehksperimental'noj diete. Opredelyalos' takzhe ehndogennoe vydelenie s ehkskrementami. Ehti dannye sravnivayutsya s rezul'tatami, poluchennymi pri odnokratnom vnutrivennom vvedenii radioaktivnogo strontsiya. Vo vsekh sluchayakh uderzhanie strontsiya opoedelyalos' izmereniem radioaktivnosti vsego organizma s pomoshch'yu amplitudnogo analizatora impul'sov. Analiziruyutsya prichiny ehaderkhki strontsiya a' skelete i postiliruetsya, chto imeyutsya, po krajnej meretri stepeni svyazi radioaktivnogo strontsiya s kostyami. Obsukhdaetsya, v chastnosti, zaderkhka izotopa v techenie neskol'kikh mesyatsev posle ego vvedeniya, a tayue svyaz' ehtoj zaderzhki s dozoj oblucheniya, poluchaemoj skeletom ot strontsiya-90. Predlagaetsya formula dlya opredeleniya uderzhaniya organizmom radioaktivnoj dozy strontsiya v zavisimosti ot radioaktivnosti, vydelyaemoj s

  13. Graft Polymerization of Styrene to Polyethylene; Polymerisation par greffage du styrene sur des pellicules de polyethylene; Privitaya polimerizatsiya stirola k poliehtilen; Polimerizacion por injerto de estireno en polietileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, J.; Srinivasan, S. I.; Phalangas, C. J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1963-11-15

    takzhe skorost' prevrashcheniya stirola v gomopolimer v suspenziyakh legkoj melkokristalliches koj kal'tsinirovannoj sody. Dlya opredeleniya kolichestva okklyudirovannogo gomopolimera provedeno issledovanie pod mikroskopom privitoj plenki. Rezul'taty pokazyvayut, chto bol'shaya chast' prirosta vesa v obraztsakh plenki usloalena okklyudirovannym gomopolimerom. V ehksperimentakh s legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sodoj, pri kotorykh prirost vesa v znachitel'noj stepeni ob{sup y}asnyaetsya privitym sopolimerom, uvelichenie vesa nakhoditsya v primernoj linejnoj zavisimosti ot dozy, a skorost' reaktsii pochti proportsional'na kornyu kvadratnomu iz moshchnosti gamma-oblucheniya. Nizkaya ehnergiya aktivatsii dlya. skorosti reaktsii isklyuchaet vozmozhnost' kontrolya diffuzii v legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sode i v tonkikh plenkakh pri moshchnostyakh oblucheniya nizhe 10{sup 5} r/hr. Pri ehksperimentakh v legkoj melkokristallicheskoj kal'tsinirovannoj sode pri temperature 18{sup o}C i moshchnosti dozy 7,2 x 10{sup 4} r/hr skorost' obrazovaniya gomopolimera takaya zhe, kak i v sluchae obrazovaniya polimera v chistoj stirole. Ehnergiya aktivatsii, ravnaya 3,5 kkal/moya{sup ,} pochti vdvoe men'she velichiny''dlya chistogo monomera. (author)

  14. Study of pentane and cyclopentane radiolysis with the aid of radioactive iodine; Etude de la radiolyse du pentane et du cyclopentane a l'aide d'iode radioactif; Issledovanie radioliza pentana i tsiklopentana s pomoshch'yu radioaktivnogo joda; Estudio de la radiolisis del pentano y del ciclopentano con ayuda de yodo radiactivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauphin, J [Laboratoire de Chimie-Physique, Faculte des Sciences de Paris (France)

    1962-03-15

    formacion de radicales libres. Es posible que el analisis de estos radicales permite explicar, por lo menos parcialmente, los fenomenos observados. El autor efectua el analisis por : el yodo empleado como receptor se marca con yodo-131, por lo que al final de la reaccion se obtiene toda una serie de yoduros marcados. Lleva a cabo la separacion por destilacion en una microcolumna despues de haber anadido portadores inactivos y extraido el yodo inorganico. La actividad de cada fraccion se mide directamente a la salida de la columna. Los valores absolutos del coeficiente G se determinan por recuento de la actividad de una muestra testigo. El autor adopta las precauciones necesarias para evitar el intercambio isotopico durante la separacion. El metodo se aplico al ciclopentano y al n-pentano, habiendose obtenido un espectro de radiolisis detallado. (author) [Russian] Uglevodorody, obluchennye ioniziruyushchimi luchami, takimi, kak gamma-luchi kobal'ta-60, sredi drugikh veshchestv dayut svobodnye radikaly. Analiz ehtikh radikalov mozhet privesti k chastichnomu ob{sup y}asneniyu yavlenij. CHtoby osushchestvit' ehtot analiz, primenyayut metod ''izotopnogo razbavleniya'': jod, sluzhashchij ulovitelem, metyat jodom-131, chto privodit k tomu, chto v kontse reaktsii poluchaetsya tselaya seriya mechenykh jodidov. Razdelenie osushchestvlyaetsya peregonkoj na mikrokolonnom apparate posle dobavleniya neaktivnykh nositelej i izvlecheniya svobodnogo joda. Aktivnost' kazhdoj fraktsii izmeryaetsya pryamo posle vykhoda iz kolonki. Znak daet vozmozhnost' poluchit' absolyutnye znacheniya G ot nachala scheta. Byli prinyaty mery predostorozhnosti, chtoby izbezhat' izotopnogo obmena vo vremya razdeleniya. EHtot metod primenyalsya k tsiklopentanu i k p-pentanu i pozvolil poluchit' podrobnyj spektr radioliza. (author)

  15. A measurement-based X-ray source model characterization for CT dosimetry computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Mitchell; Poirier, Yannick; Tambasco, Mauro

    2015-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to show that the nominal peak tube voltage potential (kVp) and measured half-value layer (HVL) can be used to generate energy spectra and fluence profiles for characterizing a computed tomography (CT) X-ray source, and to validate the source model and an in-house kV X-ray dose computation algorithm (kVDoseCalc) for computing machine- and patient-specific CT dose. Spatial variation of the X-ray source spectra of a Philips Brilliance and a GE Optima Big Bore CT scanner were found by measuring the HVL along the direction of the internal bow-tie filter axes. Third-party software, Spektr, and the nominal kVp settings were used to generate the energy spectra. Beam fluence was calculated by dividing the integral product of the spectra and the in-air NIST mass-energy attenuation coefficients by in-air dose measurements along the filter axis. The authors found the optimal number of photons to seed in kVDoseCalc to achieve dose convergence. The Philips Brilliance beams were modeled for 90, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. The GE Optima beams were modeled for 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp tube settings. Relative doses measured using a Capintec Farmer-type ionization chamber (0.65 cc) placed in a cylindrical polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom and irradiated by the Philips Brilliance, were compared to those computed with kVDoseCalc. Relative doses in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (E2E SBRT Phantom) irradiated by the GE Optima were measured using a (0.015 cc) PTW Freiburg ionization chamber and compared to computations from kVDoseCalc. The number of photons required to reduce the average statistical uncertainty in dose to measurement over all 12 PMMA phantom positions was found to be 1.44%, 1.47%, and 1.41% for 90, 120, and 140 kVp, respectively. The maximum percent difference between calculation and measurement for all energies, measurement positions, and phantoms was less than 3.50%. Thirty-five out of a total of 36 simulation conditions were

  16. Nuclear Collective Hamiltonian and Deformations; Yadernyj kollektivnyj gamil'tonian i deformatsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Krishna [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1968-12-15

    kollektivnom gamil'toniane Bora i modeli s parnym i kvadrupol'nym vzaimodejstviem. S pomoshh'ju chislennogo podbora velichiny svjazej mezhdu pjat'ju komponentami kvadrupol'nogo dvizhenija teorija mozhet ob{sup j}asnit' i predskazyvat' mnogie tendencii nizkolezhashhih urovnej i jelektromagnitnyh perehodov v oblasti W-Os-Pt. Nulevye kolebanija igrajut vazhnuju rol' v razmytii volnovoj funkcii jadra v ploskosti {beta}-{gamma}, tak chto povedenie jadra sushhestvenno zavisit ot po-vedenija kollektivnogo gamil'toniana vdali ot ravnovesnoj formy. Zavisimost' gamil'toniana ot u, i osobenno chlena v potenciale, otvechajushhego za raznicu vytjanutoj i spljusnutoj formy, igraet rjoshajushhuju rol' v rasshheplenii 2'{sup +} i 4{sup +} sostojanij i v sostojanijah I Not-Equal-To 0, s kvadrupol'nymi momentami, neravnymi nulju i imejushhimi mesto dazhe v sluchae sfericheskoj ravnovesnoj formy ili polnost'ju assimmetrichnoj s {gamma} = 30 Degree-Sign . Angarmonichnost' shesti inercionnyh funkcij gamil'toniana Bora vyzyvaet smeshivanie {beta}-{gamma} polos v protonah W, umen'shaet {beta}-{gamma} smeshivanie v izotopah Os i nejtralizuet razlichie v potenciale vytjanutoj i spljusnutoj formy. Takim obrazom, rasschitannyj spektr 196Pt okazalsja kolebatel'nym. Raschety dlja {sup 196}Pt dajut kak dostatochno bol'shoj otricatel'nyj kvadru- pol'nyj moment pervogo 2{sup +} sostojanija, tak i maluju verojatnost' prjamogo perehoda iz osnovnogo sostojanija na vtoroe 2{sup +} sostojanie. Odnako asschitannye 2+ (sostojanija {sup 192-196}Pt nahodjatsja na 0,1-0,2 Mjev vyshe. Velichiny V(E2; 2 Rightwards-Arrow 2'), rasschitannye dlja jetoj oblasti, bol'she nabljudaemyh priblizitel'no raza v dva. Ukazyvajutsja nekotorye vozmozhnye puti sovershenstvovanija metodiki. (author)

  17. A simplified approach to characterizing a kilovoltage source spectrum for accurate dose computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Yannick; Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Oncology, University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate and validate the clinical feasibility of using half-value layer (HVL) and peak tube potential (kVp) for characterizing a kilovoltage (kV) source spectrum for the purpose of computing kV x-ray dose accrued from imaging procedures. To use this approach to characterize a Varian Registered-Sign On-Board Imager Registered-Sign (OBI) source and perform experimental validation of a novel in-house hybrid dose computation algorithm for kV x-rays. Methods: We characterized the spectrum of an imaging kV x-ray source using the HVL and the kVp as the sole beam quality identifiers using third-party freeware Spektr to generate the spectra. We studied the sensitivity of our dose computation algorithm to uncertainties in the beam's HVL and kVp by systematically varying these spectral parameters. To validate our approach experimentally, we characterized the spectrum of a Varian Registered-Sign OBI system by measuring the HVL using a Farmer-type Capintec ion chamber (0.06 cc) in air and compared dose calculations using our computationally validated in-house kV dose calculation code to measured percent depth-dose and transverse dose profiles for 80, 100, and 125 kVp open beams in a homogeneous phantom and a heterogeneous phantom comprising tissue, lung, and bone equivalent materials. Results: The sensitivity analysis of the beam quality parameters (i.e., HVL, kVp, and field size) on dose computation accuracy shows that typical measurement uncertainties in the HVL and kVp ({+-}0.2 mm Al and {+-}2 kVp, respectively) source characterization parameters lead to dose computation errors of less than 2%. Furthermore, for an open beam with no added filtration, HVL variations affect dose computation accuracy by less than 1% for a 125 kVp beam when field size is varied from 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 2} to 40 Multiplication-Sign 40 cm{sup 2}. The central axis depth dose calculations and experimental measurements for the 80, 100, and 125 kVp energies agreed within

  18. The Nature of the Phonon Spectrum and the Analysis of Lattice Thermal Conductivity; Nature du Spectre des Phonons et Analyse de la Conductibilite Thermique du Reseau; Kharakter fononnogo spektra i analiz teploprovodnosti reshetki; Naturaleza del Espectro Fononico y Analisis de la Conductividad Termica Reticular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, S. K.; Sharma, K. C. [Physics Department, Allahabad University, Allahabad (India)

