Sample records for specific false discovery

  1. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | December 2013. GENERAL | ARTICLE. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing. Soumen Dey and Mohan Delampady. Keywords. False discovery rate, FDR,. pFDR, multiple testing, empiri- cal Bayes, hierarchical Bayes, high-dimensional problems. Soumen Dey is a research scholar at ISI, Bangalore.

  2. False discovery rates: a new deal. (United States)

    Stephens, Matthew


    We introduce a new Empirical Bayes approach for large-scale hypothesis testing, including estimating false discovery rates (FDRs), and effect sizes. This approach has two key differences from existing approaches to FDR analysis. First, it assumes that the distribution of the actual (unobserved) effects is unimodal, with a mode at 0. This "unimodal assumption" (UA), although natural in many contexts, is not usually incorporated into standard FDR analysis, and we demonstrate how incorporating it brings many benefits. Specifically, the UA facilitates efficient and robust computation-estimating the unimodal distribution involves solving a simple convex optimization problem-and enables more accurate inferences provided that it holds. Second, the method takes as its input two numbers for each test (an effect size estimate and corresponding standard error), rather than the one number usually used ($p$ value or $z$ score). When available, using two numbers instead of one helps account for variation in measurement precision across tests. It also facilitates estimation of effects, and unlike standard FDR methods, our approach provides interval estimates (credible regions) for each effect in addition to measures of significance. To provide a bridge between interval estimates and significance measures, we introduce the term "local false sign rate" to refer to the probability of getting the sign of an effect wrong and argue that it is a superior measure of significance than the local FDR because it is both more generally applicable and can be more robustly estimated. Our methods are implemented in an R package ashr available from © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Estimation of the false discovery proportion with unknown dependence. (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu


    Large-scale multiple testing with correlated test statistics arises frequently in many scientific research. Incorporating correlation information in approximating false discovery proportion has attracted increasing attention in recent years. When the covariance matrix of test statistics is known, Fan, Han & Gu (2012) provided an accurate approximation of False Discovery Proportion (FDP) under arbitrary dependence structure and some sparsity assumption. However, the covariance matrix is often unknown in many applications and such dependence information has to be estimated before approximating FDP. The estimation accuracy can greatly affect FDP approximation. In the current paper, we aim to theoretically study the impact of unknown dependence on the testing procedure and establish a general framework such that FDP can be well approximated. The impacts of unknown dependence on approximating FDP are in the following two major aspects: through estimating eigenvalues/eigenvectors and through estimating marginal variances. To address the challenges in these two aspects, we firstly develop general requirements on estimates of eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a good approximation of FDP. We then give conditions on the structures of covariance matrices that satisfy such requirements. Such dependence structures include banded/sparse covariance matrices and (conditional) sparse precision matrices. Within this framework, we also consider a special example to illustrate our method where data are sampled from an approximate factor model, which encompasses most practical situations. We provide a good approximation of FDP via exploiting this specific dependence structure. The results are further generalized to the situation where the multivariate normality assumption is relaxed. Our results are demonstrated by simulation studies and some real data applications.

  4. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso

    KAUST Repository

    Sampson, J. N.


    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, λn, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given λn to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing λn to λn-δ is not associated with the outcome, where δ is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and λn, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select λn so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen.

  5. Controlling false discoveries in genome scans for selection. (United States)

    François, Olivier; Martins, Helena; Caye, Kevin; Schoville, Sean D


    Population differentiation (PD) and ecological association (EA) tests have recently emerged as prominent statistical methods to investigate signatures of local adaptation using population genomic data. Based on statistical models, these genomewide testing procedures have attracted considerable attention as tools to identify loci potentially targeted by natural selection. An important issue with PD and EA tests is that incorrect model specification can generate large numbers of false-positive associations. Spurious association may indeed arise when shared demographic history, patterns of isolation by distance, cryptic relatedness or genetic background are ignored. Recent works on PD and EA tests have widely focused on improvements of test corrections for those confounding effects. Despite significant algorithmic improvements, there is still a number of open questions on how to check that false discoveries are under control and implement test corrections, or how to combine statistical tests from multiple genome scan methods. This tutorial study provides a detailed answer to these questions. It clarifies the relationships between traditional methods based on allele frequency differentiation and EA methods and provides a unified framework for their underlying statistical tests. We demonstrate how techniques developed in the area of genomewide association studies, such as inflation factors and linear mixed models, benefit genome scan methods and provide guidelines for good practice while conducting statistical tests in landscape and population genomic applications. Finally, we highlight how the combination of several well-calibrated statistical tests can increase the power to reject neutrality, improving our ability to infer patterns of local adaptation in large population genomic data sets. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. False discovery rates for rare variants from sequenced data. (United States)

    Capanu, Marinela; Seshan, Venkatraman E


    The detection of rare deleterious variants is the preeminent current technical challenge in statistical genetics. Sorting the deleterious from neutral variants at a disease locus is challenging because of the sparseness of the evidence for each individual variant. Hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model uncertainty are two techniques that have been shown to be promising in pinpointing individual rare variants that may be driving the association. Interpreting the results from these techniques from the perspective of multiple testing is a challenge and the goal of this article is to better understand their false discovery properties. Using simulations, we conclude that accurate false discovery control cannot be achieved in this framework unless the magnitude of the variants' risk is large and the hierarchical characteristics have high accuracy in distinguishing deleterious from neutral variants. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Local false discovery rate estimation using feature reliability in LC/MS metabolomics data. (United States)

    Chong, Elizabeth Y; Huang, Yijian; Wu, Hao; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Uppal, Karan; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Jones, Dean P; Yu, Tianwei


    False discovery rate (FDR) control is an important tool of statistical inference in feature selection. In mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data, features can be measured at different levels of reliability and false features are often detected in untargeted metabolite profiling as chemical and/or bioinformatics noise. The traditional false discovery rate methods treat all features equally, which can cause substantial loss of statistical power to detect differentially expressed features. We propose a reliability index for mass spectrometry-based metabolomics data with repeated measurements, which is quantified using a composite measure. We then present a new method to estimate the local false discovery rate (lfdr) that incorporates feature reliability. In simulations, our proposed method achieved better balance between sensitivity and controlling false discovery, as compared to traditional lfdr estimation. We applied our method to a real metabolomics dataset and were able to detect more differentially expressed metabolites that were biologically meaningful.

  8. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will prototype a specification editing and discovery tool (SPEEDY) for C/C++ that will assist software developers with modular formal verification tasks...

  9. Sample size reassessment for a two-stage design controlling the false discovery rate. (United States)

    Zehetmayer, Sonja; Graf, Alexandra C; Posch, Martin


    Sample size calculations for gene expression microarray and NGS-RNA-Seq experiments are challenging because the overall power depends on unknown quantities as the proportion of true null hypotheses and the distribution of the effect sizes under the alternative. We propose a two-stage design with an adaptive interim analysis where these quantities are estimated from the interim data. The second stage sample size is chosen based on these estimates to achieve a specific overall power. The proposed procedure controls the power in all considered scenarios except for very low first stage sample sizes. The false discovery rate (FDR) is controlled despite of the data dependent choice of sample size. The two-stage design can be a useful tool to determine the sample size of high-dimensional studies if in the planning phase there is high uncertainty regarding the expected effect sizes and variability.

  10. Kerfdr: a semi-parametric kernel-based approach to local false discovery rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Stephane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of current high-throughput genetic, genomic and post-genomic data leads to the simultaneous evaluation of a large number of statistical hypothesis and, at the same time, to the multiple-testing problem. As an alternative to the too conservative Family-Wise Error-Rate (FWER, the False Discovery Rate (FDR has appeared for the last ten years as more appropriate to handle this problem. However one drawback of FDR is related to a given rejection region for the considered statistics, attributing the same value to those that are close to the boundary and those that are not. As a result, the local FDR has been recently proposed to quantify the specific probability for a given null hypothesis to be true. Results In this context we present a semi-parametric approach based on kernel estimators which is applied to different high-throughput biological data such as patterns in DNA sequences, genes expression and genome-wide association studies. Conclusion The proposed method has the practical advantages, over existing approaches, to consider complex heterogeneities in the alternative hypothesis, to take into account prior information (from an expert judgment or previous studies by allowing a semi-supervised mode, and to deal with truncated distributions such as those obtained in Monte-Carlo simulations. This method has been implemented and is available through the R package kerfdr via the CRAN or at

  11. Extracting replicable associations across multiple studies: Empirical Bayes algorithms for controlling the false discovery rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Amar


    Full Text Available In almost every field in genomics, large-scale biomedical datasets are used to report associations. Extracting associations that recur across multiple studies while controlling the false discovery rate is a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a new method to allow joint analysis of multiple studies. Given a set of p-values obtained from each study, the goal is to identify associations that recur in at least k > 1 studies while controlling the false discovery rate. We propose several new algorithms that differ in how the study dependencies are modeled, and compare them and extant methods under various simulated scenarios. The top algorithm, SCREEN (Scalable Cluster-based REplicability ENhancement, is our new algorithm that works in three stages: (1 clustering an estimated correlation network of the studies, (2 learning replicability (e.g., of genes within clusters, and (3 merging the results across the clusters. When we applied SCREEN to two real datasets it greatly outperformed the results obtained via standard meta-analysis. First, on a collection of 29 case-control gene expression cancer studies, we detected a large set of consistently up-regulated genes related to proliferation and cell cycle regulation. These genes are both consistently up-regulated across many cancer studies, and are well connected in known gene networks. Second, on a recent pan-cancer study that examined the expression profiles of patients with and without mutations in the HLA complex, we detected a large active module of up-regulated genes that are both related to immune responses and are well connected in known gene networks. This module covers thrice more genes as compared to the original study at a similar false discovery rate, demonstrating the high power of SCREEN. An implementation of SCREEN is available in the supplement.

  12. Challenges of the information age: the impact of false discovery on pathway identification. (United States)

    Rog, Colin J; Chekuri, Srinivasa C; Edgerton, Mary E


    Pathways with members that have known relevance to a disease are used to support hypotheses generated from analyses of gene expression and proteomic studies. Using cancer as an example, the pitfalls of searching pathways databases as support for genes and proteins that could represent false discoveries are explored. The frequency with which networks could be generated from 100 instances each of randomly selected five and ten genes sets as input to MetaCore, a commercial pathways database, was measured. A PubMed search enumerated cancer-related literature published for any gene in the networks. Using three, two, and one maximum intervening step between input genes to populate the network, networks were generated with frequencies of 97%, 77%, and 7% using ten gene sets and 73%, 27%, and 1% using five gene sets. PubMed reported an average of 4225 cancer-related articles per network gene. This can be attributed to the richly populated pathways databases and the interest in the molecular basis of cancer. As information sources become enriched, they are more likely to generate plausible mechanisms for false discoveries.

  13. Challenges of the information age: the impact of false discovery on pathway identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rog Colin J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathways with members that have known relevance to a disease are used to support hypotheses generated from analyses of gene expression and proteomic studies. Using cancer as an example, the pitfalls of searching pathways databases as support for genes and proteins that could represent false discoveries are explored. Findings The frequency with which networks could be generated from 100 instances each of randomly selected five and ten genes sets as input to MetaCore, a commercial pathways database, was measured. A PubMed search enumerated cancer-related literature published for any gene in the networks. Using three, two, and one maximum intervening step between input genes to populate the network, networks were generated with frequencies of 97%, 77%, and 7% using ten gene sets and 73%, 27%, and 1% using five gene sets. PubMed reported an average of 4225 cancer-related articles per network gene. Discussion This can be attributed to the richly populated pathways databases and the interest in the molecular basis of cancer. As information sources become enriched, they are more likely to generate plausible mechanisms for false discoveries.

  14. Characterization and correction of the false-discovery rates in resting state connectivity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Santosa, Hendrik; Aarabi, Ardalan; Perlman, Susan B.; Huppert, Theodore J.


    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging technique that uses low levels of red to near-infrared light to measure changes in cerebral blood oxygenation. Spontaneous (resting state) functional connectivity (sFC) has become a critical tool for cognitive neuroscience for understanding task-independent neural networks, revealing pertinent details differentiating healthy from disordered brain function, and discovering fluctuations in the synchronization of interacting individuals during hyperscanning paradigms. Two of the main challenges to sFC-NIRS analysis are (i) the slow temporal structure of both systemic physiology and the response of blood vessels, which introduces false spurious correlations, and (ii) motion-related artifacts that result from movement of the fNIRS sensors on the participants' head and can introduce non-normal and heavy-tailed noise structures. In this work, we systematically examine the false-discovery rates of several time- and frequency-domain metrics of functional connectivity for characterizing sFC-NIRS. Specifically, we detail the modifications to the statistical models of these methods needed to avoid high levels of false-discovery related to these two sources of noise in fNIRS. We compare these analysis procedures using both simulated and experimental resting-state fNIRS data. Our proposed robust correlation method has better performance in terms of being more reliable to the noise outliers due to the motion artifacts.

  15. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broberg Per


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  16. An improved procedure for gene selection from microarray experiments using false discovery rate criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Mark CK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of genes usually show differential expressions in a microarray experiment with two types of tissues, and the p-values of a proper statistical test are often used to quantify the significance of these differences. The genes with small p-values are then picked as the genes responsible for the differences in the tissue RNA expressions. One key question is what should be the threshold to consider the p-values small. There is always a trade off between this threshold and the rate of false claims. Recent statistical literature shows that the false discovery rate (FDR criterion is a powerful and reasonable criterion to pick those genes with differential expression. Moreover, the power of detection can be increased by knowing the number of non-differential expression genes. While this number is unknown in practice, there are methods to estimate it from data. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method of estimating this number and use it for the FDR procedure construction. Results A combination of test functions is used to estimate the number of differentially expressed genes. Simulation study shows that the proposed method has a higher power to detect these genes than other existing methods, while still keeping the FDR under control. The improvement can be substantial if the proportion of true differentially expressed genes is large. This procedure has also been tested with good results using a real dataset. Conclusion For a given expected FDR, the method proposed in this paper has better power to pick genes that show differentiation in their expression than two other well known methods.

  17. Improving sensitivity in proteome studies by analysis of false discovery rates for multiple search engines. (United States)

    Jones, Andrew R; Siepen, Jennifer A; Hubbard, Simon J; Paton, Norman W


    LC-MS experiments can generate large quantities of data, for which a variety of database search engines are available to make peptide and protein identifications. Decoy databases are becoming widely used to place statistical confidence in result sets, allowing the false discovery rate (FDR) to be estimated. Different search engines produce different identification sets so employing more than one search engine could result in an increased number of peptides (and proteins) being identified, if an appropriate mechanism for combining data can be defined. We have developed a search engine independent score, based on FDR, which allows peptide identifications from different search engines to be combined, called the FDR Score. The results demonstrate that the observed FDR is significantly different when analysing the set of identifications made by all three search engines, by each pair of search engines or by a single search engine. Our algorithm assigns identifications to groups according to the set of search engines that have made the identification, and re-assigns the score (combined FDR Score). The combined FDR Score can differentiate between correct and incorrect peptide identifications with high accuracy, allowing on average 35% more peptide identifications to be made at a fixed FDR than using a single search engine.

  18. FDR doesn't Tell the Whole Story: Joint Influence of Effect Size and Covariance Structure on the Distribution of the False Discovery Proportions (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James


    As part of a 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report results of simulations that estimated the false discovery rate (FDR) for equally correlated test statistics using a well-known multiple-test procedure. In our study we estimate the distribution of the false discovery proportion (FDP) for the same procedure under a variety of correlation structures among multiple dependent variables in a MANOVA context. Specifically, we study the mean (the FDR), skewness, kurtosis, and percentiles of the FDP distribution in the case of multiple comparisons that give rise to correlated non-central t-statistics when results at several time periods are being compared to baseline. Even if the FDR achieves its nominal value, other aspects of the distribution of the FDP depend on the interaction between signed effect sizes and correlations among variables, proportion of true nulls, and number of dependent variables. We show examples where the mean FDP (the FDR) is 10% as designed, yet there is a surprising probability of having 30% or more false discoveries. Thus, in a real experiment, the proportion of false discoveries could be quite different from the stipulated FDR.

  19. Early detection of pharmacovigilance signals with automated methods based on false discovery rates: a comparative study. (United States)

    Ahmed, Ismaïl; Thiessard, Frantz; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise; Kreft-Jais, Carmen; Bégaud, Bernard; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale


    Improving the detection of drug safety signals has led several pharmacovigilance regulatory agencies to incorporate automated quantitative methods into their spontaneous reporting management systems. The three largest worldwide pharmacovigilance databases are routinely screened by the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of proportional reporting ratio (PRR₀₂.₅), the 2.5% quantile of the Information Component (IC₀₂.₅) or the 5% quantile of the Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS₀₅). More recently, Bayesian and non-Bayesian False Discovery Rate (FDR)-based methods were proposed that address the arbitrariness of thresholds and allow for a built-in estimate of the FDR. These methods were also shown through simulation studies to be interesting alternatives to the currently used methods. The objective of this work was twofold. Based on an extensive retrospective study, we compared PRR₀₂.₅, GPS₀₅ and IC₀₂.₅ with two FDR-based methods derived from the Fisher's exact test and the GPS model (GPS(pH0) [posterior probability of the null hypothesis H₀ calculated from the Gamma Poisson Shrinker model]). Secondly, restricting the analysis to GPS(pH0), we aimed to evaluate the added value of using automated signal detection tools compared with 'traditional' methods, i.e. non-automated surveillance operated by pharmacovigilance experts. The analysis was performed sequentially, i.e. every month, and retrospectively on the whole French pharmacovigilance database over the period 1 January 1996-1 July 2002. Evaluation was based on a list of 243 reference signals (RSs) corresponding to investigations launched by the French Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee (PhVTC) during the same period. The comparison of detection methods was made on the basis of the number of RSs detected as well as the time to detection. Results comparing the five automated quantitative methods were in favour of GPS(pH0) in terms of both number of detections of true signals and

  20. Improved detection of common variants associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Ole A; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J


    are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability...

  1. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform (United States)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.


    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  2. [Effects of specificity of schema on false recall: an analysis from the viewpoint of eyewitness testimony]. (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko; Hirose, Takehiko; Takaoka, Masako


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two levels of specificity of schema on generation of false recall. One level is widely applied to things and is shared by the general public (less specific schema) and the other is specifically applied to individual things (more specific schema). Sixty female undergraduates watched a video. After two days, they were required to recall the contents of the story. Students were divided into two groups according to whether they have the more specific schema or not. In each group, they were assigned to either free recall task or reality monitoring task. The results showed that (1) the amounts of false recall by the group having the less specific schema only decreased by reality monitoring. (2) The group having the more specific schema had no differential effects on false recall for both tasks. (3) The effect of specificity of schema on false recall was not observed for the scene which did not activate the more specific schema. These results were discussed in terms of the levels of specificity of schema and effectiveness of reality monitoring for eyewitness memory.

  3. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany G. Bolling


    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  4. Improved Detection of Common Variants Associated with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder Using Pleiotropy-Informed Conditional False Discovery Rate (United States)

    Andreassen, Ole A.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Schork, Andrew J.; Ripke, Stephan; Mattingsdal, Morten; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rujescu, Dan; Werge, Thomas; Sklar, Pamela; Roddey, J. Cooper; Chen, Chi-Hua; McEvoy, Linda; Desikan, Rahul S.; Djurovic, Srdjan; Dale, Anders M.


    Several lines of evidence suggest that genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have the potential to explain more of the “missing heritability” of common complex phenotypes. However, reliable methods to identify a larger proportion of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that impact disease risk are currently lacking. Here, we use a genetic pleiotropy-informed conditional false discovery rate (FDR) method on GWAS summary statistics data to identify new loci associated with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorders (BD), two highly heritable disorders with significant missing heritability. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest similar disease characteristics and overlapping genes between SCZ and BD. Here, we computed conditional Q–Q curves of data from the Psychiatric Genome Consortium (SCZ; n = 9,379 cases and n = 7,736 controls; BD: n = 6,990 cases and n = 4,820 controls) to show enrichment of SNPs associated with SCZ as a function of association with BD and vice versa with a corresponding reduction in FDR. Applying the conditional FDR method, we identified 58 loci associated with SCZ and 35 loci associated with BD below the conditional FDR level of 0.05. Of these, 14 loci were associated with both SCZ and BD (conjunction FDR). Together, these findings show the feasibility of genetic pleiotropy-informed methods to improve gene discovery in SCZ and BD and indicate overlapping genetic mechanisms between these two disorders. PMID:23637625

  5. Individual differences in susceptibility to false memories: The effect of memory specificity. (United States)

    Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Berry, Donna M; Garner, Sarah R


    Previous research has highlighted the wide individual variability in susceptibility to the false memories produced by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure [Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 803-814]. The current study investigated whether susceptibility to false memories is influenced by individual differences in the specificity of autobiographical memory retrieval. Memory specificity was measured using the Sentence Completion for Events from the Past Test (SCEPT) [Raes, F., Hermans, D., Williams, J. M. G., & Eelen, P. (2007). A sentence completion procedure as an alternative to the Autobiographical Memory Test for assessing overgeneral memory in non-clinical populations. Memory, 15, 495-507]. Memory specificity did not correlate with correct recognition, but a specific retrieval style was positively correlated with levels of false recognition. It is proposed that the contextual details that frequently accompany false memories of nonstudied lures are more accessible in individuals with specific retrieval styles.

  6. Bootstrapping of gene-expression data improves and controls the false discovery rate of differentially expressed genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddard Mike E


    Full Text Available Abstract The ordinary-, penalized-, and bootstrap t-test, least squares and best linear unbiased prediction were compared for their false discovery rates (FDR, i.e. the fraction of falsely discovered genes, which was empirically estimated in a duplicate of the data set. The bootstrap-t-test yielded up to 80% lower FDRs than the alternative statistics, and its FDR was always as good as or better than any of the alternatives. Generally, the predicted FDR from the bootstrapped P-values agreed well with their empirical estimates, except when the number of mRNA samples is smaller than 16. In a cancer data set, the bootstrap-t-test discovered 200 differentially regulated genes at a FDR of 2.6%, and in a knock-out gene expression experiment 10 genes were discovered at a FDR of 3.2%. It is argued that, in the case of microarray data, control of the FDR takes sufficient account of the multiple testing, whilst being less stringent than Bonferoni-type multiple testing corrections. Extensions of the bootstrap simulations to more complicated test-statistics are discussed.

  7. Integrated Proteomic Pipeline Using Multiple Search Engines for a Proteogenomic Study with a Controlled Protein False Discovery Rate. (United States)

    Park, Gun Wook; Hwang, Heeyoun; Kim, Kwang Hoe; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Park, Ji Yeong; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Sung-Kyu Robin; Yates, John R; Kwon, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Young Mok; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Paik, Young-Ki; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin


    In the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP), false-positive identification by peptide spectrum matches (PSMs) after database searches is a major issue for proteogenomic studies using liquid-chromatography and mass-spectrometry-based large proteomic profiling. Here we developed a simple strategy for protein identification, with a controlled false discovery rate (FDR) at the protein level, using an integrated proteomic pipeline (IPP) that consists of four engrailed steps as follows. First, using three different search engines, SEQUEST, MASCOT, and MS-GF+, individual proteomic searches were performed against the neXtProt database. Second, the search results from the PSMs were combined using statistical evaluation tools including DTASelect and Percolator. Third, the peptide search scores were converted into E-scores normalized using an in-house program. Last, ProteinInferencer was used to filter the proteins containing two or more peptides with a controlled FDR of 1.0% at the protein level. Finally, we compared the performance of the IPP to a conventional proteomic pipeline (CPP) for protein identification using a controlled FDR of <1% at the protein level. Using the IPP, a total of 5756 proteins (vs 4453 using the CPP) including 477 alternative splicing variants (vs 182 using the CPP) were identified from human hippocampal tissue. In addition, a total of 10 missing proteins (vs 7 using the CPP) were identified with two or more unique peptides, and their tryptic peptides were validated using MS/MS spectral pattern from a repository database or their corresponding synthetic peptides. This study shows that the IPP effectively improved the identification of proteins, including alternative splicing variants and missing proteins, in human hippocampal tissues for the C-HPP. All RAW files used in this study were deposited in ProteomeXchange (PXD000395).

  8. Sample size calculation while controlling false discovery rate for differential expression analysis with RNA-sequencing experiments. (United States)

    Bi, Ran; Liu, Peng


    RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) experiments have been popularly applied to transcriptome studies in recent years. Such experiments are still relatively costly. As a result, RNA-seq experiments often employ a small number of replicates. Power analysis and sample size calculation are challenging in the context of differential expression analysis with RNA-seq data. One challenge is that there are no closed-form formulae to calculate power for the popularly applied tests for differential expression analysis. In addition, false discovery rate (FDR), instead of family-wise type I error rate, is controlled for the multiple testing error in RNA-seq data analysis. So far, there are very few proposals on sample size calculation for RNA-seq experiments. In this paper, we propose a procedure for sample size calculation while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. Our procedure is based on the weighted linear model analysis facilitated by the voom method which has been shown to have competitive performance in terms of power and FDR control for RNA-seq differential expression analysis. We derive a method that approximates the average power across the differentially expressed genes, and then calculate the sample size to achieve a desired average power while controlling FDR. Simulation results demonstrate that the actual power of several popularly applied tests for differential expression is achieved and is close to the desired power for RNA-seq data with sample size calculated based on our method. Our proposed method provides an efficient algorithm to calculate sample size while controlling FDR for RNA-seq experimental design. We also provide an R package ssizeRNA that implements our proposed method and can be downloaded from the Comprehensive R Archive Network ( ).

  9. Application of false discovery rate control in the assessment of decrease of FDG uptake in early Alzheimer dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hye Jin; Jang, Myung Jin; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Kang Uk; Woo, Jong In; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Sang Soo


    Determining an appropriate thresholding is crucial for PDG PET analysis since strong control of Type I error could fail to find pathological differences between early Alzheimer' disease (AD) patients and healthy normal controls. We compared the SPM results on FDG PET imaging of early AD using uncorrected p-value, random-field based corrected p-value and false discovery rate (FDR) control. Twenty-eight patients (66±7 years old) with early AD and 18 age-matched normal controls (68±6 years old) underwent FDG brain PET. To identify brain regions with hypo-metabolism in group or individual patient compared to normal controls, group images or each patient's image was compared with normal controls using the same fixed p-value of 0.001 on uncorrected thresholding, random-field based corrected thresholding and FDR control. The number of hypo-metabolic voxels was smallest in corrected p-value method, largest in uncorrected p-value method and intermediate in FDG thresholding in group analysis. Three types of result pattern were found. The first was that corrected p-value did yield any voxel positive but FDR gave a few significantly hypometabolic voxels (8/28, 29%). The second was that both corrected p-value and FDR did not yield any positive region but numerous positive voxels were found with the threshold of uncorrected p-values (6/28, 21%). The last was that FDR was detected as many positive voxels as uncorrected p-value method (14/28, 50%). Conclusions FDR control could identify hypo-metabolic areas in group or individual patients with early AD. We recommend FDR control instead of uncorrected or random-field corrected thresholding method to find the areas showing hypometabolism especially in small group or individual analysis of FDG PET

  10. Comparison of seven methods for producing Affymetrix expression scores based on False Discovery Rates in disease profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Stephen B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical step in processing oligonucleotide microarray data is combining the information in multiple probes to produce a single number that best captures the expression level of a RNA transcript. Several systematic studies comparing multiple methods for array processing have used tightly controlled calibration data sets as the basis for comparison. Here we compare performances for seven processing methods using two data sets originally collected for disease profiling studies. An emphasis is placed on understanding sensitivity for detecting differentially expressed genes in terms of two key statistical determinants: test statistic variability for non-differentially expressed genes, and test statistic size for truly differentially expressed genes. Results In the two data sets considered here, up to seven-fold variation across the processing methods was found in the number of genes detected at a given false discovery rate (FDR. The best performing methods called up to 90% of the same genes differentially expressed, had less variable test statistics under randomization, and had a greater number of large test statistics in the experimental data. Poor performance of one method was directly tied to a tendency to produce highly variable test statistic values under randomization. Based on an overall measure of performance, two of the seven methods (Dchip and a trimmed mean approach are superior in the two data sets considered here. Two other methods (MAS5 and GCRMA-EB are inferior, while results for the other three methods are mixed. Conclusions Choice of processing method has a major impact on differential expression analysis of microarray data. Previously reported performance analyses using tightly controlled calibration data sets are not highly consistent with results reported here using data from human tissue samples. Performance of array processing methods in disease profiling and other realistic biological studies should be

  11. Assessment of metabolome annotation quality: a method for evaluating the false discovery rate of elemental composition searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Matsuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In metabolomics researches using mass spectrometry (MS, systematic searching of high-resolution mass data against compound databases is often the first step of metabolite annotation to determine elemental compositions possessing similar theoretical mass numbers. However, incorrect hits derived from errors in mass analyses will be included in the results of elemental composition searches. To assess the quality of peak annotation information, a novel methodology for false discovery rates (FDR evaluation is presented in this study. Based on the FDR analyses, several aspects of an elemental composition search, including setting a threshold, estimating FDR, and the types of elemental composition databases most reliable for searching are discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The FDR can be determined from one measured value (i.e., the hit rate for search queries and four parameters determined by Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that relatively high FDR values (30-50% were obtained when searching time-of-flight (TOF/MS data using the KNApSAcK and KEGG databases. In addition, searches against large all-in-one databases (e.g., PubChem always produced unacceptable results (FDR >70%. The estimated FDRs suggest that the quality of search results can be improved not only by performing more accurate mass analysis but also by modifying the properties of the compound database. A theoretical analysis indicates that FDR could be improved by using compound database with smaller but higher completeness entries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High accuracy mass analysis, such as Fourier transform (FT-MS, is needed for reliable annotation (FDR <10%. In addition, a small, customized compound database is preferable for high-quality annotation of metabolome data.

  12. Discovery of cancer common and specific driver gene sets (United States)


    Abstract Cancer is known as a disease mainly caused by gene alterations. Discovery of mutated driver pathways or gene sets is becoming an important step to understand molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. However, systematically investigating commonalities and specificities of driver gene sets among multiple cancer types is still a great challenge, but this investigation will undoubtedly benefit deciphering cancers and will be helpful for personalized therapy and precision medicine in cancer treatment. In this study, we propose two optimization models to de novo discover common driver gene sets among multiple cancer types (ComMDP) and specific driver gene sets of one certain or multiple cancer types to other cancers (SpeMDP), respectively. We first apply ComMDP and SpeMDP to simulated data to validate their efficiency. Then, we further apply these methods to 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and obtain several biologically meaningful driver pathways. As examples, we construct a common cancer pathway model for BRCA and OV, infer a complex driver pathway model for BRCA carcinogenesis based on common driver gene sets of BRCA with eight cancer types, and investigate specific driver pathways of the liquid cancer lymphoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (LAML) versus other solid cancer types. In these processes more candidate cancer genes are also found. PMID:28168295

  13. Discovery of Macrocyclic Pyrimidines as MerTK-Specific Inhibitors. (United States)

    McIver, Andrew L; Zhang, Weihe; Liu, Qingyang; Jiang, Xinpeng; Stashko, Michael A; Nichols, James; Miley, Michael J; Norris-Drouin, Jacqueline; Machius, Mischa; DeRyckere, Deborah; Wood, Edgar; Graham, Douglas K; Earp, H Shelton; Kireev, Dmitri; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong


    Macrocycles have attracted significant attention in drug discovery recently. In fact, a few de novo designed macrocyclic kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials with good potency and selectivity for their intended target. In this study, we successfully engaged a structure-based drug design approach to discover macrocyclic pyrimidines as potent Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK)-specific inhibitors. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 384-well format was employed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of macrocycles in a cell-based assay assessing tyrosine phosphorylation of MerTK. Through structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, analogue 11 [UNC2541; (S)-7-amino-N-(4-fluorobenzyl)-8-oxo-2,9,16-triaza-1(2,4)-pyrimidinacyclohexadecaphane-1-carboxamide] was identified as a potent and MerTK-specific inhibitor that exhibits sub-micromolar inhibitory activity in the cell-based ELISA. In addition, an X-ray structure of MerTK protein in complex with 11 was resolved to show that these macrocycles bind in the MerTK ATP pocket. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. "Identify-to-reject": a specific strategy to avoid false memories in the DRM paradigm. (United States)

    Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel; Diez, Emiliano; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Ramos, Tânia; Ferreira, Mário B


    Previous research using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has shown that lists of associates in which the critical words were easily identified as the themes of the lists produce lower levels of false memories in adults. In an attempt to analyze whether this effect is due to the application of a specific memory-editing process (the identify-to-reject strategy), two experiments manipulated variables that are likely to disrupt this strategy either at encoding or at retrieval. In Experiment 1, lists were presented at a very fast presentation rate to reduce the possibility of identifying the missing critical word as the theme of the list, and in Experiment 2, participants were pressed to give yes/no recognition answers within a very short time. The results showed that both of these manipulations disrupted the identifiability effect, indicating that the identify-to-reject strategy and theme identifiability play a major role in the rejection of false memories in the DRM paradigm.

  15. Feelings of familiarity and false memory for specific associations resulting from mugshot exposure. (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Earles, Julie L


    This research reveals that mugshot viewing accompanied by questions about an action can cause young adults to associate the pictured person and the queried action, leading to later false recollection of having seen that person perform that action. In contrast, mugshot viewing in older adults can lead to vague feelings of familiarity for the pictured person, encouraging older adults to later falsely recognize the pictured person performing any familiar action. Participants viewed events involving actors performing different actions and then were asked verbal questions about which actor had performed each action, with each question accompanied by mugshots of potential "perpetrators" of the action. In a later recognition test, older adults were more likely to falsely recognize a novel conjunction of a familiar actor and action if they had seen a mugshot of that actor, regardless of whether the mugshot had accompanied a question about that action. In contrast, young adults were more likely to falsely recognize a conjunction event only if it involved an actor whose mugshot had accompanied a question about that particular action. This effect remained when the analysis was limited to trials involving actors whose mugshots had not been previously selected, implicating false recollection rather than commitment effects.

  16. Analyzing False Memories in Children with Associative Lists Specific for Their Age (United States)

    Carneiro, Paula; Albuquerque, Pedro; Fernandez, Angel; Esteves, Francisco


    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N = 320) included…

  17. False-positive findings in mammography screening induces short-term distress - breast cancer-specific concern prevails longer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Pilvikki Absetz, S; van Elderen, T M


    -ups at 2 and 12 months postscreening. At 2 months, there was a moderate multivariate effect of group on distress; and intrusive thinking and worry about breast cancer, in particular, were most frequent amongst the false positives. Intrusive thinking still prevailed at 12 months, in addition to a higher...... findings (n=1407), false-positive findings (n=492) and referents from outside the screening programme (n=1718, age 48-49 years). Distress was measured as illness worry, anxiety, depression, cancer beliefs and early detection behaviour. Measurements were one month before screening invitation with follow...... perceived breast cancer risk and susceptibility. Distress related to screening and false-positive findings seems to be moderate, but prevailing cancer-specific concerns call for improvements in screening programmes....

