WorldWideScience

Sample records for specific structural features

  1. Specific features of the motion of neutrons in a medium with a helical magnetic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraerman, A. A.; Udalov, O. G.

    2007-01-01

    The specific features of the motion of neutrons in a noncoplanar magnetic field are considered by an example of the magnetization distribution in the form of a conical helix. The reflection coefficients of neutrons from holmium crystals are calculated. It is shown that, for a noncoplanar distribution of a magnetic field in a crystal, the reflection coefficient of neutrons with spin flip exhibits an additional feature

  2. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  3. Specific features of the flow structure in a reactive type turbine stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikov, V. A.; Semakina, E. Yu.

    2017-04-01

    The results of experimental studies of the gas dynamics for a reactive type turbine stage are presented. The objective of the studies is the measurement of the 3D flow fields in reference cross sections, experimental determination of the stage characteristics, and analysis of the flow structure for detecting the sources of kinetic energy losses. The integral characteristics of the studied stage are obtained by averaging the results of traversing the 3D flow over the area of the reference cross sections before and behind the stage. The averaging is performed using the conservation equations for mass, total energy flux, angular momentum with respect to the axis z of the turbine, entropy flow, and the radial projection of the momentum flux equation. The flow parameter distributions along the channel height behind the stage are obtained in the same way. More thorough analysis of the flow structure is performed after interpolation of the experimentally measured point parameter values and 3D flow velocities behind the stage. The obtained continuous velocity distributions in the absolute and relative coordinate systems are presented in the form of vector fields. The coordinates of the centers and the vectors of secondary vortices are determined using the results of point measurements of velocity vectors in the cross section behind the turbine stage and their subsequent interpolation. The approach to analysis of experimental data on aerodynamics of the turbine stage applied in this study allows one to find the detailed space structure of the working medium flow, including secondary coherent vortices at the root and peripheral regions of the air-gas part of the stage. The measured 3D flow parameter fields and their interpolation, on the one hand, point to possible sources of increased power losses, and, on the other hand, may serve as the basis for detailed testing of CFD models of the flow using both integral and local characteristics. The comparison of the numerical and

  4. Specific features of waveguide recombination in laser structures with asymmetric barrier layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polubavkina, Yu. S., E-mail: polubavkina@mail.ru; Zubov, F. I.; Moiseev, E. I.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.; Maximov, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation); Semenova, E. S.; Yvind, K. [Technical University of Denmark, DTU Fotonik (Denmark); Asryan, L. V. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (United States); Zhukov, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg National Research Academic University (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emission caused by recombination appearing at a high injection level (up to 30 kA/cm{sup 2}) in the waveguide layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure with GaInP and AlGaInAs asymmetric barrier layers is studied by means of near-field scanning optical microscopy. It is found that the waveguide luminescence in such a laser, which is on the whole less intense as compared to that observed in a similar laser without asymmetric barriers, is non-uniformly distributed in the waveguide, so that the distribution maximum is shifted closer to the p-type cladding layer. This can be attributed to the ability of the GaInP barrier adjoining the quantum well on the side of the n-type cladding layer to suppress the hole transport.

  5. Specific features of waveguide recombination in laser structures with asymmetric barrier layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polubavkina, Yu; Zubov, F. I.; Moiseev, E.

    2017-01-01

    microscopy. It is found that the waveguide luminescence in such a laser, which is on the whole less intense as compared to that observed in a similar laser without asymmetric barriers, is non-uniformly distributed in the waveguide, so that the distribution maximum is shifted closer to the p-type cladding......The spatial distribution of the intensity of the emission caused by recombination appearing at a high injection level (up to 30 kA/cm2) in the waveguide layer of a GaAs/AlGaAs laser structure with GaInP and AlGaInAs asymmetric barrier layers is studied by means of near-field scanning optical...... layer. This can be attributed to the ability of the GaInP barrier adjoining the quantum well on the side of the n-type cladding layer to suppress the hole transport....

  6. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  7. Platyhelminth Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) proteins: revealing structural diversity, class-specific features and biological associations across the phylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHALMERS, IAIN W.; HOFFMANN, KARL F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During platyhelminth infection, a cocktail of proteins is released by the parasite to aid invasion, initiate feeding, facilitate adaptation and mediate modulation of the host immune response. Included amongst these proteins is the Venom Allergen-Like (VAL) family, part of the larger sperm coating protein/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 (SCP/TAPS) superfamily. To explore the significance of this protein family during Platyhelminthes development and host interactions, we systematically summarize all published proteomic, genomic and immunological investigations of the VAL protein family to date. By conducting new genomic and transcriptomic interrogations to identify over 200 VAL proteins (228) from species in all 4 traditional taxonomic classes (Trematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Turbellaria), we further expand our knowledge related to platyhelminth VAL diversity across the phylum. Subsequent phylogenetic and tertiary structural analyses reveal several class-specific VAL features, which likely indicate a range of roles mediated by this protein family. Our comprehensive analysis of platyhelminth VALs represents a unifying synopsis for understanding diversity within this protein family and a firm context in which to initiate future functional characterization of these enigmatic members. PMID:22717097

  8. Features and Recursive Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniya Nasukawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the cross-linguistic tendency that weak vowels are realized with a central quality such as ə, ɨ, or ɯ, this paper attempts to account for this choice by proposing that the nucleus itself is one of the three monovalent vowel elements |A|, |I| and |U| which function as the building blocks of melodic structure. I claim that individual languages make a parametric choice to determine which of the three elements functions as the head of a nuclear expression. In addition, I show that elements can be freely concatenated to create melodic compounds. The resulting phonetic value of an element compound is determined by the specific elements it contains and by the head-dependency relations between those elements. This concatenation-based recursive mechanism of melodic structure can also be extended to levels above the segment, thus ultimately eliminating the need for syllabic constituents. This approach reinterprets the notion of minimalism in phonology by opposing the string-based flat structure.

  9. Cascade detection for the extraction of localized sequence features; specificity results for HIV-1 protease and structure-function results for the Schellman loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Nicholas E

    2011-12-15

    The extraction of the set of features most relevant to function from classified biological sequence sets is still a challenging problem. A central issue is the determination of expected counts for higher order features so that artifact features may be screened. Cascade detection (CD), a new algorithm for the extraction of localized features from sequence sets, is introduced. CD is a natural extension of the proportional modeling techniques used in contingency table analysis into the domain of feature detection. The algorithm is successfully tested on synthetic data and then applied to feature detection problems from two different domains to demonstrate its broad utility. An analysis of HIV-1 protease specificity reveals patterns of strong first-order features that group hydrophobic residues by side chain geometry and exhibit substantial symmetry about the cleavage site. Higher order results suggest that favorable cooperativity is weak by comparison and broadly distributed, but indicate possible synergies between negative charge and hydrophobicity in the substrate. Structure-function results for the Schellman loop, a helix-capping motif in proteins, contain strong first-order features and also show statistically significant cooperativities that provide new insights into the design of the motif. These include a new 'hydrophobic staple' and multiple amphipathic and electrostatic pair features. CD should prove useful not only for sequence analysis, but also for the detection of multifactor synergies in cross-classified data from clinical studies or other sources. Windows XP/7 application and data files available at: https://sites.google.com/site/cascadedetect/home. nacnewell@comcast.net Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online.

  10. Specific features of the domain structure of (Gd1-xNdx)2(MoO4)3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryzgalov, A.N.; Slepchenko, B.M.; Virachev, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Formation of the domain structures by sample transfer into thermodynamically metastable state using a simultaneous effect of electric field and temperature change is investigated in Gd 1.7 Nd 0.3 (MoO 4 ) 3 monocrystals (GMO). Some new results obtained under investigations into GMO domain structure using neodymium by means of hydrothermal etching and polarization-optical method are presented

  11. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION STRUCTURE FEATURES AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FURNACE AND HEAT POWER EQUIPMENT ELEMENTS AFTER LONG-TERM OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Panteleenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on structure and mechanical properties of technological equipment elements made of heat-resistant steels. A scale of chrome and molybdenum steel microstructure degradation based on evaluation of  coagulated carbide size and material mechanical properties (a point from 0-operation without time limits, up to 4-operation prohibition has been proposed in the paper. It has been  established that an analysis of  steel microstructure directly on equipment elements by means of a portable microscope is an efficient express method for evaluation of equipment condition and structures due to control of material structure degradation rate of a diagnosed object.

  12. Specific features and techneiueq improving the reinforced s forenclosing structures for NPP with the RBMK-type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillov, A.P.; Konviz, V.S.; Semenov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made on a new technique of construction of NPP enclosing structures (walls and ceilings) by the assembled- monolith method. Its advantages over the monolith method are presented. The design philosophy of the assembled-monolith constructions is described. It is shown on the basis of the experience of Kursk and Chernobylsk NPP construction that during the introduction of assembled-monolith constructions of massive walls and ceilings the speed of reactor blocks construction increased practically twice

  13. Specific Features of Structural-Phase State and Properties of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel at Elevated Irradiation Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kuleshova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers influence of elevated irradiation temperature on structure and properties of 15Kh2NMFAA reactor pressure vessel (RPV steel. The steel is investigated after accelerated irradiation at 300°C (operating temperature of VVER-1000-type RPV and 400°C supposed to be the operating temperature of advanced RPVs. Irradiation at 300°C leads to formation of radiation-induced precipitates and radiation defects-dislocation loops, while no carbide phase transformation is observed. Irradiation at a higher temperature (400°C neither causes formation of radiation-induced precipitates nor provides formation of dislocation loops, but it does increase the number density of the main initial hardening phase—of the carbonitrides. Increase of phosphorus concentration in grain boundaries is more pronounced for irradiation at 400°C as compared to irradiation at 300°C due to influence of thermally enhanced diffusion at a higher temperature. The structural-phase changes determine the changes of mechanical properties: at both irradiation temperatures irradiation embrittlement is mainly due to the hardening mechanism with some contribution of the nonhardening one for irradiation at 400°C. Lack of formation of radiation-induced precipitates at T = 400°C provides a small ΔTK shift (17°C. The obtained results demonstrate that the investigated 15Kh2NMFAA steel may be a promising material for advanced reactors with an elevated operating temperature.

  14. Technical specification optimization program - engineered safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Jansen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Westinghouse Technical Specification Program (TOP) was designed to evaluate on a quantitative basis revisions to Nuclear Power Plant Technical Specifications. The revisions are directed at simplifying plant operation, and reducing unnecessary transients, shutdowns, and manpower requirements. In conjunction with the Westinghouse Owners Group, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a methodology to justify Technical Specification revisions; particularly revisions related to testing and maintenance requirements on plant operation for instrumentation systems. The methodology was originally developed and applied to the reactor trip features of the reactor protection system (RPS). The current study further refined the methodology and applied it to the engineered safety features of the RPS

  15. Crystal Structure of Human Dual-Specificity Tyrosine-Regulated Kinase 3 Reveals New Structural Features and Insights into its Auto-phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kuglae; Cha, Jeong Seok; Cho, Yong-Soon; Kim, Hoyoung; Chang, Nienping; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cho, Hyun-Soo

    2018-04-07

    Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) auto-phosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in their activation loop and phosphorylate their substrate on serine and threonine residues. The auto-phosphorylation occurs intramolecularly and is a one-off event. DYRK3 is selectively expressed at a high level in hematopoietic cells and attenuates erythroblast development, leading to anemia. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the mature form of human DYRK3 in complex with harmine, an ATP competitive inhibitor. The crystal structure revealed a phosphorylation site, residue S350, whose phosphorylation increases the stability of DYRK3 and enhances its kinase activity. In addition, our structural and biochemical assays suggest that the N-terminal auto-phosphorylation accessory domain stabilizes the DYRK3 protein, followed by auto-phosphorylation of the tyrosine of the activation loop, which is important for kinase activity. Finally, our docking analysis provides information for the design of novel and potent therapeutics to treat anemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of specific features of the electronic structure in electrical resistivity of band ferromagnets Co2Fe Z ( Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2017-05-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the band ferromagnets Co2FeZ (where Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, and Sb are s- and p-elements of Mendeleev's Periodic Table) has been investigated in the temperature range 4.2 K < T < 1100 K. It has been shown that the dependences ρ( T) of these alloys in a magnetically ordered state at temperatures T < T C are predominantly determined by the specific features of the electronic spectrum in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The processes of charge carrier scattering affect the behavior of the electrical resistivity ρ( T) only in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T C and above, as well as in the low-temperature range (at T ≪ T C).

  17. Structure-specific endonucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Fragile sites are conserved loci predisposed to form breaks in metaphase chromosomes. The inherent instability of these loci is associated with chromosomal rearrangements in cancers and is a feature of cells from patients with chromosomal instability syndromes. One class of fragile sites, the com...

  18. Structural features of lignohumic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František; Šestauberová, Martina; Hrabal, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1093, August (2015), s. 179-185 ISSN 0022-2860 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : C-13 NMR * FTIR * humic acids * lignohumate * lignosulfonate * structure Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2015

  19. Specific Features in Accessing European Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alexandra CĂLDĂRARU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: European Funds are the European Union financial instruments in order to assist Member States in reducing the existing disparities between regions and between countries, and for harmonization with the economic, social and cultural European standards. This paper intends to present some general characteristics applicable to the most important financing programs, and also to outline certain features of the main financing lines, referring to investment projects development and their implementation, based on the Applicant Guides analysis. The paper treats institutional, legal, financial, technical, social and environmental aspects and outlines proposals and recommendations to achieve a better EU funds absorption and also a higher success rate of initiated projects. In knowledge-based economy circumstances, training consultancy specialists, that represent the intellectual capital in this area, will ensure the professional management of the developing process, submission and ongoing competitive projects, and will help enhance the funds absorption at national level. Thus, the European support for investments in ensuring sustainable growth will help overcoming the difficulties encountered by our country, and will sustain the Romanian economy recovery.

  20. Genomic features of human limb specific enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Amina, Bibi; Anwar, Saneela; Minhas, Rashid; Parveen, Nazia; Nawaz, Uzma; Azam, Syed Sikandar; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2016-10-01

    To elucidate important cellular and molecular interactions that regulate patterning and skeletal development, vertebrate limbs served as a model organ. A growing body of evidence from detailed studies on a subset of limb regulators like the HOXD cluster or SHH, reveals the importance of enhancers in limb related developmental and disease processes. Exploiting the recent genome-wide availability of functionally confirmed enhancer dataset, this study establishes regulatory interactions for dozens of human limb developmental genes. From these data, it appears that the long-range regulatory interactions are fairly common during limb development. This observation highlights the significance of chromosomal breaks/translocations in human limb deformities. Transcriptional factor (TF) analysis predicts that the differentiation of early nascent limb-bud into future territories entail distinct TF interaction networks. Conclusively, an important motivation for annotating the human limb specific regulatory networks is to pave way for the systematic exploration of their role in disease and evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Specific features of Brodie’s tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Denchik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brodie’s tumors are comparatively rare in oncological care and difficult-to-diagnose masses with an unpredictable course, predilection for recurrences, and a high probability of malignization. These tumors have a two-component structure with the predominant develop- ment of a connective tissue component that is absolute in sarcomas and, in a group of fibroepithelial tumors, combines with the parallel development of epithelial tissue.The etiology of Brodie’s tumor is unclear, so is its pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have shown that the carriers of germ line missence-mutation R1699W in the BRCA1 gene have an increased risk of developing malignant Brodie’s tumor, but allele losses at the D22S264 locus of the TP5 gene determine the progression of the disease. Deletion of the short-arm of chromosome 1 (1p and allelic imbalance are associated with the more aggressive course and recurrences of Brodie’s tumor.A complex clinicomorphological and molecular genetic study will help answer some questions concerning the diagnosis and treatment of Brodie’s tumors.

  2. Oily skin: specific features in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau-Richard, S; Zhu, W; Li, Y H; Zhang, Y Z; Yang, F Z; Yang, Z L; Lian, S; Qian, B Y; Ran, Y P; Bouillon, C; Chen, H D; de Lacharrière, O

    2007-02-01

    Inconsistent data are available on the various types of skin, their prevalence and characterization, particularly regarding Asian skins. This observation prompted to conduct a large study in China to assess the prevalence of oily skin and identify the specific factors related to that type of skin. The multicentre trial involved 1787 Chinese women in Shenyang, Harbin, Beijing, Chengdu and Suzhou, between 18 and 65 years of age. Data on history of acne, the presence of environmental factors and a detailed self-evaluation of the skin were collected using a standardized questionnaire. A clinical evaluation of facial skin oiliness was carried-out by a dermatologist at each centre. Sebum secretion was measured on the forehead using Sebumeter SM810. Statistical analysis (multiple correspondence analysis) of typology was conducted based on self-evaluation data. According to self-evaluation data, oily skin prevalence in the overall Chinese population of the study was 25.6%. Self-evaluation results were quite consistent with sebum measurements and with clinical assessment by dermatologist. Parameters associated with oily skin were (i) shiny skin and a past history of acne, (ii) irregular menstruation, and (iii) highly reactive or sensitive skin. Moreover, a clear and significant link was noted between oily skin and the ingestion of spicy or sweet food. Lastly, sebum levels were found to be twice as high in Beijing as in the other cities and were correlated to higher oily skin prevalence. The study demonstrated the capacity of women for proper self-evaluation of their skin type. It also suggests a potential link between nutritional factors such as spicy and/or sweet diets and oily skin as well as between sensitive and oily skin in this population.

  3. Specific features of band structure and optical anisotropy of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} quaternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brik, M.G., E-mail: brik@fi.tartu.ee [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Institute of Physics, Jan Dlugosz University, Armii Krajowej 13/15, PL-42200 Czestochowa (Poland); Parasyuk, O.V. [Department of Chemistry, Eastern European National University, Voli 13, Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Myronchuk, G.L. [Department of Physics, Eastern European National University, Voli 13, Lutsk 43025 (Ukraine); Kityk, I.V. [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University of Czestochowa, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Complex theoretical and experimental studies of the band structure and optical functions of a new Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} quaternary crystal are reported. The benchmark band structure calculations were performed using the first-principles methods. As a result, the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} were calculated in the general gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). The calculated dielectric function and optical absorption spectra exhibit some anisotropic behavior. Detailed analysis of the band energy dispersion and effective space charge density helped in establishing the origin of the band structure anisotropy. All calculated properties are compared with the experimental data. An additional comparison with a similar crystal of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} allowed to reveal the role played by the anions (S or Se) in formation of the optical properties of these two materials. - Highlights: • The structural, electronic, optical properties of Cu{sub 2}CdGeSe{sub 4} were calculated. • Pressure effects on these properties were modeled. • Comparison with a similar compound of Cu{sub 2}CdGeS{sub 4} was performed.

  4. Specific features of the structure and weight loss of aliovalent-substituted oxides based on lanthanum gallate (La,Sr)(Ga,Fe,Mg)O3-y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, S. A.; Kaleva, G. M.; Aleksandrovskii, V. V.; Politova, E. D.; Eriksson, S.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the (La 0.9 Sr 0.1 )(Ga 0.56 Fe 0.24 Mg 0.20 )O 2.85+y oxide is investigated using neutron powder diffraction at temperatures of 10, 295, and 1000 K. The results of the structure refinement are in good agreement with the dilatometric and thermogravimetric data and confirm the inference that the valence state of iron cations is higher than 3+ and that the lattice undergoes an additional expansion due to the oxygen loss at temperatures above 870 K

  5. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.

  6. Feature Extraction for Structural Dynamics Model Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nishio, Mayuko [Yokohama University; Hemez, Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stull, Chris [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Chonnam Univesity; Cornwell, Phil [Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology; Figueiredo, Eloi [Universidade Lusófona; Luscher, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worden, Keith [University of Sheffield

    2016-01-13

    As structural dynamics becomes increasingly non-modal, stochastic and nonlinear, finite element model-updating technology must adopt the broader notions of model validation and uncertainty quantification. For example, particular re-sampling procedures must be implemented to propagate uncertainty through a forward calculation, and non-modal features must be defined to analyze nonlinear data sets. The latter topic is the focus of this report, but first, some more general comments regarding the concept of model validation will be discussed.

  7. Ethnocultural features of a linguistic persona: the specifics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnocultural features of a linguistic persona: the specifics of the representation of universal emotional concepts. ... The paper pays special attention to the ethnocultural content of emotional and lexical units, which indicate the ethnic identity of a linguistic persona and reflect typical, historically developed signs of the ethnic ...

  8. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  9. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy with which a recent elastic surface registration algorithm deforms the complex geometry of a skull is examined. This algorithm is then coupled to a line based algorithm as is frequently used in patient specific feature registration...

  10. Structural health monitoring feature design by genetic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, Dustin Y; Todd, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems provide real-time damage and performance information for civil, aerospace, and other high-capital or life-safety critical structures. Conventional data processing involves pre-processing and extraction of low-dimensional features from in situ time series measurements. The features are then input to a statistical pattern recognition algorithm to perform the relevant classification or regression task necessary to facilitate decisions by the SHM system. Traditional design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms can be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring extensive system knowledge and domain expertise. Genetic programming, a heuristic program search method from evolutionary computation, was recently adapted by the authors to perform automated, data-driven design of signal processing and feature extraction algorithms for statistical pattern recognition applications. The proposed method, called Autofead, is particularly suitable to handle the challenges inherent in algorithm design for SHM problems where the manifestation of damage in structural response measurements is often unclear or unknown. Autofead mines a training database of response measurements to discover information-rich features specific to the problem at hand. This study provides experimental validation on three SHM applications including ultrasonic damage detection, bearing damage classification for rotating machinery, and vibration-based structural health monitoring. Performance comparisons with common feature choices for each problem area are provided demonstrating the versatility of Autofead to produce significant algorithm improvements on a wide range of problems. (paper)

  11. VVER-specific features regarding core degradation - Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Trambauer, K.; Duspiva, J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to compare VVER reactors to pressurised water reactors (PWRs) of Western design from the point of view of core degradation phenomena using the terminology which was applied to the systematisation of severe accident phenomena in earlier CSNI reports. In the following the acronym 'PWR' is used for a PWR of Western design. The basic design features are described and the most important parameters are summarised in order to identify the differences between the two reactor types. In some specific cases the comparison shows more similarities with boiling water reactors (BWRs) than with PWRs. The known VVER experimental support is also summarised. RBMKs are not included in this report, as this reactor type is not operated in OECD countries, furthermore its design is completely different from those of VVERs and PWRs. The scope of this report is limited to in-vessel severe fuel damage phenomena. Neither thermal hydraulic processes involving no core degradation, nor containment phenomena, are discussed in detail. The VVER (water-cooled water-moderated power reactor) is a pressurised light water reactor of Soviet design. It operates on the same principles as a Western PWR reactor and uses similar technological systems. The primary coolant is pressurised water, which heats up in the reactor core and steam is produced on the secondary side of steam generators. The comparison of basic geometrical and technological parameters pointed out some differences between a PWR and a VVER, but it should be noted that differences exist even between two Western PWRs of different design. The VVER reactors are special types of PWRs, the most important design features of which are the horizontal steam generators and the hexagonal core structure. Similarity between PWR and VVER reactors was found in the comparison of dominant accidents sequences leading to core melt. The accident progression sequence consists of the same steps for VVERs and PWRs. The larger water

  12. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  13. Understanding Structural Features of Microbial Lipases–-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Geraldine Sandana Mala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural elucidations of microbial lipases have been of prime interest since the 1980s. Knowledge of structural features plays an important role in designing and engineering lipases for specific purposes. Significant structural data have been presented for few microbial lipases, while, there is still a structure-deficit, that is, most lipase structures are yet to be resolved. A search for ‘lipase structure’ in the RCSB Protein Data Bank ( http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ returns only 93 hits (as of September 2007 and, the NCBI database ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov reports 89 lipase structures as compared to 14719 core nucleotide records. It is therefore worthwhile to consider investigations on the structural analysis of microbial lipases. This review is intended to provide a collection of resources on the instrumental, chemical and bioinformatics approaches for structure analyses. X-ray crystallography is a versatile tool for the structural biochemists and is been exploited till today. The chemical methods of recent interests include molecular modeling and combinatorial designs. Bioinformatics has surged striking interests in protein structural analysis with the advent of innumerable tools. Furthermore, a literature platform of the structural elucidations so far investigated has been presented with detailed descriptions as applicable to microbial lipases. A case study of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL has also been discussed which highlights important structural features also common to most lipases. A general profile of lipase has been vividly described with an overview of lipase research reviewed in the past.

  14. Organizational structure features supporting knowledge management processes

    OpenAIRE

    Claver-Cortés, Enrique; Zaragoza Sáez, Patrocinio del Carmen; Pertusa-Ortega, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The idea that knowledge management can be a potential source of competitive advantage has gained strength in the last few years. However, a number of business actions are needed to generate an appropriate environment and infrastructure for knowledge creation, transfer and application. Among these actions there stands out the design of an organizational structure, the link of which with knowledge management is the main concern here. More specifically, the present paper has as its aim...

  15. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  16. Structural features that optimize high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Argonne Nat. Lab., IL; Hinks, D.G.; Argonne Nat. Lab., IL; Chmaissem, O.; Argonne Nat. Lab., IL; Argyriou, D.N.; Argonne Nat. Lab., IL; Mitchell, J.F.; Argonne Nat. Lab., IL; Dabrowski, B.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of a large number of compounds have provided a consistent picture of what structural features give rise to the highest T c 's in copper-oxide superconductors. For example, various defects can be introduced into the blocking layer to provide the optimum carrier concentration, but defects that form in or adjacent to the CuO 2 layers will lower T c and eventually destroy superconductivity. After these requirements are satisfied, the highest T c 's are observed for compounds (such as the HgBa 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n+2+x family) that have flat and square CuO 2 planes and long apical Cu-O bonds. This conclusion is confirmed by the study of materials in which the flatness of the CuO 2 plane can be varied in a systematic way. In more recent work, attention has focused on how the structure can be modified, for example, by chemical substitution, to improve flux pinning properties. Two strategies are being investigated: (1) Increasing the coupling of pancake vortices to form vortex lines by shortening or ''metallizing'' the blocking layer; and (2) the formation of defects that pin flux. (orig.)

  17. Linking structural features of protein complexes and biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, Gopichandran; Breen, Edmond J; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2015-09-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) establishes the central basis for complex cellular networks in a biological cell. Association of proteins with other proteins occurs at varying affinities, yet with a high degree of specificity. PPIs lead to diverse functionality such as catalysis, regulation, signaling, immunity, and inhibition, playing a crucial role in functional genomics. The molecular principle of such interactions is often elusive in nature. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of known protein complexes from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is essential for the characterization of structural interface features to determine structure-function relationship. Thus, we analyzed a nonredundant dataset of 278 heterodimer protein complexes, categorized into major functional classes, for distinguishing features. Interestingly, our analysis has identified five key features (interface area, interface polar residue abundance, hydrogen bonds, solvation free energy gain from interface formation, and binding energy) that are discriminatory among the functional classes using Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Significant correlations between these PPI interface features amongst functional categories are also documented. Salt bridges correlate with interface area in regulator-inhibitors (r = 0.75). These representative features have implications for the prediction of potential function of novel protein complexes. The results provide molecular insights for better understanding of PPIs and their relation to biological functions. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  18. [The specific microbiological and clinical features of acute otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, A V; Levina, Yu V; Guseva, A L; Elchueva, Z G; Efimova, S P; Gordienko, M V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the specific features of the clinical course of acute otitis media as well as the peculiarities of the vestibular function and the microbial paysage associated with this pathological condition under the present-day conditions. The study included 135 patients presenting with acute otitis media (AOM) at different stages of the disease. The discharge obtained from the tympanic cavity of all the patients was examined with the use of polymerase chain reaction in real time, audiological and vestibulogical methods. The distinctive features of acute otitis medium associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were found to be the intense pain syndrome with the symptoms of intoxication, well apparent inflammatory changes in the tympanic membrane as revealed by otoscopy, the increased frequency of sensorineural impairment of hearing, and the characteristic type B tympanometric curve. Typical of AOM associated with Haemophilus influenza infection are the mild pain syndrome, weak changes in the tympanic membrane as revealed by otoscopy, conductive hearing loss, and the type C tympanometric curve.

  19. Specific features of goal setting in road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, V. I.; Danilov, O. F.; Petrov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic safety (RTS) management is inherently a branch of cybernetics and therefore requires clear formalization of the task. The paper aims at identification of the specific features of goal setting in RTS management under the system approach. The paper presents the results of cybernetic modeling of the cause-to-effect mechanism of a road traffic accident (RTA); in here, the mechanism itself is viewed as a complex system. A designed management goal function is focused on minimizing the difficulty in achieving the target goal. Optimization of the target goal has been performed using the Lagrange principle. The created working algorithms have passed the soft testing. The key role of the obtained solution in the tactical and strategic RTS management is considered. The dynamics of the management effectiveness indicator has been analyzed based on the ten-year statistics for Russia.

  20. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kondo

    Full Text Available The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location, and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape can be flexibly added to object representations.

  1. Feature-specific encoding flexibility in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Aki; Saiki, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined selective encoding in visual working memory by systematically investigating interference from task-irrelevant features. The stimuli were objects defined by three features (color, shape, and location), and during a delay period, any of the features could switch between two objects. Additionally, single- and whole-probe trials were randomized within experimental blocks to investigate effects of memory retrieval. A series of relevant-feature switch detection tasks, where one feature was task-irrelevant, showed that interference from the task-irrelevant feature was only observed in the color-shape task, suggesting that color and shape information could be successfully filtered out, but location information could not, even when location was a task-irrelevant feature. Therefore, although location information is added to object representations independent of task demands in a relatively automatic manner, other features (e.g., color, shape) can be flexibly added to object representations.

  2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ANESTHESIA IN PATIENTS WITH MYASTHENIA GRAVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasojevic, Ivana; Hajdukovic, Danica; Komarcevic, Milena; Petrovic, Stanislava; Jovanovic, Jelena; Ciric, Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease caused by antibodies leading to the destruction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the neuromuscular junction. It is characterized by muscle weakness that gets aggravated with physical activity and improves at rest. Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America made the clinical classification of Myasthenia gravis which is still in use today. "Tensilon test" is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of Myasthenia gravis. In addition to this test repeated muscular stimulation can be used as well as the analysis of specific autoantibodies. Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis. In conservative treatment of Mysthenia gravis anticholinesterases, immunosuppressants and plasmapheresis can be used. If conservative treatment does not lead to the desired remission, surgical treatment is indicated. The most accepted indication for thymectomy is the presence of thymoma with generalized form of Myasthenia gravis in adults. How to Distinguish Myasthenic From Cholinergic Crisis.'The following is important to make a difference between these two crises: knowledge of the events that preceded the crisis, the size of pupils as well as the presence of muscarinic signs and tensilon test. Specific Features of Anesthesia in Patients with Myasthienia Gravis. Mechanism of the disease development is the reason'for the increased sensitivity or resistance of these patients to certain types of drugs used in anesthesia. Protocol of Perioperative Anesthesia in Patients with Myasthenia Gravis. Based on 35 years of experience in the surgical treatment of patients with Myasthenia gravis anesthesiologists at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute for Pulmonary Diseases of Vojvodina. made the protocol of anesthesia and perioperative treatment for these patients. Anesthesiologists may have to deal with a patient with myasthenia gravis in different types of surgical interventions. The protocol for anesthesia and perioperative management of these patients

  3. SPECIFIC CONSTITUTIONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN INFECTED WITH TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Yarovaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to define specific constitutional features of the children infected with tuberculosis 222 children in the age from 1 to 14 years old have been examined: 106 children with active tuberculosis; 54 children with remaining post-tuberculosis changes; 62 children infected with tuberculous mycobacteria. The following types of diatheses were identified: lymphohypoplastic, allergic, neuroarthritic, exudative-catarrhal. It has been found out that among those with active tuberculosis the children suffering from lymphohypoplastic and neuroarthritic diatheses prevail (17.0 ± 3.7%, and allergic diathesis is less common (10.4 ± 3.0% cases. Children with lymphohypoplastic diathesis have a complicated course of tuberculosis (27.8 ± 10.6% and more intensive intoxication syndrome (55.6 ± 11.7%. The frequency of allergic diathesis is higher in the children with remaining post-tuberculosis changes (29.6 ± 6.2% and those infected with tuberculosis (33.8 ± 6.1% compared to children with active tuberculosis (10.4 ± 3.0%.

  4. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  5. Hybrid Electric Energy Storages: Their Specific Features and Application (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popel', O. S.; Tarasenko, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents a review of various aspects related to development and practical use of hybrid electric energy storages (i.e., those uniting different energy storage technologies and devices in an integrated system) in transport and conventional and renewable power engineering applications. Such devices, which were initially developed for transport power installations, are increasingly being used by other consumers characterized by pronounced nonuniformities of their load schedule. A range of tasks solved using such energy storages is considered. It is shown that, owing to the advent of new types of energy storages and the extended spectrum of their performance characteristics, new possibilities for combining different types of energy storages and for developing hybrid systems have become available. This, in turn, opens up the possibility of making energy storages with better mass and dimension characteristics and achieving essentially lower operational costs. The possibility to secure more comfortable (base) operating modes of primary sources of energy (heat engines and renewable energy source based power installations) and to achieve a higher capacity utilization factor are unquestionable merits of hybrid energy storages. Development of optimal process circuit solutions, as well as energy conversion and control devices facilitating the fullest utilization of the properties of each individual energy storage included in the hybrid system, is among the important lines of research carried out in this field in Russia and abroad. Our review of existing developments has shown that there are no universal technical solutions in this field (the specific features of a consumer have an essential effect on the process circuit solutions and on the composition of a hybrid energy storage), a circumstance that dictates the need to extend the scope of investigations in this promising field.

  6. Structural safety features for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, J.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.; Bezler, P.; Gardner, D.; Yu, W.; Chang, T.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A survey has been carried out for various potential structural safety problems of superconducting fusion magnets. These areas include: (1) Stresses due to inhomogeneous temperature distributions in magnets where normal regions have been initiated. (2) Stress distributions and yield forces due to cracks and failed regions. (3) Superconducting magnet response due to seismic excitation. These analyses have been carried out using a variety of large capacity finite element computer codes that allow for the evaluation of stresses in elastic or elastic-plastic zones and around singularities in the magnet structure. Thus far, these analyses have been carried out on UWMAK-I type magnet systems

  7. Feature-based motion control for near-repetitive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de J.J.T.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many manufacturing processes, production steps are carried out on repetitive structures which consist of identical features placed in a repetitive pattern. In the production of these repetitive structures one or more consecutive steps are carried out on the features to create the final product.

  8. Subsurface structures of buried features in the lunar Procellarum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenrui; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-07-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission unraveled numbers of features showing strong gravity anomalies without prominent topographic signatures in the lunar Procellarum region. These features, located in different geologic units, are considered to have complex subsurface structures reflecting different evolution processes. By using the GRAIL level-1 data, we estimated the free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies in several selected regions including such intriguing features. With the three-dimensional inversion technique, we recovered subsurface density structures in these regions.

  9. Internet of Things: Structure, Features and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrovičs Vladislavs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT - a rapidly developing technology today and most likely everyday thing in the future. Numerous devices, computing machines and build-in sensors connected in a single dynamic network continuously receive and exchange information from the outer environment. Huge data clusters are collected and put to use in handmade applications that scrupulously manage and control given objectives. In this way, an interactive technical infrastructure is created, which can oversee and infiltrate any person’s vital processes. Though separately every device and technological solution in the IoT can be known for many years, each architecture is unique and provides new challenges for the network owner. This research aims to investigate IoT general structure and management aspects with the knowledge of which the authors will try to answer a trivial question whether it is possible to comprehensively control such a tremendous structure with the current level of technology.

  10. Specific features of epilepsy in children with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalmykova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of epilepsy in children and adolescents with brain tumors and to define the optimal tactics of management and antiepileptic therapy after surgical treatment. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients aged 5 months to 15 years were examined. All the patients were diagnosed as having a brain tumor found in the presence of symptomatic epilepsy. They were all followed up for 5 years postsurgery or during their lifetime (in case of death. Comprehensive examination encompassing the assessment of history data and concomitant complaints, brain magnetic resonance imaging, video-EEC monitoring, and the neurological status (the presence of cognitive impairments and eye ground changes was done in all the cases. The probability of epileptic seizures in the clinical presentation of the disease, their semiology, and frequency were studied. Results and discussion. Epileptic seizures were the major complaint in all the patients at the first visit to their doctor. The disease occurred with status epilepticus in 9% of the patients. Different types of generalized seizures were more common (53%; p≥0.05. The tumor was located above the tentorium of the cerebellum in most examinees (77% and beneath it in the others (23%; p≤0.05. The significant clinical sign of a brain tumor in the epileptic children is focal neurological symptoms (72% of the cases. MRI was performed in children who had no focal neurological symptoms in the late periods. There was cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in 51% of the patients (p≥0.05 and cognitive impairments in 33% (p<0.05. The maximum number (74% of children with psycho-speech disorders and cognitive impairments were registered in the age group of 7–15 years. Eye ground changes characteristic of intracranial hypertension were identified in 19 epileptic children; they occurred in 27 patients more than 1 year after the onset of seizures. The late (few months-to-14 years diagnosis of a brain

  11. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  12. Structural features of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.; Brown, G.; Rogoff, P.

    1987-01-01

    The Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is undergoing preliminary structural design and definitions. It will be relatively inexpensive with ignition capabilities. During the definition phase it was concluded that the TF coil should be assembled from the laminate copper-Inconel plates since copper alone cannot sustain the expected magnetic and thermal loads. An extensive test program is being initiated to investigate the various materials, and their elastic and inelastic response and to develop the constitutive equations required for the selection of design criteria and for the stress analysis of this device. Finite element analysis nonlinear material capabilities are being used to study, predict and correlate the machine behavior

  13. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of PTPN12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PTPN12 is an important tumor suppressor that plays critical roles in various physiological processes. However, the molecular basis underlying the substrate specificity of PTPN12 remains uncertain. Here, enzymological and crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify two distinct structural features that are crucial determinants of PTPN12 substrate specificity: the pY+1 site binding pocket and specific basic charged residues along its surface loops. Key structurally plastic regions and specific residues in PTPN12 enabled recognition of different HER2 phosphorylation sites and regulated specific PTPN12 functions. In addition, the structure of PTPN12 revealed a CDK2 phosphorylation site in a specific PTPN12 loop. Taken together, our results not only provide the working mechanisms of PTPN12 for desphosphorylation of its substrates but will also help in designing specific inhibitors of PTPN12.

  14. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian W Sanggaard

    Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  15. Crystal structures of barley thioredoxin h isoforms HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2 reveal features involved in protein recognition and possibly in discriminating the isoform specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2008-01-01

    segment of one HvTrxh1 molecule is positioned along a shallow hydrophobic groove at the primary nucleophile Cys40 of another HvTrxh1 molecule. The association mode can serve as a model for the target protein recognition by Trx, as it brings the Met82 C gamma atom (gamma position as a disulfide sulfur......) of the bound loop segment in the proximity of the Cys40 thiol. The interaction involves three characteristic backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like arrangement, similar to the arrangement observed in the structure of an engineered, covalently bound complex between Trx...... and a substrate protein, as reported by Maeda et al. in an earlier paper. The occurrence of an intermolecular salt bridge between Glu80 of the bound loop segment and Arg101 near the hydrophobic groove suggests that charge complementarity plays a role in the specificity of Trx. In HvTrxh2, isoleucine corresponds...

  16. Informational economy: specific features and challenges of monopolization

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsofana, T.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the informational economy, as well as some issues with which this economy is facing today. In particular, contemporary forms of monopoly, its causes and consequences, changing trends towards monopolization and monopolization of markets due to the high degree of automation and information of the socio-economic life were analyzed.

  17. Structural features that optimize high temperature superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Hinks, D.G. Chmaissem, O.; Argyriou, D.N.; Mitchell, J.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dabrowski, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-01-01

    For example, various defects can be introduced into the blocking layer to provide the optimum carrier concentration, but defects that form in or adjacent to the CuO{sub 2} layers will lower T{sub c} and eventually destroy superconductivity. After these requirements are satisfied, the highest T{sub c}`s are observed for compounds (such as the HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}CuO{sub 2n{plus}2{plus}x} family) that have flat and square CuO{sub 2} planes and long apical Cu-O bonds. This conclusion is confirmed by the study of materials in which the flatness of the CuO{sub 2} plane can be varied in a systematic way. In more recent work, attention has focused on how the structure can be modified, for example, by chemical substitution, to improve flux pinning properties. Two strategies are being investigated: (1) Increasing the coupling of pancake vortices to form vortex-lines by shortening or ``metallizing`` the blocking layer; and (2) the formation of defects that pin flux.

  18. Features of micromorphological structure of medicinal hyssop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla A. Kotyuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Micromorphological peculiarities of the structure of vegetative and generative organs of Hyssopus officinalis were analyzed. The epidermis of H. officinalis reveals diacyctic stomata and external outgrowths: glandular and covering trichomes, as well as peltate essential oil glands. Capitate and bent indumentary (covering trichomes occur on the stem, while on the leaves peltate glands, conical and bent uni- and multicellular trichomes were observed. On the calyx, in the midrib region, there are peltate glands while the ribs are densely covered with indumentary and glandular trichomes. The corolla’s adaxial surface is covered with long indumentary trichomes, with sparse peltate glands occurring on the margins. The highest density of essential oil peltate glands is found on the adaxial surface of the calyx upper lip (15.8±2.54 pcs./mm2 and on the leaf abaxial surface (13.6±2.40 pcs./mm2. Glands with the largest diameter (47.82±2.82 μm are located on the leaf adaxial surface.

  19. Structural features that optimize high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, J.D.; Hinks, D.G. Chmaissem, O.; Argyriou, D.N.; Mitchell, J.F.; Dabrowski, B.

    1996-01-01

    For example, various defects can be introduced into the blocking layer to provide the optimum carrier concentration, but defects that form in or adjacent to the CuO 2 layers will lower T c and eventually destroy superconductivity. After these requirements are satisfied, the highest T c 's are observed for compounds (such as the HgBa 2 Ca n-1 CuO 2n+2+x family) that have flat and square CuO 2 planes and long apical Cu-O bonds. This conclusion is confirmed by the study of materials in which the flatness of the CuO 2 plane can be varied in a systematic way. In more recent work, attention has focused on how the structure can be modified, for example, by chemical substitution, to improve flux pinning properties. Two strategies are being investigated: (1) Increasing the coupling of pancake vortices to form vortex-lines by shortening or ''metallizing'' the blocking layer; and (2) the formation of defects that pin flux

  20. SOME SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in the customer requirements for housing in the countries of the former USSR. Besides, new materials and construction products, such as the ones for sealed windows and balcony doors have appeared in the market. The number of vacant flats with the heating off in the winter significantly increased that may cause condensation on the surfaces of interroom partitions and the formation of mold. Meanwhile, the requirements for lower energy consumption are constantly increasing, that is especially pronouncedly manifested in the growth of normative values of thermal resistance of enclosing structures of buildings and in the increased interest in the use of secondary energy resources extracted from the air and effluent wastewater. The present article describes the method to prevent moisture condensation on the fencing of adjacent premises with different temperatures containing heating systems and the use of waste heat removed from the room exhaust air. For quick emergency switching of in-house systems of heat and gas supply to outdoor mobile sources of heat and gas it is recommended to install special taps with connectors insulated in special niches in the walls or other parts of buildings considering the possibility of placing them close to the outer mobile sources of heat and gas. In the case of heating the building with the aid of a roof gas boiler or by doorto-door heaters fueled by gas, a single pipeline (collector, equipped with an additional device for the connection of emergency gas supply is being put along the wall. In order to reduce specific heat consumption for heating of buildings it is recommended to increase the net enclosure volume of buildings and to improve their form in various ways, including by combining two or more adjacent low-rise buildings in one secondary building with increasing height and with the broadening of either or each side for modernization and reconstruction

  1. Improving protein fold recognition by extracting fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2017-12-01

    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5% and 78.8% at family, superfamily and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed consistent

  2. Specific features of early post-stroke seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Valeryevna Danilova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examining 101 patients (68 men and 33 women aged 48 to 89 years with seizures in the first 7 days of stroke. A control group comprised 97 patients who had experienced ischemic stroke without seizures. Early seizures more frequently occurred in the cardioembolic subtype of stroke as simple partial seizures. The neuroimaging features of ischemic foci were revealed and the cerebrovascular responsiveness was evaluated in different vascular basins in these patients.

  3. Williams syndrome-specific neuroanatomical profile and its associations with behavioral features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun Chieh; Brown, Timothy T; Bartsch, Hauke; Kuperman, Joshua M; Hagler, Donald J; Schork, Andrew; Searcy, Yvonne; Bellugi, Ursula; Halgren, Eric; Dale, Anders M

    2017-01-01

    Williams Syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder with unique behavioral features. Yet the rareness of WS has limited the number and type of studies that can be conducted in which inferences are made about how neuroanatomical abnormalities mediate behaviors. In this study, we extracted a WS-specific neuroanatomical profile from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements and tested its association with behavioral features of WS. Using a WS adult cohort (22 WS, 16 healthy controls), we modeled a sparse representation of a WS-specific neuroanatomical profile. The predictive performances are robust within the training cohort (10-fold cross-validation, AUC = 1.0) and accurately identify all WS individuals in an independent child WS cohort (seven WS, 59 children with diverse developmental status, AUC = 1.0). The WS-specific neuroanatomical profile includes measurements in the orbitofrontal cortex, superior parietal cortex, Sylvian fissures, and basal ganglia, and variability within these areas related to the underlying size of hemizygous deletion in patients with partial deletions. The profile intensity mediated the overall cognitive impairment as well as personality features related to hypersociability. Our results imply that the unique behaviors in WS were mediated through the constellation of abnormalities in cortical-subcortical circuitry consistent in child WS and adult WS. The robustness of the derived WS-specific neuroanatomical profile also demonstrates the potential utility of our approach in both clinical and research applications.

  4. Specific features of vocal fold paralysis in functional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, K.; Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, H.; Serafin, Z.; Nawrocka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal fold paralysis is usually recognized in laryngological examination, and detailed vocal fold function may be established based on laryngovideostroboscopy. Additional imaging should exclude any morphological causes of the paresis, which should be treated pharmacologically or surgically. The aim of this paper was to analyze the computed tomography (CT) images of the larynx in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. CT examinations of the larynx were performed in 10 patients with clinically defined unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The examinations consisted of unenhanced acquisition and enhanced 3-phased acquisition: during free breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and phonation. The analysis included the following morphologic features of the paresis.the deepened epiglottic vallecula, the deepened piriform recess, the thickened and medially positioned aryepiglottic fold, the widened laryngeal pouch, the anteriorly positioned arytenoid cartilage, the thickened vocal fold, and the filled infraglottic space in frontal CT reconstruction. CT images were compared to laryngovideostroboscopy. The most common symptoms of vocal cord paralysis in CT were the deepened epiglottic vallecula and piriform recess, the widened laryngeal pouch with the filled infraglottic space, and the thickened aryepiglottic fold. Regarding the efficiency of the paralysis determination, the three functional techniques of CT larynx imaging used did not differ significantly, and laryngovideostroboscopy demonstrated its advantage over CT. CT of the larynx is a supplementary examination in the diagnosis of vocal fold paralysis, which may enable topographic analysis of the fold dysfunction. The knowledge of morphological CT features of the paralysis may help to prevent false-positive diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. (author)

  5. Verbal component specific features of creolized internet memes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikina T. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available the given article deals with Internet memes as a specific phenomenon of internet discourse. Creolized Internet memes serve to simplify and intensify communication among people. It is facilitated by such language means as language game, erratives and abbreviation

  6. Specific features of steam turbine design at LMZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichugin, I.I.; Tsvetkov, A.M.; Simkin, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    General structural layouts of the condensation steam turbines produced by the Leningrad metalworks (LM) are considered. Currently LM produced 50 types and modifications of steam turbines with the capacity from 30 up to 1200 MW. Problems of turbine efficiency and ways of the flow section improvement are discussed

  7. [SPECIFIC CLINICAL FEATURES OF TYPE 1 AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhina, M S; Molashenko, N V; Troshina, E A; Orlova, E M; Sozaeva, L S; Eystein, S H; Breivik, S

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome is a primary autoimmune disorder affecting two or more peripheral endocrine glands and responsible for their incompetence. It is frequently combined with various organ-specific non-endocrine diseases. Patients with this pathology need life-long replacement therapy and dynamic observation by endocrinologists and other specialists to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and detect new components of the disease. We report a variant of type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of succession of actions of endocrinologists and specialists in related medical disciplines dealing with children and adult patients.

  8. Specific features of medicines safety and pharmacovigilance in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shanthi N.; Olsson, Sten; Dodoo, Alexander; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayami

    2012-01-01

    The thalidomide tragedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s served as a wakeup call and raised questions about the safety of medicinal products. The developed countries rose to the challenge putting in place systems to ensure the safety of medicines. However, this was not the case for low-resource settings because of prevailing factors inherent in them. This paper reviews some of these features and the current status of pharmacovigilance in Africa. The health systems in most of the 54 countries of Africa are essentially weak, lacking in basic infrastructure, personnel, equipment and facilities. The recent mass deployment of medicines to address diseases of public health significance in Africa poses additional challenges to the health system with notable safety concerns. Other safety issues of note include substandard and counterfeit medicines, medication errors and quality of medicinal products. The first national pharmacovigilance centres established in Africa with membership of the World Health Organization (WHO) international drug monitoring programme were in Morocco and South Africa in 1992. Of the 104 full member countries in the programme, there are now 24 African countries with a further nine countries as associate members. The pharmacovigilance systems operational in African countries are based essentially on spontaneous reporting facilitated by the introduction of the new tool Vigiflow. The individual case safety reports committed to the WHO global database (Vigibase) attest to the growth of pharmacovigilance in Africa with the number of reports rising from 2695 in 2000 to over 25,000 in 2010. There is need to engage the various identified challenges of the weak pharmacovigilance systems in the African setting and to focus efforts on how to provide resources, infrastructure and expertise. Raising the level of awareness among healthcare providers, developing training curricula for healthcare professionals, provisions for paediatric and geriatric

  9. STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF PLANT CHITINASES AND CHITIN-BINDING PROTEINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEINTEMA, JJ

    1994-01-01

    Structural features of plant chitinases and chitin-binding proteins are discussed. Many of these proteins consist of multiple domains,of which the chitin-binding hevein domain is a predominant one. X-ray and NMR structures of representatives of the major classes of these proteins are available now,

  10. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  11. Sector specific features of innovative development in the Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasyuk I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day development of the Russian Federation is mostly shaped by the innovative development capacity of the national economy. Industry forms the core of such development. The paper presents the study of the current state of the innovative development in industry being the source of the basic innovations, as well as identifies the limitation factors. The authors have found out that low innovative activity of the industrial enterprises holds back the implementation of innovations in the related sectors, for instance, trade. It has also been found out that the course of the innovative development in the field of trade is also shaped by the sector-specific factors, which should be considered to adjust the innovation policy of a trading enterprise.

  12. Specific feature of critical fields of inhomogeneous superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazman, L.I.; Dmitrenko, I.M.; Kolin'ko, A.E.; Pokhila, A.S.; Fogel', N.Ya.; Cherkasova, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies on thin vanadium films (d=250-400 A) have revealed anomaly in the temperature dependence of the upper critical field H cparallel (T), when H is parallel to the sample plane. At certain temperature T 0 the dependence H cparallel 2 (T) has a sharp kink separating two linear portions. The anomalous behaviour of H cparallel (T) of thin V films can be accounted for assuming the film separation into two parallel layers having different parameters (critical temperature T c , coherence length ξ, thickness d). At temperatures above and lower T 0 the dependence H cparallel (T) is mainly dependent on the characteristics of only one layer. The kink in the dependence H cparallel 2 (T) is due to a jump-like transition of the superconducting nucleus from one layer to the other at T c . The anomalous behaviour of the dependence H cparallel (T) is also observed in sandwiches consisting of two identical films separated with a high (about 30 A) dielectric interlayer; however, the transition from one linear portion to the other is smooth. In the case of identical films a specific crossover occurs if at T-T c the critical field H cparallel (T) coinsides with that for the layer of doubled thickness, then at lowering temperature H cparallel (T) asymptotically approaches the critical field of one layer. The calculation within the model described provides a good description for the experimental results

  13. Metallacyclopentadienes: structural features and coordination in transition metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgushin, Fedor M; Yanovsky, Aleksandr I; Antipin, Mikhail Yu

    2004-01-01

    Results of structural studies of polynuclear transition metal complexes containing the metallacyclopentadiene fragment are overviewed. The structural features of the complexes in relation to the nature of the substituents in the organic moiety of the metallacycles, the nature of the transition metals and their ligand environment are analysed. The main structural characteristics corresponding to different modes of coordination of metallacyclopentadienes to one or two additional metal centres are revealed.