    1965-04-15

    , se obtiene tambien una concordancia satisfactoria con los datos experimentales. Se llega, pues, a la conclusion de que, segun los criterios actuales, la naturaleza del espectro fononico no ejerce inferencia acusada en el analisis de los datos relativos a la conductividad termica reticular, y de que las sutilezas propias del espectro fononico se pierden con el ajuste de los diversos parametros que intervienen. A juicio de los autores, en lugar de preocuparse demasiado por determinar las laboriosas integrales correspondientes a modelos de dinamica reticular mas realistas, es preferible investigar la validez de las diferentes hipotesis referentes al tiempo de relajacion que intervienen al formular dichas integrales. (author) [Russian] Daetsja analiz teploprovodnosti reshetki, v kotorom ispol'zuetsja bolee realistichnyj fonon- nyj spektr, chem obychnyj debaevskij fononnyj spektr, sostojashhij iz odnoj srednej akusticheskoj vetvi. Vpervye ispol'zovana dispersionnaja model' anizotropnogo sploshnogo spektra v reschete zavisimosti teploprovodnosti reshetki germanija ot temperatury. Primenennyj put' reshenija v jetom raschete predstavljaet soboj izmenennyj variant vyrazhenija Kollujejja. Dlja ocenki dovol'no znachitel'nyh integralov vyshe chastot reshetki ispol'zuetsja procedura integracii shesti i treh chlenov uravnenija Haustona. Primenjajutsja naibolee podhodjashhie rasprostranennye vyrazhenija dlja vremeni relaksacii dlja rassejanija na granice i na primesi, a takzhe dlja treh fononnyh normal'nyh processov i processa Umklappa. Pri pravil'nom podbore chetyreh postojannyh, imejushhihsja v integralah, poluchaetsja horoshee sootvetstvie s jeksperimental'nymi dannymi Hollanda, Slaka i Glassbrennera dlja germanija ot 20 do 1000 Degree-Sign K. Blagodarja nadezhnym dannym nejtronnoj spektroskopii my znaem, chto germanij imeet ochen' razbrosannye poperechnye vetvi, i dispersionnaja model' anizotropnogo sploshnogo spektra takzhe daet o nih plohoe predstavlenie. Pojetomu my schitaem

  19. The Let Distribution of Dose in Some Tissue Cylinders; Repartition de la Dose en Fonction du TLE dans Quelques Modeles Cylindriques de Tissus; Raspredelenie linejnoj peredachi ehnergii dozy v nekotorykh tkanevykh tsilindrakh; Distribucion de la Dosis en Funcion de la TLE en Algunos Modelos Cilindricos de Tejidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, W. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1964-03-15

    que simulan ratones, ratas, cobayos (conejillos de Indias), perros y seres humanos. Se admitio que esos tejidos consistian en H.C.N y O en las mismas proporciones que en el hombre standard. Las secciones eficaces aplicadas para el H se ajustan estrictamente a las especificadas en el informe BNL 325, mientras que las secciones eficaces para el O, el N y el C son las prescritas en los documentos NDA 2111-3 (Vol. A ), ORNL-2389 y NDA 12-16, respectivamente. Tambien se efectuo el calculo para el caso de un modelo irradiado con el espectro de fision modificado, utilizado por Neary. El autor aplico las distribuciones de la TLE obtenidas en esta forma, juntamente con los valores de la EBR recomendados por la CIPR, para interpretar los efectos biologicos de la irradiacion neutronica. Compara dichas distribuciones con los datos sobre los efectos biologicos de los neutrones obtenidos experimentalmente y comprueba que confirman, por lo menos en parte, las hipotesis generalmente admitidas sobre la relacion funcional entre la TLE y la EBR, por ejemplo, que la posibilidad de cura y el efecto del exigenose manifiestan esencialmente con dosis de baja TLE. Aunque estas interpretaciones poseen un caracter preliminar, la distribucion de la dosis en funcion de la TLE podra servir de base para nuevas experiencias sobre la relacion entre la TLE y la EBR. (author) [Russian] Pri nejtronnom obluchenii tkanevogo fantoma obrazujushhiesja jadra otlachi imejut nepreryvnyj spektr jenergii. Dazhe v sluchae obluchenija monojenergeticheskimi nejtronami proishodit nepreryvnoe raspredelenie jenergii dlja razlichnyh jader otdachi i, sledovatel'no, takzhe nepreryvnoe raspredelenie dozy v otnoshenii L P Je . Pri ispol'zovanii programmy tipa Monte-Karlo dlja kontroliruemogo schetno-vychislitel'nogo ustrojstva 1604 vychisljalsja spektr L P Je dozy puchka monojenergeticheskih nejtronov dlja tkanevyh cilindrov, imitirujushhih mysh', krysu, morskuju svinku, sobaku i cheloveka. Tkan' sostojala iz N, S , N i O v

  20. Some recent developments in the application of radioisotope techniques in Australia; Progres recents dans l'application des methodes radioisotopiques en Australie; Poslednie dostizheniya v oblasti primeneniya radioizotopov v Avstralii; Recientes progresos realizados en Australia en las aplicaciones tecnicas de los radioisotopos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, J N [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Sutherland, N.S.W. (Australia)

    1962-01-15

    pomoshch'yu kalibrovannykh podvodnykh stsintillyatsionnykh schetchikov. EHti ehksperimenty pokazali takzhe, chto na potoki bolee drugikh faktorov vliyaet veter. Pri otsutstvii vetra zametnaya chast' teploj vody peresekaet poverkhnost' bassejna i vnov' popadaet na ehlektrostantsiyu v techenie 3-4 chasov. EHto ukazalo na konstruktsionnyj defekt v skheme pogloshcheniya, kotoraya byla zatem usovershenstvovana. Daetsya takzhe opisanie issledovaniya skhemy potokov v bassejne Bakha dlya rastvorov sakhara-syrtsa. Goryachij rastvor syrtsa posle obrabotki izvest'yu vvoditsya cherez edinstvennyj podayushchij truboprovod v verkhnej chasti, a ochishchennyj rastvor vykhodit cherez trubo- provody na shesti razlichnykh urovnyakh. Tverdye veshchestva berutsya so dna. V podayushchij kanal bylo vvedeno okolo 5 millikyuri broma-82 v rastvore, i poyavlenie mechenykh atomov bylo izmereno kolichestvenno ehkranirovannymi stsintillyatsionnymi detektorami v kazhdoj iz shesti vyvodnykh trub. Analiz raspredeleniya aktivnosti po vremeni v kazhdom truboprovode yasno ukazal na kharakter potoka v bassejne. Nakonets, opisyvayutsya rezul'taty izucheniya voprosa o koehffitsiente poleznogo dejstviya protsessa smeshivaniya v smeshivayushchem apparate spiral'nogo tipa. (author)

  1. Polymerization of Ethylene in Aqueous Silver-Salt Solution by Cobalt-60 Gamma Radiation; Polymerisation de l'ethylene dans une solution aqueuse de sel d'argent par des rayons gamma du cobalt-60; Polimerizatsiya ehtilena v vodnom rastvore serebryanoj soli pod dejstviem gamma-izlucheniya kobal'ta-60; Polimerizacion del etileno en solucion acuosa de sales de plata por los rayos gamma del cobalto-60.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinger, S.; Mullner, S. [Farbwerke Hoechst AG, Hoechst (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    ' peremeshivaniya ne vliyaet na vykhod. Udel'nyj ves produkta raven pochti 0,94g/cm{sup 3}, tochki plavleniya lezhat mezhdu 126 i 131{sup o}C. Infrakrasnye spektry pogloshcheniya ne pokazali nalichiya dvojnykh svyazej C=C i grupp C-O-H ili C=0; byli obnaruzheny v ne- bol'shom kolichestve svyazi C-O-C. Soderzhanie metil'nykh grupp sostavlyaet 0,3%. Polimery, po-vidimomu, sostoyat iz dlinnykh razvetvlennykh tsepej, i znacheniya vyazkosti lezhat mezhdu 5 i 10. (author)

  2. Gas-flow detector for uranium contamination on finned-can surface of a reactor fuel; Detecteur a courant gazeux pour deceler la contamination en uranium des nervures des gaines de combustible nucleaire; Gazopotochnyj detektor zagryazneniya uranom rebristoj poverkhnosti obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov; Detector de flujo gaseoso para medir la contaminacion de uranio en la superficie de la vaina de aletas de los elementos combustibles para reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, H; Shiojiri, T; Maeda, Y [Kobe Kogyo Corporation, Okubo, Akashi, Hyogo (Japan)

    1962-04-15

    stavitsya pod otritsatel'noe napryazhenie. Prostranstvo mezhdu toplivnym ehlementom i setkoj sluzhit ulovitel'noj ionizatsionnoj kameroj. Setka sostoit iz parallel'nykh vol'framovykh provodov, zazemlennykh i raspolozhennykh tsilindricheski vokrug toplivnogo ehlementa. Kollektory sostoyat iz 16-ti tonkikh vol'framovykh provolochek, skonstruirovannykh analogichno setke, no kazhdaya provoloka izolirovana ehlektricheski ot drugikh. Vse kollektory soedineny mezhdu soboyu cherez soprotivleniya v 50 kiloomov i cherez pitayushchee soprotivlenie vklyucheny v set' s polozhitel'nym tokom vysokogo napryazheniya. Prostranstvo mezhdu setkoj, kollektorami i katodom sluzhit v kachestve gazovoj umnozhitel'noj kamery, podobno obychnomu proportsional'nomu schetchiku. Kazhdoe soprotivlenie v 50 kiloomov otdelyaet parazitnuyu emkost' podklyuchennogo kollektora ot drugikh emkostej. Vykhodyashchij iz detektora signal napravlyaetsya v usilitel' toka s malym vkhodnym kompleksnym soprotivleniem. Maloe vkhodnoe kompleksnoe soprotivlenie snizhaet takzhe vrednoe vliyanie parazitnoj emkosti vkhodyashchej skhemy. Ehto vedet k polucheniyu khoroshego sootnosheniya signal-pomekha i povyshaet chuvstvitel'nost' obnaruzheniya al'fa-chastits. Do proizvodstva izmerenij v schetchike predvaritel'no sozdaetsya vakuum otkachivaniem pri pomoshchi rotatsionnogo nasosa, posle chego v nego nagnetaetsya gaz PR (90% argona i 10% metana). Blagodarya ispol'zovaniyu ehtogo novogo oborudovaniya nam udalos' obnaruzhit' al'fa-chastitsy, ispuskavshiesya 1 x 10{sup -5} g prirodnogo urana, zagryaznyavshego rebristuyu poverkhnost' obolochki reaktornykh teplovydelyayushchikh ehlementov tipa Kvl'der-Kholl; vse teplovydelyayushchie ehlementy reaktora JRR-3 budut provereny ehtim schetchikom. (author)

  3. Studies on radiation-image detectors; Etudes sur les detecteurs a images de rayonnements; Izuchenie detektorov izobrazheniya radiatsii; Estudios sobre detectores de radiaciones productores de imagenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiffel, L [Armour Research Foundation, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1962-04-15