  18. Improved estimation of the noncentrality parameter distribution from a large number of t-statistics, with applications to false discovery rate estimation in microarray data analysis. (United States)

    Qu, Long; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M


    Given a large number of t-statistics, we consider the problem of approximating the distribution of noncentrality parameters (NCPs) by a continuous density. This problem is closely related to the control of false discovery rates (FDR) in massive hypothesis testing applications, e.g., microarray gene expression analysis. Our methodology is similar to, but improves upon, the existing approach by Ruppert, Nettleton, and Hwang (2007, Biometrics, 63, 483-495). We provide parametric, nonparametric, and semiparametric estimators for the distribution of NCPs, as well as estimates of the FDR and local FDR. In the parametric situation, we assume that the NCPs follow a distribution that leads to an analytically available marginal distribution for the test statistics. In the nonparametric situation, we use convex combinations of basis density functions to estimate the density of the NCPs. A sequential quadratic programming procedure is developed to maximize the penalized likelihood. The smoothing parameter is selected with the approximate network information criterion. A semiparametric estimator is also developed to combine both parametric and nonparametric fits. Simulations show that, under a variety of situations, our density estimates are closer to the underlying truth and our FDR estimates are improved compared with alternative methods. Data-based simulations and the analyses of two microarray datasets are used to evaluate the performance in realistic situations. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Simulating multiplexed SNP discovery rates using base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian


    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are believed to contribute strongly to the genetic variability in living beings, and SNP and mutation discovery are of great interest in today's Life Sciences. A comparatively new method to discover such polymorphisms is based on base-specific cleavage, where resulting cleavage products are analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). One particular advantage of this method is the possibility of multiplexing the biochemical reactions, i.e. examining multiple genomic regions in parallel. Simulations can help estimating the performance of a method for polymorphism discovery, and allow us to evaluate the influence of method parameters on the discovery rate, and also to investigate whether the method is well suited for a certain genomic region. We show how to efficiently conduct such simulations for polymorphism discovery using base-specific cleavage and MS. Simulating multiplexed polymorphism discovery leads us to the problem of uniformly drawing a multiplex. Given a multiset of natural numbers we want to uniformly draw a subset of fixed cardinality so that the elements sum up to some fixed total length. We show how to enumerate multiplex layouts using dynamic programming, which allows us to uniformly draw a multiplex.

  20. Two combinatorial optimization problems for SNP discovery using base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Qiong; Sun, Ruimin; Zhang, Louxin


    The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has important implications in a variety of genetic studies on human diseases and biological functions. One valuable approach proposed for SNP discovery is based on base-specific cleavage and mass spectrometry. However, it is still very challenging to achieve the full potential of this SNP discovery approach. In this study, we formulate two new combinatorial optimization problems. While both problems are aimed at reconstructing the sample sequence that would attain the minimum number of SNPs, they search over different candidate sequence spaces. The first problem, denoted as SNP - MSP, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra have all their signals contained in the measured mass spectra. In contrast, the second problem, denoted as SNP - MSQ, limits its search to sequences whose in silico predicted mass spectra instead contain all the signals of the measured mass spectra. We present an exact dynamic programming algorithm for solving the SNP - MSP problem and also show that the SNP - MSQ problem is NP-hard by a reduction from a restricted variation of the 3-partition problem. We believe that an efficient solution to either problem above could offer a seamless integration of information in four complementary base-specific cleavage reactions, thereby improving the capability of the underlying biotechnology for sensitive and accurate SNP discovery.

  1. "False" cytotoxicity of ions-adsorbing hydroxyapatite - Corrected method of cytotoxicity evaluation for ceramics of high specific surface area. (United States)

    Klimek, Katarzyna; Belcarz, Anna; Pazik, Robert; Sobierajska, Paulina; Han, Tomasz; Wiglusz, Rafal J; Ginalska, Grazyna


    An assessment of biomaterial cytotoxicity is a prerequisite for evaluation of its clinical potential. A material is considered toxic while the cell viability decreases under 70% of the control. However, extracts of certain materials are likely to reduce the cell viability due to the intense ions adsorption from culture medium (e.g. highly bioactive ceramics of high surface area). Thus, the standard ISO 10993-5 procedure is inappropriate for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high specific surface area because biomaterial extract obtained in this method (ions-depleted medium) is not optimal for cell cultures per se. Therefore, a simple test was designed as an alternative to ISO 10993-5 standard for cytotoxicity evaluation of the biomaterials of high surface area and high ions absorption capacity. The method, presented in this paper, included the evaluation of ceramics extract prepared according to corrected procedure. The corrected extract was found not cytotoxic (cell viability above 70%), suggesting that modified method for cytotoxicity evaluation of ions-adsorbing ceramics is more appropriate than ISO 10993-5 standard. For such biomaterials, the term "false" cytotoxicity is more suitable. Moreover, it was noted that NRU assay and microscopic observations should be recommended for cytotoxicity evaluation of ceramics of high surface area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. False Advertising


    Rhodes, Andrew; Wilson, Chris M


    There is widespread evidence that some firms use false advertising to overstate the value of their products. We consider a model in which a policymaker is able to punish such false claims. We characterize an equilibrium where false advertising actively influences rational buyers, and analyze the effects of policy under different welfare objectives. We establish precise conditions where policy optimally permits a positive level of false advertising, and show how these conditions vary intuitive...

  3. False teeth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    diseases (false teeth and millet disease), and history of oc- currence of false teeth or millet disease in a household and on type of health care offered to the patients of false teeth or millet disease. Data management and analysis. The data collected was edited, coded and cleaned before analysis. Statistical packages Epi info ...

  4. Discovery of a microbial transglutaminase enabling highly site-specific labeling of proteins. (United States)

    Steffen, Wojtek; Ko, Fu Chong; Patel, Jigar; Lyamichev, Victor; Albert, Thomas J; Benz, Jörg; Rudolph, Markus G; Bergmann, Frank; Streidl, Thomas; Kratzsch, Peter; Boenitz-Dulat, Mara; Oelschlaegel, Tobias; Schraeml, Michael


    Microbial transglutaminases (MTGs) catalyze the formation of Gln-Lys isopeptide bonds and are widely used for the cross-linking of proteins and peptides in food and biotechnological applications ( e.g. to improve the texture of protein-rich foods or in generating antibody-drug conjugates). Currently used MTGs have low substrate specificity, impeding their biotechnological use as enzymes that do not cross-react with nontarget substrates ( i.e. as bio-orthogonal labeling systems). Here, we report the discovery of an MTG from Kutzneria albida (KalbTG), which exhibited no cross-reactivity with known MTG substrates or commonly used target proteins, such as antibodies. KalbTG was produced in Escherichia coli as soluble and active enzyme in the presence of its natural inhibitor ammonium to prevent potentially toxic cross-linking activity. The crystal structure of KalbTG revealed a conserved core similar to other MTGs but very short surface loops, making it the smallest MTG characterized to date. Ultra-dense peptide array technology involving a pool of 1.4 million unique peptides identified specific recognition motifs for KalbTG in these peptides. We determined that the motifs YRYRQ and RYESK are the best Gln and Lys substrates of KalbTG, respectively. By first reacting a bifunctionalized peptide with the more specific KalbTG and in a second step with the less specific MTG from Streptomyces mobaraensis , a successful bio-orthogonal labeling system was demonstrated. Fusing the KalbTG recognition motif to an antibody allowed for site-specific and ratio-controlled labeling using low label excess. Its site specificity, favorable kinetics, ease of use, and cost-effective production render KalbTG an attractive tool for a broad range of applications, including production of therapeutic antibody-drug conjugates. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. The Goal Specificity Effect on Strategy Use and Instructional Efficiency during Computer-Based Scientific Discovery Learning (United States)

    Kunsting, Josef; Wirth, Joachim; Paas, Fred


    Using a computer-based scientific discovery learning environment on buoyancy in fluids we investigated the "effects of goal specificity" (nonspecific goals vs. specific goals) for two goal types (problem solving goals vs. learning goals) on "strategy use" and "instructional efficiency". Our empirical findings close an important research gap,…

  6. Discovery of Peptidomimetic Antibody-Drug Conjugate Linkers with Enhanced Protease Specificity. (United States)

    Wei, BinQing; Gunzner-Toste, Janet; Yao, Hui; Wang, Tao; Wang, Jing; Xu, Zijin; Chen, Jinhua; Wai, John; Nonomiya, Jim; Tsai, Siao Ping; Chuh, Josefa; Kozak, Katherine R; Liu, Yichin; Yu, Shang-Fan; Lau, Jeff; Li, Guangmin; Phillips, Gail D; Leipold, Doug; Kamath, Amrita; Su, Dian; Xu, Keyang; Eigenbrot, Charles; Steinbacher, Stefan; Ohri, Rachana; Raab, Helga; Staben, Leanna R; Zhao, Guiling; Flygare, John A; Pillow, Thomas H; Verma, Vishal; Masterson, Luke A; Howard, Philip W; Safina, Brian


    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have become an important therapeutic modality for oncology, with three approved by the FDA and over 60 others in clinical trials. Despite the progress, improvements in ADC therapeutic index are desired. Peptide-based ADC linkers that are cleaved by lysosomal proteases have shown sufficient stability in serum and effective payload-release in targeted cells. If the linker can be preferentially hydrolyzed by tumor-specific proteases, safety margin may improve. However, the use of peptide-based linkers limits our ability to modulate protease specificity. Here we report the structure-guided discovery of novel, nonpeptidic ADC linkers. We show that a cyclobutane-1,1-dicarboxamide-containing linker is hydrolyzed predominantly by cathepsin B while the valine-citrulline dipeptide linker is not. ADCs bearing the nonpeptidic linker are as efficacious and stable in vivo as those with the dipeptide linker. Our results strongly support the application of the peptidomimetic linker and present new opportunities for improving the selectivity of ADCs.

  7. Large-scale benchmarking reveals false discoveries and count transformation sensitivity in 16S rRNA gene amplicon data analysis methods used in microbiome studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Jonathan; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Mortensen, Martin Steen


    detection power. For beta-diversity-based sample separation, we show that library size normalization has very little effect and that the distance metric is the most important factor in terms of separation power. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, generalizable to datasets from different sequencing platforms......, demonstrate how the choice of method considerably affects analysis outcome. Here, we give recommendations for tools that exhibit low false positive rates, have good retrieval power across effect sizes and case/control proportions, and have low sparsity bias. Result output from some commonly used methods......BACKGROUND: There is an immense scientific interest in the human microbiome and its effects on human physiology, health, and disease. A common approach for examining bacterial communities is high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions, aggregating sequence-similar amplicons...

  8. Discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen, and some proposals to optimize prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokudome S


    Full Text Available Shinkan Tokudome,1 Ryosuke Ando,2 Yoshiro Koda,3 1Department of Nutritional Epidemiology, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 2Department of Nephro-urology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 3Department of Forensic Medicine and Human Genetics, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Abstract: The discoveries and application of prostate-specific antigen (PSA have been much appreciated because PSA-based screening has saved millions of lives of prostate cancer (PCa patients. Historically speaking, Flocks et al first identified antigenic properties in prostate tissue in 1960. Then, Barnes et al detected immunologic characteristics in prostatic fluid in 1963. Hara et al characterized γ-semino-protein in semen in 1966, and it has been proven to be identical to PSA. Subsequently, Ablin et al independently reported the presence of precipitation antigens in the prostate in 1970. Wang et al purified the PSA in 1979, and Kuriyama et al first applied an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PSA in 1980. However, the positive predictive value with a cutoff figure of 4.0 ng/mL appeared substantially low (~30%. There are overdiagnoses and overtreatments for latent/low-risk PCa. Controversies exist in the PCa mortality-reducing effects of PSA screening between the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC and the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial. For optimizing PCa screening, PSA-related items may require the following: 1 adjustment of the cutoff values according to age, as well as setting limits to age and screening intervals; 2 improving test performance using doubling time, density, and ratio of free: total PSA; and 3 fostering active surveillance for low-risk PCa with monitoring by PSA value. Other items needing consideration may include the following: 1 examinations of cell proliferation and cell cycle markers

  9. In-silico discovery of cancer-specific peptide-HLA complexes for targeted therapy. (United States)

    Dhanik, Ankur; Kirshner, Jessica R; MacDonald, Douglas; Thurston, Gavin; Lin, Hsin C; Murphy, Andrew J; Zhang, Wen


    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) or Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I molecules bind to peptide fragments of proteins degraded inside the cell and display them on the cell surface. We are interested in peptide-HLA complexes involving peptides that are derived from proteins specifically expressed in cancer cells. Such complexes have been shown to provide an effective means of precisely targeting cancer cells by engineered T-cells and antibodies, which would be an improvement over current chemotherapeutic agents that indiscriminately kill proliferating cells. An important concern with the targeting of peptide-HLA complexes is off-target toxicity that could occur due to the presence of complexes similar to the target complex in cells from essential, normal tissues. We developed a novel computational strategy for identifying potential peptide-HLA cancer targets and evaluating the likelihood of off-target toxicity associated with these targets. Our strategy combines sequence-based and structure-based approaches in a unique way to predict potential off-targets. The focus of our work is on the complexes involving the most frequent HLA class I allele HLA-A*02:01. Using our strategy, we predicted the off-target toxicity observed in past clinical trials. We employed it to perform a first-ever comprehensive exploration of the human peptidome to identify cancer-specific targets utilizing gene expression data from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) and GTEx (Gene Tissue Expression), and structural data from PDB (Protein Data Bank). We have thus identified a list of 627 peptide-HLA complexes across various TCGA cancer types. Peptide-HLA complexes identified using our novel strategy could enable discovery of cancer-specific targets for engineered T-cells or antibody based therapy with minimal off-target toxicity.

  10. Applying ADLs to Assess Emerging Industry Specifications for Dynamic Discovery of Ad Hoc Network Services (United States)


    0..1 Contains 1 Contains SERVICE MANAGER discov er Network Context() <<not shr>> Cache Manager Discov ery () <<OPT>> Announce Serv ice Processing...Architectural Layers Approach JINI Entities Service Manager Entity Major Functions Lazy Discovery Directed Discovery Client (s,ra) Aggressive...registered-services SCM SM discovered-SCMs (SU NR SCM): (SU,NR) SCM registered-notifications SCM SU discovered-SCMs • SM is Service Manager • SD is

  11. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    KAUST Repository

    Mithani, Aziz


    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies.We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): \\'HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity\\' (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment.We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics.

  12. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Model for Accelerated Patient- and Disease-specific Drug Discovery


    Gunaseeli, I.; Doss, M.X.; Antzelevitch, C.; Hescheler, J.; Sachinidis, A.


    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great promise for therapy of a number of degenerative diseases such as ischemic heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia and Huntington disease. They also have the potential to accelerate drug discovery in 3 ways. The first involves the delineation of chemical components for efficient reprogramming of patient’s blood cells or cells from biopsies, obviating the need for cellular delivery of re...

  13. False-negative type-specific glycoprotein G antibody responses in STI clinic patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital herpes, The Netherlands. (United States)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S; Roest, Wim; Hansen, Gino; Kwa, David; de Vries, Henry J C


    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-discriminating antibody tests (glycoprotein G (gG) directed) are used to identify naïve persons and differentiate acute infections from recurrences. We studied test characteristics of three commercially available antibody tests in patients with recurrent (established by viral PCR tests) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital herpes episodes. Serum samples (at minimum 3 months after t=0) were examined for the presence of gG-1-specific or gG-2-specific antibodies using the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 Immunoblot IgG, the HerpeSelect 1 and 2 enzyme linked immunoassays IgG and the LIAISON HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG indirect chemiluminescence immunoassays. The immunoblot was HSV-1 positive in 70.6% (95% CI 44.0% to 89.7%), the LIAISON in 88.2% (95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) and the ELISA in 82.4% (95% CI 56.6% to 96.2%) of the 17 patients with a recurrent HSV-1 episode. From 33 patients with a recurrent HSV-2 episode, the immunoblot was HSV-2 positive in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%), the LIAISON in 69.7% (95% CI 51.3% to 84.4%) and the ELISA in 84.8% (95% CI 68.1% to 94.9%). Among 15/17 (88.2%; 95% CI 63.5% to 98.5%) patients with HSV-1 and 30/33 (90.1%; 95% CI 75.7% to 98.1%) patients with HSV-2, HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibodies, respectively, were detected in at least one of the three antibody tests. Commercial type-specific gG HSV-1 or HSV-2 antibody assays were false negative in 12-30% of patients with recurrent HSV-1 or HSV-2 DNA positive genital lesions. The clinical and epidemiological use of type-specific HSV serology can be hampered by false-negative results, especially if based on a single test. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  14. Screening and discovery of lineage-specific mitosomal membrane proteins in Entamoeba histolytica. (United States)

    Santos, Herbert J; Imai, Kenichiro; Hanadate, Yuki; Fukasawa, Yoshinori; Oda, Toshiyuki; Mi-Ichi, Fumika; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic intestinal parasite causing dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses in humans, possesses highly reduced and divergent mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) called mitosomes. This organelle lacks many features associated with canonical aerobic mitochondria and even other MROs such as hydrogenosomes. The Entamoeba mitosome has been found to have a compartmentalized sulfate activation pathway, which was recently implicated to have a role in amebic stage conversion. It also features a unique shuttle system via Tom60, which delivers proteins from the cytosol to the mitosome. In addition, only Entamoeba mitosomes possess a novel subclass of β-barrel outer membrane protein called MBOMP30. With the discoveries of such unique features of mitosomes of Entamoeba, there still remain a number of significant unanswered issues pertaining to this organelle. Particularly, the present understanding of the inner mitosomal membrane of Entamoeba is extremely limited. So far, only a few homologs for transporters of various substrates have been confirmed, while the components of the protein translocation complexes appear to be absent or are yet to be discovered. Employing a similar strategy as in our previous work, we collaborated to screen and discover mitosomal membrane proteins. Using a specialized prediction pipeline, we searched for proteins possessing α-helical transmembrane domains, which are unique to E. histolytica mitosomes. From the prediction algorithm, 25 proteins emerged as candidates, two of which were initially observed to be localized to the mitosomes. Further screening and analysis of the predicted proteins may provide clues to answer key questions on mitosomal evolution, biogenesis, dynamics, and biochemical processes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt


    core network in assigning network address prefixes to gateways in mobile ad-hoc networks. This paper focuses on how CP-nets and the CPN computer tools have been applied in the development of ERDP. A CPN model has been constructed that constitutes a formal executable specification of ERDP. Simulation...

  16. Characterization of binding specificities of bovine leucocyte class I molecules: impacts for rational epitope discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas M.; Rasmussen, Michael; Svitek, Nicholas


    The binding of peptides to classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins is the single most selective step in antigen presentation. However, the peptide-binding specificity of cattle MHC (bovine leucocyte antigen, BoLA) class I (BoLA-I) molecules remains poorly characterized....... Using this strategy, we characterized eight BoLA-I molecules, and found the peptide specificity to resemble that of human MHC-I molecules with primary anchors most often at P2 and P9, and occasional auxiliary P1/P3/P5/P6 anchors. We analyzed nine reported CTL epitopes from Theileria parva, and in eight...... cases, stable and high affinity binding was confirmed. A set of peptides were tested for binding affinity to the eight BoLA proteins and used to refine the predictors of peptide-MHC binding NetMHC and NetMHCpan. The inclusion of BoLA-specific peptide-binding data led to a significant improvement...

  17. Discovery, cloning and characterisation of proline specific prolyl endopeptidase, a gluten degrading thermo-stable enzyme from Sphaerobacter thermophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Vestergaard, Mike; Jessen, Flemming


    was estimated to be 77 kDa by using SDS-PAGE. Enzyme activity assays with a synthetic dipeptide Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide as the substrate revealed that the enzyme had optimal activity at pH 6.6 and was most active from pH 5.0-8.0. The optimum temperature was 63 °C and residual activity after one hour incubation......Gluten free products have emerged during the last decades, as a result of a growing public concern and technological advancements allowing gluten reduction in food products. One approach is to use gluten degrading enzymes, typically at low or ambient temperatures, whereas many food production...... processes occur at elevated temperature. We present in this paper, the discovery, cloning and characterisation of a novel recombinant thermostable gluten degrading enzyme, a proline specific prolyl endoprotease (PEP) from Sphaerobacter thermophiles. The molecular mass of the prolyl endopeptidase...

  18. Validating fragment-based drug discovery for biological RNAs: lead fragments bind and remodel the TPP riboswitch specifically. (United States)

    Warner, Katherine Deigan; Homan, Philip; Weeks, Kevin M; Smith, Alison G; Abell, Chris; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R


    Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitches regulate essential genes in bacteria by changing conformation upon binding intracellular TPP. Previous studies using fragment-based approaches identified small molecule "fragments" that bind this gene-regulatory mRNA domain. Crystallographic studies now show that, despite having micromolar Kds, four different fragments bind the TPP riboswitch site-specifically, occupying the pocket that recognizes the aminopyrimidine of TPP. Unexpectedly, the unoccupied site that would recognize the pyrophosphate of TPP rearranges into a structure distinct from that of the cognate complex. This idiosyncratic fragment-induced conformation, also characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and chemical probing, represents a possible mechanism for adventitious ligand discrimination by the riboswitch, and suggests that off-pathway conformations of RNAs can be targeted for drug development. Our structures, together with previous screening studies, demonstrate the feasibility of fragment-based drug discovery against RNA targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery of temporal and disease association patterns in condition-specific hospital utilization rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian S Haimovich

    Full Text Available Identifying temporal variation in hospitalization rates may provide insights about disease patterns and thereby inform research, policy, and clinical care. However, the majority of medical conditions have not been studied for their potential seasonal variation. The objective of this study was to apply a data-driven approach to characterize temporal variation in condition-specific hospitalizations. Using a dataset of 34 million inpatient discharges gathered from hospitals in New York State from 2008-2011, we grouped all discharges into 263 clinical conditions based on the principal discharge diagnosis using Clinical Classification Software in order to mitigate the limitation that administrative claims data reflect clinical conditions to varying specificity. After applying Seasonal-Trend Decomposition by LOESS, we estimated the periodicity of the seasonal component using spectral analysis and applied harmonic regression to calculate the amplitude and phase of the condition's seasonal utilization pattern. We also introduced four new indices of temporal variation: mean oscillation width, seasonal coefficient, trend coefficient, and linearity of the trend. Finally, K-means clustering was used to group conditions across these four indices to identify common temporal variation patterns. Of all 263 clinical conditions considered, 164 demonstrated statistically significant seasonality. Notably, we identified conditions for which seasonal variation has not been previously described such as ovarian cancer, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Clustering analysis yielded three distinct groups of conditions based on multiple measures of seasonal variation. Our study was limited to New York State and results may not directly apply to other regions with distinct climates and health burden. A substantial proportion of medical conditions, larger than previously described, exhibit seasonal variation in hospital utilization. Moreover, the application of clustering

  20. Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasko, Loren M.; Jakob, Clarissa G.; Edalji, Rohinton P.; Qiu, Wei; Montgomery, Debra; Digiammarino, Enrico L.; Hansen, T. Matt; Risi, Roberto M.; Frey, Robin; Manaves, Vlasios; Shaw, Bailin; Algire, Mikkel; Hessler, Paul; Lam, Lloyd T.; Uziel, Tamar; Faivre, Emily; Ferguson, Debra; Buchanan, Fritz G.; Martin, Ruth L.; Torrent, Maricel; Chiang, Gary G.; Karukurichi, Kannan; Langston, J. William; Weinert, Brian T.; Choudhary, Chunaram; de Vries, Peter; Van Drie, John H.; McElligott, David; Kesicki, Ed; Marmorstein, Ronen; Sun, Chaohong; Cole, Philip A.; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Michaelides, Michael R.; Lai, Albert; Bromberg, Kenneth D. (AbbVie); (UCopenhagen); (Petra Pharma); (UPENN); (JHU); (Van Drie); (Faraday)


    The dynamic and reversible acetylation of proteins, catalysed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), is a major epigenetic regulatory mechanism of gene transcription1 and is associated with multiple diseases. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently approved to treat certain cancers, but progress on the development of drug-like histone actyltransferase inhibitors has lagged behind2. The histone acetyltransferase paralogues p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are key transcriptional co-activators that are essential for a multitude of cellular processes, and have also been implicated in human pathological conditions (including cancer3). Current inhibitors of the p300 and CBP histone acetyltransferase domains, including natural products4, bi-substrate analogues5 and the widely used small molecule C6466,7, lack potency or selectivity. Here, we describe A-485, a potent, selective and drug-like catalytic inhibitor of p300 and CBP. We present a high resolution (1.95 Å) co-crystal structure of a small molecule bound to the catalytic active site of p300 and demonstrate that A-485 competes with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). A-485 selectively inhibited proliferation in lineage-specific tumour types, including several haematological malignancies and androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer. A-485 inhibited the androgen receptor transcriptional program in both androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and inhibited tumour growth in a castration-resistant xenograft model. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using small molecule inhibitors to selectively target the catalytic activity of histone acetyltransferases, which may provide effective treatments for transcriptional activator-driven malignancies and diseases.

  1. Sleep deprivation and false memories. (United States)

    Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M


    Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Data Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Weikum


    Full Text Available Discovery of documents, data sources, facts, and opinions is at the very heart of digital information and knowledge services. Being able to search, discover, compile, and analyse relevant information for a user’s specific tasks is of utmost importance in science (e.g., computational life sciences, digital humanities, etc., business (e.g., market and media analytics, customer relationship management, etc. , and society at large (e.g., consumer information, traffic logistics, health discussions, etc..

  3. Positive consequences of false memories. (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Patel, Megan


    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote associates, some of whose solutions had been primed by false memories created when studying the previous lists. The results showed that regardless of age: (a) survival-related words were not only better recollected but were also more susceptible than neutral words to false memory illusions; and (b) survival-related false memories were better than neutral false memories as primes for problem-solving. These findings are discussed in the context of recent speculation concerning the positive consequences of false memories, and the adaptive nature of reconstructive memory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Cosmic Discovery (United States)

    Harwit, Martin


    In the remarkable opening section of this book, a well-known Cornell astronomer gives precise thumbnail histories of the 43 basic cosmic discoveries - stars, planets, novae, pulsars, comets, gamma-ray bursts, and the like - that form the core of our knowledge of the universe. Many of them, he points out, were made accidentally and outside the mainstream of astronomical research and funding. This observation leads him to speculate on how many more major phenomena there might be and how they might be most effectively sought out in afield now dominated by large instruments and complex investigative modes and observational conditions. The book also examines discovery in terms of its political, financial, and sociological context - the role of new technologies and of industry and the military in revealing new knowledge; and methods of funding, of peer review, and of allotting time on our largest telescopes. It concludes with specific recommendations for organizing astronomy in ways that will best lead to the discovery of the many - at least sixty - phenomena that Harwit estimates are still waiting to be found.

  5. MRM screening/biomarker discovery with linear ion trap MS: a library of human cancer-specific peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xu; Lazar, Iulia M


    The discovery of novel protein biomarkers is essential in the clinical setting to enable early disease diagnosis and increase survivability rates. To facilitate differential expression analysis and biomarker discovery, a variety of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based protein profiling techniques have been developed. For achieving sensitive detection and accurate quantitation, targeted MS screening approaches, such as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), have been implemented. MCF-7 breast cancer protein cellular extracts were analyzed by 2D-strong cation exchange (SCX)/reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) separations interfaced to linear ion trap MS detection. MS data were interpreted with the Sequest-based Bioworks software (Thermo Electron). In-house developed Perl-scripts were used to calculate the spectral counts and the representative fragment ions for each peptide. In this work, we report on the generation of a library of 9,677 peptides (p < 0.001), representing ~1,572 proteins from human breast cancer cells, that can be used for MRM/MS-based biomarker screening studies. For each protein, the library provides the number and sequence of detectable peptides, the charge state, the spectral count, the molecular weight, the parameters that characterize the quality of the tandem mass spectrum (p-value, DeltaM, Xcorr, DeltaCn, Sp, no. of matching a, b, y ions in the spectrum), the retention time, and the top 10 most intense product ions that correspond to a given peptide. Only proteins identified by at least two spectral counts are listed. The experimental distribution of protein frequencies, as a function of molecular weight, closely matched the theoretical distribution of proteins in the human proteome, as provided in the SwissProt database. The amino acid sequence coverage of the identified proteins ranged from 0.04% to 98.3%. The highest-abundance proteins in the cellular extract had a molecular weight (MW)<50,000. Preliminary experiments have

  6. Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate as a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordwell, Stuart; Edwards, Alistair; Liddy, Kiersten


    of 60 min reperfusion following brief, reversible ischemia (15 min; 15I/60R) for comparison with irreversible I/R (60I/60R). Perfusate proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), revealing 26 tissue-specific proteins released during...... reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC–MS) and gel-free (LC–MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified......Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin...

  7. Discovery of markers of exposure specific to bites of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. (United States)

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Gomes, Regis; Collin, Nicolas; Reynoso, David; Jochim, Ryan; Oliveira, Fabiano; Seitz, Amy; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin; Caldas, Arlene; de Souza, Ana Paula; Brodskyn, Cláudia I; de Oliveira, Camila Indiani; Mendonca, Ivete; Costa, Carlos H N; Volf, Petr; Barral, Aldina; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G


    Sand flies deliver Leishmania parasites to a host alongside salivary molecules that affect infection outcomes. Though some proteins are immunogenic and have potential as markers of vector exposure, their identity and vector specificity remain elusive. We screened human, dog, and fox sera from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis to identify potential markers of specific exposure to saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. Human and dog sera were further tested against additional sand fly species. Recombinant proteins of nine transcripts encoding secreted salivary molecules of Lu. longipalpis were produced, purified, and tested for antigenicity and specificity. Use of recombinant proteins corresponding to immunogenic molecules in Lu. longipalpis saliva identified LJM17 and LJM11 as potential markers of exposure. LJM17 was recognized by human, dog, and fox sera; LJM11 by humans and dogs. Notably, LJM17 and LJM11 were specifically recognized by humans exposed to Lu. longipalpis but not by individuals exposed to Lu. intermedia. Salivary recombinant proteins are of value as markers of vector exposure. In humans, LJM17 and LJM11 emerged as potential markers of specific exposure to Lu. longipalpis, the vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in Latin America. In dogs, LJM17, LJM11, LJL13, LJL23, and LJL143 emerged as potential markers of sand fly exposure. Testing these recombinant proteins in large scale studies will validate their usefulness as specific markers of Lu. longipalpis exposure in humans and of sand fly exposure in dogs.

  8. Discovery of cell-type specific DNA motif grammar in cis-regulatory elements using random Forest. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lin, Peijie; Ho, Joshua W K


    It has been observed that many transcription factors (TFs) can bind to different genomic loci depending on the cell type in which a TF is expressed in, even though the individual TF usually binds to the same core motif in different cell types. How a TF can bind to the genome in such a highly cell-type specific manner, is a critical research question. One hypothesis is that a TF requires co-binding of different TFs in different cell types. If this is the case, it may be possible to observe different combinations of TF motifs - a motif grammar - located at the TF binding sites in different cell types. In this study, we develop a bioinformatics method to systematically identify DNA motifs in TF binding sites across multiple cell types based on published ChIP-seq data, and address two questions: (1) can we build a machine learning classifier to predict cell-type specificity based on motif combinations alone, and (2) can we extract meaningful cell-type specific motif grammars from this classifier model. We present a Random Forest (RF) based approach to build a multi-class classifier to predict the cell-type specificity of a TF binding site given its motif content. We applied this RF classifier to two published ChIP-seq datasets of TF (TCF7L2 and MAX) across multiple cell types. Using cross-validation, we show that motif combinations alone are indeed predictive of cell types. Furthermore, we present a rule mining approach to extract the most discriminatory rules in the RF classifier, thus allowing us to discover the underlying cell-type specific motif grammar. Our bioinformatics analysis supports the hypothesis that combinatorial TF motif patterns are cell-type specific.

  9. Bioanalysis for biocatalysis: multiplexed capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry assay for aminotransferase substrate discovery and specificity profiling. (United States)

    Mironov, Gleb G; St-Jacques, Antony D; Mungham, Alexander; Eason, Matthew G; Chica, Roberto A; Berezovski, Maxim V


    In this work, we introduce an entirely automated enzyme assay based on capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry termed MINISEP-MS for multiple interfluent nanoinjections-incubation-separation-enzyme profiling using mass spectrometry. MINISEP-MS requires only nanoliters of reagent solutions and uses the separation capillary as a microreactor, allowing multiple substrates to be assayed simultaneously. The method can be used to rapidly profile the substrate specificity of any enzyme and to measure steady-state kinetics in an automated fashion. We used the MINISEP-MS assay to profile the substrate specificity of three aminotransferases (E. coli aspartate aminotransferase, E. coli branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, and Bacillus sp. YM-1 D-amino acid aminotransferase) for 33 potential amino acid substrates and to measure steady-state kinetics. Using MINISEP-MS, we were able to recapitulate the known substrate specificities and to discover new amino acid substrates for these industrially relevant enzymes. Additionally, we were able to measure the apparent K(M) and k(cat) parameters for amino acid donor substrates of these aminotransferases. Because of its many advantages, the MINISEP-MS assay has the potential of becoming a useful tool for researchers aiming to identify or create novel enzymes for specific biocatalytic applications.

  10. Discovery of Specific Inhibitors for Intestinal E. coli  β-Glucuronidase through In Silico Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Chun Cheng


    Full Text Available Glucuronidation is a major metabolism process of detoxification for carcinogens, 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridy-1-butanone (NNK and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, of reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, intestinal E. coli   β-glucuronidase (eβG has been considered pivotal to colorectal carcinogenesis. Specific inhibition of eβG may prevent reactivating the glucuronide-carcinogen and protect the intestine from ROS-mediated carcinogenesis. In order to develop specific eβG inhibitors, we found that 59 candidate compounds obtained from the initial virtual screening had high inhibition specificity against eβG but not human βG. In particular, we found that compounds 7145 and 4041 with naphthalenylidene-benzenesulfonamide (NYBS are highly effective and selective to inhibit eβG activity. Compound 4041  (IC50=2.8 μM shows a higher inhibiting ability than compound 7145  (IC50=31.6 μM against eβG. Furthermore, the molecular docking analysis indicates that compound 4041 has two hydrophobic contacts to residues L361 and I363 in the bacterial loop, but 7145 has one contact to L361. Only compound 4041 can bind to key residue (E413 at active site of eβG via hydrogen-bonding interactions. These novel NYBS-based eβG specific inhibitors may provide as novel candidate compounds, which specifically inhibit eβG to reduce eβG-based carcinogenesis and intestinal injury.

  11. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  12. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)


    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  13. Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection

    KAUST Repository

    Mastan, Shaik G.


    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Structure versus function-The impact of computational methods on the discovery of specific GPCR-ligands. (United States)

    Bermudez, Marcel; Wolber, Gerhard


    Over the past decades, computational methods have become invaluable for drug design campaigns but also as auxiliary tool for structural biology. The combination of experimental and in silico methods in the field of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is indispensable. Despite recent groundbreaking achievements in GPCR crystallography, structural information for the vast majority of this physiologically important protein class is only accessible through homology models. Since the understanding of the conformational changes resulting in multiple activation pathways is incomplete, the design of specific GPCR modulating drugs remains a major challenge. However, due to the highly interdisciplinary requirements for the investigation of receptor function and the necessity of joining scientist from different fields, computational approaches gain importance in rationalizing and illustrating certain specific effects. In silico methods, such as molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, pharmacophore modeling or docking, proved to be suitable to complement experimental approaches. In this review, we highlight recent examples of in silico studies that were successfully applied in the field of GPCR research. Those approaches follow two main goals: Firstly, structural investigations that help to understand the receptor function and the characterization of ligand binding and secondly the identification of novel GPCR modulators as potential drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The positive consequences of false memories


    Howe, M. L.; Garner, S. R.; Patel, M.


    Previous research is replete with examples of the negative consequences of false memories. In the current research, we provide a different perspective on false memories and their development and demonstrate that false memories can have positive consequences. Specifically, we examined the role false memories play in subsequent problem-solving tasks. Children and adults studied and recalled neutral or survival-relevant lists of associated words. They then solved age-normed compound remote assoc...