  14. Transformation of armed violence: specific features and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Balatska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations occurring in the world today became a result of globalization, information, changes in the international balance of power, and are reflected in all aspects of political development. One of the most pressing challenges of our time, a consequence of these processes, is the evolution of forms and methods of armed violence. This publication is devoted to determining the specific and major trends transforming the forms and methods of armed violence. Instead of the traditional military conflicts, new forms and means of armed confrontation emerge. Asymmetrical conflicts taking place with the participation of non-state parties and irregular armed groups, are quite common at the moment. «Hard power» methods associated with the use of direct violence are supplemented by means of «soft power». Violent but non-traditional (non-military means of confrontation widen, with informational and psychological influence becoming particularly prominent. Infotechnological and infopsychological methods of intervention have become an integral part of modern military-political confrontation, taking form of hybrid, network and network-centric warfare. The hybrid military conflicts are typically distinguished by asymmetry, latency, priority of small-scale combat actions and dynamic use of indirect violence. Network-centric warfare focused on achieving information superiority over the enemy, complex effects on the enemy’s physical, informational and cognitive domains, strategic flexibility and adaptability, priority of horizontal ties over traditional vertical hierarchy. Horizontal network infrastructure, consisting of multiple independent, highly specialized and geographically dispersed units, determines the effectiveness of network war strategy today. Apart from qualitative changes associated with emergence and proliferation of new forms of armed violence on a global scale, there is a definite global increase in its quantitative

  15. Corruption in the sphere of education: notion, specific features, forms and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Damm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the studied scientific literature and legislation on corruption counteraction to elaborate the concept of corruption in the education sector highlighting its specific features characteristics forms and types and attracting the attention of the scientific community to the discussion of the categorical apparatus of corruption in education and its prevention. Methods dialectical method of cognition. Results basing on the analysis of scientific literature and the Russian legislation on corruption counteraction the characteristic features of corruption in education were revealed the sphere of existence the specificity of the subjects of corruption relations in education specific features of the goals of corruption the types of corruption were classified according to various grounds depending on the types of educational organizations that implement basic educational programs the nature of authority used by the persons who have administrative powers in educational institutions the quantitative composition of the subjects the nature of the use of official position by the subjects of passive bribery in the corruption relations in education organizational structure of corruption relations in education the nature of accrued benefits the nature and degree of public danger. In the conclusion the author proposes the definition of corruption in education which is interpreted as the negative sociolegal phenomenon existing in social relations in the sphere of education and consisting in the wrongful use of an official position and status of the participants of relations in the sphere of education in order to accrue benefit of tangible and or intangible nature for themselves or third parties as well as to provide such benefits. Scientific novelty for the first time the article considers the characteristic features of corruption in education highlights its forms and types and proposed a definition of corruption in education. Practical

  16. Spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane C Shakes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In most sexually reproducing organisms, the fundamental process of meiosis is implemented concurrently with two differentiation programs that occur at different rates and generate distinct cell types, sperm and oocytes. However, little is known about how the meiotic program is influenced by such contrasting developmental programs. Here we present a detailed timeline of late meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans using cytological and molecular landmarks to interrelate changes in chromosome dynamics with germ cell cellularization, spindle formation, and cell cycle transitions. This analysis expands our understanding C. elegans spermatogenesis, as it identifies multiple spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program and provides a framework for comparative studies. Post-pachytene chromatin of spermatocytes is distinct from that of oocytes in both composition and morphology. Strikingly, C. elegans spermatogenesis includes a previously undescribed karyosome stage, a common but poorly understood feature of meiosis in many organisms. We find that karyosome formation, in which chromosomes form a constricted mass within an intact nuclear envelope, follows desynapsis, involves a global down-regulation of transcription, and may support the sequential activation of multiple kinases that prepare spermatocytes for meiotic divisions. In spermatocytes, the presence of centrioles alters both the relative timing of meiotic spindle assembly and its ultimate structure. These microtubule differences are accompanied by differences in kinetochores, which connect microtubules to chromosomes. The sperm-specific features of meiosis revealed here illuminate how the underlying molecular machinery required for meiosis is differentially regulated in each sex.

  17. FeatureMap3D - a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Krzysztof; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) f...

  18. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  19. Specificity of Structural Assessment of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpower, David L.; Sharara, Harold; Goldsmith, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the specificity of information provided by structural assessment of knowledge (SAK). SAK is a technique which uses the Pathfinder scaling algorithm to transform ratings of concept relatedness into network representations (PFnets) of individuals' knowledge. Inferences about individuals' overall domain knowledge based on the…

  20. Unique Structural Features of Influenza Virus H15 Hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarum, Netanel; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Peng, Wenjie; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

    2017-04-12

    Influenza A H15 viruses are members of a subgroup (H7-H10-H15) of group 2 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes that include H7N9 and H10N8 viruses that were isolated from humans during 2013. The isolation of avian H15 viruses is, however, quite rare and, until recently, geographically restricted to wild shorebirds and waterfowl in Australia. The HAs of H15 viruses contain an insertion in the 150-loop (loop beginning at position 150) of the receptor-binding site common to this subgroup and a unique insertion in the 260-loop compared to any other subtype. Here, we show that the H15 HA has a high preference for avian receptor analogs by glycan array analyses. The H15 HA crystal structure reveals that it is structurally closest to H7N9 HA, but the head domain of the H15 trimer is wider than all other HAs due to a tilt and opening of the HA1 subunits of the head domain. The extended 150-loop of the H15 HA retains the conserved conformation as in H7 and H10 HAs. Furthermore, the elongated 260-loop increases the exposed HA surface and can contribute to antigenic variation in H15 HAs. Since avian-origin H15 HA viruses have been shown to cause enhanced disease in mammalian models, further characterization and immune surveillance of H15 viruses are warranted.

    IMPORTANCEIn the last 2 decades, an apparent increase has been reported for cases of human infection by emerging avian influenza A virus subtypes, including H7N9 and H10N8 viruses isolated during 2013. H15 is the other member of the subgroup of influenza A virus group 2 hemagglutinins (HAs) that also include H7 and H10. H15 viruses have been restricted to Australia, but recent isolation of H15 viruses in western Siberia suggests that they could be spread more globally via the avian flyways that converge and emanate from this region. Here we report on characterization of the three-dimensional structure and receptor specificity of the H15 hemagglutinin, revealing distinct features and specificities that can

  1. Analysis of Conserved Structural Features of Selenoprotein K | Al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selenium plays important roles in human health and these roles may be exerted through its presence in selenoproteins. Among the 25 selenoproteins in human is selenoprotein K (SelK) whose exact function is still unclear. Here, we investigated the conserved structural features of SelK using bioinformatics as an approach ...

  2. Compressive behavior of pervious concretes and a quantification of the influence of random pore structure features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, Omkar; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Identified the relevant pore structure features of pervious concretes, provided methodologies to extract those, and quantified the influence of these features on compressive response. → A model for stress-strain relationship of pervious concretes, and relationship between model parameters and parameters of the stress-strain relationship developed. → Statistical model for compressive strength as a function of pore structure features; and a stochastic model for the sensitivity of pore structure features in strength prediction. - Abstract: Properties of a random porous material such as pervious concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the material structure-compressive response relationships in pervious concretes. Several pervious concrete mixtures with different pore structure features are proportioned and subjected to static compression tests. The pore structure features such as pore area fractions, pore sizes, mean free spacing of the pores, specific surface area, and the three-dimensional pore distribution density are extracted using image analysis methods. The compressive stress-strain response of pervious concretes, a model to predict the stress-strain response, and its relationship to several of the pore structure features are outlined. Larger aggregate sizes and increase in paste volume fractions are observed to result in increased compressive strengths. The compressive response is found to be influenced by the pore sizes, their distributions and spacing. A statistical model is used to relate the compressive strength to the relevant pore structure features, which is then used as a base model in a Monte-Carlo simulation to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted compressive strength to the model terms.

  3. Structural and compositional features of high-rise buildings: experimental design in Yekaterinburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskaya, Yulia; Lobanov, Yuriy; Temnov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The study looks at the specifics of high-rise development in Yekaterinburg. High-rise buildings are considered in the context of their historical development, structural features, compositional and imaginative design techniques. Experience of Yekaterinburg architects in experimental design is considered and analyzed. Main issues and prospects of high-rise development within the Yekaterinburg structure are studied. The most interesting and significant conceptual approaches to the structural and compositional arrangement of high-rise buildings are discussed.

  4. Understanding Protein-Protein Interactions Using Local Structural Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Bonet, Jaume; García-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a relevant role among the different functions of a cell. Identifying the PPI network of a given organism (interactome) is useful to shed light on the key molecular mechanisms within a biological system. In this work, we show the role of structural features...... interacting and non-interacting protein pairs to classify the structural features that sustain the binding (or non-binding) behavior. Our study indicates that not only the interacting region but also the rest of the protein surface are important for the interaction fate. The interpretation...... to score the likelihood of the interaction between two proteins and to develop a method for the prediction of PPIs. We have tested our method on several sets with unbalanced ratios of interactions and non-interactions to simulate real conditions, obtaining accuracies higher than 25% in the most unfavorable...

  5. Structural conceptual models of water-conducting features at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.; Mazurek, M.; Hermansson, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Within the framework of the Fracture Classification and Characterization Project (FCC), water conducting features (WCF) in the Aespoe tunnel system and on the surface of Aespoe Island are being characterized over a range of scales. The larger-scale hierarchies of WCF are mostly constituted of fault arrays, i.e. brittle structures that accommodated episodes of shear strain. The smaller-scale WCF (contained within blocks 1 m. Structural evidence indicates that the fractures within the TRUE-1 block constitute an interconnected system with a pronounced anisotropy

  6. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, resource base of natural gas in Ukraine and also dynamics of established resources of natural gas in Ukraine and dynamics of natural gas production. It analyses base rates of growth of natural gas resources and production in Ukraine. It considers dynamics of import of natural gas into Ukraine and its import prices and also the structure of natural gas import. It identifies the balance of the natural gas market in Ukraine. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article proves that Ukraine is a gas-deficit country of the world, which depends on natural gas import supplies.

  7. Critical Features of Fragment Libraries for Protein Structure Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizani, Raphael; Custódio, Fábio Lima; Dos Santos, Karina Baptista; Dardenne, Laurent Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The use of fragment libraries is a popular approach among protein structure prediction methods and has proven to substantially improve the quality of predicted structures. However, some vital aspects of a fragment library that influence the accuracy of modeling a native structure remain to be determined. This study investigates some of these features. Particularly, we analyze the effect of using secondary structure prediction guiding fragments selection, different fragments sizes and the effect of structural clustering of fragments within libraries. To have a clearer view of how these factors affect protein structure prediction, we isolated the process of model building by fragment assembly from some common limitations associated with prediction methods, e.g., imprecise energy functions and optimization algorithms, by employing an exact structure-based objective function under a greedy algorithm. Our results indicate that shorter fragments reproduce the native structure more accurately than the longer. Libraries composed of multiple fragment lengths generate even better structures, where longer fragments show to be more useful at the beginning of the simulations. The use of many different fragment sizes shows little improvement when compared to predictions carried out with libraries that comprise only three different fragment sizes. Models obtained from libraries built using only sequence similarity are, on average, better than those built with a secondary structure prediction bias. However, we found that the use of secondary structure prediction allows greater reduction of the search space, which is invaluable for prediction methods. The results of this study can be critical guidelines for the use of fragment libraries in protein structure prediction.

  8. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks: Structure, Feature Extraction and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namatēvs Ivars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs are aimed at processing data that have a known network like topology. They are widely used to recognise objects in images and diagnose patterns in time series data as well as in sensor data classification. The aim of the paper is to present theoretical and practical aspects of deep CNNs in terms of convolution operation, typical layers and basic methods to be used for training and learning. Some practical applications are included for signal and image classification. Finally, the present paper describes the proposed block structure of CNN for classifying crucial features from 3D sensor data.

  9. Structural features of subtype-selective EP receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovič, Tijana; Jakopin, Žiga; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 is a potent endogenous molecule that binds to four different G-protein-coupled receptors: EP1-4. Each of these receptors is a valuable drug target, with distinct tissue localisation and signalling pathways. We review the structural features of EP modulators required for subtype-selective activity, as well as the structural requirements for improved pharmacokinetic parameters. Novel EP receptor subtype selective agonists and antagonists appear to be valuable drug candidates in the therapy of many pathophysiological states, including ulcerative colitis, glaucoma, bone healing, B cell lymphoma, neurological diseases, among others, which have been studied in vitro, in vivo and in early phase clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of Protein Structural Class Based on Gapped-Dipeptides and a Recursive Feature Selection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taigang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prior knowledge of protein structural class may offer useful clues on understanding its functionality as well as its tertiary structure. Though various significant efforts have been made to find a fast and effective computational approach to address this problem, it is still a challenging topic in the field of bioinformatics. The position-specific score matrix (PSSM profile has been shown to provide a useful source of information for improving the prediction performance of protein structural class. However, this information has not been adequately explored. To this end, in this study, we present a feature extraction technique which is based on gapped-dipeptides composition computed directly from PSSM. Then, a careful feature selection technique is performed based on support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE. These optimal features are selected to construct a final predictor. The results of jackknife tests on four working datasets show that our method obtains satisfactory prediction accuracies by extracting features solely based on PSSM and could serve as a very promising tool to predict protein structural class.

  11. Minearl associated microbial communities from The Cedars, associate with specific geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, A. R.; Wanger, G. P.; Bhartia, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cedars, an area of active serpentinization located in the Russian River area of Northern California, represents one of the few terrestrial areas on Earth undergoing active serpentinization. One of the products of the serpentinization reaction is the formation of hydroxyl radicals making the springs of the Cedars some of the most alkaline natural waters on Earth. These waters, with very high pH (pH>11), low EH and, low concentrations of electron acceptors are extremely inhospitible; however microbial life has found a way to thrive and a distinct microbial community is observed in the spring waters. Previous work with environmental samples and pure culture isolates [3] derived from The Cedars has suggested the importance of minearal association to these characteristic microbes. Here we show the results combined spectroscopic and molecular studies on aseries of mineral colonization experiemnts performed with a pure culture Cedar's isolate (Serpentenamonas str. A1) and in situ at CS spring. Centimeter scale, polished coupons of a variety of mminerals were prepared in the lab, spectroscopically characterized (Green Raman, DUV Raman, and DUV Fluorescence maps) and deployed into the springs for three months. The coupons were recovered and the distribution of the microbes on the minerals was mapped using a deep-UV native fluorescent mapping sustem that allows for non-destructive mapping of organics and microbes on surfaces. Subsequently the DNA from the minerals was extracted for community structure analysis. The MOSAIC (i.e. deep UV Fluorescence) showed extensicve colonization of the minerals and in some cases we were able to correlate microbial assemblages with specific geological features. In one example, organisms tended to associate strongly with carbonate features on Chromite mineral surfaces (Figure 1). The 16s rDNA revealed the microbial assemblages from each slide was dominated by active Cedars community memebers (i.e., Serpentinamonas and Silanimonas species

  12. Top-down contingent feature-specific orienting with and without awareness of the visual input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Horstmann, Gernot; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, the role of endogenous feature-specific orienting for conscious and unconscious vision is reviewed. We start with an overview of orienting. We proceed with a review of masking research, and the definition of the criteria of experimental protocols that demonstrate endogenous and exogenous orienting, respectively. Against this background of criteria, we assess studies of unconscious orienting and come to the conclusion that so far studies of unconscious orienting demonstrated endogenous feature-specific orienting. The review closes with a discussion of the role of unconscious orienting in action control.

  13. Specific "scientific" data structures, and their processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Karczmarczuk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Programming physicists use, as all programmers, arrays, lists, tuples, records, etc., and this requires some change in their thought patterns while converting their formulae into some code, since the "data structures" operated upon, while elaborating some theory and its consequences, are rather: power series and Padé approximants, differential forms and other instances of differential algebras, functionals (for the variational calculus, trajectories (solutions of differential equations, Young diagrams and Feynman graphs, etc. Such data is often used in a [semi-]numerical setting, not necessarily "symbolic", appropriate for the computer algebra packages. Modules adapted to such data may be "just libraries", but often they become specific, embedded sub-languages, typically mapped into object-oriented frameworks, with overloaded mathematical operations. Here we present a functional approach to this philosophy. We show how the usage of Haskell datatypes and - fundamental for our tutorial - the application of lazy evaluation makes it possible to operate upon such data (in particular: the "infinite" sequences in a natural and comfortable manner.

  14. [Production, specificity and structure of immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujard, C; Delfraissy, J F

    1991-03-21

    Immunoglobulin is a key factor of the immune response resulting from B-cell activation and associated with T-cell stimulation. Because of its structure, this antibody has a dual function: it specifically recognizes the inducer antigen in the variable region and eliminates it by a constant portion which is responsible for effector properties. Surface immunoglobulin, therefore, is the B-cell antigen receptor; it differs from the T-cell receptor in that it recognizes the antigen unbound to the major istocompatibility complex; binding the antigen results in direct signal transduction first in the cytoplasm, then in the nucleus. This receptor can be secreted in the body: it is made up of circulating immunoglobulins. Human immunoglobulins are divided into 5 classes, each of them with its own response kinetics, distribution and functions. The variability of the antibody response accounts for a genetic organization involving numerous genes which may be associated with each other, or mutate, or recombine during maturation of the lymphocytes. Altogether, this system has a theoretical capacity of response to three hundred million different antigens.

  15. Specific features of two diffraction schemes for a widely divergent X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetyan, K. T.; Levonyan, L. V.; Semerjian, H. S.; Arakelyan, M. M., E-mail: marakelyan@ysu.am; Badalyan, O. M. [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

    2015-03-15

    We investigated the specific features of two diffraction schemes for a widely divergent X-ray beam that use a circular diaphragm 30–50 μm in diameter as a point source of characteristic radiation. In one of the schemes, the diaphragm was set in front of the crystal (the diaphragm-crystal (d-c) scheme); in the other, it was installed behind the crystal (the crystal-diaphragm (c-d) scheme). It was established that the diffraction image in the c-d scheme is a topographic map of the investigated crystal area. In the d-c scheme at L = 2l (l and L are the distances between the crystal and the diaphragm and between the photographic plate and the diaphragm, respectively), the branches of hyperbolas formed in this family of planes (hkl) by the characteristic K{sub α} and K{sub β} radiations, including higher order reflections, converge into one straight line. It is experimentally demonstrated that this convergence is very sensitive to structural inhomogeneities in the crystal under study.

  16. Design, construction and operation features of high-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnik, Alexey; Mylnik, Vladimir; Zubeeva, Elena; Mukhamedzhanova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers design, construction and operation features of high-rise facilities. The analysis of various situations, that come from improper designing, construction and operation of unique facilities, is carried out. The integrated approach is suggested, when the problems of choosing acceptable constructional solutions related to the functional purpose, architectural solutions, methods of manufacturing and installation, operating conditions for unique buildings and structures are being tackled. A number of main causes for the emergency destruction of objects under construction and operation is considered. A number of measures are proposed on the basis of factor classification in order to efficiently prevent the situations, when various negative options of design loads and emergency impacts occur.

  17. ROCK FRACTURES NEAR FAULTS: SPECIFIC FEATURES OF STRUCTURAL‐PARAGENETIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Burzunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The new approach to structural‐paragenetic analysis of near‐fault fractures [Seminsky, 2014, 2015] and specific features of its application are discussed. This approach was tested in studies of fracturing in West Pribaikalie and Central Mongolia. We give some recommendations concerning collection, selection and initial processing of the data on fractures and faults. The analysis technique is briefly described, and its distinctive details are specified. Under the new approach, we compare systems of natural fractures with the standard joint sets. By analysing the mass measurements of the orientations of joint sets in a fault zone, it becomes possible to reveal the characteristics of this fault zone, such as its structure, morphogenetic type, etc. The comparative analysis is based on the identification of the main fracture paragenesis near the faults. This paragenesis is represented by a triplet of mutually perpendicular joint sets. The technique uses the qualitative approach to establish the rank hierarchy of fractures and stress fields on the basis of genetic subordination. We collect and analyse the data on tectonic fractures identified from a number of indicators, the main of which are the geometric structure of the (systematic or chaotic fracture system, and shear type of fractures. The new technique can be applied to analyse other genetic types of fractures (primary, hypergenic, provided that tectonic stresses were significantly involved in fracturing, which is evidenced by the corresponding indicators. Methods for conducting geological and structural observations are uniform for all sites and points, and increasing the number of observation points provides for a more effective use of the new technique. In our paper, we give specific parameters for constructing circle fracture diagrams. All the maximums in the diagram are involved in the analysis for comparison with the standard patterns. Errors caused by random coincidence are minimized

  18. The sequence, structure and evolutionary features of HOTAIR in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    . Conclusions HOTAIR exists in mammals, has poorly conserved sequences and considerably conserved structures, and has evolved faster than nearby HoxC genes. Exons of HOTAIR show distinct evolutionary features, and a 239 bp domain in the 1804 bp exon6 is especially conserved. These features, together with the absence of some exons and sequences in mouse, rat and kangaroo, suggest ab initio generation of HOTAIR in marsupials. Structure prediction identifies two fragments in the 5' end exon1 and the 3' end domain B of exon6, with sequence and structure invariably occurring in various predicted structures of exon1, the domain B of exon6 and the full HOTAIR. PMID:21496275

  19. General And Specific Features In Realizing An Essay In English Language – A Case Study Of Essay On Economic Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daliana Ecaterina TASCOVICI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wants to be a systematic and not only a theoretical approach on essays. This type of writing knows several points of view connecting its form, content, specific features and types, rules to be observed in its writing, structures or styles. As we know, it implies freedom of composition, originality, associations of surprising images and propensity for aphorism. We try to frame all its specifications within the economic essay, as economics is a field of exact utterance, where the speaker cannot play with the words and their meaning.

  20. Specific Features of Social Competence Development in the Future Music Teachers Working at Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzheksembekova, Menslu I.; Ibrayeva, Kamarsulu E.; Akhmetova, Aimkul K.; Urazalieva, Moldir A.; Sultangaliyeva, Elmira S.; Issametova, Klavdiya I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing specific features of social competence of future music teachers and the development of specialized techniques in order to improve the quality of motivational and cognitive components of student social competence. The sample involved 660 undergraduate students. The authors used a number of research methods, such as…

  1. Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Specific features of the Galician language and implications for speech technology development correspondence: Corresponding author. (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) Dpto. Filoloxia Galega. Universidade de Santiago. Santiago de Compostela. Spain - (Gonzalez, Manuel Gonzalez) Dpto. Teoria de la Se?al y Comunicaciones. Universidad de Vigo. Vigo. Spain - (Banga, Eduardo Rodriguez) SPAIN (Banga...

  2. Specific features of the REDUCE system and calculation of QCD Feynman graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulyan, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    The ways and methods used in calculation of one class of the QCD Feynman graphs with the help of the REDUCE system are described. It is shown how by introducing new constructions and operations the user could avoid difficulties connected with specific restrictions and features of the REDUCE system

  3. Specific features of a single-pulse sliding discharge in neon near the threshold for spark breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusov, K. K.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental data on the spatial structure of a single-pulse sliding discharge in neon at voltages below, equal to, and above the threshold for spark breakdown are discussed. The experiments were carried at gas pressures of 30 and 100 kPa and different polarities of the discharge voltage. Photographs of the plasma structure in two discharge chambers with different dimensions of the discharge zone and different thicknesses of an alumina dielectric plate on the surface of which the discharge develops are inspected. Common features of the prebreakdown discharge and its specific features depending on the voltage polarity and gas pressure are analyzed. It is shown that, at voltages below the threshold for spark breakdown, a low-current glow discharge with cathode and anode spots develops in the electrode gap. Above the breakdown threshold, regardless of the voltage polarity, spark channels directed from the cathode to the anode develop against the background of a low-current discharge.

  4. Perceptual learning of basic visual features remains task specific with Training-Plus-Exposure (TPE) training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin-Juan; Wang, Ru-Jie; Yu, Cong; Zhang, Jun-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Visual perceptual learning is known to be specific to the trained retinal location, feature, and task. However, location and feature specificity can be eliminated by double-training or TPE training protocols, in which observers receive additional exposure to the transfer location or feature dimension via an irrelevant task besides the primary learning task Here we tested whether these new training protocols could even make learning transfer across different tasks involving discrimination of basic visual features (e.g., orientation and contrast). Observers practiced a near-threshold orientation (or contrast) discrimination task. Following a TPE training protocol, they also received exposure to the transfer task via performing suprathreshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination in alternating blocks of trials in the same sessions. The results showed no evidence for significant learning transfer to the untrained near-threshold contrast (or orientation) discrimination task after discounting the pretest effects and the suprathreshold practice effects. These results thus do not support a hypothetical task-independent component in perceptual learning of basic visual features. They also set the boundary of the new training protocols in their capability to enable learning transfer.

  5. Enteroclysis in adult celiac disease: diagnostic value of specific radiographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomoschitz, F.; Schima, W.; Schober, E.; Turetschek, K.; Kaider, A.; Vogelsang, H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic findings at enteroclysis in adult patients with untreated celiac disease. Twenty-seven adult patients underwent enteroclysis because of unspecific intestinal symptoms before definitive biopsy proof of celiac disease. Enteroclysis of 123 subjects with similar clinical presentation, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, occult intestinal bleeding, and weight loss, who had a definitive diagnosis other than celiac disease, served as controls. The radiographic features previously described in the literature as indicative of adult celiac disease (i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds, increase of ileal folds, small bowel dilatation, flocculation) were evaluated in blinded fashion in all studies and the subjective likelihood of diagnosis of celiac disease was assessed. Assessing every finding separately, each feature proved to have a high specificity (78-100%) but low sensitivity (19-59%) for celiac disease. Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern was the single best feature (specificity 100%, 95% CI 97-100%; sensitivity 59%, 95% CI 40-78%); however, combination of criteria enables establishment of the diagnosis of celiac disease quite accurately (specificity 100%, 95% CI 98-100%; sensitivity 78%, 95% CI 58-91%). Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern as a single finding as well as combination at least three of the following features, i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds (''colonization''), increase of ileal folds (''jejunization''), dilatation, and flocculation, make enteroclysis an accurate tool for diagnosis of celiac disease in adult patients with suspected intestinal disease. (orig.)

  6. Specific features of using programmed hardware in emergency protection systems of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplev, N.P.; Pogorelov, I.V.; Kirsanov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The specific features of using the microprocessor-based technical means and programmed logic integrated circuits (PLIC) in WWER reactor protection systems are considered. The basic causes of occurring the failures in programmed technical means are analyzed. The features of using PLIC in reactor protection systems are discussed. The methods permitting to decrease the probability occurring the common mode failure of programmed technical means are proposed. It is concluded that at creating of reactor protection systems with the use of microprocessors and PLIC it is necessary to apply the principle of the functional diversity [ru

  7. Structure in galactic soft X-ray features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davelaar, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations are described of the soft X-ray background in a part of the northern hemisphere in the energy range 0.06 - 3.0 keV. The X-ray instruments, placed onboard a sounding rocket, are a one-dimensional focusing collector with multi-cell proportional counters in the focal plane and eight large area counters on deployable panels. A description of the instruments and their preflight calibration is given. Precautions were taken to prevent UV sensitivity of the X-ray instruments. The observation program, which consisted of a number of pre-programmed slow scans, is outlined. The spectral date on the soft X-ray background in these and previous observations showed that at least two components of different temperature are present. A low temperature component of approximately (3-10)x10 5 is found all over the sky. Components of higher temperature approximately 3x10 6 K are found in regions of soft X-ray enhancement; The North Polar Spur has been observed in two scans at the galactic latitude b=25 0 and b=75 0 . The X-ray ridge structure is found to be strongly energy dependent. The low energy data ( 0 reveals two separate emission features on the ridge, both probably of finite extensions (approximately equal to 0 0 .5). A wider X-ray ridge (approximately equal to 10 0 ) is observed above 0.4 keV. (Auth.)

  8. Site-specific electronic structure analysis by channeling EELS and first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi; Muto, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Yu; Ikeno, Hirokazu; Yoshioka, Satoru; Tanaka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    Site-specific electronic structures were investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) under electron channeling conditions. The Al-K and Mn-L(2,3) electron energy loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of, respectively, NiAl2O4 and Mn3O4 were measured. Deconvolution of the raw spectra with the instrumental resolution function restored the blunt and hidden fine features, which allowed us to interpret the experimental spectral features by comparing with theoretical spectra obtained by first-principles calculations. The present method successfully revealed the electronic structures specific to the differently coordinated cationic sites.

  9. Burnout specific features in steam-water mixture annular flow in a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshchuk, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Some unexplained burnout specific features in a steam-generating tube are analysed on the basis of experimental data. The following problems are considered: 1) the effect of the tube length and the state of the working medium (single-phase, two-phase) on burnout at the tube inlet; 2) the character of the specific thermal flow dependence at the moment of burnout appearance on the mass steam content q=f(x). It is found that the effect of the tube length on the burnout exists only in a relatively narrow range of the operating parameters. The run of the q=f(x) dependence is also explained [ru

  10. Enteroclysis in adult celiac disease: diagnostic value of specific radiographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomoschitz, F.; Schima, W.; Schober, E.; Turetschek, K. [Department of Radiology and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical and Experimental Radiologic Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaider, A. [Department of Medical Computer Sciences, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Vogelsang, H. [Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic findings at enteroclysis in adult patients with untreated celiac disease. Twenty-seven adult patients underwent enteroclysis because of unspecific intestinal symptoms before definitive biopsy proof of celiac disease. Enteroclysis of 123 subjects with similar clinical presentation, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, occult intestinal bleeding, and weight loss, who had a definitive diagnosis other than celiac disease, served as controls. The radiographic features previously described in the literature as indicative of adult celiac disease (i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds, increase of ileal folds, small bowel dilatation, flocculation) were evaluated in blinded fashion in all studies and the subjective likelihood of diagnosis of celiac disease was assessed. Assessing every finding separately, each feature proved to have a high specificity (78-100%) but low sensitivity (19-59%) for celiac disease. Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern was the single best feature (specificity 100%, 95% CI 97-100%; sensitivity 59%, 95% CI 40-78%); however, combination of criteria enables establishment of the diagnosis of celiac disease quite accurately (specificity 100%, 95% CI 98-100%; sensitivity 78%, 95% CI 58-91%). Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern as a single finding as well as combination at least three of the following features, i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds (''colonization''), increase of ileal folds (''jejunization''), dilatation, and flocculation, make enteroclysis an accurate tool for diagnosis of celiac disease in adult patients with suspected intestinal disease. (orig.)

  11. Degree of contribution (DoC) feature selection algorithm for structural brain MRI volumetric features in depression detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipli, Kuryati; Kouzani, Abbas Z

    2015-07-01

    Accurate detection of depression at an individual level using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) remains a challenge. Brain volumetric changes at a structural level appear to have importance in depression biomarkers studies. An automated algorithm is developed to select brain sMRI volumetric features for the detection of depression. A feature selection (FS) algorithm called degree of contribution (DoC) is developed for selection of sMRI volumetric features. This algorithm uses an ensemble approach to determine the degree of contribution in detection of major depressive disorder. The DoC is the score of feature importance used for feature ranking. The algorithm involves four stages: feature ranking, subset generation, subset evaluation, and DoC analysis. The performance of DoC is evaluated on the Duke University Multi-site Imaging Research in the Analysis of Depression sMRI dataset. The dataset consists of 115 brain sMRI scans of 88 healthy controls and 27 depressed subjects. Forty-four sMRI volumetric features are used in the evaluation. The DoC score of forty-four features was determined as the accuracy threshold (Acc_Thresh) was varied. The DoC performance was compared with that of four existing FS algorithms. At all defined Acc_Threshs, DoC outperformed the four examined FS algorithms for the average classification score and the maximum classification score. DoC has a good ability to generate reduced-size subsets of important features that could yield high classification accuracy. Based on the DoC score, the most discriminant volumetric features are those from the left-brain region.

  12. Contingent capture can occur at specific feature values: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jun; Zhao, Guang; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Kan; Li, Hong; Sun, Hong-Jin; Liu, Qiang

    2013-02-01

    The notion that attentional top-down control can be tuned to a stimulus feature is widely accepted. Although previous studies suggested that the stimulus-driven attentional capture could be contingent on top-down attentional control settings, it was uncertain whether contingent capture can occur at a specific feature value. Three experiments were conducted to address this issue using both behavioral and ERPs measures. Participants were required to respond to one color singleton in the search display (target) but refrain from responding to the search display containing another color singleton (nontarget). When target and nontarget belonged to different color categories (Experiment 1), only the target-color cue and within category irrelevant-color cue elicited the significant cue validity effect (i.e. RTs were shorter when the target was presented at the same location as the preceding cue rather than at a different location); they also lead to a robust N2pc effect, indicative of attention-capture. In addition, these two cue types had similar attention-capturing capacity. However, when target and nontarget belonged to the same color category (Experiments 2 and 3), only the target-color cue elicited the significant cue validity effect and the robust N2pc effect. The same within category irrelevant-color cue no longer elicited the cue validity effect, and the N2pc effect was also attenuated. Present findings suggest that contingent capture can occur at a specific feature value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic identification of species-specific protein succinylation sites using joint element features information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan MM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Md Mehedi Hasan,1 Mst Shamima Khatun,2 Md Nurul Haque Mollah,2 Cao Yong,3 Dianjing Guo1 1School of Life Sciences and the State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lysine succinylation, an important type of protein posttranslational modification, plays significant roles in many cellular processes. Accurate identification of succinylation sites can facilitate our understanding about the molecular mechanism and potential roles of lysine succinylation. However, even in well-studied systems, a majority of the succinylation sites remain undetected because the traditional experimental approaches to succinylation site identification are often costly, time-consuming, and laborious. In silico approach, on the other hand, is potentially an alternative strategy to predict succinylation substrates. In this paper, a novel computational predictor SuccinSite2.0 was developed for predicting generic and species-specific protein succinylation sites. This predictor takes the composition of profile-based amino acid and orthogonal binary features, which were used to train a random forest classifier. We demonstrated that the proposed SuccinSite2.0 predictor outperformed other currently existing implementations on a complementarily independent dataset. Furthermore, the important features that make visible contributions to species-specific and cross-species-specific prediction of protein succinylation site were analyzed. The proposed predictor is anticipated to be a useful computational resource for lysine succinylation site prediction. The integrated species-specific online tool of SuccinSite2.0 is publicly

  14. Specific features of the electrical properties in partially graphitized porous biocarbons of beech wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Gutierrez-Pardo, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of partially graphitized highly porous bioC(Ni) biocarbon matrices produced by pyrolysis (carbonization) of beech wood at temperatures T carb = 850-1600°C in the presence of a Ni-containing catalyst have been studied in comparison with their microstructural features. The temperature dependences of the resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient have been measured in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K in magnetic fields to 28 kOe. It has been shown that an additional graphite phase introduction into samples with T carb ≥ 1000°C results in an increase in the carrier mobility by a factor of 2-3, whereas the carrier (hole) concentration remains within ~1020 cm-3, as in biocarbons obtained without catalyst. An analysis of experimental data has demonstrated that the features of the conductivity and magnetoresistance of these samples are described by quantum corrections related to their structural features, i.e., the formation of a globular graphite phase of nano- and submicrometer sizes in the amorphous matrix. The quantum corrections to the conductivity decrease with increasing carbonization temperature, which indicates an increase in the degree of structure ordering and is in good agreement with microstructural data.

  15. Effect of processing on structural features of anodic aluminum oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Pembe; Birol, Yucel

    2012-09-01

    Morphological features of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates fabricated by electrochemical oxidation under different processing conditions were investigated. The selection of the polishing parameters does not appear to be critical as long as the aluminum substrate is polished adequately prior to the anodization process. AAO layers with a highly ordered pore distribution are obtained after anodizing in 0.6 M oxalic acid at 20 °C under 40 V for 5 minutes suggesting that the desired pore features are attained once an oxide layer develops on the surface. While the pore features are not affected much, the thickness of the AAO template increases with increasing anodization treatment time. Pore features are better and the AAO growth rate is higher at 20 °C than at 5 °C; higher under 45 V than under 40 V; higher with 0.6 M than with 0.3 M oxalic acid.

  16. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  17. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Josef

    Full Text Available Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  18. USER EMOTION IDENTIFICATION IN TWITTER USING SPECIFIC FEATURES: HASHTAG, EMOJI, EMOTICON, AND ADJECTIVE TERM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuita Arum Sari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twitter is a social media application, which can give a sign for identifying user emotion. Identification of user emotion can be utilized in commercial domain, health, politic, and security problems. The problem of emotion identification in twit is the unstructured short text messages which lead the difficulty to figure out main features. In this paper, we propose a new framework for identifying the tendency of user emotions using specific features, i.e. hashtag, emoji, emoticon, and adjective term. Preprocessing is applied in the first phase, and then user emotions are identified by means of classification method using kNN. The proposed method can achieve good results, near ground truth, with accuracy of 92%.

  19. CURRENT PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SYMPTOMATIC AND DISEASE MODIFYING EFFECTS. COMMUNICATION 1. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE SYMPTOMATIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT DRUGS TO TREAT KNEE OSTHEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Tsvetkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the symptomatic effect and tolerability of acetaminophen, glucosamine sulfate (GS, chondroitin sulfate (CS, and meloxicam in patents with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Subjects and methods. An 18-month open-label randomized prospective parallel-group trial enrolled 80 patients with knee OA who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria and signed the informed consent. They had Kellgren and Lawrence grades O-III OA with visual analogue scale pain intensity of ≥ 40 mm in the target knee, a body mass index of ≤ 35 kg/m2, and no clinical dysfunctions of vital organs and systems. The patients were randomized into 4 groups: 1 acetaminophen 2 g daily; 2 a standard GS regimen; 3 a standard CS regimen; 4 meloxicam 15 mg daily. The patients were followed up for 18 months. The effectiveness was evaluated by the WOMAC questionnaire, Leguesne index, and OMERACT-OARSI (D scenario during 8 visits. Laboratory and clinical examination as well as electrocardiography were performed. Adverse events were recorded during each visit.Results. After 4 weeks of treatment, symptomatic improvement was noted in all groups; however, the best effect was achieved by the use of meloxicam that ensured an obvious improvement in all patients. According to the OMERACT-OARSI criteria and changes in the WOMAC and Leguesne indices, the total efficacy of meloxicam was also highest. 20, 10, and 15% of the patients failed to respond to treatment in the acetaminophen, GS, and CS groups, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this trial suggest that it is expedient to use GS, CS, and meloxicam long, support the recent guidelines of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and OA (ESCEO, and can give proofs of the efficiency and safety of GS, CS, and meloxicam used in the treatment of knee OA.

  20. Structuring Formal Requirements Specifications for Reuse and Product Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.

    2001-01-01

    In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.

  1. Specific features of NDT data and processing algorithms: new remedies to old ills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    Non destructive testing data from in-service inspections have specific features that require the most sophisticated techniques of signal and image processing. Each step in the overall information extraction process must be optimized by using recent approaches such like data decomposition and modelization, compression, sensor fusion and knowledge based systems. This can be achieved by means of wavelet transform, inverse problems formulation, standard compression algorithms, combined detection and estimation, neural networks and expert systems. These techniques are briefly presented through a number of Electricite de France applications or through recent literature results. (author). 1 fig., 20 refs

  2. Specific features of RBMK severe accidents progression and approach to the accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevskij, V.P.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.A.; Potapov, A.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental construction features of the LWGR facilities (absence of common external containment shell, disintegrated circulation circuit and multichannel reactor core, positive vapor reactivity coefficient, high mass of thermally capacious graphite moderator) predetermining development of assumed heavy non-projected accidents and handling them are treated. Rating the categories of the reactor core damages for non-projected accidents and accident types producing specific grope of damages is given. Passing standard non-projected accidents, possible methods of attack accident consequences, as well as methods of calculated analysis of non-projected accidents are demonstrated [ru

  3. Infective endocarditis: the specific features of its course, the criteria for diagnosis, differential diagnosis (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Belov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is today characterized by polyetiology due to a wide range of pathogens. The paper describes the specific features of the clinical picture of the disease in relation to the etiological agent, which have, in some cases, a crucial role in the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy. Significant clinical polymorphism, obscure symptoms, and monosyndromic onset as guises all enhance the importance of the differential diagnosis of IE, at its early stages in particular. Basic approaches to differentiating IE from the diseases in which differentially diagnostic problems arise to the utmost are outlined.

  4. [Specific features of surgical anatomy of the subhyoid region with special reference to tracheostomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, A V; Mashkova, T A; Nerovnyĭ, A I; Maleev, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    Peculiarities of thyroid gland linear dimensions, volume, shape, and topographical features were investigated using the morphological material obtained from 426 human corpses of either gender with a view to using this information for planning and performing tracheostomy in residents of the Central Chernozem region, Russia. The study yielded new data on surgical anatomy of additional muscles of the subhyoid region, thyroid isthmus and pyramidal lobe. Rare and previously unknown variants of anatomical structure of the anterior cervical area are described that may play the role of risk factors of postoperative complications of tracheostomy. Relevant recommendations are provided for practicing otorhinolaryngologists.

  5. Relevance of echo-structure and texture features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Mullick, Jhinuk Basu; KV, Dr. Rajagopal

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Echostructure is an essential parameter for the evaluation of circumscribed lesions and can be described as a texture feature on ultrasound images. Present study evaluates the possibility of distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tumors using various texture features. Materials...... and Methods: 58 cases of breast tumor (29 each from benign and malignant) were documented under standardized conditions using a linear array machine and 7.5 MHz transducer. In each sonographic image, ROI of tumor was marked and then subjected to the evaluation of tumor status using five parameters of second...... performance ROC= 0.78(pbenign and malignant tumors. It also reveals that when evaluating images of a breast tumor...

  6. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    landscape of BBO problems and show how an algorithm portfolio approach can exploit these general, problem indepen- dent features and outperform the utilization of any single minimization search strategy. We test our methodology on data from the GECCO Workshop on BBO Benchmarking 2012, which contains 21...

  7. Process Features in Writing: Internal Structure and Incremental Value over Product Features. Research Report. ETS RR-15-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mo; Deane, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In educational measurement contexts, essays have been evaluated and formative feedback has been given based on the end product. In this study, we used a large sample collected from middle school students in the United States to investigate the factor structure of the writing process features gathered from keystroke logs and the association of that…

  8. A pursuit of lineage-specific and niche-specific proteome features in the world of archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Anindya; Dutta, Chitra

    2012-06-12

    Archaea evoke interest among researchers for two enigmatic characteristics -a combination of bacterial and eukaryotic components in their molecular architectures and an enormous diversity in their life-style and metabolic capabilities. Despite considerable research efforts, lineage- specific/niche-specific molecular features of the whole archaeal world are yet to be fully unveiled. The study offers the first large-scale in silico proteome analysis of all archaeal species of known genome sequences with a special emphasis on methanogenic and sulphur-metabolising archaea. Overall amino acid usage in archaea is dominated by GC-bias. But the environmental factors like oxygen requirement or thermal adaptation seem to play important roles in selection of residues with no GC-bias at the codon level. All methanogens, irrespective of their thermal/salt adaptation, show higher usage of Cys and have relatively acidic proteomes, while the proteomes of sulphur-metabolisers have higher aromaticity and more positive charges. Despite of exhibiting thermophilic life-style, korarchaeota possesses an acidic proteome. Among the distinct trends prevailing in COGs (Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins) distribution profiles, crenarchaeal organisms display higher intra-order variations in COGs repertoire, especially in the metabolic ones, as compared to euryarchaea. All methanogens are characterised by a presence of 22 exclusive COGs. Divergences in amino acid usage, aromaticity/charge profiles and COG repertoire among methanogens and sulphur-metabolisers, aerobic and anaerobic archaea or korarchaeota and nanoarchaeota, as elucidated in the present study, point towards the presence of distinct molecular strategies for niche specialization in the archaeal world.

  9. A pursuit of lineage-specific and niche-specific proteome features in the world of archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chowdhury Anindya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaea evoke interest among researchers for two enigmatic characteristics –a combination of bacterial and eukaryotic components in their molecular architectures and an enormous diversity in their life-style and metabolic capabilities. Despite considerable research efforts, lineage- specific/niche-specific molecular features of the whole archaeal world are yet to be fully unveiled. The study offers the first large-scale in silico proteome analysis of all archaeal species of known genome sequences with a special emphasis on methanogenic and sulphur-metabolising archaea. Results Overall amino acid usage in archaea is dominated by GC-bias. But the environmental factors like oxygen requirement or thermal adaptation seem to play important roles in selection of residues with no GC-bias at the codon level. All methanogens, irrespective of their thermal/salt adaptation, show higher usage of Cys and have relatively acidic proteomes, while the proteomes of sulphur-metabolisers have higher aromaticity and more positive charges. Despite of exhibiting thermophilic life-style, korarchaeota possesses an acidic proteome. Among the distinct trends prevailing in COGs (Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins distribution profiles, crenarchaeal organisms display higher intra-order variations in COGs repertoire, especially in the metabolic ones, as compared to euryarchaea. All methanogens are characterised by a presence of 22 exclusive COGs. Conclusions Divergences in amino acid usage, aromaticity/charge profiles and COG repertoire among methanogens and sulphur-metabolisers, aerobic and anaerobic archaea or korarchaeota and nanoarchaeota, as elucidated in the present study, point towards the presence of distinct molecular strategies for niche specialization in the archaeal world.

  10. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE OF THE TEENAGERS MAKING USE OF SMOKING BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonidovna Plotnikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article one can find the results of the research of the teenagers social intelligence at the age of 14-15 years old, making use of narcotic smoking blends. Some specific features of their social intelligence, development level of empathy and communicative skills in comparison with nonsmoking peers are given.Purpose: to find and describe specific features of the social intelligence of the teenagers at the age of 14-15 years old making use of the narcotic smoking blends in comparison with nonsmoking peers.Method: testing, Mann – Whitney U Test.Results: the teenagers making use of narcotic smoking blends have a low level of the social intelligence, communicative skills and empathic abilities. Such elements of the social intelligence as the ability to foresee the behavioral consequences in a concrete situation (prognostic competence and the ability to logical generalization of non-verbal reactions of a person are worse developed in comparison with nonsmoking peers. There are no significant differences between smoking girls and smoking boys.Areas of use: resocialization and rehabilitation of the addicted teenagers

  11. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game) or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA). By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14) when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets) this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores) have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games.

  12. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA. By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14 when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games.

  13. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ 2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  14. Structural and Molecular Modeling Features of P2X Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Anastacio Alves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP is recognized as the extracellular messenger that acts through P2 receptors. P2 receptors are divided into two subtypes: P2Y metabotropic receptors and P2X ionotropic receptors, both of which are found in virtually all mammalian cell types studied. Due to the difficulty in studying membrane protein structures by X-ray crystallography or NMR techniques, there is little information about these structures available in the literature. Two structures of the P2X4 receptor in truncated form have been solved by crystallography. Molecular modeling has proven to be an excellent tool for studying ionotropic receptors. Recently, modeling studies carried out on P2X receptors have advanced our knowledge of the P2X receptor structure-function relationships. This review presents a brief history of ion channel structural studies and shows how modeling approaches can be used to address relevant questions about P2X receptors.

  15. Face processing in chronic alcoholism: a specific deficit for emotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurage, P; Campanella, S; Philippot, P; Martin, S; de Timary, P

    2008-04-01

    It is well established that chronic alcoholism is associated with a deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression (EFE). Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether this deficit is specifically for emotions or due to a more general impairment in visual or facial processing. This study was designed to clarify this issue using multiple control tasks and the subtraction method. Eighteen patients suffering from chronic alcoholism and 18 matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform several tasks evaluating (1) Basic visuo-spatial and facial identity processing; (2) Simple reaction times; (3) Complex facial features identification (namely age, emotion, gender, and race). Accuracy and reaction times were recorded. Alcoholic patients had a preserved performance for visuo-spatial and facial identity processing, but their performance was impaired for visuo-motor abilities and for the detection of complex facial aspects. More importantly, the subtraction method showed that alcoholism is associated with a specific EFE decoding deficit, still present when visuo-motor slowing down is controlled for. These results offer a post hoc confirmation of earlier data showing an EFE decoding deficit in alcoholism by strongly suggesting a specificity of this deficit for emotions. This may have implications for clinical situations, where emotional impairments are frequently observed among alcoholic subjects.

  16. Linguistic Features and Schematic Textual Structure in Look-Good Advertisements in the Indian Print Media in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdev; Bedi, Navkiran Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Every text has a communicative purpose that it performs by dividing itself into generic stages. These stages are assigned specific goals and have differing linguistic structures. This paper makes an attempt to investigate whether there is a definable co-relation between linguistic features and stages in the genre of look-good advertisements. It…

  17. Constitution-specific features of perspiration and skin visco-elasticity in SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Ku, Boncho; Jung, Chang Jin; Kim, Jaeuk U; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-01-15

    Human skin properties have been used as an important diagnostic component in traditional medicine as they change with health conditions. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) puts emphasis on the recognition of the constitution-specific skin features prior to the diagnostic decision of health. In this work, in search of skin-characteristics effectively reflecting SCM features, we compared several skin properties such as perspiration, visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis, in several candidate body parts. We conducted a clinical study in which a total of 111 healthy females aged 50 - 70 years participated with their Sasang constitution (SC) types determined objectively by the Sasang constitutional analytic tool. Perspiration on the skin surface was estimated by using a capacitance sensor to measure the amount of moisture on the palm, forehead, and philtrum before and after a heating stimulus. We acquired the visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis at the forearm by Dermalab's elasticity sensing device. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the effect of SC on the nine skin features acquired. The visco-elasticity of the forearm of the Soeum-in (SE) group was significantly lower than that of the Taeeum-in (TE) group (F = 68.867, p elasticity hysteresis of the SE group was higher than that of the TE group (F = 10.364, p elasticity, elasticity hysteresis, perspiration on the forehead and philtrum. Our findings are based on a novel interpretation of the SCM literature and will contribute to developing the constitutional health status evaluation system in SCM.

  18. An automated approach to network features of protein structure ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Bhat, Chanda R; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2013-01-01

    Network theory applied to protein structures provides insights into numerous problems of biological relevance. The explosion in structural data available from PDB and simulations establishes a need to introduce a standalone-efficient program that assembles network concepts/parameters under one hood in an automated manner. Herein, we discuss the development/application of an exhaustive, user-friendly, standalone program package named PSN-Ensemble, which can handle structural ensembles generated through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation/NMR studies or from multiple X-ray structures. The novelty in network construction lies in the explicit consideration of side-chain interactions among amino acids. The program evaluates network parameters dealing with topological organization and long-range allosteric communication. The introduction of a flexible weighing scheme in terms of residue pairwise cross-correlation/interaction energy in PSN-Ensemble brings in dynamical/chemical knowledge into the network representation. Also, the results are mapped on a graphical display of the structure, allowing an easy access of network analysis to a general biological community. The potential of PSN-Ensemble toward examining structural ensemble is exemplified using MD trajectories of an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcH5b). Furthermore, insights derived from network parameters evaluated using PSN-Ensemble for single-static structures of active/inactive states of β2-adrenergic receptor and the ternary tRNA complexes of tyrosyl tRNA synthetases (from organisms across kingdoms) are discussed. PSN-Ensemble is freely available from http://vishgraph.mbu.iisc.ernet.in/PSN-Ensemble/psn_index.html. PMID:23934896

  19. Specific features of cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant women with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bysaha, Nataliya Yu

    2016-01-01

    a tendency of increasing incidence of the cervix uteri precancer and cancer in women of reproductive age is noticed recently being related to the growth of number of the sexually-transmitted infections. The cervix uteri pathology incidence in women of fertile age is 20-25%. to study the specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in the anamnesis and the character of its change post partum. we have examined 195 women during their pregnancy and 3-5 months post partum. All pregnant women, alongside with generally accepted clinical and laboratory examinations, were subjected to the simple and extended colposcopy, cytology of the targeted smears and, according to indications, the histological studies of bioptate. according to the results of the colcoscopical studies and the signs of the cervix uteri pathology found, the patients were divided into several groups. A control group included 49 pregnant women. The clinical and instrumental examination of 146 women with cervix uteri pathology has been carried out both during pregnancy and post partum. the structure of the clinical forms of benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium in pregnant patients has been found. Specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis have been studied. The relationship between the parity of pregnancy, delivery, route of delivery and regress of both benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium 3-5 months post partum has been determined.