    }mkoj raspredeleniya iskr. Pri rabote s issledovatel'skim reaktorom Armor na rezhime maloj moshchnosti za desyat' MINUT byla zasnyata kartina raspredeleniya nejtronov po Laueh; pikovyj potok aktivnoj zony sostavlyal 10{sup 11} nv, a kollimator sostoyal iz pryamoj trubki diametrom 1 X 1 cm. Opisano primenenie ehtikh schetchikov dlya drugikh nejtronnykh issledovanij s ukazaniem nailuchshej dostizhimoj razreshayushchej sposobnosti, kotoraya mozhet byt' poluchena pri men'shikh rasstoyaniyakh mezhdu ehlektrodami, ispol'zovanii dinamicheskoj razvertki, a, vozmozhno, i pri prostranstvennom fil'trovanii opticheskogo izobrazheniya. Vtorym obshchim podkhodom k obnaruzheniyu izobrazheniya, vyzyvaemogo radiatsiej, yavlyaetsya ispol'zovanie v preobrazovatele lyuminestsiruyushchikh i fosforestsiruyushchikh ehkranov. V nastoyashchee vremya ispytyvayutsya matritsy lyuminestsiruyushchikh volokon, sostoyashchikh iz ves'ma tonkikh steklyannykh trubok, napolnennykh stsintillyatsionnoj zhidkost'yu. EHti matritsy oka- zyvayutsya poleznymi pri obnaruzhenii rentgenovskikh luchej i gamma-izluchenij; dlya polucheniya chuvstvitel'nosti k nejtronam MOGUT ''zaryazhat'sya'' libo materialy stenok, libo soderzhashchayasya vnutri trubok zhidkost'. BUDUT izlozheny novye metody vyrabotki lyuminestsiruyushchikh voloknistykh ehkranov razlichnogo tipa s ukazaniem ikh opticheskikh svojstv, chto takzhe tesno svyazano s tekhnologiej stsintillyatsionnykh kamer. BUDUT kratko obsuzhdeny vozmozhnosti postrojki vosproizvodyashchikh izobrazheniya detektorov s ispol'zovaniem tolstykh blokov materiala, sposobnykh khranit' znachitel'nyj zapas ehnergii i vyzyvat' fosforestsentsiyu pri ikh obluchenii; budut takzhe opisany metody otscheta pokazanij pri pomoshchi opticheskoj razvertki luchej dlya ustraneniya poter' v razreshayushchej sposobnosti iz-za konechnoj tolshchiny lyuminofora. (author)

  4. Anisotropy of the Chemical Shift Tensor for Fluorines in UF{sub 6} : Application to the Fluorine Atom Movement Model; Anisotropie du Tenseur de Deplacement Chimique des Fluors dans UF{sub 6}: Application au Modele du Mouvement des Atomes de Fluor; Anizotropiya tenzora khimicheskogo zameshcheniya ftora v UF{sub 6}. Primenenie k modeli dvizheniya atomov ftora; Anisotropia del Tensor de Desplazamiento Quimico de los Atomos de Fluor en el UF{sub 6}: Aplicacion al Modelo del Movimiento de los Atomos de Fluor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigny, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1965-10-15

    permanece unos 5 {mu}s en cada una de las posiciones, con una energia de activacion de 0,5 eV aproximadamente. (author) [Russian] Pervoe izuchenie polikristallicheskogo shestiftoristogo urana po metodu magnitnogo rezonansa ftora bylo provedeno R.Blinkom i dr. pri 40Mgc. Napomnim, chto spektr, poluchennyj pri nizkoj temperature (t <-20 Degree-Sign C) mozhno analizirovat' nalozheniem dvuh linij, chto podtverzhdaet strukturu, obnaruzhennuju Hordom i Strupom v rentgenovskih luchah, gde pri nalichii oktajedra UF{sub 6} s odnoj dlinnoj os'ju i dvumja korotkimi osjami atomy ftora raspredeljajutsja mezhdu dvumja mestopolozhenijami. Izmenenie spektra s temperaturoj - slijanie dvuh linij - daet osnovanie predpolagat' o nalichii peremeshhenija atomov ftora mezhdu dvumja mestopolozhenijami. Povtoriv jeti opyty pri 56,4 i 94Mgc, my smogli otmetit' nalichie sil'noj osevoj anizotropii tenzora himicheskogo zameshhenija (okolo 650 chastej na million). Linija pogloshhenija, poluchennaja v jetih uslovijah dlja poroshka, javljaetsja slozhnoj i podlezhit izucheniju, tem bolee esli uchest' funkciju formy f (h), kotoraja predstavljaet soboj prisushhuju chastichke poroshka verojatnost' poluchenija orientacii, vynuzhdajushhej rezonirovat' jetu chastichku pri znachenii h polja. Pri otsutstvii dvizhenija (spektr nizkoj temperatury) funkcija formy dlja kazhdoj iz dvuh linij (sootvetstvujushhaja dvum vidam'mestopolozhenija) poluchaet formu dlja vseh jekvivalentnyh atomov. Izvestno, chto parametry tenzorov himicheskih zameshhenij svidetel'stvujut o haraktere himicheskih svjazej. Takim putem prishli, v chastnosti, k tomu, chtoby pripisat' v osnovnom ionnyj harakter (I Asymptotically-Equal-To 1/2) svjazjam urana s dvumja naibolee udalennymi atomami ftora. Pri nalichii dvizhenija funkcija formy krajne raznoobrazna i zavisit ot tipa dvizhenija. Dlja UF{sub 6} izuchenie pri nalichii anizotropii pokazyvaet, chto atomy ftora odnoj toj zhe molekuly obmenivajutsja mezhdu soboj i chto kazhdyj atom zatrachivaet

  5. Comparative Study of the Methods Used for the Computer Resolution of Composite Gamma-Ray Spectra; Etude Comparative des Methodes Utilisees pour la Resolution de Spectres Gamma Complexes au Moyen d'un Ordinateur; Sravnitel'noe izuchenie metodov razresheniya sostavnykh gamma-spektrov pri pomoshchi schetno-reshayushchego ustrojstva; Estudio Comparativo de los Metodos Aplicados para Resolver Espectros Gamma Complejos Mediante Calculadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHaan, A. Jr.; Leventhal, L.; Benson, P. [Tracerlab, Richmond, CA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    mnogokomponentnye sistemy. Vyrabotan metod ispol'zovanija schetno-reshajushhego ustrojstva, normalizujushhij gamma-spektry dlja svedenija k minimumu jeffekta smeshhenija spektrometra, kotoryj projavljaetsja s techeniem vremeni, i prevrashhajushhij spektr v jenergeticheskuju sistemu koordinat. Pri pomoshhi razlichnyh metodov i s osobym uporom na proby s maloj aktivnost'ju issledovalis' jeffekty ''neozhidannogo fotopika'', komponenta nulevoj intensivnosti i perekryvajushhihsja pikov na kachestvo razreshenija. Issledovany naibolee shiroko rasprostranennye matematicheskie metody razlozhenija sostavnyh gamma-spektro v na sostavnye chasti. Bol'shaja chast' jetih metodov vedet k opredeleniju koncentracij razlichnyh gamma-izluchatelej pri pomoshhi odnogo iz sledujushhih sposobov: 1 . Posledovatel'noe iskljuchenie radioizotopov s fotopikami naibol'shih jenergij, dlja chego chistyj individual'nyj spektr vychitaetsja iz sostavnogo spektra vplot' do ego polnogo razreshenija. 2. Razreshenie pika bez otdelenija produktov delenija. 3. Sostavlenie rjada odnovremennyh linejnyh uravnenij, chislo kotoryh ravno chislu vhodjashhih v smes' radioizotopov, i razreshenie jetih uravnenij. 4. Opredelenie neizvestnyh koncentracij po metodu prostyh ili vzveshennyh naimen'shih kvadratov. 5. Sovmeshhenie statisticheskogo metoda s metodom naimen'shih kvadratov putem ispol'zovanija stupenchatoj mnogokratnoj linejnoj regressii, chto javljaetsja popytkoj vkljuchit' v analiz processy rassuzhdenij. Dlja kazhdogo analiticheskogo metoda, v sluchae primenenija ego k mnogosostavnym smesjam radioizotopov, dajutsja statisticheskie ocenki velichiny pogreshnosti, s kotoroj mozhet byt' opredelena ih koncentracija. (author)

  6. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    jadernyh reaktorah bez razrushenija obrazca javljajutsja poleznymi i zhelatel'nymi. Ideal'nym byl by metod, ne trebujushhij special'nyh dannyh o nejtronnom spektre, istorii radiacii ili vremeni ohlazhdenija. Obluchennye toplivnye jelementy sami po sebe javljajutsja nositeljami informacii o stepeni vygoranija topliva. Jeta informacija soderzhitsja v forme radioaktivnyh i stabil'nyh izotopov, obrazujushhihsja v processe delenija. K sozhaleniju,kak pri metodah analiza topliva bez razrushenija obrazca, tak i s razrusheniem obrazca nejtronnyj spektr, istorija radiacii i period ohlazhdenija vlijajut na jetu informaciju. Tochno tak zhe nedostatok tochnyh jadernyh dannyh, takih, kak znachenija jadernyh poperechnyh sechenij, vlijaet na ljubye vychislenija, kotorye mozhno bylo by proizvesti. Drugoj trudnost'ju pri analizah bez razrushenija obrazca javljaetsja nalichie polej vysokoj radiacii, kotoraja vnosit dopolnitel'nyj ''shum'' v fon pri izmerenijah. Razrabotka poleznyh i real'nyh standartov javljaetsja trudnym delom. Metody analiza stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca osobenno polezny togda, kogda trebuetsja bystro i jekonomichno, dazhe pri sushhestvujushhem polozhenii s ih nedostatkom, poluchit' zhelatel'nuju tochnost' priblizitel'noj velichiny vygoranija. Ispol'zovalos' neskol'ko metodov dlja opredelenija stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca; vedetsja ih ocenka ili oni predlagajutsja. Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy spektrometrov, v tom chisle spektrometry s izognutym kristallom, magnitnyj komptonovskij spektrometr, komptonovskij spektrometr na sovpadenija i scintilljacionnyj spektrometr dlja analiza gamma-izluchenija radioaktivnogo materiala, obrazujushhegosja vo vremja processa delenija. Drugie metody analiza bez razrushenija obrazca vkljuchajut aktivaciju fol'gi, propuskanie nejtronov, aktivacionnyj analiz, izmerenie zahvata gamma-luchej i izmerenie mgnovennyh i zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov. Rassmatrivajutsja osnovnye principy kazhdogo iz vyshenazvannyh metodov i

  7. Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at Argonne National Laboratory; Dosimetrie dans les Cas d'Accidents Nucleaires au Laboratoire National d'Argonne; 0421 041b 0423 0416 0411 0410 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear en el Laboratorio Nacional de Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. L.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.; O' Neil, D. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-06-15

    propuesto metodos para valorar el ftisforo-32 en materiales biologicos con el fin de obtener la dosis de neutrones rapidos, analizar los productos de activacion neutronica en las sustancias de que se compone el medio ambiente, y determinar el numero total de fisiones. El control administrativo de las operaciones dosimetricas se vera facilitado por el empleo de un manual que enumera el emplazamiento de los dosimetros, la manera de manejarlos y los procedimientos de recuento, e indica las formulas que se han de utilizar en el calculo de las dosis. (author) [Russian] V doklade obobshhaetsja problema tekushhego planirovanija v Argonskoj nacional'noj laboratorii v otnoshenii opredelenija dozy obluchenija posle avarijnoj kritichnosti. Obsuzhdenie svjazano v osnovnom s dvumja tipami izgotovljaemyh promyshlennost'ju kompaktnyh dozimetricheskih ustrojstJo i vkljuchaet rezul'taty provedennyh nezavisimo kolibrovanij, vypolnennyh v laboratorii. V pervichnuju dozimetricheskuju sistemu vkljuchajutsja porogovye detektory, razrabotannye v Okridzhskoj nacional'noj laboratorii dlja izmerenija spektrov nejtronov. Jeksperimental'no vyvedeny kalibrovochnye krivye raspada fol'gi iz deljashhegosja materiala dlja postojanno ispol'zuemogo v Argone scintilljacionnogo schetnogo oborudovanija. Jeto oborudovanie kalibrovano takzhe dlja opredelenija aktivnosti natrija-24 v krovi. Dozimetricheskie bloki razrabotannogo v laboratorii Savanna River tipa ispol'zujutsja v kachjostve vtorichnyh stancij. Dannye, postupajushhie ot komponentov jetih blokov, svjazannyh s aktivaciej nejtronami, budut ispol'zovat'sja dlja vnesenija izmenenij v nejtronnyj spektr dlja promezhutochnyh, a takzhe teplovyh znachenij jenergii. Zakadmievaja aktivacija mednoj fol'gi pri dannom znachenii nejtronov promezhutochnoj jenergii okazalas' sravnitel'no nechuvstvitel'noj k izmenenijam v nejtronnom spektre v jetoj oblasti. Byla opredelena znachimaja srednjaja velichina poperechnogo sechenija medi. Kojefficienty kalibrovanija schetchika

  8. EMG (elektromyografie jako metoda pro sledování účinnosti sportovního tréninku Surface EMG as a method for following-up sports training efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Miklavčič