  16. Discovery, identification and comparative analysis of non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLtp) family in Solanaceae. (United States)

    Liu, Wanfei; Huang, Dawei; Liu, Kan; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Gao, Gang; Song, Shuhui


    Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLtps) have been reported to be involved in plant defense activity against bacterial and fungal pathogens. In this study, we identified 135 (122 putative and 13 previously identified) Solanaceae nsLtps, which are clustered into 8 different groups. By comparing with Boutrot's nsLtp classification, we classified these eight groups into five types (I, II, IV, IX and X). We compared Solanaceae nsLtps with Arabi-dopsis and Gramineae nsLtps and found that (1) Types I, II and IV are shared by Solanaceae, Gramineae and Arabidopsis; (2) Types III, V, VI and VIII are shared by Gramineae and Arabidopsis but not detected in Solanaceae so far; (3) Type VII is only found in Gramineae whereas type IX is present only in Arabidopsis and Solanaceae; (4) Type X is a new type that accounts for 52.59% Solanaceae nsLtps in our data, and has not been reported in any other plant so far. We further built and compared the three-dimensional structures of the eight groups, and found that the major functional diversification within the nsLtp family could be predated to the monocot/dicot divergence, and many gene duplications and sequence variations had happened in the nsLtp family after the monocot/dicot divergence, especially in Solanaceae. Copyright © 2010 Beijing Genomics Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discovery of platyhelminth-specific α/β-integrin families and evidence for their role in reproduction in Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Beckmann

    Full Text Available In all metazoa, the response of cells to molecular stimuli from their environment represents a fundamental principle of regulatory processes controlling cell growth and differentiation. Among the membrane-linked receptors mediating extracellular communication processes are integrin receptors. Besides managing adhesion to the extracellular matrix or to other cells, they arrange information flow into the cells by activating intracellular signaling pathways often acting synergistically through cooperation with growth factor receptors. Although a wealth of information exists on integrins in different model organisms, there is a big gap of knowledge for platyhelminths. Here we report on the in silico detection and reconstruction of α and β integrins from free-living and parasitic platyhelminths, which according to structural and phylogenetic analyses form specific clades separate from each other and from further metazoan integrins. As representative orthologs of parasitic platyhelminths we have cloned one beta-integrin (Smβ-Int1 and four alpha-integrins (Smα-Int1 - Smα-Int4 from Schistosoma mansoni; they were characterized by molecular and biochemical analyses. Evidence is provided that Smβ-Int1 interacts and co-localizes in the reproductive organs with known schistosome cellular tyrosine kinases (CTKs, of which the Syk kinase SmTK4 appeared to be the strongest interaction partner as shown by yeast two-hybrid analyses and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. By a novel RNAi approach with adult schistosomes in vitro we demonstrate for the first time multinucleated oocytes in treated females, indicating a decisive role Smβ-Int1 during oogenesis as phenotypically analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. Our findings provide a first comprehensive overview about platyhelminth integrins, of which the parasite group exhibits unique features allowing a clear distinction from the free-living groups. Furthermore, we shed first lights on the

  18. Insect-Specific Flaviviruses: A Systematic Review of Their Discovery, Host Range, Mode of Transmission, Superinfection Exclusion Potential and Genomic Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Blitvich


    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs discovered in the last decade. Historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. This viewpoint has changed in recent years because some ISFs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. Additionally, comparative studies between ISFs and medically important flaviviruses can provide a unique perspective as to why some flaviviruses possess the ability to infect and cause devastating disease in humans while others do not. ISFs have been isolated exclusively from mosquitoes in nature but the detection of ISF-like sequences in sandflies and chironomids indicates that they may also infect other dipterans. ISFs can be divided into two distinct phylogenetic groups. The first group currently consists of approximately 12 viruses and includes cell fusing agent virus, Kamiti River virus and Culex flavivirus. These viruses are phylogenetically distinct from all other known flaviviruses. The second group, which is apparently not monophyletic, currently consists of nine viruses and includes Chaoyang virus, Nounané virus and Lammi virus. These viruses phylogenetically affiliate with mosquito/vertebrate flaviviruses despite their apparent insect-restricted phenotype. This article provides a review of the discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion ability and genomic organization of ISFs. This article also attempts to clarify the ISF nomenclature because some of these viruses have been assigned more than one name due to their simultaneous discoveries by independent research groups.

  19. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick


    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well as the...

  20. X chromosome-linked CNVs in male infertility: discovery of overall duplication load and recurrent, patient-specific gains with potential clinical relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Chianese

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving several thousand genes, only a minority of which have been studied in infertile men. In a previous study, we identified a number of Copy Number Variants (CNVs by high-resolution array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH analysis of the X chromosome, including 16 patient-specific X chromosome-linked gains. Of these, five gains (DUP1A, DUP5, DUP20, DUP26 and DUP40 were selected for further analysis to evaluate their clinical significance.The copy number state of the five selected loci was analyzed by quantitative-PCR on a total of 276 idiopathic infertile patients and 327 controls in a conventional case-control setting (199 subjects belonged to the previous a-CGH study. For one interesting locus (intersecting DUP1A additional 338 subjects were analyzed.All gains were confirmed as patient-specific and the difference in duplication load between patients and controls is significant (p = 1.65 × 10(-4. Two of the CNVs are private variants, whereas 3 are found recurrently in patients and none of the controls. These CNVs include, or are in close proximity to, genes with testis-specific expression. DUP1A, mapping to the PAR1, is found at the highest frequency (1.4% that was significantly different from controls (0% (p = 0.047 after Bonferroni correction. Two mechanisms are proposed by which DUP1A may cause spermatogenic failure: i by affecting the correct regulation of a gene with potential role in spermatogenesis; ii by disturbing recombination between PAR1 regions during meiosis. This study allowed the identification of novel spermatogenesis candidate genes linked to the 5 CNVs and the discovery of the first recurrent, X-linked gain with potential clinical relevance.

  1. 12 CFR 308.107 - Document discovery. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document discovery. 308.107 Section 308.107... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Rules of Procedure § 308.107 Document discovery. (a) Parties to proceedings... only through the production of documents. No other form of discovery shall be allowed. (b) Any...

  2. 34 CFR 81.16 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 81.16 Section 81.16 Education Office of the... voluntarily. (b) The ALJ, at a party's request, may order compulsory discovery described in paragraph (c) of... respect to an issue in the case; (3) The discovery request was not made primarily for the purposes of...

  3. Importing perceived features into false memories. (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Johnson, Marcia K


    False memories sometimes contain specific details, such as location or colour, about events that never occurred. Based on the source-monitoring framework, we investigated one process by which false memories acquire details: the reactivation and misattribution of feature information from memories of similar perceived events. In Experiments 1A and 1B, when imagined objects were falsely remembered as seen, participants often reported that the objects had appeared in locations where visually or conceptually similar objects, respectively, had actually appeared. Experiment 2 indicated that colour and shape features of seen objects were misattributed to false memories of imagined objects. Experiment 3 showed that perceived details were misattributed to false memories of objects that had not been explicitly imagined. False memories that imported perceived features, compared to those that presumably did not, were subjectively more like memories for perceived events. Thus, perception may be even more pernicious than imagination in contributing to false memories.

  4. New false color mapping for image fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Walraven, J.


    A pixel based colour mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false colour rendering of two gray level images representing different sensor modalities. The result-ing fused false colour images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific

  5. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule (United States)

    Boman, Eugene


    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  6. False memories for aggressive acts. (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T


    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar


    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  8. Evaluation of risk factors for false-negative results with an antigen-specific peripheral blood-based quantitative T cell assay (T-SPOT®. TB) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: A large-scale retrospective study in China. (United States)

    Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shaojun; Yao, Lan; Fan, Lin


    Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT ® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Results This study analysed 4964 consecutive patients; 2425 with active TB and 2539 with non-TB respiratory diseases. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the following five factors that were all associated with an increased false-negative rate with the T-SPOT ® . TB assay: increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.013, 1.024); decreased CD8+ count (OR 0.307; 95% CI 0.117, 0.803); negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear staining (OR 1.821; 95% CI 1.338, 2.477); negative mycobacterial cultures (OR 1.379; 95% CI 1.043, 1.824); and absence of EPTB (OR 1.291; 95% CI 1.026, 1.623). Conclusions Increased age, decreased CD8+ count, negative sputum AFB smear results, negative sputum mycobacterial cultures and absence of EPTB might lead to an increased false-negative rate when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay.

  9. Reduced False Memory after Sleep (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.


    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  10. Sex-specific associations between particulate matter exposure and gene expression in independent discovery and validation cohorts of middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria


    Background: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Methods: Microarray analyses were performed in ...... of adults from the same area. Confirmation in other populations may further support this as a new approach for exposure assessment, and may contribute to the discovery of molecular mechanisms for PM-induced health effects....

  11. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks (United States)

    Shang, Yilun


    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  12. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia


    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  13. 15 CFR 785.8 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 785.8 Section 785.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785.8 Discovery...

  14. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 10.71 Section 10.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE... seeking the discovery through another source. (e) Failure to comply. Where a party fails to comply with an...

  15. 42 CFR 3.516 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 3.516 Section 3.516 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.516 Discovery. (a) A party may make a request...

  16. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  17. 12 CFR 908.46 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 908.46 Section 908.46 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS RULES OF... Congress, or the principles of common law. (e) Time limits. All discovery, including all responses to...

  18. True photographs and false memories. (United States)

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne


    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  19. False air-bone gap. (United States)

    Rudmin, F


    A single case is reported of a severely hearing-impaired child with a finding of a large air-bone gap on pure-tone audiometry on multiple tests. Exploratory surgery found normal middle ear function. Subsequent audiometry indicated the presence of a false air-bone gap resulting from vibrotactile responses. Test procedures for identifying vibrotactile responses are discussed.

  20. Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession (United States)

    Bering, Jesse M.; Shackelford, Todd K.


    This paper presents comments on Kassin's review, (see record 2005-03019-002) of the psychology of false confessions. The authors note that Kassin's review makes a compelling argument for the need for legal reform in police interrogation practices. Because his work strikes at the heart of the American criminal justice system--its fairness--the…

  1. False set in aireated cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.


    Full Text Available The influence of aireation on the appearance or elimination of the false setting in industrial portland cements is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy.

    Se estudia por medio de la espectroscopia infrarroja la influencia de la aireación sobre la aparición o eliminación del fraguado, en cemento portland industriales.

  2. Sleep loss produces false memories. (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich


    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  3. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Diekelmann

    Full Text Available People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",..., lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black". Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

  4. False Windows - Yesterday and Today (United States)

    Niewitecki, Stefan


    The article is concerned with a very interesting aspect of architectural design, namely, a contradiction between the building functions and the necessity of giving the building a desired external appearance. One of the possibilities of reconciling this contradiction is using pseudo windows that are visible on the elevation and generally have the form of a black painted recess accompanied by frames and sashes and often single glazing. Of course, there are no windows or openings in the corresponding places in the walls inside the building. The article discusses the differences between false windows and blind widows (German: blende), also known as blank windows, which, in fact, are shallow recesses in the wall having the external appearance of an arcade or a window and which had already been used in Gothic architecture mostly for aesthetic reasons and sometimes to reduce the load of the wall. Moreover, the article describes various false windows that appeared later than blind windows because they did not appear until the 17th century. Contemporary false windows are also discussed and it is shown that contrary to the common belief they are widely used. In his research, the author not only used the Internet data but also carried out his own in situ exploration. The false windows constitute very interesting albeit rare elements of the architectural design of buildings. They have been used successfully for a few hundred years. It might seem that they should have been discarded by now but this has not happened. Quite contrary, since the second half of the 20th century there has been a rapid development of glass curtain walls that serve a similar function in contemporary buildings as the false windows once did, only in a more extensive way.

  5. Reducing false asystole alarms in intensive care. (United States)

    Dekimpe, Remi; Heldt, Thomas


    High rates of false monitoring alarms in intensive care can desensitize staff and therefore pose a significant risk to patient safety. Like other critical arrhythmia alarms, asystole alarms require immediate attention by the care providers as a true asystole event can be acutely life threatening. Here, it is illustrated that most false asystole alarms can be attributed to poor signal quality, and we propose and evaluate an algorithm to identify data windows of poor signal quality and thereby help suppress false asystole alarms. The algorithm combines intuitive signal-quality features (degree of signal saturation and baseline wander) and information from other physiological signals that might be available. Algorithm training and testing was performed on the MIMIC II and 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge databases, respectively. The algorithm achieved an alarm specificity of 81.0% and sensitivity of 95.4%, missing only one out of 22 true asystole alarms. On a separate neonatal data set, the algorithm was able to reject 89.7% (890 out of 992) of false asystole alarms while keeping all 22 true events. The results show that the false asystole alarm rate can be significantly reduced through basic signal quality evaluation.

  6. Sleep loss produces false memories


    Diekelmann, S; Landolt, H P; Lahl, O; Born, J; Wagner, U


    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representa...

  7. Does sleep promote false memories? (United States)

    Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne


    Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories.

  8. Revisiting the False Confession Problem. (United States)

    Alvarez-Toro, Viviana; Lopez-Morales, Cesar A


    Despite the existence of important safeguards in our criminal legal system, innocent suspects often succumb to forceful and deceptive interrogation techniques. Among those over-represented members of the false confessor population are minors, people with cognitive and intellectual disabilities, and those with psychiatric disorders. Some of the confessions made by these at-risk populations can hardly be considered voluntary or reliable, but they are generally admitted at trial, regardless of their prejudicial effect. Forensic psychiatrists should become more involved in the overall process of evaluating confessions, not only testifying in courts, but also assisting policymakers in reforming the interrogation process and influencing the legal process. Thus, forensic psychiatrists may give their expert opinion by providing proper training to police interrogators and examining videotaped interrogations. In addition, forensic experts can be instrumental in contributing to three legal solutions that we propose to the false confession problem: a constitutional approach, an evidence law approach, and a jury instruction approach. Each of these approaches requires forensic psychiatrists to help judges and jurors understand the coercive nature of the interrogation process and its effect on suspects' behavior. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  9. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.


    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  10. Too Good to be False: Nonsignificant Results Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris H. J. Hartgerink


    Full Text Available Due to its probabilistic nature, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST is subject to decision errors. The concern for false positives has overshadowed the concern for false negatives in the recent debates in psychology. This might be unwarranted, since reported statistically nonsignificant findings may just be ‘too good to be false’. We examined evidence for false negatives in nonsignificant results in three different ways. We adapted the Fisher test to detect the presence of at least one false negative in a set of statistically nonsignificant results. Simulations show that the adapted Fisher method generally is a powerful method to detect false negatives. We examined evidence for false negatives in the psychology literature in three applications of the adapted Fisher method. These applications indicate that (i the observed effect size distribution of nonsignificant effects exceeds the expected distribution assuming a null-effect, and approximately two out of three (66.7% psychology articles reporting nonsignificant results contain evidence for at least one false negative, (ii nonsignificant results on gender effects contain evidence of true nonzero effects, and (iii the statistically nonsignificant replications from the Reproducibility Project Psychology (RPP do not warrant strong conclusions about the absence or presence of true zero effects underlying these nonsignificant results. We conclude that false negatives deserve more attention in the current debate on statistical practices in psychology. Potentially neglecting effects due to a lack of statistical power can lead to a waste of research resources and stifle the scientific discovery process.

  11. Discovery and characterization of a highly efficient enantioselective mandelonitrile hydrolase from Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 by phylogeny-based enzymatic substrate specificity prediction (United States)


    Background A nitrilase-mediated pathway has significant advantages in the production of optically pure (R)-(−)-mandelic acid. However, unwanted byproduct, low enantioselectivity, and specific activity reduce its value in practical applications. An ideal nitrilase that can efficiently hydrolyze mandelonitrile to optically pure (R)-(−)-mandelic acid without the unwanted byproduct is needed. Results A novel nitrilase (BCJ2315) was discovered from Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 through phylogeny-based enzymatic substrate specificity prediction (PESSP). This nitrilase is a mandelonitrile hydrolase that could efficiently hydrolyze mandelonitrile to (R)-(−)-mandelic acid, with a high enantiomeric excess of 98.4%. No byproduct was observed in this hydrolysis process. BCJ2315 showed the highest identity of 71% compared with other nitrilases in the amino acid sequence. BCJ2315 possessed the highest activity toward mandelonitrile and took mandelonitrile as the optimal substrate based on the analysis of substrate specificity. The kinetic parameters Vmax, Km, Kcat, and Kcat/Km toward mandelonitrile were 45.4 μmol/min/mg, 0.14 mM, 15.4 s-1, and 1.1×105 M-1s-1, respectively. The recombinant Escherichia coli M15/BCJ2315 had a strong substrate tolerance and could completely hydrolyze mandelonitrile (100 mM) with fewer amounts of wet cells (10 mg/ml) within 1 h. Conclusions PESSP is an efficient method for discovering an ideal mandelonitrile hydrolase. BCJ2315 has high affinity and catalytic efficiency toward mandelonitrile. This nitrilase has great advantages in the production of optically pure (R)-(−)-mandelic acid because of its high activity and enantioselectivity, strong substrate tolerance, and having no unwanted byproduct. Thus, BCJ2315 has great potential in the practical production of optically pure (R)-(−)-mandelic acid in the industry. PMID:23414071

  12. Identification of rat lung-specific microRNAs by microRNA microarray: valuable discoveries for the facilitation of lung research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintagari Narendranath


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important mechanism for gene regulation utilizes small non-coding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs. These small RNAs play important roles in tissue development, cell differentiation and proliferation, lipid and fat metabolism, stem cells, exocytosis, diseases and cancers. To date, relatively little is known about functions of miRNAs in the lung except lung cancer. Results In this study, we utilized a rat miRNA microarray containing 216 miRNA probes, printed in-house, to detect the expression of miRNAs in the rat lung compared to the rat heart, brain, liver, kidney and spleen. Statistical analysis using Significant Analysis of Microarray (SAM and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference (HSD revealed 2 miRNAs (miR-195 and miR-200c expressed specifically in the lung and 9 miRNAs co-expressed in the lung and another organ. 12 selected miRNAs were verified by Northern blot analysis. Conclusion The identified lung-specific miRNAs from this work will facilitate functional studies of miRNAs during normal physiological and pathophysiological processes of the lung.

  13. False memories in Lewy-body disease. (United States)

    Algarabel, Salvador; Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Escudero, Joaquín


    Recently, de Boysson, Belleville, Phillips et al. (2011) found that patients with Lewy-body disease (LBD) showed significantly lower rates of false memories than healthy controls, using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) experimental procedure. Given that this result could be explained by the practically null rate of true recognition in the LBD group (0.09), we decided to replicate the study by de Boysson et al. (2011), but including a new condition that would maximize the true recognition rate (and analyze its effect on the rate of false memories). Specifically, in a DRM experiment, we manipulated (within subjects) two study and recognition conditions: in the "immediate" condition, both the LBD patients and the control group of healthy older people received a different recognition test after each study list (containing twelve words associated with a non-presented critical word), while in the "delayed" condition (similar to the one in de Boysson et al., 2011), the participants received the entire series of study lists and then took only one recognition test. The results showed that, in both samples, the "immediate" condition produced higher corrected rates of both true and false recognition than the "delayed" condition, although they were both lower in the LBD patients, which shows that these patients are capable of encoding and recognizing the general similitude underlying information (gist memory) in the right conditions. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. White Rock in False Color (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington

  15. False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Im, Jung Gi


    Fluorodeoxygucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign form malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan, Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases

  16. The discovery of how gender influences age immunological mechanisms in health and disease, and the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and ultimately improve therapeutic success rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghella Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract The control of human health and diseases in the elderly population is becoming a challenge, since mean age and life expectation are progressively increasing as well as chronic degenerative diseases. These disorders are of complex diagnosis and they are difficult to be treated, but it is hoped that the predictive medicine will lead to more specific and effective treatment by using specific markers to identify persons with high risk of developing disease, before the clinical manifestation. Peripheral blood targets and biomarkers are currently the most practical, non-invasive means of disease diagnosing, predicting prognosis and therapeutic response. Human longevity is directly correlated with the optimal functioning of the immune system. Recent findings indicate that the sexual dimorphism of T helper (Th cytokine pathways and the regulation of Th cell network homeostasis are normally present in the immune response and undergoes to adverse changes with ageing. Furthermore, immune senescence affects both men and women, but it does not affect them equally. Therefore, we hypothesize that the comprehension of the interferences between these gender specific pathways, the ageing immunological mechanism in pathological or healthy state and the current therapies, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and eventually improve the therapeutic success rates. Reaching this aim requires the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers that could easily reveal the above mentioned correlations.

  17. Label-free drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye eFang


    Full Text Available Current drug discovery is dominated by label-dependent molecular approaches, which screen drugs in the context of a predefined and target-based hypothesis in vitro. Given that target-based discovery has not transformed the industry, phenotypic screen that identifies drugs based on a specific phenotype of cells, tissues, or animals has gained renewed interest. However, owing to the intrinsic complexity in drug-target interactions, there is often a significant gap between the phenotype screened and the ultimate molecular mechanism of action sought. This paper presents a label-free strategy for early drug discovery. This strategy combines label-free cell phenotypic profiling with computational approaches, and holds promise to bridge the gap by offering a kinetic and holistic representation of the functional consequences of drugs in disease relevant cells that is amenable to mechanistic deconvolution.

  18. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert


    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 19 CFR 111.32 - False information. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False information. 111.32 Section 111.32 Customs... CUSTOMS BROKERS Duties and Responsibilities of Customs Brokers § 111.32 False information. A broker must... procure the giving of, any false or misleading information or testimony in any matter pending before the...

  20. Advancements in Aptamer Discovery Technologies. (United States)

    Gotrik, Michael R; Feagin, Trevor A; Csordas, Andrew T; Nakamoto, Margaret A; Soh, H Tom


    Affinity reagents that specifically bind to their target molecules are invaluable tools in nearly every field of modern biomedicine. Nucleic acid-based aptamers offer many advantages in this domain, because they are chemically synthesized, stable, and economical. Despite these compelling features, aptamers are currently not widely used in comparison to antibodies. This is primarily because conventional aptamer-discovery techniques such as SELEX are time-consuming and labor-intensive and often fail to produce aptamers with comparable binding performance to antibodies. This Account describes a body of work from our laboratory in developing advanced methods for consistently producing high-performance aptamers with higher efficiency, fewer resources, and, most importantly, a greater probability of success. We describe our efforts in systematically transforming each major step of the aptamer discovery process: selection, analysis, and characterization. To improve selection, we have developed microfluidic devices (M-SELEX) that enable discovery of high-affinity aptamers after a minimal number of selection rounds by precisely controlling the target concentration and washing stringency. In terms of improving aptamer pool analysis, our group was the first to use high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for the discovery of new aptamers. We showed that tracking the enrichment trajectory of individual aptamer sequences enables the identification of high-performing aptamers without requiring full convergence of the selected aptamer pool. HTS is now widely used for aptamer discovery, and open-source software has become available to facilitate analysis. To improve binding characterization, we used HTS data to design custom aptamer arrays to measure the affinity and specificity of up to ∼10(4) DNA aptamers in parallel as a means to rapidly discover high-quality aptamers. Most recently, our efforts have culminated in the invention of the "particle display" (PD) screening system, which

  1. Il nuovo reato di false comunicazioni sociali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Maria Corvucci


    Full Text Available The author examines the new offence of false social communication introduced by the Italian law dated 27 may 2015 n.69 in force from 14 June 2015. Considering the modifications added to the new offence of false accounting- basically explained to highlight the novum - the attention is paid on a specific major issue, previously discussed by the fifth section of the Italian Supreme Court competent in this matter after a few months from the moment the new law came in force. The questions applies to the fact whether the fraudulent evidence should remain to be punishable as the new discipline has limited the object of the criminal conduct only to “material relevant facts which are untrue” or to the omission of material relevant facts whose communication is imposed by the law regulating the economic situation, the assets and financial position of the company or of the group to which the company belongs. In this way any reference to the evaluations contained in the text previously in force is eliminated. Omissive conduct is the new definition recalling the two previous rules (art. 2621 and 2622 of the Italian civil code.

  2. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings. (United States)

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine


    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Specification Editing and Discovery Assistant, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate safety analysis of software suffers from a lack of appropriate tools for software developers. Current automated tools require approximate analyses;...

  4. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol


    Rodriguez, Sergio R.


    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  5. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing. (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L


    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  6. Affect influences false memories at encoding: evidence from recognition data. (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L


    Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after learning word lists designed to produce false memories. Control groups did not experience a mood induction. We found that sad moods reduced false memories only when induced before learning. Signal detection analyses confirmed that sad moods induced prior to learning reduced activation of nonpresented critical lures suggesting that they came to mind less often. Affective states, however, did not influence retrieval effects. We conclude that negative affective states promote item-specific processing, which reduces false memories in a similar way as using an explicitly guided cognitive control strategy. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Bioinformatics for discovery of microbiome variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnrod, Asker Daniel

    two conditions. The purpose is to assess the false discovery rate, recovery of truly differential abundant bacteria and the impact of beta diversity exploration strategies commonly used in microbiome research. We assess these differences by simulation and by making biological assumptions about...... of various molecular methods to build hypotheses about the impact of a copper contaminated soil. The introduction is a broad introduction to the field of microbiome research with a focus on the technologies that enable these discoveries and how some of the broader issues have related to this thesis...... 1 ,“Large-scale benchmarking reveals false discoveries and count transformation sensitivity in 16S rRNA gene amplicon data analysis methods used in microbiome studies”, benchmarked the performance of a variety of popular statistical methods for discovering differentially abundant bacteria . between...

  8. 7 CFR 283.12 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 283.12 Section 283.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Supplementation of response. A party who knows or later learns that a response is incorrect is under a duty to...

  9. 41 CFR 105-70.021 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 105-70.021 Section 105-70.021 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System..., papers, and other data and documentary evidence. Nothing contained herein shall be interpreted to require...

  10. 5 CFR 185.122 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 185.122 Section 185.122 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES..., answers, records, accounts, papers, and other data and documentary evidence. Nothing contained herein...

  11. 21 CFR 17.23 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 17.23 Section 17.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES.... Nothing contained in this section may be interpreted to require the creation of a document, except that...

  12. Not All False Memories Are Created Equal


    Nichols, Rebecca Michelle


    Though there has been an abundance of experimental research in false memory phenomena over the last several decades, there is a surprising dearth of studies that examine whether or not people who are susceptible to false memories in certain conditions are also susceptible to false memories under other conditions. The dissertation research presented here addresses this issue. In one large study, subjects participated in three well-established false memory paradigms (a misinformation task, the ...

  13. Attitude Importance and the False Consensus Effect. (United States)

    Fabrigar, Leandre R.; Krosnick, Jon A.


    Explores the possibility that importance may regulate the magnitude of the false consensus effect. Analysis revealed a strong false consensus effect but no reliable relation between its magnitude and attitude importance. Results contradict assumptions that the false consensus effect arises from attitudes that directly or indirectly influence…

  14. 10 CFR 2.709 - Discovery against NRC staff. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery against NRC staff. 2.709 Section 2.709 Energy... Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.709 Discovery against NRC staff. (a)(1) In a proceeding in which the NRC staff is a party, the NRC staff will make available one or more witnesses, designated by the...

  15. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn


    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic and organi......Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...... their performance....


    Payne, Philip R O; Huang, Kun; Shah, Nigam H; Tenenbaum, Jessica


    The modern healthcare and life sciences ecosystem is moving towards an increasingly open and data-centric approach to discovery science. This evolving paradigm is predicated on a complex set of information needs related to our collective ability to share, discover, reuse, integrate, and analyze open biological, clinical, and population level data resources of varying composition, granularity, and syntactic or semantic consistency. Such an evolution is further impacted by a concomitant growth in the size of data sets that can and should be employed for both hypothesis discovery and testing. When such open data can be accessed and employed for discovery purposes, a broad spectrum of high impact end-points is made possible. These span the spectrum from identification of de novo biomarker complexes that can inform precision medicine, to the repositioning or repurposing of extant agents for new and cost-effective therapies, to the assessment of population level influences on disease and wellness. Of note, these types of uses of open data can be either primary, wherein open data is the substantive basis for inquiry, or secondary, wherein open data is used to augment or enrich project-specific or proprietary data that is not open in and of itself. This workshop is concerned with the key challenges, opportunities, and methodological best practices whereby open data can be used to drive the advancement of discovery science in all of the aforementioned capacities.

  17. Chinese preschoolers' implicit and explicit false-belief understanding. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu


    Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N= 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and despite participants living in a culture that promotes early self-control. Children showed coherent AL across different belief-formation scenarios. Manipulation of inhibitory demand in the false-belief task did not affect preschoolers' verbal judgments any more than their AL, and yet separate measures executive function correlated only with direct judgments and not looking responses. The findings are discussed in terms of an implicit-explicit cognitive systems account of false-belief understanding. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (United States)


    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

  19. False confessions: causes, consequences, and implications. (United States)

    Leo, Richard A


    In the past two decades, hundreds of convicted prisoners have been exonerated by DNA and non-DNA evidence, revealing that police-induced false confessions are a leading cause of wrongful conviction of the innocent. In this article, empirical research on the causes and correlates of false confessions is reviewed. After a description of the three sequential processes that are responsible for the elicitation of false confessions--misclassification, coercion, and contamination--the three psychologically distinct types of false confession (voluntary, compliant, and persuaded) are discussed along with the consequences of introducing false-confession evidence in the criminal justice system. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the implications of empirical research for reducing the number of false confessions and improving the accuracy of confession evidence that is introduced against a defendant at trial.

  20. Neural correlates underlying true and false associative memories. (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Johnson, Christina E; Peterson, Kristina M


    Despite the fact that associative memory studies produce a large number of false memories, neuroimaging analyses utilizing this paradigm typically focus only on neural activity mediating successful retrieval. The current study sought to expand on this prior research by examining the neural basis of both true and false associative memories. Though associative false memories are substantially different than those found in semantic or perceptual false memory paradigms, results suggest that associative false memories are mediated by similar neural mechanisms. Specifically, we found increased frontal activity that likely represents enhanced monitoring and evaluation compared to that needed for true memories and correct rejections. Results also indicated that true, and not false associative memories, are mediated by neural activity in the MTL, specifically the hippocampus. Finally, while activity in early visual cortex distinguished true from false memories, a lack of neural differences between hits and correct rejections failed to support previous findings suggesting that activity in early visual cortex represents sensory reactivation of encoding-related processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.


    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  2. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  3. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime. (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen


    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  4. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj


    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  5. Social influence and mental routes to the production of authentic false memories and inauthentic false memories. (United States)

    Wagner, Michael F; Skowronski, John J


    Two studies assessed the extent to which people incorporated false facts provided by bogus others into their own recognition memory reports, and how these false memory reports were affected by: (a) truth of the information in others' summaries supporting the false facts, (b) motivation to process stories and summaries, (c) source credibility, and (d) ease of remembering original facts. False memory report frequency increased when false facts in a summary were supported by true information and varied inversely with the ease with which original facts could be remembered. Results from a measure probing participants' memory perceptions suggest that some false memories are authentic: People sometimes lack awareness of both the incorporation of false facts into their memory reports and where the false facts came from. However, many false memories are inauthentic: Despite reporting a false memory, people sometimes retain knowledge of the original stimulus and/or the origin of false facts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition. (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  7. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall? (United States)

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.


    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  8. Explaining the Development of False Memories. (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy


    Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

  9. Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions? (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.


    Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

  10. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*


    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  11. Belief and sign, true and false: the unique of false belief reasoning. (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yiyuan; Long, Changquan; Li, Hong


    For a long time, a controversy has been proposed that whether the process of theory of mind is a result of domain-specific or domain-general changes (Wellman in The handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell Publication, New Jersey, 2011). This event-related potential study explored the neural time course of domain-general and domain-specific components in belief reasoning. Fourteen participants completed location transfer false belief (FB), true belief (TB), false sign (FS) and true sign (TS) tasks, in which two pictures told a story related to a dog that ran from a green into a red box. In the TB and FB tasks, a boy saw or did not see the transfer of the dog, respectively. In the FS and TS tasks, an arrow that pointed to the green box either altered its direction to the red box or did not alter following the transfer of the dog. Participants then inferred where the boy thought of, or the arrow indicated the location of the dog. FB and TB reasoning elicited lower N2 amplitudes than FS and TS reasoning, which is associated with domain-general components, the detection, and classification. The late slow wave (LSW) for FB was more positive at frontal, central, and parietal sites than FS because of the domain-specific component involved in FB reasoning. However, the LSW was less positive for TB than for FB but did not differ from the TS condition, which implies that mental representation might not be involved in TB reasoning.

  12. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures. (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R


    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  13. Priming analogical reasoning with false memories. (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Threadgold, Emma; Ball, Linden J


    Like true memories, false memories are capable of priming answers to insight-based problems. Recent research has attempted to extend this paradigm to more advanced problem-solving tasks, including those involving verbal analogical reasoning. However, these experiments are constrained inasmuch as problem solutions could be generated via spreading activation mechanisms (much like false memories themselves) rather than using complex reasoning processes. In three experiments we examined false memory priming of complex analogical reasoning tasks in the absence of simple semantic associations. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated the robustness of false memory priming in analogical reasoning when backward associative strength among the problem terms was eliminated. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we extended these findings by demonstrating priming on newly created homonym analogies that can only be solved by inhibiting semantic associations within the analogy. Overall, the findings of the present experiments provide evidence that the efficacy of false memory priming extends to complex analogical reasoning problems.

  14. Neuroanatomical substrates involved in true and false memories for face. (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Kawaguchi, Jun; Sadato, Norihiro


    We often mistake an unknown person for a familiar person because of the similarities in facial features. This phenomenon, known as false memory, has been investigated mainly using words, pictures, and shapes. Previous neuroimaging studies on false memory have shown that both true and false memories trigger a similar activation in the medial temporal lobe, suggesting that it plays a common role in both. However, no study to date has investigated neural substrates of false memories for faces. In the present fMRI study, we applied a modified version of the standard false memory paradigm, using morphed pictures of faces, to induce false memory in an MRI environment. We found that activity in the amygdala and orbital cortices was associated with the degree of familiarity of items. In particular, false responses to "lure" items evoked a level of activity in the amygdala between that evoked for correct or incorrect responses to "true" items. This indicates a possible role of the amygdala in false memory. A specific region in the anterior cingulate cortex was involved in false recognition; the activity being correlated to reaction times for the response types. These results suggest that the amygdala is involved in determining the relevance of items; therefore, ambiguousness of lure items in terms of familiarity and novelty may be related to decreased activity in the amygdala. The anterior cingulate activity in false memory may be caused not only by increased effort and motor demand but also by higher mnemonic processing of lure items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  16. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold (United States)

    Chan, Roger W.


    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. An association account of false belief understanding. (United States)

    De Bruin, L C; Newen, A


    The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young infants already understand false belief, then why do they fail the elicited-response false belief task? We postulate two systems to account for the development of false belief understanding: an association module, which provides infants with the capacity to register congruent associations between agents and objects, and an operating system, which allows them to transform these associations into incongruent associations through a process of inhibition, selection and representation. The interaction between the association module and the operating system enables infants to register increasingly complex associations on the basis of another agent's movements, visual perspective and propositional attitudes. This allows us account for the full range of findings on false belief understanding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults. (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A


    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  19. Abort Trigger False Positive and False Negative Analysis Methodology for Threshold-Based Abort Detection (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Cruz, Jose A.; Johnson Stephen B.; Lo, Yunnhon


    This paper describes a quantitative methodology for bounding the false positive (FP) and false negative (FN) probabilities associated with a human-rated launch vehicle abort trigger (AT) that includes sensor data qualification (SDQ). In this context, an AT is a hardware and software mechanism designed to detect the existence of a specific abort condition. Also, SDQ is an algorithmic approach used to identify sensor data suspected of being corrupt so that suspect data does not adversely affect an AT's detection capability. The FP and FN methodologies presented here were developed to support estimation of the probabilities of loss of crew and loss of mission for the Space Launch System (SLS) which is being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The paper provides a brief overview of system health management as being an extension of control theory; and describes how ATs and the calculation of FP and FN probabilities relate to this theory. The discussion leads to a detailed presentation of the FP and FN methodology and an example showing how the FP and FN calculations are performed. This detailed presentation includes a methodology for calculating the change in FP and FN probabilities that result from including SDQ in the AT architecture. To avoid proprietary and sensitive data issues, the example incorporates a mixture of open literature and fictitious reliability data. Results presented in the paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach in providing quantitative estimates that bound the probability of a FP or FN abort determination.

