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Sample records for species closely related

  1. Genetically modified yeast of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely relates species, and fermentation processes using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Highland Ranch, CO; Pentilla, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI; Koivuranta, Kari [Vantaa, FI; Roberg-Perez, Kevin [Minneapolis, MN

    2012-01-17

    Cells of the species Issatchenkia orientalis and closely related yeast species are transformed with a vector to introduce an exogenous lactate dehydrogenase gene. The cells produce lactic acid efficiently and are resistant at low pH, high lactate titer conditions.

  2. Novel intron markers to study the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species

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    Castresana Jose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilocus phylogenies can be used to infer the species tree of a group of closely related species. In species trees, the nodes represent the actual separation between species, thus providing essential information about their evolutionary history. In addition, multilocus phylogenies can help in analyses of species delimitation, gene flow and genetic differentiation within species. However, few adequate markers are available for such studies. Results In order to develop nuclear markers that can be useful in multilocus studies of mammals, we analyzed the mammalian genomes of human, chimpanzee, macaque, dog and cow. Rodents were excluded due to their unusual genomic features. Introns were extracted from the mammalian genomes because of their greater genetic variability and ease of amplification from the flanking exons. To an initial set of more than 10,000 one-to-one orthologous introns we applied several filters to select introns that belong to single-copy genes, show neutral evolutionary rates and have an adequate length for their amplification. This analysis led to a final list of 224 intron markers randomly distributed along the genome. To experimentally test their validity, we amplified twelve of these introns in a panel of six mammalian species. The result was that seven of these introns gave rise to a PCR band of the expected size in all species. In addition, we sequenced these bands and analyzed the accumulation of substitutions in these introns in five pairs of closely related species. The results showed that the estimated genetic distances in the five species pairs was quite variable among introns and that this divergence cannot be directly predicted from the overall intron divergence in mammals. Conclusions We have designed a new set of 224 nuclear introns with optimal features for the phylogeny of closely related mammalian species. A large proportion of the introns tested experimentally showed a perfect amplification

  3. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

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    Blair, Jaime E; Coffey, Michael D; Martin, Frank N

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  4. Genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species of Drosophila.

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    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, B N

    2005-05-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility among three closely related species, Drosophila bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana has been investigated by using backcross analysis methods. The role of Y chromosome, major hybrid sterility (MHS) genes (genetic factors) and cytoplasm (non-genetic factor) have been studied in the hybrids of these three species. In the species pair, bipectinata--parabipectinata, Y chromosome introgression of parabipectinata in the genomic background of bipectinata and the reciprocal Y chromosome introgression were unsuccessful as all males in second backcross generation were sterile. Neither MHS genes nor cytoplasm was found important for sterility. This suggests the involvement of X-Y, X-autosomes or polygenic interactions in hybrid male sterility. In bipectinata--malerkotliana and parabipectinata--malerkotliana species pairs, Y chromosome substitution in reciprocal crosses did not affect male fertility. Backcross analyses also show no involvement of MHS genes or cytoplasm in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. Therefore, X- autosome interaction or polygenic interaction is supposed to be involved in hybrid male sterility in these two species pairs. These findings also provide evidence that even in closely related species, genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility may vary.

  5. Species tree estimation for the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and close relatives.

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    Jaime E Blair

    Full Text Available To better understand the evolutionary history of a group of organisms, an accurate estimate of the species phylogeny must be known. Traditionally, gene trees have served as a proxy for the species tree, although it was acknowledged early on that these trees represented different evolutionary processes. Discordances among gene trees and between the gene trees and the species tree are also expected in closely related species that have rapidly diverged, due to processes such as the incomplete sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. Recently, methods have been developed for the explicit estimation of species trees, using information from multilocus gene trees while accommodating heterogeneity among them. Here we have used three distinct approaches to estimate the species tree for five Phytophthora pathogens, including P. infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease in potato and tomato. Our concatenation-based "supergene" approach was unable to resolve relationships even with data from both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and from multiple isolates per species. Our multispecies coalescent approach using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood methods was able to estimate a moderately supported species tree showing a close relationship among P. infestans, P. andina, and P. ipomoeae. The topology of the species tree was also identical to the dominant phylogenetic history estimated in our third approach, Bayesian concordance analysis. Our results support previous suggestions that P. andina is a hybrid species, with P. infestans representing one parental lineage. The other parental lineage is not known, but represents an independent evolutionary lineage more closely related to P. ipomoeae. While all five species likely originated in the New World, further study is needed to determine when and under what conditions this hybridization event may have occurred.

  6. [Phylogenetic analysis of closely related Leuconostoc citreum species based on partial housekeeping genes].