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Účel této studie byl zhodnotit vhodnost a použitelnost povrchové elektromyografie pro vyhodnocení změn kontrakčních vlastností svalů spojených s tréninkem. Skupina osmi národních juniorských tenistů se zúčastnila šestitýdenního výcvikového programu, který byl zaměřen na zvýšení rychlosti a výbušnosti. Jejich fyzické charakteristiky byly zhodnoceny před a po období programu, a to specifickými tenisovými testy, které měří izometrickou kontrakci trhnutí středního gastroknemického svalu, a zaznamenáváním spektra frekvence EMG při 50% maximální volní kontrakci. Ve specifických tenisových testech se prokázalo, že většina hráčů zlepšila své výkony po výcvikovém období, pouze u 3 hráčů byla zjištěna zvýšená rychlost kontrakce středního gastroknemického svalu, která byla vyjádřena kratší dobou kontrakčního trhnutí po období výcviku. Stejní hráči předvedli vyšší charakteristickou frekvenci (definována jako střední frekvence ležící mezi 6. a 9. decilem spektrální distribuční funkce a širší EMG spektrum rozkmitu po výcvikovém období. Vysoká korelace byla zjištěna mezi počtem parametrů izometrické kontrakce trhnutí, která byla zlepšena o více než 2 % po období výcviku (Np, poměr mezi charakteristickou frekvencí po období výcviku (fA a před výcvikovým obdobím (fB (fA/fB (p = 0,0065, a také mezi Np a stoupáním lineárního přiblížení závislosti mezi decilovými frekvencemi signálů EMG po období výcviku (dAf a před výcvikovým obdobím (dBf (dAf = f(dBf (p = 0,0035. Korelace mezi počtem parametrů izometrické kontrakce trhnutí, které byly zlepšeny po období výcviku, a změny v charakteristických parametrech EMG evokují použitelnost EMG pro sledování účinnosti sportovního výcviku. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of surface electromyography (EMG for evaluation of

  9. Improved method for lifetime measurements; Methode perfectionnee de mesure de la duree de vie; Usovershenstvovannyj metod izmereniya vremeni zhizni; Metodo perfeccionado para medir la vida media de los estados de excitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzierl, P; Bartl, W [Oesterreichische Studiengesellschaft fuer Atomenergie, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1962-04-15

    entre los dos detectores. El espectro de impulsos del dispositivo sumador se hace incidir sobre un analizador de un solo canal para la seleccion de la energia deseada. El rayo {gamma} (I) se detecta en otro cristal organico. Los impulsos rapidos de ambos detectores organicos pasan a un convertidor tiempo-altura de impulsos y a un analizador multicanal. Este analizador se hace actuar como puerta mediante una coincidencia lenta entre los discriminadores de alturas de impulsos. (author) [Russian] Izmerenie vremeni zhizni yadra v vozbuzhdennom sostoyanii obychno osnovano na izmerenii otstavaniya odnogo gamma-lucha (II) po otnosheniyu k drugomu gamma-luchu (I) ili k beta-chastitse. Organicheskie stsintillyatory dayut nailuchshuyu razreshayushchuyu sposobnost' po vremeni dlya izmereniya vremeni takogo raspada, no dlya slozhnykh protsessov raspada opredelenie gamma-ehnergii predstavlyaet bol'shoe znachenie i mozhet byt' luchshe vsego dostignuto stsintillyatorami s kristallom NaI(Tl). Dlya sovmestnogo ispol'zovaniya preimushchestv detektorov togo i drugogo tipa gamma-luch (II) prezhde vsego rasseivaetsya v organicheskom kristalle (stil'ben), a rasseyannyj kvant detektiruetsya kristallom Nal(Tl). Dlya osushchestvleniya bol'shikh uglov priemki mezhdu dvumya stsintillyatorami izmerenie gamma-ehnergii dostigaetsya posle slozheniya amplitudy oboikh stsintillyatsionnykh impul'sov. Dlya obespecheniya nadezhnogo dejstviya ustanovki dlya slozheniya postupayushchie iz organicheskogo kristalla impul'sy prokhodyat prezhde vsego cherez strobiruyushchuyu skhemu, kotoraya initsiiruetsya sovpadeniem mezhdu dvumya stsintillyatorami. Spektr impul'sov, postupayushchij iz ustanovki dlya slozheniya, napravlyaetsya v odnokanal'nyj analizator dlya otbora po ehnergii. Gamma-luch (I) detektiruetsya v drugom organicheskom kristalle. Bystrye impul'sy oboikh organicheskikh stsintillyatorov napravlyayutsya v amplitudno-vremennoj preobrazovatel' impul'sov i v mnogokanal'nyj analizator. EHtot analizator

  10. Stanovení vagového prahu a možnosti jeho využití Determination of the vagal threshold and changes of it's using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gába

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cílem této studie bylo navrhnout jednoduchý matematický postup, podle kterého by bylo možno stanovit takovou hraniční intenzitu zatížení, nad kterou se redukovaná vagová aktivita dále výrazně nemění a kardiovaskulární systém je dominantně řízen zvyšující se aktivitou sympatoadrenálního systému (vagový práh – TVA. Testovaný soubor tvořilo 10 mužů ve věku 27,24 ± 3,23 let s hodnotou maximální spotřeby kyslíku 50,24 ± 4,63 ml.kg–1.min–1. Aktivita ANS byla hodnocena pomocí neinvazivní metody spektrální analýzy (SA variability srdeční frekvence (HRV. Změny v autonomní kardiální regulaci byly posuzovány během chůze na běhátku v setrvalém stavu při intenzitách zatížení od 20 % do 70 % maximální tepové rezervy (MTR. Zvýšení intenzity zatížení o 10 % MTR v rozmezí od 20 % do 70 % MTR vedlo vždy k signifikantnímu snížení aktivity vagu. Navržený postup pro stanovení deflekčního bodu křivky závislosti PHF na intenzitě zatížení, za kterým již PHF výrazně neklesá, umožnil identifikovat TVA na úrovni 43,63 ± 4,66 % MTR. Navržený algoritmus stanovení TVA dovoluje odhadnout při tělesné práci "bezpečnou" intenzitu zatížení, při které je ještě zachována aktivita vagu a aktivita sympatiku se ještě výrazně nezvyšuje. Stanovení TVA se může uplatnit zejména při preskripci intenzity zatížení v rámci programu pohybové aktivity u pacientů s redukovanou aktivitou ANS a se zvýšeným rizikem náhlé srdeční příhody. Exercise intensity causes changes in the activity of both branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS as involved in cardiovascular system regulation. Reduction in vagal activity and an increase in sympatho-adrenal activity is associated with an increase in death risk from both cardiac and arrhythmic causes during exercise. The main aim of this work was to develop a simple mathematic algorithm for determination of

  11. Two-dimensional selector type 2X3; Selecteur bidimensionnel type 2X3; Dvukhmernyj selektor tipa 2X3; Selector bidimensional tipo 2X3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, Y [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1962-04-15

    -vremya, ustanovlennye operatorom. Pribor obladaet sleduyushchimi obshchimi osobennostyami. Selektsiej vremeni, 1024 kanala shirinoj ot 0,1 do 6,4 {mu}s, sgruppirovannykh v 8 poleznykh zonakh po 128 kanalov v kazhdoj; amplitudnaya selektsiya, 64 kanala shirinoj ot 0,25 do 1 V; srednee mertvoe vremya, 7 {mu}s; polnoe razreshayushchee vremya ustanovki, 20 {mu}s; konditsionirovanie pri otschete: vozmozhnost' chitat' spektr vremeni proleta v amplitudnom diapazone mezhdu dvumya kakimi-nibud' predelami. Podobnaya operatsiya mozhet byt' osushchestvlena odnovremenno na 4 amplitudnykh spektrakh. (author)

  12. Autonomic nervous system activity during acclimatization after rapid air travel across time zones: A case study [Aktivita autonomního nervového systému během aklimatizace po rychlém přeletu časových pásem: Kazuistika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Botek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapid transition across time zones also known as jet lag syndrome leads to desynchronization of our endogenous "biological" clock and causes a transient decrease in the adaptation capacity of an athlete. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (SA HRV method as a tool for classification of the answer of the body to both the rapid transition across time zones and the training intensity level during the following acclimatization. METHODS: Changes in autonomic activity were assessed by SA HRV during acclimatization after eastward (+6 hours and westward (–7 hours flights in two elite athletes. RESULTS: The results revealed that the athlete, who undertook a flight from Prague to Beijing (China, was able to start with intensive training during the fourth day of his acclimatization. No acute decrease in training ability (adaptability was found in the athlete after the flight from Prague to Bogota (Columbia. Significant modifications in her training load level were made only on the third day in Columbia. The study confirmed that the reaction of the body to the rapid transition across time zones is highly individual. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, in the future, the SA HRV method could become a promising tool for solving questions of both the acclimatization strategy and the optimizing of sport performance in elite athletes. [VÝCHODISKA: Vlivem rychlého přesunu přes časová pásma dochází k poruše vnitřních regulací organismu, které mohou být u sportovců příčinou přechodného poklesu jejich tréninkové adaptační kapacity. CÍLE: Cílem práce bylo ověřit možnost využití metody spektrální analýzy variability srdeční frekvence (SA HRV jako nástroje pro hodnocení aktivity autonomního nervového systému (ANS, který se podílí na regulaci těchto změn souvisejících s aklimatizací. METODY: U dvou vrcholových sportovců, kteří absolvovali p

  13. The Technology and Applications of Large Fission Product Beta Sources; Technologie et applications des grandes sources beta de fission; Tekhnologiya i primenenie krupnykh istochnikov beta-izluchenij, ispuskaemykh produktami deleniya; Tecnologia y utilizacion de los productos de fision como fuentes de irradiacion beta de elevada intensidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Joseph [Radiation Applications Incorporated (United States)

    1960-07-15

    poverkhnostnykh sloev plastmassy i tekstilya. 2. Massivnye, prochnye, inertnye, bezopasnye i nedorogie istochniki beta-izluchenij mogut stroit'sya putem nadlezhashchego rasshireniya sushchestvuyushchikh tekhnicheskikh ustanovok. Osobenno mnogoobeshchayushchimi predstavlyayutsya zaklyuchayushchie v sebe istochniki steklyannye ampuly. 3. Podschety pogloshcheniya beta-izluchenij pokazyvayut, chto predstavlyaetsya vozmozhnym skonstruirovat netochechnye istochniki s dostatochno vysokim kpd ispol'zovani ya moshchnosti, dokhodyashchim do 20%. Byli vyvedeny uravneniya i sostavleny krivye dayushchie dozirovku i kpd ispol'zovani ya beta-izluchenij v zavisimosti ot konfiguratsii izluchatelya, sostava veshchestv i materialov, vkhodyashchikh v konstruktsiyu istochnika i misheni. Dlya proverki pravil'nosti ehtikh podschetov v nastoyashchee vremya provoditsya ehksperimental'na ya programma. 4. Izuchenie proizvodstvennoj sebestoimosti ukazyvat, chto beta-izlucheniya, ispuskaemye produktami deleniya, mogut konkurirovat' s drugimi istochnikami izluchenij. (author)

  14. Theoretical Interpretation of Pulsed Neutron Phenomena; Interpretation Theorique des Phenomenes dus aux Neutrons Pulses; Teoreticheskaya interpretatsiya yavlenij, svyazannykh s impul'snymi nejtronami; Interpretacion Teorica de los Fenomenos Debidos a Neutrones Pulsados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corngold, N. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-08-15