  20. Consequences of false-positive screening mammograms. (United States)

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Fryback, Dennis G; Hammond, Cristina S; Hanna, Lucy G; Grove, Margaret R; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D


    False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the US Preventive Services Task Force. To measure the effect of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility, and attitudes toward future screening. The Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life substudy telephone survey was performed shortly after screening and 1 year later at 22 DMIST sites and included randomly selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. The 6-question short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory state scale (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D instrument with US scoring. Attitudes toward future screening as measured by women's self-report of future intention to undergo mammographic screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to undergo a hypothetical new type of mammography that would identify as many cancers with half the false-positive results. Among 1450 eligible women invited to participate, 1226 (84.6%) were enrolled, with follow-up interviews obtained in 1028 (83.8%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6, 35.2 vs 32.7), but health utility scores did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at 1 year. Future screening intentions differed by group (25.7% vs 14.2% more likely in false-positive vs negative groups); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (9.9% vs 10.5% in false-positive vs negative groups). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (odds ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.54-2.93), younger age (2.78; 1.5-5.0), and poorer health (1.63; 1.09-2.43). Women's anticipated high-level anxiety regarding future false-positive mammograms was associated with willingness

  1. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia


    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  2. Are trauma victims susceptible to "false memories"? (United States)

    Zoellner, Lori A; Foa, Edna B; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Przeworski, Amy


    Laboratory studies using word-list paradigms have provided evidence that nontraumatized individuals falsely recall or recognize events that never occurred. In the present study, H. L. Roediger and K. B. McDermott's false-memory paradigm (1995) was utilized to examine possible source monitoring deficits in individuals with PTSD. Traumatized individuals with PTSD were compared with traumatized individuals without PTSD and with nontraumatized control participants. Participants heard lists of related words (e.g., bed, night) that were associates of a critical nonpresented word (e.g., sleep) and were given immediate free recall and later recognition tests. Traumatized participants with and without PTSD generated more false recalls of critical nonpresented words than did nontraumatized participants. False recall was related to trait anxiety and PTSD severity. The results are consistent with a general source-monitoring deficit in trauma-exposed individuals.

  3. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.


    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  4. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory


    Lo, June C.; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L. F.; Chee, Michael W. L.


    Summary Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N?=?58, mean age???SD?=?22.10???1.60?years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5?h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N?=?54, mean age???SD?=?1...

  5. Visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Moradi, Ali Reza; Heydari, Ali Hosain; Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossain; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Dalgleish, Tim; Jobson, Laura


    This study investigated visual false memories in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The Scenic False Memory paradigm (SFM, Hauschildt, Peters, Jelinek, & Moritz, 2012) was administered to male Iranian military personnel who had participated in the Iran-Iraq war and were diagnosed with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) PTSD and a sample of healthy male non-trauma-exposed controls (n = 21). Trauma-exposed participants recalled and recognized a significantly lower percentage of hits and a significantly greater percentage of false memories for both trauma-related and non-trauma-related video scenes, than non-trauma-exposed controls. Among the trauma-exposed participants, those with and without PTSD did not differ significantly in terms of percentage of hits and false memories recalled on the SFM. Those with PTSD were found to recognize significantly fewer hits for both the trauma-related and non-trauma-related videos than those without PTSD. Those with PTSD also recognized significantly more false memories for the trauma video scene than the non-PTSD group. The findings suggest that those with trauma exposure, and in particular those with PTSD, may have a greater susceptibility to visual false memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.


    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  7. Further Evidence for Nonspecificity of Theory of Mind in Preschoolers: Training and Transferability in the Understanding of False Beliefs and False Signs (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Leekam, Susan; Perner, Josef; McConachie, Helen


    In a training study, the authors addressed whether or not preschoolers' difficulty with false belief is due to a domain-specific problem with mental states. Following Slaughter's (1998) design, 57 children who failed a false-belief (FB) pretest received two sessions of training on either an FB, false sign (FS), or control task. All children were…

  8. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.


    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  9. Factors associated with false-positive and false-negative fecal immunochemical test results for colorectal cancer screening. (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Lam, Thomas Y T; Luk, Arthur K C; Ng, Simon S M; Sung, Joseph J Y


    Certain subgroups have higher rates of false fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results, yet few studies have addressed this topic. To identify demographic factors associated with false-positive and false-negative FIT results in colorectal cancer screening. Retrospective database review of prospectively collected data. A bowel cancer screening center in Hong Kong invited participants for colorectal cancer screening (2008-2012). Study participants who underwent both FIT and colonoscopy in the first year (n = 4482) and underwent colonoscopy after negative FIT results for 3 consecutive years (n = 857). The diagnostic accuracy and predictive values of FIT according to participant characteristics. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for advanced neoplasia were 33.1%, 91.9%, 19.0%, and 96.0%, respectively. Participants 66 to 70 years of age had higher sensitivity, whereas older age, smoking, and use of aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with lower specificity. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were 8.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Older age (66-70 years; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.81; P negative results and the absence of high-grade dysplasia (AOR for presence 0.41) were associated with false-negative results. Self-referred participants who received one type of qualitative FIT. These findings could be used to target screening more toward those with a higher risk of false-negative results and those with a lower risk of false-positive results for earlier colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  11. Diagnosing periprosthetic infection: false-positive intraoperative Gram stains. (United States)

    Oethinger, Margret; Warner, Debra K; Schindler, Susan A; Kobayashi, Hideo; Bauer, Thomas W


    Intraoperative Gram stains have a reported low sensitivity but high specificity when used to help diagnose periprosthetic infections. In early 2008, we recognized an unexpectedly high frequency of apparent false-positive Gram stains from revision arthroplasties. The purpose of this report is to describe the cause of these false-positive test results. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of all intraoperative Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasty cases during a 3-month interval using microbiologic cultures of the same samples as the gold standard. Methods of specimen harvesting, handling, transport, distribution, specimen processing including tissue grinding/macerating, Gram staining, and interpretation were studied. After a test modification, results of specimens were prospectively collected for a second 3-month interval, and the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative Gram stains were calculated. The retrospective review of 269 Gram stains submitted from revision arthroplasties indicated historic sensitivity and specificity values of 23% and 92%, respectively. Systematic analysis of all steps of the procedure identified Gram-stained but nonviable bacteria in commercial broth reagents used as diluents for maceration of periprosthetic membranes before Gram staining and culture. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing showed mixed bacterial DNA. Evaluation of 390 specimens after initiating standardized Millipore filtering of diluent fluid revealed a reduced number of positive Gram stains, yielding 9% sensitivity and 99% specificity. Clusters of false-positive Gram stains have been reported in other clinical conditions. They are apparently rare related to diagnosing periprosthetic infections but have severe consequences if used to guide treatment. Even occasional false-positive Gram stains should prompt review of laboratory methods. Our observations implicate dead bacteria in microbiologic reagents as potential sources of false-positive Gram

  12. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola


    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls ( p  false memories ( p  > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  13. False memories in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abstract Background False memories are memories of events that never occurred or that occurred, but not exactly as we recall. Events with emotional content are subject to false memories production similar to neutral events. However, individual differences, such as the level of maladjustment and emotional instability characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, may interfere in the production of false memories. Objectives This study aimed to assess the effect of emotion in memory performance for an event witnessed by participants with and without SAD. Methods Participants were 61 young adults with SAD and 76 without any symptoms of SAD who were randomly assigned to watch a story with or without emotional arousal. Participants answered a subjective scale of emotion about the story and a recognition memory test. Results Participants with SAD recovered more true memories and more false memories for the non-emotional version compared to the emotional version of the story. Overall, participants with SAD produced fewer false memories compared to those without SAD. Discussion This finding suggests that social anxiety may have a significant impact on emotional memory accuracy, which may assist in the development and improvement of techniques for therapeutic intervention.

  14. False Memories for Affective Information in Schizophrenia (United States)

    Fairfield, Beth; Altamura, Mario; Padalino, Flavia A.; Balzotti, Angela; Di Domenico, Alberto; Mammarella, Nicola


    Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, 24 patients and 24 healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative, or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p false memories (p > 0.05) resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e., neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes). Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved. PMID:27965600

  15. False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans (United States)

    Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars


    Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts. PMID:25254105

  16. Correcting false memories: Errors must be noticed and replaced. (United States)

    Mullet, Hillary G; Marsh, Elizabeth J


    Memory can be unreliable. For example, after reading The new baby stayed awake all night, people often misremember that the new baby cried all night (Brewer, 1977); similarly, after hearing bed, rest, and tired, people often falsely remember that sleep was on the list (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In general, such false memories are difficult to correct, persisting despite warnings and additional study opportunities. We argue that errors must first be detected to be corrected; consistent with this argument, two experiments showed that false memories were nearly eliminated when conditions facilitated comparisons between participants' errors and corrective feedback (e.g., immediate trial-by-trial feedback that allowed direct comparisons between their responses and the correct information). However, knowledge that they had made an error was insufficient; unless the feedback message also contained the correct answer, the rate of false memories remained relatively constant. On the one hand, there is nothing special about correcting false memories: simply labeling an error as "wrong" is also insufficient for correcting other memory errors, including misremembered facts or mistranslations. However, unlike these other types of errors--which often benefit from the spacing afforded by delayed feedback--false memories require a special consideration: Learners may fail to notice their errors unless the correction conditions specifically highlight them.

  17. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings

  18. Finding False Paths in Sequential Circuits (United States)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Andreeva, V. V.; Chernyshov, S. V.; Rozhkova, S. V.; Kudin, D. V.


    Method of finding false paths in sequential circuits is developed. In contrast with heuristic approaches currently used abroad, the precise method based on applying operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) extracted from the combinational part of a sequential controlling logic circuit is suggested. The method allows finding false paths when transfer sequence length is not more than the given value and obviates the necessity of investigation of combinational circuit equivalents of the given lengths. The possibilities of using of the developed method for more complicated circuits are discussed.

  19. False iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, N; Sønksen, Jens Otto Reimers; Schroeder, T V


    We report a very rare case of a false iliac artery aneurysm following renal transplantation. The patient was a 51-year-old women who presented with a painful 10 x 10 cm pulsating mass in her left iliac fossa. The patient had received a second cadaveric renal transplantation 5 years previously....... The graft never functioned and transplant nephrectomy was performed 2 weeks later. A CT-scanning showed a 10 x 10 cm large aneurysm arising from the left external iliac artery. At operation a large false aneurysm was identified arising from the original transplant anastomotic site. Due to the extent...

  20. Wide-Area Publish/Subscribe Mobile Resource Discovery Based on IPv6 GeoNetworking


    Noguchi, Satoru; Matsuura, Satoshi; Inomata, Atsuo; Fujikawa, Kazutoshi; Sunahara, Hideki


    Resource discovery is an essential function for distributed mobile applications integrated in vehicular communication systems. Key requirements of the mobile resource discovery are wide-area geographic-based discovery and scalable resource discovery not only inside a vehicular ad-hoc network but also through the Internet. While a number of resource discovery solutions have been proposed, most of them have focused on specific scale of network. Furthermore, managing a large number of mobile res...

  1. False memories, but not false beliefs, affect implicit attitudes for food preferences. (United States)

    Howe, David; Anderson, Rachel J; Dewhurst, Stephen A


    Previous studies have found that false memories and false beliefs of childhood experiences can have attitudinal consequences. Previous studies have, however, focused exclusively on explicit attitude measures without exploring whether implicit attitudes are similarly affected. Using a false feedback/imagination inflation paradigm, false memories and beliefs of enjoying a certain food as a child were elicited in participants, and their effects were assessed using both explicit attitude measures (self-report questionnaires) and implicit measures (a Single-Target Implicit Association Test). Positive changes in explicit attitudes were observed both in participants with false memories and participants with false beliefs. In contrast, only participants with false memories exhibited more positive implicit attitudes. The findings are discussed in terms of theories of explicit and implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Synchronization Account of False Recognition (United States)

    Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.


    We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

  3. False memories for affective information in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Fairfield


    Full Text Available Studies have shown a direct link between memory for emotionally salient experiences and false memories. In particular, emotionally arousing material of negative and positive valence enhanced reality monitoring compared to neutral material since emotional stimuli can be encoded with more contextual details and thereby facilitate the distinction between presented and imagined stimuli. Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be impaired in both reality monitoring and memory for emotional experiences. However, the relationship between the emotionality of the-to-be-remembered material and false memory occurrence has not yet been studied. In this study, twenty-four patients and twenty-four healthy adults completed a false memory task with everyday episodes composed of 12 photographs that depicted positive, negative or neutral outcomes. Results showed how patients with schizophrenia made a higher number of false memories than normal controls (p0.05 resulting from erroneous inferences but did interact with plausible, script consistent errors in patients (i.e. neutral episodes yielded a higher degree of errors than positive and negative episodes. Affective information reduces the probability of generating causal errors in healthy adults but not in patients suggesting that emotional memory impairments may contribute to deficits in reality monitoring in schizophrenia when affective information is involved.

  4. Unique thermal record in False Bay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grundlingh, ML


    Full Text Available Over the past decade False Bay has assumed a prime position in terms of research in to large South African bays. This is manifested by investigations that cover flow conditions modelling, thermal structure, management, biology and nutrients, geology...

  5. Interrogation and false confessions: vulnerability factors. (United States)

    Gudjonsson, G H

    This paper reviews the psychological factors that make some individuals susceptible to making a false confession of having committed a criminal offence. A number of 'vulnerability factors' are highlighted and it is emphasized that these need to be interpreted within the context of all circumstances surrounding the case.

  6. Power Factor Controller Avoids False Turnoff (United States)

    Nola, F. J.


    Single-phase power-factor controller includes special inhibiting circuit to avoid false turnoff. If thyristor trigger signal occurs during flow of current from preceding half cycle, inhibiting signal delays application of trigger pulse until beginning of next current half cycle.

  7. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco


    answers. Absence of false negatives is of critical importance in many applications of Bloom filters, so it is natural to ask if this can be also achieved in the distance sensitive setting. Our main contributions are upper and lower bounds (that are tight in several cases) for space usage in the distance...

  8. Single-feature polymorphism discovery by computing probe affinity shape powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Haiyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-feature polymorphism (SFP discovery is a rapid and cost-effective approach to identify DNA polymorphisms. However, high false positive rates and/or low sensitivity are prevalent in previously described SFP detection methods. This work presents a new computing method for SFP discovery. Results The probe affinity differences and affinity shape powers formed by the neighboring probes in each probe set were computed into SFP weight scores. This method was validated by known sequence information and was comprehensively compared with previously-reported methods using the same datasets. A web application using this algorithm has been implemented for SFP detection. Using this method, we identified 364 SFPs in a barley near-isogenic line pair carrying either the wild type or the mutant uniculm2 (cul2 allele. Most of the SFP polymorphisms were identified on chromosome 6H in the vicinity of the Cul2 locus. Conclusion This SFP discovery method exhibits better performance in specificity and sensitivity over previously-reported methods. It can be used for other organisms for which GeneChip technology is available. The web-based tool will facilitate SFP discovery. The 364 SFPs discovered in a barley near-isogenic line pair provide a set of genetic markers for fine mapping and future map-based cloning of the Cul2 locus.

  9. Diagnostic Invasiveness and Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heleno, Bruno M.; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John


    of a cohort study of 454 womenwith abnormal screening mammography and 908 matched control women withnormal results. Using a condition-specific questionnaire (Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer), we assessed 12 psychosocial consequences at 5 time points (0, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months after final diagnosis......) and compared the 2 groups of women with false-positives (invasive and noninvasive management groups). RESULTS: Among the 252 women with false-positive mammography eligible forthis study, psychosocial consequences were similar for those managed invasivelyand those managed noninvasively during the 36 months...... between those of women withnormal mammography and those of women determined to have breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that use of more invasive diagnosticswas associated with worse psychosocial consequences. It is therefore reasonableto pool subgroups of women with false...

  10. Fusion genes and their discovery using high throughput sequencing. (United States)

    Annala, M J; Parker, B C; Zhang, W; Nykter, M


    Fusion genes are hybrid genes that combine parts of two or more original genes. They can form as a result of chromosomal rearrangements or abnormal transcription, and have been shown to act as drivers of malignant transformation and progression in many human cancers. The biological significance of fusion genes together with their specificity to cancer cells has made them into excellent targets for molecular therapy. Fusion genes are also used as diagnostic and prognostic markers to confirm cancer diagnosis and monitor response to molecular therapies. High-throughput sequencing has enabled the systematic discovery of fusion genes in a wide variety of cancer types. In this review, we describe the history of fusion genes in cancer and the ways in which fusion genes form and affect cellular function. We also describe computational methodologies for detecting fusion genes from high-throughput sequencing experiments, and the most common sources of error that lead to false discovery of fusion genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [False memory syndrome: state of the art]. (United States)

    Nemets, Boris; Witztum, Eliezer; Kotler, Moshe


    The review describes the heated dispute on the present state of recovered traumatic memories. There are two main schools concerning the status of recovered memories of child abuse. One school believes in their authenticity unconditionally. Those who oppose the authenticity claim False Memory Syndrome's existence. They describe it as "a serious form of psychopathology characterized by strongly believed pseudomemories of childhood sexual abuse" and "condition in which a person's identity and interpersonal relationships are centered around a memory of traumatic experience which is objectively false but in which the person strongly believes". This review presents the allegations of both sides involved in the dispute, with updates of scientific and judicial references and relevant recommendations to care takers.

  12. Imagination can create false autobiographical memories. (United States)

    Mazzoni, Giuliana; Memon, Amina


    Previous studies have shown that imagining an event can alter autobiographical beliefs. The current study examined whether it can also create false memories. One group of participants imagined a relatively frequent event and received information about an event that never occurs. A second group imagined the nonoccurring event and received information about the frequent event. One week before and again 1 week immediately after the manipulation, participants rated the likelihood that they had experienced each of the two critical events and a series of noncritical events, using the Life Events Inventory. During the last phase, participants were also asked to describe any memories they had for the events. For both events, imagination increased the number of memories reported, as well as beliefs about experiencing the event. These results indicate that imagination can induce false autobiographical memories.

  13. Underlying processes behind false perspective production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the extent to which Reality Monitoring (RM content analysis can provide useful information when discriminating between actual versus false statements. Participants were instructed to either describe a traffic accident as eyewitness actual role or to describe the accident as a simulated victim. Data were analysed in terms of accuracy and quality, and were represented using high dimensional visualization (HDV. In Experiment 1 (between-participant design, participants made significantly more references to cognitive operations, more self-references and less changes in order when describing the event as simulated victim. In Experiment 2 (within-participants design participants also made significantly more references to cognitive operations and more self references when describing the event from the simulated victim as well as being less accurate, providing less irrelevant information and more evalúative comments. HDV graphics indicated that false statements differ holistically from actual ones.

  14. Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-hyeon


    A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented. (orig.)

  15. False Context Fear Memory in Rats (United States)

    Bae, Sarah; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick


    Four experiments used rats to study false context fear memories. In Experiment 1, rats were pre-exposed to a distinctive chamber (context A) or to a control environment (context C), shocked after a delay in a second chamber (context B) and tested either in B or A. Rats pre-exposed to A froze just as much as control rats in B but more than control…

  16. INTEGRATE: gene fusion discovery using whole genome and transcriptome data. (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; White, Nicole M; Schmidt, Heather K; Fulton, Robert S; Tomlinson, Chad; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Maher, Christopher A


    While next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the primary technology for discovering gene fusions, we are still faced with the challenge of ensuring that causative mutations are not missed while minimizing false positives. Currently, there are many computational tools that predict structural variations (SV) and gene fusions using whole genome (WGS) and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data separately. However, as both WGS and RNA-seq have their limitations when used independently, we hypothesize that the orthogonal validation from integrating both data could generate a sensitive and specific approach for detecting high-confidence gene fusion predictions. Fortunately, decreasing NGS costs have resulted in a growing quantity of patients with both data available. Therefore, we developed a gene fusion discovery tool, INTEGRATE, that leverages both RNA-seq and WGS data to reconstruct gene fusion junctions and genomic breakpoints by split-read mapping. To evaluate INTEGRATE, we compared it with eight additional gene fusion discovery tools using the well-characterized breast cell line HCC1395 and peripheral blood lymphocytes derived from the same patient (HCC1395BL). The predictions subsequently underwent a targeted validation leading to the discovery of 131 novel fusions in addition to the seven previously reported fusions. Overall, INTEGRATE only missed six out of the 138 validated fusions and had the highest accuracy of the nine tools evaluated. Additionally, we applied INTEGRATE to 62 breast cancer patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found multiple recurrent gene fusions including a subset involving estrogen receptor. Taken together, INTEGRATE is a highly sensitive and accurate tool that is freely available for academic use. © 2016 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Discovery of Fullerenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 1. Discovery of Fullerenes Giving a New Shape to Carbon Chemistry. Rathna Ananthaiah. Research News Volume 2 Issue 1 January 1997 pp 68-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  18. Landmark Discoveries in Neurosciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Landmark Discoveries in Neurosciences. Niranjan Kambi Neeraj Jain. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1054-1064. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.


    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  20. False confessions, expert testimony, and admissibility. (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Weiss, Kenneth J; Pouncey, Claire


    The confession of a criminal defendant serves as a prosecutor's most compelling piece of evidence during trial. Courts must preserve a defendant's constitutional right to a fair trial while upholding the judicial interests of presenting competent and reliable evidence to the jury. When a defendant seeks to challenge the validity of that confession through expert testimony, the prosecution often contests the admissibility of the expert's opinion. Depending on the content and methodology of the expert's opinion, testimony addressing the phenomenon of false confessions may or may not be admissible. This article outlines the scientific and epistemological bases of expert testimony on false confession, notes the obstacles facing its admissibility, and provides guidance to the expert in formulating opinions that will reach the judge or jury. We review the 2006 New Jersey Superior Court decision in State of New Jersey v. George King to illustrate what is involved in the admissibility of false-confession testimony and use the case as a starting point in developing a best-practice approach to working in this area.

  1. Secure Service Discovery in Home Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; van Dijk, H.W.; De Cock, Danny; Preneel, Bart; Kung, Antonio; d'Hooge, Michel


    This paper presents an architecture for secure service discovery for use in home networks. We give an overview and rationale of a cluster-based home network architecture that bridges different, often vendor specific, network technologies. We show how it integrates security, communication, and

  2. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.


    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  3. Discovery-based strategies for studying platelet function. (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, R; Dilks, J R


    The platelet is an anucleate cell, complicating efforts to study platelet function by traditional genetic means. Discovery-based strategies have lead to the identification of pharmacological agents capable of targeting specific proteins critical for platelet activation. This review will address the evolution of discovery-based strategies to identify probes that are at once useful reagents for studying platelet activation and effective therapeutics.

  4. Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children. (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Muris, Peter


    We examined the creation of spontaneous and suggestion-induced false memories in maltreated and non-maltreated children. Maltreated and non-maltreated children were involved in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm where they studied and remembered negative and neutral word lists. Suggestion-induced false memories were created using a misinformation procedure during which both maltreated and non-maltreated children viewed a negative video (i.e., bank robbery) and later received suggestive misinformation concerning the event. Our results showed that maltreated children had higher levels of spontaneous negative false memories but lower levels of suggestion-induced false memories as compared to non-maltreated children. Collectively, our study demonstrates that maltreatment both increases and decreases susceptibility to memory illusions depending on the type of false memory being induced. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Trauma affects memory. It is unclear how trauma affects false memory. What does this study add? This study focuses on two types of false memories. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  5. Analysis of false positive and false negative cytological diagnosis of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Awtif A.; Mansoor, I.


    To study the reasons for interpretive errors in false negative and false positive diagnosis of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology material. We reviewed only those cases in which cytohistological discrepancies were found, where the cytologic material was abnormal and to some extent misinterpreted or both. There was only one false negative case (false negative fraction 0.32%) proved histologically as ductal carcinoma and four false positive cases (false positive fraction 1.2%); 2 fibroadenoma; 1 fibrocystic disease; and 1 stromal fibrosis. Smears of the two false positive fibroadenoma cases showed very high cellularity, overcrowded clusters and frequent stripped nuclei. The fibrocystic case showed tight clusters of apocrine cells and sheets of loosely aggregated macrophages that were over interpreted. Smears of the false negative ductal carcinoma was hypocellular overall, and the cells showed minimal nuclear pleomorphism. Overcrowded clusters and hypercellular smears should be carefully assessed for uniformity of cells and detailed nuclear and cytomorphological features. If the full-blown malignant cytomorphological changes are not visible, a diagnosis of suspicious or inconclusive should be made and frozen section recommended before surgery. Hypocellularity and relatively nuclear monomorphism are the reasons for failure to diagnose malignant breast lesions. Careful attention should be paid to extreme nuclear monomorphism and absence of naked bipolar cells. A cytologically atypical or suspicious diagnosis together with positive radiological and clinical findings should suggest a diagnosis of malignancy. (author)

  6. Filing false vice reports: Distinguishing true from false allegations of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zutter, A.; Horselenberg, R.; van Koppen, P.J.


    False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of

  7. Beware of false green power marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A warning was sounded to make people aware of false marketers of `green power`. These are companies that purchase excess power from existing sources, including nuclear, coal and large-scale hydro, and resell it at inflated prices to unsuspecting consumers. These consumers believe that they are buying power from renewable sources. With large amounts of money at stake, there are many new opportunities for unscrupulous companies to take advantage of the good intentions of environmentally conscious customers. Therefore, before making a commitment to purchase power from companies that claim to be enviro-friendly, it is important to check out the facts and be aware of how the industry works.

  8. False vacuum decay in gauge theory (United States)

    Endo, Motoi; Moroi, Takeo; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Shoji, Yutaro


    The decay rate of a false vacuum is studied in gauge theory, paying particular attention to its gauge invariance. Although the decay rate should not depend on the gauge parameter ξ according to the Nielsen identity, the gauge invariance of the result of a perturbative calculation has not been clearly shown. We give a prescription to perform a one-loop calculation of the decay rate, with which a manifestly gauge-invariant expression of the decay rate is obtained. We also discuss the renormalization necessary to make the result finite, and show that the decay rate is independent of the gauge parameter even after the renormalization.

  9. Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian


    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically related lure words. Moreover, while control subjects remembered true and false words equivalently, stressed subjects remembered more false than true words. These results suggest that stress supports gist memory formation in the DRM task, perhaps by hindering detail-specific processing in the hippocampus. PMID:26670187

  10. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory. (United States)

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L


    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P sleep in optimal cognitive functioning, reveal the vulnerability of adolescents' memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  11. The neutron discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.


    The neutron: who had first the idea, who discovered it, who established its main properties. To these apparently simple questions, multiple answers exist. The progressive discovery of the neutron is a marvellous illustration of some characteristics of the scientific research, where the unforeseen may be combined with the expected. This discovery is replaced in the context of the 1930's scientific effervescence that succeeded the revolutionary introduction of quantum mechanics. This book describes the works of Bothe, the Joliot-Curie and Chadwick which led to the neutron in an unexpected way. A historical analysis allows to give a new interpretation on the hypothesis suggested by the Joliot-Curie. Some texts of these days will help the reader to revive this fascinating story [fr

  12. Discovery of charm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, G.


    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D/sup 0/,D/sup +/ charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. 27 references.

  13. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert


    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  14. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    also contributed to the discovery of new isotopes. More recently, most of the very neutron- rich isotopes have been discovered by projectile fission. After a brief summary of the discovery of fission process itself, these production mechanisms will be discussed. The paper concludes with an outlook on future discoveries of ...

  15. Recent Discoveries and Bible Translation. (United States)

    Harrelson, Walter


    Discusses recent discoveries for "Bible" translation with a focus on the "Dead Sea Scrolls." Examines recent discoveries that provide direct support for alternative reading of biblical passages and those discoveries that have contributed additional insight to knowledge of cultural practices, especially legal and religious…

  16. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  17. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen Vissing Fahnøe; Urban, Christian


    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical...... and pharmacokinetic properties. The compound efficiently normalizes glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice, an effect that is fully sustained after 29 days of chronic dosing....

  18. Discovery concepts for Mars (United States)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Russell, C. T.; Brace, L. H.; Nagy, A. F.; Jakosky, B. M.; Barth, C. A.; Waite, J. H.


    Two focused Mars missions that would fit within the guidelines for the proposed Discovery line are discussed. The first mission would deal with the issue of the escape of the atmosphere (Mars') to space. A complete understanding of this topic is crucial to deciphering the evolution of the atmosphere, climate change, and volatile inventories. The second mission concerns the investigation of remanent magnetization of the crust and its relationship to the ionosphere and the atmosphere.

  19. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition. (United States)

    Ballard, Michael E; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet


    Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion. Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs' effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories.

  20. Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaeffer Jaron


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance patterns and formulation of public health antibiotic prescription policies. Results We discovered two new putative gene cassettes using the method, from 276 integron features and 978 GenBank sequences. The system achieved κ = 0.972 annotation agreement with an expert gold standard of 300 sequences. In rediscovery experiments, we deleted 789,196 cassette instances over 2030 experiments and correctly relabelled 85.6% (α ≥ 95%, E ≤ 1%, mean sensitivity = 0.86, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.93, with no false positives. Error analysis demonstrated that for 72,338 missed deletions, two adjacent deleted cassettes were labeled as a single cassette, increasing performance to 94.8% (mean sensitivity = 0.92, specificity = 1, F-score = 0.96. Conclusion Using grammars we were able to represent heuristic background knowledge about large and complex structures in DNA. Importantly, we were also able to use the context embedded in the model to discover new putative antibiotic resistance gene cassettes. The method is complementary to existing automatic annotation systems which operate at the sequence level.

  1. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S


    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  2. False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of the DRM illusion. (United States)

    Gallo, David A


    This article reviews research using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) associative memory illusion, whereby people falsely remember words that were not presented. This illusion has broadly influenced basic theories of memory in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and naturally raises the question as to how these theories apply to more complex autobiographical memories. Some applicability is evident from research linking individual differences in the DRM illusion to false autobiographical memories (e.g., misremembering public events) and fantastic autobiographical beliefs (e.g., memories from past lives). But which aspects generalize? Here it is argued that a process-oriented approach is needed in order to answer this question. Many productive years of DRM research indicate that multiple and often opposing psychological processes cause even the most basic false memories. In light of these discoveries, more researchers need to use methods that isolate these component processes if the goal is to understand false memories both in the lab and in life.

  3. Mapping the Real and the False

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuever, Erika


    brands establish themselves in the Chinese market now threaten the capability of all brands to gain and retain the trust of consumers. Originality/value -- By explaining how new calculations of value are being produced under glocalized regimes of manufacture and distribution, this research makes......Purpose -- To show that Chinese consumers are constantly redefining and revaluing goods along the axes of the real and the false, with little regard for legal definitions of brand authenticity or “fakeness.” Findings -- In their everyday consumption practices and navigation of a complex and often...... dangerous marketplace, Chinese consumers categorize products based on their perceived “truth.” The paper introduces a typology that describes these local categories and explains their utility for consumers. Practical/social implications -- This paper explains how the same globalizing processes that helped...

  4. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.


    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  5. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in icteric serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. de Jong


    Full Text Available Introduction: Serum concentrations of acetaminophen are measured to predict the risk of hepatotoxicity in cases of acetaminophen overdose and to identify acetaminophen use in patients with acute liver injury without a known cause. The acetaminophen concentration determines if treatment with N-acetyl cysteine, the antidote for acetaminophen poisoning, is warranted. Description: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a hepatic encephalopathy and a total serum bilirubin concentration of 442 µmol/l. The acetaminophen concentration of 11.5 mg/l was measured with an enzymatic-colorimetric assay, thus treatment with N-acetyl cysteine was started. Interestingly, the acetaminophen concentration remained unchanged (11.5–12.3 mg/l during a period of 4 consecutive days. In contrast, the acetaminophen concentration measured by HPLC, a chromatographic technique, remained undetectable Discussion: In the presented case, elevated bilirubin was the most likely candidate to interfere with acetaminophen assay causing false positive results. Bilirubin has intense absorbance in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and for that reason it causes interference in an enzymatic-colorimetric assay. Conclusion: False positive acetaminophen laboratory test results may be found in icteric serum, when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used for determination of an acetaminophen concentration. Questionable acetaminophen results in icteric serum should be confirmed by a non-enzymatic method, by means of ultrafiltration of the serum, or by dilution studies. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Enzymatic-colorimetric assays, HPLC, Bilirubin, Interference, Paracetamol, Liver failure, Jaundice

  6. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes. (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham


    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  7. Tentacle probes: eliminating false positives without sacrificing sensitivity. (United States)

    Satterfield, Brent C; West, Jay A A; Caplan, Michael R


    The majority of efforts to increase specificity or sensitivity in biosensors result in trade-offs with little to no gain in overall accuracy. This is because a biosensor cannot be more accurate than the affinity interaction it is based on. Accordingly, we have developed a new class of reagents based on mathematical principles of cooperativity to enhance the accuracy of the affinity interaction. Tentacle probes (TPs) have a hairpin structure similar to molecular beacons (MBs) for enhanced specificity, but are modified by the addition of a capture probe for increased kinetics and affinity. They produce kinetic rate constants up to 200-fold faster than MB with corresponding stem strengths. Concentration-independent specificity was observed with no false positives at up to 1 mM concentrations of variant analyte. In contrast, MBs were concentration dependent and experienced false positives above 3.88 muM of variant analyte. The fast kinetics of this label-free reagent may prove important for extraction efficiency, hence sensitivity and detection time, in microfluidic assays. The concentration-independent specificity of TPs may prove extremely useful in assays where starting concentrations and purities are unknown as would be the case in bioterror or clinical point of care diagnostics.

  8. Adaptive false memory: Imagining future scenarios increases false memories in the DRM paradigm. (United States)

    Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Grace, Lydia; van Esch, Lotte


    Previous research has shown that rating words for their relevance to a future scenario enhances memory for those words. The current study investigated the effect of future thinking on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. In Experiment 1, participants rated words from 6 DRM lists for relevance to a past or future event (with or without planning) or in terms of pleasantness. In a surprise recall test, levels of correct recall did not vary between the rating tasks, but the future rating conditions led to significantly higher levels of false recall than the past and pleasantness conditions did. Experiment 2 found that future rating led to higher levels of false recognition than did past and pleasantness ratings but did not affect correct recognition. The effect in false recognition was, however, eliminated when DRM items were presented in random order. Participants in Experiment 3 were presented with both DRM lists and lists of unrelated words. Future rating increased levels of false recognition for DRM lures but did not affect correct recognition for DRM or unrelated lists. The findings are discussed in terms of the view that false memories can be associated with adaptive memory functions.

  9. Neuroscience-driven discovery and development of sleep therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Beitinger, P.; Czisch, M.; Kimura, M.; Steiger, A.; Holsboer, F.


    Until recently, neuroscience has given sleep research and discovery of better treatments of sleep disturbances little attention, despite the fact that disturbed sleep has overwhelming impact on human health. Sleep is a complex phenomenon in which specific psychological, electrophysiological,

  10. The risk factor of false-negative and false-positive for T-SPOT.TB in active tuberculosis. (United States)

    Di, Li; Li, Yan


    T-SPOT.TB is a promising diagnosis tool to identify both pulmonary tuberculosis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, as well as latent tuberculosis; however, the factors that affect the results of T-SPOT.TB remains unclear. In this study, we aim to figure out the risk factor of T-SPOT.TB for active TB. A total of 349 patients were recruited between January 1st, 2016 and January 22st, 2017 at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, including 98 subjects with TB and 251 subjects with non-TB disease, and received T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd). Statistics were analyzed by SPSS 19.0 using logistic regression. The overall specificity and sensitivity of the T-SPOT.TB was 92.83% (233/251; 95%CI 0.8872-0.9557) and 83.67% (82/98; 95%CI 0.7454-0.9010), respectively. Patients with tuberculous meningitis were more likely to have false-negative results (OR 17.4, 95%CI 3.068-98.671; PTB tended to induce false-positive results (OR 30.297; 95%CI 7.069-129.849; PTB (exclude tuberculous meningitis) (P>.05). Tuberculous meningitis was a risk factor of false-negative for T-SPOT.TB, while cured TB was a risk factor of false-positive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Classification of auditory brainstem responses through symbolic pattern discovery. (United States)

    Molina, Marco E; Perez, Aurora; Valente, Juan P


    Numeric time series are present in a very wide range of domains, including many branches of medicine. Data mining techniques have proved to be useful for knowledge discovery in this type of data and for supporting decision-making processes. The overall objective is to classify time series based on the discovery of frequent patterns. These patterns will be discovered in symbolic sequences obtained from the time series data by means of a temporal abstraction process. Firstly, we transform numeric time series into symbolic time sequences, where the symbols aim to represent the relevant domain concepts. These symbols can be defined using either public or expert domain knowledge. Then we apply a symbolic pattern discovery technique to the output symbolic sequences. This technique identifies the subsequences frequently found in a population group. These subsequences (patterns) are representative of population groups. Finally, we employ a classification technique based on the identified patterns in order to classify new individuals. Thanks to the inclusion of domain knowledge, the classification results can be explained using domain terminology. This makes the results easier to interpret for the domain specialist (physician). This method has been applied to brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) time series. Preliminary experiments were carried out to analyse several aspects of the method including the best configuration of the pattern discovery technique parameters. We then applied the method to the BAEPs of 83 individuals belonging to four classes (healthy, conductive hearing loss, vestibular schwannoma-brainstem involvement and vestibular schwannoma-8th-nerve involvement). According to the results of the cross-validation, overall accuracy was 99.4%, sensitivity (recall) was 97.6% and specificity was 100% (no false positives). The proposed method effectively reduces dimensionality. Additionally, if the symbolic transformation includes the right domain knowledge

  12. Early response to false claims in Wikipedia


    Magnus, P.D.