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    Lv, Qiang; Chen, Ming; Xu, Haiyan; Song, Yuqin; Sun, Zhihong; Dan, Tong; Sun, Tiansong

    2013-07-04

    Using the 16S rRNA, dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, we identified the phylogenetic relationship among closely related Leuconostoc citreum species. Seven Leu. citreum strains originally isolated from sourdough were characterized by PCR methods to amplify the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene sequences, which were determined to assess the suitability as phylogenetic markers. Then, we estimated the genetic distance and constructed the phylogenetic trees including 16S rRNA and above mentioned three housekeeping genes combining with published corresponding sequences. By comparing the phylogenetic trees, the topology of three housekeeping genes trees were consistent with that of 16S rRNA gene. The homology of closely related Leu. citreum species among dnaA, murC, pyrG and 16S rRNA gene sequences were different, ranged from75.5% to 97.2%, 50.2% to 99.7%, 65.0% to 99.8% and 98.5% 100%, respectively. The phylogenetic relationship of three housekeeping genes sequences were highly consistent with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence, while the genetic distance of these housekeeping genes were extremely high than 16S rRNA gene. Consequently, the dnaA, murC and pyrG gene are suitable for classification and identification closely related Leu. citreum species.

  7. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

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    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate...... groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...... species. FMRFamide, MLD/pedal peptide, allatotropin, RNamide, excitatory peptide, and FVRIamide showed a broad localization within the brain, while calcitonin, SIFamide, vasotocin, RGWamide, DLamide, FLamide, FVamide, MIP, and serotonin were present in fewer cells in demarcated regions. The different...

  8. M-GCAT: interactively and efficiently constructing large-scale multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species

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    Messeguer Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to recent advances in whole genome shotgun sequencing and assembly technologies, the financial cost of decoding an organism's DNA has been drastically reduced, resulting in a recent explosion of genomic sequencing projects. This increase in related genomic data will allow for in depth studies of evolution in closely related species through multiple whole genome comparisons. Results To facilitate such comparisons, we present an interactive multiple genome comparison and alignment tool, M-GCAT, that can efficiently construct multiple genome comparison frameworks in closely related species. M-GCAT is able to compare and identify highly conserved regions in up to 20 closely related bacterial species in minutes on a standard computer, and as many as 90 (containing 75 cloned genomes from a set of 15 published enterobacterial genomes in an hour. M-GCAT also incorporates a novel comparative genomics data visualization interface allowing the user to globally and locally examine and inspect the conserved regions and gene annotations. Conclusion M-GCAT is an interactive comparative genomics tool well suited for quickly generating multiple genome comparisons frameworks and alignments among closely related species. M-GCAT is freely available for download for academic and non-commercial use at: http://alggen.lsi.upc.es/recerca/align/mgcat/intro-mgcat.html.

  9. Artificial light at night affects sleep behaviour differently in two closely related songbird species.

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    Sun, Jiachen; Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2017-12-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN) or light pollution is an increasing and worldwide problem. There is growing concern that because of the disruption of natural light cycles, ALAN may pose serious risks for wildlife. While ALAN has been shown to affect many aspects of animal behaviour and physiology, few studies have experimentally studied whether individuals of different species in the wild respond differently to ALAN. Here, we investigated the effect of ALAN on sleep behaviour in two closely related songbird species inhabiting the same study area and roosting/breeding in similar nest boxes. We experimentally exposed free-living great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to artificial light inside their nest boxes and observed changes in their sleep behaviour compared to the previous night when the nest boxes were dark. In line with previous studies, sleep behaviour of both species did not differ under dark conditions. ALAN disrupted sleep in both great and blue tits. However, compared to blue tits, great tits showed more pronounced effects and more aspects of sleep were affected. Light exposed great tits entered the nest boxes and fell asleep later, woke up and exited the nest boxes earlier, and the total sleep amount and sleep percentage were reduced. By contrast, these changes in sleep behaviour were not found in light exposed blue tits. Our field experiment, using exactly the same light manipulation in both species, provides direct evidence that two closely related species respond differently to ALAN, while their sleep behaviour under dark conditions was similar. Our research suggests that findings for one species cannot necessarily be generalised to other species, even closely-related species. Furthermore, species-specific effects could have implications for community dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Wild Relatives and Closely Related Species to Adapt Common Bean to Climate Change

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    James D. Kelly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is an important legume crop worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stress limits bean yields to <600 kg ha−1 in low-income countries. Current low yields result in food insecurity, while demands for increased yields to match the rate of population growth combined with the threat of climate change are significant. Novel and significant advances in genetic improvement using untapped genetic diversity available in crop wild relatives and closely related species must be further explored. A meeting was organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust to consider strategies for common bean improvement. This review resulted from that meeting and considers our current understanding of the genetic resources available for common bean improvement and the progress that has been achieved thus far through introgression of genetic diversity from wild relatives of common bean, and from closely related species, including: P. acutifolius, P. coccineus, P. costaricensis and P. dumosus. Newly developed genomic tools and their potential applications are presented. A broad outline of research for use of these genetic resources for common bean improvement in a ten-year multi-disciplinary effort is presented.