  20. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J O'Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution.

  1. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Brendan J; Barth, Zachary K; McKitterick, Amelia C; Seed, Kimberley D

    2017-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements) are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin) respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution.

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic features of gout in intercritical and chronic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamashis; Ghosh, Alakendu; Ghosh, Parasar; Lahiri, Debasish; Sinhamahapatra, Pradyot; Basu, Kaushik

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonographic features of gout in intercritical and chronic stages and compared ultrasonographic features of gout between patients with persistent high serum uric acid (SUA) and patients with low SUA. Adult patients with gout confirmed by demonstration of monosodium urate crystals were recruited, if they were in intercritical or chronic stage clinically. Ultrasonographic examination of the first metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) and the knee joints of both sides were done by a blinded rheumatologist trained in musculoskeletal ultrasound. Sixty-two patients with gout and 30 control subjects were examined. The double contour sign (DCS) was found in 71 (57.3%) first MTPJs and tophi were found in 54 (43.5%) first MTPJs. DCS was present in 43 (69.4%) gout patients but none in the control group (P gout patients were 69.4% (56.4-80.4%) and 100% (88.3-100%), respectively, while of tophi they were 66.1% (53-77.7%) and 100% (88.3-100%), respectively. The sensitivity of DCS increased to 100% in high the SUA subgroup (SUA ≥ 7 mg/dL). The low SUA (SUA gout subgroup showed significantly higher occurrence of erosions (40%) and tophi (50%) in first MTP joints than the control group. MSUS is useful for diagnosis of gout in intercritical or chronic stages, especially in patients with persistently high SUA level. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Molecular Features of Subtype-Specific Progression from Ductal Carcinoma In Situ to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lesurf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer consists of at least five main molecular “intrinsic” subtypes that are reflected in both pre-invasive and invasive disease. Although previous studies have suggested that many of the molecular features of invasive breast cancer are established early, it is unclear what mechanisms drive progression and whether the mechanisms of progression are dependent or independent of subtype. We have generated mRNA, miRNA, and DNA copy-number profiles from a total of 59 in situ lesions and 85 invasive tumors in order to comprehensively identify those genes, signaling pathways, processes, and cell types that are involved in breast cancer progression. Our work provides evidence that there are molecular features associated with disease progression that are unique to the intrinsic subtypes. We additionally establish subtype-specific signatures that are able to identify a small proportion of pre-invasive tumors with expression profiles that resemble invasive carcinoma, indicating a higher likelihood of future disease progression.

  4. Learning about the internal structure of categories through classification and feature inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on category learning has found that classification tasks produce representations that are skewed toward diagnostic feature dimensions, whereas feature inference tasks lead to richer representations of within-category structure. Yet, prior studies often measure category knowledge through tasks that involve identifying only the typical features of a category. This neglects an important aspect of a category's internal structure: how typical and atypical features are distributed within a category. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that inference learning results in richer knowledge of internal category structure than classification learning. We introduced several new measures to probe learners' representations of within-category structure. Experiment 1 found that participants in the inference condition learned and used a wider range of feature dimensions than classification learners. Classification learners, however, were more sensitive to the presence of atypical features within categories. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence that classification learners were more likely to incorporate atypical features into their representations. Inference learners were less likely to encode atypical category features, even in a "partial inference" condition that focused learners' attention on the feature dimensions relevant to classification. Overall, these results are contrary to the hypothesis that inference learning produces superior knowledge of within-category structure. Although inference learning promoted representations that included a broad range of category-typical features, classification learning promoted greater sensitivity to the distribution of typical and atypical features within categories.

  5. Analysis of Specific Features of International Standards of Personnel Security of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out components of personnel security of an enterprise, outlines processes of personnel management, which correspond with conditions of security of life and labour, competent, socially protected professional activity, availability of the acting system of motivation and stimulation, and possibilities for corporate conflicts resolution. The article presents basic standards, rules and legislative acts that regulate ensuring personnel security. It analyses specific features of application of standards with respect to: life security and labour protection culture at an enterprise, including managerial systems and practice, behaviour of personnel at working places and also intellectual component of personnel security, which envisages that personnel has knowledge and competences that assist in achievement of strategic goals of an enterprise.

  6. Specific feature of magnetooptical images of stray fields of magnets of various geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Koveshnikov, A. V.; Andreev, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    Specific features of magnetooptical images (MOIs) of stray fields near the faces of prismatic hard magnetic elements have been studied. Attention has primarily been focused on MOIs of fields near faces oriented perpendicular to the magnetic moment of hard magnetic elements. With regard to the polar sensitivity, MOIs have practically uniform brightness and geometrically they coincide with the figures of the bases of the elements. With regard to longitudinal sensitivity, MOIs consist of several sectors, the number of which is determined by the number of angles of the image. Each angle is divided by the bisectrix into two sectors of different brightnesses; therefore, the MOI of a triangular magnet consists of three sectors. A rectangle consists of four sectors separated by the bisectrices of the interior angles. In all types of figures, these lines converge at the center of the figure and form a singular point of the source or sink type.

  7. [The prevalence, causes and specific features of voice disturbances in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, O S; Vasilenko, Iu S; Zakharova, A F; Samokhvalova, L O; Kozlova, P A

    2000-01-01

    The paper analyzes voice disturbances, their causes and specific features in teachers based on the questionnaires filled by 934 general educational school teachers. The teachers have been found to associate voice disturbances not only with changes in the voice timbre, but with different subjective feelings that make their professional activity difficult. The major factors that cause voice disturbances are the voice overloads that differ in teachers of different specialities, their inability to use the voice, psychoemotional stresses, and frequent colds, as well as a combination of several factors. The incidence of vocal apparatus diseases does not tend to decrease, which makes it necessary to implement combined medical and pedagogical prophylactic measures to prevent dysphonia.

  8. Specific features of the WWER Uranium-Gadolinium fuel behavior at BOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcheglov, A.; Proselkov, V.; Volkov, B.

    2013-01-01

    The calculated-experimental analysis of the WWER fuel behavior with 5%wt of gadolinium oxide at the beginning of life (BOL) is presented. The results are based on the data on fuel centerline temperature measurements, gas media pressure inside the cladding and fuel elongation obtained during irradiation of the test fuel rods in HBWR (Halden). Computer analysis of experimental data is performed with TOPRA-2, version 2 code. It is shown that specific features of the uranium-gadolinium fuel behavior at the early of life is due to presence of burnable absorber influencing the average linear heat rating, radial power distribution and lower thermal conductivity. In particular, the analysis of “late” relocation effect on the maximum Gd fuel temperature is presented. (authors)

  9. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...... cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pIJ487 just upstream of the promoter-less aphII gene that confers resistance to neomycin. This synthetic promoter library was transformed into Streptomyces lividans, and the resulting transformants were screened for their ability to grow in the presence of different...... projects. Thirty-eight promoters were sequenced, and the sequences of the 14 weakest and 14 strongest promoters were compared using the WebLogo software with small sample correction. This comparison revealed that the −10 box, the −10 extended motif as well as the spacer of the strong Streptomyces promoters...

  10. Specifics of Gender Manifestation of Prosocial and Antisocial Features in Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatyr Yuliya Aleksandrovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the gender factors in the formation of prosociality – asociality in humans. A set of indicators reflecting the quantitative and qualitative terms motivational prerequisites of social behavior is presented. The estimation actualization needs are characterized as the beginning of the centripetal and focused on the involvement of the individual in society. Comparative analysis and accentuation of personality traits identified predominance of cycles, emotive and exaltation on the background of male domination of reactive aggression and masculinity. Assessment of the severity of empathy revealed the advantage of emotional and intuitive channels in the group of women relative to men. Undertaken study allowed to determine the presence of specific features of the formation of prosocial behavior of women, where the key element is the dominance of emotional factors initiation of social behavior, and situational mode, reactive response.

  11. The impact of the structural features of the rock mass on seismicity in Polish coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2017-11-01

    The article presents seismic activity induced in the coal mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (GZW) in relation to the locations of the occurrence of rockbursts. The comparison of these measurements with the structural features of the rock mass of coal mines indicates the possibility of estimating the so-called Unitary Energy Expenditure (UEE) in a specific time. The obtained values of UEE were compared with the distribution of seismic activity in GZW mines. The level of seismic activity in the analysed period changed and depended on the intensity of mining works and diverse mining and geological conditions. Five regions, where tremors occurred (Bytom Trough, Main Saddle, Main Trough, Kazimierz Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough) which belong to various structural units of the Upper Silesia were analyzed. It was found out that rock bursts were recorded only in three regions: Main Saddle, Bytom Trough, and Jejkowice and Chwałowice Trough.

  12. Features of construction of structures in long-term training acrobatics at the modern stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Bachynska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the basic directions of the structure of long-term training in sports acrobatics are ground. The objectives of the study was to determine the leading requirements and criteria, the main stages of a multi-year training in acrobatics. Material : analysis of special scientific and methodical literature, revealing the specific features of the construction of long-term training in sports and gymnastics, acrobatic rock 'n' roll, a number of other sports. Results : general structure, goals, objectives and provisions of the basic stages of a multi-year training in sports acrobatics. Singled leading indicators and criteria for each of the main stages of long-term sports training in acrobatics. Recommended duration of training sessions and key requirements for the preparation of acrobats. Conclusions : outlines the main requirements and benchmarks that can guide the trainer in a training and competitive activity when working with acrobats all age groups and different sports qualification.

  13. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  14. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  15. [Specific features of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with obesity and overweight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livzan, M A; Lapteva, I V; Krolevets, T S; Kiselev, I E

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the specific features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with obesity and overweight, by investigating the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of the disease, 24-hour pH-metry scores, and leptin levels. A total of 131 patients with GERD were examined. The data about complaints and those from life and medical histories were collected; anthropometric measurements and the results of blood biochemical tests, esophagoduodenoscopy (EPDS), and pH-metry were assessed; and the serum levels of leptin and its receptor were estimated. The patients were allocated into a study group (104 obese and/or overweight patients) and a comparison one (27 normal weight people). Waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood glucose levels proved to be statistically significantly higher in the study group (pstudy group and 5.47 (3.35-7.68) ng/ml in the comparison group; the median levels of the receptors were 18.83 (14.98-25.11) ng/ml and 30.93 (24.68-33.53) ng/ml, respectively). This group showed a moderate negative correlation between these indicators (rs=-0.451; pstudy group displayed higher pH values in the gastric cardia and body (prefluxate having with a low pH value (refluxate having a pH below 4.0 (rs=0.543; preflux episodes longer than 5 minutes in the esophagus, and to the De Meester index for this indicator (rs=0.471; pdisease, which determines the specific features of the disease (alkaline or mixed refluxate) and the need for individualized therapy.

  16. The Specific Features of the Course of Critical Conditions in Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve treatment results in miners, by studying the specific features of the course of their critical conditions caused by severe traumatic injuries, and to develop differentiated intensive therapeutic regimens for detected abnormalities. Subjects and methods. A total of 1107 subjects were examined during the study. Central hemodynamic function was explored in 371 healthy miners with various lengths of underground mining; a control group included 30 healthy volunteers unexposed to occupational hazards. Examinations were made in 386 severe brain injury victims, including 218 victims with no length of underground work and 115 injured miners with an underground work length of more than 5 years. A control group comprised 53 apparently healthy donors. One hundred and twenty-two miners with severe thermal injury were examined. A control group consisted of 39 apparently healthy volunteers. One hundred and six victims with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the presence of severe concomitant injury were examined under mechanical ventilation. Sixty-three injured miners formed a study group; a comparison group included 43 subjects with no length of underground mining. Conclusion. Upon longer exposure to occupational hazards, the prenosological changes occur in the miners' organs and systems, which display a regular phasic pattern, fit in the picture of general adjustment syndrome, and determine the specific features of critical conditions. The peculiarities of the critical conditions caused by severe traumatic injuries in miners are the early development and high frequency of complications, the more severe course and late recovery of the body's lost functions, unlike the victims unexposed to occupational hazards. Differentiated intensive therapy for critical conditions in miners with severe traumatic injuries makes it possible to improve treatment results and to reduce death rates. 

  17. Structural Features and Healthy Properties of Polysaccharides Occurring in Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guillamón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from mushrooms have attracted a great deal of attention due to the many healthy benefits they have demonstrated, such as immunomodulation, anticancer activity, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, among others. Isolation and purification of polysaccharides commonly involve several steps, and different techniques are actually available in order to increase extraction yield and purity. Studies have demonstrated that the molecular structure and arrangement significantly influence the biological activity; therefore, there is a wide range of analytical techniques for the elucidation of chemical structures. Different polysaccharides have been isolated from mushrooms, most of them consisting of β-linked glucans, such as lentinan from Lentinus edodes, pleuran from Pleurotus species, schizophyllan from Schizophyllum commune, calocyban from Calocybe indica, or ganoderan and ganopoly from Ganoderma lucidum. This article reviews the main methods of polysaccharide isolation and structural characterization, as well as some of the most important polysaccharides isolated from mushrooms and the healthy benefits they provide.

  18. The Specific Features of Congenital and Acquired Forms of Behavior in the Postresuscitative Period (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Zarzhetsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences V. A. Negovsky stated that there was an association of the pathogenesis of postresuscitative central nervous system (CNS lesions with the individual typological characteristics. Therefore the objective of the investigation was to study the early brain structural and functional changes in resuscitated rats, which were related to the baseline type of behavior. The investigation was carried out on outbred albino male rats. Circulation was stopped under ether anesthesia for 10 minutes via intrathoracic ligation of the cardiac vascular fascicle. Before clinical death simulation, the animals were divided by the types of behavior according to their behavioral activity in the elevated cross labyrinth or open field test. Postresuscitatively, the rats were found to preserve their individual typological features of behavior. At the same time the animals with baseline various behavioral patterns showed great differences in becoming familiar with a new environment. The study of conditioned reflex activities suggested the predominant impact of postresuscitative cerebral changes on different mechanisms responsible for active avoidance conditioning in rats with baseline different behavioral types. Examination of the CA1 and CA4 pyramidal cell neuronal populations of the hippocampus indicated that in the elevated cross labyrinth test, the resuscitated animals with a high baseline behavioral activity had more pronounced neurodystrophic and degenerative changes in the study brain regions than the rats with a low activity. The findings not only have supported V. A. Negovsky’s ideas on the association of the pathogenesis of postresuscitative cerebral disorders with the individual typological characteristics of the CNS, but also revealed differences in the neuropathophysiological mechanisms of these disorders, and ascertained the structural features of postresuscitative cerebral lesions in the animals with

  19. Evaluation of feature detection algorithms for structure from motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available technique with an application to stereo vision,” in International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, April 1981. [17] C.Tomasi and T.Kanade, “Detection and tracking of point fetaures,” Carnegie Mellon, Tech. Rep., April 1991. [18] P. Torr... Algorithms for Structure from Motion Natasha Govender Mobile Intelligent Autonomous Systems CSIR Pretoria Email: ngovender@csir.co.za Abstract—Structure from motion is a widely-used technique in computer vision to perform 3D reconstruction. The 3D...

  20. Structural-phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko, Victor A.

    2016-06-01

    symptoms of the disease. The structural-phenomenological features of the formation of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses are specific to the circumstances of their origin. For the purpose of the psychoprevention of doctors’ own diseases it is necessary to include these features in the special courses on medical psychology at the stages of vocational training (students and professional adaptation (interns, as well as in the “psychology in practical medicine” project for doctors.

  1. Ultrasonic and structural features of some borosilicate glasses ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, the glass structure becomes contractedand compacted, which decreases its molar volume and increases its rigidity. This concept was asserted from the increase in the ultrasonic velocity, Debye temperature and elastic moduli with the increase of SiO2 content. The present compositional dependence of the elastic ...

  2. Unusual Features of Crystal Structures of Some Simple Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bodie

    2009-01-01

    Some simple copper compounds have unusual crystal structures. Cu[subscript 3]N is cubic with N atoms at centers of octahedra formed by 6 Cu atoms. Cu[subscript 2]O (cuprite) is also cubic; O atoms are in tetrahedra formed by 4 Cu atoms. These tetrahedra are linked by sharing vertices forming two independent networks without linkages between them.…

  3. Band structure features of nonlinear optical yttrium aluminium borate crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reshak, Ali H; Auluck, S.; Majchrowski, A.; Kityk, I. V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2008), s. 1445-1448 ISSN 1293-2558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Electronic structure * DFF * FPLAPW * LDA Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.742, year: 2008

  4. Concordance of visual and structural features between siblings with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinmiller, Laura J; Holleschau, Ann; Summers, C Gail

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate similarities and differences in visual function and ocular structure between siblings with albinism. The medical records of all siblings diagnosed with albinism were retrospectively reviewed. Comparisons were made using examination at oldest age for younger sibling and examination closest to that age for older siblings. A total of 111 patients from 54 families were studied. Mean age was 12.9 years (range, 2 months to 44.2 years). Mean difference in ages between sibling pair examinations was 11.5 months (range, 0-87 months). Of 45 families, best-corrected visual acuity was equal in 9 (20%), within 1/2 octave in 9 (20%), >1/2 but albinism should be counseled with due caution because visual function is often disparate despite similar structural findings. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of specific features of digital instrumentation and control systems and possibilities of accounting for them within PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustak, S.

    2002-10-01

    The report is structured as follows: Basic information on the peculiarities of digital technology for the I and C system at an NPP (Digital signal; Digital communication; Communication protocols; Examples of practical tools for creation of I and C digital systems); Peculiarities of the digital I and C technology from the reliability viewpoint (Software as a new component of implementation of a system function; Problems with the assessment or demonstration of reliability of software components of an I and C system); Possibilities of accounting for the specific features of digital I and C technology within PSA (Relevant PSA components; Using PSA as a supporting tool in designing new NPPs; Categorization of NPP I and C system tasks with respect to the defence-in-depth principle). (P.A.)

  6. Structural features in icosahedral Al63Cu25Fe12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.H.; Solal, F.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Berger, C.; Calvayrac, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Since the discovery of a quasicrystalline phase in Al-Mn alloys a substantial amount of work has been done to understand the structural and physical properties of this new class of materials. More recently the discovery of a thermodynamically stable icosahedral phase in AlCuFe presents the opportunity to study pure quasicrystalline phases of high structural quality by eliminating known defects, especially phason disorder by conventional heat treatment. In particular it was shown that annealing treatments of as quenched samples resulted in a dramatic reduction in the width of the diffraction peaks associated with the elimination of as quenched defects, present in other quasicrystals. Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have a high sensitivity to intrinsic defects and positron annihilation radiation angular correlation measurements are well suited to measurements of electronic structure in systems where the defect effects do not dominate. We have measured positron annihilation lifetime and angular correlations on quasicrystalline samples of Al 63 Cu 25 Fe 12 in the pure icosahedral phase

  7. Structural and sequence features of two residue turns in beta-hairpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Bharat; Seo, Sung Yong; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2014-09-01

    Beta-turns in beta-hairpins have been implicated as important sites in protein folding. In particular, two residue β-turns, the most abundant connecting elements in beta-hairpins, have been a major target for engineering protein stability and folding. In this study, we attempted to investigate and update the structural and sequence properties of two residue turns in beta-hairpins with a large data set. For this, 3977 beta-turns were extracted from 2394 nonhomologous protein chains and analyzed. First, the distribution, dihedral angles and twists of two residue turn types were determined, and compared with previous data. The trend of turn type occurrence and most structural features of the turn types were similar to previous results, but for the first time Type II turns in beta-hairpins were identified. Second, sequence motifs for the turn types were devised based on amino acid positional potentials of two-residue turns, and their distributions were examined. From this study, we could identify code-like sequence motifs for the two residue beta-turn types. Finally, structural and sequence properties of beta-strands in the beta-hairpins were analyzed, which revealed that the beta-strands showed no specific sequence and structural patterns for turn types. The analytical results in this study are expected to be a reference in the engineering or design of beta-hairpin turn structures and sequences. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mapping the structural and dynamical features of kinesin motor domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Scarabelli

    Full Text Available Kinesin motor proteins drive intracellular transport by coupling ATP hydrolysis to conformational changes that mediate directed movement along microtubules. Characterizing these distinct conformations and their interconversion mechanism is essential to determining an atomic-level model of kinesin action. Here we report a comprehensive principal component analysis of 114 experimental structures along with the results of conventional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations that together map the structural dynamics of the kinesin motor domain. All experimental structures were found to reside in one of three distinct conformational clusters (ATP-like, ADP-like and Eg5 inhibitor-bound. These groups differ in the orientation of key functional elements, most notably the microtubule binding α4-α5, loop8 subdomain and α2b-β4-β6-β7 motor domain tip. Group membership was found not to correlate with the nature of the bound nucleotide in a given structure. However, groupings were coincident with distinct neck-linker orientations. Accelerated molecular dynamics simulations of ATP, ADP and nucleotide free Eg5 indicate that all three nucleotide states could sample the major crystallographically observed conformations. Differences in the dynamic coupling of distal sites were also evident. In multiple ATP bound simulations, the neck-linker, loop8 and the α4-α5 subdomain display correlated motions that are absent in ADP bound simulations. Further dissection of these couplings provides evidence for a network of dynamic communication between the active site, microtubule-binding interface and neck-linker via loop7 and loop13. Additional simulations indicate that the mutations G325A and G326A in loop13 reduce the flexibility of these regions and disrupt their couplings. Our combined results indicate that the reported ATP and ADP-like conformations of kinesin are intrinsically accessible regardless of nucleotide state and support a model where neck

  9. Features of structural response of mechanically loaded crystallites to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V., E-mail: avkor@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    A molecular dynamics method is employed to investigate the origin and evolution of plastic deformation in elastically deformed iron and vanadium crystallites due to atomic displacement cascades. Elastic stress states of crystallites result from different degrees of specimen deformation. Crystallites are deformed under constant-volume conditions. Atomic displacement cascades with the primary knock-on atom energy up to 50 keV are generated in loaded specimens. It is shown that irradiation may cause not only the Frenkel pair formation but also large-scale structural rearrangements outside the irradiated area, which prove to be similar to rearrangements proceeding by the twinning mechanism in mechanically loaded specimens.

  10. Inflation in Modern Russia: Theoretical Foundations, Specific Features of Manifestation and Regional Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Ilyashenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to characterize the development and specific features of inflation in Russia on the basis of its theoretical justification and practical analysis. The article discusses the monetarist and Keynesian approaches to the characterization of inflation. The paper shows that the equation of exchange from the quantity theory of money, which is the basis of the monetarist theory of inflation, does not allow to make an unambiguous conclusion about the direct relationship between money supply and price level in the economy. The authors give the theoretical substantiation of cost-push inflation from the position of microeconomic theory, which is denied by the representatives of the monetarist school. We characterize the specific features of inflation in the period of market transformations in Russia. The article shows the considerable role of the cost factors of cost-push inflation: the monopolization of the economy, rise in the prices of energy and raw materials. There is an absence of the direct relationship between inflation and money supply growth in large part of the period of the 2000. The authors determine the dependence between the exchange rate and inflation in the Russian economy, which is most evident during periods of significant devaluation of the national currency, as a rule, associated with a significant increase in world oil prices. The paper notes that the significant decline in aggregate demand that occurred in Russia in recent years have reduced the level of inflation in 2016. Despite this, the reduction of inflation and its transformation to slow cost-push inflation was combined with negative consequences for the economy: the decrease of investments and production development, reduction of the living standards of the population. The authors conducted the analysis of inflation on the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation, which has confirmed the significant role of causes of cost-push inflation in

  11. Structure, hardness and fracture features of nanostructural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Korznikov, A.V.; Idrisova, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made into nanocrystalline metals Cu and Mo, nanocrystalline intermetallic compound Ni 3 Al produced using severe plastic deformation; nanophase alloys Fe 73.5 Cu 1 Nb 3 Si 1.35 B 9 and Pd 81 Cu 7 Si 12 produced by crystallization from amorphous state as well as nanophase materials TiN and Al 2 O 3 produced by nano powder compacting in the temperature range of 273-573 K. Methods of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, mechanical testing and microhardness measurement are applied to study structure, internal elastic stress, phase composition, hardness, strength and plastic properties, surface fracture mode of nanostructural materials [ru

  12. Some features of borophosphatic catalysts structure with silicate bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubasov, A.A.; Kitaev, L.E.; Topchieva, K.V.; Gonchakova, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of borophosphatic catalysts is studied using the method of IR-spectroscopy. Silica gel and diatomite brick were used as a binding (carriers). To clarify the character of the carrier effect on borophosphate structure obtained were boric and phosphoric acid spectra, covered in the quantity of 10 weight % on SiO 2 , and also industrial catalyst H 3 PO 4 /SiO 2 of hydratation with higher P 2 O 5 content. At calcination of sample 10% H 3 BO 3 /SiO 2 in vacuum 932 cm -1 strip intensity increased with the temperature rise and that can be referred to B-O-Si vibrations. In the area of fundamental vibrations P-O and Si-O spectrum of the 10% H 3 PO 4 /SiO 2 sample, subjected to heating up to 600 deg C in the air, differed but slightly from the initial SiO 2 spectrum. In the spectrum of the sample with higher P 2 O 5 content after thermovapor treatment at 300 deg C in the frequency range of 500-800 cm -1 strips were detected, which testified to the phosphoric acid interaction with silica gel. The state of adsorbed water can be judged by the change of 1630 cm -1 strip optical density in the course of step thermovacuum borophosphate treatment. It was found that water was removed from the sample surface in the range of 200-300 deg C. Thus, at borophosphate catalysts calcination which contains SiO 2 , interaction took place between borophosphate and bind components accompanied by B-O-Si and P-O-Si bonds formation. Water removal from these catalyst surfaces took place at lower temperature as compared to individual borophosphate, which testified to certain release of electron acceptor properties as a result of the bind component introduction. Thus, the bind component introduction not only increases mechanical strength and hydrolytic stability of borophosphates but results in their surface modification

  13. [The characters and specific features of new human embryonic stem cells lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, T A; Kol'tsova, A M; Zenin, V V; Gordeeva, O F; Musorina, A S; Goriachaia, T S; Shlykova, S A; Kamenetskaia, Iu K; Pinaev, G P; Polianskaia, G G

    2009-01-01

    Four continuous human embryonic stem cell lines (SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4), derived from the blastocysts has been described. The cell lines were cultivated on mitotically inactivated human feeder cells. The cell lines SC1 and SC2 have passed through 150 population doublings and the cell lines SC3 and SC4 -- near 120 populations doublings, which exceeds Hayflick limit sufficiently. These cell lines maintain high activity of alkaline phosphatase, expression of transcription factor OCT-4 and cell surface antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), confirming their ESC status and human specificity. Immunofluorescent detection of antigens, characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm confirms the ability of these cells to retain their pluripotency under in vitro condition. PCR analysis revealed expression of six genes specific for pluripotent cells (OCT-4, NANOG, DPPA3/STELLA, TDGF/CRIPTO and LEFTYA). Correlation between the level of proliferative activity and the character of DNA-bound fluorescent staining was found. Fluorescent dyes, Hoechst 33342 and PI, produced diffuse staining of the nuclei in slowly proliferating cells of the SC1 and SC2 lines. In contrast, in actively proliferating cells of the SC3 and SC4 lines, the clear staining of the nuclei was observed. Upon changing the cultivation condition, proliferative activity of SC3 and SC4 lines decreased and became similar to that of SC1 and SC2 lines. The character of the fluorescent staining of all these lines was also shown to be similar. These results show that quality of the fluorescent staining with Hoechst 33342 and PI reflects the level of proliferation. Possible causes and mechanisms of this feature of human ESC are discussed.

  14. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  15. Individually specific call feature is not used to neighbour-stranger discrimination: the corncrake case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Budka

    Full Text Available In various contexts, animals rely on acoustic signals to differentiate between conspecifics. Currently, studies examining vocal signatures use two main approaches. In the first approach, researchers search for acoustic characteristics that have the potential to be individual specific. This approach yields information on variation in signal parameters both within and between individuals and generates practical tools that can be used in population monitoring. In the second approach, playback experiments with natural calls are conducted to discern whether animals are capable of discriminating among the vocal signatures of different individuals. However, both approaches do not reveal the exact signal characteristics that are being used in the discrimination process. In this study, we tested whether an individual-specific call characteristic--namely the length of the intervals between successive maximal amplitude peaks within syllables (PPD--is crucial in neighbour-stranger discrimination by males of the nocturnal and highly secretive bird species, the corncrake (Crex crex. We conducted paired playback experiments in which corncrakes (n = 47 were exposed to artificial calls with PPD characteristics of neighbour and stranger birds. These artificial calls differed only in PPD structure. The calls were broadcast from a speaker, and we recorded the birds' behavioural responses. Although corncrakes have previously been experimentally shown to discriminate between neighbours and strangers, we found no difference in the responses to the artificial calls representing neighbours versus strangers. This finding demonstrates that even if vocal signatures are individual specific within a species, it does not automatically mean that said signatures are being crucial in discrimination among individuals. At the same time, the birds' aggressive responses to the artificial calls indicated that the information transmitted by PPDs is important in species-specific

  16. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries.

  17. [Specific features of Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients and female carriers of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magot, A; Mercier, S; Péréon, Y

    2015-12-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) was first described in 1955 and linked to the DMD gene in 1987. Compared to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), clinical onset of BMD usually occurs after the age of 12 and wheelchair is required after the age of 16. BMD is characterized by generalized weakness first affecting limb girdle muscles, hypertrophy of the calves and cardiomyopathy in males. Some patients have only mild symptoms such as cramps or elevated serum creatine kinases (SCK) throughout all their lives. SCK levels are usually elevated. Muscle biopsy (immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting) shows a dystrophic pattern with abnormal dystrophin staining. Diagnosis is confirmed by DMD gene sequencing. Deletions or duplications of one or several exons are identified in the majority of cases. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the care management of these patients with a particular attention to the cardiomyopathy, which is typically responsible for death but can be prevented by specific treatment. X-linked dilated cardiomyopathies linked to DMD gene are a phenotypic continuum of BMD. Some female carriers of DMD mutations exhibit clinical symptoms of variable severity, often milder and beginning later than in males. The cardiomyopathy is the most frequent feature that should be especially monitored in these patients. Genetic counselling should be systematically proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific features of the behaviour of excess currents in tunnel diodes of n-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyatkin, A.P.; Glushchenko, V.A.; Parkhomenko, R.P.; Pastor, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of currents in the field of a valley of volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) and the effect of 2.0 MeV electron bombardment on the characteristics of tunnel n-GaAs of TD diodes is considered. Release of tunnel and thermal current components has shown that the first component of excess currents is due to electron tunneling through intermediate states situated in a wide region of the forbidden zone. The nature of the second current component is explained by far reaching into the region of the forbidden zone tails of electron states on which energy impurity states can superimpose. Highly-alloyed TD with concentrations n>=3x10 19 cm -3 and p=(1.5-2)x10 20 cm -3 practically are not sensitive to doses up to phi approximately 2x10 17 el/cm 2 . Radiation induced defects related with electron bombardment is rather small. Specific features of the preparation of n-GaAs tunnel diodes lead to the fact that as a result of complex alloying of the p-region of the diode a relatively slow increase of excess currents as compared with the TD corresponding currents from the p-GaAs is observed

  19. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowadays the banks are not only offerers of factoring services and finance factoring operations of other market participants, but also take an active part in establishment of factoring branches and are consumers of factoring services. In order to accelerate development of international factoring in Ukraine, the article offers such forms of state support of banks, which render factoring services to domestic exporters. The article recommends to focus banks’ attention, under modern conditions that are characterised with volatility of financial markets, on factoring servicing of those clients, whom they have long business relations with, without jeopardising themselves through provision of factoring services to a big number of small debtors. The article provides schemes of banks’ co-operation in the sphere of “non-classic” factoring with accredited factoring companies.

  20. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  1. Modelling energy demand of developing countries: Are the specific features adequately captured?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C. [CEPMLP, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper critically reviews existing energy demand forecasting methodologies highlighting the methodological diversities and developments over the past four decades in order to investigate whether the existing energy demand models are appropriate for capturing the specific features of developing countries. The study finds that two types of approaches, econometric and end-use accounting, are commonly used in the existing energy demand models. Although energy demand models have greatly evolved since the early seventies, key issues such as the poor-rich and urban-rural divides, traditional energy resources and differentiation between commercial and non-commercial energy commodities are often poorly reflected in these models. While the end-use energy accounting models with detailed sectoral representations produce more realistic projections as compared to the econometric models, they still suffer from huge data deficiencies especially in developing countries. Development and maintenance of more detailed energy databases, further development of models to better reflect developing country context and institutionalizing the modelling capacity in developing countries are the key requirements for energy demand modelling to deliver richer and more reliable input to policy formulation in developing countries. (author)

  2. Specific features of ontogeny of Iris orientalis Mill. introduced to the south-east Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Marina Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research findings on the ontogeny of Iris orientalis Mill. introduced to the Donetsk Botanical Garden. It was established, that in the course of four years, plantlets subsequently pass the following stages: germinating seedling, juvenile, immature, virginal and young generative stages, reaching mature generative stage in their fifth or sixth year. Typical features of a seedling: bond with a seed, significant structural changes in the course of the development―formation of one or two assimilative leaves, growth and branching of the main root. Juvenile age stage is indicated by formation of three-leaf fan and one or two additional roots, immature stage―by a complete leaf fan of five or seven leaves and by development of additional root system. Virginal stage is distinct due to the transition from monopodial growth to sympodial one with a primary bush formation. Generative stage is marked by biomorph formation, flowering and fruitage. Ontogeny of this species when it is cultivated is characterized by dynamic polyvariety, caused by heterogeneity of individual seedling growth rates. Based on these findings, a seed propagation of I. orientalis is suggested for obtaining a lot of high-grade planting material for landscaping in two or three years after sowing the seeds.

  3. Feature-Specific Event-Related Potential Effects to Action- and Sound-Related Verbs during Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Margot; Trumpp, Natalie M; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP) differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  4. DroidEnsemble: Detecting Android Malicious Applications with Ensemble of String and Structural Static Features

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2018-05-11

    Android platform has dominated the Operating System of mobile devices. However, the dramatic increase of Android malicious applications (malapps) has caused serious software failures to Android system and posed a great threat to users. The effective detection of Android malapps has thus become an emerging yet crucial issue. Characterizing the behaviors of Android applications (apps) is essential to detecting malapps. Most existing work on detecting Android malapps was mainly based on string static features such as permissions and API usage extracted from apps. There also exists work on the detection of Android malapps with structural features, such as Control Flow Graph (CFG) and Data Flow Graph (DFG). As Android malapps have become increasingly polymorphic and sophisticated, using only one type of static features may result in false negatives. In this work, we propose DroidEnsemble that takes advantages of both string features and structural features to systematically and comprehensively characterize the static behaviors of Android apps and thus build a more accurate detection model for the detection of Android malapps. We extract each app’s string features, including permissions, hardware features, filter intents, restricted API calls, used permissions, code patterns, as well as structural features like function call graph. We then use three machine learning algorithms, namely, Support Vector Machine (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) and Random Forest (RF), to evaluate the performance of these two types of features and of their ensemble. In the experiments, We evaluate our methods and models with 1386 benign apps and 1296 malapps. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of DroidEnsemble. It achieves the detection accuracy as 95.8% with only string features and as 90.68% with only structural features. DroidEnsemble reaches the detection accuracy as 98.4% with the ensemble of both types of features, reducing 9 false positives and 12 false

  5. Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi

    2011-06-01

    Chinese wines can be classification or graded by the micrographs. Micrographs of Chinese wines show floccules, stick and granule of variant shape and size. Different wines have variant microstructure and micrographs, we study the classification of Chinese wines based on the micrographs. Shape and structure of wines' particles in microstructure is the most important feature for recognition and classification of wines. So we introduce a feature extraction method which can describe the structure and region shape of micrograph efficiently. First, the micrographs are enhanced using total variation denoising, and segmented using a modified Otsu's method based on the Rayleigh Distribution. Then features are extracted using proposed method in the paper based on area, perimeter and traditional shape feature. Eight kinds total 26 features are selected. Finally, Chinese wine classification system based on micrograph using combination of shape and structure features and BP neural network have been presented. We compare the recognition results for different choices of features (traditional shape features or proposed features). The experimental results show that the better classification rate have been achieved using the combinational features proposed in this paper.

  6. Evaluation of physical structural features on influencing enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of micronized wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinxue Jiang; Jinwu Wang; Xiao Zhang; Michael Wolcott

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is highly dependent on the changes in structural features after pretreatment. Mechanical milling pretreatment is an effective approach to alter the physical structure of biomass and thus improve enzymatic hydrolysis. This study examined the influence of structural characteristics on the enzymatic hydrolysis of micronized...

  7. Specific-structured lipids: nutritional perspectives and production potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Høy, Carl-Erik; Balchen, Steen

    1997-01-01

    Structured lipids are referring to any triacylglycerols containing both long chain fatty acids (mostly essential fatty acids) and medium or short chain fatty acids. In case of specific-structured lipids (SSLs), each group of fatty acids locates specifically at sn-2 or -1.3 positions of the glycerol...... backbone. Recently the nutritional perspectives of this kind of lipids attract many interests. This causes an increasing interest in the production of them by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. One of the advantages of lipase method over chemical ones is that SSLs can be produced with particular fatty...

  8. Structural basis for substrate specificities of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, K.; Ramaswamy, S.; Ljungcrantz, C.

    2001-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides and activate a number of medically important nucleoside analogs. Here we report the structure of the Drosophila deoxyribonucleoside kinase with deoxycytidine bound at the nucleoside binding site and that of the human deoxyguanosine ki......; this is apparently due to the presence of Arg 118, which provides favorable hydrogen bonding interactions with the substrate. The two new structures provide an explanation for the substrate specificity of cellular deoxyribonucleoside kinases....

  9. The research of structural features of astralens - nanodimensional carbon particles of fulleroid type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.N.; Nikitin, V.A.; Rybalko, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The article is focused on the research of structural features of astralens - nanodimensional carbonic particles of fulleroid type. Astralens are perspective nanomodificators of properties of materials of different types. The potentials os astralens as modificators depend on their characteristic structural features, and in the first place, on the distribution of nanoparticles by sizes. The typical dimensions of astralens are determined to be within the range of 15-75 nm [ru

  10. Coordination Analysis Using Global Structural Constraints and Alignment-based Local Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kazuo; Shimbo, Masashi; Matsumoto, Yuji

    We propose a hybrid approach to coordinate structure analysis that combines a simple grammar to ensure consistent global structure of coordinations in a sentence, and features based on sequence alignment to capture local symmetry of conjuncts. The weight of the alignment-based features, which in turn determines the score of coordinate structures, is optimized by perceptron training on a given corpus. A bottom-up chart parsing algorithm efficiently finds the best scoring structure, taking both nested or non-overlapping flat coordinations into account. We demonstrate that our approach outperforms existing parsers in coordination scope detection on the Genia corpus.

  11. Structural features that predict real-value fluctuations of globular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, Michal; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kihara, Daisuke

    2012-05-01

    It is crucial to consider dynamics for understanding the biological function of proteins. We used a large number of molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories of nonhomologous proteins as references and examined static structural features of proteins that are most relevant to fluctuations. We examined correlation of individual structural features with fluctuations and further investigated effective combinations of features for predicting the real value of residue fluctuations using the support vector regression (SVR). It was found that some structural features have higher correlation than crystallographic B-factors with fluctuations observed in MD trajectories. Moreover, SVR that uses combinations of static structural features showed accurate prediction of fluctuations with an average Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.669 and a root mean square error of 1.04 Å. This correlation coefficient is higher than the one observed in predictions by the Gaussian network model (GNM). An advantage of the developed method over the GNMs is that the former predicts the real value of fluctuation. The results help improve our understanding of relationships between protein structure and fluctuation. Furthermore, the developed method provides a convienient practial way to predict fluctuations of proteins using easily computed static structural features of proteins. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Specific features of phytoplankton consolidation in techno-ecosystems of nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    The features of forming of phytoplankton species composition and quantitative indexes in the cooling ponds of NPP TPP were considered. Causative agents of water 'flowering' registered in the phytoplankton of cooling ponds of Zaporozhskaya NPP and Khmelnitski NPP were indicated.

  13. The specific features of Guillain–Barré syndrome in Russia: Analysis of 186 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suponeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of 186 patients diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS who had been followed up at the Research Center of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 2000 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Most (65 % of the patients had severe GBS; 19 % of the patients were on mechanical ventilation (MV for an average of 21 (13; 48 days. The forms of GBS, such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP (n = 141; 78 %, and axonal variants, such as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN, acute sensorimotor axonal neuropathy (AMSAN, i. e. AMAN / AMSAN (n = 39; 22 %, were studied separately. There was a significant difference in the seasonal revalence (p < 0.05. AIDP was encountered evenly throughout the year; AMAN / AMSAN occurred in 46 % of cases in summer. AIDP was followed by acute respiratory viral infection in 35 % of cases; diarrhea wasby the axonal forms in 36 % (p < 0.05. The axonal forms ran a severer course than AIDP: MV was performed twice more frequently (33 and 15 %, respectively; its duration was 6‑fold longer: 90 (46; 102 and 15 (10; 21 days (p < 0.05. AMAN / AMSAN was characterized by a severer neurological status and disability in the acute period, as shown by the NIS, MRCss, INCAT, R-ODS, and Barthel scales; these patients showed a poorer response to pathogenetic therapy (p < 0.05: 59 % with an insufficient effect; 15 % of those with AIDP. After six years, the majority (84 % of the patients with AIDP walked alone and only 16 % were assisted. In the same period, less than half of the patients (40 % with AMAN / AMSAN walked alone and a third (29 % could move with assistance and almost the same percentage (31 % could not walk.Thus, a number of specific features of GBS were found in a Russian population (equal age and sex distribution; a larger percentage of the axonal forms than in European countries and the United States; however, the most characteristics did not differ from the global

  14. Structural Determinants of Specific Lipid Binding to Potassium Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weingarth, M.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330985655; Prokofyev, A.; van der Cruijsen, E.A.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330826743; Nand, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337731403; Bonvin, A.M.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113691238; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314410864

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated specific lipid binding to the pore domain of potassium channels KcsA and chimeric KcsAKv1.3 on the structural and functional level using extensive coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, solid-state NMR, and single channel measurements. We show that, while

  15. Perceptual learning is specific to the trained structure of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yamit; Daikhin, Luba; Ahissar, Merav

    2013-12-01

    What do we learn when we practice a simple perceptual task? Many studies have suggested that we learn to refine or better select the sensory representations of the task-relevant dimension. Here we show that learning is specific to the trained structural regularities. Specifically, when this structure is modified after training with a fixed temporal structure, performance regresses to pretraining levels, even when the trained stimuli and task are retained. This specificity raises key questions as to the importance of low-level sensory modifications in the learning process. We trained two groups of participants on a two-tone frequency discrimination task for several days. In one group, a fixed reference tone was consistently presented in the first interval (the second tone was higher or lower), and in the other group the same reference tone was consistently presented in the second interval. When following training, these temporal protocols were switched between groups, performance of both groups regressed to pretraining levels, and further training was needed to attain postlearning performance. ERP measures, taken before and after training, indicated that participants implicitly learned the temporal regularity of the protocol and formed an attentional template that matched the trained structure of information. These results are consistent with Reverse Hierarchy Theory, which posits that even the learning of simple perceptual tasks progresses in a top-down manner, hence can benefit from temporal regularities at the trial level, albeit at the potential cost that learning may be specific to these regularities.

  16. Structural and Phylogenetic Analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: Uncovering General Features of Nitrogen-fixation (nif-Flavodoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50’s loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as “short-chain” with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the “long-chain” with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  17. Structural and phylogenetic analysis of Rhodobacter capsulatus NifF: uncovering general features of nitrogen-fixation (nif)-flavodoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Hermoso, Juan A

    2013-01-09

    Analysis of the crystal structure of NifF from Rhodobacter capsulatus and its homologues reported so far reflects the existence of unique structural features in nif flavodoxins: a leucine at the re face of the isoalloxazine, an eight-residue insertion at the C-terminus of the 50's loop and a remarkable difference in the electrostatic potential surface with respect to non-nif flavodoxins. A phylogenetic study on 64 sequences from 52 bacterial species revealed four clusters, including different functional prototypes, correlating the previously defined as "short-chain" with the firmicutes flavodoxins and the "long-chain" with gram-negative species. The comparison of Rhodobacter NifF structure with other bacterial flavodoxin prototypes discloses the concurrence of specific features of these functional electron donors to nitrogenase.

  18. The influence of target structure on topographical features produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Grant, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ion beam erosion of solid surfaces often results in the development of distinctive topographical features. The relationship between the type of features formed by ion erosion and target structure has been investigated. Single crystals of copper and nickel and the amorphous alloy Metglas have been bombarded to high doses (approx. >=10 19 ions cm -2 ) with 40 keV Ar + and P + . Topography changes were monitored using SEM and structural changes by TEM. Targets that retain their long range crystallinity show sharply defined, regular features that are related to the target structure. Targets that are highly disordered, either intrinsically or as a result of the ion bombardment, produce diffuse, smaller features. Those differences are observed at all stages in topographical evolution. (orig.)

  19. COMPETITIVE FEATURES IN THE MARKET STRUCTURE OF HOUSING PROPERTY WITH REGARD TO REGIONAL DEFINITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyantyn Pavlov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research. Given the steady demand for residential real estate, the low solvency of the population, and unbalanced development of individual segments of the regional housing market, competition issues and the mechanism of its operation, today is very relevant. Real estate is one of the components of the national economy because it carries more than half of total world wealth and its stable functioning is one of the most complex processes of market transformations occurring in the country. Active functioning property markets are a prerequisite for the sustainable development of cities and regions of the country. This development is the basis for the effective management of regional and implemented in the system of national governance and local governance. In modern terms, Ukraine is at the stage of the market system, one of which is real estate market. From the way, the subject of study is a competitive relationship, and especially their formation in the regional real estate market. Methodology. In order to carry out a thorough study, there was elaborated numerous scientific literature authored by leading scientists of Ukraine, Europe, and the former Soviet Union camp to define the concepts of “competition”, “regional market”, “real estate”, “residential property”. According to the research of current problems and competitive features in the structure of the real estate market on the basis of regional specificity, a logical systematization of these concepts is made. Results of the research allowed us to “carry” a clear parallel between the correlation of factors and competitive impact on the regional real estate market of the potential buyers, the developer and manufacturer of products directly to real estate as an object relationship. Practical implications. The article is to study the specific competitive position in the regional real estate market in Ukraine and also features of exposure to it by consumers

  20. STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN SPECIFICS OF SPACE GRID SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gasii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  1. Phylogeny of isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus from the Ilarvirus Ringtest and identification of group-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, R W

    2003-06-01

    Isolates of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) were examined to establish the level of naturally occurring sequence variation in the coat protein (CP) gene and to identify group-specific genome features that may prove valuable for the generation of diagnostic reagents. Phylogenetic analysis of a 452 bp sequence of 68 virus isolates, 20 obtained from the European Union Ilarvirus Ringtest held in October 1998, confirmed the clustering of the isolates into three distinct groups. Although no correlation was found between the sequence and host or geographic origin, there was a general trend for severe isolates to cluster into one group. Group-specific features have been identified for discrimination between virus strains.

  2. Structural Feature Ions for Distinguishing N- and O-Linked Glycan Isomers by LC-ESI-IT MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest-Dass, Arun V.; Abrahams, Jodie L.; Kolarich, Daniel; Packer, Nicolle H.; Campbell, Matthew P.

    2013-06-01

    Glycomics is the comprehensive study of glycan expression in an organism, cell, or tissue that relies on effective analytical technologies to understand glycan structure-function relationships. Owing to the macro- and micro-heterogeneity of oligosaccharides, detailed structure characterization has required an orthogonal approach, such as a combination of specific exoglycosidase digestions, LC-MS/MS, and the development of bioinformatic resources to comprehensively profile a complex biological sample. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has emerged as a key tool in the structural analysis of oligosaccharides because of its high sensitivity, resolution, and robustness. Here, we present a strategy that uses LC-ESI-MS/MS to characterize over 200 N- and O-glycans from human saliva glycoproteins, complemented by sequential exoglycosidase treatment, to further verify the annotated glycan structures. Fragment-specific substructure diagnostic ions were collated from an extensive screen of the literature available on the detailed structural characterization of oligosaccharides and, together with other specific glycan structure feature ions derived from cross-ring and glycosidic-linkage fragmentation, were used to characterize the glycans and differentiate isomers. The availability of such annotated mass spectrometric fragmentation spectral libraries of glycan structures, together with such substructure diagnostic ions, will be key inputs for the future development of the automated elucidation of oligosaccharide structures from MS/MS data.

  3. Evaluating The State Of Financial Globalization:Ukraine’s Specific Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stukalo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system for evaluating the state of financial globalization in a given country. It identifies the contemporary distinctive features of globalization in the area of finance. It also systematizes available globalization indicators at all levels of the financial system. It collects and analyzes statistical data with regard to key financial globalization indicators for Ukraine and Russia as countries that will soon become members of the World Trade Organization. Based on this analysis, the article provides an overview of the contemporary distinctive features of the financial sector in these counties in the context of globalization.

  4. Heuristic algorithms for feature selection under Bayesian models with block-diagonal covariance structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi Pour, Ali; Dalton, Lori A

    2018-03-21

    Many bioinformatics studies aim to identify markers, or features, that can be used to discriminate between distinct groups. In problems where strong individual markers are not available, or where interactions between gene products are of primary interest, it may be necessary to consider combinations of features as a marker family. To this end, recent work proposes a hierarchical Bayesian framework for feature selection that places a prior on the set of features we wish to select and on the label-conditioned feature distribution. While an analytical posterior under Gaussian models with block covariance structures is available, the optimal feature selection algorithm for this model remains intractable since it requires evaluating the posterior over the space of all possible covariance block structures and feature-block assignments. To address this computational barrier, in prior work we proposed a simple suboptimal algorithm, 2MNC-Robust, with robust performance across the space of block structures. Here, we present three new heuristic feature selection algorithms. The proposed algorithms outperform 2MNC-Robust and many other popular feature selection algorithms on synthetic data. In addition, enrichment analysis on real breast cancer, colon cancer, and Leukemia data indicates they also output many of the genes and pathways linked to the cancers under study. Bayesian feature selection is a promising framework for small-sample high-dimensional data, in particular biomarker discovery applications. When applied to cancer data these algorithms outputted many genes already shown to be involved in cancer as well as potentially new biomarkers. Furthermore, one of the proposed algorithms, SPM, outputs blocks of heavily correlated genes, particularly useful for studying gene interactions and gene networks.

  5. Specific features of NH3 and plasma-assisted MBE in the fabrication of III-N HEMT heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, A. N.; Krasovitsky, D. M.; Petrov, S. I.; Chaly, V. P.; Mamaev, V. V.; Sidorov, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    The specific features of how nitride HEMT heterostructures are produced by NH 3 and plasma-assisted (PA) molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are considered. It is shown that the use of high-temperature AlN/AlGaN buffer layers grown with ammonia at extremely high temperatures (up to 1150°C) can drastically improve the structural perfection of the active GaN layers and reduce the dislocation density in these layers to values of 9 × 10 8 −1 × 10 9 cm −2 . The use of buffer layers of this kind makes it possible to obtain high-quality GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by both methods. At the same time, in contrast to ammonia MBE which is difficult to apply at T < 500°C (because of the low efficiency of ammonia decomposition), PA MBE is rather effective at low temperatures, e.g., for the growth of InAlN layers lattice-matched with GaN. The results obtained in the MBE growth of AlN/AlGaN/GaN/InAlN heterostructures by both PA-MBE and NH 3 -MBE with an extremely high ammonia flux are demonstrated

  6. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Lavender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment.

  7. Working memory templates are maintained as feature-specific perceptual codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Kartik K; Sambhara, Deepak; Jha, Amishi P

    2011-07-01

    Working memory (WM) representations serve as templates that guide behavior, but the neural basis of these templates remains elusive. We tested the hypothesis that WM templates are maintained by biasing activity in sensoriperceptual neurons that code for features of items being held in memory. Neural activity was recorded using event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants viewed a series of faces and responded when a face matched a target face held in WM. Our prediction was that if activity in neurons coding for the features of the target is preferentially weighted during maintenance of the target, then ERP activity evoked by a nontarget probe face should be commensurate with the visual similarity between target and probe. Visual similarity was operationalized as the degree of overlap in visual features between target and probe. A face-sensitive ERP response was modulated by target-probe similarity. Amplitude was largest for probes that were similar to the target, and decreased monotonically as a function of decreasing target-probe similarity. These results indicate that neural activity is weighted in favor of visual features that comprise an actively held memory representation. As such, our findings support the notion that WM templates rely on neural populations involved in forming percepts of memory items.