    A number of studies have assessed the reliability of entries in the Wikipedia at specific times. One important difference between the Wikipedia and traditional media, however, is the dynamic nature of its entries. An entry assessed today might be substantially extended or reworked tomorrow. This study paper assesses the frequency with which small, inaccurate changes are quickly corrected.

  13. Interrogated with Intellectual Disabilities: The Risks of False Confession. (United States)

    Schatz, Samson J


    False confessions happen. At least 245 people have been exonerated from convictions in cases featuring confessions that were simply not true. Confessions offer a narrative that allows law enforcement, and society in general, to neatly resolve cases with apparent clarity and closure. And yet the pressures officers place on suspects to provide that closure weigh disproportionately on the vulnerable, including individuals with intellectual disabilities. These individuals are disadvantaged at every step of the custodial interrogation, and they face heightened risks of falsely confessing. Moreover, the principal judicial safeguards against false confessions--assessing a suspect's Miranda waiver and determining whether a confession was voluntarily given within the bounds of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Due Process Clause--provide little protection for the innocent with intellectual disabilities. Few pieces of scholarship focus specifically on the heightened risks faced by individuals with intellectual disabilities throughout the process of police interrogation. This Note describes the various ways these individuals are disadvantaged. And it offers an additional data point illustrating the vulnerability of people with intellectual disabilities. This Note analyzes the 245 individuals (as of June 2, 2017) on the National Registry of Exonerations who have falsely confessed. Over one-quarter of them display indicia of intellectual disability. This percentage dwarfs the prevalence of people with intellectual disabilities in the general population and even exceeds most estimates of the proportion of the prison population suffering from intellectual disabilities. This Note concludes with several policy and doctrinal suggestions to better protect individuals with intellectual disabilities from the risks of false confession.

  14. Deep Hole in 'Clovis' (False Color) (United States)


    At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This false color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches).

  15. Locality-sensitive Hashing without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus


    We consider a new construction of locality-sensitive hash functions for Hamming space that is covering in the sense that is it guaranteed to produce a collision for every pair of vectors within a given radius r. The construction is efficient in the sense that the expected number of hash collisions......(n)/k, where n is the number of points in the data set and k ∊ N, and differs from it by at most a factor ln(4) in the exponent for general values of cr. As a consequence, LSH-based similarity search in Hamming space can avoid the problem of false negatives at little or no cost in efficiency. Read More: http...... between vectors at distance cr, for a given c > 1, comes close to that of the best possible data independent LSH without the covering guarantee, namely, the seminal LSH construction of Indyk and Motwani (FOCS ′98). The efficiency of the new construction essentially matches their bound if cr = log...

  16. Blind sequential lineup administration reduces both false identifications and confidence in those false identifications. (United States)

    Charman, Steve D; Quiroz, Vanessa


    One of the most recommended procedures proposed by eyewitness experts is the use of double-blind lineups, in which the administrator does not know the identity of the suspect in the lineup. But despite the near universality of this recommendation, there is surprisingly little empirical research to support the claim that nonblind administration inflates false identifications. What little research has been conducted has shown conflicting findings with regard to the conditions under which nonblind administration affects false identifications, as well as its effects on witness confidence. The current study attempts to elucidate this effect. Student-participants (n = 312) were randomly assigned to play the role of either a lineup administrator (who were either told the identity of the suspect in the lineup or not) or a mock crime witness. Following unbiased instructions, administrators presented either a target-present or target-absent sequential lineup to the witness while being surreptitiously videorecorded. Nonblind administration significantly inflated false, but not correct, identifications, and significantly inflated witness confidence in those false identifications. Video recordings indicated that nonblind administrators were significantly more likely than blind administrators to smile (a) while the witness was viewing a photograph of the suspect, and (b) after a suspect identification. Results provide stronger support for the use of blind lineup administration by broadening the conditions under which nonblind administration is shown to inflate false identifications. Possible reconciliations for conflicting findings in the literature are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy (United States)

    Myers, L. S.


    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater

  18. 18 CFR 385.402 - Scope of discovery (Rule 402). (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of discovery (Rule 402). 385.402 Section 385.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... persons having any knowledge of any discoverable matter. It is not ground for objection that the...

  19. 10 CFR 2.704 - Discovery-required disclosures. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery-required disclosures. 2.704 Section 2.704 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... of documents identified under paragraph (c) of this section. A list of those objections must be...

  20. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract) (United States)

    Post, R. S.


    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  1. Activity artifacts in drug discovery and different facets of compound promiscuity [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bajorath


    Full Text Available Compounds with apparent activity in a variety of assays might disable target proteins or produce false assay signals in the absence of specific interactions. In some instances, such effects are easy to detect, in others they are not. Observed promiscuity of compounds might be due to such non-specific assay artifacts. By contrast, promiscuity might also result from specific interactions with multiple targets. In the latter case, promiscuous compounds can be attractive candidates for certain therapeutic applications. However, compounds with artificial activity readouts are often not recognized and are further progressed, which presents a substantial problem for drug discovery. In this context, the concept of PAINS (pan-assay interference compounds should be seriously considered, which makes it possible to eliminate flawed compounds from the discovery pipeline, even if their activities appear to be sound at a first glance.

  2. Single-Feature Polymorphism Discovery by Computing Probe Affinity Shape Powers (United States)

    Single-feature polymorphism (SFP) discovery is a rapid and cost-effective approach for plant genomic polymorphism studies. However, either a high false positive rate or low sensitivity was reported in previous SFP detection methods. An alternative method was developed for genome-wide SFP discovery b...

  3. Developmental trends in different types of spontaneous false memories: Implications for the legal field


    Otgaar, H.; Howe, M. L.; Peters, M.; Sauerland, M.; Raymaekers, L.


    An emerging area of memory research is showing that a certain type of false memory called spontaneous false memories follows a developmental trajectory that is the opposite of what is commonly assumed in false memory research. That is, spontaneous false memories are more likely to occur in adults than in children. The present study focused on developmental trends of different types of spontaneous false memories. Specifically, in the current study, 6-8-year-olds, 10-12-year-olds, and adults we...

  4. 'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color) (United States)


    Photojournal note: This very large image (487.9 MB TIFF and 17.71 MB JPEG) may be too large for some web browsers to handle. Users may right-click on the TIFF or JPEG link in the legend above to download the file to their desktop. The image can then be viewed in an image manipulation application such as Adobe Photoshop. During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay. Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.' This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera. Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004

  5. Developmental trends in different types of spontaneous false memories: implications for the legal field. (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Peters, Maarten; Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey


    In an emerging area of memory research, it is becoming apparent that one particular type of false memory, called spontaneous false memory, follows a developmental trajectory that is the opposite of what is commonly assumed in false memory research - that is, spontaneous false memories are more likely to occur in adults than in children. The present study focused on developmental trends of different types of spontaneous false memories. Specifically, in the current study, 6-8 year-olds, 10-12 year-olds, and adults were presented with two methods to induce spontaneous false memories: (i) semantically related word lists that are commonly used to evoke spontaneous false memories [i.e, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm]; and (ii) a video in which related details were not shown but were presented during a recognition task. The results showed that children were more likely to form false memories than adults in the video false memory paradigm, whereas DRM false memories were more evident in adults than in children. Furthermore, we found that on a general level, DRM false memories were positively related to video spontaneous false memories. We explain that stimuli that contain obvious themes attenuate or even reverse developmental trends in spontaneous false memories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Orphan diseases: state of the drug discovery art. (United States)

    Volmar, Claude-Henry; Wahlestedt, Claes; Brothers, Shaun P


    Since 1983 more than 300 drugs have been developed and approved for orphan diseases. However, considering the development of novel diagnosis tools, the number of rare diseases vastly outpaces therapeutic discovery. Academic centers and nonprofit institutes are now at the forefront of rare disease R&D, partnering with pharmaceutical companies when academic researchers discover novel drugs or targets for specific diseases, thus reducing the failure risk and cost for pharmaceutical companies. Considerable progress has occurred in the art of orphan drug discovery, and a symbiotic relationship now exists between pharmaceutical industry, academia, and philanthropists that provides a useful framework for orphan disease therapeutic discovery. Here, the current state-of-the-art of drug discovery for orphan diseases is reviewed. Current technological approaches and challenges for drug discovery are considered, some of which can present somewhat unique challenges and opportunities in orphan diseases, including the potential for personalized medicine, gene therapy, and phenotypic screening.

  7. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery. (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas


    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  8. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color) (United States)


    features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains. Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is a false-color composite combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Discovery of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.


    A number of distinguished scientists irradiated uranium with neutrons during 1934-1938. All were knowledgeable about the periodic table. They observed a number of beta-emitting activities that seemed to be from transuranic elements. They assumed that elements 93 and 94 would have chemical properties similar to rhenium and osmium respectively. In consequence discovery of fission and neptunium was delayed. After fission was finally demonstrated, a new search for element 93 was initiated by McMillan. He showed that when thin films of uranium are exposed to neutrons, high energy fission products leave the film - 23 minute and 2.3 day activities. The 23 minute activity was known to be an isotope of uranium. Chemistry performed by Abelson in May 1940 produced conclusive evidence that the 2.3 day activity was from the transuranic element 93 later named neptunium

  10. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  11. False prolongation of International Normalized Ratio associated with daptomycin. (United States)

    Smith, Susan E; Rumbaugh, Kelli A


    Persistent elevation of prothrombin time (PT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR) values in a patient receiving daptomycin is reported. A morbidly obese 51-year-old man was hospitalized for evaluation for surgical intervention for gallstone pancreatitis and biliary obstruction. Previously prescribed warfarin therapy was withheld due to suspected coagulopathy and an elevated INR (5.1), and warfarin reversal was initiated. After undergoing partial cholecystectomy on hospital day 6, the patient developed sepsis and was treated with i.v. meropenem and daptomycin for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus infection. Warfarin therapy, which had been resumed after cholecystectomy, was again discontinued on hospital day 12. On the eighth day of daptomycin therapy, the INR remained elevated (2.6) even though the patient had no warfarin exposure for 9 days. On hospital day 21, thromboelastography (TEG) indicated normal whole blood coagulation. Other anticoagulation markers normalized, but the INR remained elevated until daptomycin was discontinued. Daptomycin has been shown to falsely prolong the INR when specific laboratory reagents are used for PT and INR testing, but the specific reagent used in this case has not been previously implicated. Daptomycin therapy appeared to cause a false and substantial INR elevation in a patient who had been receiving warfarin. Results of TEG suggested that the INR elevation was an artifact of a drug-laboratory interaction and did not represent an anticoagulated state. The patient's INR normalized after linezolid was substituted for daptomycin. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. False memory ≠ false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ost

    Full Text Available The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = -.01. This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent.

  13. False memory ≠ false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect. (United States)

    Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly


    The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r  = -.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent.

  14. Discovery radiomics via evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery for pathologically proven lung cancer detection. (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Chung, Audrey G; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander


    While lung cancer is the second most diagnosed form of cancer in men and women, a sufficiently early diagnosis can be pivotal in patient survival rates. Imaging-based, or radiomics-driven, detection methods have been developed to aid diagnosticians, but largely rely on hand-crafted features that may not fully encapsulate the differences between cancerous and healthy tissue. Recently, the concept of discovery radiomics was introduced, where custom abstract features are discovered from readily available imaging data. We propose an evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach based on evolutionary deep intelligence. Motivated by patient privacy concerns and the idea of operational artificial intelligence, the evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach organically evolves increasingly more efficient deep radiomic sequencers that produce significantly more compact yet similarly descriptive radiomic sequences over multiple generations. As a result, this framework improves operational efficiency and enables diagnosis to be run locally at the radiologist's computer while maintaining detection accuracy. We evaluated the evolved deep radiomic sequencer (EDRS) discovered via the proposed evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery framework against state-of-the-art radiomics-driven and discovery radiomics methods using clinical lung CT data with pathologically proven diagnostic data from the LIDC-IDRI dataset. The EDRS shows improved sensitivity (93.42%), specificity (82.39%), and diagnostic accuracy (88.78%) relative to previous radiomics approaches.

  15. Effects of post-encoding stress on performance in the DRM false memory paradigm


    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.


    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false memory task) and memory was tested 24 h later. Stress decreased recognition of studied words, while increasing false recognition of semantically rel...

  16. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 28, 2015 ... Of the about 3000 isotopes presently known, about 20% have been discovered in fission. The history of fission as it relates to the discovery of isotopes as well as the various reaction mechanisms leading to isotope discoveries involving fission are presented.

  17. Resource Discovery in Activity-Based Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucur, Doina; Bardram, Jakob

    This paper proposes a service discovery protocol for sensor networks that is specifically tailored for use in humancentered pervasive environments. It uses the high-level concept of computational activities (as logical bundles of data and resources) to give sensors in Activity-Based Sensor Networks...... (ABSNs) knowledge about their usage even at the network layer. ABSN redesigns classical network-level service discovery protocols to include and use this logical structuring of the network for a more practically applicable service discovery scheme. Noting that in practical settings activity-based sensor...

  18. Inseparability of science history and discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herndon


    Full Text Available Science is very much a logical progression through time. Progressing along a logical path of discovery is rather like following a path through the wilderness. Occasionally the path splits, presenting a choice; the correct logical interpretation leads to further progress, the wrong choice leads to confusion. By considering deeply the relevant science history, one might begin to recognize past faltering in the logical progression of observations and ideas and, perhaps then, to discover new, more precise understanding. The following specific examples of science faltering are described from a historical perspective: (1 Composition of the Earth's inner core; (2 Giant planet internal energy production; (3 Physical impossibility of Earth-core convection and Earth-mantle convection, and; (4 Thermonuclear ignition of stars. For each example, a revised logical progression is described, leading, respectively, to: (1 Understanding the endo-Earth's composition; (2 The concept of nuclear georeactor origin of geo- and planetary magnetic fields; (3 The invalidation and replacement of plate tectonics; and, (4 Understanding the basis for the observed distribution of luminous stars in galaxies. These revised logical progressions clearly show the inseparability of science history and discovery. A different and more fundamental approach to making scientific discoveries than the frequently discussed variants of the scientific method is this: An individual ponders and through tedious efforts arranges seemingly unrelated observations into a logical sequence in the mind so that causal relationships become evident and new understanding emerges, showing the path for new observations, for new experiments, for new theoretical considerations, and for new discoveries. Science history is rich in "seemingly unrelated observations" just waiting to be logically and causally related to reveal new discoveries.

  19. What Is False Memory Development the Development of? Comment on Brainerd, Reyna, and Ceci (2008) (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.


    In this commentary, assumptions about the nature and development of children's false memories as described in a recent article by C. J. Brainerd, V. F. Reyna, and S. J. Ceci (2008) are reviewed. Specifically, questions are raised about what drives the development of false memories in fuzzy-trace theory (FTT). Recent studies that challenge a core…

  20. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports (United States)

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.


    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  1. 10 CFR 1008.14 - Requests under false pretenses. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests under false pretenses. 1008.14 Section 1008.14... for Access or Amendment § 1008.14 Requests under false pretenses. Subsection (i)(3) of the Act... individual from an agency under false pretenses shall be quilty of a misdeamenaor and fined not more than $5...

  2. 7 CFR 160.90 - False, misleading, or deceitful practices. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Labeling, Advertising and Packing § 160.90 False, misleading, or... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false False, misleading, or deceitful practices. 160.90... commerce or of anything offered as such shall be false, misleading, or deceitful in any manner. ...

  3. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia


    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  4. Knowledge Discovery from Vibration Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Deng


    Full Text Available The framework as well as the particular algorithms of pattern recognition process is widely adopted in structural health monitoring (SHM. However, as a part of the overall process of knowledge discovery from data bases (KDD, the results of pattern recognition are only changes and patterns of changes of data features. In this paper, based on the similarity between KDD and SHM and considering the particularity of SHM problems, a four-step framework of SHM is proposed which extends the final goal of SHM from detecting damages to extracting knowledge to facilitate decision making. The purposes and proper methods of each step of this framework are discussed. To demonstrate the proposed SHM framework, a specific SHM method which is composed by the second order structural parameter identification, statistical control chart analysis, and system reliability analysis is then presented. To examine the performance of this SHM method, real sensor data measured from a lab size steel bridge model structure are used. The developed four-step framework of SHM has the potential to clarify the process of SHM to facilitate the further development of SHM techniques.

  5. The Discovery of Dabigatran Etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne evan Ryn


    Full Text Available Thromboembolic disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world and is caused by an excessive stimulation of coagulation. Thrombin is a key serine protease in the coagulation cascade and numerous efforts have been made to develop safe and effective orally active direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs. Current anticoagulant therapy includes the use of indirect thrombin inhibitors (e.g. heparins, low-molecular-weight-heparins [LMWHs] and vitamin K antagonists (VKA such as warfarin. However there are several caveats in the clinical use of these agents including narrow therapeutic window, parenteral delivery, and food- and drug-drug interactions. Dabigatran is a synthetic, reversible DTI with high affinity and specificity for its target binding both free and clot-bound thrombin, and offers a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Large randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that dabigatran provides comparable or superior thromboprophylaxis in multiple thromboembolic disease indications compared to standard of care. This minireview will highlight the discovery and development of dabigatran, the first in a class of new oral anticoagulant (NOAC agents to be licensed worldwide for the prevention of thromboembolism in the setting of orthopedic surgery and stroke prevent in atrial fibrillation.

  6. Lysophospholipid receptors in drug discovery. (United States)

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Chun, Jerold


    Lysophospholipids (LPs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are bioactive lipids that transduce signals through their specific cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-6, S1P1-5, LPI1, and LysoPS1-3, respectively. These LPs and their receptors have been implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, fibrosis, pain, cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, bone formation, fertility, organismal development, and other effects on most organ systems. Advances in the LP receptor field have enabled the development of novel small molecules targeting LP receptors for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), an S1P receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. This success is currently being followed by multiple, mechanistically related compounds targeting S1P receptor subtypes, which are in various stages of clinical development. In addition, an LPA1 antagonist, BMS-986020 (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is in Phase 2 clinical development for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as a distinct compound, SAR100842 (Sanofi) for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and related fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes the current state of drug discovery in the LP receptor field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Landmark Discoveries in Neurosciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    I?', they had to understand the origin of the thought process itself. They had to .... and neuro-anatomist propounded a radical view in the 1800s that all behaviour and mental functions might be the result of specific processes in specific regions of the brain. ... ing different cognitive functions was slow because the electro-.

  8. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery. (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis


    Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  9. Bayesian centroid estimation for motif discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Biological sequences may contain patterns that signal important biomolecular functions; a classical example is regulation of gene expression by transcription factors that bind to specific patterns in genomic promoter regions. In motif discovery we are given a set of sequences that share a common motif and aim to identify not only the motif composition, but also the binding sites in each sequence of the set. We propose a new centroid estimator that arises from a refined and meaningful loss function for binding site inference. We discuss the main advantages of centroid estimation for motif discovery, including computational convenience, and how its principled derivation offers further insights about the posterior distribution of binding site configurations. We also illustrate, using simulated and real datasets, that the centroid estimator can differ from the traditional maximum a posteriori or maximum likelihood estimators.

  10. False anglicisms in the Spanish language of fashion and beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Balteiro


    Full Text Available Many works have already dealt with anglicisms in Spanish, especially in science and information technologies. However, despite the high and growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, it has received comparative less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies than that of other areas, such as science or business. For several reasons, which include prestige or peer pressure, Spanish has not only adopted English words with new meanings and usage, but also contains other forms based on English patterns which users seem to consider more accurate or expressive. This paper concentrates on false anglicisms as indicators of some of the special relationships and influences between languages arising from the pervasive presence of English. We shall look at the Spanish language of fashion, which, in addition to genuine anglicisms, has for some time been using English words with different meanings, or even created items of its own (or imported them from other languages with the appearance of English words. These false anglicisms, which have proven extremely popular in receiving languages (not only in Spanish have frequently been disseminated by youth magazines and the new digital media, both in general spheres and in fashion-specific contexts.

  11. Court limits claims alleging false rumor of AIDS. (United States)


    Two employees of the [name removed] told several county employees not to visit a restaurant, the Colonial House, because they believed one of the people working there had AIDS. A suit filed by Colonial House alleged that the statements by the medical services employees were defamatory, false, made with malice, and intended to harm the reputations of the businesses, owners, and employees. A Superior Court judge dismissed the lawsuit. A three-judge panel in the State Court of Appeals ruled that since the defendants are accused of making a reference to someone rather than a specific individual, the plaintiffs had no cause of action for defamation. The plaintiffs did succeed in persuading the appeals court to allow the lawsuit to proceed based on the plaintiff's claims of intentional and negligent infliction of emotional distress.

  12. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency (United States)

    John, Colin


    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  13. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Promann


    Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.

  14. Dissociated developmental trajectories for semantic and phonological false memories. (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E; Weekes, Brendan S


    False recognition following presentation of semantically related and phonologically related word lists was evaluated in 8-, 11-, and 13-year-olds. Children heard lists of words that were either semantic (e.g., bed, rest, wake ...) or phonological associates (e.g., pole, bowl, hole ...) of a critical unpresented word (e.g., sleep, roll), respectively. A semantic false memory was defined as false recognition of a semantically related but unpresented word. A phonological false memory was defined as false recognition of a phonologically related but unpresented word. False memories in the two tasks showed opposite developmental trends, increasing with age for semantic relatedness and decreasing with age for phonological relatedness.

  15. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi


    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  16. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.


    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.


    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  18. Scientific discovery through weighted sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sidirourgos (Eleftherios); M.L. Kersten (Martin); P.A. Boncz (Peter)


    textabstractScientific discovery has shifted from being an exercise of theory and computation, to become the exploration of an ocean of observational data. Scientists explore data originated from modern scientific instruments in order to discover

  19. Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery. (United States)

    Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak


    Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes.

  20. Norms for word lists that create false memories. (United States)

    Stadler, M A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B


    Roediger and McDermott (1995) induced false recall and false recognition for words that were not presented in lists. They had subjects study 24 lists of 15 words that were associates of a common word (called the critical target or critical lure) that was not presented in the list. False recall and false recognition of the critical target occurred frequently in response to these lists. The purpose of the current work was to provide a set of normative data for the lists Roediger and McDermott used and for 12 others developed more recently. We tested false recall and false recognition for critical targets from 36 lists. Despite the fact that all lists were constructed to produce false remembering, the diversity in their effectiveness was large--60% or more of subjects falsely recalled window and sleep following the appropriate lists, and false recognition for these items was greater than 80%. However, the list generated from king led to 10% false recall and 27% false recognition. Possible reasons for these wide differences in effectiveness of the lists are discussed. These norms serve as a useful benchmark for designing experiments about false recall and false recognition in this paradigm.

  1. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.


    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  2. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda


    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  3. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge


    Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  4. Biomimicry as a basis for drug discovery. (United States)

    Kolb, V M


    Selected works are discussed which clearly demonstrate that mimicking various aspects of the process by which natural products evolved is becoming a powerful tool in contemporary drug discovery. Natural products are an established and rich source of drugs. The term "natural product" is often used synonymously with "secondary metabolite." Knowledge of genetics and molecular evolution helps us understand how biosynthesis of many classes of secondary metabolites evolved. One proposed hypothesis is termed "inventive evolution." It invokes duplication of genes, and mutation of the gene copies, among other genetic events. The modified duplicate genes, per se or in conjunction with other genetic events, may give rise to new enzymes, which, in turn, may generate new products, some of which may be selected for. Steps of the inventive evolution can be mimicked in several ways for purpose of drug discovery. For example, libraries of chemical compounds of any imaginable structure may be produced by combinatorial synthesis. Out of these libraries new active compounds can be selected. In another example, genetic system can be manipulated to produce modified natural products ("unnatural natural products"), from which new drugs can be selected. In some instances, similar natural products turn up in species that are not direct descendants of each other. This is presumably due to a horizontal gene transfer. The mechanism of this inter-species gene transfer can be mimicked in therapeutic gene delivery. Mimicking specifics or principles of chemical evolution including experimental and test-tube evolution also provides leads for new drug discovery.

  5. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou


    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  6. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery. (United States)

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D


    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two prototype Robot Scientists: Adam and Eve. Adam has recently proven the potential of such systems by identifying twelve genes responsible for catalysing specific reactions in the metabolic pathways of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work has been formally recorded in great detail using logic. We argue that the reporting of science needs to become fully formalised and that Robot Scientists can help achieve this. This will make scientific information more reproducible and reusable, and promote the integration of computers in scientific reasoning. We believe the greater automation of both the physical and intellectual aspects of scientific investigations to be essential to the future of science. Greater automation improves the accuracy and reliability of experiments, increases the pace of discovery and, in common with conventional laboratory automation, removes tedious and repetitive tasks from the human scientist.

  7. Neural processing associated with true and false memory retrieval. (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig


    We investigated the neural bases for false memory with fMRI by examining neural activity during retrieval processes that yielded true or false memories. We used a reality monitoring paradigm in which participants saw or imagined pictures of concrete objects. (A subsequent misinformation task was also used to increase false memory rates.) At test, fMRI data were collected as the participants determined whether they had seen or had only imagined the object at study. True memories were of seen pictures accurately endorsed as seen, and for false memories were of imagined pictures falsely endorsed as seen. Three distinct patterns of activity were observed: Left frontal and parietal activity was not different for true and for false memories, whereas activity was greater for true than for false memories in occipital visual regions and posterior portions of the parahippocampal gyrus, and activity was greater for false than for true memories in right anterior cingulate gyrus. Possible interpretations are discussed.

  8. The false memory syndrome: Experimental studies and comparison to confabulations


    Mendez, M.F.; Fras, I.A.


    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger–McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for com...

  9. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty for false statement... PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation. (a) Any..., or his dependents pursuant to section 9, 33 U.S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be...

  10. Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) Autotrend Evaluation Report (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-AE-11-01 CONSTANT FALSE ALARM RATE ( CFAR ) AUTOTREND EVALUATION REPORT Daniel Wade Aviation Engineering...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Constant False Alarm Rate ( CFAR ) Autotrend Evaluation Report 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...performance of the Constant False Alarm Rate ( CFAR ) Autotrend dynamic alert detection technology as an augmentation to the Apache Modernized Signal

  11. Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories (United States)

    Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.


    False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

  12. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm (United States)

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.


    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision…

  13. Protein complex prediction via dense subgraphs and false positive analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Hernandez

    Full Text Available Many proteins work together with others in groups called complexes in order to achieve a specific function. Discovering protein complexes is important for understanding biological processes and predict protein functions in living organisms. Large-scale and throughput techniques have made possible to compile protein-protein interaction networks (PPI networks, which have been used in several computational approaches for detecting protein complexes. Those predictions might guide future biologic experimental research. Some approaches are topology-based, where highly connected proteins are predicted to be complexes; some propose different clustering algorithms using partitioning, overlaps among clusters for networks modeled with unweighted or weighted graphs; and others use density of clusters and information based on protein functionality. However, some schemes still require much processing time or the quality of their results can be improved. Furthermore, most of the results obtained with computational tools are not accompanied by an analysis of false positives. We propose an effective and efficient mining algorithm for discovering highly connected subgraphs, which is our base for defining protein complexes. Our representation is based on transforming the PPI network into a directed acyclic graph that reduces the number of represented edges and the search space for discovering subgraphs. Our approach considers weighted and unweighted PPI networks. We compare our best alternative using PPI networks from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast and Homo sapiens (human with state-of-the-art approaches in terms of clustering, biological metrics and execution times, as well as three gold standards for yeast and two for human. Furthermore, we analyze false positive predicted complexes searching the PDBe (Protein Data Bank in Europe database in order to identify matching protein complexes that have been purified and structurally characterized. Our analysis shows

  14. Universal Knowledge Discovery from Big Data: Towards a Paradigm Shift from 'Knowledge Discovery' to 'Wisdom Discovery'


    Shen, Bin


    Many people hold a vision that big data will provide big insights and have a big impact in the future, and big-data-assisted scientific discovery is seen as an emerging and promising scientific paradigm. However, how to turn big data into deep insights with tremendous value still remains obscure. To meet the challenge, universal knowledge discovery from big data (UKD) is proposed. The new concept focuses on discovering universal knowledge, which exists in the statistical analyses of big data ...

  15. Motif discovery in ranked lists of sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Muhlig; Tataru, Paula; Madsen, Tobias


    a growing need for motif analysis methods that can exploit this coupled data structure and be tailored for specific biological questions. Here, we present an exploratory motif analysis tool, Regmex (REGular expression Motif EXplorer), which offers several methods to evaluate the correlation of motifs....... These features make Regmex well suited for a range of biological sequence analysis problems related to motif discovery, exemplified by microRNA seed enrichment, but also including enrichment problems involving complex motifs and combinations of motifs. We demonstrate a number of usage scenarios that take...

  16. Reducing false negatives in clinical practice: the role of neural network technology. (United States)

    Mango, L J


    The fact that some cervical smears result in false-negative findings is an unavoidable and unpredictable consequence of the conventional (manual microscopic) method of screening. Errors in the detection and interpretation of abnormality are cited as leading causes of false-negative cytology findings; these are random errors that are not known to correlate with any patient risk factor, which makes the false-negative findings a "silent" threat that is difficult to prevent. Described by many as a labor-intensive procedure, the microscopic evaluation of a cervical smear involves a detailed search among hundreds of thousands of cells on each smear for a possible few that may indicate abnormality. Investigations into causes of false-negative findings preceding the discovery of high-grade lesions found that many smears had very few diagnostic cells that were often very small in size. These small cells were initially overlooked or misinterpreted and repeatedly missed on rescreening. PAPNET testing is designed to supplement conventional screening by detecting abnormal cells that initially may have been missed by microscopic examination. This interactive system uses neural networks, a type of artificial intelligence well suited for pattern recognition, to automate the arduous search for abnormality. The instrument focuses the review of suspicious cells by a trained cytologist. Clinical studies indicate that PAPNET testing is sensitive to abnormality typically missed by conventional screening and that its use as a supplemental test improves the accuracy of screening.

  17. The relationship between DRM and misinformation false memories. (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; Dong, Qi


    This research investigated the relationship between false memories induced by two different paradigms (misinformation and Deese-Roediger-McDermott [DRM]). The misinformation effect refers to the phenomenon that a person's recollection of a witnessed event can be altered after exposure to misleading information about the event. DRM false memory represents the intrusion of words that are semantically related but not actually presented in the study session. Subjects (N = 432) completed both misinformation and DRM false memory tests. Results showed a small but significant correlation (r = .12, p = .02) between the misinformation and DRM false memories. Furthermore, using signal detection theory, we found that the discrimination ability index (d') was related to both the misinformation and DRM false memories (r = -.12 and -.13, p = .01), while the response bias was related only to DRM false memory (r = -.46, p DRM false memories generally involve different mechanisms and that their shared mechanism may involve the global discrimination ability.

  18. The influence of perceptual similarity and individual differences on false memories in aging. (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Turney, Indira C


    Previous false memory research has suggested that older adults' false memories are based on an overreliance on gist processing in the absence of item-specific details. Yet, false memory studies have rarely taken into consideration the precise role of item-item similarity on the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying perceptual false memories in older adults. In addition, work in our laboratory has suggested that when investigating the neural basis of false memories in older adults, it is equally as critical to take into account interindividual variability in behavior. With both factors in mind, the present study was the first to examine how both controlled, systematic differences in perceptual relatedness between targets and lures and individual differences in true and false recognition contribute to the neural basis of both true and false memories in older adults. Results suggest that between-subject variability in memory performance modulates neural activity in key regions associated with false memories in aging, whereas systematic differences in perceptual similarity did not modulate neural activity associated with false memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  20. Robust and Accurate Anomaly Detection in ECG Artifacts Using Time Series Motif Discovery (United States)

    Sivaraks, Haemwaan


    Electrocardiogram (ECG) anomaly detection is an important technique for detecting dissimilar heartbeats which helps identify abnormal ECGs before the diagnosis process. Currently available ECG anomaly detection methods, ranging from academic research to commercial ECG machines, still suffer from a high false alarm rate because these methods are not able to differentiate ECG artifacts from real ECG signal, especially, in ECG artifacts that are similar to ECG signals in terms of shape and/or frequency. The problem leads to high vigilance for physicians and misinterpretation risk for nonspecialists. Therefore, this work proposes a novel anomaly detection technique that is highly robust and accurate in the presence of ECG artifacts which can effectively reduce the false alarm rate. Expert knowledge from cardiologists and motif discovery technique is utilized in our design. In addition, every step of the algorithm conforms to the interpretation of cardiologists. Our method can be utilized to both single-lead ECGs and multilead ECGs. Our experiment results on real ECG datasets are interpreted and evaluated by cardiologists. Our proposed algorithm can mostly achieve 100% of accuracy on detection (AoD), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value with 0% false alarm rate. The results demonstrate that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust to artifacts, compared with competitive anomaly detection methods. PMID:25688284

  1. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery. (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G


    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. In defence of discovery learning. (United States)

    Vereijken, B; Whiting, H T


    The present paper discusses the influence of different training methods--i.e., knowledge of results, preferred frequency, and the availability of a model--on the learning of a complex motor skill, in this case the learning of slalom ski-type movements on a ski-simulator. Results of three experiments performed on this apparatus showed that, although the training methods used influence the course of learning, none of the methods used was actually superior to discovery learning. It is suggested that discovery learning forces the learner to explore the dynamics of the system in which he or she operates, in an iterative way. Possibilities for cooperative working between prescription and discovery learning are discussed.

  3. Image processing of false identity documents for forensic intelligence. (United States)

    Talbot-Wright, Benjamin; Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Roux, Claude


    Forensic intelligence has recently gathered increasing attention as a potential expansion of forensic science that may contribute in a wider policing and security context. Whilst the new avenue is certainly promising, relatively few attempts to incorporate models, methods and techniques into practical projects are reported. This work reports a practical application of a generalised and transversal framework for developing forensic intelligence processes referred to here as the Transversal model adapted from previous work. Visual features present in the images of four datasets of false identity documents were systematically profiled and compared using image processing for the detection of a series of modus operandi (M.O.) actions. The nature of these series and their relation to the notion of common source was evaluated with respect to alternative known information and inferences drawn regarding respective crime systems. 439 documents seized by police and border guard authorities across 10 jurisdictions in Switzerland with known and unknown source level links formed the datasets for this study. Training sets were developed based on both known source level data, and visually supported relationships. Performance was evaluated through the use of intra-variability and inter-variability scores drawn from over 48,000 comparisons. The optimised method exhibited significant sensitivity combined with strong specificity and demonstrates its ability to support forensic intelligence efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A case of placental trisomy 18 mosaicism causing a false negative NIPT result


    Yang, Jiexia; Qi, Yiming; Guo, Fangfang; Hou, Yaping; Peng, Haishan; Wang, Dongmei; OY, Haoxin; Yin, Aihua


    Background The non-invasive prenatal testing that evaluates circulating cell free DNA, and has been established as an additional pregnancy test for detecting the common fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 is rapidly revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity and specificity. However, false positive and false negative results still exist. Case presentation We presented a case in which the non-invasive prenatal testing results were normal at 15 gestational age (GA), b...