  11. Differences in mating strategies in two closely related small ermine moth species (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    The degree of polyandry in a species is linked to other life history traits such as egg maturation, life span, and male ejaculate size and quality. The study of differences in mating strategies between closely related species can provide a better understanding of the evolution of these strategies

  12. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

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    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

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    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  14. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus) in China with multiple gene markers.

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    Dai, Qing-Yan; Gao, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhang, Ai-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes (ITS1 and ITS2). Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML)/Neighbor-joining (NJ), "best close match" (BCM), Minimum distance (MD), and BP-based method (BP)), representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based) in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In addition, our

  15. Phylogenetic reconstruction and DNA barcoding for closely related pine moth species (Dendrolimus in China with multiple gene markers.

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    Qing-Yan Dai

    Full Text Available Unlike distinct species, closely related species offer a great challenge for phylogeny reconstruction and species identification with DNA barcoding due to their often overlapping genetic variation. We tested a sibling species group of pine moth pests in China with a standard cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene and two alternative internal transcribed spacer (ITS genes (ITS1 and ITS2. Five different phylogenetic/DNA barcoding analysis methods (Maximum likelihood (ML/Neighbor-joining (NJ, "best close match" (BCM, Minimum distance (MD, and BP-based method (BP, representing commonly used methodology (tree-based and non-tree based in the field, were applied to both single-gene and multiple-gene analyses. Our results demonstrated clear reciprocal species monophyly for three relatively distant related species, Dendrolimus superans, D. houi, D. kikuchii, as recovered by both single and multiple genes while the phylogenetic relationship of three closely related species, D. punctatus, D. tabulaeformis, D. spectabilis, could not be resolved with the traditional tree-building methods. Additionally, we find the standard COI barcode outperforms two nuclear ITS genes, whatever the methods used. On average, the COI barcode achieved a success rate of 94.10-97.40%, while ITS1 and ITS2 obtained a success rate of 64.70-81.60%, indicating ITS genes are less suitable for species identification in this case. We propose the use of an overall success rate of species identification that takes both sequencing success and assignation success into account, since species identification success rates with multiple-gene barcoding system were generally overestimated, especially by tree-based methods, where only successfully sequenced DNA sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Non-tree based methods, such as MD, BCM, and BP approaches, presented advantages over tree-based methods by reporting the overall success rates with statistical significance. In

  16. Host plant use among closely related Anaea butterfly species (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Charaxinae

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    QUEIROZ J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a great number of Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae species in the tropics whose larvae feed on several plant families. However the genus Anaea is almost always associated with Croton species (Euphorbiaceae. This work describes patterns of host plant use by immature and adult abundance on different vertical strata of sympatric Anaea species in a forest of Southeastern Brazil. Quantitative samples of leaves were taken in April/1999 and May/2000 to collect eggs and larvae of four Anaea species on C.alchorneicarpus, C. floribundus and C. salutaris in a semideciduous forest. Sampled leaves were divided into three classes of plant phenological stage: saplings, shrubs and trees. The results showed that the butterfly species are segregating in host plant use on two scales: host plant species and plant phenological stages. C. alchorneicarpus was used by only one Anaea species, whereas C. floribundus was used by three species and C. salutaris by four Anaea species. There was one Anaea species concentrated on sapling, another on sapling/shrub and two others on shrub/tree leaves. Adults of Anaea were more frequent at canopy traps but there were no differences among species caught in traps at different vertical positions. This work supplements early studies on host plant use among Charaxinae species and it describes how a guild of closely related butterfly species may be organized in a complex tropical habitat.

  17. Increased genetic divergence between two closely related fir species in areas of range overlap

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    Wang, Jing; Abbott, Richard J; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-01-01

    Because of introgressive hybridization, closely related species can be more similar to each other in areas of range overlap (parapatry or sympatry) than in areas where they are geographically isolated from each other (allopatry). Here, we report the reverse situation based on nuclear genetic divergence between two fir species, Abies chensiensis and Abies fargesii, in China, at sites where they are parapatric relative to where they are allopatric. We examined genetic divergence across 126 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a set of 172 individuals sampled from both allopatric and parapatric populations of the two species. Our analyses demonstrated that AFLP divergence was much greater between the species when comparisons were made between parapatric populations than between allopatric populations. We suggest that selection in parapatry may have largely contributed to this increased divergence. PMID:24772279

  18. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review

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    Evelyne eCostes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs quiescence and to floral induction vs vegetative development.

  19. Bud structure, position and fate generate various branching patterns along shoots of closely related Rosaceae species: a review.