  8. Photonic crystals based on opals and inverse opals: synthesis and structural features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimonsky, S O; Abramova, Vera V; Sinitskii, Alexander S; Tretyakov, Yuri D

    2011-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of photonic crystals based on opals and inverse opals are considered. Their structural features are discussed. Data on different types of structural defects and their influence on the optical properties of opaline materials are systematized. The possibilities of investigation of structural defects by optical spectroscopy, electron microscopy, microradian X-ray diffraction, laser diffraction and using an analysis of Kossel ring patterns are described. The bibliography includes 253 references.

  9. A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Abdalrazak Shnain

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial recognition is one of the most challenging and interesting problems within the field of computer vision and pattern recognition. During the last few years, it has gained special attention due to its importance in relation to current issues such as security, surveillance systems and forensics analysis. Despite this high level of attention to facial recognition, the success is still limited by certain conditions; there is no method which gives reliable results in all situations. In this paper, we propose an efficient similarity index that resolves the shortcomings of the existing measures of feature and structural similarity. This measure, called the Feature-Based Structural Measure (FSM, combines the best features of the well-known SSIM (structural similarity index measure and FSIM (feature similarity index measure approaches, striking a balance between performance for similar and dissimilar images of human faces. In addition to the statistical structural properties provided by SSIM, edge detection is incorporated in FSM as a distinctive structural feature. Its performance is tested for a wide range of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio, using ORL (Olivetti Research Laboratory, now AT&T Laboratory Cambridge and FEI (Faculty of Industrial Engineering, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil databases. The proposed measure is tested under conditions of Gaussian noise; simulation results show that the proposed FSM outperforms the well-known SSIM and FSIM approaches in its efficiency of similarity detection and recognition of human faces.

  10. In vivo genome-wide profiling of RNA secondary structure reveals novel regulatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yiliang; Tang, Yin; Kwok, Chun Kit; Zhang, Yu; Bevilacqua, Philip C; Assmann, Sarah M

    2014-01-30

    RNA structure has critical roles in processes ranging from ligand sensing to the regulation of translation, polyadenylation and splicing. However, a lack of genome-wide in vivo RNA structural data has limited our understanding of how RNA structure regulates gene expression in living cells. Here we present a high-throughput, genome-wide in vivo RNA structure probing method, structure-seq, in which dimethyl sulphate methylation of unprotected adenines and cytosines is identified by next-generation sequencing. Application of this method to Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings yielded the first in vivo genome-wide RNA structure map at nucleotide resolution for any organism, with quantitative structural information across more than 10,000 transcripts. Our analysis reveals a three-nucleotide periodic repeat pattern in the structure of coding regions, as well as a less-structured region immediately upstream of the start codon, and shows that these features are strongly correlated with translation efficiency. We also find patterns of strong and weak secondary structure at sites of alternative polyadenylation, as well as strong secondary structure at 5' splice sites that correlates with unspliced events. Notably, in vivo structures of messenger RNAs annotated for stress responses are poorly predicted in silico, whereas mRNA structures of genes related to cell function maintenance are well predicted. Global comparison of several structural features between these two categories shows that the mRNAs associated with stress responses tend to have more single-strandedness, longer maximal loop length and higher free energy per nucleotide, features that may allow these RNAs to undergo conformational changes in response to environmental conditions. Structure-seq allows the RNA structurome and its biological roles to be interrogated on a genome-wide scale and should be applicable to any organism.

  11. Common Features in Electronic Structure of the Oxypnictide Superconductors from Photoemission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Wen, Jia; Hai-Yun, Liu; Wen-Tao, Zhang; Lin, Zhao; Jian-Qiao, Meng; Guo-Dong, Liu; Xiao-Li, Dong; Zhi-An, Ren; Wei, Yi; Guang-Can, Che; Zhong-Xian, Zhao; Gang, Wu; Rong-Hua, Liu; Xian-Hui, Chen; Gen-Fu, Chen; Nan-Lin, Wang; Yong, Zhu; Xiao-Yang, Wang; Gui-Ling, Wang; Yong, Zhou

    2008-01-01

    High resolution photoemission measurements are carried out on non-superconducting LaFeAsO parent compound and various superconducting RFeAs(O 1-x F x ) (R=La, Ce and Pr) compounds. It is found that the parent LaFeAsO compound shows a metallic character. By extensive measurements, several common features are identified in the electronic structure of these Fe-based compounds: (1) 0.2 eV feature in the valence band, (2) a universal 13-16 meV feature, (3) near Ef spectral weight suppression with decreasing temperature. These universal features can provide important information about band structure, superconducting gap and pseudogap in these Fe-based materials

  12. The Roles of Feature-Specific Task Set and Bottom-Up Salience in Attentional Capture: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Martin; Kiss, Monika; Press, Clare; Sauter, Disa

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the roles of top-down task set and bottom-up stimulus salience for feature-specific attentional capture. Spatially nonpredictive cues preceded search arrays that included a color-defined target. For target-color singleton cues, behavioral spatial cueing effects were accompanied by cue-induced N2pc components, indicative of…

  13. Automatic feature learning using multichannel ROI based on deep structured algorithms for computerized lung cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Zheng, Bin; Qian, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the ability of extracting automatically generated features using deep structured algorithms in lung nodule CT image diagnosis, and compare its performance with traditional computer aided diagnosis (CADx) systems using hand-crafted features. All of the 1018 cases were acquired from Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) public lung cancer database. The nodules were segmented according to four radiologists' markings, and 13,668 samples were generated by rotating every slice of nodule images. Three multichannel ROI based deep structured algorithms were designed and implemented in this study: convolutional neural network (CNN), deep belief network (DBN), and stacked denoising autoencoder (SDAE). For the comparison purpose, we also implemented a CADx system using hand-crafted features including density features, texture features and morphological features. The performance of every scheme was evaluated by using a 10-fold cross-validation method and an assessment index of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The observed highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.899±0.018 achieved by CNN, which was significantly higher than traditional CADx with the AUC=0.848±0.026. The results from DBN was also slightly higher than CADx, while SDAE was slightly lower. By visualizing the automatic generated features, we found some meaningful detectors like curvy stroke detectors from deep structured schemes. The study results showed the deep structured algorithms with automatically generated features can achieve desirable performance in lung nodule diagnosis. With well-tuned parameters and large enough dataset, the deep learning algorithms can have better performance than current popular CADx. We believe the deep learning algorithms with similar data preprocessing procedure can be used in other medical image analysis areas as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Control-group feature normalization for multivariate pattern analysis of structural MRI data using the support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kristin A; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Doshi, Jimit; Davatzikos, Christos; Shinohara, Russell T

    2016-05-15

    Normalization of feature vector values is a common practice in machine learning. Generally, each feature value is standardized to the unit hypercube or by normalizing to zero mean and unit variance. Classification decisions based on support vector machines (SVMs) or by other methods are sensitive to the specific normalization used on the features. In the context of multivariate pattern analysis using neuroimaging data, standardization effectively up- and down-weights features based on their individual variability. Since the standard approach uses the entire data set to guide the normalization, it utilizes the total variability of these features. This total variation is inevitably dependent on the amount of marginal separation between groups. Thus, such a normalization may attenuate the separability of the data in high dimensional space. In this work we propose an alternate approach that uses an estimate of the control-group standard deviation to normalize features before training. We study our proposed approach in the context of group classification using structural MRI data. We show that control-based normalization leads to better reproducibility of estimated multivariate disease patterns and improves the classifier performance in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helliwell, P.S.; Porter, G.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, P.S. [University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal and Rehabilitation Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, G. [Airedale Hospital NHS Trust, Keighley, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  17. Biometric identification of cardiosynchronous waveforms utilizing person specific continuous and discrete wavelet transform features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Chandrasekhar; Venugopalan, Shreyas; Blue, Rebecca; Friedman, Robert; Griofa, Marc O; Savvides, Marios; Kumar, B V K Vijaya

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore how a Radio Frequency Impedance Interrogation (RFII) signal may be used as a biometric feature. This could allow the identification of subjects in operational and potentially hostile environments. Features extracted from the continuous and discrete wavelet decompositions of the signal are investigated for biometric identification. In the former case, the most discriminative features in the wavelet space were extracted using a Fisher ratio metric. Comparisons in the wavelet space were done using the Euclidean distance measure. In the latter case, the signal was decomposed at various levels using different wavelet bases, in order to extract both low frequency and high frequency components. Comparisons at each decomposition level were performed using the same distance measure as before. The data set used consists of four subjects, each with a 15 minute RFII recording. The various data samples for our experiments, corresponding to a single heart beat duration, were extracted from these recordings. We achieve identification rates of up to 99% using the CWT approach and rates of up to 100% using the DWT approach. While the small size of the dataset limits the interpretation of these results, further work with larger datasets is expected to develop better algorithms for subject identification.

  18. Sensitivity of radiographic features and specificity of scintigraphic imaging in hand osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; MacFarlane, D.G.; Lynch, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    We undertook to determine which of the radiographic features most reliably detected the presence and disease progression in osteoarthritis in the hand; and which of the radiographic features corresponded with the radionuclide bone scan images. 32 patients with osteoarthritis had X5 macroradiographs taken of their wrists and hands at 6 monthly intervals over an 18 month period. The high magnification and resolution of microfocal radiography permitted quantitative detection of the extent and change in joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophytosis and juxtaarticular radiolucencies. 4-hour technetium 99 m methylene bisphophonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of the tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with the radiographic features at each visit and the changes between visits analysed. In hand OA the most sensitive radiographic parameters for detecting disease were osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis and justaarticular radiolucencies, with radionuclide imaging demonstrating the increased activity in bone formation associated with the growth and remodelling of osteophytes. Changes in the number and size of osteophytes and joint space narrowing were the only reliable and sensitive parameters for assessing disease progression. We conclude that in osteoarthritis, the bony changes progress significantly before the occurrence of radiographically evident joint space narrowing indicative of cartilage thinning. (authors). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  19. Structural features of Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase define its activity against glycoside linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Díaz, Agustín; Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Vizoso-Vázquez, Ángel; Cerdán, M Esperanza; Becerra, Manuel; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2017-06-01

    β-Galactosidases are biotechnologically interesting enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis or transgalactosylation of β-galactosides. Among them, the Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase (AnβGal) belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 35 (GH35) and is widely used in the industry due to its high hydrolytic activity which is used to degrade lactose. We present here its three-dimensional structure in complex with different oligosaccharides, to illustrate the structural determinants of the broad specificity of the enzyme against different glycoside linkages. Remarkably, the residues Phe264, Tyr304, and Trp806 make a dynamic hydrophobic platform that accommodates the sugar at subsite +1 suggesting a main role on the recognition of structurally different substrates. Moreover, complexes with the trisaccharides show two potential subsites +2 depending on the substrate type. This feature and the peculiar shape of its wide cavity suggest that AnβGal might accommodate branched substrates from the complex net of polysaccharides composing the plant material in its natural environment. Relevant residues were selected and mutagenesis analyses were performed to evaluate their role in the catalytic performance and the hydrolase/transferase ratio of AnβGal. Thus, we generated mutants with improved transgalactosylation activity. In particular, the variant Y304F/Y355H/N357G/W806F displays a higher level of galacto-oligosaccharides production than the Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase, which is the preferred enzyme in the industry owing to its high transferase activity. Our results provide new knowledge on the determinants modulating specificity and the catalytic performance of fungal GH35 β-galactosidases. In turn, this fundamental background gives novel tools for the future improvement of these enzymes, which represent an interesting target for rational design. Structural data are available in PDB database under the accession numbers 5IFP (native form), 5IHR (in complex with 6

  20. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  1. Imaging specific cellular glycan structures using glycosyltransferases via click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengliang L; Person, Anthony D; Anderson, Matthew; Burroughs, Barbara; Tatge, Timothy; Khatri, Kshitij; Zou, Yonglong; Wang, Lianchun; Geders, Todd; Zaia, Joseph; Sackstein, Robert

    2018-02-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a polysaccharide fundamentally important for biologically activities. T/Tn antigens are universal carbohydrate cancer markers. Here, we report the specific imaging of these carbohydrates using a mesenchymal stem cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The staining specificities were demonstrated by comparing imaging of different glycans and validated by either removal of target glycans, which results in loss of signal, or installation of target glycans, which results in gain of signal. As controls, representative key glycans including O-GlcNAc, lactosaminyl glycans and hyaluronan were also imaged. HS staining revealed novel architectural features of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of HUVEC cells. Results from T/Tn antigen staining suggest that O-GalNAcylation is a rate-limiting step for O-glycan synthesis. Overall, these highly specific approaches for HS and T/Tn antigen imaging should greatly facilitate the detection and functional characterization of these biologically important glycans. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Features Of Household Lexics, Their Characteristics And Structural Analysis In The Modern English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygun Yusifova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyze the most inherent features and characteristics of household lexis in English. Special emphasis has been placed on their names of the objects used in everyday life, kitchen utensils, animal and birds. Lexical units concerning ceremonies, habits and traditions are also among the scope of the paper. Moreover, the study deals with the structural features of the units under consideration. It is believed that the thematic-semantic characterization of every-day lexis can have both pedagogical and linguistic implications, especially when dealing with comparative structures.

  3. Specific Features in Kazakhstan Economic Development: before and after the Crisis Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Akbergenova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the analysis of the done and forthcoming work on overcoming of structural crisis in Kazakhstan Republic. The basic stages of formation and development of economic process are characterized.

  4. [Specific features of mammographic visualization of "small" breast tumors developing on the background of fibrocystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, D G; Velichko, S A; Slonimskaia, E M; Frolova, I G; Luneva, S V; Garbukov, E Iu; Doroshenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    All complications diagnosed at early stages of breast cancer were associated with small tumors, especially with those arising in the aftermath of fibrocystic disease. Hence, our task was to study the XR-semiotics of lesions of less than 15 mm in diameter and of the same origin. 100 mammograms of breast cancer patients with benign disease of the breast were studied. The presence of moderate-to-severe fibrocystic disease significantly affected the visualization of lesions of less than 10 mm in diameter. Since the XR-semiotics of small tumors failed to reveal malignancy features, all lesions visualized by mammography required additional diagnostic procedures using ultrasound and invasive radiology.

  5. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS CHEMOTHERAPY TOLERANCE IN THE LIGHT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STATUS OF PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific features of psychological state were studied in 295 pulmonary tuberculosis patients with satisfactory tolerance to anti-tuberculosis medications and 75 patients poorly tolerating the treatment.Before the treatment start the patients who later demonstrated adverse reactions to treatment were diagnosed with more intense neurotic and hypochondriac personal features, destructive reactions and higher level of emotional tension and frustration – all the above promote dysregulation of the host adaptation. The research demonstrated the need to consider psychological aspects when studying the tolerance to anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. 

  6. Structural features of Fab fragments of rheumatoid factor IgM-RF in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V. V.; Lapuk, V. A.; Shtykova, E. V.; Stepina, N. D.; Dembo, K. A.; Sokolova, A. V.; Amarantov, S. V.; Timofeev, V. P.; Ziganshin, R. Kh.; Varlamova, E. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The structural features of the Fab fragments of monoclonal (Waldenstroem's disease) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and rheumatoid immunoglobulin M (IgM-RF) were studied by a complex of methods, including small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and mass spectrometry (MS). The Fab-RF fragment was demonstrated to be much more flexible in the region of interdomain contacts, the molecular weights and the shapes of the Fab and Fab-RF macromolecules in solution being only slightly different. According to the ESR data, the rotational correlation time for a spin label introduced into the peptide sequence for Fab is twice as large as that for Fab-RF (21±2 and 11±1 ns, respectively), whereas the molecular weights of these fragments differ by only 0.5% (mass-spectrometric data), which correlates with the results of molecular-shape modeling by small-angle X-ray scattering. The conclusion about the higher flexibility of the Fab-RF fragment contributes to an understanding of the specificity of interactions between the rheumatoid factor and the antigens of the own organism.

  7. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous selection have led to the following conclusions: migration is a multidimensional phenomenon that requires multidisciplinary research; the heterogeneity of migration flows to the socio-cultural and gender features must be taken into account; the problem of illegal migration requires special solutions; in connection with the emigration of highly skilled professionals and immigration of low-skilled personnel, a professional important indicator of migratory replacement and attracting compatriots from abroad are important. The data obtained can be used for ethnic and cultural planning in order to improve production activities that affect the quality of solving of production tasks and programming adaptation of migrants as the significant impact of intangible factors on the development of society has been noted by economists for a long time. Thus, the economic sustainability requires new thinking based on socio-cultural sustainability determined by such global phenomena as international migration flows.

  8. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  9. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  10. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Dvorkin, Cora; Huang, Zhiqi; Verde, Licia

    2016-01-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  11. The future of primordial features with large-scale structure surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huang, Zhiqi [School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingang Xi Road, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Verde, Licia, E-mail: xingang.chen@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dvorkin@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: huangzhq25@sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: mohammad.namjoo@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [ICREA and ICC-UB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Primordial features are one of the most important extensions of the Standard Model of cosmology, providing a wealth of information on the primordial Universe, ranging from discrimination between inflation and alternative scenarios, new particle detection, to fine structures in the inflationary potential. We study the prospects of future large-scale structure (LSS) surveys on the detection and constraints of these features. We classify primordial feature models into several classes, and for each class we present a simple template of power spectrum that encodes the essential physics. We study how well the most ambitious LSS surveys proposed to date, including both spectroscopic and photometric surveys, will be able to improve the constraints with respect to the current Planck data. We find that these LSS surveys will significantly improve the experimental sensitivity on features signals that are oscillatory in scales, due to the 3D information. For a broad range of models, these surveys will be able to reduce the errors of the amplitudes of the features by a factor of 5 or more, including several interesting candidates identified in the recent Planck data. Therefore, LSS surveys offer an impressive opportunity for primordial feature discovery in the next decade or two. We also compare the advantages of both types of surveys.

  12. Specific gut microbiota features and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Le Chatelier, E; Prifti, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify...

  13. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  14. Phenotype- and genotype-specific structural alterations in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Serena; Battistella, Giovanni; Huddleston, Hailey; Scharf, Rebecca; Fleysher, Lazar; Rumbach, Anna F; Frucht, Steven J; Blitzer, Andrew; Ozelius, Laurie J; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles that occur selectively during speaking. Although hereditary trends have been reported in up to 16% of patients, the causative etiology of spasmodic dysphonia is unclear, and the influences of various phenotypes and genotypes on disorder pathophysiology are poorly understood. In this study, we examined structural alterations in cortical gray matter and white matter integrity in relationship to different phenotypes and putative genotypes of spasmodic dysphonia to elucidate the structural component of its complex pathophysiology. Eighty-nine patients with spasmodic dysphonia underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging to examine cortical thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy in adductor versus abductor forms (distinct phenotypes) and in sporadic versus familial cases (distinct genotypes). Phenotype-specific abnormalities were localized in the left sensorimotor cortex and angular gyrus and the white matter bundle of the right superior corona radiata. Genotype-specific alterations were found in the left superior temporal gyrus, supplementary motor area, and the arcuate portion of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings suggest that phenotypic differences in spasmodic dysphonia arise at the level of the primary and associative areas of motor control, whereas genotype-related pathophysiological mechanisms may be associated with dysfunction of regions regulating phonological and sensory processing. Identification of structural alterations specific to disorder phenotype and putative genotype provides an important step toward future delineation of imaging markers and potential targets for novel therapeutic interventions for spasmodic dysphonia. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Feature-Specific Organization of Feedback Pathways in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Carey Y L; Peach, John P; Bennett, Corbett; Vega, Roxana M; Hestrin, Shaul

    2018-01-08

    Higher and lower cortical areas in the visual hierarchy are reciprocally connected [1]. Although much is known about how feedforward pathways shape receptive field properties of visual neurons, relatively little is known about the role of feedback pathways in visual processing. Feedback pathways are thought to carry top-down signals, including information about context (e.g., figure-ground segmentation and surround suppression) [2-5], and feedback has been demonstrated to sharpen orientation tuning of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) [6, 7]. However, the response characteristics of feedback neurons themselves and how feedback shapes V1 neurons' tuning for other features, such as spatial frequency (SF), remain largely unknown. Here, using a retrograde virus, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and optogenetic manipulations, we show that putatively feedback neurons in layer 5 (hereafter "L5 feedback") in higher visual areas, AL (anterolateral area) and PM (posteromedial area), display distinct visual properties in awake head-fixed mice. AL L5 feedback neurons prefer significantly lower SF (mean: 0.04 cycles per degree [cpd]) compared to PM L5 feedback neurons (0.15 cpd). Importantly, silencing AL L5 feedback reduced visual responses of V1 neurons preferring low SF (mean change in firing rate: -8.0%), whereas silencing PM L5 feedback suppressed responses of high-SF-preferring V1 neurons (-20.4%). These findings suggest that feedback connections from higher visual areas convey distinctly tuned visual inputs to V1 that serve to boost V1 neurons' responses to SF. Such like-to-like functional organization may represent an important feature of feedback pathways in sensory systems and in the nervous system in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity.

  17. Specific psychological features of adolescents suffering from respiratory tuberculosis with various parameters of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Аkhtyamova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological features of 100 adolescents at the age of 13-17 years old suffering from respiratory tuberculosis have been compared. Personality structure of adolescents with more expressed manifestations of the disease is confidently different regarding the prevalence of main pre-morbid characteristics promoting neurotic features, intra- and inter-psychical conflicts and also various structural and functional somatic disorders. The personal specific features of the patients have been objectivated in the rates of actual psychological status. The detected personal features are considered to be potential pathogenic psychological determinants (as a part of traditional medical, biological and social risk factors of the disease development, and aims of the targeted psychological management.

  18. Potential-specific structure at the hematite-electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBriarty, Martin E.; Stubbs, Joanne; Eng, Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2018-02-21

    The atomic-scale structure of interfaces between metal oxides and aqueous electrolytes controls their catalytic, geochemical, and corrosion behavior. Measurements that probe these interfaces in situ provide important details of ion and solvent arrangements, but atomically precise structural models do not exist for common oxide-electrolyte interfaces far from equilibrium. Using a novel cell, we measured the structure of the hematite (a-Fe2O3) (110$\\bar{2}$)-electrolyte interface under controlled electrochemical bias using synchrotron crystal truncation rod X ray scattering. At increasingly cathodic potentials, charge-compensating protonation of surface oxygen groups increases the coverage of specifically bound water while adjacent water layers displace outwardly and became disordered. Returning to open circuit potential leaves the surface in a persistent metastable protonation state. The flux of current and ions at applied potential is thus regulated by a unique interfacial electrolyte environment, suggesting that electrical double layer models should be adapted to the dynamically changing interfacial structure far from equilibrium.

  19. Hydrotalcites: relation between structural features, basicity and activity in the Wittig reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sychev, M.V.; Prihod'ko, R.V.; Erdmann, K.; Mangel, A.; Santen, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Carbonate hydrotalcitrs (HTls) were prepared by coprecipitation of metal nitrate salts and Na2CO3. The structural features of noncalcined, calcined and reconstructed materials were characterized by XRD, Al-27 MAS NMR, AAS and N-2 adsorption. If was shown that reconstruction of the calcined HTls due

  20. Students' Demand for Smartphones: Structural Relationships of Product Features, Brand Name, Product Price and Social Infuence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine structural relationships of product features, brand name, product price and social influence with demand for Smartphones among Malaysian students'. Design/methodology/approach: Data collected from 320 valid pre-screened university students studying at the pubic higher learning institution in Federal Territory of…

  1. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erven, Van Gijs; Visser, de Ries; Merkx, Donny W.H.; Strolenberg, Willem; Gijsel, de Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric

  2. The Discourse Structure and Linguistic Features of Research Article Abstracts in English by Indonesian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, Safnil

    2014-01-01

    To effectively teach university lecturers or students to write a good research article (RA) abstract for publication in international journals, instructors need to know the present characteristics of abstracts written published in such journals. This study examines the discourse structure and linguistic features of RA abstracts written in English…

  3. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  4. Strain-Specific Features of Extracellular Polysaccharides and Their Impact on Lactobacillus plantarum-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Chiao; Caggianiello, Graziano; van Swam, Iris I; Taverne, Nico; Meijerink, Marjolein; Bron, Peter A; Spano, Giuseppe; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacilli are found in diverse environments and are widely applied as probiotic, health-promoting food supplements. Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present on the cell surface of lactobacilli and are considered to contribute to the species- and strain-specific probiotic effects that are typically observed. Two Lactobacillus plantarum strains, SF2A35B and Lp90, have an obvious ropy phenotype, implying high extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production levels. In this work, we set out to identify the genes involved in EPS production in these L. plantarum strains and to demonstrate their role in EPS production by gene deletion analysis. A model L. plantarum strain, WCFS1, and its previously constructed derivative that produced reduced levels of EPS were included as reference strains. The constructed EPS-reduced derivatives were analyzed for the abundance and sugar compositions of their EPS, revealing cps2-like gene clusters in SF2A35B and Lp90 responsible for major EPS production. Moreover, these mutant strains were tested for phenotypic characteristics that are of relevance for their capacity to interact with the host epithelium in the intestinal tract, including bacterial surface properties as well as survival under the stress conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (acid and bile stress). In addition, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling and immunomodulatory capacities of the EPS-negative derivatives and their respective wild-type strains were compared, revealing strain-specific impacts of EPS on the immunomodulatory properties. Taken together, these experiments illustrate the importance of EPS in L. plantarum strains as a strain-specific determinant in host interaction. This study evaluates the role of extracellular polysaccharides that are produced by different strains of Lactobacillus plantarum in the determination of the cell surface properties of these bacteria and their capacity to interact with their environment, including their

  5. An Approach for Patient-Specific Multi-domain Vascular Mesh Generation Featuring Spatially Varying Wall Thickness Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Samarth S.; Liu, Peng; Finol, Ender A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a computationally efficient image-derived volume mesh generation approach for vasculatures that implements spatially varying patient-specific wall thickness with a novel inward extrusion of the wall surface mesh. Multi-domain vascular meshes with arbitrary numbers, locations, and patterns of both iliac bifurcations and thrombi can be obtained without the need to specify features or landmark points as input. In addition, the mesh output is coordinate-frame independent ...

  6. [Specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybenzene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution in the organism of warm-blooded animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shormanov, B K; Grishenko, V K; Astashkina, A P; Elizarova, M K

    2013-01-01

    The present work was designed to study the specific features of 2-methyl hydroxybezene and 3-methyl hydroxybenzene distribution after intragastric administration of these toxicants to warm-blooded animals (rats). They were detected in the unmetabolized form in the internal organs and blood of the animals. The levels of 2-methyl hydroxybezene were especially high in the stomach and blood whereas the maximum content of 3-methyl hydroxybenzene was found in brain, blood, small intestines of the poisoned rats.

  7. Using sequence-specific chemical and structural properties of DNA to predict transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Bauer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the DNA binding sites recognized by each transcription factor (TF. Conventional approaches to prediction of TF binding sites involve the definition of consensus sequences or position-specific weight matrices and rely on statistical analysis of DNA sequences of known binding sites. Here, we present a method called SiteSleuth in which DNA structure prediction, computational chemistry, and machine learning are applied to develop models for TF binding sites. In this approach, binary classifiers are trained to discriminate between true and false binding sites based on the sequence-specific chemical and structural features of DNA. These features are determined via molecular dynamics calculations in which we consider each base in different local neighborhoods. For each of 54 TFs in Escherichia coli, for which at least five DNA binding sites are documented in RegulonDB, the TF binding sites and portions of the non-coding genome sequence are mapped to feature vectors and used in training. According to cross-validation analysis and a comparison of computational predictions against ChIP-chip data available for the TF Fis, SiteSleuth outperforms three conventional approaches: Match, MATRIX SEARCH, and the method of Berg and von Hippel. SiteSleuth also outperforms QPMEME, a method similar to SiteSleuth in that it involves a learning algorithm. The main advantage of SiteSleuth is a lower false positive rate.

  8. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  9. FISCAL FEATURES SPECIFIC TO INTRA-COMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS OF NEW MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND EXCISABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a view to our country's accession to the Community space, the Romanian legislation has undergone many changes, and we should point out among others those in the tax system, that primarily aims to ensure the functioning of the national economy in the globalization of the economic and social activities worldwide. Although at first sight the new procedures have a positive impact on the development of intra-Community commercial businesses, due to the elimination of customs formalities and hence of the fees paid to customs officials, however there are costs generated by the application of EU law, which should not be neglected. Considering the many situations that arise in carrying out intra-Community commercial transactions, that are aimed at the differentiated tax procedures from the value added tax perspective, we considered appropriate, to address below the tax features related to intra-Community acquisitions and supplies of new means of transport and excisable products, because these are two important categories of goods that generate differential tax treatments, so that after the tax analysis we should be able to draw some relevant conclusions.

  10. Specific features of designs of superconducting magnets for high-energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoszon, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Distinctive features of designs of synchrotron superconducting magnetic systems (SMS) are considered. Some results of testing the prototypes of the ISABELLE storage ring magnets, the DABLER energy doubler and the accelerating-storage complex project are presented. Designs of di.ooles and quadrupoles are described. It is shown that the design of the DABLER SMS considerably differs from the ISABELLE SMS. The DABLER uses nonsaturated magnetic screens which provide lesser distortions of the magnetic field distribution. For the ISABELLE project a dipole with a two-layer winding has been developed which produced a field of 6.2 T. Magnetization curves as well as training and field distribution curves for a number of DABLER dipoles are presented. To prevent local overheating provision is made for using a heater enclosed in a winding. A 1 m dipole model with a sector winding of the DABLER type has been manufactured and tested in the IHEP. During tests a short-sample current and a total value of calculated field equal to 4.45 T in the chamber centre amd 5.3 T in the winding have been achieved

  11. Combinatorial design of a nanobody that specifically targets structured RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawez, F; Duray, E; Hu, Y; Vandenameele, J; Romão, E; Vincke, C; Dumoulin, M; Galleni, M; Muyldermans, S; Vandevenne, M

    2018-04-11

    Recent advances in transcriptome sequencing and analysis have revealed the complexity of the human genome. The majority (≈ 98%) of cellular transcripts is not translated into proteins and represents a vast, unchartered world of functional non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Most of them adopt a well-defined 3D structure to achieve their biological functions. However, only very few RNA structures are currently available which reflects the challenges associated with RNA crystallization. Nevertheless, these structures would represent a critical step in understanding functions of ncRNAs and their molecular mechanisms in the cell. The overall goal of this study is to develop an innovative and versatile tool to facilitate the functional study and crystallization of structured RNAs (stRNAs). In this work, we have engineered an antibody fragment from camelid heavy-chain antibody (nanobody) able to specifically bind with low nanomolar affinity to stRNA while no binding could be detected for single-stranded DNA/RNA, double-stranded DNA/RNA or a negatively charged protein. However, this nanobody recognizes different and non-related stRNAs, this observation suggests that it binds to an epitope shared by these stRNAs. Finally, our data also show that the binding of the nanobody doesn't alter the secondary structure content of the stRNA as well as its unfolding/refolding processes during heat treatment. This work constitutes a successful proof-of-concept demonstrating that nanobodies can be engineered to recognize RNA-related epitopes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INTRUSIVE MAGMATIC STRUCTURES FROM BÂRGĂU MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Igneous intrusive structures from Bârgău Mountains belong to the group of central Neogene volcanic chain of the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The evolution of the relief developed on these structures are three main stages: the stage of injection of structures (Pannonian, the stage of uncovering of igneous intrusive bodies from Oligo-Miocene sedimentary cover (Pliocene, and the stage of subaerial modeling of magmatic bodies (Pliocene-current.In those circumstances, the geodiversity of intrusive magmatic structures from Bârgău Mountains is represented by several types of landforms such as: polycyclic landforms (erosional levels, structural landforms (the configuration of igneous intrusive structures, petrographic landforms (andesites, lithological contact, fluvial landforms (valleys, slopes, ridges, periglacial landforms (cryogenic and crionival landforms, biogenic and anthropogenic landforms. This study highlights certain features of the landforms modeled on igneous intrusive bodies with the aim of developing some strategy for tourism recovery by local and county authorities.

  13. Fundamental structural aspects and features in the bioengineering of the gas exchangers: comparative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J N

    2002-01-01

    Over its life, an organism's survival and success are determined by the inventory of vital adaptations that its progenitors have creatively appropriated, devised and harnessed along the evolutionary pathway. Such conserved attributes provide the armamentarium necessary for withstanding the adverse effects of natural selection. Refinements of the designs of the respiratory organs have been critical for survival and phylogenetic advancement of animal life. Gas exchangers have changed in direct response to the respiratory needs of whole organisms in different environmental states and conditions. Nowhere else is the dictum that in biology 'there are no rules but only necessities' more manifest than in the evolutionary biology of the gas exchangers. The constructions have been continually fashioned and refined to meet specific needs. Solutions to common respiratory needs have been typified by profound structural convergence. Over the evolutionary continuum, as shifts in environmental situations occurred, infinitely many designs should theoretically have emerged. Moreover, without specific selective pressures and preference for certain designs, considering that there are only two naturally occurring respirable fluid media (air and water), air-lungs, water-lungs, air-gills and water-gills would have formed to similar extents. Factors such as body size, phylogenetic level of development, respiratory medium utilized and habitats occupied have permutatively prescribed the design of the gas exchangers. The construction of the modern gas exchangers has eventuated through painstaking cost-benefit analysis. Trade-offs and compromises have decreed only a limited number of structurally feasible and functionally competent outcomes. The morphological congruity (analogy) of the gas exchangers indicates that similar selective pressures have compelled the designs. Solutions to metabolic demands for molecular O2 have only differed in details. Passive physical diffusion, for example, is

  14. Specific features of corrosion processes in a crack tip in chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurov, O.V.; Vasilenko, I.I.

    1981-01-01

    Electrode potentials of metal and pH solution are measured by means of microelectrodes on structural materials-45 and 12Kh18N10T steels, AT3 titanium alloy and D16 aluminium alloy in the vertex of corrosion crack formed during corrosion cracking in 3% NaCl solution. Metal corrosion is shown to be followed by hydrogen liberation on all the investigated materials at corrosion potentials. The effects of chemical composition of alloys as well as external polarization on the solution pH in the crack vertex are determined

  15. Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolochko, N.K.; Sobolenko, N.V.; Mozzharov, S.E.; Yadrojtsev, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol.% of nickel base alloy (spherical particles 60-70 μm in diameter) and 25 vol.% of PEP-219 polymer (angular isometric particles 50-100 μm in size). The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength. 6 refs.; 4 figs

  16. Exposure to Hycanthone alters chromatin structure around specific gene functions and specific repeats in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRoquis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic plathyhelminth responsible for intestinal schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis, a disease affecting 67 million people worldwide and causing an important economic burden. The schistosomicides hycanthone, and its later proxy oxamniquine, were widely used for treatments in endemic areas during the 20th century. Recently, the mechanism of action, as well as the genetic origin of a stably and Mendelian inherited resistance for both drugs was elucidated in two strains. However, several observations suggested early on that alternative mechanisms might exist, by which resistance could be induced for these two drugs in sensitive lines of schistosomes. This induced resistance appeared rapidly, within the first generation, but was metastable (not stably inherited. Epigenetic inheritance could explain such a phenomenon and we therefore re-analyzed the historical data with our current knowledge of epigenetics. In addition, we performed new experiments such as ChIP-seq on hycanthone treated worms. We found distinct chromatin structure changes between sensitive worms and induced resistant worms from the same strain. No specific pathway was discovered, but genes in which chromatin structure modification were observed are mostly associated with transport and catabolism, which makes sense in the context of the elimination of the drug. Specific differences were observed in the repetitive compartment of the genome. We finally describe what types of experiments are needed to understand the complexity of heritability that can be based on genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms for drug resistance in schistosomes.

  17. Sex-specific features of emphysema among current and former smokers with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Foreman, Marilyn; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia; Han, MeiLan K; Cho, Michael H; Bhatt, Surya P; Ramsdell, Joe; Lynch, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George; DeMeo, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more emphysema than females. It is not known if these differences persist across degrees of COPD severity. Our aim was to identify sex-specific differences in quantitative emphysema within COPD subgroups based on COPD severity.We included non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects from the COPDGene study with at least 10 pack-years of smoking and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometry grade II or greater. We examined sex-specific differences in log-transformed emphysema (log per cent low-attenuation area (%LAA)) by GOLD spirometry grade among subjects with early-onset COPD (25% emphysema).Compared with females, males had higher log %LAA: overall (1.97±1.4 versus 1.69±1.6, β=0.32 (0.04), p=1.34×10(-14)), and among non-Hispanic white (p=8.37×10(-14)) and African-American subjects (p=0.002). Females with early-onset COPD, severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV COPD had similar emphysema as males, but markedly fewer pack-years smoking (early-onset, p=0.01; severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV, psmokers with COPD who are particularly susceptible to parenchymal destruction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Specific features of its course and therapy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE varies greatly in different regions of the world. The disease is encountered in different age groups; however it is most common in young and adolescent women (its peak incidence is in the range of 15–25 years. Familial SLE cases are known. The course of SLE in pregnant women is noted to have features due to an increased risk for complications and to pharmacotherapeutic peculiarities. Risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, such as high disease activity at the time of conception, active lupus nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA, are identified in patients with SLE. The paper presents antenatal fetal death predictors: proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, APA, and hypertension. When SLE is concurrent with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the risk of poor pregnancy outcome is 30%. Management tactics for pregnant women with APS and a dosage regimen are shown to largely depend on history data (the presence (absence of nonplacental thromboses, the number of spontaneous abortions, prior therapy, etc.. There are four patient groups: 1 patients who have only anticardiolipin antibodies without previous pregnancy or one episode of unexplained abortion at less than 10 weeks’ gestation with no history of thrombosis; 2 those who have APS with no history of nonplacental thrombosis and have anticardiolipin antibodies and a history of two or more unexplained spontaneous abortions at less than 10 weeks’ gestation; 3 those who have APS and a history of nonplacental thromboses (who have taken warfarin prior to pregnancy; 4 those in whom standard therapy is ineffective during their next pregnancy. The paper presents therapy options for each patient group.It is concluded that effective therapeutic strategy for SLE, including that in pregnant women, implies patient monitoring to long maintain remission (low disease activity.

  19. Specific features of the determination of residual stresses in materials by diffraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Goruleva, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Residual stresses arising in separate machine parts and structural components during production and use to a large extent govern their lifetime. In this connection, the development and improvement of nondestructive methods for the determination of residual stresses is an important task for nondestructive testing. Standards regulate only the determination of macroscopic stresses, and in practice these stresses are most often determined with the application of the sin2ψ method. This paper, using quenched structural steels as an example, compares the results of residual stress determination by the sin2ψ method with those obtained by the method based on the analysis of the diffraction line profile as dependent on the value of the irradiated volume. It is demonstrated that, as the irradiated volume decreases, the value of residual stresses determined by the sin2ψ method may vary considerably, up to the change of the sign. For a more complete characteristic of residual stresses it is proposed to use, besides the determination of macrostresses by the shift of the diffraction lines, the value of microscopic stresses calculated from the line profile analysis.

  20. Detection and analysis of unusual features in the structural model and structure-factor data of a birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The structure factors deposited with PDB entry 3k78 show properties inconsistent with experimentally observed diffraction data, and without uncertainty represent calculated structure factors. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). Physically improbable features in the model of the birch pollen structure Bet v 1d are faithfully reproduced in electron density generated with the deposited structure factors, but these structure factors themselves exhibit properties that are characteristic of data calculated from a simple model and are inconsistent with the data and error model obtained through experimental measurements. The refinement of the model against these structure factors leads to an isomorphous structure different from the deposited model with an implausibly small R value (0.019). The abnormal refinement is compared with normal refinement of an isomorphous variant structure of Bet v 1l. A variety of analytical tools, including the application of Diederichs plots, Rσ plots and bulk-solvent analysis are discussed as promising aids in validation. The examination of the Bet v 1d structure also cautions against the practice of indicating poorly defined protein chain residues through zero occupancies. The recommendation to preserve diffraction images is amplified

  1. Consumers’ Preferences for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Product Features: A Structured Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Kistler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform potential governmental regulations, we aimed to develop a list of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS product features important to U.S. consumers by age and gender. We employed qualitative data methods. Participants were eligible if they had used an ENDS at least once. Groups were selected by age and gender (young adult group aged 18–25, n = 11; middle-age group aged 26–64, n = 9; and women’s group aged 26–64, n = 9. We conducted five individual older adult interviews (aged 68–80. Participants discussed important ENDS features. We conducted a structured content analysis of the group and interview responses. Of 34 participants, 68% were white and 56% were female. Participants mentioned 12 important ENDS features, including: (1 user experience; (2 social acceptability; (3 cost; (4 health risks/benefits; (5 ease of use; (6 flavors; (7 smoking cessation aid; (8 nicotine content; (9 modifiability; (10 ENDS regulation; (11 bridge between tobacco cigarettes; (12 collectability. The most frequently mentioned ENDS feature was modifiability for young adults, user experience for middle-age and older adults, and flavor for the women’s group. This study identified multiple features important to ENDS consumers. Groups differed in how they viewed various features by age and gender. These results can inform ongoing regulatory efforts.

  2. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Adil; Ozturk, Ebru; Zeyrek, Fadile; Onur, Kahraman; Sirmatel, Ocal; Kat, Nurcan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  3. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Adil [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozturka26@hotmail.com; Ozturk, Ebru [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Zeyrek, Fadile [Department of Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Onur, Kahraman [Department of Urology, SSK Sanliurfa Hastanesi, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Sirmatel, Ocal [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kat, Nurcan [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  4. Detecting Structural Features in Metallic Glass via Synchrotron Radiation Experiments Combined with Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu-Qing Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the essential structural features of metallic glasses (MGs will enhance the understanding of glass-forming mechanisms. In this work, a feasible scheme is provided where we performed the state-of-the-art synchrotron-radiation based experiments combined with simulations to investigate the microstructures of ZrCu amorphous compositions. It is revealed that in order to stabilize the amorphous state and optimize the topological and chemical distribution, besides the icosahedral or icosahedral-like clusters, other types of clusters also participate in the formation of the microstructure in MGs. This cluster-level co-existing feature may be popular in this class of glassy materials.

  5. [Specific features in realization of the principle of minimum energy dissipation during individual development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotin, A A

    2012-01-01

    Realization of the principle of minimum energy dissipation (Prigogine's theorem) during individual development has been analyzed. This analysis has suggested the following reformulation of this principle for living objects: when environmental conditions are constant, the living system evolves to a current steady state in such a way that the difference between entropy production and entropy flow (psi(u) function) is positive and constantly decreases near the steady state, approaching zero. In turn, the current steady state tends to a final steady state in such a way that the difference between the specific entropy productions in an organism and its environment tends to be minimal. In general, individual development completely agrees with the law of entropy increase (second law of thermodynamics).

  6. Security Measures and some Specific Features of the Transport Police Functioning in Russia and Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Ignatushenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article specifics of the transport police work in the Russian Federation are discussed, as well as in other countries of the world (USA, Germany, Israel, etc.. Attention is drawn to the need of the role and significance of the Russian police review in the matters of railway and aviation security, as well as safety on river and sea transport. The term “transport security” is a state of security of transport and transport infrastructure, consumers of transport services (passengers from various types of threats (natural and man-made, as well as acts of unlawful interference in the activities of various modes of transport – points put the author. Transport security issues are important for the creation of the transport police system in the Russian Federation, taking into account experience of foreign countries.

  7. Specific features of energy and spatial distribution of primary knocked-out atoms in monocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taratin, A.M.; Vorob'ev, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    By simulation trajectories of 0.2 MeV protons in 1 μm thick Al monocrystal, the energy and spatial distributions of primary atoms knocked out by the protons (PKA) have been studied. Different orientations of the incident beam axis relative to the densely packed direction in the case of ''quasichanneling'' and ''chaotic'' scattering of particles by the crystal have been researched. The depth dependence of the number of generated PKA, their distribution in the plane transverse to the preferred direction, and the energy spectrum of PKA have been obtained. It is shown that the PKA volume density is higher than that obtained using evaluations not accounting for the crystalline structure, and the energy spectrum contains more low energy PKAs. A concept of the cross section of the PKA production on an atomic chain is introduced for ipterpretation of the data obtained

  8. Specific features of electrical properties of porous biocarbons prepared from beech wood and wood artificial fiberboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Magarino, E. Enrique; Bautista, M. A.; Martínez-Fernández, J.

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports on comparative investigations of the structural and electrical properties of biomorphic carbons prepared from natural beech wood, as well as medium-density and high-density fiberboards, by means of carbonization at different temperatures T carb in the range 650-1000°C. It has been demonstrated using X-ray diffraction analysis that biocarbons prepared from medium-density and high-density fiberboards at all temperatures T carb contain a nanocrystalline graphite component, namely, three-dimensional crystallites 11-14 Å in size. An increase in the carbonization temperature T carb to 1000°C leads to the appearance of a noticeable fraction of two-dimensional graphene particles with the same sizes. The temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ of the biomorphic carbons have been measured and analyzed in the temperature range 1.8-300 K. For all types of carbons under investigation, an increase in the carbonization temperature T carb from 600 to 900°C leads to a change in the electrical resistivity at T = 300 K by five or six orders of magnitude. The dependences ρ( T) for these materials are adequately described by the Mott law for the variable-range hopping conduction. It has been revealed that the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity exhibits a hysteresis, which has been attributed to thermomechanical stresses in an inhomogeneous structure of the biocarbon prepared at a low carbonization temperature T carb. The crossover to the conductivity characteristic of disordered metal systems is observed at T carb ≳ 1000°C.

  9. Problems and Specific Features of Sub-Federal Budgets Execution in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Last year has been marked by worrying trends in the development of a budgetary crisis in Russian regions; the crisis became apparent in 2013, when regional authorities had to get into huge debts in order to provide finances for the social obligations in the framework of the presidential decrees of May 7, 2012. The budget process in 2015 was characterized by expanding negative trends in those regions that had previously been the engines of economic growth and budget donors, which contradicts the regional development strategy. The crisis response measures consist in a large-scale optimization of expenses. Despite an attempt undertaken by the Government to replace commercial borrowings with budget loans, there are still no prospects for solving the debt issue. On the contrary, expert forecasts predict a doubling of the debt stock in regions by the end of 2017. Cuts in the expenditures on human capital development should be considered as a new negative trend, naturally resulting in the deterioration of material well-being of Russians, which was expressed in the decline in their real incomes and raising poverty level. It seems that on the eve of the RF State Duma elections the social policy of the authorities ceases to be socially oriented. Under the circumstances of an aggravating budget crisis, the Government is not increasing unrepayable financial aid (it did increase it in 2009; instead, it is pursuing the opposite policy and estranges itself from providing support to regions. Moreover, the Cabinet of Ministers does not openly wish to carry out a just division of powers and obligations of governmental units, but turns it into a mechanism for financing federal budget deficit by shifting state obligations onto the regions. The paper presents the results of the analysis of sub-federal budgets execution in 2015. The main goal was to identify the features of budget process and trends in the dynamics of budget parameters. The main conclusion is that

  10. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Semen M; Artemov, Gleb N; Sharakhov, Igor V; Stegniy, Vladimir N

    2017-01-01

    Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO-a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells.

  11. Specific features of the domain structure of (Gd sub 1-x Nd sub x ) sub 2 (MoO sub 4 ) sub 3 crystals. Osobennosti domennoj struktury kristallov (Gd sub 1-x Nd sub x ) sub 2 (MoO sub 4 ) sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryzgalov, A N; Slepchenko, B M; Virachev, B P [Cherepovetskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst., Cherepovets (USSR)

    1989-11-01

    Formation of the domain structures by sample transfer into thermodynamically metastable state using a simultaneous effect of electric field and temperature change is investigated in Gd{sub 1.7}Nd{sub 0.3}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 3} monocrystals (GMO). Some new results obtained under investigations into GMO domain structure using neodymium by means of hydrothermal etching and polarization-optical method are presented.

  12. Measuring the relative extent of pulmonary infiltrates by hierarchical classification of patient-specific image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevas, S.; Iakovidis, D. K.

    2011-11-01

    Pulmonary infiltrates are common radiological findings indicating the filling of airspaces with fluid, inflammatory exudates, or cells. They are most common in cases of pneumonia, acute respiratory syndrome, atelectasis, pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage, whereas their extent is usually correlated with the extent or the severity of the underlying disease. In this paper we propose a novel pattern recognition framework for the measurement of the extent of pulmonary infiltrates in routine chest radiographs. The proposed framework follows a hierarchical approach to the assessment of image content. It includes the following: (a) sampling of the lung fields; (b) extraction of patient-specific grey-level histogram signatures from each sample; (c) classification of the extracted signatures into classes representing normal lung parenchyma and pulmonary infiltrates; (d) the samples for which the probability of belonging to one of the two classes does not reach an acceptable level are rejected and classified according to their textural content; (e) merging of the classification results of the two classification stages. The proposed framework has been evaluated on real radiographic images with pulmonary infiltrates caused by bacterial infections. The results show that accurate measurements of the infiltration areas can be obtained with respect to each lung field area. The average measurement error rate on the considered dataset reached 9.7% ± 1.0%.

  13. Specific features in the behavior of electrical resistivity of the pine biocarbon preform/copper composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. T.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.

    2010-11-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the novel type of composites prepared by infiltrating melted copper in vacuum in empty sap channels of white pine high-porosity biocarbon preforms has been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. Biocarbon preforms have been prepared by pyrolysis of tree wood in an argon flow at two carbonization temperatures, 1000 and 2400°C. The electrical resistivity of the composites has been found to vary relatively weakly with temperature and to pass through a characteristic minimum near 40-50 K, which can be ascribed to iron and manganese impurities penetrating into copper from the carbon preform when liquid copper is infiltrated into it. It has been shown that the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composites is governed primarily by the specific microstructure of the preform, which is made up of parallel channels with an average diameter of about 50 μm interrupted by systems of thin capillaries. The small cross section of the copper-filled capillaries accounts for these regions providing the major contribution to the electrical resistivity of the composites. An increase in the wood carbonization temperature brings about a noticeable increase in the effective capillary cross section and a decrease in the electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the composite.

  14. Specific features of the electrophysical parameters of NTD Si treated under different conditions of heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidar, G. P., E-mail: gaydar@kinr.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Baranskii, P. I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of thermal annealing in the temperature range 800 ⩽ T{sub ann} ⩽ 1200°C and of two cooling rates (v{sub cl} = 1 and 15°C min{sup –1}) upon a change in the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band, their mobility, and tensoresistance in n-Si crystals doped by nuclear transmutation and doped with phosphorus impurity via the melt (during growth by the Czochralski method) was investigated. It is found that, after annealing of all of the crystals at T{sub ann} = 1050–1100°C, the concentration of charge carriers is increased by a factor of 1.3–1.7 compared to the initial concentration (irrespective of the method of doping). The specific annealing-temperature-dependent effect of cooling with a rate of 15°C min{sup –1} on the properties of transmutation-doped n-Si:P crystals is detected.

  15. Allelic Imbalance Is a Prevalent and Tissue-Specific Feature of the Mouse Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Stefan F.; Colognori, David; Beliveau, Brian J.; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Payer, Bernhard; Yildirim, Eda; Wu, Chao-ting; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, several classes of monoallelic genes have been identified, including those subject to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), genomic imprinting, and random monoallelic expression (RMAE). However, the extent to which these epigenetic phenomena are influenced by underlying genetic variation is unknown. Here we perform a systematic classification of allelic imbalance in mouse hybrids derived from reciprocal crosses of divergent strains. We observe that deviation from balanced biallelic expression is common, occurring in ∼20% of the mouse transcriptome in a given tissue. Allelic imbalance attributed to genotypic variation is by far the most prevalent class and typically is tissue-specific. However, some genotype-based imbalance is maintained across tissues and is associated with greater genetic variation, especially in 5′ and 3′ termini of transcripts. We further identify novel random monoallelic and imprinted genes and find that genotype can modify penetrance of parental origin even in the setting of large imprinted regions. Examination of nascent transcripts in single cells from inbred parental strains reveals that genes showing genotype-based imbalance in hybrids can also exhibit monoallelic expression in isogenic backgrounds. This surprising observation may suggest a competition between alleles and/or reflect the combined impact of cis- and trans-acting variation on expression of a given gene. Our findings provide novel insights into gene regulation and may be relevant to human genetic variation and disease. PMID:25858912

  16. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sahut-Barnola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Carney complex (CNC is an inherited neoplasia syndrome with endocrine overactivity. Its most frequent endocrine manifestation is primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, a bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia causing pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome. Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA have been found in 80% of CNC patients with Cushing's syndrome. To demonstrate the implication of R1alpha loss in the initiation and development of PPNAD, we generated mice lacking Prkar1a specifically in the adrenal cortex (AdKO. AdKO mice develop pituitary-independent Cushing's syndrome with increased PKA activity. This leads to autonomous steroidogenic genes expression and deregulated adreno-cortical cells differentiation, increased proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Unexpectedly, R1alpha loss results in improper maintenance and centrifugal expansion of cortisol-producing fetal adrenocortical cells with concomitant regression of adult cortex. Our data provide the first in vivo evidence that loss of R1alpha is sufficient to induce autonomous adrenal hyper-activity and bilateral hyperplasia, both observed in human PPNAD. Furthermore, this model demonstrates that deregulated PKA activity favors the emergence of a new cell population potentially arising from the fetal adrenal, giving new insight into the mechanisms leading to PPNAD.