  5. The effect of articulatory suppression on implicit and explicit false memory in the DRM paradigm. (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; Menten, Jan; d'Ydewalle, Gery


    Several studies have shown that reliable implicit false memory can be obtained in the DRM paradigm. There has been considerable debate, however, about whether or not conscious activation of critical lures during study is a necessary condition for this. Recent findings have revealed that articulatory suppression prevents subsequent false priming in an anagram task (Lovden & Johansson, 2003). The present experiment sought to replicate and extend these findings to an implicit word stem completion task, and to additionally investigate the effect of articulatory suppression on explicit false memory. Results showed an inhibitory effect of articulatory suppression on veridical memory, as well as on implicit false memory, whereas the level of explicit false memory was heightened. This suggests that articulatory suppression did not merely eliminate conscious lure activation, but had a more general capacity-delimiting effect. The drop in veridical memory can be attributed to diminished encoding of item-specific information. Superficial encoding also limited the spreading of semantic activation during study, which inhibited later false priming. In addition, the lack of item-specific and phenomenological details caused impaired source monitoring at test, resulting in heightened explicit false memory.

  6. Characteristics of true versus false allegations of sexual offences. (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; van der Sleen, Jannie


    The goal of the study was to establish whether false allegations of sexual offences with an unknown perpetrator can be distinguished from accurate allegations. Case files of 27 true allegations of sexual offences with an unknown perpetrator were compared to those of 14 false allegations. The comparison was guided by a list of 43 criteria that are hypothesized to differentiate between true and false allegations of sexual assault. Analyses indicated the employed criteria differentiated true from false allegations to a certain extent. However, the discriminative strength of some criteria appeared to be stronger than that of others. Research is required to assess further the discriminative power of these criteria.

  7. Usability Test Results for a Discovery Tool in an Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Condit Fagan


    Full Text Available Discovery tools are emerging in libraries. These tools offer library patrons the ability to concurrently search the library catalog and journal articles. While vendors rush to provide feature-rich interfaces and access to as much content as possible, librarians wonder about the usefulness of these tools to library patrons. In order to learn about both the utility and usability of EBSCO Discovery Service, James Madison University conducted a usability test with eight students and two faculty members. The test consisted of nine tasks focused on common patron requests or related to the utility of specific discovery tool features. Software recorded participants’ actions and time on task, human observers judged the success of each task, and a post-survey questionnaire gathered qualitative feedback and comments from the participants.  Overall, participants were successful at most tasks, but specific usability problems suggested some interface changes for both EBSCO Discovery Service and JMU’s customizations of the tool.  The study also raised several questions for libraries above and beyond any specific discovery tool interface, including the scope and purpose of a discovery tool versus other library systems, working with the large result sets made possible by discovery tools, and navigation between the tool and other library services and resources.  This article will be of interest to those who are investigating discovery tools, selecting products, integrating discovery tools into a library web presence, or performing evaluations of similar systems.

  8. Domain-specific markup languages and descriptive metadata: their functions in scientific resource discoveryLinguagens de marcação específicas por domínio e metadados descritivos: funções para a descoberta de recursos científicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lei Zeng


    Full Text Available While metadata has been a strong focus within information professionals‟ publications, projects, and initiatives during the last two decades, a significant number of domain-specific markup languages have also been developing on a parallel path at the same rate as metadata standards; yet, they do not receive comparable attention. This essay discusses the functions of these two kinds of approaches in scientific resource discovery and points out their potential complementary roles through appropriate interoperability approaches.Enquanto os metadados tiveram grande foco em publicações, projetos e iniciativas dos profissionais da informação durante as últimas duas décadas, um número significativo de linguagens de marcação específicas por domínio também se desenvolveram paralelamente a uma taxa equivalente aos padrões de metadados; mas ainda não recebem atenção comparável. Esse artigo discute as funções desses dois tipos de abordagens na descoberta de recursos científicos e aponta papéis potenciais e complementares por meio de abordagens de interoperabilidade apropriadas.

  9. Using Aptamers for Cancer Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Min Chang


    Full Text Available Aptamers are single-stranded synthetic DNA- or RNA-based oligonucleotides that fold into various shapes to bind to a specific target, which includes proteins, metals, and molecules. Aptamers have high affinity and high specificity that are comparable to that of antibodies. They are obtained using iterative method, called (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment SELEX and cell-based SELEX (cell-SELEX. Aptamers can be paired with recent advances in nanotechnology, microarray, microfluidics, and other technologies for applications in clinical medicine. One particular area that aptamers can shed a light on is biomarker discovery. Biomarkers are important in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this paper, we will describe ways in which aptamers can be used to discover biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

  10. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M


    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  11. Smartphones: A Potential Discovery Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Starkweather


    Full Text Available The anticipated wide adoption of smartphones by researchers is viewed by the authors as a basis for developing mobile-based services. In response to the UNLV Libraries’ strategic plan’s focus on experimentation and outreach, the authors investigate the current and potential role of smartphones as a valuable discovery tool for library users.

  12. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh


    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  13. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery (United States)

    Polyak, Steven


    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  14. A Discovery Approach to Movement. (United States)

    O'Hagin, Isabel B.


    Investigates the effects of the discovery approach to movement-based instruction on children's level of musicality. Finds that the students with the highest musicality were girls, demonstrated reflective movements and a personal sense of style while moving, and made sense of the music by organizing, categorizing, and developing movement ideas.…

  15. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    activities as the potential discovery of elements heavier than uranium [5]. He drew this conclusion ... alkaline earth metals in the irradiation of uranium by neutrons) Hahn and Strassmann did. 458. Pramana – J. ... the production of active barium isotopes from uranium and thorium by neutron irradiation;. Proof of further active ...

  16. Face recognition: a model specific ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy B Wilmer


    Full Text Available In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities, often labeled g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition’s variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  17. Face recognition: a model specific ability. (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura T; Nakayama, Ken


    In our everyday lives, we view it as a matter of course that different people are good at different things. It can be surprising, in this context, to learn that most of what is known about cognitive ability variation across individuals concerns the broadest of all cognitive abilities; an ability referred to as general intelligence, general mental ability, or just g. In contrast, our knowledge of specific abilities, those that correlate little with g, is severely constrained. Here, we draw upon our experience investigating an exceptionally specific ability, face recognition, to make the case that many specific abilities could easily have been missed. In making this case, we derive key insights from earlier false starts in the measurement of face recognition's variation across individuals, and we highlight the convergence of factors that enabled the recent discovery that this variation is specific. We propose that the case of face recognition ability illustrates a set of tools and perspectives that could accelerate fruitful work on specific cognitive abilities. By revealing relatively independent dimensions of human ability, such work would enhance our capacity to understand the uniqueness of individual minds.

  18. The interaction between frontal functioning and encoding processes in reducing false memories. (United States)

    Thomas, Ayanna K; McDaniel, Mark A


    Studies suggest that age differences in false memories may be related to deficits in frontal lobe functioning (FLF; Butler, McDaniel, Dornburg, Price, & Roediger, 2004, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 921). In addition, research has demonstrated that item-specific encoding can reduce false memories in younger adults ( Arndt & Reder, 2003, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 830). In the present study we examined whether younger and older adults who perform poorly on tests designed to assess frontal function would be less likely to benefit from item-specific encoding in a false memory paradigm. In three experiments, participants studied categorized word or picture lists. Encoding manipulations were designed to emphasize either item-specific or relational processing. Younger adults and high FLF older adults showed a reduction in false memories when item-specific processing was implemented. However, low FLF older adults showed a reduction in false memories only when relational processing was impoverished. Results suggest that frontal function directly influences the engagement in distinctive encoding processes.

  19. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory (United States)

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te


    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  20. Motivated Reconstruction: The Effect of Brand Commitment on False Memories. (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicole Votolato; Rajagopal, Priyali


    Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews. Further, these differences across brand commitment are attenuated when respondents are primed with an accuracy motivation, suggesting that the biasing effects of commitment are likely because of the motivation to defend the committed brand. Finally, we find that differences in false memories subsequently lead to differences in intentions to spread word-of-mouth (e.g., recommend the product to friends), suggesting that the consequences of false product experience memories can be significant for marketers and consumers. Our findings contribute to the literatures in false memory and marketing by documenting a motivated bias in false memories because of brand commitment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Making up History: False Memories of Fake News Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Polage


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that information that is repeated is more likely to be rated as true than information that has not been heard before. The current experiment examines whether familiarity with false news stories would increase rates of truthfulness and plausibility for these events. Further, the experiment tested whether false stories that were familiar would result in the creation of a false memory of having heard the story outside of the experiment. Participants were exposed to false new stories, each portrayed by the investigator as true news stories. After a five week delay, participants who had read the false experimental stories rated them as more truthful and more plausible than participants who had not been exposed to the stories. In addition, there was evidence of the creation of false memories for the source of the news story. Participants who had previously read about the stories were more likely to believe that they had heard the false stories from a source outside the experiment. These results suggest that repeating false claims will not only increase their believability but may also result in source monitoring errors.

  2. [False iatrogenic aneurysm complicating septic malunion of the femur]. (United States)

    El Yazidi, A; Lahtaoui, A; Berrada, M S; Amezziane, L; El Yaacoubi, M; El Manouar, M


    We report a case of false iatrogenic aneurism of the femoral artery observed after external fixation for septic malunion of the femur subsequent to emergency plate fixation. This false aneurysm ruptured, requiring femoropopliteal arterial repair. In the septic context, the vascular sutures failed making it necessary to ligature the femoral artery. Vascularization was maintained by satisfactory collateral circulation.

  3. Epidemiology, public health, and the rhetoric of false positives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blair, Aaron; Saracci, Rodolfo; Vineis, Paolo


    BACKGROUND: As an observational science, epidemiology is regarded by some researchers as inherently flawed and open to false results. In a recent paper, Boffetta et al. [Boffetta P, McLaughlin JK, LaVecchia C, Tarone RE, Lipworth L, Blot WJ. False-positive results in cancer epidemiology: a plea f...

  4. Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.


    Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

  5. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.


    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  6. CSI (Crime Scene Induction): Creating False Memories of Committing Crime. (United States)

    Porter, Stephen B; Baker, Alysha T


    We describe two merging lines of empirical inquiry: entire false memories for autobiographical events and false confessions. A recent study showed that people can be led to remember, and confess to, perpetrating serious crimes that never occurred when confronted with suggestive interview tactics commonly used in police interrogations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recollection Rejection: How Children Edit Their False Memories. (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.


    Presents new measure of children's use of an editing operation that suppresses false memories by accessing verbatim traces of true events. Application of the methodology showed that false-memory editing increased dramatically between early and middle childhood. Measure reacted appropriately to experimental manipulations. Developmental reductions…

  8. Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa


    The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

  9. Chondrichthyan occurrence and abundance trends in False Bay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercial fishing in False Bay, South Africa, began in the 1600s. Today chondrichthyans are regularly taken in fisheries throughout the bay. Using a combination of catch, survey and life history data, the occurrence and long-term changes in populations of chondrichthyans in False Bay are described. Analyses of time ...

  10. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.


    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S


    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  11. Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function (United States)

    Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi


    The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

  12. Young Children's Difficulty Acknowledging False Belief: Realism and Deception. (United States)

    Saltmarsh, Rebecca; Mitchell, Peter


    Investigated what makes young children acknowledge a false belief held by another person. Showed movies in which a stereotypical item in a familiar box was replaced by one character with an atypical item. Found highly significant improvement in preschoolers' acknowledgment of second character's false belief when preschoolers saw stereotypical…

  13. Neuroanatomical substrates involved in unrelated false facial recognition. (United States)

    Ronzon-Gonzalez, Eliane; Hernandez-Castillo, Carlos R; Pasaye, Erick H; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan


    Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, triggering related false recognition. Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and distinct neural areas. To delve into the neural circuitry of unrelated false recognition, we evaluated the memory and response confidence of participants while watching faces photographs in an fMRI task. Functional activations of unrelated false recognition were identified by contrasting the activation on this condition vs. the activations related to recognition (hits) and correct rejections. The results identified the right precentral and cingulate gyri as areas with distinctive activations during false recognition events suggesting a conflict resulting in a dysfunction during memory retrieval. High confidence suggested that about 50% of misidentifications may be related to an unconscious process. These findings add to our understanding of the construction of facial memories and its biological basis, and the fallibility of the eyewitness testimony.

  14. The false memory syndrome: experimental studies and comparison to confabulations. (United States)

    Mendez, M F; Fras, I A


    False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger-McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal "doubt tag" regarding their certainty. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Individual differences and the creation of false childhood memories. (United States)

    Hyman, I E; Billings, F J


    We investigated if college students will create false childhood memories, the role of self-knowledge in memory creation, and if there are reliable individual differences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. We also asked each student about one false event and presented the false event as if it was based on parent information. We asked the students to describe all events in two interviews separated by one day. When participants could not recall an event (whether true or false), we encouraged them to think about related self-knowledge and to try to imagine the event. In an unrelated experimental session, the students were administered four cognitive/personality scales: the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS). We found that approximately 25% of the students created false childhood memories. Participants who made connections to related self-knowledge in the first interview were more likely to create false memories. We also found that the CIS and the DES were positively related to memory creation. Factors that decrease one's ability to engage in reality monitoring are related to the acceptance of false events and the creation of false memories.

  16. Comparing recollective experience in true and false autobiographical memories. (United States)

    Heaps, C M; Nash, M


    This study investigated whether true autobiographical memories are qualitatively distinct from false autobiographical memories using a variation of the interview method originally reported by E. F. Loftus and J. Pickrell (1995). Participants recalled events provided by parents on 3 separate occasions and were asked to imagine true and false unremembered events. True memories were rated by both participants and observers as more rich in recollective experience and were rated by participants as more important, more emotionally intense, as having clearer imagery, and as less typical than false memories. Rehearsal frequency was used as a covariate, eliminating these effects. Imagery in true memories was most often viewed from the field perspective, whereas imagery in false memories was most often viewed from the observer perspective. More information was communicated in true memories, and true memories contained more information concerning the consequences of described events. Results suggest repeated remembering can make false memories more rich in recollective experience and more like true memories. Differences between true and false memories suggest some potentially distinct characteristics of false memories and provide insight into the process of false memory creation.

  17. Recursive belief manipulation and second-order false-beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Polyanskaya, Irina


    The literature on first-order false-belief is extensive, but less is known about the second-order case. The ability to handle second-order false-beliefs correctly seems to mark a cognitively significant step, but what is its status? Is it an example of *complexity only* development, or does it in...

  18. Correlates of False Self in Adolescent Romantic Relationships (United States)

    Sippola, Lorrie K.; Buchanan, Carie M.; Kehoe, Sabrina


    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal competencies in the peer domain and feelings of false self in romantic relationships. Participants included 238 White, middle-class boys and girls (Grades 10 and 11). Students completed self report measures of false self in romantic relationships and interpersonal…

  19. Do Children "DRM" Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children (United States)

    Metzger, Richard L.; Warren, Amye R.; Shelton, Jill T.; Price, Jodi; Reed, Andrea W.; Williams, Danny


    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but…

  20. Implicit and Explicit False Belief Development in Preschool Children (United States)

    Grosse Wiesmann, Charlotte; Friederici, Angela D.; Singer, Tania; Steinbeis, Nikolaus


    The ability to represent the mental states of other agents is referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). A developmental breakthrough in ToM consists of understanding that others can have false beliefs about the world. Recently, infants younger than 2 years of age have been shown to pass novel implicit false belief tasks. However, the processes…

  1. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN

    CERN Document Server


    This document concerns the award of a contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm PREZIOSO (FR), the lowest bidder, for the provision of paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 538 419 euros (830 381 Swiss francs), not subject to revision for the first two years. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial threeyear period.

  2. Semantic distributed resource discovery for multiple resource providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittaras, C.; Ghijsen, M.; Wibisono, A.; Grosso, P.; van der Ham, J.; de Laat, C.


    An emerging modus operandi among providers of cloud infrastructures is the one where they share and combine their heterogenous resources to offer end user services tailored to specific scientific and business needs. A challenge to overcome is the discovery of suitable resources among these multiple

  3. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse


    Background: Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake.  Methods: We calculated the ratio...... of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact.  Results: Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal...... group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period...

  4. The production of spontaneous false memories across childhood. (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Peters, Maarten; Smeets, Tom; Moritz, Steffen


    We found evidence that the usual developmental trends in children's spontaneous false memories were eliminated using novel stimuli containing obvious themes. That is, children created more false memories than adults when scenes needed to be remembered. In Experiment 1, 7- and 8-year-olds had higher false memory rates than adults when using visual scenes. Experiment 2 showed that gist cuing could not account for this effect. In Experiment 3, children and adults received visual scenes and story contexts in which these scenes were embedded. For both types of stimuli, we found that children had the highest false memory rates. Our results indicate that the underlying theme of these scenes is easily identified, resulting in our developmental false memory trend. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The future of crystallography in drug discovery. (United States)

    Zheng, Heping; Hou, Jing; Zimmerman, Matthew D; Wlodawer, Alexander; Minor, Wladek


    future application in drug discovery by the development of specific tools that would allow realistic interpretation of the outcome coordinates and/or support testing of these hypotheses.

  6. Implementing web-scale discovery services a practical guide for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, JoLinda


    Implementing Web-Scale Discovery Services: A Practical Guide for Librarians is a source for librarians seeking to evaluate, purchase, and implement a web-scale discovery service. The book breaks down each phase of the project into decision points and action plans to help librarians select and implement a system that meets their specific needs.

  7. False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time. (United States)

    Sherman, Susan M


    Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed.

  8. Semantic representations in the temporal pole predict false memories. (United States)

    Chadwick, Martin J; Anjum, Raeesa S; Kumaran, Dharshan; Schacter, Daniel L; Spiers, Hugo J; Hassabis, Demis


    Recent advances in neuroscience have given us unprecedented insight into the neural mechanisms of false memory, showing that artificial memories can be inserted into the memory cells of the hippocampus in a way that is indistinguishable from true memories. However, this alone is not enough to explain how false memories can arise naturally in the course of our daily lives. Cognitive psychology has demonstrated that many instances of false memory, both in the laboratory and the real world, can be attributed to semantic interference. Whereas previous studies have found that a diverse set of regions show some involvement in semantic false memory, none have revealed the nature of the semantic representations underpinning the phenomenon. Here we use fMRI with representational similarity analysis to search for a neural code consistent with semantic false memory. We find clear evidence that false memories emerge from a similarity-based neural code in the temporal pole, a region that has been called the "semantic hub" of the brain. We further show that each individual has a partially unique semantic code within the temporal pole, and this unique code can predict idiosyncratic patterns of memory errors. Finally, we show that the same neural code can also predict variation in true-memory performance, consistent with an adaptive perspective on false memory. Taken together, our findings reveal the underlying structure of neural representations of semantic knowledge, and how this semantic structure can both enhance and distort our memories.

  9. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory. (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S


    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  10. Radio Resource Management for V2V Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Gatnau, Marta; Kovács, Istvan


    of each other; and the communication phase itself, where data exchange takes place. In the case of V2V, the discovery phase can utilize the status information that cars broadcast periodically as the beacons to detect the presence of neighbouring cars. For the delivery of specific messages (e.......g., a hazardous event), direct communications can then be set up in a very fast way, based on the previously collected information. Several aspects have been revealed as essential to ensure the reliability and latency requirements of the discovery, such as the autonomous selection of the resources, the duplexing...

  11. Ameloblastoma: A Review of Recent Molecular Pathogenetic Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah A. Brown


    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic neoplasm whose molecular pathogenesis has only recently been elucidated. The discovery of recurrent activating mutations in FGFR2, BRAF , and RAS in a large majority of ameloblastomas has implicated dysregulation of MAPK pathway signaling as a critical step in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Some degree of controversy exists regarding the role of mutations affecting the sonic hedgehog (SHH pathway, specifically Smoothened (SMO, which have been postulated to serve as either an alternative pathogenetic mechanism or secondary mutations. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ameloblastoma as well as the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications of these discoveries.

  12. Improved accuracy of cell surface shaving proteomics in Staphylococcus aureus using a false-positive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solis, Nestor; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Cordwell, Stuart J


    Proteolytic treatment of intact bacterial cells is an ideal means for identifying surface-exposed peptide epitopes and has potential for the discovery of novel vaccine targets. Cell stability during such treatment, however, may become compromised and result in the release of intracellular proteins...... that complicate the final analysis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, causing community and hospital-acquired infections, and is a serious healthcare concern due to the increasing prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistances amongst clinical isolates. We employed a cell surface "shaving" technique...... to trypsin and three identified in the control. The use of a subtracted false-positive strategy improved enrichment of surface-exposed peptides in the trypsin data set to approximately 80% (124/155 peptides). Predominant surface proteins were those associated with methicillin resistance-surface protein SACOL...

  13. Automated Astrophysical False Positive Analysis of Transiting Planet Signals (United States)

    Morton, Timothy


    Beginning with Kepler, but continuing with K2 and TESS, transiting planet candidates are now found at a much faster rate than follow-up observations can be obtained. Thus, distinguishing true planet candidates from astrophysical false positives has become primarily a statistical exercise. I will describe a new publicly available open-source Python package for analyzing the astrophysical false positive probabilities of transiting exoplanet signals. In addition, I will present results of applying this analysis to both Kepler and K2 planet candidates, resulting in the probabilistic validation of thousands of exoplanets, as well as identifying many likely false positives.

  14. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J. Groom


    Full Text Available Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors. Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area. They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels. Therefore, a person’s ability to correctly identify a large number of species is not a safeguard against the generation of false-positive errors. There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate. Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey. Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify

  15. False Memories and Free Speech: Is Scientific Debate Being Suppressed? (United States)

    Andrews, Bernice; Brewin, Chris R


    Commentators have raised important points, including the relative contribution of false beliefs versus false memories and the issue of how findings in the laboratory can be generalized to the real world, which we have addressed here. However, some of the commentaries misrepresent what we said, make criticisms that are unfounded, or imply that our article should not have been published in Applied Cognitive Psychology. We relate these responses to a more general literature on the suppression of unwanted scientific findings and suggest that the study of false memory would be better served by more openness to alternative perspectives. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Misrepresentations and Flawed Logic About the Prevalence of False Memories. (United States)

    Nash, Robert A; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Ost, James


    Brewin and Andrews (2016) propose that just 15% of people, or even fewer, are susceptible to false childhood memories. If this figure were true, then false memories would still be a serious problem. But the figure is higher than 15%. False memories occur even after a few short and low-pressure interviews, and with each successive interview, they become richer, more compelling, and more likely to occur. It is therefore dangerously misleading to claim that the scientific data provide an "upper bound" on susceptibility to memory errors. We also raise concerns about the peer review process. © 2016 The Authors Applied Cognitive Psychology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. False positive CT findings of parametrial invasion of cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chi Soon; Moon, Ki Ho; Park, Jong Yeon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo


    To evaluate the causative factors of the false positive CT findings of parametrial invasions of cervial cancer. We analyzed 17 parametria of 14 patients with the diseases staged over IIb on CT, but confirmed to be under stage IIa on pathology. The CT findings were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with pathologic findings. The causes of false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasions on CT were prominent cardinal ligaments (n = 12), vaginal fornix (n = 3), and prominent uterine vessels (n = 2). Familiarity with these CT finding may be helpful in avoiding false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasion in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma

  18. False positive CT findings of parametrial invasion of cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chi Soon; Moon, Ki Ho; Park, Jong Yeon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the causative factors of the false positive CT findings of parametrial invasions of cervial cancer. We analyzed 17 parametria of 14 patients with the diseases staged over IIb on CT, but confirmed to be under stage IIa on pathology. The CT findings were retrospectively reviewed, and compared with pathologic findings. The causes of false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasions on CT were prominent cardinal ligaments (n = 12), vaginal fornix (n = 3), and prominent uterine vessels (n = 2). Familiarity with these CT finding may be helpful in avoiding false positive diagnosis of parametrial invasion in patients with uterine cervical carcinoma.

  19. Making sense of early false-belief understanding. (United States)

    Helming, Katharina A; Strickland, Brent; Jacob, Pierre


    We address the puzzle about early belief ascription: young children fail elicited-response false-belief tasks, but they demonstrate spontaneous false-belief understanding. Based on recent converging evidence, we articulate a pragmatic framework to solve this puzzle. Young children do understand the contents of others' false belief, but they are overwhelmed when they must simultaneously make sense of two distinct actions: the instrumental action of a mistaken agent and the experimenter's communicative action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery (United States)

    ... NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team identified 42 new ... Edition Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery Oxytocin Affects Facial Recognition Connect with Us ...

  1. True and false DRM memories: differences detected with an implicit task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena eMarini


    Full Text Available Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm. We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT, a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in the respondent's mind/brain. In our experiment, after a DRM task participants performed two aIATs: the first aimed at testing implicit memory for presented words (true-memories aIAT and the second aimed at evaluating implicit memory for critical lures (false-memories aIAT. Specifically, the two aIATs assessed the association of presented words and critical lures with the logical dimension true. Results showed that the aIAT detected a greater association of presented words than critical lures with the logical dimension true. This result indicates that although true and false DRM memories are indistinguishable at the explicit level a different association of the true and false DRM memories with the logical dimension true can be detected at the implicit level, and suggests that the aIAT may be a sensitive instrument to detect differences between true and false DRM memories.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Zezelj


    Full Text Available An experiment employed a "familiar-informant false-narrative proce-dure" to examine the effects of ego involvement manipulation on the creation of false memories for suggested events. Our main sample consisted of 54 Serbian adolescent students. During the pre-testing stage, students’ parents (N=54 provided details from their children childhoods, which were used to create stimuli for the subsequent stages. Half of the participants were given an ego-involving suggestion- a short written statement that claimed that people with higher intelligence have a better and more detailed memory of their childhood. We hypothesized that ego-involved group would recollect more childhood events in general, create more false memories and be more confident in its’ authenticity and clarity. Implanted event was recognized as autobiographic by 24% respondents in the testing stage and by 44.4% respondents in the retesting stage. There were significant qualitative differences between authentic and false memories: authentic memories were assessed as more reliable and clearer than the false ones. Ego-involvement manipulation had no impact on the frequency or quality of false memories reported by the participants. Even though the specific ego-involvement manipulation was not successful, our findings suggest that other motivating strategies we employed pushed the respondents into accepting false memory suggestion in the retesting stage. Future research could benefit from testing more elaborate ego-involving procedures.

  3. True and False DRM Memories: Differences Detected with an Implicit Task. (United States)

    Marini, Maddalena; Agosta, Sara; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla; Sartori, Giuseppe


    Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories) for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm). We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT), a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in the respondent's mind/brain. In our experiment, after a DRM task participants performed two aIATs: the first aimed at testing implicit memory for presented words (true-memories aIAT) and the second aimed at evaluating implicit memory for critical lures (false-memories aIAT). Specifically, the two aIATs assessed the association of presented words and critical lures with the logical dimension "true." Results showed that the aIAT detected a greater association of presented words than critical lures with the logical dimension "true." This result indicates that although true and false DRM memories are indistinguishable at the explicit level a different association of the true and false DRM memories with the logical dimension "true" can be detected at the implicit level, and suggests that the aIAT may be a sensitive instrument to detect differences between true and false DRM memories.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine disc diseases. Frequency of false negatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelot, J.M.; Maugars, Y.; Delecrin, Y.; Caillon, F.; Prost, A.


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has had an impressive impact on evaluation of degenerative diseases of the spine. Nevertheless, false negatives can occur on images involving lumbar discs. Degenerative disc diseases documented on discography and/or pathology examination of the discs can go unrecognized. Likewise sensitivity for the detection of protruding disc hernias is not totally satisfactory (20% false negatives). Finally, a magnetic resonance image visualizing displacement of the disc is not specific (10 to 15% false positives); images showing protrusion or hernia can be seen in 30% of asymptomatic patients. Although MRI gives slightly more information than other imaging techniques, false images do exist. Moreover, the usefulness of MRI to demonstrate disc disease in case of a negative CT-scan remains to be demonstrated. (authors). 26 refs

  5. Age-related binding deficits and the content of false memories. (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Bloise, Suzanne M; Johnson, Marcia K


    The authors examined effects of age-related binding deficits on feature information in false memories for imagined objects (e.g., lollipop) that were similar in shape to seen objects (e.g., magnifying glass). In Experiment 1, location memory for seen objects was lower in older than younger adults and lower still in old-old than young-old adults. Imagined objects, when falsely called seen, were less likely to be attributed to the location of similar seen objects (i.e., congruent attributions) by old-old than young-old adults. In Experiment 2, for younger adults, displaying seen objects for less time (1 s vs. 4 s) reduced both location memory for seen objects and congruent attributions for false memories. Thus, binding deficits may influence the specific content of false memories. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. False-belief reasoning from 3 to 92 years of age. (United States)

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Coolin, Alisha; Fischer, Ashley L; Thornton, Wendy Loken; Sommerville, Jessica A


    False-belief reasoning, defined as the ability to reason about another person's beliefs and appreciate that beliefs can differ from reality, is an important aspect of perspective taking. We tested 266 individuals, at various ages ranging from 3 to 92 years, on a continuous measure of false-belief reasoning (the Sandbox task). All age groups had difficulty suppressing their own knowledge when estimating what a naïve person knew. After controlling for task-specific memory, our results showed similar false-belief reasoning abilities across the preschool years and from older childhood to younger adulthood, followed by a small reduction in this ability from younger to older adulthood. These results highlight the relative similarity in false-belief reasoning abilities at different developmental periods across the lifespan.

  7. Discovery Mondays - The detectors: tracking particles

    CERN Document Server


    View of a module from the LHCb vertex detector, which will be presented at the next Discovery Monday. How do you observe the invisible? In order to deepen still further our knowledge of the infinitely small, physicists accelerate beams of particles at close to the speed of light, then generate collisions between them at extraordinary energies, giving birth to showers of new particles. What are these particles? In order to find out, physicists transform themselves into detectives with the help of the detectors. Located around the collision area, these exceptional machines are made up of various layers, each of which detects and measures specific properties of the particles that travel through them. Powerful computers then reconstruct their trajectory and record their charge, mass and energy in order to build up a kind of particle ID card. At the next Discovery Monday you will be able to find out about the different methods used at CERN to detect particles. A cloud chamber will provide live images of the trac...

  8. New genetic discoveries and primary immune deficiencies. (United States)

    Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian


    The field of immunology has undergone recent discoveries of genetic causes for many primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). The ever-expanding knowledge has led to increased understanding behind the pathophysiology of these diseases. Since these diseases are rare, the patients are frequently misdiagnosed early in the presentation of their illnesses. The identification of new genes has increased our opportunities for recognizing and making the diagnosis in patients with PIDD before they succumb to infections that may result secondary to their PIDD. Some mutations lead to a variety of presentations of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The myriad and ever-growing genetic mutations which lead to SCID phenotypes have been identified in recent years. Other mutations associated with some genetic syndromes have associated immunodeficiency and are important for making the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency in patients with some syndromes, who may otherwise be missed within the larger context of their syndromes. A variety of mutations also lead to increased susceptibility to infections due to particular organisms. These patterns of infections due to specific organisms are important keys in properly identifying the part of the immune system which is affected in these patients. This review will discuss recent genetic discoveries that enhance our understanding of these complex diseases.

  9. False-positive 111In-pentetreotide Uptake in Gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, Sharjeel; Alshammari, Alshaima


    111 In-pentetreotide [ 111 In-octreoscan] is the most widely used radiolabeled somatostatin analog for evaluating neuroendocrine tumor overexpression of somatostatin receptors. False-positives studies of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy have been reported and often the cause is unexplained but assumed to be due to high number of somatostatin receptors in other pathologies. Causes of false-positives include visualization of the gallbladder, nasal mucosa and pulmonary hilar areas in respiratory infections, thyroid abnormalities, accessory spleens, recent Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA's) and activity at the site of a recent surgical incision. In infection or inflammation the cause of false-positive uptake is probably the result of tracer binding by somatostatin receptors on the inflammatory leukocytes. In this case report, we report, a 44-year-old male patient with false-positive 111 In-pentetreotide uptake due to gastritis

  10. Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of intercropping sesame, Sesamum indicum and false sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides on infestation by the sesame leafroller, Antigastra catalaunalis, the green semilooper, Chrysodeixis acuta and the parasitiod, Apanteles syleptae.

  11. Disfluent presentations lead to the creation of more false memories. (United States)

    Sanchez, Christopher A; Naylor, Jamie S


    The creation of false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm has been shown to be sensitive to many factors such as task instructions, participant mood, or even presentation modality. However, do other simple perceptual differences also impact performance on the DRM and the creation of false memories? This study explores the potential impact of changes in perceptual disfluency on DRM performance. To test for a potential influence of disfluency on false memory creation, participants viewed lists under either perceptually disfluent conditions or not. Results indicated that disfluency did significantly impact performance in the DRM paradigm; more disfluent presentations significantly increased the recall and recognition of unpresented information, although they did not impact recall or recognition of presented information. Thus, although disfluency did impact performance, disfluency did not produce a positive benefit related to overall task performance. This finding instead suggests that more disfluent presentations can increase the likelihood that false memories are created, and provide little positive performance benefit.

  12. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals. (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F


    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  13. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.


    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  14. Are nonconscious processes sufficient to produce false memories? (United States)

    Gallo, David A; Seamon, John G


    Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998) reported evidence that nonconscious processes could produce false recognition in a converging-associates task, whereby subjects falsely remember a nonstudied lure (e.g., sleep) after studying a list of related words (bed, rest, awake...). Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers (2003) failed to observe this false recognition effect when list word recognition was at chance. We critically evaluate the evidence for nonsconscious processing and report the results of a new experiment designed to overcome previous methodological limitations. Consistent with Seamon et al., we found that conscious activation of a related lure during study was not necessary for its subsequent recognition; consistent with Zeelenberg et al., we found no evidence for recognition of related lures under conditions where there was no memory for studied words. It is currently unknown whether conscious recollection of the studied items is necessary for false recognition or if nonconscious activation of the lure is sufficient.

  15. [Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery]. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kamada, Mayumi; Okuno, Yasushi


    According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI. In addition, with the aim of creating new therapeutic targets in genomic drug discovery, we have been also working on the development of a binding affinity prediction system for mutated proteins and drugs by molecular dynamics simulation using supercomputer "Kei". We also have tackled for problems in a drug virtual screening. Our developed AI technology has successfully generated virtual compound library, and deep learning method has enabled us to predict interaction between compound and target protein.

  16. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions. (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  17. A quantum causal discovery algorithm (United States)

    Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio


    Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.

  18. The discovery of immunoglobulin E. (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico


    The discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) was a breakthrough in the field of allergy and immunology. Our understanding of mechanisms of allergic reactions and the role of IgE in these disorders has paralleled to the discovery of treatment modalities for patients with allergy. The first clue to the existence of a substance responsible for hypersensitivity reactions was demonstrated in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, and after four decades it was identified as an immunoglobulin subclass by Ishizakas and co-workers. In 1968, the WHO International Reference Centre for Immunoglobulins announced the presence of a fifth immunoglobulin isotype, IgE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Androgenetic alopecia: stress of discovery. (United States)

    Passchier, Jan; Erdman, Jeroen; Hammiche, Fatima; Erdman, Ruud A M


    The psychological problems of men in the initial stages of alopecia androgenetica (hereditary male hair loss) have seldom been studied. We evaluated two groups of 80 men with alopecia androgenetica in Stages II to IV, indicating the amount of hair loss (overall N=160; for Group I: M=48 yr., SD=18.2; for Group II: M=50 yr., SD=18.0) who visited a dermatology clinic for benign dermatological complaints but not for hair loss, by questionnaires and interview, retrospectively. As predicted, hair problems were reported to be significantly greater overall at the moment of discovery of hair loss than later. About half of the men reported feeling annoyed to very annoyed about the discovery of hair loss. For those patients, provision of information by internet might facilitate a visit to the dermatologist.

  20. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland


    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  1. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals


    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.