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    Costes, Evelyne; Crespel, Laurent; Denoyes, Béatrice; Morel, Philippe; Demene, Marie-Noëlle; Lauri, Pierre-Eric; Wenden, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Branching in temperate plants is closely linked to bud fates, either floral or vegetative. Here, we review how the fate of meristematic tissues contained in buds and their position along a shoot imprint specific branching patterns which differ among species. Through examples chosen in closely related species in different genera of the Rosaceae family, a panorama of patterns is apparent. Patterns depend on whether vegetative and floral buds are borne individually or together in mixed buds, develop as the shoot grows or after a rest period, and are located in axillary or terminal positions along the parent shoot. The resulting branching patterns are conserved among varieties in a given species but progressively change with the parent shoot length during plant ontogeny. They can also be modulated by agronomic and environmental conditions. The existence of various organizations in the topology and fate of meristematic tissues and their appendages in closely related species questions the between-species conservation of physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to bud outgrowth vs. quiescence and to floral induction vs. vegetative development.

  20. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis.

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    Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species. Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues. In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade. Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode. Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Nucleosome-coupled expression differences in closely-related species

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    Gebbia Marinella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide nucleosome occupancy is negatively related to the average level of transcription factor motif binding based on studies in yeast and several other model organisms. The degree to which nucleosome-motif interactions relate to phenotypic changes across species is, however, unknown. Results We address this challenge by generating nucleosome positioning and cell cycle expression data for Saccharomyces bayanus and show that differences in nucleosome occupancy reflect cell cycle expression divergence between two yeast species, S. bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Specifically, genes with nucleosome-depleted MBP1 motifs upstream of their coding sequence show periodic expression during the cell cycle, whereas genes with nucleosome-shielded motifs do not. In addition, conserved cell cycle regulatory motifs across these two species are more nucleosome-depleted compared to those that are not conserved, suggesting that the degree of conservation of regulatory sites varies, and is reflected by nucleosome occupancy patterns. Finally, many changes in cell cycle gene expression patterns across species can be correlated to changes in nucleosome occupancy on motifs (rather than to the presence or absence of motifs. Conclusions Our observations suggest that alteration of nucleosome occupancy is a previously uncharacterized feature related to the divergence of cell cycle expression between species.

  2. Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus (Salicaceae) species.

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    Du, Shuhui; Wang, Zhaoshan; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Wang, Dongsheng; Wang, Junhui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Tembrock, Luke R; Zhang, Jianguo

    2015-10-01

    Historical tectonism and climate oscillations can isolate and contract the geographical distributions of many plant species, and they are even known to trigger species divergence and ultimately speciation. Here, we estimated the nucleotide variation and speciation in three closely related Populus species, Populus tremuloides, P. tremula and P. davidiana, distributed in North America and Eurasia. We analysed the sequence variation in six single-copy nuclear loci and three chloroplast (cpDNA) fragments in 497 individuals sampled from 33 populations of these three species across their geographic distributions. These three Populus species harboured relatively high levels of nucleotide diversity and showed high levels of nucleotide differentiation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that P. tremuloides diverged earlier than the other two species. The cpDNA haplotype network result clearly illustrated the dispersal route from North America to eastern Asia and then into Europe. Molecular dating results confirmed that the divergence of these three species coincided with the sundering of the Bering land bridge in the late Miocene and a rapid uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Vicariance-driven successful allopatric speciation resulting from historical tectonism and climate oscillations most likely played roles in the formation of the disjunct distributions and divergence of these three Populus species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

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    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  4. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

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    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  5. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jugovic,Jure; Koren,Toni

    2014-01-01

    Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775), M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850) and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe) was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is als...

  6. Reconstruction of molecular phylogeny of closely related Amorphophallus species of India using plastid DNA marker and fingerprinting approaches.

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    Gholave, Avinash R; Pawar, Kiran D; Yadav, Shrirang R; Bapat, Vishwas A; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2017-01-01

    Plastid DNA markers sequencing and DNA fingerprinting approaches were used and compared for resolving molecular phylogeny of closely related, previously unexplored Amorphophallus species of India. The utility of individual plastid markers namely rbcL , matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD , their combined dataset and two fingerprinting techniques viz. RAPD and ISSR were tested for their efficacy to resolves Amorphophallus species into three sections specific clades namely Rhaphiophallus , Conophallus and Amorphophallus . In the present study, sequences of these four plastid DNA regions as well as RAPD and ISSR profiles of 16 Amorphophallus species together with six varieties of two species were generated and analyzed. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference based construction of phylogenetic trees indicated that among the four plastid DNA regions tested individually and their combined dataset, rbcL was found best suited for resolving closely related Amorphophallus species into section specific clades. When analyzed individually, rbcL exhibited better discrimination ability than matK , trnH - psbA , trnLC - trnLD and combination of all four tested plastid markers. Among two fingerprinting techniques used, the resolution of Amorphophallus species using RAPD was better than ISSR and combination of RAPD +ISSR and in congruence with resolution based on rbcL .