  17. Left fronto-temporal dynamics during agreement processing: evidence for feature-specific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Barber, Horacio A; Pérez, Alejandro; Parkkonen, Lauri; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Grammatical agreement is a widespread language phenomenon that indicates formal syntactic relations between words; however, it also conveys basic lexical (e.g. grammatical gender) or semantic (e.g. numerosity) information about a discourse referent. In this study, we focus on the reading of Spanish noun phrases, violating either number or gender determiner-noun agreement compared to grammatical controls. Magnetoencephalographic activity time-locked to the onset of the noun in both types of violation revealed a left-lateralized brain network involving anterior temporal regions (~220 ms) and, later in time, ventro-lateral prefrontal regions (>300 ms). These activations coexist with dependency-specific effects: in an initial step (~170 ms), occipito-temporal regions are employed for fine-grained analysis of the number marking (in Spanish, presence or absence of the suffix '-s'), while anterior temporal regions show increased activation for gender mismatches compared to grammatical controls. The semantic relevance of number agreement dependencies was mainly reflected by left superior temporal increased activity around 340 ms. These findings offer a detailed perspective on the multi-level analyses involved in the initial computation of agreement dependencies, and theoretically support a derivational approach to agreement computation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and immunological features of chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the activity of cytokines for determination of their pathogenic role and effective action of the individual factors of the immune system in infants with chronic non&specific non&ulcerative colitis (CNNC. Patients and methods. It is studied 60 children in the age from 1 to 3 years with CNNC, who were under hospitalization. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy children of appropriate age. Immunological status of children was evaluated on the base of determination of cytokine concentration in the blood serum by the method of Enzyme-Immuno-Sorbent-Assay. Results. It is found that during the CNNC in infants and the concentration and ratio of the different groups of cytokines in the blood serum undergoes significant changes — increasing the concentration of pro&inflammatory cytokines (IL&1α, IL&6, IL&8, TNF-α and decreases the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 is the IL-10, wherein the content growth factors is changing — by increased hepatocytes growth factor and reduced intestinal trefoil factor. Conclusions. Found changes of cytokines state can be regarded as a violation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms that is the basis of pathogenesis of the formation of a chronic inflammatory process in the infant's intestine.

  19. Structural characterization of a D-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Simon J; Anandhakrishnan, Madhankumar; Geerlof, Arie; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases, responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids in lactic acid producing bacteria, have a range of biotechnology applications including antibiotic synthesis, flavor development in dairy products and the production of valuable synthons. The genome of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a member of the heterogeneous group of lactic acid bacteria, encodes multiple hydroxyacid dehydrogenases whose structural and functional properties remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the apo and coenzyme NAD⁺ complexed crystal structures of the L. bulgaricusD-isomer specific 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase, D2-HDH. Comparison with closely related members of the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase family reveals that whilst the D2-HDH core fold is structurally conserved, the substrate-binding site has a number of non-canonical features that may influence substrate selection and thus dictate the physiological function of the enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PAIN IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT AND METHODS OF CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Aleksandrovich Olyunin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pain syndrome holds a central position in the clinical picture of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Articular inflammation is an essential, but not the only, factor that determines the occurrence of pain. Extraarticular soft tissue pathology can play an important role in the formation of pain perceptions in RA. The pain that increases on movement with involvement of affected structures, as well as local tenderness on palpation and dysfunction of an altered segment are the major clinical manifestations of extraarticular soft tissue involvement in RA. Swelling in the area of appropriate tendons and synovial bursae can be seen when superficially located anatomic formations are involved. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography permit more accurate determination of the site and pattern of an involvement. The pain and functional impairments associated with extraarticular soft tissue pathology determine a need for additional therapy that can correct the existing disorders and improve the quality of life in patients. The major components of this treatment are sparing routine and systemic and local drug therapy. Diclofenac sodium is one of the most universal agents that allow simultaneous monitoring of various pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. Local glucocorticoids may be used if the sparing routine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs fail to control the pain syndrome effectively.

  1. Assesing the Effectiveness of Joint Companies in Russia: Industry-Specific Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Fedorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluates the effectiveness of joint and domestic companies using ROA (operational efficiency and DEA (technical efficiency methodologies. The technical efficiency was estimated in two ways: according to the classical scheme and taking into account spillover effects. The study was based on statements of Russian companies (23 567 joint enterprises and 14 653 companies without FDI for the period of 2008-2012. The authors used RusLana resource to get following information: balance sheets, profit and loss statements, capital structure, number of employees and regional affiliation. The study found that joint companies usually operate more effectively than domestic ones. The authors also conclude that the crisis has not caused severe damages to the average effectiveness by industries. More than that, Russian economy has positive horizontal and vertical FDI spillover effects which increase as time goes by. In 2012 the most efficient joint companies (in terms of technical efficiency belonged to the following industries: coke and petroleum production, chemical industry and metallurgy. The most ineffective ones included following: wholesale and retail trade, machinery and equipment production and agriculture

  2. Crystal structure of calcioburbankite and the characteristic features of the burbankite structure type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belovitskaya, Yu.V.; Pekov, I.V.; Gobechiya, E.R.; Kabalov, Yu.K.; Subbotin, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of calcioburbankite (Na,Ca) 3 (Ca,RE,Sr,Ba) 3 (CO 3 ) 5 found in carbonatites from Vuoriyarvi (North Kareliya) was solved by the Rietveld method. The experimental data were collected on an ADP-2 diffractometer (λCuK α radiation; Ni filter; 16.00 deg. 1 + α 2 ) reflections was 455). All the calculations were performed within the sp. gr. P6 3 mc; a = 10.4974(1) A, c = 6.4309(1) A, V = 613.72(1) A 3 ; R wp = 2.49%. The structure was refined with the use of the anisotropic thermal parameters for the (Na,Ca) and (Sr,Ba,Ce) cations. The comparison of the crystal structures of all of the known hexagonal representatives of the burbankite family demonstrates that the burbankite structure type (sp. gr. P6 3 mc) is stable, irrespectively of the occupancy of the ten-vertex polyhedra predominantly with Ca, Sr, or Ba cations and the occupancies of the positions in the eight-vertex polyhedra

  3. Specific Features of Transport Market Characterising the Interrelation of Logistics, Global Distribution and Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available If we acknowledge the role of traffic as active leaderof the sustainable economy development, then we certainlyhave to analyse the environment in which the traffic exists asa system, and therefore we have to foresee its limits which aredetermined by the specifics of the traffic system. Representingthe circulation system of economy, traffic has to eavesdrop onthe demands of the market, and has to be transformed andmodernised. The experience gained by working on the projectsand the studies related to business organisation resulted inthe conclusion that the requirements related to logistics inthe nineties were significantly greater than had been thecommon target until then -reduction of costs. In order to adjustcompletely to the market demands, with the help of advancedinformation technology, the companies apply logisticsas tools of competitiveness on the market. Extraordinmyachievements of IT, using of virtual reality enable businesspeople to communicate and contract businesses without beingphysically present. What is it that makes some companies moresuccessful than others? It is obviously a question of the advantagesof distribution realisation due to the fact that nowadayspurchase and selling are run globally in the world. The distributionof products at the right time, to the right place, at a pricewhich is favourable both to the seller and the buyer, in the rightmanner and in the appropriate quantity in the marketing senseis the prerequisite for the business success as element of businesslogistics. The development of this tool must be basedon the monitoring of the needs for the logistics managementand the tactical adaptability of the company. The solution oflogistics management of business processes must satisfy thecurrent and future customers' requirements in order to be competitive.

  4. Specific features of kukersite processing in laboratory-scale and commercial retorts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, V.; Kundel, H.

    1991-01-01

    The yield and properties of shale oil produced by semi coking oil shale in retorts of different design depend to a great extent on the conditions of volatiles evacuation from the high temperature zone. In externally heated laboratory retorts, where oil vapours reside in the reaction zone for a relatively long period undergoing moderate cracking, no maximum oil yields are attained. The higher the organic matter content in the oil shale, the higher is the partial pressure of the oil vapours in the retort and hence the rate of their removal from the retorting zone, resulting in increased shale oil yields and lower specific yield of hydrogen in the retort off-gases. replacing the external heating mode with direct heating by a gaseous heat carrier (carbon dioxide, in particular) leads to a considerable moderation of the volatiles pyrolysis. As a result, the shale oil produced has a higher density and molecular mass, a lower calorific value and a higher content of phenols. The presence of water vapours in the heat carrier gas also has a positive effect upon the yield of shale oil and phenols. The properties of the oil and gas produced by semi coking kukersite in the presence of free calcium oxide are similar to those of cracked products. The presence of free calcium oxide has the same effect as higher temperatures or longer residence time of the volatiles in the retorting zone: it leads to reduced yields of shale oil and phenols, to a lower density of the oil and higher yields of hydrogen and gaseous hydrocarbons. This should be taken into consideration on evaluating the efficiency of semi coking oil shale in the retorts with solid heat carrier, which contains free calcium oxide

  5. Contribution of transposable elements and distal enhancers to evolution of human-specific features of interphase chromatin architecture in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2018-03-01

    Transposable elements have made major evolutionary impacts on creation of primate-specific and human-specific genomic regulatory loci and species-specific genomic regulatory networks (GRNs). Molecular and genetic definitions of human-specific changes to GRNs contributing to development of unique to human phenotypes remain a highly significant challenge. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of diverse families of human-specific genomic regulatory loci (HSGRL) identified topologically associating domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for HSGRL and designated rapidly evolving in human TADs. Here, the analysis of HSGRL, hESC-enriched enhancers, super-enhancers (SEs), and specific sub-TAD structures termed super-enhancer domains (SEDs) has been performed. In the hESC genome, 331 of 504 (66%) of SED-harboring TADs contain HSGRL and 68% of SEDs co-localize with HSGRL, suggesting that emergence of HSGRL may have rewired SED-associated GRNs within specific TADs by inserting novel and/or erasing existing non-coding regulatory sequences. Consequently, markedly distinct features of the principal regulatory structures of interphase chromatin evolved in the hESC genome compared to mouse: the SED quantity is 3-fold higher and the median SED size is significantly larger. Concomitantly, the overall TAD quantity is increased by 42% while the median TAD size is significantly decreased (p = 9.11E-37) in the hESC genome. Present analyses illustrate a putative global role for transposable elements and HSGRL in shaping the human-specific features of the interphase chromatin organization and functions, which are facilitated by accelerated creation of novel transcription factor binding sites and new enhancers driven by targeted placement of HSGRL at defined genomic coordinates. A trend toward the convergence of TAD and SED architectures of interphase chromatin in the hESC genome may reflect changes of 3D-folding patterns of linear chromatin fibers designed to enhance both

  6. Crystal Structure of a UDP-glucose-specific Glycosyltransferase from a Mycobacterium Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulton, Zara; McAlister, Adrian; Wilce, Matthew C.J.; Brammananth, Rajini; Zaker-Tabrizi, Leyla; Perugini, Matthew A.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Coppel, Ross L.; Crellin, Paul K.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Beddoe, Travis (Monash); (Melbourne)

    2008-10-24

    Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a large and ubiquitous family of enzymes that specifically transfer sugar moieties to a range of substrates. Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a large number of GTs, many of which are implicated in cell wall synthesis, yet the majority of these GTs remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the high resolution crystal structures of an essential GT (MAP2569c) from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (a close homologue of Rv1208 from M. tuberculosis) in its apo- and ligand-bound forms. The structure adopted the GT-A fold and possessed the characteristic DXD motif that coordinated an Mn{sup 2+} ion. Atypical of most GTs characterized to date, MAP2569c exhibited specificity toward the donor substrate, UDP-glucose. The structure of this ligated complex revealed an induced fit binding mechanism and provided a basis for this unique specificity. Collectively, the structural features suggested that MAP2569c may adopt a 'retaining' enzymatic mechanism, which has implications for the classification of other GTs in this large superfamily.

  7. Play in two societies: pervasiveness of process, specificity of structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, M H; Haynes, O M; Pascual, L; Painter, K M; Galperín, C

    1999-01-01

    The present study compared Argentine (N = 39) and U.S. (N = 43) children and their mothers on exploratory, symbolic, and social play and interaction when children were 20 months of age. Patterns of cultural similarity and difference emerged. In both cultures, boys engaged in more exploratory play than girls, and girls engaged in more symbolic play than boys; mothers of boys engaged in more exploratory play than mothers of girls, and mothers of girls engaged in more symbolic play than mothers of boys. Moreover, in both cultures, individual variation in children's exploratory and symbolic play was specifically associated with individual variation in mothers' exploratory and symbolic play, respectively. Between cultures, U.S. children and their mothers engaged in more exploratory play, whereas Argentine children and their mothers engaged in more symbolic play. Moreover, Argentine mothers exceeded U.S. mothers in social play and verbal praise of their children. During an early period of mental and social growth, general developmental processes in play may be pervasive, but dyadic and cultural structures are apparently specific. Overall, Argentine and U.S. dyads utilized different modes of exploration, representation, and interaction--emphasizing "other-directed" acts of pretense versus "functional" and "combinatorial" exploration, for example--and these individual and dyadic allocentric versus idiocentric stresses accord with larger cultural concerns of collectivism versus individualism in the two societies.

  8. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF POWER CONSUMPTION OF LED DEVICES AND ACCOUNTING THEM IN CALCULATION OF ELECTRICAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators of power consumption of lighting devices based on LEDs are studied depending on the supplied voltage. For the lamp and floodlight with LEDs active and reactive power, current and power factor as a function of voltage (which value changed in the range 200–245 V were experimentally determined. The analysis of experimental data demonstrated that due to the drivers in the specified voltage range the active power consumed by light devices remains practically unchanged. The reactive power of LED devices depends on the supplied voltage and is capacitive in its nature. In contrast with gas-discharge light sources the LED devices under study do not consume reactive power, but generate it. With the change of the supplied voltage from 200 to 245 V the value of the generated reactive power increases to 60 % for the floodlight and 50 % for the lamp. The LED floodlight has a low coefficient of active power. The current consumed by the floodlight has increased by 22 %, and by the lamp – by 13 %. The formulas for determining the maximum value of the length of the calculated section of single-phase group lines were developed, taking into account specific source data. LED light sources tend to feed by electric power by single-phase group lines. The number of lamps connected to single-phase lines is regulated by normative documents. Bearing this in mind as well as the small power of LED sources single-phase group lines are usually performed with conductors of the smallest possible cross section. The limit values of the length of the calculated section that correspond to a predetermined loss of voltage in line with ambient temperature from 15 to 60 °С were determined for them. The calculations demonstrated that for group lines that feed the LEDs, the choice of conductor cross-sections in accordance with permissible voltage loss is not critical. The determinant factor for the choice of the cross-section of the conductors of group electrical

  9. Specific features of taxation of in-dividuals in relationships with foreign elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    material benefits, are taken into account. Exceptions to this rule are provided for in Article 217 of the Tax Code, which contains a list of income exempt from taxation.Conclusions. The author comes to the conclusion that the legal regulation of the taxation of residents and non-residents is changing rapidly. Meanwhile, in the Russian legislation, the specifics of creating and terminating the status of a tax resident are not specified in detail. At the same time, several taxation regimes have been established for foreigners. This fact allows them to pay taxes at a general rate.

  10. Specific features of the determination of the pellet-cladding gap of the fuel rods by non-destructive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amosov, S.V.; Pavlov, S.V.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the specific features of determining the pellet-cladding gap of the irradiated WWER-1000 fuel rods by nondestructive method. The method is based on the elastic radial deformation of the cladding up to its contact with the fuel. The value of deformation of cladding till its contacting fuel when radial force changes from F max to 0 is proposed as a measuring parameter for determination of the diametrical gap. Because of the features of compression method, the obtained gap value is not analog of the gap measured on micrograph of the fuel rod cross-section. Results of metallography can provide only qualitative evaluation of its method efficiency. Comparison of the values determined by non-destructive method and metallography for WWER-1000 fuel rods with burnup from 25 to 55 MWd/kg U testified that the results of compression method can be used as a low estimate of the pellet-cladding gap value. (author)

  11. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Malinda J; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K; Limb, Charles J

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  12. The role of emotion in musical improvisation: an analysis of structural features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda J McPherson

    Full Text Available One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor and emotion (happy vs. sad do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not utilize any universal rules to convey emotions, but would instead combine heterogeneous musical elements together in order to depict positive and negative emotions. Our findings demonstrate a lack of simple correspondence between emotions and musical features of spontaneous musical improvisation. While improvisations in response to positive emotional cues were more likely to be in major keys, have faster tempos, faster key press velocities and more staccato notes when compared to negative improvisations, there was a wide distribution for each emotion with components that directly violated these primary associations. The finding that musicians often combine disparate features together in order to convey emotion during improvisation suggests that structural diversity may be an essential feature of the ability of music to express a wide range of emotion.

  13. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  14. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Michael, Anderson T.; Han, O.; Scheiner, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory and some of the challenges for proper specification of theoretical ideas in structural equation models (SE models). In our presentation, we describe some of the requirements for classical latent variable models in which observed variables (indicators) are interpreted as the effects of underlying causes. We also describe alternative model specifications in which indicators are interpreted as having causal influences on the theoretical concepts. We suggest that this latter nonclassical specification (which involves another variable type-the composite) will often be appropriate for ecological studies because of the multifaceted nature of our theoretical concepts. In this paper, we employ the use of meta-models to aid the translation of theory into SE models and also to facilitate our ability to relate results back to our theories. We demonstrate our approach by showing how a synthetic theory of grassland biodiversity can be evaluated using SEM and data from a coastal grassland. In this example, the theory focuses on the responses of species richness to abiotic stress and disturbance, both directly and through intervening effects on community biomass. Models examined include both those based on classical forms (where each concept is represented using a single latent variable) and also ones in which the concepts are recognized to be multifaceted and modeled as such. To address the challenge of matching SE models with the conceptual level of our theory, two approaches are illustrated, compositing and aggregation. Both approaches are shown to have merits, with the former being preferable for cases where the multiple facets of a concept have widely differing effects in the

  15. The Role of Emotion in Musical Improvisation: An Analysis of Structural Features

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, Malinda J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Monica; Rankin, Summer K.; Limb, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary functions of music is to convey emotion, yet how music accomplishes this task remains unclear. For example, simple correlations between mode (major vs. minor) and emotion (happy vs. sad) do not adequately explain the enormous range, subtlety or complexity of musically induced emotions. In this study, we examined the structural features of unconstrained musical improvisations generated by jazz pianists in response to emotional cues. We hypothesized that musicians would not u...

  16. Adaptive cellular structures and devices with internal features for enhanced structural performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael Eugene

    This dissertation aims to develop a family of cellular and repeatable devices that exhibit a variety of force-displacement behaviors. It is envisioned that these cellular structures might be used either as stand-alone elements, or combined and repeated to create multiple types of structures (i.e. buildings, ship hulls, vehicle subfloors, etc.) with the ability to passively or actively perform multiple functions (harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, modulus change) over a range of loading types, amplitudes, and frequencies. To accomplish this goal, this work combines repeatable structural frameworks, such as that provided by a hexagonal cellular structure, with internal structural elements such as springs, viscous dampers, buckling plates, bi-stable von Mises trusses (VMTs), and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). The repeatable framework serves to position damping and load carrying elements throughout the structure, and the configuration of the internal elements allow each cell to be tuned to exhibit a desired force-displacement response. Therefore, gradient structures or structures with variable load paths can be created for an optimal global response to a range of loads. This dissertation focuses on the development of cellular structures for three functions: combined load-carrying capability with harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, and cell modulus variation. One or more conceptual designs are presented for devices that can perform each of these functions, and both experimental measurements and simulations are used to gain a fundamental understanding of each device. Chapter 2 begins with a presentation of a VMT model that is the basis for many of the elements. The equations of motion for the VMT are derived and the static and dynamic behavior of the VMT are discussed in detail. Next, two metrics for the energy dissipation of the VMT - hysteresis loop area and loss factor - are presented. The responses of the VMT to harmonic displacement

  17. Key structural features of nonsteroidal ligands for binding and activation of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Donghua; He, Yali; Perera, Minoli A; Hong, Seoung Soo; Marhefka, Craig; Stourman, Nina; Kirkovsky, Leonid; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to examine the androgen receptor (AR) binding ability and in vitro functional activity of multiple series of nonsteroidal compounds derived from known antiandrogen pharmacophores and to investigate the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these nonsteroidal compounds. The AR binding properties of sixty-five nonsteroidal compounds were assessed by a radioligand competitive binding assay with the use of cytosolic AR prepared from rat prostates. The AR agonist and antagonist activities of high-affinity ligands were determined by the ability of the ligand to regulate AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cultured CV-1 cells, using a cotransfection assay. Nonsteroidal compounds with diverse structural features demonstrated a wide range of binding affinity for the AR. Ten compounds, mainly from the bicalutamide-related series, showed a binding affinity superior to the structural pharmacophore from which they were derived. Several SARs regarding nonsteroidal AR binding were revealed from the binding data, including stereoisomeric conformation, steric effect, and electronic effect. The functional activity of high-affinity ligands ranged from antagonist to full agonist for the AR. Several structural features were found to be determinative of agonist and antagonist activities. The nonsteroidal AR agonists identified from the present studies provided a pool of candidates for further development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) for androgen therapy. Also, these studies uncovered or confirmed numerous important SARs governing AR binding and functional properties by nonsteroidal molecules, which would be valuable in the future structural optimization of SARMs.

  18. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEFORMATION OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE AS A RESULT OF THE EARTH CORE NORTHERN DRIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Goncharov

    2012-01-01

    drifting (Figures 26, and 27.By comparing the equations that describe the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere and the model of the core drift towards the North Pole, it is possible to establish a quantitative ‘bridge’ between the structures of meridional compression of the lithosphere and the core drifting structures.Conclusions based on the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere conform to many independent data and concepts, such as disturbance of the isostatic equilibrium of the Antarctica lithosphere and its high standing; the anomalously wide shelf of the Arctic ocean (Figure 28а and the increased thickness of the sediment cover, that is rich in hydrocarbons, in combination with the ultralow velocity of spreading in Gakkel Ridge; the approximately equal areas of Antarctica and the Arctic ocean as antipodes (Figure 28б; elongation (according to GPS data of the parallels in the Southern hemisphere, and their shortening in the Northern hemisphere (Figure 26; radial (relative to the South Pole rifts and other lineaments in Antarctica (Figures 29, and 30; the sub-concentric (relative to the same pole system of spreading around Antarctica, which develops northward into the submeridional system including three ‘trunks’ at a distance of about 90° (Figure 31.Due to the higher velocity of the northern drift of the lithosphere within the band with the middle meridian 100° E – 80° W, wherein the main mass of the continental lithosphere is concentrated and whose two ‘poles’ are marked by the axes of the African and Pacific superplumes (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 32, the following specific features have developed: maximum elongation of the Antarctic continent in the Southern (‘stretched’ hemisphere (Figure 28 б; maximum shortening of the Arctic ocean in the Northern (‘compressed’ hemisphere (Figure 28а; maximum spreading velocity in the SouthEastern Indian Ridge (Figure 33; maximum northern component of the horizontal displacements velocity

  19. Contribution of Sequence Motif, Chromatin State, and DNA Structure Features to Predictive Models of Transcription Factor Binding in Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Zing Tsung-Yeh; Shiu, Shin-Han; Tsai, Huai-Kuang

    2015-08-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding is determined by the presence of specific sequence motifs (SM) and chromatin accessibility, where the latter is influenced by both chromatin state (CS) and DNA structure (DS) properties. Although SM, CS, and DS have been used to predict TF binding sites, a predictive model that jointly considers CS and DS has not been developed to predict either TF-specific binding or general binding properties of TFs. Using budding yeast as model, we found that machine learning classifiers trained with either CS or DS features alone perform better in predicting TF-specific binding compared to SM-based classifiers. In addition, simultaneously considering CS and DS further improves the accuracy of the TF binding predictions, indicating the highly complementary nature of these two properties. The contributions of SM, CS, and DS features to binding site predictions differ greatly between TFs, allowing TF-specific predictions and potentially reflecting different TF binding mechanisms. In addition, a "TF-agnostic" predictive model based on three DNA "intrinsic properties" (in silico predicted nucleosome occupancy, major groove geometry, and dinucleotide free energy) that can be calculated from genomic sequences alone has performance that rivals the model incorporating experiment-derived data. This intrinsic property model allows prediction of binding regions not only across TFs, but also across DNA-binding domain families with distinct structural folds. Furthermore, these predicted binding regions can help identify TF binding sites that have a significant impact on target gene expression. Because the intrinsic property model allows prediction of binding regions across DNA-binding domain families, it is TF agnostic and likely describes general binding potential of TFs. Thus, our findings suggest that it is feasible to establish a TF agnostic model for identifying functional regulatory regions in potentially any sequenced genome.

  20. Contribution of Sequence Motif, Chromatin State, and DNA Structure Features to Predictive Models of Transcription Factor Binding in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zing Tsung-Yeh Tsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription factor (TF binding is determined by the presence of specific sequence motifs (SM and chromatin accessibility, where the latter is influenced by both chromatin state (CS and DNA structure (DS properties. Although SM, CS, and DS have been used to predict TF binding sites, a predictive model that jointly considers CS and DS has not been developed to predict either TF-specific binding or general binding properties of TFs. Using budding yeast as model, we found that machine learning classifiers trained with either CS or DS features alone perform better in predicting TF-specific binding compared to SM-based classifiers. In addition, simultaneously considering CS and DS further improves the accuracy of the TF binding predictions, indicating the highly complementary nature of these two properties. The contributions of SM, CS, and DS features to binding site predictions differ greatly between TFs, allowing TF-specific predictions and potentially reflecting different TF binding mechanisms. In addition, a "TF-agnostic" predictive model based on three DNA "intrinsic properties" (in silico predicted nucleosome occupancy, major groove geometry, and dinucleotide free energy that can be calculated from genomic sequences alone has performance that rivals the model incorporating experiment-derived data. This intrinsic property model allows prediction of binding regions not only across TFs, but also across DNA-binding domain families with distinct structural folds. Furthermore, these predicted binding regions can help identify TF binding sites that have a significant impact on target gene expression. Because the intrinsic property model allows prediction of binding regions across DNA-binding domain families, it is TF agnostic and likely describes general binding potential of TFs. Thus, our findings suggest that it is feasible to establish a TF agnostic model for identifying functional regulatory regions in potentially any sequenced genome.

  1. Structural features of nitroaromatics that determine mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, W.A.; Levin, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Seventeen structurally homologous nitroaromatics were tested for direct-acting mutagenic potency in nine strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The following four structural features were determined to have a strong influence on mutagenic activity: physical dimensions of the aromatic rings, isomeric position of the nitro group, conformation of the nitro group with respect to the plane of the aromatic rings, and ability to resonance-stabilize the utimate electrophile. Progressive addition of five- and six-membered rings to a nitrobenzene nucleus demonstrated that mutagenic activity was a direct function of size. Nitroaromatics with a nitro group oriented along the long axis of symmetry of the molecule were more potent mutagens that those with the nitro group oriented along the short axis. These results are discussed in light of the insertion-denaturation model for intercalation of certain DNA adducts. Finally, structural features that contribute to resonance stabilization of the reactive nitrenium ion enhance mutagenic potency. The predictive value of these structure-activity relationships should permit a first approximation in the assessment of mutagenic potency of nitroaromatics

  2. Common structural features of cholesterol binding sites in crystallized soluble proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiya, Anna N; Dopico, Alejandro M

    2017-06-01

    Cholesterol-protein interactions are essential for the architectural organization of cell membranes and for lipid metabolism. While cholesterol-sensing motifs in transmembrane proteins have been identified, little is known about cholesterol recognition by soluble proteins. We reviewed the structural characteristics of binding sites for cholesterol and cholesterol sulfate from crystallographic structures available in the Protein Data Bank. This analysis unveiled key features of cholesterol-binding sites that are present in either all or the majority of sites: i ) the cholesterol molecule is generally positioned between protein domains that have an organized secondary structure; ii ) the cholesterol hydroxyl/sulfo group is often partnered by Asn, Gln, and/or Tyr, while the hydrophobic part of cholesterol interacts with Leu, Ile, Val, and/or Phe; iii ) cholesterol hydrogen-bonding partners are often found on α-helices, while amino acids that interact with cholesterol's hydrophobic core have a slight preference for β-strands and secondary structure-lacking protein areas; iv ) the steroid's C21 and C26 constitute the "hot spots" most often seen for steroid-protein hydrophobic interactions; v ) common "cold spots" are C8-C10, C13, and C17, at which contacts with the proteins were not detected. Several common features we identified for soluble protein-steroid interaction appear evolutionarily conserved. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Features of Inner Structure of Placer Gold of the North-Eastern Part Siberian Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, Boris; Zhuravlev, Anatolii; Ivanov, Alexey

    2017-12-01

    Mineral and raw material base of placer and ore gold is based on prognosis evaluation, which allows to define promising areas regarding gold-bearing deposit prospecting. But there are some difficulties in gold primary source predicting and prospecting at the North-east Siberian platform, because the studied area is overlapped by thick cover of the Cenozoic deposits, where traditional methods of gold deposit prospecting are ineffective. In this connection, detailed study of typomorphic features of placer gold is important, because it contains key genetic information, necessary for development of mineralogical criteria of prognosis evaluation of ore gold content. Authors studied mineralogical-geochemical features of placer gold of the Anabar placer area for 15 years, with a view to identify indicators of gold, typical for different formation types of primary sources. This article presents results of these works. In placer regions, where primary sources of gold are not identified, there is need to study typomorphic features of placer gold, because it contains important genetic information, necessary for the development of mineralogical criteria of prognosis evaluation of ore gold content. Inner structures of gold from the Anabar placer region are studied, as one of the diagnostic typomorphic criteria as described in prominent method, developed by N.V. Petrovskaya [1980]. Etching of gold was carried out using reagent: HCl + HNO3 + FeCl3 × 6H2O + CrO3 +thioureat + water. Identified inner structures wer studied in details by means of scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-6480LV. Two types of gold are identified according to the features of inner structure of placer gold of the Anabar region. First type - medium-high karat fine, well processed gold with significantly changed inner structure. This gold is allochthonous, which was redeposited many times from ancient intermediate reservoirs to younger deposits. Second type - low-medium karat, poorly rounded gold with

  4. Linker histones: novel insights into structure-specific recognition of the nucleosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Amber R; Hayes, Jeffrey J

    2017-04-01

    Linker histones (H1s) are a primary component of metazoan chromatin, fulfilling numerous functions, both in vitro and in vivo, including stabilizing the wrapping of DNA around the nucleosome, promoting folding and assembly of higher order chromatin structures, influencing nucleosome spacing on DNA, and regulating specific gene expression. However, many molecular details of how H1 binds to nucleosomes and recognizes unique structural features on the nucleosome surface remain undefined. Numerous, confounding studies are complicated not only by experimental limitations, but the use of different linker histone isoforms and nucleosome constructions. This review summarizes the decades of research that has resulted in several models of H1 association with nucleosomes, with a focus on recent advances that suggest multiple modes of H1 interaction in chromatin, while highlighting the remaining questions.

  5. Guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation for ab-initio protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaohu; Zhang, Guijun; Zhou, Xiaogen

    2018-04-01

    Computing conformations which are essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. Consequently, the dimension of the protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level, and an effective exploring algorithm should be proposed. In this paper, a plug-in method for guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation (LUE) for ab-initio protein structure prediction is proposed. The conformational space is converted into ultrafast shape recognition (USR) feature space firstly. Based on the USR feature space, the conformational space can be further converted into Underestimation space according to Lipschitz estimation theory for guiding exploration. As a consequence of the use of underestimation model, the tight lower bound estimate information can be used for exploration guidance, the invalid sampling areas can be eliminated in advance, and the number of energy function evaluations can be reduced. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the exploring problem of protein conformational space. LUE is applied to differential evolution (DE) algorithm, and metropolis Monte Carlo(MMC) algorithm which is available in the Rosetta; When LUE is applied to DE and MMC, it will be screened by the underestimation method prior to energy calculation and selection. Further, LUE is compared with DE and MMC by testing on 15 small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins. Test results show that near-native protein structures with higher accuracy can be obtained more rapidly and efficiently with the use of LUE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Damage and noise sensitivity evaluation of autoregressive features extracted from structure vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ruigen; Pakzad, Shamim N

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades many types of structural damage indices based on structural health monitoring signals have been proposed, requiring performance evaluation and comparison studies on these indices in a quantitative manner. One tool to help accomplish this objective is analytical sensitivity analysis, which has been successfully used to evaluate the influences of system operational parameters on observable characteristics in many fields of study. In this paper, the sensitivity expressions of two damage features, namely the Mahalanobis distance of autoregressive coefficients and the Cosh distance of autoregressive spectra, will be derived with respect to both structural damage and measurement noise level. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is illustrated in a numerical case study on a 10-DOF system, where their results are compared with those from direct simulation and theoretical calculation. (paper)

  7. One-step synthesis and structural features of CdS/montmorillonite nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Zhu, Huaiyong; Bulcock, Shaun R; Ringer, Simon P

    2005-02-24

    A novel synthesis method was introduced for the nanocomposites of cadmium sulfide and montmorillonite. This method features the combination of an ion exchange process and an in situ hydrothermal decomposition process of a complex precursor, which is simple in contrast to the conventional synthesis methods that comprise two separate steps for similar nanocomposite materials. Cadmium sulfide species in the composites exist in the forms of pillars and nanoparticles, the crystallized sulfide particles are in the hexagonal phase, and the sizes change when the amount of the complex for the synthesis is varied. Structural features of the nanocomposites are similar to those of the clay host but changed because of the introduction of the sulfide into the clay.

  8. Local appearance features for robust MRI brain structure segmentation across scanning protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, H.C.; Poot, Dirk H. J.; van der Lijn, Fedde

    2013-01-01

    Segmentation of brain structures in magnetic resonance images is an important task in neuro image analysis. Several papers on this topic have shown the benefit of supervised classification based on local appearance features, often combined with atlas-based approaches. These methods require...... a representative annotated training set and therefore often do not perform well if the target image is acquired on a different scanner or with a different acquisition protocol than the training images. Assuming that the appearance of the brain is determined by the underlying brain tissue distribution...... with substantially different imaging protocols and on different scanners. While a combination of conventional appearance features trained on data from a different scanner with multiatlas segmentation performed poorly with an average Dice overlap of 0.698, the local appearance model based on the new acquisition...

  9. Crystal structure analysis reveals functional flexibility in the selenocysteine-specific tRNA from mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M Ganichkin

    Full Text Available Selenocysteine tRNAs (tRNA(Sec exhibit a number of unique identity elements that are recognized specifically by proteins of the selenocysteine biosynthetic pathways and decoding machineries. Presently, these identity elements and the mechanisms by which they are interpreted by tRNA(Sec-interacting factors are incompletely understood.We applied rational mutagenesis to obtain well diffracting crystals of murine tRNA(Sec. tRNA(Sec lacking the single-stranded 3'-acceptor end ((ΔGCCARNA(Sec yielded a crystal structure at 2.0 Å resolution. The global structure of (ΔGCCARNA(Sec resembles the structure of human tRNA(Sec determined at 3.1 Å resolution. Structural comparisons revealed flexible regions in tRNA(Sec used for induced fit binding to selenophosphate synthetase. Water molecules located in the present structure were involved in the stabilization of two alternative conformations of the anticodon stem-loop. Modeling of a 2'-O-methylated ribose at position U34 of the anticodon loop as found in a sub-population of tRNA(Secin vivo showed how this modification favors an anticodon loop conformation that is functional during decoding on the ribosome. Soaking of crystals in Mn(2+-containing buffer revealed eight potential divalent metal ion binding sites but the located metal ions did not significantly stabilize specific structural features of tRNA(Sec.We provide the most highly resolved structure of a tRNA(Sec molecule to date and assessed the influence of water molecules and metal ions on the molecule's conformation and dynamics. Our results suggest how conformational changes of tRNA(Sec support its interaction with proteins.

  10. Endotoxin Structures in the Psychrophiles Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis Contain Distinctive Acyl Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Sweet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A is the essential component of endotoxin (Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide, a potent immunostimulatory compound. As the outer surface of the outer membrane, the details of lipid A structure are crucial not only to bacterial pathogenesis but also to membrane integrity. This work characterizes the structure of lipid A in two psychrophiles, Psychromonas marina and Psychrobacter cryohalolentis, and also two mesophiles to which they are related using MALDI-TOF MS and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME GC-MS. P. marina lipid A is strikingly similar to that of Escherichia coli in organization and total acyl size, but incorporates an unusual doubly unsaturated tetradecadienoyl acyl residue. P. cryohalolentis also shows structural organization similar to a closely related mesophile, Acinetobacter baumannii, however it has generally shorter acyl constituents and shows many acyl variants differing by single methylene (-CH2- units, a characteristic it shares with the one previously reported psychrotolerant lipid A structure. This work is the first detailed structural characterization of lipid A from an obligate psychrophile and the second from a psychrotolerant species. It reveals distinctive structural features of psychrophilic lipid A in comparison to that of related mesophiles which suggest constitutive adaptations to maintain outer membrane fluidity in cold environments.

  11. Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties of lanthanide complex with a new tetrapodal ligand featuring salicylamide arms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xueqin; Wen Xiaoguang; Liu Weisheng; Wang Daqi

    2010-01-01

    A new tetrapodal ligand 1,1,1-tetrakis{[(2'-(2-furfurylaminoformyl))phenoxyl]methyl}methane (L) has been prepared and their coordination chemistry with Ln III ions has been investigated. The structure of {[Ln 4 L 3 (NO 3 ) 12 ].H 2 O} ∞ (Ln=Nd, Eu)] shows the binodal 4,3-connected three-dimensional interpenetration coordination polymers with topology of a (8 6 ) 3 (8 3 ) 4 notation. [DyL(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) 2 ].0.5CH 3 OH and [ErL(NO 3 ) 3 (H 2 O) (CH 3 OH)].CH 3 COCH 3 is a 1:1 mononuclear complex with interesting supramolecular features. The structure of [NdL(H 2 O) 6 ].3ClO 4 .3H 2 O is a 2:1 mononuclear complex which further self-assembled through hydrogen bond to form a three-dimensional supramolecular structures. The result presented here indicates that both subtle variation of the terminal group and counter anions can be applied in the modulation of the overall molecular structures of lanthanide complex of salicylamide derivatives due to the structure specialties of this type of ligand. The luminescence properties of the Eu III complex are also studied in detail. - Grapical Abstract: We present here a series of zero- to three-dimensional lanthanide coordination structures and luminescence properties of Eu(III) complex of a new tetrapodal ligand.

  12. Guide Structures in CD-ROM Dictionaries, with Specific Reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the appearance of that article, various academics have written articles and read ... The access and mediostructures of the Microsoft Encarta World English ... structures, inner access structure, inner search path, internet, mediostructure, ...

  13. An Matching Method for Vehicle-borne Panoramic Image Sequence Based on Adaptive Structure from Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zhengpeng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Panoramic image matching method with the constraint condition of local structure from motion similarity feature is an important method, the process requires multivariable kernel density estimations for the structure from motion feature used nonparametric mean shift. Proper selection of the kernel bandwidth is a critical step for convergence speed and accuracy of matching method. Variable bandwidth with adaptive structure from motion feature for panoramic image matching method has been proposed in this work. First the bandwidth matrix is defined using the locally adaptive spatial structure of the sampling point in spatial domain and optical flow domain. The relaxation diffusion process of structure from motion similarity feature is described by distance weighting method of local optical flow feature vector. Then the expression form of adaptive multivariate kernel density function is given out, and discusses the solution of the mean shift vector, termination conditions, and the seed point selection method. The final fusions of multi-scale SIFT the features and structure features to establish a unified panoramic image matching framework. The sphere panoramic images from vehicle-borne mobile measurement system are chosen such that a comparison analysis between fixed bandwidth and adaptive bandwidth is carried out in detail. The results show that adaptive bandwidth is good for case with the inlier ratio changes and the object space scale changes. The proposed method can realize the adaptive similarity measure of structure from motion feature, improves the correct matching points and matching rate, experimental results have shown our method to be robust.

  14. Inkjet Printing of Functional and Structural Materials: Fluid Property Requirements, Feature Stability, and Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Brian

    2010-08-01

    Inkjet printing is viewed as a versatile manufacturing tool for applications in materials fabrication in addition to its traditional role in graphics output and marking. The unifying feature in all these applications is the dispensing and precise positioning of very small volumes of fluid (1-100 picoliters) on a substrate before transformation to a solid. The application of inkjet printing to the fabrication of structures for structural or functional materials applications requires an understanding as to how the physical processes that operate during inkjet printing interact with the properties of the fluid precursors used. Here we review the current state of understanding of the mechanisms of drop formation and how this defines the fluid properties that are required for a given liquid to be printable. The interactions between individual drops and the substrate as well as between adjacent drops are important in defining the resolution and accuracy of printed objects. Pattern resolution is limited by the extent to which a liquid drop spreads on a substrate and how spreading changes with the overlap of adjacent drops to form continuous features. There are clearly defined upper and lower bounds to the width of a printed continuous line, which can be defined in terms of materials and process variables. Finer-resolution features can be achieved through appropriate patterning and structuring of the substrate prior to printing, which is essential if polymeric semiconducting devices are to be fabricated. Low advancing and receding contact angles promote printed line stability but are also more prone to solute segregation or “coffee staining” on drying.

  15. Structural damage identification using damping: a compendium of uses and features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, M. S.; Sha, G. G.; Gao, Y. F.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2017-04-01

    The vibration responses of structures under controlled or ambient excitation can be used to detect structural damage by correlating changes in structural dynamic properties extracted from responses with damage. Typical dynamic properties refer to modal parameters: natural frequencies, mode shapes, and damping. Among these parameters, natural frequencies and mode shapes have been investigated extensively for their use in damage characterization by associating damage with reduction in local stiffness of structures. In contrast, the use of damping as a dynamic property to represent structural damage has not been comprehensively elucidated, primarily due to the complexities of damping measurement and analysis. With advances in measurement technologies and analysis tools, the use of damping to identify damage is becoming a focus of increasing attention in the damage detection community. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that damping has greater sensitivity for characterizing damage than natural frequencies and mode shapes in various applications, but damping-based damage identification is still a research direction ‘in progress’ and is not yet well resolved. This situation calls for an overall survey of the state-of-the-art and the state-of-the-practice of using damping to detect structural damage. To this end, this study aims to provide a comprehensive survey of uses and features of applying damping in structural damage detection. First, we present various methods for damping estimation in different domains including the time domain, the frequency domain, and the time-frequency domain. Second, we investigate the features and applications of damping-based damage detection methods on the basis of two predominant infrastructure elements, reinforced concrete structures and fiber-reinforced composites. Third, we clarify the influential factors that can impair the capability of damping to characterize damage. Finally, we recommend future research directions

  16. Features of kinematic structure of motor actions technique in the freestyle wrestlers with different qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tupeev Y.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The sequence of educational steps in teaching basic technique elements in stance for young wrestlers at the initial training stage was determined by the expert assessment method. The biomechanical features of technique of a sprint by an inclination hold of legs for differently qualified wrestlers in freestyle were ascertained by the biomechanical videocomputer analysis. The results of research of kinematic structure of motor actions technique testify that performance duration of phases in sprint by an inclination hold of legs was characterized by the greater values for qualified wrestlers in comparison with highly skilled ones.

  17. Modeling specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder in rodents: the challenge to convey both cognitive and emotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Andrea; Trezza, Viviana; Campolongo, Campolongo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant emotional memory processing is a core, disabling feature of both specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), two psychiatric diseases of significant prevalence and morbidity whose cognitive symptoms cannot be adequately treated by current psychopharmacological tools. Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the etiology of these diseases is of great interest for the identification of new therapeutics that improve not only the symptomatology but also the full recovery from the pathology. To this aim, several animal models have been proposed based on substantial resemblance between the behavioral alterations seen in animals and the human pathology. The purpose of this review is to describe and comment on the most commonly used rodent models of specific phobias and PTSD. A particular focus will be reserved to the cued version of fear conditioning, as the highly specific stimulus-bound conditioned fear response seems to fit well with clinical descriptions of phobic fear.Moreover, animal models of PTSD will be evaluated by referring to three elements that are considered essential ina valid model of this disease: stressor exposure, memory for the stressor, and anxiety-related behaviors. Finally, current therapeutic directions, with a focus on cannabinoid and glucocorticoid compounds, will be briefly outlined.

  18. Structural and functional features of lysine acetylation of plant and animal tubulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayevsky, Alexey V; Sharifi, Mohsen; Samofalova, Dariya A; Karpov, Pavel A; Blume, Yaroslav B

    2017-10-10

    The study of the genome and the proteome of different species and representatives of distinct kingdoms, especially detection of proteome via wide-scaled analyses has various challenges and pitfalls. Attempts to combine all available information together and isolate some common features for determination of the pathway and their mechanism of action generally have a highly complicated nature. However, microtubule (MT) monomers are highly conserved protein structures, and microtubules are structurally conserved from Homo sapiens to Arabidopsis thaliana. The interaction of MT elements with microtubule-associated proteins and post-translational modifiers is fully dependent on protein interfaces, and almost all MT modifications are well described except acetylation. Crystallography and interactome data using different approaches were combined to identify conserved proteins important in acetylation of microtubules. Application of computational methods and comparative analysis of binding modes generated a robust predictive model of acetylation of the ϵ-amino group of Lys40 in α-tubulins. In turn, the model discarded some probable mechanisms of interaction between elements of interest. Reconstruction of unresolved protein structures was carried out with modeling by homology to the existing crystal structure (PDBID: 1Z2B) from B. taurus using Swiss-model server, followed by a molecular dynamics simulation. Docking of the human tubulin fragment with Lys40 into the active site of α-tubulin acetyltransferase, reproduces the binding mode of peptidomimetic from X-ray structure (PDBID: 4PK3). © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Specific Features of Formation and Distribution of the Fund of Innovation Development when Motivating Employees of Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers motivation activity at industrial enterprises and underlines importance of its execution under conditions of innovation activity. In order to perform it the article offers to use a number of material (bonus system by generalised grades, bonus for doing especially important work for a certain period of time with consideration of the labour process with innovation activity of the enterprise, etc. and non-material (praise, gratuity, methods of formation of collectives, etc. incentives, the source of which is application of the fund of innovation development. In order to increase effectiveness of motivation activity of an enterprise the article identifies specific features of its formation and distribution: financial and purposeful character, continuity, inclusion of individual payments only and existence of norms of deduction of its funds.

  20. Some Specific Features of the Object of Prosecutorial Supervision over the Observance of Constitutional Rights of the Individual to Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil S. Tishkov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the place of supervision functions within the system of the functions of prosecution bodies of the Russian Federation as one of the priority sectors of prosecutorial supervision. The legal regulation of prosecutorial supervision of the rights and freedoms of Russian Federation citizens is examined. The Author reveals the specific features of the subject of prosecutorial supervision in compliance with the constitutional rights of the individual to work based on the results of the current legislation system analysis. The assumption of the need for changes to the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation organizational and administrative documents in order to increase the efficiency of prosecutorial supervision over the observance of individual’s constitutional rights to work is expressed.

  1. The specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease in rheumatoid arthritis (Results of the authors’ studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Anatolyevna Khramtsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD and its complications occupy the leading place in the pattern of the causes of untimely death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Objective: to study the incidence, pattern, and specific features of CHD in patients with RA. Patients and methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 patients with RA (ARA, 1987. The patients’ mean age was 55.4±11.6 years; RA duration was 14.7years (range 2—20 years. Results. The incidence of CHD in RA was as much as 45.9% (n = 118, including 52.5% (n = 62 for typical angina pectoris on exertion; 25.4% (n = 30 and 22.1% (n = 26 for silent ischemia and arrhythmias, respectively. A high proportion of vertebrogenic cardialgias (48.8%; n = 100 were noted in those who complained of heart pain. The authors identified traditional risk factors, such as hypertension (OR = 12.1, smoking (OR = 10.2, early menopause (OR = 3.6, decreased glomerular filtration rate (OR = 3.5, cardiovascular heredity (OR = 3.1, overweight (OR = 2.5, a heart rate of more than 70 beats/min (OR = 2.3, atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR = 2.3, hyperglycemia (OR = 2.1, and age (OR = 1.7. Along with those, the authors also ascertained CHD predictors associating with chronic inflammation consequences: use of glucocorticoids (OR = 5.0, concomitant anemia as a common complication of RA (OR = 4.7, high DAS 28 scores (OR = 3.7, visual analog scale pain scores of > 50 mm (OR = 2.6, and RA duration of >10 years (OR = 2.2. Conclusion. The specific features of CHD in RA include the frequent detection of arrhythmias and silent ischemia. The importance of the degree of inflammatory activity along with the traditional risk factors of CHD is apparent.

  2. Complete fold annotation of the human proteome using a novel structural feature space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sarah A; Illuminati, Joseph; Kim, Junhyong

    2017-04-13

    Recognition of protein structural fold is the starting point for many structure prediction tools and protein function inference. Fold prediction is computationally demanding and recognizing novel folds is difficult such that the majority of proteins have not been annotated for fold classification. Here we describe a new machine learning approach using a novel feature space that can be used for accurate recognition of all 1,221 currently known folds and inference of unknown novel folds. We show that our method achieves better than 94% accuracy even when many folds have only one training example. We demonstrate the utility of this method by predicting the folds of 34,330 human protein domains and showing that these predictions can yield useful insights into potential biological function, such as prediction of RNA-binding ability. Our method can be applied to de novo fold prediction of entire proteomes and identify candidate novel fold families.

  3. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoh, Hidetaka; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  4. Structural features of anodic oxide films formed on aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asoh, Hidetaka [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)], E-mail: asoh@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp; Uchibori, Kota; Ono, Sachiko [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kogakuin University, 2665-1 Nakano, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The structural features of anodic oxide films formed on an aluminum substrate coated with self-assembled microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. In the first anodization in neutral solution, the growth of a barrier-type film was partially suppressed in the contact area between the spheres and the underlying aluminum substrate, resulting in the formation of ordered dimple arrays in an anodic oxide film. After the subsequent second anodization in acid solution at a voltage lower than that of the first anodization, nanopores were generated only within each dimple. The nanoporous region could be removed selectively by post-chemical etching using the difference in structural dimensions between the porous region and the surrounding barrier region. The mechanism of anodic oxide growth on the aluminum substrate coated with microspheres through multistep anodization is discussed.

  5. Production of specific-structured lipids by enzymatic interesterification in a pilot continuous enzyme bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Balchen, Steen; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1998-01-01

    Production of specific-structured lipids (interesterified lipids with a specific structure) by enzymatic interesterification was carried out in a continuous enzyme bed pilot scale reactor. Commercial immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM) was used and investigations of acyl migration, pressure drop...