    . Osoboe vnimanie obrashhaetsja na jeksperiment s impul'snymi nejtronami v nerazmnozhajushhih sredah i na ego interpretaciju s tochki zrenija prostranstvenno-energeticheskih raspredelenij i postojannyh spada (vo vremeni). Teoreticheskie issledovanija v jetoj oblasti, bol'shuju chast' kotoryh provodit Bruk- hejvenskaja nacional'naja la''rratorija, osnovany na tochnom reshenii neskol'kih special'nyh problem, a takzhe na priblizhennyh chislennyh reshenijah v bolee real'nyh situacijah. Ne- davno predlozhena edinaja tochka zrenija, osnovannaja na teorii Van Hov-Glaubera o rassejanii medlennyh nejtronov. Vyjasneno, chto vremennaja zavisimost' parno-korreljacionnoj funk- cii, kotoraja pozvoljaet provodit' raznicu mezhdu razlichnymi zamedliteljami, takzhe regu- liruet obnaruzhivaemyj spektr postojannoj spada. V rabote podcherkivaetsja sluchaj reshenija dlja beskonechnoj sredy, hotorye proporcional'ny jeksponente (iB * r), v sredah s pogloshheniem, podchinennym zakonu 1/v. Analiticheskaja rabota svjazana s naibolee verojatnymi reshenijami, proporcional'nymi takzhe jeksponente ({lambda}t), a chislennyj raschet napravlen na reshenie, uchi- tyvajushhee polnuju ''istoriju processa'', a takzhe na modal'nye reshenija. Zatragivajutsja takzhe javlenija, s kotorymi stalkivalis', kogda pogloshhenie ne podchinjaetsja zakonu 1/v i kogda ob- razec zamedlitelja nastol'ko mal, chto vremennye reshenija ne razdeljajutsja bol'she v pro- stranstvenno energeticheskom otnoshenii. Nakonec, obsuzhdaetsja znachenie jetih rezul'tatov dlja interpretacii impul'snyh jeks- perimentov. V chastnosti, avtory imejut v vidu izmerenie diffuzii, kojefficienty dif- fuzionnogo ohlazhdenija, a takzhe, v zavisimosti ot haraktera podhoda, asimptoticheskoe ras- predelenie . (author)

  15. The Why and How of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry; Dosimetrie en cas d'Accident Nucleaire: Raison d'Etre et Modalites; 041e 0411 041e 0421 041d 041e 0412 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear: Justificacion y Modalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E. J.; Wasson, H. R. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1965-06-15

    , sleduet rassmotret' nekotorye osnovnye momenty, a imenno: a) metod zashhity personala, imejushhego otnoshenie k jadernym avarijam, b) ustanovlennaja sistema (pervichnyj blok), sposobnaja opredeljat' pervuju dozu stolknovenija v predelah opredelennoj stepeni tochnosti v meste raspolozhenija, s) neobhodimost' v ''vtorichnyh blokah'', i d) neobhodimost' v pribore, kotoryj personal imeet pri sebe i kotoryj obespechival by informaciju otnositel'no spektra i potoka s cel'ju okazanija pomoshhi v jekstrapoljacii dozy ot ustanovlennogo bloka do mestonahozhdenija cheloveka. Nejtronnyj komponent sistemy dolzhen obespechit' poluchenie informacii o potoke i spektre s cel'ju vyvedenija sootvetstvujushhih kachestvennyh kojefficientov pri ocenke dozy. Stepen' tochnosti dolzhna ustanavlivat'sja na osnove dostignutogo urovnja v rabote. Gamma- komponent sistemy dolzhen davat' vozmozhnost' provodit' izmerenie gamma-izluchenija v predelah biologicheskoj zony, predstavljajushhej interes, t .e . ot 10 do 10{sup 3} rentgen. Soobrazhenie otnositel'no chisla, razmeshhenija i legkosti obnaruzhenija avarijnyh blokov sostavljajut po sushhestvu neot{sup e}mlemuju chast' jeffektivnoj sistemy avarijnoj dozimetrii. Jeti soobrazhenija dolzhny obespechit' poluchenie v razumnyh predelah dannyh po vsemu spektru delenija. (author)

  16. Radioautography in the Study of Radioisotopically-Tagged Substances in Insect Control; L'autoradiographie dans l'etude de substances marquees au moy en de radioisotopes utilisees dans la lutte contre les insectes; Primenenie radioavtografii pri izuchenii substantsij, mechennykh radioizotopami, v bor'be s nasekomymi; La autorradiografia en el estudio de las sustancias marcadas con radioisotopos utilizadas en la lucha contra los insectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joftes, D. L. [New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1963-09-15

    histologicos corrientes. Un ligero desplazamiento ascendente del foco pone de relieve los detalles de la autorradiografia que, de este modo, se puede estudiar en relacion con el tejido. En la memoria se describen en detalle las tecnicas recomendadas y el sencillo equipo necesario, que suele encontrarse en todos los laboratorios. (author) [Russian] Pri otnositel'no nebol'shikh zatratakh truda bolee novye,uproshchenie metody radioavtografii obespechivayut bol'shuyu chuvstvitel'nost' i tochnost' na mikroskopicheskom urovne vo mnogikh fazakh issledovanij odnokratno i dvukhkratno mechennykh radioizotopami insektitsidov, naprimer pri issledovanii pogloshcheniya, peremeshcheniya, metabolizma i opredelenii ostatkov insektitsidov v rasteniyakh, u nasekomykh i tavotnykh. Fiziologiya i biokhimiya obluchennykh nasekomykh yavlyayutsya drugimi oblastyami primeneniya radioavtografii. Vozdejstvie oblucheniya, osobenno na generativnye organy, izuchaetsya s pomoshch'yu mechennogo tritiem timidina. V to vremya kak metody scheta dayut mnogo informatsii o nalichii i kolichestve radioizotopov, s pomoshch'yu radioavtografii mozhno poluchit' dannye o fakticheskikh mestakh ikh otlozheniya v tkanyakh ili dazhe v chastyakh kletok. Poluchenie takoj razreshayushchej sposobnosti vozmozhno na obychnykh postoyannykh gistologicheskikh preparatakh, v to vremya kak pri primenenii metodov scheta dlya polucheniya tochnogo rezul'tata trebuetsya razrushenie obraztsa. Standartnaya radioavtografiya osobenno udobna dlya proslezhivaniya malykh kolichestv izotopov, sostavlyayushchikh doli mikrokyuri, ochen' slabykh izluchatelej, takikh, kak radioaktivnyj uglerod (C{sup 14}) i tritij (H{sup 3}), togda kak dlya rabot s ochen' slabymi izluchatelyami s primeneniem metodov scheta trebuyutsya ochen' dorogie i slozhnye pribory. Metod ne imeet ogranichenij v otnoshenii izotopov, primenyaemykh dlya mecheniya, tak kak dazhe izlucheniya tritiya i C''1''4 budut fiksirovat'sya na yadernoj fotoehmul'sii. Dejstvitel'no, tritij i C''1

  17. Suitability of Cadmium Tantalate and Indium Tantalate as Control Materials for High-Temperature Reactors; Le Tantalate de Cadmium et le Tantalate d'Indium Comme Absorbants pour les Reacteurs a Haute Temperature; Vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya tantalatov kadmiya i indiya v kachestve kontrol'nogo materiala dlya vysokotemperaturnykh reaktorov; Empleo del Tantalato de Cadmio y del Tantalato de Indio Como Materiales de Control Para Reactores de Alta Temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preisler, E.; Haessner, F.; Petzow, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1964-06-15

    jenergii; b) vysokoj sposobnost'ju pogloshhenija nejtronov; v) maloj chuvstvitel'nost'ju k radiacionnomu povrezhdeniju; g ) horoshej teploustojchivost'ju;' ' d) maloj reaktivnost'ju s okruzhajushhej sredoj; e ) dolzhny byt' deshevymi i legko dostupnymi. Prinimaja vo vnimanie jeti soobrazhenija i prenebregaja pomehami reakcij p ,a , v pervuju ochered' sleduet rassmotret' sledujushhie jelementy: kadmij, vol'fram, indij i tantal. Ves'ma vazhno ob{sup e}dinit' horoshij poglotitel' teplovyh nejtronov s horoshim poglotitelem jepiteplovyh nejtronov s tem, chtoby poluchennyj takim obrazom material byl teploustojchivym ( Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 700 Degree-Sign C) . Dlja jetogo mogut byt' ispol'zovany dvuokisi CdWO{sub 4}, Cd {sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 7} i CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Sredi nih naibolee vysokoustojchivym javljaetsja tantalat kadmija. Drugoj dvuokis'ju, predstavljajushhej v soedinenii s tantalatom kadmija blagoprijatnyj spektr pogloshhenija nejtronov, javljaetsja tantalat indija. Pri jetom on o bl ada et i horoshej teploustojchivost'ju. Tak kak keramicheskim pogloshhajushhim materialam forma pridaetsja putem plasticheskoj deformacii, oni chasto ispol'zujutsja v vide kermetov. Pojetomu oni dolzhny byt' sovmestimy s metallami. Tantalat kadmija sovmestim s serebrom, s med'ju i do 7 00 Degree-Sign S, s nikelem; tantalat indija polnost'ju sovmestim s serebrom, med'ju i nikelem i do 700 Degree-Sign S, s molibdenom i do nekotoroj stepeni s zh e l e zom . Jeti rezul'taty sootvetstvujut vychislenijam termodinamiki . Dlja togo, chtoby ocenit' povedenie pogloshhajushhih materialov v uslovijah reaktora, neobhodimo prinjat' vo vnimanie dochernie produkty pogloshhenija nejtronov. Kadmij-113 prevrashhaetsja v stabil'nyj kadmij-114, togda kak tantal prevrashhaetsja v vol'fram, a indij - v olovo. Oba dochernih produkta mogut zaderzhat' v svoih naibolee prochnyh sostojanijah v a lentnosti bol'shee kolichestvo kisloroda, chem ishodnye jelementy. Pojetomu mozhno ozhidat' vosstanovlenija Cd

  18. Experimental studies of some of the physical features of beryllium-moderated intermediate reactors; Etude experimentale de quelques particularites physiques des reacteurs a neutrons intermediaires, ralentis au beryllium; Ehksperimental'ny e issledovaniya nekotorykh fizicheskikh osobennostej promezhutochnykh reaktorov s berillievym zamedlitelem; Estudios experimentales de algunas caracteristicas fisicas de los reactores intermedios moderados con berilio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A I; Kuznetsov, V A; Artyukhov, G Ya; Mogil' ner, A I; Prokhorov, Yu A; Steklovski, V M; Chernov, L A [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    la evaluacion de la eficacia de los cilindros compensadores giratorios distribuidos en el limite entre el cuerpo y el reflector. (author) [Russian] Doklad posvyashchen obzoru nekotorykh ehksperimen-tal'nykh rezul'tatov, poluchennykh na stende PF-4, prednaznachennom dlya detal'nogo issledovaniya fizicheskikh osobennostej reaktorov, rabotayushchikh na nejtronakh promezhutochnykh ehnergij. Aktivnye zony i otrazhateli razlichnykh kriticheskikh sborok predstavlyali soboj plotnuyu upakovku stal'nykh ili alyuminievykh trub, v kotorykh pomeshchalis' diski iz razlichnykh materialov. Kombinatsiya diskov urana (90%-nogo obogashcheniya) i zamedlyayushchikh materialov v razlichnoj proportsii, a takzhe vvedenie v otrazhatel' zamedlyayushchikh sloev razlichnoj tolshchiny, pozvolilo menyat' spektr nejtronov, proizvodyashchikh delenie, v ochen' shirokikh predelakh. V doklade privedeno opisanie stenda i ego otdel'nykh uzlov. Analiziruetsya sravnitel'naya ehffektivnost' vnutrennego i vneshnego zamedleniya dlya reaktorov s ochen'malym otnosheniem yader zamedlitelya i urana v aktivnoj zone. Ehksperimenty pokazyvayut, chto dazhe v sluchae tolstykh zamedlyayushchikh otrazhatelej maloe razbavlenie urana zamedlitelem (otnoshenie yader berilliya i urana-235 {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}U{sup 235}{approx_equal}1) privodit k vozrastaniyu kriticheskoj massy. Znachitel'noe mesto v doklade udeleno analizu geterogennykh ehffektov v promezhutochnykh reaktorakh. Pokazano, chto dlya reaktora s {partial_derivative}Be/{partial_derivative}U{sup 235}= 30+40, vysokoobogashchenny j uran v razlichnykh tolshchinakh ot 0,023 g/sm{sup 2} do 32 g/sm{sup 2} okazyvaet odinakovoe vliyanie na reaktiv-nost' sistemy. Analiziruyutsya prichiny, privodyashchie k kompensatsii ehffekta ehkranirovki nejtronnogo potoka tolstymi sloyami urana. V doklade privoditsya interesnyj fakt vozrastaniya ehffektivnosti urana vblizi po- gloshchayushchikh sterzhnej, ehksperimental'n o obnaruzhennyj v sbor kes {partial