  7. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  8. [Identification and analysis of Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species of the same genus by using ITS2 DNA barcode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Rong-kun; Bi, Zhen-fei; Bai, Rui-xue; Ren, Yao-yao; Tan, Rui; Song, Liang-ke; Li, Di-qiang; Mao, Can-quan

    2015-04-01

    The study is aimed to ensure the quality and safety of medicinal plants by using ITS2 DNA barcode technology to identify Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species. The DNA of 13 herb samples including C. boweri and M. horridula from Lhasa of Tibet was extracted, ITS PCR were amplified and sequenced. Both assembled and web downloaded 71 ITS2 sequences were removed of 5. 8S and 28S. Multiple sequence alignment was completed and the intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances were calculated by MEGA 5.0, while the neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed. We also predicted the ITS2 secondary structure of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species. The results showed that ITS2 as DNA barcode was able to identify C. boweri, M. horridula as well as well as their close related species effectively. The established based on ITS2 barcode method provides the regular and safe detection technology for identification of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species, adulterants and counterfeits, in order to ensure their quality control, safe medication, reasonable development and utilization.

  9. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times.

  10. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

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    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  11. Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. and Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov., two closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Peterson, Stephen W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Two new and phylogenetically closely related species in Aspergillus section Fumigati are described and illustrated. Homothallic Aspergillus waksmanii sp. nov. was isolated from New Jersey soil (USA) and is represented by the ex-type isolate NRRL 179T (=CCF 4266T=Thom 4138.HS2T=IBT 31900T......). Aspergillus marvanovae sp. nov. was isolated from water with high boracic acid anions content in Dukovany nuclear power station (Czech Republic). The sexual stage of this species is unknown, but the MAT1-1 locus was successfully amplified suggesting that the species is probably heterothallic and teleomorphic...... but is represented by only the ex-type isolate CCM 8003T (=CCF 4037T=NRRL 62486T=IBT 31279T=IFM 60873T). Both species can be distinguished from all previously described species in section Fumigati based on morphology, maximum growth temperature, sequence data from five unlinked loci and unique secondary metabolites...

  12. Molecular relationships between closely related strains and species of nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M. H.; Wall, S. M.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Hecht, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic comparisons have been made for 24 enzymes in the Bergerac and Bristol strains of Caenorhabditis elegans and the related species, Caenorhabditis briggsae. No variation was detected between the two strains of C. elegans. In contrast, the two species, C. elegans and C. briggsae exhibited electrophoretic differences in 22 of 24 enzymes. A consensus 5S rRNA sequence was determined for C. elegans and found to be identical to that from C. briggsae. By analogy with other species with relatively well established fossil records it can be inferred that the time of divergence between the two nematode species is probably in the tens of millions of years. The limited anatomical evolution during a time period in which proteins undergo extensive changes supports the hypothesis that anatomical evolution is not dependent on overall protein changes.

  13. CREB expression in the brains of two closely related parasitic wasp species that differ in long-term memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.; Verbaarschot, P.; Hontelez, S.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.; Smid, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA signalling pathway and transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) play key roles in long-term memory (LTM) formation. We used two closely related parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and Cotesia rubecula, which were previously shown to be different in LTM

  14. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  15. Vibrio vulnificus phage PV94 is closely related to temperate phages of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species.

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    Mark Pryshliak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio vulnificus is an important pathogen which can cause serious infections in humans. Yet, there is limited knowledge on its virulence factors and the question whether temperate phages might be involved in pathogenicity, as is the case with V. cholerae. Thus far, only two phages (SSP002 and VvAW1 infecting V. vulnificus have been genetically characterized. These phages were isolated from the environment and are not related to Vibrio cholerae phages. The lack of information on temperate V. vulnificus phages prompted us to isolate those phages from lysogenic strains and to compare them with phages of other Vibrio species. RESULTS: In this study the temperate phage PV94 was isolated from a V. vulnificus biotype 1 strain by mitomycin C induction. PV94 is a myovirus whose genome is a linear double-stranded DNA of 33,828 bp with 5'-protruding ends. Sequence analysis of PV94 revealed a modular organization of the genome. The left half of the genome comprising the immunity region and genes for the integrase, terminase and replication proteins shows similarites to V. cholerae kappa phages whereas the right half containing genes for structural proteins is closely related to a prophage residing in V. furnissii NCTC 11218. CONCLUSION: We present the first genomic sequence of a temperate phage isolated from a human V. vulnificus isolate. The sequence analysis of the PV94 genome demonstrates the wide distribution of closely related prophages in various Vibrio species. Moreover, the mosaicism of the PV94 genome indicates a high degree of horizontal genetic exchange within the genus Vibrio, by which V. vulnificus might acquire virulence-associated genes from other species.