  6. Sensory memory of structure-from-motion is shape-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Füllekrug, Jana; Braun, Jochen

    2013-08-01

    Perceptual priming can stabilize the phenomenal appearance of multistable visual displays (Leopold, Wilke, Maier, & Logothetis, Nature Neuroscience, 5, 605-609, 2002). Prior exposure to such displays induces a sensory memory of their appearance, which persists over long intervals and intervening stimulation, and which facilitates renewed perception of the same appearance. Here, we investigated perceptual priming for the apparent rotation in depth of ambiguous structure-from-motion (SFM) displays. Specifically, we generated SFM objects with different three-dimensional shapes and presented them in random order and with intervening blank periods. To assess perceptual priming, we established the probability that a perceived direction of rotation would persist between successive objects. In general, persistence was greatest between identical objects, intermediate between similar objects, and negligible between dissimilar objects. These results demonstrate unequivocally that sensory memory for apparent rotation is specific to three-dimensional shape, contrary to previous reports (e.g., Maier, Wilke, Logothetis, & Leopold, Current Biology, 13, 1076-1085, 2003). Because persistence did not depend on presentation order for any pair of objects, it provides a commutative measure for the similarity of object shapes. However, it is not clear exactly which features or aspects of object shape determine similarity. At least, we did not find simple, low-level features (such as volume overlap, heterogeneity, or rotational symmetry) that could have accounted for all observations. Accordingly, it seems that sensory memory of SFM (which underlies priming of ambiguous rotation) engages higher-level representations of object surface and shape.

  7. Features of CRISPR-Cas Regulation Key to Highly Efficient and Temporally-Specific crRNA Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andjela Rodic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial immune systems, such as CRISPR-Cas or restriction-modification (R-M systems, affect bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance by modulating horizontal gene flow. A model system for CRISPR-Cas regulation, the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli, is silent under standard laboratory conditions and experimentally observing the dynamics of CRISPR-Cas activation is challenging. Two characteristic features of CRISPR-Cas regulation in E. coli are cooperative transcription repression of cas gene and CRISPR array promoters, and fast non-specific degradation of full length CRISPR transcripts (pre-crRNA. In this work, we use computational modeling to understand how these features affect the system expression dynamics. Signaling which leads to CRISPR-Cas activation is currently unknown, so to bypass this step, we here propose a conceptual setup for cas expression activation, where cas genes are put under transcription control typical for a restriction-modification (R-M system and then introduced into a cell. Known transcription regulation of an R-M system is used as a proxy for currently unknown CRISPR-Cas transcription control, as both systems are characterized by high cooperativity, which is likely related to similar dynamical constraints of their function. We find that the two characteristic CRISPR-Cas control features are responsible for its temporally-specific dynamical response, so that the system makes a steep (switch-like transition from OFF to ON state with a time-delay controlled by pre-crRNA degradation rate. We furthermore find that cooperative transcription regulation qualitatively leads to a cross-over to a regime where, at higher pre-crRNA processing rates, crRNA generation approaches the limit of an infinitely abrupt system induction. We propose that these dynamical properties are associated with rapid expression of CRISPR-Cas components and efficient protection of bacterial cells against foreign DNA. In terms of synthetic

  8. The changes of macroscopic features and microscopic structures of water under influence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaofeng; Deng Bo

    2008-01-01

    Influences of magnetic field on microscopic structures and macroscopic properties of water are studied by the spectrum techniques of infrared, Raman, visible, ultraviolet lights and X-ray. From these investigations, we know that the magnetic fields change the distribution of molecules and electrons, cause displacements and polarization of molecules and atoms, result in changes of dipole-moment transition and vibrational states of molecules and variation of transition probability of electrons, but does not alter the constitution of molecules and atoms. These are helpful in seeking the mechanism of magnetization of water. Meanwhile, we also measure the changed rules of the surface tension force, soaking effect or angle of contact, viscosity, rheology features, refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of magnetized water relative to that of pure water. The results show that the magnetic fields increase the soaking degree and hydrophobicity of water to materials, depress its surface-tension force, diminish the viscosity of war, enhance the feature of plastic flowing of water, and increase the refraction index, dielectric constant and electric conductivity of water after magnetization. These changes are caused by the above changes of microscopic structures under the action of magnetic field. Therefore, our studies are significant in science and has practical value of applications

  9. Automated measurement of CT noise in patient images with a novel structure coherence feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Minsoo; Kim, Jong Hyo; Choi, Young Hun

    2015-01-01

    While the assessment of CT noise constitutes an important task for the optimization of scan protocols in clinical routine, the majority of noise measurements in practice still rely on manual operation, hence limiting their efficiency and reliability. This study presents an algorithm for the automated measurement of CT noise in patient images with a novel structure coherence feature. The proposed algorithm consists of a four-step procedure including subcutaneous fat tissue selection, the calculation of structure coherence feature, the determination of homogeneous ROIs, and the estimation of the average noise level. In an evaluation with 94 CT scans (16 517 images) of pediatric and adult patients along with the participation of two radiologists, ROIs were placed on a homogeneous fat region at 99.46% accuracy, and the agreement of the automated noise measurements with the radiologists’ reference noise measurements (PCC  =  0.86) was substantially higher than the within and between-rater agreements of noise measurements (PCC within   =  0.75, PCC between   =  0.70). In addition, the absolute noise level measurements matched closely the theoretical noise levels generated by a reduced-dose simulation technique. Our proposed algorithm has the potential to be used for examining the appropriateness of radiation dose and the image quality of CT protocols for research purposes as well as clinical routine. (paper)

  10. SoftSearch: integration of multiple sequence features to identify breakpoints of structural variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Hart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Structural variation (SV represents a significant, yet poorly understood contribution to an individual's genetic makeup. Advanced next-generation sequencing technologies are widely used to discover such variations, but there is no single detection tool that is considered a community standard. In an attempt to fulfil this need, we developed an algorithm, SoftSearch, for discovering structural variant breakpoints in Illumina paired-end next-generation sequencing data. SoftSearch combines multiple strategies for detecting SV including split-read, discordant read-pair, and unmated pairs. Co-localized split-reads and discordant read pairs are used to refine the breakpoints. RESULTS: We developed and validated SoftSearch using real and synthetic datasets. SoftSearch's key features are 1 not requiring secondary (or exhaustive primary alignment, 2 portability into established sequencing workflows, and 3 is applicable to any DNA-sequencing experiment (e.g. whole genome, exome, custom capture, etc.. SoftSearch identifies breakpoints from a small number of soft-clipped bases from split reads and a few discordant read-pairs which on their own would not be sufficient to make an SV call. CONCLUSIONS: We show that SoftSearch can identify more true SVs by combining multiple sequence features. SoftSearch was able to call clinically relevant SVs in the BRCA2 gene not reported by other tools while offering significantly improved overall performance.

  11. nRC: non-coding RNA Classifier based on structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiannaca, Antonino; La Rosa, Massimo; La Paglia, Laura; Rizzo, Riccardo; Urso, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) are small non-coding sequences involved in gene expression regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The recent discovery of a large set of different ncRNAs with biologically relevant roles has opened the way to develop methods able to discriminate between the different ncRNA classes. Moreover, the lack of knowledge about the complete mechanisms in regulative processes, together with the development of high-throughput technologies, has required the help of bioinformatics tools in addressing biologists and clinicians with a deeper comprehension of the functional roles of ncRNAs. In this work, we introduce a new ncRNA classification tool, nRC (non-coding RNA Classifier). Our approach is based on features extraction from the ncRNA secondary structure together with a supervised classification algorithm implementing a deep learning architecture based on convolutional neural networks. We tested our approach for the classification of 13 different ncRNA classes. We obtained classification scores, using the most common statistical measures. In particular, we reach an accuracy and sensitivity score of about 74%. The proposed method outperforms other similar classification methods based on secondary structure features and machine learning algorithms, including the RNAcon tool that, to date, is the reference classifier. nRC tool is freely available as a docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/tblab/nrc/. The source code of nRC tool is also available at https://github.com/IcarPA-TBlab/nrc.

  12. Memory-Based Specification of Verbal Features for Classifying Animals into Super-Ordinate and Sub-Ordinate Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Takahiro Soshi; Norio Fujimaki; Atsushi Matsumoto; Aya S. Ihara

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that category representations are based on features. Distinguishing features are considered to define categories, because of all-or-none responses for objects in different categories; however, it is unclear how distinguishing features actually classify objects at various category levels. The present study included 75 animals within three classes (mammal, bird, and fish), along with 195 verbal features. Healthy adults participated in memory-based feature-animal m...

  13. Oxide-ion and proton conducting electrolyte materials for clean energy applications: structural and mechanistic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo; Fisher, Craig A J; Islam, M Saiful

    2010-11-01

    This critical review presents an overview of the various classes of oxide materials exhibiting fast oxide-ion or proton conductivity for use as solid electrolytes in clean energy applications such as solid oxide fuel cells. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between structural and mechanistic features of the crystalline materials and their ion conduction properties. After describing well-established classes such as fluorite- and perovskite-based oxides, new materials and structure-types are presented. These include a variety of molybdate, gallate, apatite silicate/germanate and niobate systems, many of which contain flexible structural networks, and exhibit different defect properties and transport mechanisms to the conventional materials. It is concluded that the rich chemistry of these important systems provides diverse possibilities for developing superior ionic conductors for use as solid electrolytes in fuel cells and related applications. In most cases, a greater atomic-level understanding of the structures, defects and conduction mechanisms is achieved through a combination of experimental and computational techniques (217 references).

  14. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)

    2014-10-02

    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  15. New Features in the Lipid A Structure of Brucella suis and Brucella abortus Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabuono, Adriana C.; Czibener, Cecilia; Del Giudice, Mariela G.; Valguarnera, Ezequiel; Ugalde, Juan E.; Couto, Alicia S.

    2017-12-01

    Brucellaceae are Gram-negative bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the most distributed worldwide zoonosis, transmitted to humans by contact with either infected animals or their products. The lipopolysaccharide exposed on the cell surface has been intensively studied and is considered a major virulence factor of Brucella. In the last years, structural studies allowed the determination of new structures in the core oligosaccharide and the O-antigen of this lipopolysaccharide. In this work, we have reinvestigated the lipid A structure isolated from B. suis and B. abortus lipopolysaccharides. A detailed study by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in the positive and negative ion modes of the lipid A moieties purified from both species was performed. Interestingly, a new feature was detected: the presence of a pyrophosphorylethanolamine residue substituting the backbone. LID-MS/MS analysis of some of the detected ions allowed assurance that the Lipid A structure composed by the diGlcN3N disaccharide, mainly hexa-acylated and penta-acylated, bearing one phosphate and one pyrophosphorylethanolamine residue. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Revealing the Structural Complexity of Component Interactions of Topic-Specific PCK when Planning to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavhunga, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    Teaching pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) at a topic-specific level requires clarity on the content-specific nature of the components employed, as well as the specific features that bring about the desirable depth in teacher explanations. Such understanding is often hazy; yet, it influences the nature of teacher tasks and learning opportunities afforded to pre-service teachers in a teaching program. The purpose of this study was twofold: firstly, to illuminate the emerging complexity when content-specific components of PCK interact when planning to teach a chemistry topic; and secondly, to identify the kinds of teacher tasks that promote the emergence of such complexity. Data collected were content representations (CoRes) in chemical equilibrium accompanied by expanded lesson outlines from 15 pre-service teachers in their final year of study towards a first degree in teaching (B Ed). The analysis involved extraction of episodes that exhibited component interaction by using a qualitative in-depth analysis method. The results revealed the structure in which the components of PCK in a topic interact among each other to be linear, interwoven, or a combination of the two. The interwoven interactions contained multiple components that connected explanations on different aspects of a concept, all working in a complementary manner. The most sophisticated component interactions emerged from teacher tasks on descriptions of a lesson sequence and a summary of a lesson. Recommendations in this study highlight core practices for making pedagogical transformation of topic content knowledge more accessible.

  17. SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Abramova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specific characteristics of professional communication teachers in the course of his career. Characterized by the basic communication skillsfor professional communication teachers, distinguished social and psychological characteristics of professional educator.

  18. Structural Features Facilitating Tumor Cell Targeting and Internalization by Bleomycin and Its Disaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide–cytotoxin conjugates. PMID:25905565

  19. Association between MRI structural features and cognitive measures in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, N.; Bellotti, R.; Fanizzi, A.; Lombardi, A.; Monaco, A.; Liguori, M.; Margari, L.; Simone, M.; Viterbo, R. G.; Tangaro, S.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disease associated with neurodegenerative processes that lead to brain structural changes. The disease affects mostly young adults, but 3-5% of cases has a pediatric onset (POMS). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is generally used for diagnosis and follow-up in MS patients, however the most common MRI measures (e.g. new or enlarging T2-weighted lesions, T1-weighted gadolinium- enhancing lesions) have often failed as surrogate markers of MS disability and progression. MS is clinically heterogenous with symptoms that can include both physical changes (such as visual loss or walking difficulties) and cognitive impairment. 30-50% of POMS experience prominent cognitive dysfunction. In order to investigate the association between cognitive measures and brain morphometry, in this work we present a fully automated pipeline for processing and analyzing MRI brain scans. Relevant anatomical structures are segmented with FreeSurfer; besides, statistical features are computed. Thus, we describe the data referred to 12 patients with early POMS (mean age at MRI: 15.5 +/- 2.7 years) with a set of 181 structural features. The major cognitive abilities measured are verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Data was collected at the Department of Basic Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, and exploring different abilities like the verbal and visuo-spatial learning, expressive language and complex attention. Different regression models and parameter configurations are explored to assess the robustness of the results, in particular Generalized Linear Models, Bayes Regression, Random Forests, Support Vector Regression and Artificial Neural Networks are discussed.

  20. Structural features facilitating tumor cell targeting and internalization by bleomycin and its disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Paul, Rakesh; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Bozeman, Trevor C; Rishel, Michael J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2015-05-19

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide-cytotoxin conjugates.

  1. Structural features of the San Andreas fault at Tejon Pass, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewers, T. A.; Reches, Z.; Brune, J. N.

    2002-12-01

    We mapped a 2 km belt along the San Andreas fault (SAF) in the Tejon Pass area where road cuts provide fresh exposures of the fault zone and surrounding rocks. Our 1:2,000 structural mapping is focused on analysis of faulting processes and is complementary to regional mapping at 1:12,000 scale by Ramirez (M.Sc., UC Santa Barbara, 1984). The dominant rock units are the Hungry Valley Formation of Pliocene age (clastic sediments) exposed south of the SAF, and the Tejon Lookout granite (Cretaceous) and Neenach Volcanic Formation exposed north of it. Ramirez (1983) deduced ~220 km of post-Miocene lateral slip. The local trend of the SAF is about N60W and it includes at least three main, subparallel segments that form a 200 m wide zone. The traces of the segments are quasi-linear, discontinuous, and they are stepped with respect to each other, forming at least five small pull-aparts and sag ponds in the mapping area. The three segments were not active semi-contemporaneously and the southern segment is apparently the oldest. The largest pull-apart, 60-70 m wide, displays young (Quaternary?) silt and shale layers. We found two rock bodies that are suspected as fault-rocks. One is a 1-2 m thick sheet-like body that separates the Tejon Lookout granite from young (Recent?) clastic rocks. In the field, it appears as a gouge zone composed of poorly cemented, dark clay size grains; however, the microstructure of this rock does not reveal clear shear features. The second body is the 80-120 m wide zone of Tejon Lookout granite that extends for less than 1 km along the SAF in the mapped area. It is characterized by three structural features: (1) pulverization into friable, granular material by multitude of grain-crossing fractures; (2) abundance of dip-slip small faults that are gently dipping toward and away from the SAF; and (3) striking lack of evidence for shear parallel to the SAF. The relationships between these features and the large right-lateral shear along the SAF are

  2. Specificities of micro-structured reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Van Veen, A.C.; Schuurman, Y.; Mirodatos, C. [Institut de Recherches sur la Catalyse - CNRS, 2, Avenue Albert Einstein, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Schaefer, G. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, PO Box 210780, 10507 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents the specificities of micro-structured reactors as compared to conventional fixed-bed reactors through two case studies devoted to (i) hydrogen production by methanol steam reforming, (ii) hydrogen purification by water-gas shift (WGS). Key features like catalyst coating stability, temperature and pressure management, effects of operating conditions (residence time, pressure drops, etc.) are well identified as controlling the micro-reactor performances for methanol reforming. These devices are also shown to be excellent tools for fast access to reaction kinetics as exemplified for the WGS reaction, subject to operating conditions carefully chosen to ensure proper hydrodynamics, in order to use conventional plug flow reactor models for extracting rate constants. (author)

  3. Common and divergent structural features of a series of corticotropin releasing factor-related peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Christy Rani R; Perrin, Marilyn H; Cantle, Jeffrey P; Vale, Wylie W; Rivier, Jean E; Riek, Roland

    2007-12-26

    Members of the corticoliberin family include the corticotropin releasing factors (CRFs), sauvagine, the urotensins, and urocortin 1 (Ucn1), which bind to both the CRF receptors CRF-R1 and CRF-R2, and the urocortins 2 (Ucn2) and 3 (Ucn3), which are selective agonists of CRF-R2. Structure activity relationship studies led to several potent and long-acting analogues with selective binding to either one of the receptors. NMR structures of six ligands of this family (the antagonists astressin B and astressin2-B, the agonists stressin1, and the natural ligands human Ucn1, Ucn2, and Ucn3) were determined in DMSO. These six peptides show differences in binding affinities, receptor-selectivity, and NMR structure. Overall, their backbones are alpha-helical, with a small kink or a turn around residues 25-27, resulting in a helix-loop-helix motif. The C-terminal helices are of amphipathic nature, whereas the N-terminal helices vary in their amphipathicity. The C-terminal helices thereby assume a conformation very similar to that of astressin bound to the ECD1 of CRF-R2 recently reported by our group.1 On the basis of an analysis of the observed 3D structures and relative potencies of [Ala]-substituted analogues, it is proposed that both helices could play a crucial role in receptor binding and selectivity. In conclusion, the C-terminal helices may interact along their hydrophobic faces with the ECD1, whereas the entire N-terminal helical surface may be involved in receptor activation. On the basis of the common and divergent features observed in the 3D structures of these ligands, multiple binding models are proposed that may explain their plurality of actions.

  4. Light-harvesting features revealed by the structure of plant Photosystem I

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Shem, A; Nelson, N; 10.1023/B:PRES.0000036881.23512.42

    2004-01-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis is driven by two multi-subunit membrane protein complexes, Photosystem I and Photosystem II. In plants and green algae, both complexes are composed of two moieties: a reaction center (RC), where light-induced charge translocation occurs, and a peripheral antenna that absorbs light and funnels its energy to the reaction center. The peripheral antenna of PS I (LHC I) is composed of four gene products (Lhca 1-4) that are unique among the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in their pronounced long-wavelength absorbance and in their assembly into dimers. The recently determined structure of plant Photosystem I provides the first relatively high- resolution structural model of a super-complex containing a reaction center and its peripheral antenna. We describe some of the structural features responsible for the unique properties of LHC I and discuss the advantages of the particular LHC I dimerization mode over monomeric or trimeric forms. In addition, we delineate some of the interactions betw...

  5. Memory-Based Specification of Verbal Features for Classifying Animals into Super-Ordinate and Sub-Ordinate Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Soshi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that category representations are based on features. Distinguishing features are considered to define categories, because of all-or-none responses for objects in different categories; however, it is unclear how distinguishing features actually classify objects at various category levels. The present study included 75 animals within three classes (mammal, bird, and fish, along with 195 verbal features. Healthy adults participated in memory-based feature-animal matching verification tests. Analyses included a hierarchical clustering analysis, support vector machine, and independent component analysis to specify features effective for classifications. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons for significant features were conducted between super-ordinate and sub-ordinate levels. The number of significant features was larger for super-ordinate than sub-ordinate levels. Qualitatively, the proportion of biological features was larger than cultural/affective features in both the levels, while the proportion of affective features increased at the sub-ordinate level. To summarize, the two types of features differentially function to establish category representations.

  6. GeneViTo: Visualizing gene-product functional and structural features in genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promponas Vasilis J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of increasing amounts of sequence data from completely sequenced genomes boosts the development of new computational methods for automated genome annotation and comparative genomics. Therefore, there is a need for tools that facilitate the visualization of raw data and results produced by bioinformatics analysis, providing new means for interactive genome exploration. Visual inspection can be used as a basis to assess the quality of various analysis algorithms and to aid in-depth genomic studies. Results GeneViTo is a JAVA-based computer application that serves as a workbench for genome-wide analysis through visual interaction. The application deals with various experimental information concerning both DNA and protein sequences (derived from public sequence databases or proprietary data sources and meta-data obtained by various prediction algorithms, classification schemes or user-defined features. Interaction with a Graphical User Interface (GUI allows easy extraction of genomic and proteomic data referring to the sequence itself, sequence features, or general structural and functional features. Emphasis is laid on the potential comparison between annotation and prediction data in order to offer a supplement to the provided information, especially in cases of "poor" annotation, or an evaluation of available predictions. Moreover, desired information can be output in high quality JPEG image files for further elaboration and scientific use. A compilation of properly formatted GeneViTo input data for demonstration is available to interested readers for two completely sequenced prokaryotes, Chlamydia trachomatis and Methanococcus jannaschii. Conclusions GeneViTo offers an inspectional view of genomic functional elements, concerning data stemming both from database annotation and analysis tools for an overall analysis of existing genomes. The application is compatible with Linux or Windows ME-2000-XP operating

  7. Expression profile and specific network features of the apoptotic machinery explain relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragusa, Marco; Consoli, Carla; Camuglia, Maria Grazia; Di Pietro, Cinzia; Milone, Giuseppe; Purrello, Michele; Avola, Giuseppe; Angelica, Rosario; Barbagallo, Davide; Guglielmino, Maria Rosa; Duro, Laura R; Majorana, Alessandra; Statello, Luisa; Salito, Loredana

    2010-01-01

    According to the different sensitivity of their bone marrow CD34+ cells to in vitro treatment with Etoposide or Mafosfamide, Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) patients in apparent complete remission (CR) after chemotherapy induction may be classified into three groups: (i) normally responsive; (ii) chemoresistant; (iii) highly chemosensitive. This inversely correlates with in vivo CD34+ mobilization and, interestingly, also with the prognosis of the disease: patients showing a good mobilizing activity are resistant to chemotherapy and subject to significantly higher rates of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD) and relapse than the others. Based on its known role in patients' response to chemotherapy, we hypothesized an involvement of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM) in these phenotypic features. To investigate the molecular bases of the differential chemosensitivity of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in CR AML patients, and the relationship between chemosensitivity, mobilizing activity and relapse rates, we analyzed their AM expression profile by performing Real Time RT-PCR of 84 AM genes in CD34+ pools from the two extreme classes of patients (i.e., chemoresistant and highly chemosensitive), and compared them with normal controls. The AM expression profiles of patients highlighted features that could satisfactorily explain their in vitro chemoresponsive phenotype: specifically, in chemoresistant patients we detected up regulation of antiapoptotic BIRC genes and down regulation of proapoptotic APAF1, FAS, FASL, TNFRSF25. Interestingly, our analysis of the AM network showed that the dysregulated genes in these patients are characterized by high network centrality (i.e., high values of betweenness, closeness, radiality, stress) and high involvement in drug response. AM genes represent critical nodes for the proper execution of cell death following pharmacological induction in patients. We propose that their dysregulation (either due to inborn or de novo genomic

  8. Expression profile and specific network features of the apoptotic machinery explain relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pietro Cinzia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the different sensitivity of their bone marrow CD34+ cells to in vitro treatment with Etoposide or Mafosfamide, Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML patients in apparent complete remission (CR after chemotherapy induction may be classified into three groups: (i normally responsive; (ii chemoresistant; (iii highly chemosensitive. This inversely correlates with in vivo CD34+ mobilization and, interestingly, also with the prognosis of the disease: patients showing a good mobilizing activity are resistant to chemotherapy and subject to significantly higher rates of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD and relapse than the others. Based on its known role in patients' response to chemotherapy, we hypothesized an involvement of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM in these phenotypic features. Methods To investigate the molecular bases of the differential chemosensitivity of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC in CR AML patients, and the relationship between chemosensitivity, mobilizing activity and relapse rates, we analyzed their AM expression profile by performing Real Time RT-PCR of 84 AM genes in CD34+ pools from the two extreme classes of patients (i.e., chemoresistant and highly chemosensitive, and compared them with normal controls. Results The AM expression profiles of patients highlighted features that could satisfactorily explain their in vitro chemoresponsive phenotype: specifically, in chemoresistant patients we detected up regulation of antiapoptotic BIRC genes and down regulation of proapoptotic APAF1, FAS, FASL, TNFRSF25. Interestingly, our analysis of the AM network showed that the dysregulated genes in these patients are characterized by high network centrality (i.e., high values of betweenness, closeness, radiality, stress and high involvement in drug response. Conclusions AM genes represent critical nodes for the proper execution of cell death following pharmacological induction in patients. We propose that their

  9. Structure of a year cycle of athletes training in aerobics (woman with various psychophysiological and functional features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Shepelenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop structure of training process creation in a year cycle of qualified athletes’ preparation in aerobics (woman. Material : qualified athletes in aerobics participated in a research (n=46, age 20-22 years, height is 168±2, 4 cm, body weight is 62±4, 2 kg. Athletes were divided into experimental group (n=24 and control group (n=22. It was determined the level of special preparation: performance of standard combinations of basic aerobic steps. Results . The general principles of training programs preparation are developed. Programs include basic and variable components. The basic component of programs represents the standardized structure of means and methods selection of athletes’ preparation. The variable component of programs contained special means and methods differ on character and volume. One of the main parts of a variable component is the psychophysical training. It is based on performance of special sets of exercises in combination with mental figurative representations of motor nature. Conclusions . It is appropriate to carry out planning of training process in a year cycle of preparation considering specific features of factorial structure of athletes’ preparation.

  10. Automatic registration of Iphone images to LASER point clouds of the urban structures using shape features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sirmacek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusion of 3D airborne laser (LIDAR data and terrestrial optical imagery can be applied in 3D urban modeling and model up-dating. The most challenging aspect of the fusion procedure is registering the terrestrial optical images on the LIDAR point clouds. In this article, we propose an approach for registering these two different data from different sensor sources. As we use iPhone camera images which are taken in front of the interested urban structure by the application user and the high resolution LIDAR point clouds of the acquired by an airborne laser sensor. After finding the photo capturing position and orientation from the iPhone photograph metafile, we automatically select the area of interest in the point cloud and transform it into a range image which has only grayscale intensity levels according to the distance from the image acquisition position. We benefit from local features for registering the iPhone image to the generated range image. In this article, we have applied the registration process based on local feature extraction and graph matching. Finally, the registration result is used for facade texture mapping on the 3D building surface mesh which is generated from the LIDAR point cloud. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed algorithm framework for 3D urban map updating and enhancing purposes.

  11. Structural contour, isopach and feature maps of quaternary sediments in Western Lake Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.F.M.; King, E.L.; Todd, B.J.; Blasco, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    A systematic high-resolution acoustic reconnaissance survey of Quaternary sediments (> 50 m thick, in places) and the underlying bedrock surface was completed for western Lake Ontario between Burlington and Port Hope, Ontario, to determine if geophysical lineaments through the area of Pickering and Darlington nuclear power stations are potentially seismically active. A total of 2530 line-km of data were obtained along N-S and E-W lines spaced 10 and 5 km respectively, using a high-resolution subbottom profiler (boomer and IKB-SEISTEC), a 100 kHz sidescan sonar (150-m range) with 3.5 kHz profiler, a 10 or 40 cu. in. sleeve gun seismic reflection system, and, intermittently, a marine magnetometer. Six piston cores up to 15-m long were collected to compare sediment lithology with key regional seismic reflectors. Sediments deposited over the past 13,000 years were imaged with vertical resolution in the order of 10-30 cm just below the lakebed and less than 1 m at the bedrock surface; resolution for the sleeve gun system is approximately 3-5 m. Digital processing and rescaling of selected seismic profiles aided interpretation. Structural contour maps for three Quaternary sequence boundaries and the bedrock surface were generated together with the related sequence isopach maps. Three additional maps portray lakebed features identified on sidescan sonar records and subsurface features identified on seismic profiles. All maps are at 1:250,000 scale. (author). 2 tabs., 48 figs., 12 maps

  12. Low-frequency features of the ultrasound echo from an adhesively bonded layer-substrate structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaomin; LI Mingxuan; MAO Jie; LIAN Guoxuan

    2005-01-01

    The low-frequency features of the ultrasound reflection spectra from the structure of a single layer on a substrate bonded by a thin adhesive layer are theoretically studied; the low-frequency here means the frequency of the interrogating ultrasonic wave is less than the quart-wavelength resonance frequency of the adhesive layer. The possibility of the inversion of the thickness and the evaluation of the cohesion strength of the adhesive layer from the resonance frequency shifts of the layered system is indicated. An analytic solution to the nonlinear equation satisfied by the resonance frequency is presented by Taylor expansion method showing satisfactory agreement with the numerical results by Newton iterative method. The results indicate larger range for application than the traditional spring model for the thin adhesive layer. In a much lower frequency range the thin adhesive layer may be regarded to be a spring.

  13. Low temperature features of the local structure of Sm1-xYxS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Chernikov, R. V.; Sidorov, V. V.; Klementiev, K. V.; Alekseev, P. A.; Rybina, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The particular features of the local electronic and local crystal structures of the mixed-valence compound Sm 1-x Y x S are studied by the XAFS spectroscopy methods in the temperature range 20-300 K for the yttrium concentration x = 0.17, 0.25, 0.33, and 0.45. The temperature behavior of the valence of Sm, as well as of the lengths and the Debye-Waller factors of the bonds Sm-S, Sm-Sm(Y), Y-S, and Y-Sm(Y), has been determined. The violation of the Vegard law has been observed. A model for the estimation of the energy width of the 4f level and of its position with respect to the Fermi level is proposed

  14. Novel Fluorinated Indanone, Tetralone and Naphthone Derivatives: Synthesis and Unique Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Sloop

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several fluorinated and trifluoromethylated indanone, tetralone and naphthone derivatives have been prepared via Claisen condensations and selective fluorinations in yields ranging from 22–60%. In addition, we report the synthesis of new, selectively fluorinated bindones in yields ranging from 72–92%. Of particular interest is the fluorination and trifluoroacetylation regiochemistry observed in these fluorinated products. We also note unusual transformations including a novel one pot, dual trifluoroacetylation, trifluoroacetylnaphthone synthesis via a deacetylation as well as an acetyl-trifluoroacetyl group exchange. Solid-state structural features exhibited by these compounds were investigated using crystallographic methods. Crystallographic results, supported by spectroscopic data, show that trifluoroacetylated ketones prefer a chelated cis-enol form whereas fluorinated bindone products exist primarily as the cross-conjugated triketo form.

  15. Spherical phantom for research of radiation situation in outer space. Design-structural special features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.; Polenov, B.V.; Yudin, V.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Petrov, V.M.; Shurshakov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    The design-structural features of the updated spherical phantom applied within the frameworks of the space experiment Matreshka-R at the Russian segment of International space station during ISS-8 and ISS-9 expeditions are described. The replacement of 48 polyethylene containers with TLD and STD assemblies by 16 cases installed from external side of the phantom and 4 tissue-equivalent caps of the central disk by 4 cases with detector assemblies is carried out. The updated tissue-equivalent phantom contains the active dosemeter based on 5 MOS detectors. The phantom cover is made from the non-flammable material NT-7. The basic characteristics of the flight specimen of the phantom are presented. The results of its on-Earth testing and real space flights are analyzed [ru

  16. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Moon Young Kang; Byungho Park

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy) in corporate social media on customer...

  17. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Olff, Han; Scheiner, Samuel M.

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical Concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory

  18. Gene expression in chicken reveals correlation with structural genomic features and conserved patterns of transcription in the terrestrial vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisheng Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chicken is an important agricultural and avian-model species. A survey of gene expression in a range of different tissues will provide a benchmark for understanding expression levels under normal physiological conditions in birds. With expression data for birds being very scant, this benchmark is of particular interest for comparative expression analysis among various terrestrial vertebrates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a gene expression survey in eight major chicken tissues using whole genome microarrays. A global picture of gene expression is presented for the eight tissues, and tissue specific as well as common gene expression were identified. A Gene Ontology (GO term enrichment analysis showed that tissue-specific genes are enriched with GO terms reflecting the physiological functions of the specific tissue, and housekeeping genes are enriched with GO terms related to essential biological functions. Comparisons of structural genomic features between tissue-specific genes and housekeeping genes show that housekeeping genes are more compact. Specifically, coding sequence and particularly introns are shorter than genes that display more variation in expression between tissues, and in addition intergenic space was also shorter. Meanwhile, housekeeping genes are more likely to co-localize with other abundantly or highly expressed genes on the same chromosomal regions. Furthermore, comparisons of gene expression in a panel of five common tissues between birds, mammals and amphibians showed that the expression patterns across tissues are highly similar for orthologous genes compared to random gene pairs within each pair-wise comparison, indicating a high degree of functional conservation in gene expression among terrestrial vertebrates. CONCLUSIONS: The housekeeping genes identified in this study have shorter gene length, shorter coding sequence length, shorter introns, and shorter intergenic regions, there seems

  19. Spent coffee-based activated carbon: specific surface features and their importance for H2S separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kante, Karifala; Nieto-Delgado, Cesar; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2012-01-30

    Activated carbons were prepared from spent ground coffee. Zinc chloride was used as an activation agent. The obtained materials were used as a media for separation of hydrogen sulfide from air at ambient conditions. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR, and thermal analysis. Surface features of the carbons depend on the amount of an activation agent used. Even though the residual inorganic matter takes part in the H(2)S retention via salt formation, the porous surface of carbons governs the separation process. The chemical activation method chosen resulted in formation of large volume of pores with sizes between 10 and 30Å, optimal for water and hydrogen sulfide adsorption. Even though the activation process can be optimized/changed, the presence of nitrogen in the precursor (caffeine) is a significant asset of that specific organic waste. Nitrogen functional groups play a catalytic role in hydrogen sulfide oxidation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific alteration of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats possess features of abdominal pain in IBS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Itomi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that specific alteration of rhythm in temperature (SART stress produces somatic pain. However, it remains to be investigated whether SART stress induces visceral pain. In this study, we investigated the visceral hypersensitivity in the SART stress model by pharmacological tools and heterotopical nociception. Four-week-old Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to repeated cold stress. Visceral pain was measured by visceromotor response to colorectal distension, and the effects of alosetron and duloxetine on visceral pain were investigated in SART rats. Heterotopical nociception was given by capsaicin injection into the left forepaw to induce diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC. SART stress induced visceral hypersensitivity that was sustained at minimum for one week. In pharmacological analysis, alosetron and duloxetine improved SART stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Heterotopical nociception induced DNIC in normal conditions, but was disrupted in SART rats. On the other hand, RMCP-II mRNA in distal colon was not affected by SART stress. In conclusion, SART rats exhibit several features of visceral pain in IBS, and may be a useful model for investigating the central modification of pain control in IBS.

  1. An unsupervised meta-graph clustering based prototype-specific feature quantification for human re-identification in video surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human re-identification is an emerging research area in the field of visual surveillance. It refers to the task of associating the images of the persons captured by one camera (probe set with the images captured by another camera (gallery set at different locations in different time instances. The performance of these systems are often challenged by some factors—variation in articulated human pose and clothing, frequent occlusion with various objects, change in light illumination, and the cluttered background are to name a few. Besides, the ambiguity in recognition increases between individuals with similar appearance. In this paper, we present a novel framework for human re-identification that finds the correspondence image pair across non-overlapping camera views in the presence of the above challenging scenarios. The proposed framework handles the visual ambiguity having similar appearance by first segmenting the gallery instances into disjoint prototypes (groups, where each prototype represents the images with high commonality. Then, a weighing scheme is formulated that quantifies the selective and distinct information about the features concerning the level of contribution against each prototype. Finally, the prototype specific weights are utilized in the similarity measure and fused with the existing generic weighing to facilitates improvement in the re-identification. Exhaustive simulation on three benchmark datasets alongside the CMC (Cumulative Matching Characteristics plot enumerate the efficacy of our proposed framework over the counterparts.

  2. On specific features of neutron spatial-energy distribution formation in a complex cell of a channel water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurova, L.N.; Naumov, V.I.; Belousov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of calculations of spatial-energy neutron distribution formation specific features in the cells with great amount and heterogeneous distribution of water. Considered is the two-region cylindrical cell with the central zone of 4 cm radius, consisting of moderators of different types. The calculation results show, that in the absence of absorption with the energy decrease flattening of neutron flux density by the cell takes place. Here in the case of hydrogen bearing moderator in the central zone the effect of the flux initial perturbation covers the essentially wider energy range, than in the case of hydrogenless moderator. Perturbation effect strongly depends on the composition of the peripheric zone (graphite, heavy water) and the size of the cell. The energy range, which is covered by the perturbation in the case of a hydrogen-bearing moderator in the central zone, is comparable with resonance energy range for uranium-238. A conclusion is made on the limited possibilities of the ''flat flux'' approximation for analyzing the resonance absorption in heterogeneous reactors with essential content of water in the channels

  3. Specific features of the switch-on gate current and different switch-on modes in silicon carbide thyristors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkov, S N; Mnatsakanov, T T; Levinshtein, M E; Cheng, L; Palmour, J W

    2014-01-01

    The specific features of the temperature and bias dependences of the switch-on gate current in SiC thyristors are examined analytically for two possible switching mechanisms. The so-called γ-mechanism, which is highly typical of the conventional Si thyristors, is characterized by very weak temperature and bias dependences. By contrast, the so-called α-mechanism, which is very characteristic of SiC thyristors, is highly sensitive to changes in temperature and bias. If the thyristor is switched on by the α-mechanism, the switch-on gate current density decreases very steeply with increasing temperature. As a result, the thyristor can lose its working capacity at elevated temperatures due to the instability against even very weak impacts. With decreasing the bias voltage U a , the gate switch-on current increases very steeply, which can make switching the thyristor on difficult. The unintentional shunting, which is apparently present in high-voltage SiC thyristors, causes the transition from the α- to the γ-mechanism at elevated temperatures and high biases. It can be supposed that introduction of a controllable technological shunting of the emitter–thin base junction allows stabilization of the temperature and bias parameters of SiC thyristors. The analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations performed in wide temperature and bias ranges for a 4H-SiC thyristor of the 18 kV class. (paper)

  4. Structural features and dynamic investigations of the membrane-bound cytochrome P450 17A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying-Lu; Xue, Qiao; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Zhang, Ji-Long; Kong, Chui-Peng; Fan, Jing-Rong; Zhang, Hong-Xing

    2015-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 17A1 is a dual-function monooxygenase with a critical role in the synthesis of many human steroid hormones. The enzyme is an important target for treatment of breast and prostate cancers that proliferate in response to estrogens and androgens. Despite the crystallographic structures available for CYP17A1, no membrane-bound structural features of this enzyme at atomic level are available. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the interactions between bounded CYPs and membrane could contribute to the recruitment of lipophilic substrates. To this end, we have investigated the effects on structural characteristics in the presence of the membrane for CYP17A1. The MD simulation results demonstrate a spontaneous insertion process of the enzyme to the lipid. Two predominant modes of CYP17A1 in the membrane are captured, characterized by the depths of insertion and orientations of the enzyme to the membrane surface. The measured heme tilt angles show good consistence with experimental data, thereby verifying the validity of the structural models. Moreover, conformational changes induced by the membrane might have impact on the accessibility of the active site to lipophilic substrates. The dynamics of internal aromatic gate formed by Trp220 and Phe224 are suggested to regulate tunnel opening motions. The knowledge of the membrane binding characteristics could guide future experimental and computational works on membrane-bound CYPs so that various investigations of CYPs in their natural, lipid environment rather than in artificially solubilized forms may be achieved. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences.

  6. Method to assess the temporal persistence of potential biometric features: Application to oculomotor, gait, face and brain structure databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Mark S.; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to the biometric community as an index of the temporal persistence, or stability, of a single biometric feature. It requires, as input, a feature on an interval or ratio scale, and which is reasonably normally distributed, and it can only be calculated if each subject is tested on 2 or more occasions. For a biometric system, with multiple features available for selection, the ICC can be used to measure the relative stability of each feature. We show, for 14 distinct data sets (1 synthetic, 8 eye-movement-related, 2 gait-related, and 2 face-recognition-related, and one brain-structure-related), that selecting the most stable features, based on the ICC, resulted in the best biometric performance generally. Analyses based on using only the most stable features produced superior Rank-1-Identification Rate (Rank-1-IR) performance in 12 of 14 databases (p = 0.0065, one-tailed), when compared to other sets of features, including the set of all features. For Equal Error Rate (EER), using a subset of only high-ICC features also produced superior performance in 12 of 14 databases (p = 0. 0065, one-tailed). In general, then, for our databases, prescreening potential biometric features, and choosing only highly reliable features yields better performance than choosing lower ICC features or than choosing all features combined. We also determined that, as the ICC of a group of features increases, the median of the genuine similarity score distribution increases and the spread of this distribution decreases. There was no statistically significant similar relationships for the impostor distributions. We believe that the ICC will find many uses in biometric research. In case of the eye movement-driven biometrics, the use of reliable features, as measured by ICC, allowed to us achieve the authentication performance with EER = 2.01%, which was not possible before. PMID:28575030

  7. Accurate facade feature extraction method for buildings from three-dimensional point cloud data considering structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Ma, Yuqing; Zhu, A.-xing; Zhao, Hui; Liao, Lixia

    2018-05-01

    Facade features represent segmentations of building surfaces and can serve as a building framework. Extracting facade features from three-dimensional (3D) point cloud data (3D PCD) is an efficient method for 3D building modeling. By combining the advantages of 3D PCD and two-dimensional optical images, this study describes the creation of a highly accurate building facade feature extraction method from 3D PCD with a focus on structural information. The new extraction method involves three major steps: image feature extraction, exploration of the mapping method between the image features and 3D PCD, and optimization of the initial 3D PCD facade features considering structural information. Results show that the new method can extract the 3D PCD facade features of buildings more accurately and continuously. The new method is validated using a case study. In addition, the effectiveness of the new method is demonstrated by comparing it with the range image-extraction method and the optical image-extraction method in the absence of structural information. The 3D PCD facade features extracted by the new method can be applied in many fields, such as 3D building modeling and building information modeling.

  8. Renal Epithelial Cell Injury Induced by Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Depends on their Structural Features: Size, Surface, and Crystalline Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Liu, Ai-Jie

    2016-11-01

    Urinary crystals in normal and kidney stone patients often differ in crystal sizes and surface structures, but the effects of different crystal properties on renal tubular epithelial cells remain unclear. This study aimed to compare the cytotoxicity of micron/nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals with sizes of 50 nm, 200 nm, 1 μm, 3 μm, and 10 μm to African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells, to reveal the effect of crystal size and surface structure on cell injury, and to investigate the pathological mechanism of calcium oxalate kidney stones. Cell viability, cellular biochemical parameters, and internalized crystal amount in Vero cells were closely associated with the size of COM crystals. At the same concentration (200 μg/mL), COM-1 μm induced the most serious injury to Vero cells and caused the most significant change to cellular biochemical parameters, which were related to the specific porous structure and highest internalized amount in Vero cells. By contrast, COM-50 nm and COM-200 nm crystals lost their small size effect because of serious aggregation and weakened their toxicity to cells. COM-3 μm and COM-10 μm crystals were too large for cells to completely internalize; these crystals also exhibited a low specific surface area and thus weakened their toxicity. The excessive expression of intracellular ROS and reduction of the free-radical scavenger SOD were the main reasons for cell injury and eventually caused necrotic cell death. Crystal size, surface structure, aggregation, and internalization amount were closely related to the cytotoxicity of COM crystals.

  9. Subsurface mapping of Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Inferred structural features using borehole data and spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamisaiye, O. A.; Eriksson, P. G.; Van Rooy, J. L.; Brynard, H. M.; Foya, S.; Billay, A. Y.; Nxumalo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Faults and other structural features within the mafic-ultramafic layers of the Bushveld Complex have been a major issue mainly for exploration and mine planning. This study employed a new approach in detecting faults with both regional and meter scale offsets, which was not possible with the usually applied structure contour mapping. Interpretations of faults from structural and isopach maps were previously based on geological experience, while meter-scale faults were virtually impossible to detect from such maps. Spatial analysis was performed using borehole data primarily. This resulted in the identification of previously known structures and other hitherto unsuspected structural features. Consequently, the location, trends, and geometry of faults and some regional features within the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS) that might not be easy to detect through field mapping are adequately described in this study.

  10. GFP-like proteins as ubiquitous metazoan superfamily: evolution of functional features and structural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagin, Dmitry A; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Yanushevich, Yurii G; Fradkov, Arkady F; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Labas, Yulii A; Semenova, Tatiana N; Ugalde, Juan A; Meyers, Ann; Nunez, Jose M; Widder, Edith A; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Matz, Mikhail V

    2004-05-01

    Homologs of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), including the recently described GFP-like domains of certain extracellular matrix proteins in Bilaterian organisms, are remarkably similar at the protein structure level, yet they often perform totally unrelated functions, thereby warranting recognition as a superfamily. Here we describe diverse GFP-like proteins from previously undersampled and completely new sources, including hydromedusae and planktonic Copepoda. In hydromedusae, yellow and nonfluorescent purple proteins were found in addition to greens. Notably, the new yellow protein seems to follow exactly the same structural solution to achieving the yellow color of fluorescence as YFP, an engineered yellow-emitting mutant variant of GFP. The addition of these new sequences made it possible to resolve deep-level phylogenetic relationships within the superfamily. Fluorescence (most likely green) must have already existed in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and therefore GFP-like proteins may be responsible for fluorescence and/or coloration in virtually any animal. At least 15 color diversification events can be inferred following the maximum parsimony principle in Cnidaria. Origination of red fluorescence and nonfluorescent purple-blue colors on several independent occasions provides a remarkable example of convergent evolution of complex features at the molecular level.

  11. Insights into structural features determining odorant affinities to honey bee odorant binding protein 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Pechlaner, Maria; Oostenbrink, Chris; Kotlowski, Caroline; Araman, Can; Mastrogiacomo, Rosa; Pelosi, Paolo; Knoll, Wolfgang; Nowak, Christoph; Larisika, Melanie

    2014-04-18

    Molecular interactions between odorants and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are of major importance for understanding the principles of selectivity of OBPs towards the wide range of semiochemicals. It is largely unknown on a structural basis, how an OBP binds and discriminates between odorant molecules. Here we examine this aspect in greater detail by comparing the C-minus OBP14 of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) to a mutant form of the protein that comprises the third disulfide bond lacking in C-minus OBPs. Affinities of structurally analogous odorants featuring an aromatic phenol group with different side chains were assessed based on changes of the thermal stability of the protein upon odorant binding monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Our results indicate a tendency that odorants show higher affinity to the wild-type OBP suggesting that the introduced rigidity in the mutant protein has a negative effect on odorant binding. Furthermore, we show that OBP14 stability is very sensitive to the position and type of functional groups in the odorant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  13. [Morphometric features of the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antyukhov, A D

    2015-01-01

    To identify the interhemispheric asymmetry in the structure of the central nucleus of the amygdala in men and women. Morphometric features of the structure of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex were studied in histological sections of the brain of 6 men and 6 women (24 hemispheres), aged 19 to 55 years, with no lifetime diagnosis of mental or neurological disease. The value of the profile fields of neurons of the central nucleus amygdala complex in the left and right hemispheres of the brain were investigated. In women, the average value of neurons in the left hemisphere was somewhat greater than in the right hemisphere, while in men this value was greater in the right hemisphere. The interhemispheric morphometric differences were not significant regardless of gender. In addition, the quantity of relevant fields of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala in women was significantly larger than that of men in both hemispheres. The authors attempted to associate the results obtained in the study with emotional perception in men and women.

  14. Features of structure of motor nerve endings in the tongue of normal and dehydrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Popel’

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at an analytical review of scientific literature on the structure of the tongue of different animals and humans, and also at studying the features of the structure of motor nerve endings in the tongue muscles of healthy rats and rats that have undergone prolonged dehydration. Over 14 days, using histological methods we studied neuromuscular endings and peculiarities of their distribution in the tongue muscles of 25 mature rats, both in normal condition and under dehydration. The analysis of the results showed different structures of differentiated motor nerve endings among the rats in normal condition, and also revealed the peculiarities and quantitative characteristics of the components of the neuromuscular endings in relation to the duration of dehydration. The type of neuromuscular ending reflects the morphologically interdependent structure of efferent neuromediators in relation to a part of the tongue. This may determine the nature of the processes of prehension and chewing of food. The structure of neuromuscular endings of the muscles of the tip of the tongue is the most differentiated, they are more numerous and larger. The tip of the tongue of rats had a higher number of nuclei and larger size of the neuromuscular endings of the muscles than the other parts. This, perhaps, is determined by the speed of the movements of the tongue due to eating different foods. The number of nuclei and the size of neuromuscular endings are characterized by significant variations in the pattern of axon branching, which is determined by the anatomical, physiological and biomechanical conditions of functioning of the rats’ tongue muscles. The quantitative analysis of structural peculiarities of axomycin synapses showed that muscle fibers of the tongue have neuroumuscular endings with regulated synaptoarchitectonics which is characterized by the sprouting of the motor axon, a certain length and width of the active zones, number and size of

  15. Small-scale structure and the Lyman-α forest baryon acoustic oscillation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-02-01

    The baryon-acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the Lyman-α forest is a key probe of the cosmic expansion rate at redshifts z ˜ 2.5, well before dark energy is believed to have become significant. A key advantage of the BAO as a standard ruler is that it is a sharp feature and hence is more robust against broad-band systematic effects than other cosmological probes. However, if the Lyman-α forest transmission is sensitive to the initial streaming velocity of the baryons relative to the dark matter, then the BAO peak position can be shifted. Here we investigate this sensitivity using a suite of hydrodynamic simulations of small regions of the intergalactic medium with a range of box sizes and physics assumptions; each simulation starts from initial conditions at the kinematic decoupling era (z ˜ 1059), undergoes a discrete change from neutral gas to ionized gas thermal evolution at reionization (z ˜ 8), and is finally processed into a Lyman-α forest transmitted flux cube. Streaming velocities suppress small-scale structure, leading to less violent relaxation after reionization. The changes in the gas distribution and temperature-density relation at low redshift are more subtle, due to the convergent temperature evolution in the ionized phase. The change in the BAO scale is estimated to be of the order of 0.12 per cent at z = 2.5; some of the major uncertainties and avenues for future improvement are discussed. The predicted streaming velocity shift would be a subdominant but not negligible effect (of order 0.26σ) for the upcoming DESI Lyman-α forest survey, and exceeds the cosmic variance floor.

  16. Active Structures as Deduced from Geomorphic Features: A case in Hsinchu Area, northwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Shyu, J.; Ota, Y.; Chen, W.; Hu, J.; Tsai, B.; Wang, Y.

    2002-12-01

    . The interactions between active structural systems formed the complicate geomorphic features presented in this paper.

  17. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  18. Structural features and in-service inspection of the LTHR-200 pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Dunshi; He Shuyan; Liu Junjie; Yu Suyuan

    1993-01-01

    LTHR-200 is a low temperature district-heating reactor. It adopts double-shell design pressure vessel and metal containment. Because of the safety and structural features of the reactor, the in-service inspection of the pressure vessel can be simplified greatly. LTHR-200 is an integrated arrangement. Both its core components and the main heat exchangers are contained in the reactor pressure vessel. The coolant of the main loop is run by a full-power natural circulation and there need no main pumps and pipes. Thus, the reactor pressure vessel constitutes the pressure boundary of the reactor's main loop coolant. In regard to these features, a small-sized containment is designed for the reactor. The metal safety container with a small volume is placed closely around the reactor pressure vessel. Outside the metal containment, there is a large reinforced concrete construction for the reactor. Their main operation and design parameters are as follows: The pressure vessel: operation pressure = 2.4 MPa; design pressure = 3.0 MPa; design temperature = 250 deg C; 40 year fast neutron (E>1MeV) fluence in the belt-line region = < 10E16n/cm; internal diameter = 5000 mm; material SA516-70; shell thickness 65 mm; The metal containment: maximum operation pressure = 1.8 MPa; design pressure = 1.8 MPa; design temperature = 250 deg. C; upper internal diameter 7000 mm; lower internal diameter = 5600 mm; material = SA516-70; shell thickness, upper part = 80 mm; lower part = 50 mm. All penetrating pipes through the pressure vessel are located at the top penetration section of the shell. All the internal diameters of penetrating pipes are less than 50 mm. Inside and outside the metal containment wall respectively, isolating valves are connected to the reactor coolant pipe which passes through the containment. These two isolating valves use different driving methods. Every penetrating part of the reactor construction uses a proper form of structure according to safety requirements

  19. Actinide-specific complexing agents: their structural and solution chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, K.N.; Freeman, G.E.; Kappel, M.J.