  19. Plasma Containment and Stability in a Megajoule Theta-Pinch Experiment; Confinement et Stabilite du Plasma dans un Dispositif a Striction Azimutale de un Megajoule; Uderzhanie i ustojchivost' plazmy pri provedenii ehksperimenta s' megadzhoulevym teta-pinchem; Confinamiento y Estabilidad del Plasma en un Experimento de Estriccion Azimutal de 1 MJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, H. A.B.; Green, T. S.; Newton, A. A.; Niblett, G. B.F.; Reynolds, J. A. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Culham Laboratory, Abingdon, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-04-15

    sravnenija izmerennyh znachenij temperatur' jelektronov, diamagnetizma plazmy, radial'nogo raspredelenija plotnosti i vyhoda nejtronov so znachenijami, predskazannymi chislennymi gidromagnitnymi raschetami s ispol'zovaniem koda Gajna-Robertsa. V nastojashhee vremja s pomoshh'ju samyh raznoobraznyh metodov provoditsja izmerenie skorosti aksial'noj poteri plazmy v prisutstvii zahvachennyh parallel'nogo i obratnogo magnitnyh polej. Jeti metody vkljuchajut metody opticheskoj interferometrii dlja opredelenija obshhego chisla zahvachennyh chastic, analiz sploshnogo ispuskanija v vidimom spektre s cel'ju opredelenija plotnosti linij kak funkcii polozhenija v otnoshenii osi i ispol'zovanie miniatjurnyh p'ezojelektricheskih zondov dlja izmerenija razmera apertury pri poterjah. Rezul'taty pokazyvajut, chto plazma podverzhena diffuzii magnitnogo polja na rannih stadijah i ohlazhdeniju jelektronov libo radiaciej primesej, libo teplovoj provodimost'ju vdol' linij polja. Posledujushhee umen'shenie velichiny {beta} plazmy do znachenija okolo 0,5 pri pikovom pole uvelichivaet magnitnye apertury na koncah katushki i takim obrazom vedet k osevym poterjam plazmy. Sledovatel'no, glavnymi problemami na budushhee ostajutsja razrabotka sistemy predvaritel'nogo nagreva dlja pridanija plazme bolee vysokoj temperatury pri {beta} okolo edinicy i umen'shenie skorosti poteri jenergii jelektronov. (author)

  20. Neutron Spectra in H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, BeO and CH{sub 2}; Spectres de Neutrons dans H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, BeO et CH{sub 2}; Spektry nejtronov v H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, BeO i CH{sub 2}; Espectros Neutronicos en H{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O, BeO y CH{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, J. M.; Young, J. C.; Trimble, G. D.; Beyster, J. R. [General Atomic Division of General Dynamics Corporation, John Jay Hopkins Laboratory for Pure and Applied Science, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1965-08-15

    tele. Neposredstvennye izmerenija byli soprjazheny s nekotorymi jeksperimental'nymi zatrudnenijami, kak, naprimer, poluchenie zhelatel'noj intensivnosti i razreshenija i vvedenie nadlezhashhih popravok na mnogokratnoe rassejanie v obrazce. S tochki zrenija primenenija k tehnologii reaktorov poslednij metod poluchenija jader rassejanija okazalsja vo mnogih sluchajah bolee, udovletvoritel'nym. Provedennye integral'nye izmerenija odnovremenno so sravnitel'nymi raschetami spektrov nejtronov pozvoljajut vyskazat'sja otnositel'no sostojatel'nosti teoreticheskih modelej rassejanija dlja N{sub 2}O, D{sub 2}O i VeO. Dajutsja ukazanija otnositel'no spektrov, zavisjashhih ot ugla i polozhenija, izmerejnyh v N{sub 2}O i D{sub 2}O i otravlennyh borom ili kadmiem; jeti danny'e ukazyvajut na uluchshenie soglasovannostiteoreticheskimi velichinami. Po-vidimomu, model' Nelkina dlja N{sub 2}O daet dostatochno udovletvoritel'noe v pervom priblizhenii opisanie rassejanija, proizvodimogo jetim zamedlitelem. Nuzhno takzhe dumat', cht.o model' Goneka dlja D{sub 2}O, javljajushhajasja rasprostraneniem nekogerentnoj modeli Nelkina dlja N{sub 2}O, takzhe javljaetsja udovletvoritel'nym opisaniem dlja nekotoryh vidov primenenija. Jeto predstavljaetsja udivitel'nym, tak kak v protivopolozhnost' vodorodu dejterij javljaetsja v bol'shinstve sluchaev kogerentnym rasseivajushhim veshhestvom, no jeto obstojatel'stvo podtverzhdaet nedavnee issledovanie Koppelja, kotoryj pokazal, chto vklady vnutrimolekuljarnyh i mezhmolekuljarnyh interferencij rassejanija v D{sub 2}O imejut tendenciju annulirovat' drug druga. V doklade privodjatsja takzhe poluchennye zamerom zavisjashhie ot ugla spektry nejtronov v VeO, otravlennoj borirovannoj nerzhavejushhej stal'ju. Voobshhe govorja, soglasovannost' izmerenij s raschetami byla znachitel'no uluchshena. Teoreticheskoe jadro rassejanija osnovano na debaevskom spektre chastoty, porog kotoroj byl otregulirovan takim obrazom, chtoby soglasovat'sja s izmerenijami udel

  1. The Measurement of Integrated Gamma-Ray Doses in the Range 50 Mrad to 5 Mrad Using Phosphate Glass and Lithium Fluoride; Mesure, au Moyen de Verre au Phosphate et de Fluorure de Lithium, de Doses Integrees de Rayons Gamma de 50 Mrad a 5 Mrad; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Medicion de Dosis Integradas de Rayos Gamma de 50 Mrad a 5 Mrad por Medio de Vidrio al Fosfato y de Fluoruro de Litio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. A.M. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, Berkeley, Glos. (United Kingdom)

    1965-06-15

    de 10{sup 8}; en cambio, el LiF puede utilizarse para dosis ligeramente inferiores, pero alcanza el punto de saturacion por encima de 10{sup 5} rad. El LiF es casi independiente de la energia, en tanto que el vidrio posee, a 60 keV, una sensibilidad siete veces mayor que para las radiaciones del {sup 60}Co; esta desviacion puede corregirse con ayuda de un blindaje, pero este presenta el inconveniente de elevar el limite energetico inferior. Se ha investigado muy a fondo el fenomeno de desvanecimiento en el vidrio; el del LiF no es tan marcado y ha merecido menos interes. Tanto el vidrio como el LiF pueden recocerse y utilizarse de nuevo y ambos se han sometido a varios ciclos de recocido, determinandose tambien las alteraciones de la sensibilidad. Para cada sistema se han estudiado los efectos de la temperatura de irradiacion y de almacenamiento entre 20 y 100 Degree-Sign C, y se han evaluado las dosis en flujos mixtos de neutrones y rayos {gamma}. La memoria compara ambos sistemas desde el punto de vista de su empleo practico y de su aplicacion en casos especiales. (author) [Russian] Radiofotoljuminiscencija i izmenenie cveta fosfatnogo stekla sravnivajutsja s termoljuminis- cenciej ftoristogo litija v kachestve osnovy dozimetricheskih sistem v diapazone doz gamma- izluchenija ot 50 millirad do 5 megarad. Stimulirovannaja ljuminiscencija fosfatnogo stekla s aktivirovannym serebrom pri nizkom znachenii Z byla izmerena s pomoshh'ju serijnogo fluorimetra (ftorostekljannyj dozimetr Toshiba), a takzhe spektrometra dlja izmerenija izmenenija opticheskoj plotnosti v oblasti bol'shih doz. Izucheno vlijanie razlichnyh processov ochistki stekla. Termoljuminiscencija ftoristogo litija izmerena s pomoshh'ju laboratornogo schityvajushhego ustrojstva f ja poluchenija krivyh svechenija i posledujushhego integrirovanija ploshhadi pod neobhodimym pikom Jemissionnyj spektr termoljuminiscencii izmeren s pomoshh'ju opticheskih fil'trov, kotorye takzhe ispol'zovalis' dlja maksimal

  2. Research with a Natural-Uranium Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Recherches au Moyen d'un Ensemble Sous-Critique a Uranium Naturel et a Eau Ordinaire; Issledovaniya na podkriticheskoj sborke,rabotayushchej na prirodnom urane i obychnoj vode; Investigaciones con un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Natural y Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, H. [Institute of Technical Physics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1964-02-15

    novym. Chast' ego nosit predvaritel'nyj harakter, poskol'ku jeksperimenty i obrabotka dannyh eshhe ne zakoncheny. Rabota na sborke koncentriruetsja na dvuh osnovnyh zadachah, a imenno: 1. Jeksperimental'noe izuchenie prigodnosti metodov rascheta, ispol'zuemyh,v chastnosti, v sluchajah osoboj geometrii (neravnomernoe raspredelenie topliva, konfiguracii podkriticheskoj sborki, granicy osoboj formy i t.d.). Teoreticheskoe issledovanie zdes' zachastuju privodit k nekotorym trudnostjam, svjazannym s konvergenciej. Pojetomu neobhodimo sravnenie s raspredelenijami izmerennyh potokov. 2. Izuchenie osobyh svojstv reshetok, zagruzhennyh prirodnym uranom i obychnoj vodoj, i v osobennosti prigodnosti neskol'kih gruppovyh modelej zamedlenija dlja odnorodnyh i neodnorodnyh struktur aktivnoj zony . Schitaetsja, chto sborka s odnim tol'ko istochnikom spontannogo delenija osobenno pri- go'dna dlja provedenija issledovanij takogo tipa, esli my prenebregaem plohoj statistikoj. Ob{sup j}asnjaetsja jeto dvumja prichinami: 1. Spektr pervichnogo istochnika mozhno schitat' identichnym so spektrom vyzvannogo delenija, pojetomu otsutstvujut perehodnye izmenenija jenergii, podobnye tem, kotorye nabljudajutsja v sluchae ispol'zovanija istochnika bystryh nejtronov. 2. Prostranstvennaja moshhnost' pervichnogo istochnika proporcional'na poperechnomu secheniju delenija topliva, kogda reshetka takzhe raschityvaetsja kak funkcija prostranstvennyh koordinat. Takaja harakternaja cherta takzhe pridaet prostotu forme uravnenij potoka i vo mnogih sluchajah shodstvo s kriticheskimi sistemami. V rezul'tate provedenija tshhatel'nogo analiza raspredelenija potokov v takoj sisteme mozhno poluchit' informaciju otnositel'no prigodnosti special'nyh modelej zamedlenija. Vozmozhno takzhe poluchit' raz{sup j}asnenie takih voprosov, kak delenie pod dejstviem bystryh nejtronov vzaimodejstvija i verojatnost' rezonansnoj utechki, zavisimoj ot prostranstva. Po mneniju avtora, podkriticheskaja sborka s zhidkim zamedlitelem