  16. Testing DNA barcodes in closely related species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Myanmar and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhao, Jietang; Erickson, David L; Xia, Nianhe; Kress, W John

    2015-03-01

    The genus Curcuma L. is commonly used as spices, medicines, dyes and ornamentals. Owing to its economic significance and lack of clear-cut morphological differences between species, this genus is an ideal case for developing DNA barcodes. In this study, four chloroplast DNA regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) and one nuclear region (ITS2) were generated for 44 Curcuma species and five species from closely related genera, represented by 96 samples. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in matK (89.7%), rbcL (100%), trnH-psbA (100%), trnL-F (95.7%) and ITS2 (82.6%) regions. The results further showed that four candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and trnL-F) yield no barcode gaps, indicating that the genus Curcuma represents a challenging group for DNA barcoding. The ITS2 region presented large interspecific variation and provided the highest correct identification rates (46.7%) based on BLASTClust method among the five regions. However, the ITS2 only provided 7.9% based on NJ tree method. An increase in discriminatory power needs the development of more variable markers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Using SSR-HRM to Identify Closely Related Species in Herbal Medicine Products: A Case Study on Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  18. A new vanilla species from Costa Rica closely related to V. planifolia (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B. Azofeifa-Bolaños

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new vanilla species growing in sympatry with Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews (Orchidaceae in the province of Limón, Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. The morphology of the reproductive and vegetative organs observed on vines cultivated under shade-house, the nuclear (Internal Transcribed Spacer and plastid (matK nucleotide sequences, as well as the contents of aromatic compounds measured in ripe fruits, show that this species is close to but distinct from V. planifolia. The name V. sotoarenasii M.Pignal, Azofeifa-Bolaños & Grisoni sp. nov. is proposed for this new Vanilla species endemic in Costa Rica. It is especially distinguished from V. planifolia by a reduction of about 30% of the size of the fruits and flowers, by a divergence of ITS sequences for at least two species-conserved nucleotides compared to seven other species of the V. planifolia group, and by the presence of anisic compounds and low content of phenolic compounds (including vanillin in the fruits. These results confirmed the extension of the area of distribution of V. planifolia southward to Costa Rica, where a recent speciation process occurred. Because of its particular agronomic and aromatic properties, V. sotoarenasii sp. nov. could represent a valuable biological resource for the vanilla industry.

  19. Differences in memory dynamics between two closely related parasitoid wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.; Smid, H.M.; Steidle, J.L.M.; Kruidhof, H.M.; van Loon, J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2006-01-01

    The two closely related parasitoids Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) coexist in The Netherlands where they occupy slightly different niches. When searching for their caterpillar hosts, they use host plant odours that are released upon feeding by the caterpillars. The

  20. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Morus spp. and assessment of their transferability to other closely related species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adoption of genomics based breeding has emerged as a promising approach for achieving comprehensive crop improvement. Such an approach is more relevant in the case of perennial species like mulberry. However, unavailability of genomic resources of co-dominant marker systems has been the major constraint for adopting molecular breeding to achieve genetic enhancement of Mulberry. The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a large number of locus specific genic and genomic SSR markers which can be effectively used for molecular characterization of mulberry species/genotypes. Result We analyzed a total of 3485 DNA sequences including genomic and expressed sequences (ESTs) of mulberry (Morus alba L.) genome. We identified 358 sequences to develop appropriate microsatellite primer pairs representing 222 genomic and 136 EST regions. Primers amplifying locus specific regions of Dudia white (a genotype of Morus alba L), were identified and 137 genomic and 51 genic SSR markers were standardized. A two pronged strategy was adopted to assess the applicability of these SSR markers using mulberry species and genotypes along with a few closely related species belonging to the family Moraceae viz., Ficus, Fig and Jackfruit. While 100% of these markers amplified specific loci on the mulberry genome, 79% were transferable to other related species indicating the robustness of these markers and the potential they hold in analyzing the molecular and genetic diversity among mulberry germplasm as well as other related species. The inherent ability of these markers in detecting heterozygosity combined with a high average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.559 ranging between 0.076 and 0.943 clearly demonstrates their potential as genomic resources in diversity analysis. The dissimilarity coefficient determined based on Neighbor joining method, revealed that the markers were successful in segregating the mulberry species, genotypes and other related species

  1. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

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    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  2. The γ-gliadin multigene family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum and its closely related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qing

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unique properties of wheat flour primarily depend on gluten, which is the most important source of protein for human being. γ-Gliadins have been considered to be the most ancient of the wheat gluten family. The complex family structure of γ-gliadins complicates the determination of their function. Moreover, γ-gliadins contain several sets of celiac disease epitopes. However, no systematic research has been conducted yet. Results A total of 170 γ-gliadin genes were isolated from common wheat and its closely related species, among which 138 sequences are putatively functional. The ORF lengths of these sequences range from 678 to 1089 bp, and the repetitive region is mainly responsible for the size heterogeneity of γ-gliadins. The repeat motif P(Q/L/S/T/I/V/R/AF(S/Y/V/Q/I/C/LP(R/L/S/T/H/C/YQ1–2(P(S/L/T/A/F/HQQ1–2is repeated from 7 to 22 times. Sequence polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium analyses show that γ-gliadins are highly diverse. Phylogenic analyses indicate that there is no obvious discrimination between Sitopsis and Ae. tauschii at the Gli-1 loci, compared with diploid wheat. According to the number and placement of cysteine residues, we defined nine cysteine patterns and 17 subgroups. Alternatively, we classified γ-gliadins into two types based on the length of repetitive domain. Amino acid composition analyses indicate that there is a wide range of essential amino acids in γ-gliadins, and those γ-gliadins from subgroup SG-10 and SG-12 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain are more nutritional. A screening of toxic epitopes shows that γ-gliadins with a pattern of C9 and γ-gliadins with a short repetitive domain almost lack any epitopes. Conclusion γ-Gliadin sequences in wheat and closely related Aegilops species are diverse. Each group/subgroup contributes differently to nutritional quality and epitope content. It is suggested that the genes with a short repetitive domain are more