    1983-07-01

    The synthesis of a series of tetracatecholate ligands designed to be specific for Pu(IV) and other actinide(IV) ions has been achieved. Although these compounds are very effective as in vivo plutonium removal agents, potentiometric and voltammetric data indicate that at neutral pH full complexation of the Pu(IV) ion by all four catecholate groups does not occur. Spectroscopic results indicate that the tetracatecholates, 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC, complex Am(III). The Am(IV)/(III)-catecholate couple (where catecholate = 3,4,3-LICAMS or 3,4,3-LICAMC) is not observed, but may not be observable due to the large currents associated with ligand oxidation. However, within the potential range where ligand oxidation does not occur, these experiments indicate that the reduction potential of free Am(IV)/(III) is probably greater than or equal to + 2.6 V vs NHE or higher. Proof of the complexation of americium in the trivalent oxidation state by 3,4,3-LICAMS and 3,4,3-LICAMC elimates the possibility of tetracatholates stabilizing Am(IV) in vivo

  20. The Okhansk Meteorite: Specifics of Composition, Structure, and Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bakhtin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Okhansk meteorite fell on August 18, 1887 near the village of Tabor, about 15 km away from the town of Okhansk in Perm province and weighed 186.5 kg (the total weight of collected fragments, according to P.I. Krotov, was more than 245 kg. The shock wave from the meteorite entry knocked down animals and riders on horses. Despite the fact that it was significantly stronger than that caused by the Chelyabinsk meteorite of 2013, all information about this meteorite has completely erased from people's memory. It has been shown that the meteorite is an ordinary olivine-bronzite chondrite. Its main silicate minerals are olivine, bronzite, plagioclase, and diopside. The main ore minerals are kamacite and troilite. The meteorite contains silicate glass in large amounts. The analysis of the composition and structure of the Okhansk meteorite has demonstrated that it was formed at the early stages of accretion of the melted substance of the protosolar nebula without undergoing endogenous, temperature, or pressure changes.

  1. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  2. Structural Evidence for Regulation and Specificity of Flaviviral Proteases and Evolution of the Flaviviridae Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshin,A.; Shiryaev, S.; Strongin, A.; Liddington, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenic members of the flavivirus family, including West Nile Virus (WNV) and Dengue Virus (DV), are growing global threats for which there are no specific treatments. The two-component flaviviral enzyme NS2B-NS3 cleaves the viral polyprotein precursor within the host cell, a process that is required for viral replication. Here, we report the crystal structure of WNV NS2B-NS3pro both in a substrate-free form and in complex with the trypsin inhibitor aprotinin/BPTI. We show that aprotinin binds in a substrate-mimetic fashion in which the productive conformation of the protease is fully formed, providing evidence for an 'induced fit' mechanism of catalysis and allowing us to rationalize the distinct substrate specificities of WNV and DV proteases. We also show that the NS2B cofactor of WNV can adopt two very distinct conformations and that this is likely to be a general feature of flaviviral proteases, providing further opportunities for regulation. Finally, by comparing the flaviviral proteases with the more distantly related Hepatitis C virus, we provide insights into the evolution of the Flaviviridae fold. Our work should expedite the design of protease inhibitors to treat a range of flaviviral infections.

  3. Structural basis for the site-specific incorporation of lysine derivatives into proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Flügel

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs of proteins determine their structure-function relationships, interaction partners, as well as their fate in the cell and are crucial for many cellular key processes. For instance chromatin structure and hence gene expression is epigenetically regulated by acetylation or methylation of lysine residues in histones, a phenomenon known as the 'histone code'. Recently it was shown that these lysine residues can furthermore be malonylated, succinylated, butyrylated, propionylated and crotonylated, resulting in significant alteration of gene expression patterns. However the functional implications of these PTMs, which only differ marginally in their chemical structure, is not yet understood. Therefore generation of proteins containing these modified amino acids site specifically is an important tool. In the last decade methods for the translational incorporation of non-natural amino acids using orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRS:tRNAaaCUA pairs were developed. A number of studies show that aaRS can be evolved to use non-natural amino acids and expand the genetic code. Nevertheless the wild type pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS from Methanosarcina mazei readily accepts a number of lysine derivatives as substrates. This enzyme can further be engineered by mutagenesis to utilize a range of non-natural amino acids. Here we present structural data on the wild type enzyme in complex with adenylated ε-N-alkynyl-, ε-N-butyryl-, ε-N-crotonyl- and ε-N-propionyl-lysine providing insights into the plasticity of the PylRS active site. This shows that given certain key features in the non-natural amino acid to be incorporated, directed evolution of this enzyme is not necessary for substrate tolerance.

  4. PEG-induced osmotic stress in Mentha x piperita L.: Structural features and metabolic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Búfalo, Jennifer; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Tozin, Luiz Ricardo Dos Santos; Marques, Marcia Ortiz Mayo; Boaro, Carmen Silvia Fernandes

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated whether osmotic stress induced by the exposure of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) to moderate and severe stress for short periods of time changes the plant's physiological parameters, leaf anatomy and ultrastructure and essential oil. Plants were exposed to two levels of polyethyleneglycol (50 g L(-1) and 100 g L(-1) of PEG) in a hydroponic experiment. The plants exposed to 50 g L(-1) maintained metabolic functions similar to those of the control group (0 g L(-1)) without changes in gas exchange or structural characteristics. The increase in antioxidant enzyme activity reduced the presence of free radicals and protected membranes, including chloroplasts and mitochondria. In contrast, the osmotic stress caused by 100 g L(-1) of PEG inhibited leaf gas exchange, reduced the essential oil content and changed the oil composition, including a decrease in menthone and an increase in menthofuran. These plants also showed an increase in peroxidase activity, but this increase was not sufficient to decrease the lipid peroxidation level responsible for damaging the membranes of organelles. Morphological changes were correlated with the evaluated physiological features: plants exposed to 100 g L(-1) of PEG showed areas with collapsed cells, increases in mesophyll thickness and the area of the intercellular space, cuticle shrinkage, morphological changes in plastids, and lysis of mitochondria. In summary, our results revealed that PEG-induced osmotic stress in M. x piperita depends on the intensity level of the osmotic stress applied; severe osmotic stress changed the structural characteristics, caused damage at the cellular level, and reduced the essential oil content and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Paralog-Specific Patterns of Structural Disorder and Phosphorylation in the Vertebrate SH3-SH2-Tyrosine Kinase Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Helena G; Siltberg-Liberles, Jessica

    2016-09-19

    One of the largest multigene families in Metazoa are the tyrosine kinases (TKs). These are important multifunctional proteins that have evolved as dynamic switches that perform tyrosine phosphorylation and other noncatalytic activities regulated by various allosteric mechanisms. TKs interact with each other and with other molecules, ultimately activating and inhibiting different signaling pathways. TKs are implicated in cancer and almost 30 FDA-approved TK inhibitors are available. However, specific binding is a challenge when targeting an active site that has been conserved in multiple protein paralogs for millions of years. A cassette domain (CD) containing SH3-SH2-Tyrosine Kinase domains reoccurs in vertebrate nonreceptor TKs. Although part of the CD function is shared between TKs, it also presents TK specific features. Here, the evolutionary dynamics of sequence, structure, and phosphorylation across the CD in 17 TK paralogs have been investigated in a large-scale study. We establish that TKs often have ortholog-specific structural disorder and phosphorylation patterns, while secondary structure elements, as expected, are highly conserved. Further, domain-specific differences are at play. Notably, we found the catalytic domain to fluctuate more in certain secondary structure elements than the regulatory domains. By elucidating how different properties evolve after gene duplications and which properties are specifically conserved within orthologs, the mechanistic understanding of protein evolution is enriched and regions supposedly critical for functional divergence across paralogs are highlighted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Structure and origin of Australian ring and dome features with reference to the search for asteroid impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Ring, dome and crater features on the Australian continent and shelf include (A) 38 structures of confirmed or probable asteroid and meteorite impact origin and (B) numerous buried and exposed ring, dome and crater features of undefined origin. A large number of the latter include structural and geophysical elements consistent with impact structures, pending test by field investigations and/or drilling. This paper documents and briefly describes 43 ring and dome features with the aim of appraising their similarities and differences from those of impact structures. Discrimination between impact structures and igneous plugs, volcanic caldera and salt domes require field work and/or drilling. Where crater-like morphological patterns intersect pre-existing linear structural features and contain central morphological highs and unique thrust and fault patterns an impact connection needs to tested in the field. Hints of potential buried impact structures may be furnished by single or multi-ring TMI patterns, circular TMI quiet zones, corresponding gravity patterns, low velocity and non-reflective seismic zones.

  7. A study of building structural features associated with high indoor air concentrations of organochlorine termiticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaniello, D L; Gun, R T; Tkaczuk, M N; Hann, C; Crea, J

    1993-09-01

    As part of a two-year study of post-treatment residential exposure to the termiticide, aldrin, the building structural features of ten houses with crawl-space-type floors were assessed by an independent inspector. Building attributes recorded on a checklist included the age of the dwelling, room characteristics, floor details and the nature of subfloor ventilation. At the end of each inspection, the inspector, who was blinded to data on airborne aldrin concentrations, provided a rating of expected indoor air contamination. Several of the building attributes, including the age of the house, the area of exterior subfloor vents, as well as the inspector's rating, were significantly correlated with airborne aldrin values. No single building variable, however, was highly correlated with every measure of aldrin concentration over a 12-month period. The observed data are consistent with poor subfloor ventilation and a 'leaky' floor being important contributors to indoor air pollution. It is recommended that pest control companies advise householders about any obvious floor and ventilation deficiencies before soil treatment work is undertaken. Pesticide exposure (by analogy with geological radon exposure) may be reduced by sealing gaps in floors and/or by improving subfloor ventilation.

  8. A new magnetorheological mount featured by changeable damping gaps using a moved-plate valve structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phu, Do Xuan; Shah, Kruti; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new type of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid mount is proposed and its performances are experimentally investigated. The design of this MR mount is based on two operating modes of MR fluid: flow mode and shear mode. These modes are applied to the mechanism design consisting of two components: a fixed plate for applying the flow mode, and a moved plate for applying the shear mode of MR fluid motion. These plates belong to the valve-type structure of MR mount. The primary objective using the moved plate is to overcome the block-up phenomenon which frequently occurs in the conventional-type MR mount, in which there is no flow of MR fluid through the damping gap. In this research, a laboratorial fluid (MRF140) is used in the design and optimization of MR mount. This fluid features plate-like particles unlike the sphere particles. The yield stress of the fluid is measured as a function of the magnetic field and the theoretical analysis for the mount design is undertaken using the properties of the MR fluid, followed by design optimization. The objective function is concentrated on maximal damping force of the MR mount subjected to parameter constraints. Based on the results of optimization, the proposed MR mount is manufactured and tested for the performance evaluation. Vibration control capability and block-up phenomenon are investigated and compared between the proposed and conventional MR mounts. (paper)

  9. Dihydropyridazinone cardiotonics: discovery of LY195115 and elucidation of structural features necessary for optimal inotropic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krushinski, J.H.; Hayes, J.S.; Beedle, E.E.; Pollock, G.D.; Wilson, H.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    A series of 4,5-dihydro-6-aryl-3(/sup 2/H)-pyridazinones has been examined for inotropic activity. The optimal compound of the series, LY195115 (1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl)-/sup 2/H-indol-2-one), is one of the most potent and long-acting oral inotropes described to date. ED/sub 50/'s of LY195115, CI-914 and milrinone after i.v. administration to pentobarbital anesthetized dogs were 6.8, 46 and 37 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. ED/sub 50/'s after oral administration to conscious dogs were 25, 1000 and 500 ..mu..g/kg, respectively. For optimal positive inotropic activity and oral bioavailability in this series, the following structural features are necessary: (1) dihydropyridazinone ring with the nitrogen unsubstituted; (2) a hydrogen-bond acceptor substituent with a sigma value of ca 0.0 para to the dihydropyridazinone moiety; and (3) additional sterically undemanding lipophilic substituents adjacent to the hydrogen-bond acceptor site.

  10. Dihydropyridazinone cardiotonics: discovery of LY195115 and elucidation of structural features necessary for optimal inotropic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushinski, J.H.; Hayes, J.S.; Beedle, E.E.; Pollock, G.D.; Wilson, H.; Robertson, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 4,5-dihydro-6-aryl-3( 2 H)-pyridazinones has been examined for inotropic activity. The optimal compound of the series, LY195115 (1,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-6-oxo-3-pyridazinyl)- 2 H-indol-2-one), is one of the most potent and long-acting oral inotropes described to date. ED 50 's of LY195115, CI-914 and milrinone after i.v. administration to pentobarbital anesthetized dogs were 6.8, 46 and 37 μg/kg, respectively. ED 50 's after oral administration to conscious dogs were 25, 1000 and 500 μg/kg, respectively. For optimal positive inotropic activity and oral bioavailability in this series, the following structural features are necessary: (1) dihydropyridazinone ring with the nitrogen unsubstituted; (2) a hydrogen-bond acceptor substituent with a σ value of ca 0.0 para to the dihydropyridazinone moiety; and (3) additional sterically undemanding lipophilic substituents adjacent to the hydrogen-bond acceptor site

  11. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Giannini, Anna Maria; Castelli, Paolo; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items

  12. The Structural Features of Sports and Race Betting Inducements: Issues for Harm Minimisation and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Sproston, Kerry; Brook, Kate; Brading, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting, despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising. This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling. A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located 223 separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. These comprised sign-up offers, refer-a-friend offers, happy hours, mobile betting bonuses, multi-bet offers, refund/stake-back offers, matching stakes/deposits, winnings paid for 'close calls', bonus or better odds, bonus or better winnings, competitions, reduced commission, free bets to selected punters, cash rebates and other free bets. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language. Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message. The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area.

  13. Alkaline and Organosolv Lignins from Furfural Residue: Structural Features and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Fei Cao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residue (FR, composed mainly of cellulose and lignin, is an industrial waste produced during furfural manufacture. In this study, dioxane, alkali, ethanol, alkali-ethanol, and alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP were used to extract lignins from FR. The structural features of these lignins obtained were characterized by sugar analysis, GPC, UV, FT-IR, and HSQC spectra. As compared to dioxane lignin (DL, other lignins showed lower molecular weights (Mw owing to the partial cleavage of the linkages between lignin units. Results from HSQC spectra revealed that β-O-4' and β-5' were still the major linkages of the FR lignin. Moreover, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were released and co-precipitated in the lignin preparations extracted with alkali and AHP, whereas part of the esters in DL were preserved during the dioxane extraction. Antioxidant activity investigation indicated that the antioxidant property of the alkali and alkali-ethanol lignins was higher than that of the commercial antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

  14. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  15. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); FT Innovations BV, Braamsluiper 1, 5831 PW Boxmeer (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); LayerWise NV, Kapeldreef 60, Leuven (Belgium); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 PB 2450, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Department of Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-01-30

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  16. Homerinių himnų struktūros bruožai | Structural Features of the Homeric Hymns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglis Kardelis

    2012-01-01

    shadow of some subordinate or even minor, if not marginal, deities.In the fourth chapter of the article, the author focuses on the structural framework of typical indi­vidual hymns of different length. During this stage of the research, the author posits five typical groups of the hymns according to their length and briefly dis­cusses the specific features of the hymns belonging to these five groups in terms of their form, content, and a correlation between their form and content.At the end of the article, the conclusion is made that some kind of a quantitative approach to the Ho­meric Hymns, for example, such as presented in this paper, if correctly conducted and creatively interpret­ed, might present us valuable fresh insights into the structural nature of the corpus of the Homeric Hymns as a whole, as well as shed some light on the prob­lems of the structure of individual hymns. As a con­sequence of these deeper insights, we find ourselves in a situation where we should abandon all talk about the so-called structural chaos of the Homeric Hymns.

  17. Features and structure of edition «Atlas of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Грицеляк

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the edition «Atlas of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army». Actuality for mapmaking of distorted Ukrainian history pages is showed. The approaches to structure of the atlas are noted. The atlas presents the origins of UPA, its armed struggle, territorial divisions, military organization and present-day memory places. The distortion of Ukrainian Insurgent Army’s history is one of the cornerstones of the Russian propaganda machine. Edition of «Atlas of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army» will contribute to the fight of the Ukrainians in the information warfare waged by the Russians for centuries, trying to assimilate the neighboring people and to appropriate its historical achievements. According to the concept, the structure of the atlas should cover a wide range of different aspects of the UPA’s struggle; bases on objective materials and destroy the Soviet myths; it discloses the territorial organization of the struggle; transmits different historical phases of social processes (origins, activity, today’s echo. The Atlas complies with such approaches as complexity and consistency, as well as scientific approach, clarity for consumer, Ukrainian centrism, objectivity. Its structure consists of five chapters: 1 «Origins of UPA», 2 «UPA armed struggle for the restoration of Ukrainian statehood», 3 «UPA territorial divisions», 4 «Characteristics of military organization», 5 «Memorable places of UPA». The introductory article to atlas «OUN and UPA: myths and slanders of the Russian propaganda» is intended to show the main Russian fakes. The first chapter gives the prerequisites for insurgency formation, the second reveals the theme of military confrontation of Ukrainian rebels to all invaders during World War II (German Nazis with Hungarians and Romanians, Polish chauvinists, Russian and Soviet imperialists, the third reveals territorial divisions of the armed struggle, the fourth is without maps, it shows features of

  18. Hidden Markov model-derived structural alphabet for proteins: the learning of protein local shapes captures sequence specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Tufféry, P

    2005-08-05

    Understanding and predicting protein structures depend on the complexity and the accuracy of the models used to represent them. We have recently set up a Hidden Markov Model to optimally compress protein three-dimensional conformations into a one-dimensional series of letters of a structural alphabet. Such a model learns simultaneously the shape of representative structural letters describing the local conformation and the logic of their connections, i.e. the transition matrix between the letters. Here, we move one step further and report some evidence that such a model of protein local architecture also captures some accurate amino acid features. All the letters have specific and distinct amino acid distributions. Moreover, we show that words of amino acids can have significant propensities for some letters. Perspectives point towards the prediction of the series of letters describing the structure of a protein from its amino acid sequence.

  19. Influence of major structural features of tocopherols and tocotrienols on their omega-oxidation by tocopherol-omega-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Timothy J; Parker, Robert S

    2007-05-01

    Human cytochrome P450 4F2 (CYP4F2) catalyzes the initial omega-hydroxylation reaction in the metabolism of tocopherols and tocotrienols to carboxychromanols and is, to date, the only enzyme shown to metabolize vitamin E. The objective of this study was to characterize this activity, particularly the influence of key features of tocochromanol substrate structure. The influence of the number and positions of methyl groups on the chromanol ring, and of stereochemistry and saturation of the side chain, were explored using HepG2 cultures and microsomal reaction systems. Human liver microsomes and microsomes selectively expressing recombinant human CYP4F2 exhibited substrate activity patterns similar to those of HepG2 cells. Although activity was strongly associated with substrate accumulation by cells or microsomes, substantial differences in specific activities between substrates remained under conditions of similar microsomal membrane substrate concentration. Methylation at C5 of the chromanol ring was associated with markedly low activity. Tocotrienols exhibited much higher Vmax values than their tocopherol counterparts. Side chain stereochemistry had no effect on omega-hydroxylation of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) by any system. Kinetic analysis of microsomal CYP4F2 activity revealed Michaelis-Menten kinetics for alpha-TOH but allosteric cooperativity for other vitamers, especially tocotrienols. Additionally, alpha-TOH was a positive effector of omega-hydroxylation of other vitamers. These results indicate that CYP4F2-mediated tocopherol-omega-hydroxylation is a central feature underlying the different biological half-lives, and therefore biopotencies, of the tocopherols and tocotrienols.

  20. The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Tamara; Petrova, Alevtina

    2010-05-01

    The specific features of gold ore provinces of the south of Siberia in a magnetic field at ground height and heights of flight of satellite Champ. T.Litvinova -All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI) A. Petrova - St. Petersburg, SPbF IZMIRAN, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg For allocation of specific features known gold ore objects (Olimpiadninskoje, Suchoi Log, etc.) is executed the morphological analysis of the magnetic field received on materials of aeromagnetic data and satellite measurements at heights of 100 and 400 km. On the ground data on a map of magnetic anomalies of Russia of scale 1:2 500000 of 50 km on the extended structures crossing known gold ore deposits and promising ore units have been constructed geomagnetic and densitys sections up to depth. On geomagnetic and densitys sections to known large gold ore to deposits are dated deep synvertical the permeable zones described by a synlenticular -layered structure. Extended horizons of not magnetic formations are located on depths about 10, 12, 15-18, 30 and 40 km. On deep densitys sections reference sites ¬ the Suchoi Log, Olimpiadninskoje and Vodorazdelnoje ¬ is characterized by zones of inversion of density. Areas of the loosened breeds are dated to synvertical to deep zones of hydrothermal and fluid study of breeds inside which the loosened lenses in intervals of depths from 2 up to 5 km are formed, 8-13 km, 18-20 and 25-30 km of 35-40 km within the limits of the bottom bark. The analysis of a magnetic field has shown, that gold mineralization in researched region is dated for zones of long-living regional explosive infringements, to permeable terrigenous to thicknesses of depressions, to adjournment depression structures in units of crossing of tectonofluid zones of diagonal orientation. Terrigenous adjournment depression structures are shown on a geomagnetic section as the powerful deflections filled with low-magnetic thicknesses. These deflections are dated to

  1. Structural Features of Sugars That Trigger or Support Conidial Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia. PMID:23995938

  2. MR features of the developing perianterior horn structure including subcallosal fasciculus in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    To describe the changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the perianterior horn structure (PAS) with increasing age, we studied 69 infants and children aged between 3 days and 9.4 years (average: 2.8 years) without any neurological deficits. T1- and T2-weighted images and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) images were obtained in the axial plane. Based on a comparison of the intensity of the PAS with that of the cortex in each sequence (T1-WI/FLAIR/T2-WI), we classified the signal-intensity patterns into four types: I, low/low/high; II, low/high/high; III, iso/high/high; IV, high/low/low. Signal-intensity types I, II, III and IV were seen in 22, 8, 17, and 22 subjects, respectively, with younger subjects showing type I or II intensity patterns and older subjects showing type III or IV. In addition, T1-weighted and FLAIR images of subjects with a type I intensity pattern showed a rim of an isointensity component around the PAS that histologically coincided with migrating glial cells. The low-intensity area on FLAIR and T2-WI images of subjects with a type IV intensity pattern may represent myelinated fibers of the subcallosal fasciculus (ScF). The intensity of the MR signals of the PAS changes with increasing age, and this change may reflect histological features. A better understanding of these characteristics may help us to clarify myelination abnormalities, particularly those related to the ScF in the frontal lobe in infants and children. (orig.)

  3. Structural features of sugars that trigger or support conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2013-11-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia.

  4. The Post-polyketide Synthase Steps in iso-Migrastatin Biosynthesis Featuring Tailoring Enzymes with Broad Substrate Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Kwong, Thomas; Lim, Si-Kyu; Ju, Jianhua; Lohman, Jeremy R.; Shen, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The iso-migrastatin (iso-MGS) biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993 consists of 11 genes, featuring an acyltransferase (AT)-less type I polyketide synthase (PKS) and three tailoring enzymes MgsIJK. Systematic inactivation of mgsIJK in S. platensis enabled us to (i) identify two nascent products (10 and 13) of the iso-MGS AT-less type I PKS, establishing an unprecedented novel feature for AT-less type I PKSs, and (ii) account for the formation of all known post-PKS biosynthetic intermediates (10-17) generated by the three tailoring enzymes MgsIJK, which possessed significant substrate promiscuities. PMID:23394593

  5. Novel structural features drive DNA binding properties of Cmr, a CRP family protein in TB complex mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sridevi; Cheung, Jonah; Cassidy, Michael; Ginter, Christopher; Pata, Janice D; McDonough, Kathleen A

    2018-01-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes two CRP/FNR family transcription factors (TF) that contribute to virulence, Cmr (Rv1675c) and CRPMt (Rv3676). Prior studies identified distinct chromosomal binding profiles for each TF despite their recognizing overlapping DNA motifs. The present study shows that Cmr binding specificity is determined by discriminator nucleotides at motif positions 4 and 13. X-ray crystallography and targeted mutational analyses identified an arginine-rich loop that expands Cmr's DNA interactions beyond the classical helix-turn-helix contacts common to all CRP/FNR family members and facilitates binding to imperfect DNA sequences. Cmr binding to DNA results in a pronounced asymmetric bending of the DNA and its high level of cooperativity is consistent with DNA-facilitated dimerization. A unique N-terminal extension inserts between the DNA binding and dimerization domains, partially occluding the site where the canonical cAMP binding pocket is found. However, an unstructured region of this N-terminus may help modulate Cmr activity in response to cellular signals. Cmr's multiple levels of DNA interaction likely enhance its ability to integrate diverse gene regulatory signals, while its novel structural features establish Cmr as an atypical CRP/FNR family member. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic features observed on the secondary structures of Giardia SSU rRNAs and its phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui Wook

    2007-04-01

    Phylogenetic position of a diplomonad protist Giardia, a principle cause of diarrhea, among eukaryotes has been vigorously debated so far. Through the comparisons of primary and secondary structures of SSU rRNAs of G. intestinalis, G. microti, G. ardeae, and G. muris, I found two major indel regions (a 6-nt indel and a 22-26-nt indel), which correspond to the helix 10 of the V2 region and helices E23-8 to E23-9 of the V4 region, respectively. As generally shown in eukaryotes, G. intestinalis and G. microti have commonly a relatively longer helix 10 (a 7-bp stem and a 4-nt loop), and also the eukaryote-specific helices E23-6 to E23-9. On the other hand, G. muris and G. ardeae have a shorter helix 10: a 2-bp stem and a 6-nt loop in G. ardeae and a 3-bp stem and a 6-nt loop in G. muris. In the V4, they have a single long helix (like the P23-1 helix in prokaryotes) instead of the helices E23-6 to E23-9. Among the four Giardia species, co-appearance of prokaryote- and eukaryote-typical features might be significant evidence to suggest that Giardia (Archezoa) is a living fossil showing an "intermediate stage" during the evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes.

  7. Specific features of NH{sub 3} and plasma-assisted MBE in the fabrication of III-N HEMT heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, A. N. [NTO ZAO (Russian Federation); Krasovitsky, D. M. [Svetlana-Rost ZAO (Russian Federation); Petrov, S. I., E-mail: petrov@semiteq.ru [NTO ZAO (Russian Federation); Chaly, V. P.; Mamaev, V. V. [Svetlana-Rost ZAO (Russian Federation); Sidorov, V. G. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    The specific features of how nitride HEMT heterostructures are produced by NH{sub 3} and plasma-assisted (PA) molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are considered. It is shown that the use of high-temperature AlN/AlGaN buffer layers grown with ammonia at extremely high temperatures (up to 1150°C) can drastically improve the structural perfection of the active GaN layers and reduce the dislocation density in these layers to values of 9 × 10{sup 8}−1 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. The use of buffer layers of this kind makes it possible to obtain high-quality GaN/AlGaN heterostructures by both methods. At the same time, in contrast to ammonia MBE which is difficult to apply at T < 500°C (because of the low efficiency of ammonia decomposition), PA MBE is rather effective at low temperatures, e.g., for the growth of InAlN layers lattice-matched with GaN. The results obtained in the MBE growth of AlN/AlGaN/GaN/InAlN heterostructures by both PA-MBE and NH{sub 3}-MBE with an extremely high ammonia flux are demonstrated.

  8. Sequence- and structure-dependent DNA base dynamics: Synthesis, structure, and dynamics of site and sequence specifically spin-labeled DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaltenstein, A.; Robinson, B.H.; Hopkins, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    A nitroxide spin-labeled analogue of thymidine (1a), in which the methyl group is replaced by an acetylene-tethered nitroxide, was evaluated as a probe for structural and dynamics studies of sequence specifically spin-labeled DNA. Residue 1a was incorporated into synthetic deoxyoligonucleotides by using automated phosphite triester methods. 1 H NMR, CD, and thermal denaturation studies indicate that 1a (T) does not significantly alter the structure of 5'-d(CGCGAATT*CGCG) from that of the native dodecamer. EPR studies on monomer, single-stranded, and duplexed DNA show that 1a readily distinguishes environments of different rigidity. Comparison of the general line-shape features of the observed EPR spectra of several small duplexes (12-mer, 24-mer) with simulated EPR spectra assuming isotropic motion suggests that probe 1a monitors global tumbling of small duplexes. Increasing the length of the DNA oligomers results in significant deviation from isotropic motion, with line-shape features similar to those of calculated spectra of objects with isotropic rotational correlation times of 20-100 ns. EPR spectra of a spin-labeled GT mismatch and a T bulge in long DNAs are distinct from those of spin-labeled Watson-Crick paired DNAs, further demonstrating the value of EPR as a tool in the evaluation of local dynamic and structural features in macromolecules

  9. The utility of petroleum seismic exploration data in delineating structural features within salt anticlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, S.L.; Balch, Alfred H.

    1978-01-01

    The Salt Valley anticline, in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, is under investigation for use as a location for storage of solid nuclear waste. Delineation of thin, nonsalt interbeds within the upper reaches of the salt body is extremely important because the nature and character of any such fluid- or gas-saturated horizons would be critical to the mode of emplacement of wastes into the structure. Analysis of 50 km of conventional seismic-reflection data, in the vicinity of the anticline, indicates that mapping of thin beds at shallow depths may well be possible using a specially designed adaptation of state-of-the-art seismic oil-exploration procedures. Computer ray-trace modeling of thin beds in salt reveals that the frequency and spatial resolution required to map the details of interbeds at shallow depths (less than 750 m) may be on the order of 500 Hz, with surface-spread lengths of less than 350 m. Consideration should be given to the burial of sources and receivers in order to attenuate surface noise and to record the desired high frequencies. Correlation of the seismic-reflection data with available well data and surface geology reveals the complex, structurally initiated diapir, whose upward flow was maintained by rapid contemporaneous deposition of continental clastic sediments on its flanks. Severe collapse faulting near the crests of these structures has distorted the seismic response. Evidence exists, however, that intrasalt thin beds of anhydrite, dolomite, and black shale are mappable on seismic record sections either as short, discontinuous reflected events or as amplitude anomalies that result from focusing of the reflected seismic energy by the thin beds; computer modeling of the folded interbeds confirms both of these as possible causes of seismic response from within the salt diapir. Prediction of the seismic signatures of the interbeds can be made from computer-model studies. Petroleum seismic-reflection data are unsatisfactory for

  10. The Memory Is in the Details: Relations between Memory for the Specific Features of Events and Long-Term Recall during Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2010-01-01

    The second year of life is marked by pronounced changes in the length of time over which events are remembered. We tested whether the age-related differences are related to differences in memory for the specific features of events. In our study, 16- and 20-month-olds were tested for immediate and long-term recall of individual actions and temporal…

  11. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  12. Expanding spectrum of human RYR2-related disease - New electrocardiographic, structural, and genetic features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; van den Berg, Maarten P.; van Tintelen, J. Peter; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet T. E.; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Alders, Marielle; Postma, Alex V.; van Langen, Irene; Mannens, Marcel M. A. M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background - Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a disease characterized by ventricular arrhythmias elicited exclusively under adrenergic stress. Additional features include baseline bradycardia and, in some patients, right ventricular fatty displacement. The clinical spectrum

  13. Structural and sequence variants in patients with Silver-Russell syndrome or similar features-Curation of a disease database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tümer, Zeynep; López-Hernández, Julia Angélica; Netchine, Irène

    2018-01-01

    data of these patients. The clinical features are scored according to the Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system (NH-CSS), which has recently been accepted as standard by consensus. The structural and sequence variations are reviewed and where necessary redescribed according to recent...

  14. Structural basis for IL-1α recognition by a modified DNA aptamer that specifically inhibits IL-1α signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Gelinas, Amy D.; von Carlowitz, Ira; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pyle, Anna Marie (Yale); (SomaLogic)

    2017-10-09

    IL-1α is an essential cytokine that contributes to inflammatory responses and is implicated in various forms of pathogenesis and cancer. Here we report a naphthyl modified DNA aptamer that specifically binds IL-1α and inhibits its signaling pathway. By solving the crystal structure of the IL-1α/aptamer, we provide a high-resolution structure of this critical cytokine and we reveal its functional interaction interface with high-affinity ligands. The non-helical aptamer, which represents a highly compact nucleic acid structure, contains a wealth of new conformational features, including an unknown form of G-quadruplex. The IL-1α/aptamer interface is composed of unusual polar and hydrophobic elements, along with an elaborate hydrogen bonding network that is mediated by sodium ion. IL-1α uses the same interface to interact with both the aptamer and its cognate receptor IL-1RI, thereby suggesting a novel route to immunomodulatory therapeutics.

  15. Is Early-onset in Major Depression a Predictor of Specific Clinical Features with More Impaired Social Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Hong; Chen, Lin; Su, Yun-Ai; Fang, Yi-Ru; Srisurapanont, Manit; Hong, Jin Pyo; Hatim, Ahmad; Chua, Hong Choon; Bautista, Dianne; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (EOD) is often particularly malignant due to its special clinical features, accompanying impaired social function, protracted recovery time, and frequent recurrence. This study aimed to observe the effects of age onset on clinical characteristics and social function in MDD patients in Asia. Methods: In total, 547 out-patients aged 18–65 years who were from 13 study sites in five Asian countries were included. These patients had MDD diagnose according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. Clinical features and social function were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Quality of life was assessed by a 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36). Analyses were performed using a continuous or dichotomous (cut-off: 30 years) age-of-onset indicator. Results: Early-onset MDD (EOD, <30 years) was associated with longer illness (P = 0.003), unmarried status (P < 0.001), higher neuroticism (P ≤ 0.002) based on the SCL-90-R, and more limited social function and mental health (P = 0.006, P = 0.007) based on the SF-36 and SDS. The impairment of social function and clinical severity were more prominent at in-patients with younger onset ages. Special clinical features and more impaired social function and quality of life were associated with EOD, as in western studies. Conclusions: EOD often follows higher levels of neuroticism. Age of onset of MDD may be a predictor of clinical features and impaired social function, allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25758278

  16. Is Early-onset in Major Depression a Predictor of Specific Clinical Features with More Impaired Social Function?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hong Liu; Lin Chen; Yun-Ai Su; Yi-Ru Fang; Manit Srisurapanont; Jin Pyo Hong; Ahmad Hatim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) (EOD) is often particularly malignant due to its special clinical features,accompanying impaired social function,protracted recovery time,and frequent recurrence.This study aimed to observe the effects of age onset on clinical characteristics and social function in MDD patients in Asia.Methods:In total,547 out-patients aged 18-65 years who were from 13 study sites in five Asian countries were included.These patients had MDD diagnose according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,4th Edition criteria.Clinical features and social function were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).Quality of life was assessed by a 36-item Short-form Health Survey (SF-36).Analyses were performed using a continuous or dichotomous (cut-off:30 years)age-of-onset indicator.Results:Early-onset MDD (EOD,<30 years) was associated with longer illness (P =0.003),unmarried status (P < 0.001),higher neuroticism (P ≤ 0.002) based on the SCL-90-R,and more limited social function and mental health (P =0.006,P =0.007) based on the SF-36 and SDS.The impairment of social function and clinical severity were more prominent at in-patients with younger onset ages.Special clinical features and more impaired social function and quality of life were associated with EOD,as in western studies.Conclusions:EOD often follows higher levels of neuroticism.Age of onset of MDD may be a predictor of clinical features and impaired social function,allowing earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  17. STRUCTURAL AND CONTENT-RELATED SPECIFICITY OF PROGRAMME LITERARY CRITICISM TEXTS IN THE JOURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilnikova Olga Gennadyevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article specifies the notions of the structural, content-related, figurative, and functional characteristics of the texts which are traditionally referred to the group of informational genres of journalism. This lets us update the system of factors that influence the formation of the texts' genre specificity in the mass media. The analysis of programme literary criticism speeches published in the journals of N.M. Karamzin – Moskovsky Zhurnal, Vestnik Evropy – shows that not only rational and logical structures accomplish the constructive function in the text-formation mechanisms of such publications. The use of imaginative resources of journalistic and artistic discourses plays an important role in the implementation of the author's intentions. The supplementation of programme texts with the components non-typical of informational genres (lyrical and biographical fragments, expressive lexis, artistic and journalistic forms of the author's subjectivity expression is conditioned by organic interaction of several pragmatic goals in the texts, such as: informational, author's individual (Karamzin as a personality, and author's professional (Karamzin as an editor, writer, literary critic. These peculiarities together with a subtext contribute to the formation of new features of programme publications, which are not common for informational genres such as aesthetic function and multi-discursivity, reflected in semantic, expressive and vocabulary redundance. They also expand the range of possible effects on audience – cognitive, emotive, behavioral and communicative. As a result, a unique informational text of a programme type is formed. Therefore, a strict differentiation of genre forms of journal texts is only possible when taking into consideration all the possible text goals, as well as its role in the organization of common-journal discourse and publication policy.

  18. SU-D-204-01: A Methodology Based On Machine Learning and Quantum Clustering to Predict Lung SBRT Dosimetric Endpoints From Patient Specific Anatomic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K; Ren, L; Wu, Q; Kelsey, C; Hong, J; Cai, J; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a data-mining methodology based on quantum clustering and machine learning to predict expected dosimetric endpoints for lung SBRT applications based on patient-specific anatomic features. Methods: Ninety-three patients who received lung SBRT at our clinic from 2011–2013 were retrospectively identified. Planning information was acquired for each patient, from which various features were extracted using in-house semi-automatic software. Anatomic features included tumor-to-OAR distances, tumor location, total-lung-volume, GTV and ITV. Dosimetric endpoints were adopted from RTOG-0195 recommendations, and consisted of various OAR-specific partial-volume doses and maximum point-doses. First, PCA analysis and unsupervised quantum-clustering was used to explore the feature-space to identify potentially strong classifiers. Secondly, a multi-class logistic regression algorithm was developed and trained to predict dose-volume endpoints based on patient-specific anatomic features. Classes were defined by discretizing the dose-volume data, and the feature-space was zero-mean normalized. Fitting parameters were determined by minimizing a regularized cost function, and optimization was performed via gradient descent. As a pilot study, the model was tested on two esophageal dosimetric planning endpoints (maximum point-dose, dose-to-5cc), and its generalizability was evaluated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Quantum-Clustering demonstrated a strong separation of feature-space at 15Gy across the first-and-second Principle Components of the data when the dosimetric endpoints were retrospectively identified. Maximum point dose prediction to the esophagus demonstrated a cross-validation accuracy of 87%, and the maximum dose to 5cc demonstrated a respective value of 79%. The largest optimized weighting factor was placed on GTV-to-esophagus distance (a factor of 10 greater than the second largest weighting factor), indicating an intuitively strong

  19. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rigorous assessment and integration of the sequence and structure based features to predict hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic mutagenesis studies have shown that only a few interface residues termed hot spots contribute significantly to the binding free energy of protein-protein interactions. Therefore, hot spots prediction becomes increasingly important for well understanding the essence of proteins interactions and helping narrow down the search space for drug design. Currently many computational methods have been developed by proposing different features. However comparative assessment of these features and furthermore effective and accurate methods are still in pressing need. Results In this study, we first comprehensively collect the features to discriminate hot spots and non-hot spots and analyze their distributions. We find that hot spots have lower relASA and larger relative change in ASA, suggesting hot spots tend to be protected from bulk solvent. In addition, hot spots have more contacts including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and atomic contacts, which favor complexes formation. Interestingly, we find that conservation score and sequence entropy are not significantly different between hot spots and non-hot spots in Ab+ dataset (all complexes. While in Ab- dataset (antigen-antibody complexes are excluded, there are significant differences in two features between hot pots and non-hot spots. Secondly, we explore the predictive ability for each feature and the combinations of features by support vector machines (SVMs. The results indicate that sequence-based feature outperforms other combinations of features with reasonable accuracy, with a precision of 0.69, a recall of 0.68, an F1 score of 0.68, and an AUC of 0.68 on independent test set. Compared with other machine learning methods and two energy-based approaches, our approach achieves the best performance. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to predict hot spots of two protein complexes. Conclusion Experimental results show that support vector machine

  1. Rigorous assessment and integration of the sequence and structure based features to predict hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Systematic mutagenesis studies have shown that only a few interface residues termed hot spots contribute significantly to the binding free energy of protein-protein interactions. Therefore, hot spots prediction becomes increasingly important for well understanding the essence of proteins interactions and helping narrow down the search space for drug design. Currently many computational methods have been developed by proposing different features. However comparative assessment of these features and furthermore effective and accurate methods are still in pressing need. Results In this study, we first comprehensively collect the features to discriminate hot spots and non-hot spots and analyze their distributions. We find that hot spots have lower relASA and larger relative change in ASA, suggesting hot spots tend to be protected from bulk solvent. In addition, hot spots have more contacts including hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and atomic contacts, which favor complexes formation. Interestingly, we find that conservation score and sequence entropy are not significantly different between hot spots and non-hot spots in Ab+ dataset (all complexes). While in Ab- dataset (antigen-antibody complexes are excluded), there are significant differences in two features between hot pots and non-hot spots. Secondly, we explore the predictive ability for each feature and the combinations of features by support vector machines (SVMs). The results indicate that sequence-based feature outperforms other combinations of features with reasonable accuracy, with a precision of 0.69, a recall of 0.68, an F1 score of 0.68, and an AUC of 0.68 on independent test set. Compared with other machine learning methods and two energy-based approaches, our approach achieves the best performance. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of our method to predict hot spots of two protein complexes. Conclusion Experimental results show that support vector machine classifiers are quite

  2. Pose Estimation using Local Structure-Specific Shape and Appearance Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders Glent; Kraft, Dirk; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian

    2013-01-01

    information for both edge and texture structures. This is achieved by defining feature space relations which describe the neighborhood of a descriptor. By quantitative evaluations, we show that our descriptors provide high discriminative power compared to state of the art approaches. In addition, we show how...

  3. Structural and spectroscopic features of proton hydrates in the crystalline state. Solid-state DFT study on HCl and triflic acid hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vener, M. V.; Chernyshov, I. Yu.; Rykounov, A. A.; Filarowski, A.

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline HCl and CF3SO3H hydrates serve as excellent model systems for protonated water and perfluorosulphonic acid membranes, respectively. They contain characteristic H3O+, H5О+2, H7О+3 and H3O+(H2O)3 (the Eigen cation) structures. The properties of these cations in the crystalline hydrates of strong monobasic acids are studied by solid-state density function theory (DFT). Simultaneous consideration of the HCl and CF3SO3H hydrates reveals the impact of the size of a counter ion and the crystalline environment on the structure and infrared active bands of the simplest proton hydrates. The H7O+3 structure is very sensitive to the size of the counter ion and symmetry of the local environment. This makes it virtually impossible to identify the specific features of H7O+3 in molecular crystals. The H3O+ ion can be treated as the Eigen-like cation in the crystalline state. Structural, infrared and electron-density features of H5О+2 and the Eigen cation are virtually insensitive to the size of the counter ion and the symmetry of the local crystalline environment. These cations can be considered as the simplest stable proton hydrates in the condensed phase. Finally, the influence of the Grimme correction on the structure and harmonic frequencies of the molecular crystals with short (strong) intermolecular O-H···O bonds is discussed.

  4. Distill: a suite of web servers for the prediction of one-, two- and three-dimensional structural features of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Ian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe Distill, a suite of servers for the prediction of protein structural features: secondary structure; relative solvent accessibility; contact density; backbone structural motifs; residue contact maps at 6, 8 and 12 Angstrom; coarse protein topology. The servers are based on large-scale ensembles of recursive neural networks and trained on large, up-to-date, non-redundant subsets of the Protein Data Bank. Together with structural feature predictions, Distill includes a server for prediction of Cα traces for short proteins (up to 200 amino acids. Results The servers are state-of-the-art, with secondary structure predicted correctly for nearly 80% of residues (currently the top performance on EVA, 2-class solvent accessibility nearly 80% correct, and contact maps exceeding 50% precision on the top non-diagonal contacts. A preliminary implementation of the predictor of protein Cα traces featured among the top 20 Novel Fold predictors at the last CASP6 experiment as group Distill (ID 0348. The majority of the servers, including the Cα trace predictor, now take into account homology information from the PDB, when available, resulting in greatly improved reliability. Conclusion All predictions are freely available through a simple joint web interface and the results are returned by email. In a single submission the user can send protein sequences for a total of up to 32k residues to all or a selection of the servers. Distill is accessible at the address: http://distill.ucd.ie/distill/.

  5. The evaluation of multi-structure, multi-atlas pelvic anatomy features in a prostate MR lymphography CAD system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, M.; Debats, O.; Huisman, H.

    2015-03-01

    In prostate cancer, the detection of metastatic lymph nodes indicates progression from localized disease to metastasized cancer. The detection of positive lymph nodes is, however, a complex and time consuming task for experienced radiologists. Assistance of a two-stage Computer-Aided Detection (CAD) system in MR Lymphography (MRL) is not yet feasible due to the large number of false positives in the first stage of the system. By introducing a multi-structure, multi-atlas segmentation, using an affine transformation followed by a B-spline transformation for registration, the organ location is given by a mean density probability map. The atlas segmentation is semi-automatically drawn with ITK-SNAP, using Active Contour Segmentation. Each anatomic structure is identified by a label number. Registration is performed using Elastix, using Mutual Information and an Adaptive Stochastic Gradient optimization. The dataset consists of the MRL scans of ten patients, with lymph nodes manually annotated in consensus by two expert readers. The feature map of the CAD system consists of the Multi-Atlas and various other features (e.g. Normalized Intensity and multi-scale Blobness). The voxel-based Gentleboost classifier is evaluated using ROC analysis with cross validation. We show in a set of 10 studies that adding multi-structure, multi-atlas anatomical structure likelihood features improves the quality of the lymph node voxel likelihood map. Multiple structure anatomy maps may thus make MRL CAD more feasible.

  6. Proteínas quinases: características estruturais e inibidores químicos Kinase protein: structural features and chemical inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara V. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are one of the largest protein families and they are responsible for regulation of a great number of signal transduction pathways in cells, through the phosphorylation of serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. Deregulation of these enzymes is associated with several diseases including cancer, diabetes and inflammation. For this reason, specific inhibition of tyrosine or serine/threonine kinases may represent an interesting therapeutic approach. The most important types of protein kinases, their structural features and chemical inhibitors are discussed in this paper. Emphasis is given to the small-molecule drugs that target the ATP-binding sites of these enzymes.

  7. Amplification of 9q34 in childhood adrenocortical tumors: a specific feature unrelated to ethnic origin or living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo B.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors (ACT in children under 15 years of age exhibit some clinical and biological features distinct from ACT in adults. Cell proliferation, hypertrophy and cell death in adrenal cortex during the last months of gestation and the immediate postnatal period seem to be critical for the origin of ACT in children. Studies with large numbers of patients with childhood ACT have indicated a median age at diagnosis of about 4 years. In our institution, the median age was 3 years and 5 months, while the median age for first signs and symptoms was 2 years and 5 months (N = 72. Using the comparative genomic hybridization technique, we have reported a high frequency of 9q34 amplification in adenomas and carcinomas. This finding has been confirmed more recently by investigators in England. The lower socioeconomic status, the distinctive ethnic groups and all the regional differences in Southern Brazil in relation to patients in England indicate that these differences are not important to determine 9q34 amplification. Candidate amplified genes mapped to this locus are currently being investigated and Southern blot results obtained so far have discarded amplification of the abl oncogene. Amplification of 9q34 has not been found to be related to tumor size, staging, or malignant histopathological features, nor does it seem to be responsible for the higher incidence of ACT observed in Southern Brazil, but could be related to an ACT from embryonic origin.

  8. Selecting highly structure-specific antibodies using structured synthetic mimics of the cystine knot protein sclerostin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, J.W.; Frisch, C.; Van Pee, K.; Boschert, V.; van Vught, R.; Puijk, W.; Mueller, T. D.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies directed against specific regions of a protein have traditionally been raised against full proteins, protein domains or simple unstructured peptides, containing contiguous stretches of primary sequence. We have used a new approach of selecting antibodies against restrained peptides

  9. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  10. «Do not change yourself, Great Russia!..»: specific features of the T. Tutchef's social political conservatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Валентиновна Линькова

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of T. Tutchef's conservative doctrine, of his attitudes about the nature of statehood of Russia, the role of orthodoxy, the specificity of social development. The author analyzes Tutchef's political views and the factors that determined them.

  11. Features and uranium mineralization of Malou thrust nappe structure in Rencha basin of northeast Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shizhu; Zhao Wei; Zheng Mingliang; Chen Zhuhai

    2010-01-01

    Rencha basin was a Cenozoic volcanic fault basin (K 2 -E). Due to strong and frequent tectonic-magmatic activities, especially the late volcanic activities in the region, the acidic volcanic rock was formed which is the host rocks of uranium-molybdenum polymetallic deposit. Malou structural belt is a east-west trending and a long-term tectonic-magmatic activities belt, and is also a linear structure of volcanic eruption. Through recent exploration and study, Malou structure (F 1 )was found to be a thrust nappe structure. In the early stage of evolution, the structure controled the formation of Rencha basin and rock distribution, in the later, it controled the formation of uranium mineralization. Because farely rich orebody has been discovered in some deep part of the structure, large and richer orebody can be predicted in the depth of 500-1500 m. (authors)

  12. Electronic structure, elasticity, bonding features and mechanical behaviour of zinc intermetallics: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Bushra, E-mail: bushrafatima25@gmail.com; Acharya, Nikita; Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal, 462026 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The structural stability, electronic structure, elastic and mechanical properties of TiZn and ZrZn intermetallics have been studied using ab-initio full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within generalized gradient approximation for exchange and correlation potentials. The various structural parameters, such as lattice constant (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B), and its pressure derivative (B’) are analysed and compared. The investigation of elastic constants affirm that both TiZn and ZrZn are elastically stable in CsCl (B{sub 2} phase) structure. The electronic structures have been analysed quantitatively from the band structure which reveals the metallic nature of these compounds. To better illustrate the nature of bonding and charge transfer, we have also studied the Fermi surfaces. The three well known criterion of ductility namely Pugh’s rule, Cauchy’s pressure and Frantsevich rule elucidate the ductile nature of these compounds.

  13. Bulgarian National System for Ionization Radiation Control in the Biosphere. Three basic principles, main features and specific aspects of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.

    1994-01-01

    Some problems concerned with the structure of the national system for radiation control and 'de facto' situation in Bulgaria are outlined. The following three basic principles of such a system are discussed: 1. Radioecological principle; 2. Regulatory principle. Maximum permissible contamination level and exposure; 3. Control principle. Local variations of natural radiation background. 1 tab., 12 refs

  14. Structural features of various kinds of carbon fibers as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Denghua; Du, Sujun [Shanxi Transportation Research Institute, National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Road Materials, Taiyuan (China); Lu, Chunxiang; Wu, Gangping; Yang, Yu; Wang, Lina [Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Carbon Fiber Technology, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Taiyuan (China)

    2016-11-15

    The structural features of polyacrylonitrile and pitch-based carbon fibers were analyzed from a comprehensive point of view by X-ray measurements and related techniques. The results indicated that the undulating graphite ribbon with embedded microvoid was the main structural unit for graphitic fibers. The void's parameters for these fibers could be obtained directly by small-angle X-ray scattering following the classic method deduced based on the typical two-phase system (i.e., Porod's law, Guinier's law and Debye's law). The non-graphitic fibers, however, were composed of two-dimensional turbostratic crystallites in the aggregation of microfibril and thus had a quasi two-phase structure (microfibril, interfibrillar amorphous structure and microvoid embedded within the microfibril). The extended Debye or Beaucage model in this case should be applied in order to obtain the structural parameters. It also revealed that the quasi two-phase system would complete its transformation to two-phase system during high-temperature graphitization. Therefore, the degree of graphitization was speculated to be the essential indicator distinguishing graphitic fibers from non-graphitic ones and would be helpful in understanding the transformation of structural features during the graphitization of carbon fibers. (orig.)