  3. Some Measurements of Thermal Neutron Spectra; Mesure de Spectres de Neutrons Thermiques; Nekotorye izmereniya spektrov teplovykh nejtronov; Algunas Mediciones de Espectros de Neutrones Termicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, M. J.; Schofield, P.; Sinclair, R. N. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Research Group, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    gomogennyh zamedliteljah. Jeta rabota osushhestvljaetsja paralell'no i v prodolzhenie bolee rannej raboty avtora, sluzhit dlja proverki prigodnosti poperechnyh sechenij perehoda jenergii afE'-E), vyvodimyh iz primenjaemogo zakona rassejanija. Odnako takoj opyt absoljutno nechuvstvitelen k uglovoj zavisimosti rassejanija i sootvetstvujushhej chasti poperechnogo sechenija rassejanija, ne vyzyvajushhej obmena jenergiej s nejtronom rassejanija, prichem oba jeti momenta igrajut vazhnuju rol' v reshenii ljuboj problemy prostranstvennoj zavisimosti. Sootvetstvenno osushhestvljalis' drugie opyty, v kotoryh narochno vvodilis' razryvy prostranstvennoj i teplovoj nepreryvnosti, chtoby postavit' spektr v zavisimost' ot polnogo zakona rassejanija. Pervym iz takih opytov javljaetsja tak nazyvaemyj {sup o}pyt s dvumja blokami{sup ,} v kotorom teplovye nejtrony diffundirujut iz grafitovogo bloka pri komnatnoj temperature vo vtoroj blok, temperatura kotorogo mozhet podnimat'sja do 400 Degree-Sign S. Spektry nejtronov izmerjajutsja v razlichnyh polozhenijah okolo razryva temperaturnoj nepreryvnosti putem vydelenija puchka nejtronov iz kazhdogo polozhenija i propuskanija ego cherez spektrometr po vremeni proleta s selektorom nejtronov. V kachestve predvaritel'nogo analiza iz opyta, kotoryj mozhet byt' sravnen s analogichnymi opytami Benneta i dr. kotorye primenili de- dektory, chuvstvitel'nye k jenergii, vyvodjatsja {sup p}operechnye sechenija retermalizacii{sup .} V celjah poluchenija bolee podrobnyh sravnitel'nyh dannyh v nastojashhee vremja provodjatsja raschety po mnogogruppovoj teorii diffuzii s ispol'zovaniem poluchennyh v Chok-River dannyh po zakonu rassejanija s popytkoj predugadat' formu jenergeticheskogo spektra v polozhenijah v oboih blokah. Vo vtorom opyte vmesto razryva teplovoj nepreryvnosti vvoditsja razryv prostranstvennoj nepreryvnosti. Kadmievyj disk dostatochnoj tolshhiny, chtoby schitat'sja ''chernym'' dlja vseh nejtronov s jenergiej men'she 0,4 jev, zakrepljaetsja v centre

  4. Motion of Plasmoid in a Curvilinear Magnetic Field; Mouvement d'un Plasmoide dans un Champ Magnetique Curviligne; Dvizhenie plazmennogo sgustka v krivolinejnom magnitnom pole; Movimiento de un Plasmoide en un Campo Magnetico Curvilineo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojcenja, V. S.; Gorbanjuk, A. G.; Onishhenko, I. N.; Safronov, B. G.; Hizhnjak, N. A.; Shkoda, V. V. [Fiziko-Tehnicheskij Institut, AN USSR, Khar' kov, USSR (Ukraine)

    1966-04-15

    poljarizacii sushhestvenno opredeljaetsja tokami zakorachivanija, pojetomu izmerenie poljarizacionnyh polej kosvenno podtverzhdaet gipotezu sushhestvovanija jetih tokov. Ranee provedennye jeksperimenty pokazali, chto izmerennye poljarizacionnye polja po porjadku velichiny sovpadajut s teoreticheski predskazannymi. V nastojashhej rabote izuchajutsja rezul'taty jeksperimental'nogo issledovanija prohozhdenija i ochistki bystryh plazmennyh sgustkov bol'shoj plotnosti (n{sub 0} > 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, 4{pi}n{sub 0}Mc{sup 2}/H{sup 2}{sub 0} Asymptotically-Equal-To 5 x 10{sup 3} >> 1). Dlja poluchenija sgustkov byl ispol'zovan koaksial'nyj istochnik s impul'snym napuskom gaza (1 sm{sup 3} vodoroda pri atmosfernom davlenii). Batareja istochnika emkost'ju 17 mkf zarjazhalas' do naprjazhenija 18 kv. Posle prohozhdenija'prjamolinejnogo uchastka magnitnogo polja (L= 150 sm) plazma popadala v toroidal'noe magnitnoe pole (radius krivizny 75 cm, ugol povorota Tilde-Operator 90 Degree-Sign . Velichina impul'snogo magnitnogo polja dostigala 10 koe i za vremja proleta plazmy ostavalas' prakticheski neizmennoj ( T = 10 msek). Dlja ispol'zovanija sgustkov primenjalis' mass-spektrograf Tomsona, proletnyj mass-analizator, jelektricheskij i vysokochastotnye zondy, kalorimetry i plazmoskop. Na vhode v toroidal'nyj solenoid skorost' frontov plazmy plotnost'ju p{sub 1} Tilde-Operator 10{sup 12} sm{sup -3} ip{sub 2} Tilde-Operator 10{sup 13} sm{sup -3} sostavljala 7 * 10{sup 7} sm/sek. Fotometrirovanie parabol Tomsona dalo vozmozhnost' opredelit', chto srednjaja jenergija ionov N{sup +} prevyshala 3 kjev, a kolichestvo primesej sostavljalo okolo 40% . Osnovnye primesi: iony ugleroda, kisloroda i materialov jelektrodov, ih srednjaja jenergija vyshe, chem srednjaja jenergija ionov vodoroda. Po mere dvizhenija sgustka vdol' toroidal'nogo solenoida jenergija, perenosimaja plazmoj, i polnoe chislo zarjazhennyh chastic umen'shalis', sootvetstvenno, v 5 raz i 3 raza dlja H = 8000 oe. Pri jetom v spektre ionov

  5. Thermal Neutron Spectral and Spatial Distributions in Light-Water-Moderated Uranium Lattices; Distributions Spectrale et Spatiale des Neutrons Thermiques dans des Reseaux a Uranium et a Eau Leger; Spektral'noe i prostranstvennoe raspredelenie teplovykh nejtronov v uranovykh reshetkakh s vodnym zamedlitelem; Distribuciones Espectral y Espacial de los Neutrones Termicos en los Reticulados de Uranio Moderados por Agua Ligera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.; Volpe, J. J.; Klein, D.; Schmidt, E.; Gelbard, E. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-02-15

    razlichnymi priblizhenijami k teorii perenosa i integral'nomu jadru rassejanija terlovyh nejtronov. Pervaja serija opytov zakljuchaetsja v izmerenii blok-jeffektov teplovyh nejtronov v raz- nyh jachejkah reshetki sborki TRH, reaktora s vodnym zamedlitelem na slegka obogashhennom urane s cilindricheskimi toplivnymi jelementami, raspolozhennymi po geksagonal'noj sisteme. Sravnivalis' dannye ob ispol'zovanii teplovyh nejtronov s dannymi, poluchennymi v Monte Karlo. Primenjalis' funkcii Radkovskogo i Nelkina. Funkcija vlijanija Radkovskogo daet priblizhenie pervogo porjadka, shiroko ispol'zuemoe pri proektirovanii reaktorov. Funk- cija vlijanija Nelkina predstavljaet soboj bolee novoe i bolee podrobnoe opisanie integral'- nogo jadra rassejanija. Poskol'ku raschetnye znachenija pogloshhenija teplovyh nejtronov zavisjat ot vybora in- tegral'nogo jadra rassejanija, v osobennosti esli jeto ne maksvellovskij spektr potokov nej- tronov, drugaja serija opytov po izmereniju aktivacii na sborke TRH prednaznachalas' dlja bolee neposredstvennogo opredelenija integral'nogo jadra rassejanija. Opyty provodilis' v uslovijah, pri kotoryh iskazhenie spektra v osnovnom vyzyvalos' ravnomernym otravleniem. Izmerenija provodilis' v zapolnennoj vodoj trubke diametrom 10sm v reshetke TRX. Stenka trubki byla napolnena poroshkom B{sup 10}, jeffektivno razryvaja svjaz' mezhdu vnutrennej poverh- nost'ju trubki i reshetkoj reaktora pri jenergii nizhe 10 kjev. Otnositel'nye znachenija aktivacii teplovymi nejtronami i radial'nye konfiguracii chuvstvitel'nyh v otnoshenii spektrov detektorov izmerjalis' v dvuh sluchajah s polucheniem sootvetstvenno pochti maksvellovskogo spektra (dlja chistoj vody) i spektra, sil'no iskazhen- nogo v rezul'tate otravlenija kadmiem. Dlja jetogo opyta raschety s kazhdoj funkciej provodilis' v gruppe jenergii 12 s pribli- zheniem P{sub 3} . V rezul'tate rascheta sobstvennyh znachenij prostranstvennyh form, jeksponen- cial'no raspadajushhihsja v letargii, kotorye podderzhivajutsja v

  6. Production of Xenon Compounds by the Beta Decay of Iodine in Iodine Compounds; Production de Composes du Xenon par Desintegration Beta de l'Iode dans les Composes Iodes; 041f 0420 041e 0418 0417 0412 041e 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 0419 041a 0421 0415 041d 041e 041d 0410 041f 041e 0421 0420 0415 0414 0421 0422 0412 041e 041c 0411 0415 0422 0410 - 0420 0410 0421 041f 0410 0414 0410 0419 041e 0414 0410 0412 0419 041e 0414 0418 0421 0422 042b 0425 0421 041e 0415 0414 0418 041d 0415 041d 0418 042f 0425 ; Produccion de Compuestos de Xenon por Desintegracion Beta del Yodo de Compuestos Yodados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlow, G. J.; Perlow, M. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-04-15

    } sohranjaetsja v perehode k HeS14 i chto HeSl{sub 2} i HeO ne obrazujutsja v jetoj reakcii v obnaruzhivaemyh kolichestvah. S Na3H2J13106 v kachestve istochnika my nabljudali jetot jeffekt v He{sup 131}. Sravnenie spektrov XeF4 s oboimi izotopami kalibrovalo rasshheplenie v Hea i dalo vozmozhnost' kolichestvenno sravnit' XeF{sub 4} i HeSl{sub 4} s JCl{sub 4} , a takzhe HeOz s 3 Nerasshhepivshijsja spektr KJ0{sub 4} govorit o tom, chto tetrajedricheskaja sreda ligand joda sohranjaetsja v poluchajushhemsja HeO{sub 4}. Takim zhe obrazom paraperiodatnyj rezul'tat soglasuetsja s sohraneniem ego oktajedricheskoj sredy. (author)

  7. Studies of the Solid and Liquid Phases of HF, HCl and HBr by Slow-Neutron Inelastic Scattering; Etude des Phases Solide et Liquide de HF, HCl Et HBr par la Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons Lents; 0418 0417 0423 0427 0415 041d 0418 0415 0422 0412 0415 0420 0414 042b 0425 0418 0416 0418 0414 041a 0418 0425 0424 0410 0417 HF, HCl I HBr 0421 041f 041e 041c 041e 0429 042c 042e 041d 0415 0423 041f 0420 0423 0413 041e 0413 041e 0420 0410 0421 0421 0415 042f 041d 0418 042f 041c 0415 0414 041b 0415 041d 041d 042b 0425 041d 0415 0419 0422 0420 041e 041d 041e 0412 ; Estudio de las Fases Solida y Liquida del HF, HCl Y HBr por Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones Lentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, H. [Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Safford, G. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1965-06-15