  3. Transcriptome-based differentiation of closely-related Miscanthus lines.

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    Philippe Chouvarine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distinguishing between individuals is critical to those conducting animal/plant breeding, food safety/quality research, diagnostic and clinical testing, and evolutionary biology studies. Classical genetic identification studies are based on marker polymorphisms, but polymorphism-based techniques are time and labor intensive and often cannot distinguish between closely related individuals. Illumina sequencing technologies provide the detailed sequence data required for rapid and efficient differentiation of related species, lines/cultivars, and individuals in a cost-effective manner. Here we describe the use of Illumina high-throughput exome sequencing, coupled with SNP mapping, as a rapid means of distinguishing between related cultivars of the lignocellulosic bioenergy crop giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus. We provide the first exome sequence database for Miscanthus species complete with Gene Ontology (GO functional annotations. RESULTS: A SNP comparative analysis of rhizome-derived cDNA sequences was successfully utilized to distinguish three Miscanthus × giganteus cultivars from each other and from other Miscanthus species. Moreover, the resulting phylogenetic tree generated from SNP frequency data parallels the known breeding history of the plants examined. Some of the giant miscanthus plants exhibit considerable sequence divergence. CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe an analysis of Miscanthus in which high-throughput exome sequencing was utilized to differentiate between closely related genotypes despite the current lack of a reference genome sequence. We functionally annotated the exome sequences and provide resources to support Miscanthus systems biology. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the commercial high-performance cloud computing to do computational GO annotation.

  4. Microbial environment affects innate immunity in two closely related earthworm species Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida.

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    Jiří Dvořák

    Full Text Available Survival of earthworms in the environment depends on their ability to recognize and eliminate potential pathogens. This work is aimed to compare the innate defense mechanisms of two closely related earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and Eisenia fetida, that inhabit substantially different ecological niches. While E. andrei lives in a compost and manure, E. fetida can be found in the litter layer in forests. Therefore, the influence of environment-specific microbiota on the immune response of both species was followed. Firstly, a reliable method to discern between E. andrei and E. fetida based on species-specific primers for cytochrome c oxidase I (COI and stringent PCR conditions was developed. Secondly, to analyze the immunological profile in both earthworm species, the activity and expression of lysozyme, pattern recognition protein CCF, and antimicrobial proteins with hemolytic function, fetidin and lysenins, have been assessed. Whereas, CCF and lysozyme showed only slight differences in the expression and activity, fetidin/lysenins expression as well as the hemolytic activity was considerably higher in E. andrei as compared to E. fetida. The expression of fetidin/lysenins in E. fetida was not affected upon the challenge with compost microbiota, suggesting more substantial changes in the regulation of the gene expression. Genomic DNA analyses revealed significantly higher level of fetidin/lysenins (determined using universal primer pairs in E. andrei compared to E. fetida. It can be hypothesized that E. andrei colonizing compost as a new habitat acquired an evolutionary selection advantage resulting in a higher expression of antimicrobial proteins.

  5. Niche segregation in two closely related species of stickleback along a physiological axis: explaining multidecadel changes in fish distribution from iron-induced respiratory impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Munckhof, van den P.J.J.; Pollux, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute exposure to iron can be lethal to fish, but long-term sublethal impacts of iron require further study. Here we investigated whether the spatial and temporal distribution (1967–2004) of two closely related species of stickleback matched the spatial distribution of iron concentrations in the

  6. Parallel habitat acclimatization is realized by the expression of different genes in two closely related salamander species (genus Salamandra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, D J; Czypionka, T; Altmüller, J; Rodriguez, A; Küpfer, E; Segev, O; Blaustein, L; Templeton, A R; Nolte, A W; Steinfartz, S

    2017-12-01

    The utilization of similar habitats by different species provides an ideal opportunity to identify genes underlying adaptation and acclimatization. Here, we analysed the gene expression of two closely related salamander species: Salamandra salamandra in Central Europe and Salamandra infraimmaculata in the Near East. These species inhabit similar habitat types: 'temporary ponds' and 'permanent streams' during larval development. We developed two species-specific gene expression microarrays, each targeting over 12 000 transcripts, including an overlapping subset of 8331 orthologues. Gene expression was examined for systematic differences between temporary ponds and permanent streams in larvae from both salamander species to establish gene sets and functions associated with these two habitat types. Only 20 orthologues were associated with a habitat in both species, but these orthologues did not show parallel expression patterns across species more than expected by chance. Functional annotation of a set of 106 genes with the highest effect size for a habitat suggested four putative gene function categories associated with a habitat in both species: cell proliferation, neural development, oxygen responses and muscle capacity. Among these high effect size genes was a single orthologue (14-3-3 protein zeta/YWHAZ) that was downregulated in temporary ponds in both species. The emergence of four gene function categories combined with a lack of parallel expression of orthologues (except 14-3-3 protein zeta) suggests that parallel habitat adaptation or acclimatization by larvae from S. salamandra and S. infraimmaculata to temporary ponds and permanent streams is mainly realized by different genes with a converging functionality.