  15. Technical features of steel structure construction by Kawasaki Steel; Kawasaki Seitetsu no kokozo gijutsu no tokucho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Urata, I.; Okata, S. [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    In the steel structure technology of Kawasaki Steel, the joint technique (e.g., welding) is added to them while developing or improving the products that meet the social needs as a material supplier. Moreover, the execution technique that manufactures materials or constructs them as an integrated structure, the structural analysis that conforms to the function and application of a structure, and the design technique on dynamic properties or durability such as earthquake resistance, fatigue, and corrosion resistance are synthetically expanded for engineering. In this paper, a building steel frame, non-residence building, bridge, and harbor structure as steel structure in the building and construction fields were described for each structure genre. The structural technology of a building steel frame is summarized to the products of pillar materials. An earthquake brace, using a dead soft steel, with high earthquake energy absorption capability and a damping wall were also developed. The design and execution technique of a large roof was systematized. The exchange technique of a road bridge RC floor and the technique of an unstiffened suspension bridge for pipeline were developed. A new technique was also developed for a suspension monorail track and offshore structure. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  16. FEATURES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION MATRIX ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Phd Student Laurentiu BARCAN

    2009-01-01

    The organization involves the regulated structure of roles that employees have to carry out. The structure is regulated in the sense that all the tasks necessary to achieve the goals are shared, and it is hoped that the award was made to people who can carry out the best. Structure is a management tool and not an end in itself. Its purpose is to help create a framework for human performance. Although the structure should be defined to cover the duties, roles should be designed in light of est...

  17. Does Gender-Specific Differential Item Functioning Affect the Structure in Vocational Interest Inventories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinicke, Andrea; Pässler, Katja; Hell, Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates consequences of eliminating items showing gender-specific differential item functioning (DIF) on the psychometric structure of a standard RIASEC interest inventory. Holland's hexagonal model was tested for structural invariance using a confirmatory methodological approach (confirmatory factor analysis and randomization…

  18. A Comparison of Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms and Feature Vectors for MS Lesion Segmentation Using Multimodal Structural MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Calabresi, Peter A.; Reich, Daniel S.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Shinohara, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning is a popular method for mining and analyzing large collections of medical data. We focus on a particular problem from medical research, supervised multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion segmentation in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We examine the extent to which the choice of machine learning or classification algorithm and feature extraction function impacts the performance of lesion segmentation methods. As quantitative measures derived from structural MRI are important clinical tools for research into the pathophysiology and natural history of MS, the development of automated lesion segmentation methods is an active research field. Yet, little is known about what drives performance of these methods. We evaluate the performance of automated MS lesion segmentation methods, which consist of a supervised classification algorithm composed with a feature extraction function. These feature extraction functions act on the observed T1-weighted (T1-w), T2-weighted (T2-w) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI voxel intensities. Each MRI study has a manual lesion segmentation that we use to train and validate the supervised classification algorithms. Our main finding is that the differences in predictive performance are due more to differences in the feature vectors, rather than the machine learning or classification algorithms. Features that incorporate information from neighboring voxels in the brain were found to increase performance substantially. For lesion segmentation, we conclude that it is better to use simple, interpretable, and fast algorithms, such as logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis, and to develop the features to improve performance. PMID:24781953

  19. [Analysis of clinical features and allergic status of asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan; Ye, Ling; Gong, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-feng; Jin, Mei-ling

    2013-08-01

    To improve understanding of the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, including clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, pulmonary function tests and chest CT imaging of 95 asthmatic patients with positive serum mycosis-specific IgE from January 2010 to September 2012 in Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University. Of the 95 patients, 59 cases met the diagnostic criteria of ABPM. There were 34 males and 25 females, with a mean age of (53 ± 4) years and a duration of asthma for (21 ± 4) years. Thirty-six cases showed mycosis hypersensitivity (MH). There were 10 males and 26 females, with a mean age of (46 ± 6) years and a duration of asthma for (16 ± 5) years. Clinical symptoms such as wheeze (52 vs 21, χ(2) = 11.159, P = 0.001), cough (54 vs 27, χ(2) = 4.859, P = 0.030) and expectoration (43 vs 9, χ(2) = 25.731, P = 0.000) were more common in the ABPM group compared to the MH group.In the ABPM group, 58 were A. fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 34 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 1 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.While in the MH group, 15 were A.fumigatus-specific IgE antibody positive, 24 Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive and 17 only Penicillium-specific IgE antibody positive.In the ABPM group, the percentage of positive fumigatus-specific IgE antibody was higher (58 vs 15, χ(2) = 24.500, P = 0.000), while the percentages of dermatophagoides pteronyssinus(21 vs 20, χ(2) = 3.632, P = 0.045) and Dermatophagoides farinae(17 vs 21, χ(2) = 8.118, P = 0.004) were lower. Total serum IgE [(4395 ± 1437) IU/ml vs (276 ± 133) IU/ml, T = 4.384, P = 0.000], peripheral eosinophil percentage[(12.56 ± 1.20)% vs (1.30 ± 0.15)%, t = 8.175, P = 0.000] and count [(2.09 ± 0.43)×10(9)/L vs (0.19 ± 0.04)×10(9)/L, t = 7.032, P = 0.000] were higher in the ABPM group as compared to the MH group.FEV1% slightly declined in the ABPM

  20. [Specific features of nesting bird populations in forest-meadow-field landscapes of Meshchovsk Opolye reflect the diversity of their biotope connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kut'in, S D; Konstantinov, V M

    2008-01-01

    Studies on specific features of nesting bird populations in patchy landscapes were performed in Meshchovsk Opolye, Kaluga Region, from 1981 to 1990. Indices of similarity between the avifaunas of agricultural fields, lowland bogs, and small-leaved forests markedly differed from parameters of their population density in rank and value. In the series of biotopes differing in the relative amount of woodland, from central areas of small-leaved forests to forest margins and then to forest islands gradually decreasing in size, the birds segregated into two distinct groups, one characteristic of forest margins and large forest islands and the other characteristic of small and very small forest islands. Specific features of bird density distribution in forest-meadow-field landscapes of Meshchovsk Opolye reflected heterogeneity of their populations manifested in diverse connections with nesting biotopes.

  1. Language, gender, and sexual orientation: Gender-specific features of discursive styles of homosexual users of an internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether and in which way homosexual people rely on gender-specific style characteristics when communicating in the internet environment. It is assumed that the basis of differences in language practices is not some identity category (either gender or sexual), that uses these practices only as a means of expression. Instead, language is seen as a resource that allows us to respond to a variety of communication situations. The methodological framework for col...

  2. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE MUSICAL LANGUAGE AND TEXTURE IN THE CONCERT WALTZ FOR TWO PIANOS BY OLEG NEGRUTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMALÂGA MARINA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the Concert Waltz by Oleg Negruta written for piano duet. This work is considered in terms of form and content. Special attention is given to identifying the specificity of the musical language and texture. As a result, the conclusion is that the originality of the composer’s style is manifested in bright melody, relying on the classic-romantic harmony, enriched by jazz elements.

  3. One-step synthesis of mesoporous pentasil zeolite with single-unit-cell lamellar structural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapstsis, Michael; Zhang, Xueyi

    2015-11-17

    A method for making a pentasil zeolite material includes forming an aqueous solution that includes a structure directing agent and a silica precursor; and heating the solution at a sufficient temperature and for sufficient time to form a pentasil zeolite material from the silica precursor, wherein the structure directing agent includes a quaternary phosphonium ion.

  4. Distinguishing feature of metal oxide films' structural engineering for gas sensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotcenkov, G; Golovanov, V; Brinzari, V; Cornet, A; Morante, J; Ivanov, M

    2005-01-01

    The different methods of structural engineering, used for improvement of solid state gas sensors parameters are reviewed in this paper. The wide possibilities of structural engineering in optimization of gas sensing properties were demonstrated on the example of thin tin dioxide films deposited by spray pyrolysis

  5. Ellipsis as a Diagnostic Tool of Feature Strength and the Syntactic Structure of Ilocano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael Don

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation examines Ilocano, an Austronesian Filipino language, within the Minimalist Framework, in an effort to tease apart the general syntactic properties of the language. I show that Ilocano underlying structure can easily be captured within the standard syntactic structures proposed for languages generally (Universal Grammar). In my…

  6. Comparing of athletic performance and biometric features of selected teenagers based on the specific talent identification pattern of Karate with elite athletes

    OpenAIRE

    seyed Ehsan Naghibi; Mehrdad Anbarian; Mohammad Reza Mahmoodkhani

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to comparing the athletic performance and biometric features in elite karate players teenagers with a specific talent identification pattern of  karate in a professional gyms in Iran. Methods: Subjects available for sampling were divided into two groups teenagers karate athletes elite (n=19) and members developmental center and the Club Championship (n=19) for assessing the biometric data of the sport performance tests respectively. Shapiro-Wilk te...

  7. Features of the Calculation Deployment Large Transformable Structures of Different Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant progress achieved in the design of space transformable structures to ensure a smooth and reliable deployment remains an important task. This type of construction can consist of dozens, hundreds or even thousands of interconnected elements. Deployment transformable space structures in orbit to test their performance in orbital conditions are associated with high material costs. Full deploy: experimental development process transformable structures involve a number of fundamental difficulties: It is impossible to eliminate the influence of gravity and resistance forces conditions. Thus, to calculate deploy of large transformable structures of various configurations is an important stage of their creation. Simulation provides an opportunity to analyze various schemes of deploy, to reveal their advantages and possible disadvantages. For numerical analysis of deploy of such structures is necessary to use modern software modeling of the dynamics of multi-component of mechanical systems such as EULER and Adams. Simulation of deployment space transformable structures was performed taking as example folding flat antenna contours diameter of 5 m and 20 m, foldable spatial calibration reflector diameter of 3 m, deployable antenna reflector truss-type aperture 3×6 m.The results of the calculations represent following characteristics: the time of adoption of the working position structures; form intermediate positions structures during deployment; dependence of opening angles and angular velocities of the design links on the time. The parameters of these calculations can be used as input in the development of structural elements providing deployment. They can also be used to prepare stands for experimental testing of disclosure designs in ground conditions. It should be noted that the theoretical models are the only way to analyze the deployment of such structures for possible emergency situations.

  8. Character-Defining Features of Contributing Buildings and Structures in the Fort Gordon, Georgia, Signal School Campus Historic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    aluminum and plate- glass doors, sidelights, and transoms [right] (ERDC-CERL, 2015). .................. 178 Figure 243. Ceiling -mounted light fixture...Light pattern” effect on wall The typical Signal School building is of cast-in-place concrete columns with a waffle floor/ ceiling structure. The...would have a significant effect on the character-defining feature of the classroom hall- ways as would installing a dropped ceiling to cover the

  9. Purification of specific structured lipids by distillation: Effects on acyl migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Skands, A.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The cause and effects of acyl migration during the purification of specific structured lipids by distillation were studied in a conventional batch deodorizer with stripping steam. The mixture of specific structured lipids produced by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis between rapeseed oil and capric acid...... influenced the rate of acyl migration, and their combinations made the effect more severe. However, diacylglycerols were found to be the main reason for acyl migration. In the distillation of the specific structured lipid product mixture, distillation temperature and time were the main factors to determine...... the degree of acyl migration and the extent of separation of free fatty acids. The results indicate that more efficient separation technology should be used to improve the quality of the purified structured lipids. in order to reduce the distillation temperature, vacuum should be made as low as possible...

  10. Features of ultrafine-grained structure forming in Zr-1Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanova, Ekaterina N.; Prosolov, Konstantin A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Grabovetskaya, Galina P.; Mishin, Ivan P. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Ultrafine-grained structure forming by the method combined reversible hydrogenation and hot pressing in Zr-1Nb alloy was investigated. Preliminary hydrogenation to concentrations of (0.14–0.4) % at 873 K is found to lead to yield strength decreasing in Zr-1Nb alloy during hot pressing by 1,5–2 times. During uniaxial compression at (70–72) % under isothermal conditions at a temperature of 873 K in Zr-1Nb alloy, hydrogenated to concentration of 0.22 %, homogeneous ultrafine grained structure with an average grain size of 0,4 P m was formed. Key words: zirconium alloy, ultrafine-grained structure, hydrogen.

  11. An Energy efficient application specific integrated circuit for electrocardiogram feature detection and its potential for ambulatory cardiovascular disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhaumik, Basabi

    2016-03-01

    A novel algorithm based on forward search is developed for real-time electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing and implemented in application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for QRS complex related cardiovascular disease diagnosis. The authors have evaluated their algorithm using MIT-BIH database and achieve sensitivity of 99.86% and specificity of 99.93% for QRS complex peak detection. In this Letter, Physionet PTB diagnostic ECG database is used for QRS complex related disease detection. An ASIC for cardiovascular disease detection is fabricated using 130-nm CMOS high-speed process technology. The area of the ASIC is 0.5 mm(2). The power dissipation is 1.73 μW at the operating frequency of 1 kHz with a supply voltage of 0.6 V. The output from the ASIC is fed to their Android application that generates diagnostic report and can be sent to a cardiologist through email. Their ASIC result shows average failed detection rate of 0.16% for six leads data of 290 patients in PTB diagnostic ECG database. They also have implemented a low-leakage version of their ASIC. The ASIC dissipates only 45 pJ with a supply voltage of 0.9 V. Their proposed ASIC is most suitable for energy efficient telemetry cardiovascular disease detection system.

  12. A methodology for Level 2 PSA evaluation with consideration of specific features for Low Power Shutdown Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Gab; Seok, Ho [KEPCO-ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The primary objective of the Level 2 PSA during Lower Power/Shutdown (LPSD) operation is to provide insights into potential plant vulnerabilities with regard to accident progression. The shutdown risk information can be used to provide the information to develop outage risk management guidelines. The LPSD Level 2 analysis utilizes much of the at-power Level 2 analysis for bounding, conservative treatment of severe accident phenomena. But, for some portions of the analysis including Plant Operational States (POSs), LPSD-specific evaluations such as UPC related to the containment Equipment Hatch (E/H) with 4 bolts, Reactor Coolant System (RCS) Not Intact for severe accident phenomena are desired for realistic evaluation. All POSs are evaluated for their Large Release Frequency (LRF). Some POSs are evaluated conservatively utilizing the at-power models, and other POSs are evaluated in specific analysis. The overall LPSD Level 2 model is evaluated. If the containment E/H and one of the two doors on each of the personal air locks are closed as containment is operable at reduced RCS inventory operation, LRF is expected to be less than 10% of LPSD CDF.

  13. Structural features of the Middle Tirso Valley (Central Sardinia - Italy from geoelectrical and gravity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tramacere

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Tirso Valley is located in Central Sardinia and lies between two structural highs, the Marghine-Goceano chain and the Barbagia Paleozoic horst. The geological structures of the area, potentially interesting for its geothermal resources, are rather complex and dominated by two regional faults – the Marghine fault and the Nuoro fault – which affect the Palaeozoic basement and the Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits. Combined modelling of gravity and geoelectrical data defines the shape and extent of this Tertiary basin. The Bouguer anomaly is mainly characterized by a three-dimensional gravity low which has been named «Bolotana-Sedilo gravity low», corresponding to a structure generated by collapses attributable to transcurrent and extensional tectonic events. The down faulted zone is filled with a Tertiary low density volcano-sedimentary sequence extending southwards and overlain by Pliocene-Quaternary basalts. Another regional structure named «Tirso Fault» is proposed

  14. Layout Optimization of Structures with Finite-size Features using Multiresolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellappa, S.; Diaz, A. R.; Bendsøe, Martin P.

    2004-01-01

    A scheme for layout optimization in structures with multiple finite-sized heterogeneities is presented. Multiresolution analysis is used to compute reduced operators (stiffness matrices) representing the elastic behavior of material distributions with heterogeneities of sizes that are comparable...

  15. Crystal chemistry of germanates: Characteristic structural features of Li,Ge-germanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyushin, G.D.; Dem'yanets, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Crystallochemical classification of eleven compounds from the Li-germanate family is suggested. Depending on the set of the primary building units (PBU) (M-octahedra of the composition [GeO 6 ] and T-tetrahedra of the composition [GeO 4 ]) and the type of their 'condensation', these germanates are divided into three crystallochemical groups: framework MT-structures (four phases), condensed MT-structures (two phases), and tetrahedral T-condensed structures (five phases). The structural characteristics of the framework Li,Ge-germanates are considered, i.e., their symmetry, crystallographically independent sets of the primary building units, framework architecture, and the types of chains and layers of the (Ge,O)-radicals

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Rosser, Tena; Paquette, Lisa; Nelson, Marvin D.; Haynes, Robin L.; Painter, Michael J.; Blueml, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rosser, Tena [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haynes, Robin L. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  18. Specific features of phase distribution in a draught part of the tank type boiling water cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedulin, V.N.; Bartolomej, G.G.; Solodkij, V.A.; Shmelev, V.E.

    1984-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a draught part of the VK-50 boiling water cooled reactor are presented. A qualitative physical model of steam-water mixture flow in the large diameter draught part is suggested. It is shown that for hydrodynamically unstable two-phase flows a considerable nonuniformity in steam content distribution over the draught part volume which determines the possibility of the recirculating coolant flow formation in the peripheral zone is observed. At the draught part inlet the radial distribution of steam content is determined by the complex effects of power distribution and coolant flow rate change over the core radius. The flow structure in the lower section of the draught part adjoining to the core is determined to a considerable degree by a coolant jet outflow from fuel assembly (FA) nozzels Jet height depends on the velocity of outgoing two-phase flow, working pressure and hydrodynamics of the draught part. The jet height does not exceed 0.4 m for the K-50 reactor. Due to the increased steam outflow from the central FAs and the existence of radial pressure gradient the water-steam mixture is turned from the draught part periphery to its central part, where accelerated water steam flow with an increased steam content is formed. When a certain height is achieved a graduel expansion of the water-steam flow begins leading to equalizing the steam content over the draught part cross section

  19. BiOCl nanowire with hierarchical structure and its Raman features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ye; Guo Chuanfei; Guo Yanjun; Wang Qi; Liu Qian

    2012-01-01

    BiOCl is a promising V-VI-VII-compound semiconductor with excellent optical and electrical properties, and has great potential applications in photo-catalysis, photoelectric, etc. We successfully synthesize BiOCl nanowire with a hierarchical structure by combining wet etch (top-down) with liquid phase crystal growth (bottom-up) process, opening a novel method to construct ordered bismuth-based nanostructures. The morphology and lattice structures of Bi nanowires, β-Bi 2 O 3 nanowires and BiOCl nanowires with the hierarchical structure are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transition electron microscope (TEM). The formation mechanism of such ordered BiOCl hierarchical structure is considered to mainly originate from the highly preferred growth, which is governed by the lattice match between (1 1 0) facet of BiOCl and (2 2 0) or (0 0 2) facet of β-Bi 2 O 3 . A schematic model is also illustrated to depict the formation process of the ordered BiOCl hierarchical structure. In addition, Raman properties of the BiOCl nanowire with the hierarchical structure are investigated deeply.

  20. Structural studies of Pseudomonas and Chromobacterium ω-aminotransferases provide insights into their differing substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.; Westlake, Aaron; Littlechild, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray structures of two ω-aminotransferases from P. aeruginosa and C. violaceum in complex with an inhibitor offer the first detailed insight into the structural basis of the substrate specificity of these industrially important enzymes. The crystal structures and inhibitor complexes of two industrially important ω-aminotransferase enzymes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum have been determined in order to understand the differences in their substrate specificity. The two enzymes share 30% sequence identity and use the same amino acceptor, pyruvate; however, the Pseudomonas enzyme shows activity towards the amino donor β-alanine, whilst the Chromobacterium enzyme does not. Both enzymes show activity towards S-α-methylbenzylamine (MBA), with the Chromobacterium enzyme having a broader substrate range. The crystal structure of the P. aeruginosa enzyme has been solved in the holo form and with the inhibitor gabaculine bound. The C. violaceum enzyme has been solved in the apo and holo forms and with gabaculine bound. The structures of the holo forms of both enzymes are quite similar. There is little conformational difference observed between the inhibitor complex and the holoenzyme for the P. aeruginosa aminotransferase. In comparison, the crystal structure of the C. violaceum gabaculine complex shows significant structural rearrangements from the structures of both the apo and holo forms of the enzyme. It appears that the different rigidity of the protein scaffold contributes to the substrate specificity observed for the two ω-aminotransferases

  1. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Quantification of Lignin and Its Structural Features in Plant Biomass Using 13C Lignin as Internal Standard for Pyrolysis-GC-SIM-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erven, Gijs; de Visser, Ries; Merkx, Donny W H; Strolenberg, Willem; de Gijsel, Peter; Gruppen, Harry; Kabel, Mirjam A

    2017-10-17

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying plant biomass recalcitrance at the molecular level can only be achieved by accurate analyses of both the content and structural features of the molecules involved. Current quantification of lignin is, however, majorly based on unspecific gravimetric analysis after sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Hence, our research aimed at specific lignin quantification with concurrent characterization of its structural features. Hereto, for the first time, a polymeric 13 C lignin was used as internal standard (IS) for lignin quantification via analytical pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection in selected ion monitoring mode (py-GC-SIM-MS). In addition, relative response factors (RRFs) for the various pyrolysis products obtained were determined and applied. First, 12 C and 13 C lignin were isolated from nonlabeled and uniformly 13 C labeled wheat straw, respectively, and characterized by heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and py-GC/MS. The two lignin isolates were found to have identical structures. Second, 13 C-IS based lignin quantification by py-GC-SIM-MS was validated in reconstituted biomass model systems with known contents of the 12 C lignin analogue and was shown to be extremely accurate (>99.9%, R 2 > 0.999) and precise (RSD corn stover, and sugar cane bagasse), and lignin contents were in good agreement with the total gravimetrically determined lignin contents. Our robust method proves to be a promising alternative for the high-throughput quantification of lignin in milled biomass samples directly and simultaneously provides a direct insight into the structural features of lignin.

  3. THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE COURSE OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND ITS THERAPEUTIC EFFICIENCY IN A PREGNANT WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Pavlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapy in pregnant women with tuberculosis always presents certain difficulties and sets regarding not only the status of the mother, but also that of her baby. Tuberculosis and pregnancy have been mostly recently considered to be incompatible. The presented clinical case provides evidence that therapy can be performed during pregnancy and can yield a good clinical result in the course of a specific process in the mother and in the adequate intrauterine development in the baby. There is a need for adequate combination therapy with regard to the susceptibility of isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the status of the mother and the baby, and the constant patient monitoring by a phthisiatrician and an obstetrician/gynecologist.

  4. Crystal structure of inulosucrase from Lactobacillus: insights into the substrate specificity and product specificity of GH68 fructansucrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijning, Tjaard; Anwar, Munir A; Böger, Markus; Dobruchowska, Justyna M; Leemhuis, Hans; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2011-09-09

    Fructansucrases (FSs) catalyze a transfructosylation reaction with sucrose as substrate to produce fructo-oligosaccharides and fructan polymers that contain either β-2,1 glycosidic linkages (inulin) or β-2,6 linkages (levan). Levan-synthesizing FSs (levansucrases) have been most extensively investigated, while detailed information on inulosucrases is limited. Importantly, the molecular basis of the different product specificities of levansucrases and inulosucrases is poorly understood. We have elucidated the three-dimensional structure of a truncated active bacterial GH68 inulosucrase, InuJ of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 (residues 145-708), in its apo form, with a bound substrate (sucrose), and with a transfructosylation product. The sucrose binding pocket and the sucrose binding mode are virtually identical with those of GH68 levansucrases, confirming that both enzyme types use the same fully conserved structural framework for the binding and cleavage of the donor substrate sucrose in the active site. The binding mode of the first transfructosylation product 1-kestose (Fru-β(2-1)-Fru-α(2-1)-Glc, where Fru=fructose and Glc=glucose) in subsites -1 to +2 shows for the first time how inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharide bind in GH68 FS and how an inulin-type linkage can be formed. Surprisingly, observed interactions with the sugar in subsites +1 and +2 are provided by residues that are also present in levansucrases. The binding mode of 1-kestose and the presence of a more distant sucrose binding site suggest that residues beyond the +2 subsite, in particular residues from the nonconserved 1B-1C loop, determine product linkage type specificity in GH68 FSs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Complete avian malaria parasite genomes reveal features associated with lineage-specific evolution in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas D.; Cotton, James A.; Steinbiss, Sascha; Sanders, Mandy; Oyola, Samuel O.; Nicot, Antoine; Gandon, Sylvain; Patra, Kailash P.; Herd, Colin; Bushell, Ellen; Modrzynska, Katarzyna K.; Billker, Oliver; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Rivero, Ana; Newbold, Chris I.; Berriman, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites are prevalent around the world and infect a wide diversity of bird species. Here, we report the sequencing and analysis of high-quality draft genome sequences for two avian malaria species, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium gallinaceum. We identify 50 genes that are specific to avian malaria, located in an otherwise conserved core of the genome that shares gene synteny with all other sequenced malaria genomes. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the avian malaria species form an outgroup to the mammalian Plasmodium species, and using amino acid divergence between species, we estimate the avian- and mammalian-infective lineages diverged in the order of 10 million years ago. Consistent with their phylogenetic position, we identify orthologs of genes that had previously appeared to be restricted to the clades of parasites containing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the species with the greatest impact on human health. From these orthologs, we explore differential diversifying selection across the genus and show that the avian lineage is remarkable in the extent to which invasion-related genes are evolving. The subtelomeres of the P. relictum and P. gallinaceum genomes contain several novel gene families, including an expanded surf multigene family. We also identify an expansion of reticulocyte binding protein homologs in P. relictum, and within these proteins, we detect distinct regions that are specific to nonhuman primate, humans, rodent, and avian hosts. For the first time in the Plasmodium lineage, we find evidence of transposable elements, including several hundred fragments of LTR-retrotransposons in both species and an apparently complete LTR-retrotransposon in the genome of P. gallinaceum. PMID:29500236

  6. Litho-structural and geophysics features of the Alto Paranaiba Uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Alto Paranaiba Uplift (APU) is an almost elliptical tectonic feature of the Western Minas Gerais/Southern Goias region, which was active mostly during the Cretaceous. It separated the Parana Basin, during the formation of the Sao Bento, Uberaba and Bauru sequences, from the Alto-Sanfranciscana Basin, at the time of formation of the Areado, Patos, Capacete and Urucuia sequences. The Bouguer anomaly data indicate that the APU developed at the southwestern border of the ancient Brasilia crustal block and is represented by an almost elliptical gravity high of 15 mgal, locally disturbed by positive and negative the presence of important lineaments of a NW-SE set, mostly crossing the southwestern half of the APU. The APU development, the magmatism and the lateral basin formation involved reactivation of preexisting discontinuities and are related to a mantle plume. The tectonic development was aborted at the uplift stage during Cretaceous, after the deposition of the Bauru and Urucuia sequences, as is indicated by the Pratinha peneplane, now elevated at about 1.100 m altitude, which sculpture ended at the beginning of the Tertiary. The APU is one tectonic feature like other similar anomalies also aborted in the uplift stage or in the rift stage, which developed in Southern Brazil during the time of Atlantic Ocean opening. (author)

  7. Dynamic and structural features of a case of compulsive neurosis as revealed in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, H L

    Several examples of the manifest dreams reported by a patient with a compulsive neurosis are presented. An outstanding feature of the dreams was the sudden shift of the dreamer's self-representation from the role of criminal to the role of policeman. This shift is thought to parallel the oscillation between unconscious instinctual gratification and conscious attempts at reparation which is the main dynamic feature of the compulsive neurosis in waking life. The shift of orientation of the self reflects the operation of early defense mechanisms against the sadistic impulse. It also portrays graphically an early stage in the internalization process which leads ultimately to the creation of the superego. The repetitive nature of the dreams indicated that the patient had become fixated at this particular point in the course of his psychic development. It is interesting to note that like the Rat Man this patient suffered from a chronically undescended testicle. The real defect in the sexual apparatus in both patients may have been a factor which favored regression of the libido from the genital stage to the anal-sadistic stage.

  8. Molecular features related to HIV integrase inhibition obtained from structure- and ligand-based approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Among several biological targets to treat AIDS, HIV integrase is a promising enzyme that can be employed to develop new anti-HIV agents. The aim of this work is to propose a mechanistic interpretation of HIV-1 integrase inhibition and to rationalize the molecular features related to the binding affinity of studied ligands. A set of 79 HIV-1 integrase inhibitors and its relationship with biological activity are investigated employing 2D and 3D QSAR models, docking analysis and DFT studies. Analyses of docking poses and frontier molecular orbitals revealed important features on the main ligand-receptor interactions. 2D and 3D models presenting good internal consistency, predictive power and stability were obtained in all cases. Significant correlation coefficients (r(2 = 0.908 and q(2= 0.643 for 2D model; r(2= 0.904 and q(2= 0.719 for 3D model were obtained, indicating the potential of these models for untested compounds. The generated holograms and contribution maps revealed important molecular requirements to HIV-1 IN inhibition and several evidences for molecular modifications. The final models along with information resulting from molecular orbitals, 2D contribution and 3D contour maps should be useful in the design of new inhibitors with increased potency and selectivity within the chemical diversity of the data.

  9. Structure-specific selection of earthquake ground motions for the reliable design and assessment of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, E. I.; Sextos, A. G.

    2018-01-01

    A decision support process is presented to accommodate selecting and scaling of earthquake motions as required for the time domain analysis of structures. Code-compatible suites of seismic motions are provided being, at the same time, prequalified through a multi-criterion approach to induce...... was subjected to numerous suites of motions that were highly ranked according to both the proposed approach (δsv–sc) and the conventional one (δconv), that is commonly used for earthquake records selection and scaling. The findings from numerous linear response history analyses reveal the superiority...

  10. Structural Basis for Specific Inhibition of tRNA Synthetase by an ATP Competitive Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pengfei; Han, Hongyan; Wang, Jing; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Guo, Min

    2015-06-18

    Pharmaceutical inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases demand high species and family specificity. The antimalarial ATP-mimetic cladosporin selectively inhibits Plasmodium falciparum LysRS (PfLysRS). How the binding to a universal ATP site achieves the specificity is unknown. Here we report three crystal structures of cladosporin with human LysRS, PfLysRS, and a Pf-like human LysRS mutant. In all three structures, cladosporin occupies the class defining ATP-binding pocket, replacing the adenosine portion of ATP. Three residues holding the methyltetrahydropyran moiety of cladosporin are critical for the specificity of cladosporin against LysRS over other class II tRNA synthetase families. The species-exclusive inhibition of PfLysRS is linked to a structural divergence beyond the active site that mounts a lysine-specific stabilizing response to binding cladosporin. These analyses reveal that inherent divergence of tRNA synthetase structural assembly may allow for highly specific inhibition even through the otherwise universal substrate binding pocket and highlight the potential for structure-driven drug development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  12. A Mosaic of Geothermal and Marine Features Shapes Microbial Community Structure on Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Bendia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Active volcanoes in Antarctica contrast with their predominantly cold surroundings, resulting in environmental conditions capable of selecting for versatile and extremely diverse microbial communities. This is especially true on Deception Island, where geothermal, marine, and polar environments combine to create an extraordinary range of environmental conditions. Our main goal in this study was to understand how microbial community structure is shaped by gradients of temperature, salinity, and geochemistry in polar marine volcanoes. Thereby, we collected surface sediment samples associated with fumaroles and glaciers at two sites on Deception, with temperatures ranging from 0 to 98°C. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to assess the composition and diversity of Bacteria and Archaea. Our results revealed that Deception harbors a combination of taxonomic groups commonly found both in cold and geothermal environments of continental Antarctica, and also groups normally identified at deep and shallow-sea hydrothermal vents, such as hyperthermophilic archaea. We observed a clear separation in microbial community structure across environmental gradients, suggesting that microbial community structure is strongly niche driven on Deception. Bacterial community structure was significantly associated with temperature, pH, salinity, and chemical composition; in contrast, archaeal community structure was strongly associated only with temperature. Our work suggests that Deception represents a peculiar “open-air” laboratory to elucidate central questions regarding molecular adaptability, microbial evolution, and biogeography of extremophiles in polar regions.

  13. Classification of Vessels in Single-Pol COSMO-SkyMed Images Based on Statistical and Structural Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vessel monitoring is one of the most important maritime applications of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data. Because of the dihedral reflections between the vessel hull and sea surface and the trihedral reflections among superstructures, vessels usually have strong backscattering in SAR images. Furthermore, in high-resolution SAR images, detailed information on vessel structures can be observed, allowing for vessel classification in high-resolution SAR images. This paper focuses on the feature analysis of merchant vessels, including bulk carriers, container ships and oil tankers, in 3 m resolution COSMO-SkyMed stripmap HIMAGE mode images and proposes a method for vessel classification. After preprocessing, a feature vector is estimated by calculating the average value of the kernel density estimation, three structural features and the mean backscattering coefficient. Support vector machine (SVM classifier is used for the vessel classification, and the results are compared with traditional methods, such as the K-nearest neighbor algorithm (K-NN and minimum distance classifier (MDC. In situ investigations are conducted during the SAR data acquisition. Corresponding Automatic Identification System (AIS reports are also obtained as ground truth to evaluate the effectiveness of the classifier. The preliminary results show that the combination of the average value of the kernel density estimation and mean backscattering coefficient has good ability for classifying the three types of vessels. When adding the three structural features, the results slightly improve. The result of the SVM classifier is better than that of K-NN and MDC. However, the SVM requires more time, when the parameters of the kernel are estimated.

  14. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Paer

    2010-01-01

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

  15. Identification of Subtype-Specific Prognostic Genes for Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Using an Embedded Feature Selection Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Tian

    Full Text Available The existence of fundamental differences between lung adenocarcinoma (AC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in their underlying mechanisms motivated us to postulate that specific genes might exist relevant to prognosis of each histology subtype. To test on this research hypothesis, we previously proposed a simple Cox-regression model based feature selection algorithm and identified successfully some subtype-specific prognostic genes when applying this method to real-world data. In this article, we continue our effort on identification of subtype-specific prognostic genes for AC and SCC, and propose a novel embedded feature selection method by extending Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR algorithm and minimizing on a corresponding negative partial likelihood function. Using real-world datasets and simulated ones, we show these two proposed methods have comparable performance whereas the new proposal is superior in terms of model parsimony. Our analysis provides some evidence on the existence of such subtype-specific prognostic genes, more investigation is warranted.

  16. [Structural features of the pulp ground substance and its significance for acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarashvili, Capital Ka Cyrillich; Dgebuadze, M; Melikadze, E; Zhvitiashvili, T; Jandieri, K

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the research study is an analysis of amorphous material, fibers and cellular elements of the dental pulp and evaluation of their interactions with a variety of fibrouse structures in the norm and inflammation. To solve this problem used dental pulp tissue bioptats (10 cases) of patients with acute and chronic pulpitis and 10 control specimens (orthodontic operations). The material was studied by histological and electron microscopic methods of research. It was determined that in acute pulpitis develope changes promoting dissociation of fibrouse and cellular structures of pulp components, and thus, loss the cementing binding role of the ground substance. Acute pulpitis characterized by the recruitment of mast cells. ; The reorganization and remodeling of ground substance associated with neoangiogenesis, especially capillaries, and the replacement of collagen fibers by the fibrouse structures are major points in chronic pulpitis.

  17. Structural features and kinetic characterization of alanine racemase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Hu, Tingting; He, Guangzheng; Lu, Deren; Qi, Jianxun; Dou, Yanshu; Long, Wei; He, Xin; Ju, Jiansong; Su, Dan

    2018-02-26

    Alanine racemase (Alr) is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent (PLP) enzyme that catalyzes a reversible racemization between the enantiomers of alanine. d-Alanine is an indispensable constituent in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan, and its inhibition is lethal to prokaryotes, which makes it an attractive target for designing antibacterial drugs. In this study, the molecular structure of alanine racemase from Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 (DadX OF4 ) was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.8 Å. The comparison of DadX OF4 with alanine racemases from other bacteria demonstrated a conserved overall fold. Enzyme kinetics analysis showed that the conserved residues at the substrate entryway and the salt bridge at the dimer interface are critical for enzyme activity. These structural and biochemical findings provide a template for future structure-based drug-development efforts targeting alanine racemases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of solar flares and features of the fine structure of solar radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, G. P.; Fomichev, V. V.; Yan, Y.; Tan, B.; Tan, Ch.; Fu, Q.

    2017-11-01

    The reason for the occurrence of different elements of the fine structure of solar radio bursts in the decimeter and centimeter wavelength ranges has been determined based on all available data from terrestrial and satellite observations. In some phenomena, fast pulsations, a zebra structre, fiber bursts, and spikes have been observed almost simultaneously. Two phenomena have been selected to show that the pulsations of radio emission are caused by particles accelerated in the magnetic reconnection region and that the zebra structure is excited in a source, such as a magnetic trap for fast particles. The complex combination of unusual fiber bursts, zebra structure, and spikes in the phenomenon on December 1, 2004, is associated with a single source, a magnetic island formed after a coronal mass ejection.

  19. TALE-Like Effectors Are an Ancestral Feature of the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex and Converge in DNA Targeting Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schandry, Niklas; de Lange, Orlando; Prior, Philippe; Lahaye, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, a species complex of bacterial plant pathogens divided into four monophyletic phylotypes, causes plant diseases in tropical climates around the world. Some strains exhibit a broad host range on solanaceous hosts, while others are highly host-specific as for example some banana-pathogenic strains. Previous studies showed that transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Ralstonia, termed RipTALs, are capable of activating reporter genes in planta, if these are preceded by a matching effector binding element (EBE). RipTALs target DNA via their central repeat domain (CRD), where one repeat pairs with one DNA-base of the given EBE. The repeat variable diresidue dictates base repeat specificity in a predictable fashion, known as the TALE code. In this work, we analyze RipTALs across all phylotypes of the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. We find that RipTALs are prevalent in phylotypes I and IV but absent from most phylotype III and II strains (10/12, 8/14, 1/24, and 1/5 strains contained a RipTAL, respectively). RipTALs originating from strains of the same phylotype show high levels of sequence similarity (>98%) in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, while RipTALs isolated from different phylotypes show 47-91% sequence similarity in those regions, giving rise to four RipTAL classes. We show that, despite sequence divergence, the base preference for guanine, mediated by the N-terminal region, is conserved across RipTALs of all classes. Using the number and order of repeats found in the CRD, we functionally sub-classify RipTALs, introduce a new simple nomenclature, and predict matching EBEs for all seven distinct RipTALs identified. We experimentally study RipTAL EBEs and uncover that some RipTALs are able to target the EBEs of other RipTALs, referred to as cross-reactivity. In particular, RipTALs from strains with a broad host range on solanaceous hosts cross-react on each other's EBEs. Investigation of sequence divergence between

  20. NOBAI: a web server for character coding of geometrical and statistical features in RNA structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Vegeir; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    The Numeration of Objects in Biology: Alignment Inferences (NOBAI) web server provides a web interface to the applications in the NOBAI software package. This software codes topological and thermodynamic information related to the secondary structure of RNA molecules as multi-state phylogenetic characters, builds character matrices directly in NEXUS format and provides sequence randomization options. The web server is an effective tool that facilitates the search for evolutionary history embedded in the structure of functional RNA molecules. The NOBAI web server is accessible at ‘http://www.manet.uiuc.edu/nobai/nobai.php’. This web site is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. PMID:18448469

  1. Contrasting effects of landscape features on genetic structure in different geographic regions in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Tomkins, Joseph L; Lebas, Natasha R; Kennington, W Jason

    2013-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can have profound effects on the distribution of genetic variation within and between populations. Previously, we showed that in the ornate dragon lizard, Ctenophorus ornatus, lizards residing on outcrops that are separated by cleared agricultural land are significantly more isolated and hold less genetic variation than lizards residing on neighbouring outcrops connected by undisturbed native vegetation. Here, we extend the fine-scale study to examine the pattern of genetic variation and population structure across the species' range. Using a landscape genetics approach, we test whether land clearing for agricultural purposes has affected the population structure of the ornate dragon lizard. We found significant genetic differentiation between outcrop populations (FST  = 0.12), as well as isolation by distance within each geographic region. In support of our previous study, land clearing was associated with higher genetic divergences between outcrops and lower genetic variation within outcrops, but only in the region that had been exposed to intense agriculture for the longest period of time. No other landscape features influenced population structure in any geographic region. These results show that the effects of landscape features can vary across species' ranges and suggest there may be a temporal lag in response to contemporary changes in land use. These findings therefore highlight the need for caution when assessing the impact of contemporary land use practices on genetic variation and population structure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Flow Features and Energy Exchange Physics in Near-Wall Region with Fluid-Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lixiang; Wang, Wenquan; Guo, Yakun

    Large eddy simulation is used to explore flow features and energy exchange physics between turbulent flow and structure vibration in the near-wall region with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The statistical turbulence characteristics in the near-wall region of a vibrating wall, such as the skin frictional coefficient, velocity, pressure, vortices, and the coherent structures have been studied for an aerofoil blade passage of a true three-dimensional hydroturbine. The results show that (i) FSI greatly strengthens the turbulence in the inner region of y+ < 25; and (ii) the energy exchange mechanism between the flow and the vibration depends strongly on the vibration-induced vorticity in the inner region. The structural vibration provokes a frequent action between the low- and high-speed streaks to balance the energy deficit caused by the vibration. The velocity profile in the inner layer near the vibrating wall has a significant distinctness, and the viscosity effect of the fluid in the inner region decreases due to the vibration. The flow features in the inner layer are altered by a suitable wall vibration.

  3. The impact of different emotional states on the memory for what, where and when features of specific events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Totzeck, Christina; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Emotions can modulate the encoding and recollection of personal events. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different emotional states (pleasant, neutral or anxious) on episodic memory formation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. Emotional states were induced by pleasant, neutral or anxiety-inducing movie clips prior to the presentation of specific events in a VR scenario. Episodic memory performance of healthy participants in whom an anxious emotional state had been induced was inferior to those of the neutral and pleasant conditions. In the anxious condition, participants were particularly impaired regarding their memory for the location of events. A correlational analysis indicated that high levels of negative arousal were associated with poor memory for the temporal and spatial context of events. In contrast, high levels of happiness were associated with better memory for the spatial context of events. Our data provide evidence that emotional arousal can modulate memory for what happened, where and when. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Functional and structural analysis of yeast trx system reveals structural elements of substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos Antonio; Discola, Karen Fulan; Alves, Simone Vidigal; Netto, Luis Eduardo Soares; Amorim, Gisele Cardoso; Pinheiro, Anderson Sa; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fabio Ceneviva Lacerda; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Guimaraes, Beatriz Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductases (Trr) are members of the nucleotide pyridine disulfide oxide reductase family, which includes glutathione reductase (Gr), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase F (AhpF) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd). Constituents of this family are homodimeric flavoproteins containing one redoxactive disulfide and one tightly bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per subunit. Trr catalyzes the disulfide reduction of oxidized Thioredoxin (Trx) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) via a FAD molecule and a redox-active cysteine motif. In this context, FAD transfers the reducing equivalents from NADPH molecule to the reactive cysteines and then to the Trx. Trx, Trr and NADPH comprise the Trx system. Trx are low molecular weight proteins (∼12 KDa) which are involved in several thiol-dependent cellular reactions such as synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides, sulphur metabolism, regulation of the gene expression and oxidative stress defenses. Remarkably, Trr - Trx interactions presents high species and organelle specificities. (author)

  5. Structural features of flower trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff EX J. F. Lehm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Haratym

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm. (Orobanchaceae is a representative of plants that are widely used in folk medicine, phytomedicine, and homeopathy. The medicinal raw material derived from the drug eyebright is applied primarily in treatment of ophthalmic diseases. The investigations of trichomes in drug eyebright (Euphrasia stricta D. Wolff ex J. F. Lehm were conducted in 2010–2011. Using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, their location and morphological and anatomical features were identified. Three types of non-glandular trichomes were found: short unicellular, long 1–2 celled, and long 2-celled with wall ornamentation. Additionally, 7 types of glandular trichomes were found; these included: unicellular clavate, 2–3-celled clavate, capitate with a unicellular head and a 3-cel- led stalk, capitate with a unicellular head and a 2-celled stalk, capitate with a 2-celled head, conical papillae, and ribbon-like trichomes with wall thickening.

  6. Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Structural MRI Images Using a Regularized Extreme Learning Machine and PCA Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Lama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive, neurodegenerative brain disorder that attacks neurotransmitters, brain cells, and nerves, affecting brain functions, memory, and behaviors and then finally causing dementia on elderly people. Despite its significance, there is currently no cure for it. However, there are medicines available on prescription that can help delay the progress of the condition. Thus, early diagnosis of AD is essential for patient care and relevant researches. Major challenges in proper diagnosis of AD using existing classification schemes are the availability of a smaller number of training samples and the larger number of possible feature representations. In this paper, we present and compare AD diagnosis approaches using structural magnetic resonance (sMR images to discriminate AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and healthy control (HC subjects using a support vector machine (SVM, an import vector machine (IVM, and a regularized extreme learning machine (RELM. The greedy score-based feature selection technique is employed to select important feature vectors. In addition, a kernel-based discriminative approach is adopted to deal with complex data distributions. We compare the performance of these classifiers for volumetric sMR image data from Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI datasets. Experiments on the ADNI datasets showed that RELM with the feature selection approach can significantly improve classification accuracy of AD from MCI and HC subjects.

  7. Identification of S-glutathionylation sites in species-specific proteins by incorporating five sequence-derived features into the general pseudo-amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Ning, Qiao; Ai, Meiyue; Chai, Haiting; Yang, Guifu

    2016-06-07

    As a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification, S-glutathionylation generates mixed disulfides between glutathione (GSH) and cysteine residues, and plays an important role in regulating protein activity, stability, and redox regulation. To fully understand S-glutathionylation mechanisms, identification of substrates and specific S-Glutathionylated sites is crucial. Experimental identification of S-glutathionylated sites is labor-intensive and time consuming, so establishing an effective computational method is much desirable due to their convenient and fast speed. Therefore, in this study, a new bioinformatics tool named SSGlu (Species-Specific identification of Protein S-glutathionylation Sites) was developed to identify species-specific protein S-glutathionylated sites, utilizing support vector machines that combine multiple sequence-derived features with a two-step feature selection. By 5-fold cross validation, the performance of SSGlu was measured with an AUC of 0.8105 and 0.8041 for Homo sapiens and Mus musculus, respectively. Additionally, SSGlu was compared with the existing methods, and the higher MCC and AUC of SSGlu demonstrated that SSGlu was very promising to predict S-glutathionylated sites. Furthermore, a site-specific analysis showed that S-glutathionylation intimately correlated with the features derived from its surrounding sites. The conclusions derived from this study might help to understand more of the S-glutathionylation mechanism and guide the related experimental validation. For public access, SSGlu is freely accessible at http://59.73.198.144:8080/SSGlu/. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Salient design features of secondary containment structure of Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Design of the secondary containment structure for Narora Atomic Power Project is an improvement over the two earlier structures at of Rajasthan and Kalpakkam wherein Candu-type of reactors are involved. The major improvements envisaged are : to limit the leakage through the double containment envelope to 0.1% of volume of the building per day as against 0.1% per hour achieved for earlier stations; to separate heavy water atmosphere from that of light water for effective heavy water recovery; and better man-rem budgetting by limiting inner containment structure upto boiler room floor level and making boiler room area accessible during normal operation for servicing of light water system equipment. Narora Atomic Power Station is located in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains in seismically active zone IV. Comprehensive soil investigation, including dynamic properties of soil is required to be undertaken as the foundation level of the containment structure is 17 M below the ground level. The salient results of this investigation relevant to the foundations as well as type of foundation proposed are presented in brief. Double containment concept similar to that adopted for Kalpakkam station is provided for this station also. However, necessary changes in design to withstand large earthquake forces are required to be made. These design problems are discussed in brief. (author)

  9. Decomposition of Diffuse Reflectance Images - Features for Monitoring Structure in Turbid Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersen, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering in turbid media can be related to the microstructure of media. Thus, light scattering can potentially be used for process control of products where the structure is a key component. However process control requires robust and sensitive input data to function properly. In this study...

  10. Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, M.S.; Oliveira, M.C.; Wang, Y.; Henry, F.P.; Randolph, M.A.; Park, B. H.; de Boer, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectral domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) imaging of peripheral nerves. Structural and polarization-sensitive OCT imaging of uninjured rat sciatic nerves was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. OCT and its functional extension, PS-OCT,

  11. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, N.T.; Fryganas, C.; Uittenbogaard, G.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH4) production and

  12. Structural features of condensed tannins affect in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUYEN, N. T.; FRYGANAS, C.; UITTENBOGAARD, G.; MUELLER-HARVEY, I.; VERSTEGEN, M. W. A.; HENDRIKS, W. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; PELLIKAAN, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to investigate the effects of condensed tannin (CT) structural properties, i.e. average polymer size (or mean degree of polymerization), percentage of cis flavan-3-ols and percentage of prodelphinidins in CT extracts on methane (CH 4 ) production and fermentation

  13. Prediction of protein structural features by use of artificial neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent

    . There is a huge over-representation of DNA sequences when comparing the amount of experimentally verified proteins with the amount of DNA sequences. The academic and industrial research community therefore has to rely on structure predictions instead of waiting for the time consuming experimentally determined...

  14. Small scale features of sound velocity structure in the northern Arabian sea during February - May 1974

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somayajulu, Y.K.; Rao, L.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    at intermediate depths (200-400 m), influence the sound velocity structure and cause formation of an upper sound channel in the northern Arabian Sea. The Persian Gulf waters spread as tongues at 1 or 2 more levels (up to a limited extent), besides the prominent...

  15. Structural Features of Sibling Dyads and Attitudes toward Sibling Relationships in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Heidi R.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sibling-dyad structural variables (sex composition, age difference, current coresidence, position adjacency, family size, respondent and/or sibling ordinal position) and attitudes toward adult sibling relationships. A sample of 1,053 young adults (M age = 22.1 years) described one sibling using the Lifespan Sibling Relationship…

  16. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...

  17. Porous silicon structures with high surface area/specific pore size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M.A.; Yu, C.M.; Raley, N.F.

    1999-03-16

    Fabrication and use of porous silicon structures to increase surface area of heated reaction chambers, electrophoresis devices, and thermopneumatic sensor-actuators, chemical preconcentrates, and filtering or control flow devices. In particular, such high surface area or specific pore size porous silicon structures will be useful in significantly augmenting the adsorption, vaporization, desorption, condensation and flow of liquids and gases in applications that use such processes on a miniature scale. Examples that will benefit from a high surface area, porous silicon structure include sample preconcentrators that are designed to adsorb and subsequently desorb specific chemical species from a sample background; chemical reaction chambers with enhanced surface reaction rates; and sensor-actuator chamber devices with increased pressure for thermopneumatic actuation of integrated membranes. Examples that benefit from specific pore sized porous silicon are chemical/biological filters and thermally-activated flow devices with active or adjacent surfaces such as electrodes or heaters. 9 figs.

  18. A composite method based on formal grammar and DNA structural features in detecting human polymerase II promoter region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Datta

    Full Text Available An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques.

  19. Research of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine in 2014 with the use of synthetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shelemba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at the ground of expediency of the use of synthetic authorial model for research of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine in 2014 year. Methodological principles of the use of synthetic model are expounded with the use of quality and quantitative methods researches of electoral space, among that methods of factor and cross­correlation analysis. A synthetic model (approach that is built on the basis of the use of the best scientific approaches takes into account features and progress of electoral space of Ukraine trends. The analysis of features and structure of electoral space of Ukraine is conducted in 2014 with the use of an offer model. The application author synthetic model allows the study of the use of association factor and correlation analysis to justify support to political parties during election campaigns, respectively, depending on the factors and the most important correlates. It was found that electoral choice depends on the actions of those factors in the highest degree the expectations of the region. This article has shown that the use of Ukraine at this stage of the investigated during election campaigns as the most significant social correlates of «Human Development Index» is reasonable and one that makes it possible to obtain reliable results. It is proved that a high level of correlation holds at a high level of support the party and, consequently, high sense of social correlates all variants of expert research.

  20. A Composite Method Based on Formal Grammar and DNA Structural Features in Detecting Human Polymerase II Promoter Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2013-01-01

    An important step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the promoter regions where the transcription factor binding takes place. Predicting a promoter region de novo has been a theoretical goal for many researchers for a long time. There exists a number of in silico methods to predict the promoter region de novo but most of these methods are still suffering from various shortcomings, a major one being the selection of appropriate features of promoter region distinguishing them from non-promoters. In this communication, we have proposed a new composite method that predicts promoter sequences based on the interrelationship between structural profiles of DNA and primary sequence elements of the promoter regions. We have shown that a Context Free Grammar (CFG) can formalize the relationships between different primary sequence features and by utilizing the CFG, we demonstrate that an efficient parser can be constructed for extracting these relationships from DNA sequences to distinguish the true promoter sequences from non-promoter sequences. Along with CFG, we have extracted the structural features of the promoter region to improve upon the efficiency of our prediction system. Extensive experiments performed on different datasets reveals that our method is effective in predicting promoter sequences on a genome-wide scale and performs satisfactorily as compared to other promoter prediction techniques. PMID:23437045