    ). Jeti izmerenija proizvodilis' s cel'ju sistematicheskogo izuchenija vlijanija uvelichenija otricatel'nogo jelektricheskogo zarjada i razmerov anionov na nizkochastotnye molekuljarnye dvizhenija kak v tverdoj, tak i v zhidkoj fazah. HF issledovalsja pervym, t.k. dannye difrakcii rentgenovskih luchej pokazyvali, chto v tverdom sostojanii on obrazuet dlinnye zigzagoobraznye cepi s vodorodnoj svjaz'ju. Spektry nejaronov, neuprugo rassejannyh ot zhidkoj i tverdoj faz HF, jasno pokazali vysokuju stepen' associacii, sushhestvujushhuju vo vsej zhidkoj faze blagodarja vodorodnoj svjazi. S cel'ju interpretacii dannye po HF byli sopostavleny s dannymi analogichnogo rassejanija ionov HF i H{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -}, kotorye imejut struktury, analogichnye tem sostavnym chastjam v HF, kotorye vkljuchajut zigzagoobraznye cepi s vodorodnoj svjaz'ju. Jeti dannye byli takzhe sopostavleny s rezul'tatami izmerenij s pomoshh'ju infrakrasnyh luchej i izmerenij po metodu Ramana na ionah HF Pound-Sign . Jeti sopostavlenija pozvolili otlichit' chastotnuju harakteristiku otdel'noj sostavnoj chasti ot chastotnoj harakteristiki vsej cepi i ot nizkochastotnyh kolebanij reshetki. Linija, nabljudavshajasja pri 0,067 jev, byla associirovana s chastotoj deformacii v{sub 2} gruppy F-N...F v tverdom HF, i byla ustanovlena ee svjaz' s analogichnymi chastotami v ionah H{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -} i HF{sub 2}{sup -} kak frakcii rasstojanija F-F. Krome togo, shirokij pik, otmechennyj pri 0,007 jev, byl pripisan vrashhatel'nomu dvizheniju sostavnoj chasti F -F vokrug svjazi F -F. Spektr zhidkogo HF takzhe budet rassmatrivat'sja s tochki zrenija jetih dvizhenij. Spektry zhidkogo NS1 (180 Degree-Sign K), faz I i III tverdogo NS1 (143 i 85 Degree-Sign K sootvetstvenno), zhidkogo NVg (193 Degree-Sign K) i faz I i II tverdogo NVg (153 i 103 Degree-Sign K sootvetstvenno) byli sopostavleny s vysheukazannymi dannymi dlja HF. Jeti spektry pokazyvajut eshhe bol'shuju slozhnost', chem u HF. Jeto mozhet byt' ob{sup j

  8. Joule Heating of Plasma in the Toroidal Tokamak-3 Device; Chauffage du Plasma par Effet Joule, dans l'Installation Torique; Dzhoulev nagrev plazmy na toroidal'noj ustanovke Tokamak-3; Calentamiento de un Plasma por Efeto Joule en la Instalacion Toroidal Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcimovich, L. A.; Afrosimov, V. V.; Gladkovskij, I. P.; Mirnov, S. V.; Petrov, M. P.; Strelkov, V. S. [Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii, Im. I.V. Kurchatova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    jekvatorial'noj ploskosti tora i nabljudalsja drejf plazmennogo shnura ''naruzhu'' (uvelichenie bol'shogo radiusa vitka). Jeto dvizhenie mozhet byt' vyzvano izmeneniem radiusa tokovogo shnura, nagrevom plazmy ili zatuhaniem tokov Fuko v provodjashhem kozhuhe. V jetih uslovijah na ustanovke Tokamak-3 udalos' poluchit' makroskopicheski ustojchivyj plazmennyj shnur, odnako temperatura plazmy okazalas' men'she, chem. sledovalo ozhidat' pri otsutstvii anomal'nyh poter' jEhnergii. K bol'shim poterjam jEhnergii dolzhny privodit' processy, proishodjashhie pri vzaimodejstvii plazmennogo shnura s diafragmoj. Jeto vzaimodejstvie udalos' oslabit', primeniv diafragmu special'noj formy i ispol'zovav svojstvo shnura smeshhat'sja naruzhu v techenie processa. Zadachej issledovanij javljalos' opredelenie razlichnyh parametrov plazmy v jetih uslovijah, v tom chisle jelektronnoj i ionnoj temperatur. Dlja opredelenija jelektronnoj temperatury po izmeneniju soprotivlenija plazmy neobhodimo, krome jelektricheskih harakteristik shnura znat' zakon izmenenija vo vremeni radiusa shnura. Reshenie na schetnoj mashine sistemy uravnenij, vkljuchajushhej jelektrotehnicheskoe uravnenie i uravnenie ravnovesija, pozvoljaet opredelit' izmenenie vo vremeni temperatury plazmy i ee koncentracii, a takzhe radiusa i smeshhenija plazmennogo shnura na osnovanii, jeksperimental'no izmerennyh zavisimostej ot vremeni toka v plazme, naprjazhenija, signalov magnitnyh zondov i radiointerferometra. Vychislennaja funkcija temperatury vozrastaet za vremja processa i dostigaet 100-200 jev. Spektroskopicheskie izmerenija jelektronnoj temperatury dajut znachenija blizkie k vychislennym. Rezul'taty izmerenij jenergeticheskogo spektra potoka bystryh nejtral'nyh atomov horosho soglasujutsja s predlozheniem o tom, chto spektr ionov plazmy blizok k maksvellovsko- mu s temperaturoj okolo 100 jev. Sushhestvennoe otklonenie haraktera spektra ot maksvel- lovskogo nabljudaetsja v neustojchivom rezhime razrjada v momenty, sootvetstvujushhie

  9. Drift Instabilities and Electron Cyclotron Oscillations for Arbitrary Plasma Pressure; Instabilites de Derive et Oscillations Cyclotroniques des Electrons pour des Pressions de Plasma Arbitraires; Drejfovaya neustojchivost' i ehlektronno-tsiklotronnye kolebaniya pri proizvol'nom davlenii plazmy; Inestabilidades de Deriva y Oscilaciones Ciclotronicas de los Electrones en un Plasma de Presion Arbitraria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krall, N. A.; Pearlstein, L. D. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    )/(massa iona) ili esli {beta}<(k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} , gde r{sub p} - radius plazmy i 1/k{sub II} Greater-Than-Or-Equal-To dliny plazmy, to poluchajut predel nulevogo {beta}. Poskol'ku neustojchivost' sushhestvuet tol'ko dlja (k{sub II}r{sub p}){sup 2} < 0.01, umerennoe davlenie plazmy narushaet predel nulevogo {beta}. Rasschitano sobstvennoe znachenie dlja {beta} >(k{sub ll}r{sub p}){sup 2} i polucheny uslovija dlja stabilizacii'v ostrokone'chnoj geometrii zerkal'noj neustojchivosti. Preobladajushhie vysokochastotnye nereljativistskie kolebanija ustojchivoj plazmy s nulevym {beta} javljajutsja prodol'nymi volnami pri jelektronnoj girochastotnoj garmonike. V sluchae vozbuzhdenija jetih kolebanij, oni mogut rasprostranjat'sja tol'ko togda, kogda svjazany.s poperechnymi volnami; pri'nulevom {beta} jeta svjaz' proishodit na poverhnosti ili v lokal'noj neodnorodnosti. Poskol'ku znachitel'noe vlijanie konechnogo {beta} dolzhno soedinjat' prodol'nye i poperechnye volny, to spektr i svjaz' jelektronno-ciklotronnyh kolebanij rasschityvajutsja pri proizvol'nom {beta}. (author)

  10. Anomalous Escape of Ions into the ''Loss Cone''; Sortie Anormale d'Ions dans Le Cone de Pert; Anomal'nyj ukhod ionov v konus poter'; Escape Anomalo de Iones al Cono de Perdid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeev, A. A. [Institut Jadernoj Fiziki so AN SSSR, Novosibirsk, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    anizotropija raspredelenija ionov po skorostjam iz-za nalichija konusa poter' privodit k razvitiju korotkovolnovoj neustojchivosti. V svjazi s jetim v rabote podrobno analizirujutsja spektr voznikajushhego turbulentnogo dvizhenija i anomal'nye processy perenosa v neustojchivoj plazme. V lovushkah konechnoj dliny L okazyvaetsja, chto anomal'no bystraja diffuzija chastic v konus poter' privodit k ego zapolneniju i neustojchivost' oslabljaetsja. Jeto pozvoljaet vospol'zovat'sja dlja opisanija turbulentnyh processov perenosa kvazilinejnoj teoriej, dopolnennoj kineticheskim uravneniem dlja spektral'noj plotnosti jenergii kolebanij plazmy. Naibol'shij masshtab raskachivaemyh pul'sacij opredeljaetsja usloviem malosti ih zatuhanija v oblasti torcov lovushki, gde fazovaja skorost' stanovitsja sravnimoj so srednej teplovoj skorost'ju jelektronov. Pojetomu vremja vyhoda v konus poter' za schet rassejanija ionov v osnovnom na krupnomasshtabnyh pul'sacijah sushhestvenno zavisit ot dliny ustanovki ({Omega}{sub H}{tau}-10{sup 5}R{sub H}/L; R{sub H} - larmorovskij radius teplovyh ionov). Vremja vyhoda iz lovushki cherez mag-- nitnye probki opredeljaetsja maksimal'nym iz vremen ({tau}, T Almost-Equal-To L/v{sub i}; v{sub i} -teplovaja skorost' iona). Poluchennye rezul'taty primenjajutsja k ocenke vozmozhnosti osushhestvlenija reguliruemogo termojadernogo sinteza v lovushke s magnitnymi probkami. Pri ocenke ispol'zovalis' znachenija optimal'nyh parametrov lovushki, najdennyh Postom iz sravnenija poter' jenergii iz spokojnoj plazmy v probkotrone, poter' vo vspomogatel'nyh sistemah s summarnym vyhodom jenergii v termojadernoj reakcii. Pokazano, chto vremja zhizni plazmy v takoj lovushke opredeljaetsja vremenem proleta teplovyh ionov mezhdu magnitnymi probkami i nedostatochno dlja osushhestvlenija jekonomicheski vygodnogo termojadernogo sinteza. (author)

  11. Reactions of Hot Hydrogen Atoms with Ethylene. The Role of Excited Ethyl Radicals as Intermediate Products; Reactions des Atomes Chauds d'Hydrogene avec l'Ethylene. Le Role des Radicaux Ethyle Excites Comme Produits Intermediaires; Reaktsiya goryachikh atomov vodoroda s ehtilenom. Rol' vozbuzhdennykh ehtil'nykh radikalov kak promezhutochnykh produktov; Reacciones de Atomos Calientes de Hidrogeno con Etileno Papel de los Radicales Etilicos Excitados como Productos Intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Shvedchikov, A. P. [Institut Himicheskoj Fiziki AN SSSR, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-04-15

    .datchikov (katarometr) i protochnyj schetchik Gejgera). Pokazano, chto spektr mechenyh i nemechenyh produktov v obluchaemom jetilene znachitel'no otlichaetsja. Osnovnymi nemechenymi produktami javljajutsja C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 4}H{sub 10} i uglevodorody >C{sub 4}; vyhod H{sub 2} mal. Osnovnymi nemechenymi produktami javljajutsja HT, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}T i. C{sub 4}H{sub 9}T, vyhod C{sub 2}H5T i osobenno C{sub 2}HT neznachitelen. Vyhody mechenyh soedinenij zavisjat ot vvedenija dobavok v jetilen (ammiak, gelij, jod), vida litijsoderzhashhego soedinenija, struktury misheni. Ponizhenie temperatury s 50 do -78 Degree-Sign malo vlijaet na raspredelenie mechenyh produktov, odnako, pri perehode k tverdomu jetilenu (-196 Degree-Sign C) nabljudaetsja fazovyj jeffekt: umen'shaetsja vyhod HT i C{sub 4}H{sub 9}T i uvelichivaetsja aktivnost' materinskogo soedinenija C{sub 2}H{sub 3}T. Pokazano, chto pri radiolize C{sub 9}H{sub 4} i ego smesej s ammiakom otnoshenie C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/C{sub 4}H{sub 10} ravno 1,0 {+-} 0,3, chto ne soglasuetsja s kanonicheskoj shemoj dlja reakcij disproporcionirovanija i rekombinacii teplovyh jetil'nyh radikalov (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/C{sub 4}H{sub 10} = 0,2 {+-} 0,1). Na osnovanii dannyh po vlijaniju dobavok gelija i temperatury na vyhod C{sub 2}H{sub 6} i C{sub 4} Nju pri radiolize C{sub 2}H{sub 4} i pri fotolize smesej C{sub 2}H{sub 4} -HJ sformulirovano predstavlenie ob obrazovanii vozbuzhdennyh jetil'nyh radikalov C{sub 2}H{sub 5}*. Poslednie poluchajutsja za schet prisoedinenija gorjachih atomov vodoroda (generiruemyh radioliticheski ili fotoliticheski) k jetilenu: H* + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}*. Pokazano, chto C{sub 2}H{sub 5}*-radikal legko vstupaet v reakciju otryva C{sub 2}H*{sub 5} + RH = C{sub 2}H{sub 6} + R, chto ob'jasnjaet ''izbytochnoe'' kolichestvo jetana, obrazujushhegosja pri radiolize jetilena. (author)