    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  2. The Role of Sleep in False Memory Formation


    Payne, Jessica D.; Schacter, Daniel L.; Propper, Ruth; Huang, Li-Wen; Wamsley, Erin; Tucker, Matthew A.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert


    Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep’s contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical and false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, compared to an equivalent period of daytime wakefulness. ...

  3. Voting experiments: Bandwagon voting or false-consensus effect?


    Ivo Bischoff; Henrik Egbert


    In an experiment designed to test for expressive voting, Tyran (JPubEc 2004) found a strong positive correlation between the participants' approval for a proposal to donate money for charity and their expected approval rate for fellow voters. This phenomenon can be due to bandwagon voting or a false consensus effect. The social science literature reports both effects for voting decisions. Replicating Tyran's experiment and adding new treatments, we provide evidence for a false consensus effec...

  4. 42 CFR 426.532 - Discovery. (United States)


    ... purpose of this section, the term documents includes relevant information, reports, answers, records... § 426.532 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the Board orders discovery, the Board must establish a... or burdensome; or (iii) Will unduly delay the proceeding. (c) Types of discovery available. A party...

  5. The discovery of the antiproton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Owen


    A number of groups of particle physicists competed to provide track evidence of the existence of Dirac's postulated antiproton in the mid-1950s. The work of the several teams is described briefly. The author describes the work of his own group on the Bevatron in more detail, and how they finally observed the antiproton. The article finishes with an assessment of the importance of this discovery. (UK)

  6. Model organisms and target discovery. (United States)

    Muda, Marco; McKenna, Sean


    The wealth of information harvested from full genomic sequencing projects has not generated a parallel increase in the number of novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Several pharmaceutical companies have realized that novel drug targets can be identified and validated using simple model organisms. After decades of service in basic research laboratories, yeasts, worms, flies, fishes, and mice are now the cornerstones of modern drug discovery programs.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  7. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.


    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  8. Developing doctoral scientists for drug discovery: pluridimensional education required. (United States)

    Janero, David R


    Research universities continue to produce new scientists capable of generating knowledge with the potential to inform disease etiology and treatment. Mounting interest of doctoral-level experimental science students in therapeutics-related research careers is discordant with the widespread lack of direct drug-discovery and development experience, let alone commercialization success, among university faculty and administrators. Likewise, the archetypical publication- and grant-fueled, principal investigator (PI)-focused academic system ("PI-stan") risks commoditization of science students pursuing their doctorates as a labor source, rendering them ill-prepared for career options related to therapeutics innovation by marginalizing their development of "beyond-the-bench" professional skills foundational to modern drug-discovery campaigns and career fluency. To militate against professionalization deficits in doctoral drug-discovery researchers, the author--a scientist-administrator-consultant with decades of discovery research and development (R&D), business, and educator experience in commercial and university settings--posits a critical need for pluridimensionality in graduate education and mentorship that extends well beyond thesis-related scientific domains/laboratory techniques to instill transferable operational-intelligence, project/people-management, and communication competencies. Specific initiatives are advocated to help enhance the doctoral science student's market competitiveness, adaptability, and navigation of the significant research, commercial, and occupational challenges associated with contemporary preclinical drug-discovery R&D.

  9. Can false memories prime alternative solutions to ambiguous problems? (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R


    Research has demonstrated that false memories are capable of priming and facilitating insight-based problem-solving tasks by increasing solution rates and decreasing solution times. The present research extended this finding by investigating whether false memories could be used to bias ambiguous insight-based problem-solving tasks in a similar manner. Compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems with two possible correct answers, a dominant and a non-dominant solution, were created and normed (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, participants were asked to solve these CRAT problems after they were given Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists whose critical lures were also the non-dominant solution to half of the corresponding CRATs. As predicted, when false memories served as primes, solution rates were higher and solution times were faster for non-dominant than dominant CRAT solutions. This biasing effect was only found when participants falsely recalled the critical lure, and was not found when participants did not falsely recall the critical lure, or when they were not primed. Results are discussed with regard to spreading activation models of solution competition in problem-solving tasks and current theories of false memory priming effects.

  10. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon (United States)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.


    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 +/- 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0farcs57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis > or approx. = 21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This dark moon hypothesis can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  11. A New Universe of Discoveries (United States)

    Córdova, France A.


    The convergence of emerging advances in astronomical instruments, computational capabilities and talented practitioners (both professional and civilian) is creating an extraordinary new environment for making numerous fundamental discoveries in astronomy, ranging from the nature of exoplanets to understanding the evolution of solar systems and galaxies. The National Science Foundation is playing a critical role in supporting, stimulating, and shaping these advances. NSF is more than an agency of government or a funding mechanism for the infrastructure of science. The work of NSF is a sacred trust that every generation of Americans makes to those of the next generation, that we will build on the body of knowledge we inherit and continue to push forward the frontiers of science. We never lose sight of NSF's obligation to "explore the unexplored" and inspire all of humanity with the wonders of discovery. As the only Federal agency dedicated to the support of basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering, NSF has empowered discoveries across a broad spectrum of scientific inquiry for more than six decades. The result is fundamental scientific research that has had a profound impact on our nation's innovation ecosystem and kept our nation at the very forefront of the world's science-and-engineering enterprise.

  12. What's the gist? The influence of schemas on the neural correlates underlying true and false memories. (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Turney, Indira C; Dennis, Nancy A


    The current study used a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of encoding schemas on memory. Specifically, the study examined the influence of a strong encoding schema on retrieval of both schematic and non-schematic information, as well as false memories for information associated with the schema. Additionally, the separate roles of recollection and familiarity in both veridical and false memory retrieval were examined. The study identified several novel results. First, while many common neural regions mediated both schematic and non-schematic retrieval success, schematic recollection exhibited greater activation in visual cortex and hippocampus, regions commonly shown to mediate detailed retrieval. More effortful cognitive control regions in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, on the other hand, supported non-schematic recollection, while lateral temporal cortices supported familiarity-based retrieval of non-schematic items. Second, both true and false recollection, as well as familiarity, were mediated by activity in left middle temporal gyrus, a region associated with semantic processing and retrieval of schematic gist. Moreover, activity in this region was greater for both false recollection and false familiarity, suggesting a greater reliance on lateral temporal cortices for retrieval of illusory memories, irrespective of memory strength. Consistent with previous false memory studies, visual cortex showed increased activity for true compared to false recollection, suggesting that visual cortices are critical for distinguishing between previously viewed targets and related lures at retrieval. Additionally, the absence of common visual activity between true and false retrieval suggests that, unlike previous studies utilizing visual stimuli, when false memories are predicated on schematic gist and not perceptual overlap, there is little reliance on visual processes during false memory retrieval. Finally, the medial temporal lobe exhibited an

  13. The cortical basis of true memory and false memory for motion. (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D


    Behavioral evidence indicates that false memory, like true memory, can be rich in sensory detail. By contrast, there is fMRI evidence that true memory for visual information produces greater activity in earlier visual regions than false memory, which suggests true memory is associated with greater sensory detail. However, false memory in previous fMRI paradigms may have lacked sufficient sensory detail to recruit earlier visual processing regions. To investigate this possibility in the present fMRI study, we employed a paradigm that produced feature-specific false memory with a high degree of visual detail. During the encoding phase, moving or stationary abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During the retrieval phase, shapes from encoding were presented at fixation and participants classified each item as previously "moving" or "stationary" within each visual field. Consistent with previous fMRI findings, true memory but not false memory for motion activated motion processing region MT+, while both true memory and false memory activated later cortical processing regions. In addition, false memory but not true memory for motion activated language processing regions. The present findings indicate that true memory activates earlier visual regions to a greater degree than false memory, even under conditions of detailed retrieval. Thus, the dissociation between previous behavioral findings and fMRI findings do not appear to be task dependent. Future work will be needed to assess whether the same pattern of true memory and false memory activity is observed for different sensory modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. False-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay results in an HIV-infected case-patient. (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Tomas, Juval E


    We present a case report of a false-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay test result in an HIV-infected male. While treponemal tests are widely considered to be more sensitive and specific than non-treponemal tests, our findings point to potential challenges using the reverse sequence syphilis screening algorithm.

  15. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula


    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  16. Effects of Post-Encoding Stress on Performance in the DRM False Memory Paradigm (United States)

    Pardilla-Delgado, Enmanuelle; Alger, Sara E.; Cunningham, Tony J.; Kinealy, Brian; Payne, Jessica D.


    Numerous studies have investigated how stress impacts veridical memory, but how stress influences false memory formation remains poorly understood. In order to target memory consolidation specifically, a psychosocial stress (TSST) or control manipulation was administered following encoding of 15 neutral, semantically related word lists (DRM false…

  17. A new method for the discovery of essential proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    Full Text Available Experimental methods for the identification of essential proteins are always costly, time-consuming, and laborious. It is a challenging task to find protein essentiality only through experiments. With the development of high throughput technologies, a vast amount of protein-protein interactions are available, which enable the identification of essential proteins from the network level. Many computational methods for such task have been proposed based on the topological properties of protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. However, the currently available PPI networks for each species are not complete, i.e. false negatives, and very noisy, i.e. high false positives, network topology-based centrality measures are often very sensitive to such noise. Therefore, exploring robust methods for identifying essential proteins would be of great value.In this paper, a new essential protein discovery method, named CoEWC (Co-Expression Weighted by Clustering coefficient, has been proposed. CoEWC is based on the integration of the topological properties of PPI network and the co-expression of interacting proteins. The aim of CoEWC is to capture the common features of essential proteins in both date hubs and party hubs. The performance of CoEWC is validated based on the PPI network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental results show that CoEWC significantly outperforms the classical centrality measures, and that it also outperforms PeC, a newly proposed essential protein discovery method which outperforms 15 other centrality measures on the PPI network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Especially, when predicting no more than 500 proteins, even more than 50% improvements are obtained by CoEWC over degree centrality (DC, a better centrality measure for identifying protein essentiality.We demonstrate that more robust essential protein discovery method can be developed by integrating the topological properties of PPI network and the co-expression of interacting

  18. Computational functional group mapping for drug discovery. (United States)

    Guvench, Olgun


    Computational functional group mapping (cFGM) is emerging as a high-impact complement to existing widely used experimental and computational structure-based drug discovery methods. cFGM provides comprehensive atomic-resolution 3D maps of the affinity of functional groups that can constitute drug-like molecules for a given target, typically a protein. These 3D maps can be intuitively and interactively visualized by medicinal chemists to rapidly design synthetically accessible ligands. Given that the maps can inform selection of functional groups for affinity, specificity, and pharmacokinetic properties, they are of utility for both the optimization of existing drug candidates and creating novel ones. Here, I review recent advances in cFGM with emphasis on the unique information content in the approach that offers the potential of broadly facilitating structure-based ligand design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translational paradigms in pharmacology and drug discovery. (United States)

    Mullane, Kevin; Winquist, Raymond J; Williams, Michael


    The translational sciences represent the core element in enabling and utilizing the output from the biomedical sciences and to improving drug discovery metrics by reducing the attrition rate as compounds move from preclinical research to clinical proof of concept. Key to understanding the basis of disease causality and to developing therapeutics is an ability to accurately diagnose the disease and to identify and develop safe and effective therapeutics for its treatment. The former requires validated biomarkers and the latter, qualified targets. Progress has been hampered by semantic issues, specifically those that define the end product, and by scientific issues that include data reliability, an overt reductionistic cultural focus and a lack of hierarchically integrated data gathering and systematic analysis. A necessary framework for these activities is represented by the discipline of pharmacology, efforts and training in which require recognition and revitalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots (United States)

    Cortes, Antonio I.

    The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malan Smith


    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article discusses Economic Value Added (EVA which is a popular shareholder value measurement. The main driving factors that influence EVA can be deduced from a modification of the Du Pont financial model. However, if these drivers are communicated to the organisation, and goals are set around achieving specific components of the drivers, the results achieved might be suboptimal. This is a direct consequence of the fact that the organisation is a system, and that EVA is an emergent property of the system. Systems theory should therefore be applied to discover the reasons for these counterintuitive outcomes in an organisation. Dilemmas (conflicts in the system are a result of the paradigm used in understanding the system. A method to examine the conflicts that occur in a system is the three-cloud technique. By applying this technique, it is possible to find the root cause of suboptimal performance in organisations: the false underlying paradigm used in the decision making process. The incorrect paradigm is to assume that a local optimal outcome is equivalent to a global optimal outcome.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek Ekonomiese Toegevoegde Waarde (ETW, 'n gewilde maatstaf van aandeel-houerwaarde. Die belangrikste drywers wat ETW beinvloed, kan afgelei word uit 'n gewysigde Du Pont model. Indien doelwitte in die organisasie rondom hierdie drywers in isolasie gestel word, kan die resultate suboptimaal wees. Die suboptimale resultate is 'n direkte gevolg van die feit dat die organisasie 'n stelsel is, en dat ETW 'n stelseleienskap is. Stelselteorie moet dus toegepas word am die onderliggende redes vir hierdie suboptimale resultate te vind. Dilemmas (konflikte binne ' n stelsel is 'n direkte resultaat van die paradigma wat gebruik word om die stelsel te verstaan. ' n Metode om die konflikte in 'n stelsel te ondersoek is die drie-wolk metode. Deur hierdie metode toe te pas, is dit moontlik om die

  2. Replication, Communication, and the Population Dynamics of Scientific Discovery. (United States)

    McElreath, Richard; Smaldino, Paul E


    Many published research results are false (Ioannidis, 2005), and controversy continues over the roles of replication and publication policy in improving the reliability of research. Addressing these problems is frustrated by the lack of a formal framework that jointly represents hypothesis formation, replication, publication bias, and variation in research quality. We develop a mathematical model of scientific discovery that combines all of these elements. This model provides both a dynamic model of research as well as a formal framework for reasoning about the normative structure of science. We show that replication may serve as a ratchet that gradually separates true hypotheses from false, but the same factors that make initial findings unreliable also make replications unreliable. The most important factors in improving the reliability of research are the rate of false positives and the base rate of true hypotheses, and we offer suggestions for addressing each. Our results also bring clarity to verbal debates about the communication of research. Surprisingly, publication bias is not always an obstacle, but instead may have positive impacts-suppression of negative novel findings is often beneficial. We also find that communication of negative replications may aid true discovery even when attempts to replicate have diminished power. The model speaks constructively to ongoing debates about the design and conduct of science, focusing analysis and discussion on precise, internally consistent models, as well as highlighting the importance of population dynamics.

  3. The Process Chain for Peptidomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schrader


    Full Text Available Over the last few years the interest in diagnostic markers for specific diseases has increased continuously. It is expected that they not only improve a patient's medical treatment but also contribute to accelerating the process of drug development. This demand for new biomarkers is caused by a lack of specific and sensitive diagnosis in many diseases. Moreover, diseases usually occur in different types or stages which may need different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Their differentiation has to be considered in clinical studies as well. Therefore, it is important to translate a macroscopic pathological or physiological finding into a microscopic view of molecular processes and vice versa, though it is a difficult and tedious task. Peptides play a central role in many physiological processes and are of importance in several areas of drug research. Exploration of endogenous peptides in biologically relevant sources may directly lead to new drug substances, serve as key information on a new target and can as well result in relevant biomarker candidates. A comprehensive analysis of peptides and small proteins of a biological system corresponding to the respective genomic information (peptidomics®methods was a missing link in proteomics. A new peptidomic technology platform addressing peptides was recently presented, developed by adaptation of the striving proteomic technologies. Here, concepts of using peptidomics technologies for biomarker discovery are presented and illustrated with examples. It is discussed how the biological hypothesis and sample quality determine the result of the study. A detailed study design, appropriate choice and application of technology as well as thorough data interpretation can lead to significant results which have to be interpreted in the context of the underlying disease. The identified biomarker candidates will be characterised in validation studies before use. This approach for discovery of peptide

  4. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. (United States)

    Lo, June C; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L


    To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made "remember"/"know" and "new" judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced "remember" responses, but not "know" responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode.

  5. Sleep fragmentation and false memories during pregnancy and motherhood. (United States)

    Berndt, Christiane; Diekelmann, Susanne; Alexander, Nina; Pustal, Anne; Kirschbaum, Clemens


    Pregnant women, both before and after childbirth, frequently experience memory deficits and disrupted sleep. In the present study we assessed the relationship between false memory generation and fragmented sleep during pregnancy and motherhood. We tested 178 pregnant women and 58 female non-pregnant childless controls, during pregnancy (15-35th week of gestation) and again after childbirth (8-13th month). False memories were defined as memories of gist words that were semantically related to studied word lists but were not presented during learning of these lists in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Sleep was monitored by actigraphy in the home environment for seven consecutive nights. Compared to the controls, the group of pregnant women produced more false memories and displayed more fragmented sleep both during pregnancy and after childbirth. However, false memory generation was not correlated to measures of sleep fragmentation. These results show that pregnant women suffer from sleep fragmentation and a higher susceptibility to false memories, but leave open the question as to whether both phenomena are related. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance. (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich


    Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lateralised sleep spindles relate to false memory generation. (United States)

    Shaw, John J; Monaghan, Padraic


    Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH. Sleep increased acceptance of unseen-lure words as previously seen compared to the wake group, particularly for RH presentations of word lists. RH lateralised stage 2 sleep spindle density relative to the LH correlated with this increase in false memories, suggesting that RH sleep spindles enhanced false memories in the RH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence that nonconscious processes are sufficient to produce false memories. (United States)

    Cotel, Sivan C; Gallo, David A; Seamon, John G


    Are nonconscious processes sufficient to cause false memories of a nonstudied event? To investigate this issue, we controlled and measured conscious processing in the DRM task, in which studying associates (e.g., bed, rest, awake...) causes false memories of nonstudied associates (e.g., sleep). During the study phase, subjects studied visually masked associates at extremely rapid rates, followed by immediate recall. After this initial phase, nonstudied test words were rapidly presented for perceptual identification, followed by recognition memory judgments. On the perceptual identification task, we found significant priming of nonstudied associates, relative to control words. We also found significant false recognition of these nonstudied associates, even when subjects did not recall this word at study or identify it at test, indicating that nonconscious processes can cause false recognition. These recognition effects were found immediately after studying each list of associates, but not on a delayed test that occurred after the presentation of several intervening lists. Nonconscious processes are sufficient to cause this memory illusion on immediate tests, but may be insufficient for more vivid and lasting false memories.

  9. The role of sleep in false memory formation. (United States)

    Payne, Jessica D; Schacter, Daniel L; Propper, Ruth E; Huang, Li-Wen; Wamsley, Erin J; Tucker, Matthew A; Walker, Matthew P; Stickgold, Robert


    Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep's contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical and false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, compared to an equivalent period of daytime wakefulness. But while veridical memory deteriorates across both wake and sleep, false memories are preferentially preserved by sleep, actually showing a non-significant improvement. The same selectivity of false over veridical memories was observed in a follow-up nap study. Unlike previous studies implicating deep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) in declarative memory consolidation, here veridical recall correlated with decreased SWS, a finding that was observed in both the overnight and nap studies. These findings lead to two counterintuitive conclusions - that under certain circumstances sleep can promote false memories over veridical ones, and SWS can be associated with impairment rather than facilitation of declarative memory consolidation. While these effects produce memories that are less accurate after sleep, these memories may, in the end, be more useful.

  10. Deficient cognitive control fuels children's exuberant false allegations. (United States)

    Poole, Debra Ann; Dickinson, Jason J; Brubacher, Sonja P; Liberty, Allison E; Kaake, Amanda M


    In eyewitness studies as in actual investigations, a minority of children generate numerous false (and sometimes incredulous) allegations. To explore the characteristics of these children, we reinterviewed and administered a battery of tasks to 61 children (ages 4-9 years) who had previously participated in an eyewitness study where a man broke a "germ rule" twice when he tried to touch them. Performance on utilization, response conflict (Luria tapping), and theory of mind tasks predicted the number of false reports of touching (with age and time since the event controlled) and correctly classified 90.16% of the children as typical witnesses or exuberant (more than 3) false reporters. Results of a factor analysis pointed to a common process underlying performance on these tasks that accounted for 49% of the variability in false reports. Relations between task performance and testimony confirmed that the mechanisms underlying occasional intrusions are different from those that drive persistent confabulation and that deficient cognitive control fuels young children's exuberant false reports. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Discrete emotion-congruent false memories in the DRM paradigm. (United States)

    Bland, Cassandra E; Howe, Mark L; Knott, Lauren


    Research has shown that false-memory production is enhanced for material that is emotionally congruent with the mood of the participant at the time of encoding. So far this research has only been conducted to examine the influence of generic negative affective mood states and generic negative stimuli on false-memory production. In addition, much of the research is limited as it focuses on valence and arousal dimensions, and fails to take into account the more comprehensive nature of emotions. The current study demonstrates that this effect goes beyond general negative or positive moods and acts at a more discrete emotional level. Participants underwent a standard emotion-induction procedure before listening to negative emotional or neutral associative word lists. The emotions induced, negative word lists, and associated nonpresented critical lures, were related to either fear or anger, 2 negative valence emotions that are also both high in arousal. Results showed that when valence and arousal are controlled for, false memories are more likely to be produced for discrete emotionally congruent compared with incongruent materials. These results support spreading activation theories of false remembering and add to our understanding of the adaptive nature of false-memory production. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Timing does matter: examining imagery's impact on the temporal origins of false beliefs. (United States)

    Bays, Rebecca B; Foley, Mary Ann; Zabrucky, Karen M


    In the current study imagination inflation effects were revisited, giving special attention to decreases in confidence ratings following imagery. Reexamining false beliefs, 151 participants were instructed to rate their confidence that they experienced specific childhood events before and after imagery. No significant imagery effects emerged when examining differences in confidence ratings. However, imagery differentially enhanced (26.27%) and diminished (15.45%) belief ratings for specific events. Content analysis of participants' imagery descriptions revealed that only diminished false beliefs were distinguishable from genuine belief accounts, containing less affective and contextual detail as well as fewer words, but remaining comparable in the presence of cognitive operations. These findings suggest that deflation effects provide a route to studying the potentially positive impact of imagery on false beliefs. Because diminished false beliefs cannot be mistaken as veridical memories reconstructed during imagery, they are less subject to criticisms of traditional false belief studies using self-report measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Implicit Associations Distinguish True and False Eyewitness Memory? Development and Preliminary Testing of the IATe. (United States)

    Helm, Rebecca K; Ceci, Stephen J; Burd, Kayla A


    Eyewitness identification has been shown to be fallible and prone to false memory. In this study we develop and test a new method to probe the mechanisms involved in the formation of false memories in this area, and determine whether a particular memory is likely to be true or false. We created a seven-step procedure based on the Implicit Association Test to gauge implicit biases in eyewitness identification (the IATe). We show that identification errors may result from unconscious bias caused by implicit associations evoked by a given face. We also show that implicit associations between negative attributions such as guilt and eyewitnesses' final pick from a line-up can help to distinguish between true and false memory (especially where the witness has been subject to the suggestive nature of a prior blank line-up). Specifically, the more a witness implicitly associates an individual face with a particular crime, the more likely it is that a memory they have for that person committing the crime is false. These findings are consistent with existing findings in the memory and neuroscience literature showing that false memories can be caused by implicit associations that are outside conscious awareness. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Study of false positives in 5-ALA induced photodynamic diagnosis of bladder carcinoma (United States)

    Draga, Ronald O. P.; Grimbergen, Matthijs C. M.; Kok, Esther T.; Jonges, Trudy G. N.; Bosch, J. L. H. R.


    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a technique that enhances the detection of tumors during cystoscopy using a photosensitizer which accumulates primarily in cancerous cells and will fluoresce when illuminated by violetblue light. A disadvantage of PDD is the relatively low specificity. In this retrospective study we aimed to identify predictors for false positive findings in PDD. Factors such as gender, age, recent transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT), previous intravesical therapy (IVT) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were examined for association with the false positive rates in a multivariate analysis. Data of 366 procedures and 200 patients were collected. Patients were instilled with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) intravesically and 1253 biopsies were taken from tumors and suspicious lesions. Female gender and TURBT are independent predictors of false positives in PDD. However, previous intravesical therapy with Bacille Calmette-Guérin is also an important predictor of false positives. The false positive rate decreases during the first 9-12 weeks after the latest TURBT and the latest intravesical chemotherapy. Although shortly after IVT and TURBT false positives increase, PDD improves the diagnostic sensitivity and results in more adequate treatment strategies in a significant number of patients.

  15. False memory for positive and negative life events. The role of mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairean, C.


    Full Text Available A false memory appears when a person recalls memories of events that did not actually happen to him or her. The present study focused on situational and personal determinants of spontaneous false memories. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the role of emotional valence of an event, as well as the individual differences in mental imagery in evocation false memory. Three videos in which related details were not shown but were presented during a recognition task were used to induce spontaneous false memories. The three videos are different in terms of valence, reflecting positive, negative and neutral events. A scale for measuring mental imagery was also used. A sample of 132 participants completed the study. The results showed that the positive event lead to a higher level of false memory than the negative event. Moreover, the participants differ in their susceptibility to false memories based on the level of imagery, but the interaction between the emotional valence of the event and mental imagery is not significant. The results are discussed from the perspective of their legal and clinical implications.

  16. The importance of material-processing interactions in inducing false memories. (United States)

    Chan, Jason C K; McDermott, Kathleen B; Watson, Jason M; Gallo, David A


    Deep encoding, relative to shallow encoding, has been shown to increase the probability of false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Thapar & McDermott, 2001; Toglia, Neuschatz, & Goodwin, 1999). In two experiments, we showed important limitations on the generalizability of this phenomenon; these limitations are clearly predicted by existing theories regarding the mechanisms underlying such false memories (e.g., Roediger, Watson, McDermott, & Gallo, 2001). Specifically, asking subjects to attend to phonological relations among lists of phonologically associated words (e.g., weep, steep, etc.) increased the likelihood of false recall (Experiment 1) and false recognition (Experiment 2) of a related, nonpresented associate (e.g., sleep), relative to a condition in which subjects attended to meaningful relations among the words. These findings occurred along with a replication of prior findings (i.e., a semantic encoding task, relative to a phonological encoding task, enhanced the likelihood of false memory arising from a list of semantically associated words), and they place important constraints on theoretical explanations of false memory.

  17. Discovery Mondays: 'Separating science from fiction'

    CERN Document Server


    Photo credit: ESA/NASA, the AVO project and Paolo PadovaniDoes the imaginary word of fiction always end up becoming scientific reality? What futuristic visions can we extrapolate from today's technologies? Here is a short quiz to test your knowledge. Can YOU tell truth from fiction? True False The laser swords featuring in the Star Wars films really exist. Time travel is possible using black holes. You could eat a cake of antimatter. Levitation vehicles really exist. Dan Brown is a space alien. How can you distinguish truth from fiction, dreams from reality, real science and technology from the sci-fi fantasies so realistically described in novels, television and cinema? You are invited to come and discuss these questions at a Discovery Monday at the very frontiers of science..... Join us at Microcosm (Reception, Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday, 4 September from 7:30 p.m. to 9 p.m. Entrance Free The event will be conducted in French. ...

  18. Elevated cortisol at retrieval suppresses false memories in parallel with correct memories. (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan


    Retrieving a memory is a reconstructive process in which encoded representations can be changed and distorted. This process sometimes leads to the generation of "false memories," that is, when people remember events that, in fact, never happened. Such false memories typically represent a kind of "gist" being extracted from single encountered events. The stress hormone cortisol is known to substantially impair memory retrieval. Here, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we tested the effect of an intravenous cortisol infusion before retrieval testing on the occurrence of false memories and on recall of correct memories using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Subjects studied sets of abstract shapes, with each set being derived from one prototype that was not presented during learning. At retrieval taking place 9 hr after learning, subjects were presented with studied shapes, nonstudied shapes, and the prototypes, and had to indicate whether or not each shape had been presented at learning. Cortisol administration distinctly reduced susceptibility to false memories (i.e., false recognition of prototypes) and, in parallel, impaired retrieval of correct memories (i.e., correct recognition of studied shapes). Response bias as well as confidence ratings and remember/know/guess judgments were not affected. Our results support gist-based theories of false memory generation, assuming a simultaneous storage of the gist and specific details of an event. Cortisol, by a general impairing influence on retrieval operations, decreases, in parallel, retrieval of false (i.e., gist) and correct (i.e., specific) memories for the event.

  19. The False-Profile View May Be Used to Identify Cam Morphology. (United States)

    Hellman, Michael D; Mascarenhas, Randy; Gupta, Anil; Fillingham, Yale; Haughom, Bryan D; Salata, Michael J; Nho, Shane J


    To identify the accuracy of measuring the alpha angle on the false-profile, anteroposterior (AP), and 90° Dunn lateral views of the hip as compared with computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Forty patients were needed to have power greater than 80%. Forty-five consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed with preoperative radial oblique CT reformatted scans and plain radiographs. Alpha angles were measured on plain radiographs (AP, 90° Dunn lateral, and false profile) and CT reformatted views. Abnormal alpha angles were considered greater than 50.5°. Two orthopaedic surgeons independently measured the images, and the results were compared between imaging modalities. The false-profile view was 60% sensitive and 89.0% specific for diagnosing cam deformities of the hip. All radiographs combined were 86% sensitive and 75% specific for diagnosing cam deformities. The false-profile view most strongly correlated with the 2-o'clock (R = 0.746, P = .001) and 3-o'clock (R = 0.698, P profile view. This study has proved that the false-profile view effectively characterizes cam deformity, especially anterior deformity at the 3-o'clock position. Measuring the alpha angle on the false-profile view appears to be reproducible. The false-profile view along with standing AP pelvis and 90° Dunn lateral views of the hip comprises a good screening radiographic series for patients presenting with symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement. Level III, diagnostic study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences. (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F


    We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors.

  1. False memories and memory confidence in borderline patients. (United States)

    Schilling, Lisa; Wingenfeld, Katja; Spitzer, Carsten; Nagel, Matthias; Moritz, Steffen


    Mixed results have been obtained regarding memory in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Prior reports and anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with BPD are prone to false memories but this assumption has to been put to firm empirical test, yet. Memory accuracy and confidence was assessed in 20 BPD patients and 22 healthy controls using a visual variant of the false memory (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) paradigm which involved a negative and a positive-valenced picture. Groups did not differ regarding veridical item recognition. Importantly, patients did not display more false memories than controls. At trend level, borderline patients rated more items as new with high confidence compared to healthy controls. The results tentatively suggest that borderline patients show uncompromised visual memory functions and display no increased susceptibility for distorted memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptual representations in false recognition and priming of pictures. (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R


    Using a new procedure, we investigate whether imagination can induce false memory by creating a perceptual representation. Participants studied pictures and words with and without an imagery task and at test performed both a direct recognition test and an indirect perceptual identification test on pictorial stimuli. Corrected false recognition rates were 7% for pictures studied in word form (Experiment 1), 26% for pictures imagined once (Experiment 2), and 48% for pictures imagined multiple times (Experiment 3), although on the indirect test, no priming was found for these items. Furthermore, a perceptual/conceptual imagery manipulation did not affect the tendency to claim that imagined items had been studied as pictures (Experiment 4). These results suggest that the false memories reported on direct tests are not driven by perceptual representations.

  3. Diagnosis of false proximal anastomosis aneurysms after aortofemoral reconstructive operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Dan, V.N.; Karazeev, G.L.


    The paper deals with the diagnostic aspects of false aneurysms of proximal anastomosis of prostheses with the aorta on the basis of examination of 9 patients aged 3-65 years after aortofemoral reconstructive operations. The periods of the occurrence of false aneurysms were 2 weeks to 6 years. The causes of anastomosis aneurysms: infection, endartectomy fro the aorta at the site of applied anastomosis, progressive underlying disease. The authors provide strong evidence for a high informative value of various examinations, including ultrasound echoscanning, computer tomography, radioopaque aortography

  4. Ghostly Collaboration: the Authorship of False Criminal Confession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Laughlin


    Full Text Available Drawing on a body of confession scholarship, “Ghostly Collaboration” defines “coercive ghostwriting,” an authorship-inspired term for collaborative practices enacted between custodial criminal suspects and professional police interrogators resulting in coerced, potentially false confession. Within the United States, still-prominent notions of a Romantically-influenced autonomous Author problematically intersect with public perception of collaborative texts; the coercive ghostwriting label is intended to draw explicit attention to co-authorship via coercive collaboration, hopefully contributing to the ongoing efforts of researchers working to challenge inaccurate views of false confessions.

  5. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?


    Zeelenberg, René; Plomp, G.; Raaijmakers, Jeroen


    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design (Experiment 1) and in a between-subjects design (Experiment 2) subjects showed memory for studied words as well as a false memory effect for related critical lures in the ...

  6. Statistical Study of False Alarms of Geomagnetic Storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Veronig, A.

    . A subset of these halo CMEs did not cause a geomagnetic storm the following four days and have therefore been considered as false alarms. The properties of these events are investigated and discussed here. Their statistics are compared to the geo-effective CMEs. The ability to identify potential false......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are known to cause geomagnetic storms on Earth. However, not all CMEs will trigger geomagnetic storms, even if they are heading towards the Earth. In this study, front side halo CMEs with speed larger than 500 km/s have been identified from the SOHO LASCO catalogue...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, Will M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Noll, Keith S., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  8. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley N Facente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828 or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76. We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI 98.00%-99.37%; the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  9. New vaccines: challenges of discovery. (United States)

    Mahmoud, Adel


    Vaccines have been a major component of preventing and controlling infectious diseases. The basis for discovery of what protects is reviewed as well as new attempts in utilizing Reverse Vaccinology, RNA-RNA methods and proteome analysis are adding significantly to our knowledge. The challenge of how to define protective and defined components of microbes is still hampering efforts to discover new vaccines. Recent excitement about immunotherapy of cancer opens the way to develop vaccines against multiple malignancies. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Scientific discovery using genetic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzer, Maarten


    in this work can be summarized as: The symbolic expressions produced by genetic programming can be made suitable for analysis and interpretation by using units of measurements to guide or restrict the search. To achieve this, the following has been accomplished: A standard genetic programming system...... that are numerically stable and correct. A case study using four real-world problems in the induction of dimensionally correct empirical equations on data using the two different methods is presented to illustrate to use and limitations of these methods in a framework of scientific discovery....

  11. Molecular Phenotyping Combines Molecular Information, Biological Relevance, and Patient Data to Improve Productivity of Early Drug Discovery. (United States)

    Drawnel, Faye Marie; Zhang, Jitao David; Küng, Erich; Aoyama, Natsuyo; Benmansour, Fethallah; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Jensen Zoffmann, Sannah; Delobel, Frédéric; Prummer, Michael; Weibel, Franziska; Carlson, Coby; Anson, Blake; Iacone, Roberto; Certa, Ulrich; Singer, Thomas; Ebeling, Martin; Prunotto, Marco


    Today, novel therapeutics are identified in an environment which is intrinsically different from the clinical context in which they are ultimately evaluated. Using molecular phenotyping and an in vitro model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we show that by quantifying pathway reporter gene expression, molecular phenotyping can cluster compounds based on pathway profiles and dissect associations between pathway activities and disease phenotypes simultaneously. Molecular phenotyping was applicable to compounds with a range of binding specificities and triaged false positives derived from high-content screening assays. The technique identified a class of calcium-signaling modulators that can reverse disease-regulated pathways and phenotypes, which was validated by structurally distinct compounds of relevant classes. Our results advocate for application of molecular phenotyping in early drug discovery, promoting biological relevance as a key selection criterion early in the drug development cascade. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. False Belief and Emotion Understanding in Post-Institutionalized Children (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.


    Deficits in social cognition may impair the ability to negotiate social transactions and relationships and contribute to socio emotional difficulties experienced by some post-institutionalized children. We examined false belief and emotion understanding in 40 institutional care-adopted children, 40 foster care-adopted children and 40 birth…

  13. The False Claims Act. An interview with Mark Kleiman. (United States)

    Kleiman, M A


    JONA's Healthcare Law, Ethics, and Regulation interviewed Attorney Mark Allen Kleiman regarding the False Claims Act. Mr. Kleiman has had much experience with this Act in both prosecution and consulting. In this interview, he provides great insight into the details and interpretations of the Act, as well as implications for healthcare providers.

  14. Two-headed butterfly vs. mantis: do false antennae matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania G. López-Palafox


    Full Text Available The colour patterns and morphological peculiarities of the hindwings of several butterfly species result in the appearance of a head at the rear end of the insect’s body. Although some experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that the “false head” deflects predator attacks towards the rear end of the butterfly, more research is needed to determine the role of the different components of the “false head”. We explored the role of hindwing tails (presumably mimicking antennae in predator deception in the “false head” butterfly Callophrys xami. We exposed butterflies with intact wings and with hindwing tails experimentally ablated to female mantises (Stagmomantis limbata. We found no differences in the number of butterflies being attacked and the number of butterflies escaping predation between both groups. However, our behavioural observations indicate that other aspects of the “false head” help C. xami survive some mantis attacks, supporting the notion that they are adaptations against predators.

  15. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael


    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  16. Facebook False Self-Presentation Behaviors and Negative Mental Health. (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J; White, Katherine M; Obst, Patricia L


    As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e.g., untruthful status updates, profile creation) and liking behaviors (e.g., liking posts dishonestly), each associated with different predictors and outcomes. Results indicated that moral norms significantly predicted lying behaviors; and age, self-esteem, group norms, and moral norms significantly predicted liking behaviors. Unexpectedly, liking behaviors were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, whereas lying behaviors were related to anxiety only. Findings highlight associations between online self-presentation strategies, in particular liking behaviors, on Facebook and possible offline negative mental health.

  17. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect (United States)

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie


    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  18. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring (United States)

    Gallo, David A.


    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  19. A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining (United States)

    Pinder, Jonathan P.


    Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

  20. Young Children's Emerging Ability to Make False Statements (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.


    This study examined the origins of children's ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions ("Do you win/lose?"), recognition questions ("Do you have a…

  1. 47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts. (United States)


    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Operating Procedures for Distress and Safety Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to...

  2. 22 CFR 40.63 - Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (United States)


    ... NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators § 40.63 Misrepresentation; Falsely claiming citizenship. (a) Fraud and misrepresentation... of the U.S. immigration laws, or investigation of the alien's record at the place of former residence...

  3. Problems with a False Recognition Paradigm for Developmental Memory Research (United States)

    Lindauer, Barbara K.; Paris, Scott G.


    Developmental changes in memory organization based on synonym and antonym relationships were examined in three experiments. Subjects were 64 second graders and 64 sixth graders. Some inadequacies of a false recognition paradigm for developmental research are identified and some alternative analyses are proposed. (Author/JH)

  4. Emotional false memories in children with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Mirandola, Chiara; Losito, Nunzia; Ghetti, Simona; Cornoldi, Cesare


    Research has shown that children with learning disabilities (LD) are less prone to evince associative illusions of memory as a result of impairments in their ability to engage in semantic processing. However, it is unclear whether this observation is true for scripted life events, especially if they include emotional content, or across a broad spectrum of learning disabilities. The present study addressed these issues by assessing recognition memory for script-like information in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD), children with dyslexia, and typically developing children (N=51). Participants viewed photographs about 8 common events (e.g., family dinner), and embedded in each episode was either a negative or a neutral consequence of an unseen action. Children's memory was then tested on a yes/no recognition task that included old and new photographs. Results showed that the three groups performed similarly in recognizing target photographs, but exhibited differences in memory errors. Compared to other groups, children with NLD were more likely to falsely recognize photographs that depicted an unseen cause of an emotional seen event and associated more "Remember" responses to these errors. Children with dyslexia were equally likely to falsely recognize both unseen causes of seen photographs and photographs generally consistent with the script, whereas the other participant groups were more likely to falsely recognize unseen causes rather than script-consistent distractors. Results are interpreted in terms of mechanisms underlying false memories' formation in different clinical populations of children with LD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Processing on the Nutrient Composition of False Yam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    False yam (Icacina trichantha) tubers were processed into different flour samples: the raw; steeped-sun-dried; steepedoven- dried; blanched-sun-dried and blanched-oven-dried samples. The nutrient composition: proximate and mineral elements contents of the flour samples were studied. The lipid, protein and ...

  6. A false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rossi


    Full Text Available We describe a false case of infection caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, a cosmopolite trematode that can infect human bile ducts but tends to live in cattle or other grazing mammals. Our aim is to stress the relevance of adequate diagnostic methods and of exact medical history in order to detect any possible clinical case.

  7. False Alarm Probability Estimation for Compressive Sensing Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.


    In this paper false alarm probability (FAP) estimation of a radar using Compressive Sensing (CS) in the frequency domain is investigated. Compressive Sensing is a recently proposed technique which allows reconstruction of sparse signal from sub-Nyquist rate measurements. The estimation of the FAP is

  8. Teacher Education and the Enduring Significance of "False Empathy" (United States)

    Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.


    The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…

  9. Small maritime target detection through false color fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Wu, T.


    We present an algorithm that produces a fused false color representation of a combined multiband IR and visual imaging system for maritime applications. Multispectral IR imaging techniques are increasingly deployed in maritime operations, to detect floating mines or to find small dinghies and

  10. Educational Needs and Causes of False Diagnosis of Atypical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    to analyse the causes of false ASCUS if any and identify the educational needs as part of quality assurance programme. ... study period. 16.0% cases were found to be non ASCUS on review. The main four causes of over use of ASCUS diagnosis were poor quality smears and .... nuclear shape and size, and nucleolus.

  11. False confessions: How can psychology so basic be so counterintuitive? (United States)

    Kassin, Saul M


    Recent advances in DNA technology have shined a spotlight on thousands of innocent people wrongfully convicted for crimes they did not commit-many of whom had been induced to confess. The scientific study of false confessions, which helps to explain this phenomenon, has proved highly paradoxical. On the one hand, it is rooted in reliable core principles of psychology (e.g., research on reinforcement and decision-making, obedience to authority, and confirmation biases). On the other hand, false confessions are highly counterintuitive if not inconceivable to most people (e.g., as seen in actual trial outcomes as well as studies of jury decision making). This article describes both the psychology underlying false confessions and the psychology that predicts the counterintuitive nature of this same phenomenon. It then notes that precisely because they are so counterintuitive, false confessions are often "invisible," resulting in a form of inattentional blindness, and are slow to change in the face of contradiction, illustrating belief perseverance. This article concludes by suggesting ways in which psychologists can help to prevent future miscarriages of justice by advocating for reforms to policy and practice and helping to raise public awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In day to day clinical biochemistry laboratory practices, occasionally abnormal levels of individual parameters are noted. These reports cannot be explained immediately with certainty always. Inquisitiveness with in-depth analysis might reveal the possible cause sometimes. To find out the possible cause of false elevation in ...

  13. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration (United States)

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah


    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false…

  14. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Plomp, G.; Zeelenberg, R.


    Presentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998). Both in a within-subjects design

  15. Activation of Imaginal Information on True and False Memories (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou; Pierce, Benton H.


    The present study examined the activation of imaginal information on true and false memories. Participants studied a series of concrete objects in pictures or words. The imagery group (n = 96) was instructed to form images and the control group (n = 96) was not instructed to do so. Both groups were then given a standard recognition memory test and…

  16. Evaluating the evidence for nonconscious processes in producing false memories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Zeelenberg, R.


    In response to the failure of Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers (see record 2003-07789-006) (2003) to replicate the results of Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998) regarding their purported finding of a reliable false memory effect in the absence of memory for the list items, Gallo and Seamon (2004)

  17. Disfluent presentations lead to the creation of more false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Sanchez

    Full Text Available The creation of false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM paradigm has been shown to be sensitive to many factors such as task instructions, participant mood, or even presentation modality. However, do other simple perceptual differences also impact performance on the DRM and the creation of false memories? This study explores the potential impact of changes in perceptual disfluency on DRM performance. To test for a potential influence of disfluency on false memory creation, participants viewed lists under either perceptually disfluent conditions or not. Results indicated that disfluency did significantly impact performance in the DRM paradigm; more disfluent presentations significantly increased the recall and recognition of unpresented information, although they did not impact recall or recognition of presented information. Thus, although disfluency did impact performance, disfluency did not produce a positive benefit related to overall task performance. This finding instead suggests that more disfluent presentations can increase the likelihood that false memories are created, and provide little positive performance benefit.

  18. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.


    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  19. How do our brain hemispheres cooperate to avoid false memories? (United States)

    Bergert, Susanne


    Memories are not always as reliable as they may appear. The occurrence of false memories can be reduced, however, by enhancing the cooperation between the two brain hemispheres. Yet is the communication from left to right hemisphere as helpful as the information transfer from right to left? To address this question, 72 participants were asked to learn 16 word lists. Applying the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the words in each list were associated with an unpresented prototype word. In the test condition, learned words and corresponding prototypes were presented along with non-associated new words, and participants were asked to indicate which of the words they recognized. Crucially, both study and test words were projected to only one hemisphere in order to stimulate each hemisphere separately. It was found that false recognitions occurred significantly less often when the right hemisphere studied and the left hemisphere recognized the stimuli. Moreover, only the right-to-left direction of interhemispheric communication reduced false memories significantly, whereas left-to-right exchange did not. Further analyses revealed that the observed reduction of false memories was not due to an enhanced discrimination sensitivity, but to a stricter response bias. Hence, the data suggest that interhemispheric cooperation does not improve the ability to tell old and new apart, but rather evokes a conservative response tendency. Future studies may narrow down in which cognitive processing steps interhemispheric interaction can change the response criterion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.


    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  1. False memories, nonbelieved memories, and the unresolved primacy of communication. (United States)

    Nash, Robert A


    Mahr & Csibra (M&C) make a compelling case for a communicative function of episodic remembering, but a less compelling case that this is its primary function. Questions arise on whether confirming their predictions would support their account sufficiently, on the communicative function of preserving rich, nonbelieved memories, and on the epistemic benefits of developing false memories via the acceptance of misinformation.

  2. False Memories for Shape Activate the Lateral Occipital Complex (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M.; Slotnick, Scott D.


    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has shown that false memories arise from higher-level conscious processing regions rather than lower-level sensory processing regions. In the present study, we assessed whether the lateral occipital complex (LOC)--a lower-level conscious shape processing region--was associated with false…

  3. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha


    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  4. Political Education and Equality: Gramsci Against "False Consciousness." (United States)

    Kann, Mark E.


    Describes and assesses the contributions of Marxist political theorist Antonio Gramsci to developing a meaningful theory relating political education to equality. Identifies Gramsci's major contribution as the substitution of the notion of an ambiguous common sense for false consciousness. (Author/DB)

  5. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects. (United States)

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D


    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth


    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...

  7. False-positive urine pregnancy tests clinicians as detectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began ...

  8. Evaluation of false positivity and cross reactivity in the investigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the causes of false positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus test results (F+HIV), cross reactivity of HIV antibodies with other non HIV antibodies, and efficiency of the serial and parallel testing algorithms. 100 blood samples randomly collected from clients attending the Heart to Heart HIV counseling and ...

  9. False memory following rapidly presented lists: the element of surprise. (United States)

    Whittlesea, Bruce W A; Masson, Michael E J; Hughes, Andrea D


    This article examines a false memory phenomenon, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) effect, consisting of high false alarms for a prototype word (e.g., SLEEP) following a study list consisting of its associates (NIGHT, DREAM, etc.). This false recognition is thought to occur because prototypes, although not presented within a study list, are highly activated by their semantic association with words that are in the list. The authors present an alternative explanation of the effect, based on the discrepancy-attribution hypothesis. According to that account, false (and true) familiarity results when a comparison between expectations and outcomes within a processing episode causes surprise. Experiment 1 replicates the DRM effect. Experiment 2 shows that a similar effect can occur when participants are shown lists of unrelated words and are then surprised by a recognition target. Experiments 3 and 4 show that the DRM effect itself is abolished when participants are prevented from being surprised by prototypes presented as recognition targets. It is proposed that the DRM effect is best understood through the principles of construction, evaluation, and attribution.

  10. False high level in total bilirubin estimation in nonicteric serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In day to day clinical biochemistry laboratory practices, occasionally abnormal levels of individual parameters are noted. These reports cannot be explained immediately with certainty always. Inquisitiveness with in-depth analysis might reveal the possible cause sometimes. To find out the possible cause of false elevation in ...

  11. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Magidson, Tali; Gross, Kevin


    canonized as fact. Data-dredging, p-hacking, and similar behaviors exacerbate the problem. Should negative results become easier to publish as a claim approaches acceptance as a fact, however, true and false claims would be more readily distinguished. To the degree that the model reflects the real world...

  12. Can false memories be created through nonconscious processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Zeelenberg (René); G. Plomp; J.G.W. Raaijmakers (Jeroen)


    textabstractPresentation times of study words presented in the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm varied from 20 ms to 2000 ms per word in an attempt to replicate the false memory effect following extremely short presentations reported by J.G. Seamon, C.R. Luo and D.A. Gallo (1998). Both in

  13. Response of False horn plantain to different plant densities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was carried out at the Crops Research Institute, Kumasi, Ghana, from April 1992 to March 1995, aimed at determining (i) the optimum plant density of False horn plantain for maximum yield, and (ii) the optimum frequency of handweeding for economic returns. Results indicated that the optimum plant density ...

  14. Peripheral False Aneurysms: An Evolution Of Precedent Vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the rise in armed conflicts in Nigeria, major vascular injuries are seen more commonly. Unfortunately it is not well appreciated that securing haemostasis at the site of injury is not tantamount to adequate handling of the vascular situation. Occasioned by misdiagnosis of the extent and type of vascular damage, false ...

  15. A global safety deficiency : False glide slope capture affecting aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, M.J.


    A serious incident occurred at Eindhoven Airport (Netherlands) in May 2013. A Boeing 737-800 performed a go-around while using the Instrument Landing System (ILS). The flight crew reported a False Glide Slope capture as the reason for the go-around.
    At first the occurrence report did not really

  16. Stereotype threat reduces false recognition when older adults are forewarned. (United States)

    Wong, Jessica T; Gallo, David A


    Exposing older adults to ageing stereotypes can reduce their memory for studied information--a phenomenon attributed to stereotype threat--but little is known about stereotype effects on false memory. Here, we assessed ageing stereotype effects on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory illusion. Older adults studied lists of semantically associated words, and then read a passage about age-related memory decline (threat condition) or an age-neutral passage (control condition). They then took a surprise memory test with a warning to avoid false recognition of non-studied associates. Relative to the control condition, activating stereotype threat reduced the recognition of both studied and non-studied words, implicating a conservative criterion shift for associated test words. These results indicate that stereotype threat can reduce false memory, and they help to clarify mixed results from prior ageing research. Consistent with the regulatory focus hypothesis, threat motivates older adults to respond more conservatively when error-prevention is emphasised at retrieval.

  17. Function-driven discovery of disease genes in zebrafish using an integrated genomics big data resource. (United States)

    Shim, Hongseok; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Chan Yeong; Hwang, Sohyun; Kim, Hyojin; Yang, Sunmo; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Insuk


    Whole exome sequencing (WES) accelerates disease gene discovery using rare genetic variants, but further statistical and functional evidence is required to avoid false-discovery. To complement variant-driven disease gene discovery, here we present function-driven disease gene discovery in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a promising human disease model owing to its high anatomical and genomic similarity to humans. To facilitate zebrafish-based function-driven disease gene discovery, we developed a genome-scale co-functional network of zebrafish genes, DanioNet (, which was constructed by Bayesian integration of genomics big data. Rigorous statistical assessment confirmed the high prediction capacity of DanioNet for a wide variety of human diseases. To demonstrate the feasibility of the function-driven disease gene discovery using DanioNet, we predicted genes for ciliopathies and performed experimental validation for eight candidate genes. We also validated the existence of heterozygous rare variants in the candidate genes of individuals with ciliopathies yet not in controls derived from the UK10K consortium, suggesting that these variants are potentially involved in enhancing the risk of ciliopathies. These results showed that an integrated genomics big data for a model animal of diseases can expand our opportunity for harnessing WES data in disease gene discovery. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Empirical methods for controlling false positives and estimating confidence in ChIP-Seq peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courdy Samir J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput signature sequencing holds many promises, one of which is the ready identification of in vivo transcription factor binding sites, histone modifications, changes in chromatin structure and patterns of DNA methylation across entire genomes. In these experiments, chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to enrich for particular DNA sequences of interest and signature sequencing is used to map the regions to the genome (ChIP-Seq. Elucidation of these sites of DNA-protein binding/modification are proving instrumental in reconstructing networks of gene regulation and chromatin remodelling that direct development, response to cellular perturbation, and neoplastic transformation. Results Here we present a package of algorithms and software that makes use of control input data to reduce false positives and estimate confidence in ChIP-Seq peaks. Several different methods were compared using two simulated spike-in datasets. Use of control input data and a normalized difference score were found to more than double the recovery of ChIP-Seq peaks at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR. Moreover, both a binomial p-value/q-value and an empirical FDR were found to predict the true FDR within 2–3 fold and are more reliable estimators of confidence than a global Poisson p-value. These methods were then used to reanalyze Johnson et al.'s neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF ChIP-Seq data without relying on extensive qPCR validated NRSF sites and the presence of NRSF binding motifs for setting thresholds. Conclusion The methods developed and tested here show considerable promise for reducing false positives and estimating confidence in ChIP-Seq data without any prior knowledge of the chIP target. They are part of a larger open source package freely available from

  19. 13 CFR 134.407 - Evidence beyond the record and discovery. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence beyond the record and discovery. 134.407 Section 134.407 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF..., the Administrative Law Judge may not admit evidence beyond the written administrative record nor...

  20. 18 CFR 385.403 - Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of discovery; general provisions (Rule 403). 385.403 Section 385.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... the response is true and accurate to the best of that person's knowledge, information, and belief...

  1. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging. (United States)

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe


    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Discovery of Artificial Radioactivity (United States)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia


    We reconstruct Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity in January 1934 based in part on documents preserved in the Joliot-Curie Archives in Paris, France. We argue that their discovery followed from the convergence of two parallel lines of research, on the neutron and on the positron, that were focused on a well-defined experimental problem, the nuclear transmutation of aluminum and other light elements. We suggest that a key role was played by a suggestion that Francis Perrin made at the seventh Solvay Conference at the end of October 1933, that the alpha-particle bombardment of aluminum produces an intermediate unstable isotope of phosphorus, which then decays by positron emission. We also suggest that a further idea that Perrin published in December 1933, and the pioneering theory of beta decay that Enrico Fermi also first published in December 1933, established a new theoretical framework that stimulated Joliot to resume the researches that he and Curie had interrupted after the Solvay Conference, now for the first time using a Geiger-Müller counter to detect the positrons emitted when he bombarded aluminum with polonium alpha particles.

  3. The influence of language and socioeconomic status on children's understanding of false belief. (United States)

    Shatz, Marilyn; Diesendruck, Gil; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse; Akar, Didar


    Study 1 investigated whether differences in the lexical explicitness with which languages express false belief influence children's performance on standard false belief tasks. Preschoolers speaking languages with explicit terms (Turkish and Puerto Rican Spanish) were compared with preschoolers speaking languages without explicit terms (Brazilian Portuguese and English) on questions assessing false belief understanding either specifically (the think question) or more generally (the look for question). Lexical explicitness influenced responses to the think question only. Study 2 replicated Study 1 with groups of both speakers differing in socioeconomic status (SES). A local effect of explicitness was found again as well as a more general influence of SES. The findings are discussed with regard to possible relations among language, SES, and understanding of mind.

  4. Imbalanced target prediction with pattern discovery on clinical data repositories. (United States)

    Chan, Tak-Ming; Li, Yuxi; Chiau, Choo-Chiap; Zhu, Jane; Jiang, Jie; Huo, Yong


    Clinical data repositories (CDR) have great potential to improve outcome prediction and risk modeling. However, most clinical studies require careful study design, dedicated data collection efforts, and sophisticated modeling techniques before a hypothesis can be tested. We aim to bridge this gap, so that clinical domain users can perform first-hand prediction on existing repository data without complicated handling, and obtain insightful patterns of imbalanced targets for a formal study before it is conducted. We specifically target for interpretability for domain users where the model can be conveniently explained and applied in clinical practice. We propose an interpretable pattern model which is noise (missing) tolerant for practice data. To address the challenge of imbalanced targets of interest in clinical research, e.g., deaths less than a few percent, the geometric mean of sensitivity and specificity (G-mean) optimization criterion is employed, with which a simple but effective heuristic algorithm is developed. We compared pattern discovery to clinically interpretable methods on two retrospective clinical datasets. They contain 14.9% deaths in 1 year in the thoracic dataset and 9.1% deaths in the cardiac dataset, respectively. In spite of the imbalance challenge shown on other methods, pattern discovery consistently shows competitive cross-validated prediction performance. Compared to logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, and decision tree, pattern discovery achieves statistically significant (p-values pattern discovery is consistently comparable to the best achievable performance. Pattern discovery has demonstrated to be robust and valuable for target prediction on existing clinical data repositories with imbalance and noise. The prediction results and interpretable patterns can provide insights in an agile and inexpensive way for the potential formal studies.

  5. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cadavid

    Full Text Available Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on

  6. Memory Distortion and Its Avoidance: An Event-Related Potentials Study on False Recognition and Correct Rejection (United States)

    Beato, Maria Soledad


    Memory researchers have long been captivated by the nature of memory distortions and have made efforts to identify the neural correlates of true and false memories. However, the underlying mechanisms of avoiding false memories by correctly rejecting related lures remains underexplored. In this study, we employed a variant of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to explore neural signatures of committing and avoiding false memories. ERP were obtained for True recognition, False recognition, Correct rejection of new items, and, more importantly, Correct rejection of related lures. With these ERP data, early-frontal, left-parietal, and late right-frontal old/new effects (associated with familiarity, recollection, and monitoring processes, respectively) were analysed. Results indicated that there were similar patterns for True and False recognition in all three old/new effects analysed in our study. Also, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures activities seemed to share common underlying familiarity-based processes. The ERP similarities between False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures disappeared when recollection processes were examined because only False recognition presented a parietal old/new effect. This finding supported the view that actual false recollections underlie false memories, providing evidence consistent with previous behavioural research and with most ERP and neuroimaging studies. Later, with the onset of monitoring processes, False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures waveforms presented, again, clearly dissociated patterns. Specifically, False recognition and True recognition showed more positive going patterns than Correct rejection of related lures signal and Correct rejection of new items signature. Since False recognition and Correct rejection of related lures triggered familiarity-recognition processes, our results suggest that deciding which items are studied is based more on recollection

  7. Comparison of discovery limits for extra Z bosons at future colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.


    We study and compare the discovery potential for heavy neutral gauge bosons (Z') at various e + e - and pp (-) colliders that are planned or have been proposed. Typical discovery limits are for the Fermilab Tevatron ∼1 TeV, Di-Tevatron ∼2 TeV, CERN LHC ∼4 TeV, LSGNA (a 60 TeV pp collider) ∼13 TeV while the e + e - discovery limits are 2--10x √s with the large variation reflecting the model dependence of the limits. While both types of colliders have comparable discovery limits the hadron colliders are generally less dependent on the specific Z' model and provide more robust limits since the signal has little background. In contrast, discovery limits for e + e - limits are more model dependent and, because they are based on indirect inferences of deviations from standard model predictions, they are more sensitive to systematic errors

  8. The Gravitational Wave Background and Higgs False Vacuum Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Masina, Isabella


    For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the Standard Model Higgs potential develops a shallow local minimum at energies of about $10^{16}$ GeV, where primordial inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. For each point of that band, the highness of the Higgs potential at the false minimum is calculable, and there is an associated prediction for the inflationary gravitational wave background, namely for the tensor to scalar ratio $r$. We show that the recent measurement of $r$ by the BICEP2 collaboration, $r=0.16 _{-0.05}^{+0.06}$ at $1\\sigma$, combined with the most up-to-date measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, reveals that the hypothesis that a Standard Model shallow false minimum was the source of inflation in the early Universe is viable.

  9. False memory and the associative network of happiness. (United States)

    Koo, Minkyung; Oishi, Shigehiro


    This research examines the relationship between individuals' levels of life satisfaction and their associative networks of happiness. Study 1 measured European Americans' degree of false memory of happiness using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Scores on the Satisfaction With Life Scale predicted the likelihood of false memory of happiness but not of other lure words such as sleep . In Study 2, European American participants completed an association-judgment task in which they judged the extent to which happiness and each of 15 positive emotion terms were associated with each other. Consistent with Study 1's findings, chronically satisfied individuals exhibited stronger associations between happiness and other positive emotion terms than did unsatisfied individuals. However, Koreans and Asian Americans did not exhibit such a pattern regarding their chronic level of life satisfaction (Study 3). In combination, results suggest that there are important individual and cultural differences in the cognitive structure and associative network of happiness.

  10. [False traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager]. (United States)

    Nour, M; Talha, H; El Idrissi, R; Lahraoui, Y; Ouazzani, L; Oubejja, H; Erraji, M; Zerhouni, H; Ettayebi, F


    Most aneurysms of hand arteries are traumatic. It is a generally rare unrecognized pathology. Complications are serious (embolism and thromboses of interdigital arteries). Two main causes can be recalled: acute trauma, with development of a false aneurysm; repeated microtrauma (hand hammer syndrome), with occurrence of an arterial dysplasic aneurysm. The diagnosis is based on the presence of a pulsatile mass, with finger dysesthesia, unilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. It is confirmed by duplex Doppler. Arteriography is necessary but can be replaced by an angio-MR. We report a case of false traumatic aneurysm of the ulnar artery in a teenager. This case illustrates this rare condition and opens discussion on therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. High estradiol levels improve false memory rates and meta-memory in highly schizotypal women. (United States)

    Hodgetts, Sophie; Hausmann, Markus; Weis, Susanne


    Overconfidence in false memories is often found in patients with schizophrenia and healthy participants with high levels of schizotypy, indicating an impairment of meta-cognition within the memory domain. In general, cognitive control is suggested to be modulated by natural fluctuations in oestrogen. However, whether oestrogen exerts beneficial effects on meta-memory has not yet been investigated. The present study sought to provide evidence that high levels of schizotypy are associated with increased false memory rates and overconfidence in false memories, and that these processes may be modulated by natural differences in estradiol levels. Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, it was found that highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol produced significantly fewer false memories than those with low estradiol. No such difference was found within the low schizotypy participants. Highly schizotypal participants with high estradiol were also less confident in their false memories than those with low estradiol; low schizotypy participants with high estradiol were more confident. However, these differences only approached significance. These findings suggest that the beneficial effect of estradiol on memory and meta-memory observed in healthy participants is specific to highly schizotypal individuals and might be related to individual differences in baseline dopaminergic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance quantification of clustering algorithms for false positive removal in fMRI by ROC curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Salles Cunha Peres

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a non-invasive technique that allows the detection of specific cerebral functions in humans based on hemodynamic changes. The contrast changes are about 5%, making visual inspection impossible. Thus, statistic strategies are applied to infer which brain region is engaged in a task. However, the traditional methods like general linear model and cross-correlation utilize voxel-wise calculation, introducing a lot of false-positive data. So, in this work we tested post-processing cluster algorithms to diminish the false-positives. Methods In this study, three clustering algorithms (the hierarchical cluster, k-means and self-organizing maps were tested and compared for false-positive removal in the post-processing of cross-correlation analyses. Results Our results showed that the hierarchical cluster presented the best performance to remove the false positives in fMRI, being 2.3 times more accurate than k-means, and 1.9 times more accurate than self-organizing maps. Conclusion The hierarchical cluster presented the best performance in false-positive removal because it uses the inconsistency coefficient threshold, while k-means and self-organizing maps utilize a priori cluster number (centroids and neurons number; thus, the hierarchical cluster avoids clustering scattered voxels, as the inconsistency coefficient threshold allows only the voxels to be clustered that are at a minimum distance to some cluster.

  13. The relationship between TORCH complex false positivity and obstetric outcome in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. (United States)

    De Carolis, S; Santucci, S; Botta, A; Salvi, S; Degennaro, V A; Garufi, C; Garofalo, S; Ferrazzani, S; Scambia, G


    The presence of TORCH IgM positivity is not a specific indicator of primary infection; the assessment of IgG avidity index has been shown to be useful in identifying or excluding primary infection in pregnant women with no pre-gestational TORCH serology. TORCH is an acronym for Toxoplasmosis, Others (HBV, syphilis, Varicella-Zoster virus, Epstein Barr virus, Coxsackie virus and Parvovirus), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes Simplex. Data from 54 pregnancies in women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) were assessed in comparison with data from 222 healthy pregnant women as controls. Each woman in both groups was systematically screened for TORCH IgG and IgM during pre-conceptional evaluation and/or at the beginning of pregnancy. The assessment of IgG avidity was also evaluated in order to identify primary infection or false positivity. A significant increase of CMV IgM false positivity in APS in comparison with controls was detected. A worse pregnancy outcome was observed among APS patients having CMV IgM false positivity in comparison with APS patients without false positivity; in particular a statistically significant lower neonatal birth weight and a lower neonatal birth weight percentile were observed. Our data suggest that the presence of CMV IgM false positivity could represent a novel prognostic factor for poor pregnancy outcome in APS patients.

  14. Rethinking the Relationship between Social Experience and False-Belief Understanding: A Mentalistic Account. (United States)

    Roby, Erin; Scott, Rose M


    It was long assumed that the capacity to represent false beliefs did not emerge until at least age four, as evidenced by children's performance on elicited-response tasks. However, recent evidence that infants appear to demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with alternative, non-elicited-response measures has led some researchers to conclude that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in the 1st year of life. This mentalistic view has been criticized for failing to offer an explanation for the well-established positive associations between social factors and preschoolers' performance on elicited-response false-belief tasks. In this paper, we address this criticism by offering an account that reconciles these associations with the mentalistic claim that false-belief understanding emerges in infancy. We propose that rather than facilitating the emergence of the capacity to represent beliefs, social factors facilitate the use of this ability via effects on attention, inference, retrieval, and response production. Our account predicts that the relationship between social factors and false-belief understanding should not be specific to preschoolers' performance in elicited-response tasks: this relationship should be apparent across the lifespan in a variety of paradigms. We review an accumulating body of evidence that supports this prediction.

  15. False memories from survival processing make better primes for problem-solving. (United States)

    Garner, Sarah R; Howe, Mark L


    Previous research has demonstrated that participants remember significantly more survival-related information and more information that is processed for its survival relevance. Recent research has also shown that survival materials and processing result in more false memories, ones that are adaptive inasmuch as they prime solutions to insight-based problems. Importantly, false memories for survival-related information facilitate problem solving more than false memories for other types of information. The present study explores this survival advantage using an incidental rather than intentional memory task. Here participants rated information either in the context of its importance to a survival-processing scenario or to moving to a new house. Following this, participants solved a number of compound remote associate tasks (CRATs), half of which had the solution primed by false memories that were generated during the processing task. Results showed that (a) CRATs were primed by false memories in this incidental task, with participants solving significantly more CRATs when primed than when unprimed, (b) this effect was greatest when participants rated items for survival than moving, and (c) processing items for a survival scenario improved overall problem-solving performance even when specific problems themselves were not primed. Results are discussed with regard to adaptive theories of memory.

  16. Rethinking the relationship between social experience and false-belief understanding: A mentalistic account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Roby


    Full Text Available It was long assumed that the capacity to represent false beliefs did not emerge until at least age four, as evidenced by children’s performance on elicited-response tasks. However, recent evidence that infants appear to demonstrate false-belief understanding when tested with alternative, non-elicited-response measures has led some researchers to conclude that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in the first year of life. This mentalistic view has been criticized for failing to offer an explanation for the well-established positive associations between social factors and preschoolers’ performance on elicited-response false-belief tasks. In this paper, we address this criticism by offering an account that reconciles these associations with the mentalistic claim that false-belief understanding emerges in infancy. We propose that rather than facilitating the emergence of the capacity to represent beliefs, social factors facilitate the use of this ability via effects on attention, inference, retrieval, and response production. Our account predicts that the relationship between social factors and false-belief understanding should not be specific to preschoolers’ performance in elicited-response tasks: this relationship should be apparent across the lifespan in a variety of paradigms. We review an accumulating body of evidence that supports this prediction.

  17. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  18. Continuity from an implicit to an explicit understanding of false belief from infancy to preschool age. (United States)

    Thoermer, Claudia; Sodian, Beate; Vuori, Maria; Perst, Hannah; Kristen, Susanne


    An implicit understanding of false belief indicated by anticipatory looking has been shown to be significantly correlated with performance on explicit false-belief tasks in 3- and 4-year-old children (Low, 2010). Recent evidence from infant research indicates, however, that implicit false-belief understanding guides infants' expectations about goal-directed actions even in the second year of life. The present study presents data from a sample of N= 70 infants who were tested longitudinally at 15, 18, 30, 36 and 48 months with implicit and explicit Theory of Mind measures, as well as an assessment of verbal IQ. Belief-based anticipatory looking in the false-belief task at 18 months significantly predicted verbal false-belief reasoning at 48 months, after controlling for verbal IQ. These findings indicate developmental continuity and conceptual specificity in belief reasoning from infancy to preschool age. They are discussed with respect to competing accounts of infants' understanding of the mind. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  19. False Balance in Climate Change Reporting Among TV Meteorologists (United States)

    Timm, K.; Maibach, E.; Boykoff, M.; Broeckelman-Post, M.; Myers, T.; Perkins, D. R., IV


    False balance is the journalistic practice of giving equal weight to both sides of a story, regardless of an established truth and validity on one side. Despite widespread scientific agreement about the anthropogenic causes of climate change, false balance on the subject of climate change remains common in television despite a documented decline in other media. In this exploratory study, 452 American TV meteorologists were surveyed about their climate change beliefs and asked how often and why they present an opposing viewpoint when they present about human contributions to climate change. The results indicate that this practice is fairly common, with nearly 30% of TV meteorologists presenting an opposing viewpoint at least half the time or more frequently when they present about climate change. Weathercasters described including an opposing viewpoint in their stories for many different reasons, including that it is essential to objective and balanced reporting, that it is used to acknowledge different audience viewpoints, and because the science is perceived to be uncertain. The results also suggest that being more certain that climate change is happening, that it is primarily caused by humans, and perceiving the full extent of the scientific consensus about human-caused climate change, are associated with decreased frequency of presenting an opposing viewpoint. This is the first time the issue of false balance has been studied in the context of TV weathercasters, and while more research is needed, these results provide some preliminary evidence to suggest that increasing weathercasters' understanding of the scientific consensus of human caused climate change may help reduce false balance reporting. Furthermore, as meteorologists and weathercasters become more prominent reporters of local climate news, it will be important for them to have techniques to accurately report the science, while maintaining their sense of objectivity.

  20. Neural Global Pattern Similarity Underlies True and False Memories. (United States)

    Ye, Zhifang; Zhu, Bi; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui


    The neural processes giving rise to human memory strength signals remain poorly understood. Inspired by formal computational models that posit a central role of global matching in memory strength, we tested a novel hypothesis that the strengths of both true and false memories arise from the global similarity of an item's neural activation pattern during retrieval to that of all the studied items during encoding (i.e., the encoding-retrieval neural global pattern similarity [ER-nGPS]). We revealed multiple ER-nGPS signals that carried distinct information and contributed differentially to true and false memories: Whereas the ER-nGPS in the parietal regions reflected semantic similarity and was scaled with the recognition strengths of both true and false memories, ER-nGPS in the visual cortex contributed solely to true memory. Moreover, ER-nGPS differences between the parietal and visual cortices were correlated with frontal monitoring processes. By combining computational and neuroimaging approaches, our results advance a mechanistic understanding of memory strength in recognition. What neural processes give rise to memory strength signals, and lead to our conscious feelings of familiarity? Using fMRI, we found that the memory strength of a given item depends not only on how it was encoded during learning, but also on the similarity of its neural representation with other studied items. The global neural matching signal, mainly in the parietal lobule, could account for the memory strengths of both studied and unstudied items. Interestingly, a different global matching signal, originated from the visual cortex, could distinguish true from false memories. The findings reveal multiple neural mechanisms underlying the memory strengths of events registered in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366792-11$15.00/0.