  7. Characterization of a novel Lactobacillus species closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii using a combination of molecular and comparative genomics methods

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    Pérez-Martínez Gaspar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH constitutes a powerful tool for identification and characterization of bacterial strains. In this study we have applied this technique for the characterization of a number of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats fed with a diet supplemented with sorbitol. Results Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, recA, pheS, pyrG and tuf sequences identified five bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal content of rats as belonging to the recently described Lactobacillus taiwanensis species. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that these five strains are distinct but closely related to Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus gasseri. A whole genome DNA microarray designed for the probiotic L. johnsonii strain NCC533 was used for CGH analysis of L. johnsonii ATCC 33200T, L. johnsonii BL261, L. gasseri ATCC 33323T and L. taiwanensis BL263. In these experiments, the fluorescence ratio distributions obtained with L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri showed characteristic inter-species profiles. The percentage of conserved L. johnsonii NCC533 genes was about 83% in the L. johnsonii strains comparisons and decreased to 51% and 47% for L. taiwanensis and L. gasseri, respectively. These results confirmed the separate status of L. taiwanensis from L. johnsonii at the level of species, and also that L. taiwanensis is closer to L. johnsonii than L. gasseri is to L. johnsonii. Conclusion Conventional taxonomic analyses and microarray-based CGH analysis have been used for the identification and characterization of the newly species L. taiwanensis. The microarray-based CGH technology has been shown as a remarkable tool for the identification and fine discrimination between phylogenetically close species, and additionally provided insight into the adaptation of the strain L. taiwanensis BL263 to its ecological niche.

  8. Yeasts from Scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber): A focus on monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of Candida famata and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Aline Lobão da; Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan Barros; Guedes, Glaucia Morgana de Melo; Sales, Jamille Alencar; Oliveira, Jonathas Sales de; Maia Junior, José Erisvaldo; Miranda, Stefânia Araújo; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora Souza Collares Maia; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Pereira Neto, Waldemiro de Aquino; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify yeasts from the gastrointestinal tract of scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and from plant material collected from the environment where they live. Then, the isolates phenotypically identified as Candida famata were submitted to molecular identification of their closely related species and evaluated for their antifungal susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms to antifungal drugs. Cloacal swabs from 20 scarlet ibises kept in captivity at Mangal das Garças Park (Brazil), pooled stool samples (n = 20) and samples of trunks and hollow of trees (n = 20) obtained from their enclosures were collected. The samples were seeded on Sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol. The 48 recovered isolates were phenotypically identified as 15 Candida famata, 13 Candida catenulata, 2 Candida intermedia, 1 Candida lusitaniae, 2 Candida guilliermondii, 1 Candida kefyr, 1 Candida amapae, 1 Candida krusei, 8 Trichosporon spp., and 4 Rhodotorula spp. The C. famata isolates were further identified as 3 C. famata, 8 Debaryomyces nepalensis, and 4 C. palmioleophila. All C. famata and C. palmioleophila were susceptible to caspofungin and itraconazole, while one D. nepalensis was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. This same isolate and another D. nepalensis had lower amphotericin B susceptibility. The azole resistant strain had an increased efflux of rhodamine 6G and an alteration in the membrane sterol content, demonstrating multifactorial resistance mechanism. Finally, this research shows that scarlet ibises and their environment harbor C. famata and closely related species, including antifungal resistant isolates, emphasizing the need of monitoring the antifungal susceptibility of these yeast species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Like will to like: abundances of closely related species can predict susceptibility to intestinal colonization by pathogenic and commensal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Bärbel; Chaffron, Samuel; Käppeli, Rina; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Freedrich, Susanne; Weber, Thomas C; Kirundi, Jorum; Suar, Mrutyunjay; McCoy, Kathy D; von Mering, Christian; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal ecosystem is formed by a complex, yet highly characteristic microbial community. The parameters defining whether this community permits invasion of a new bacterial species are unclear. In particular, inhibition of enteropathogen infection by the gut microbiota ( = colonization resistance) is poorly understood. To analyze the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated protection from Salmonella enterica induced enterocolitis, we used a mouse infection model and large scale high-throughput pyrosequencing. In contrast to conventional mice (CON), mice with a gut microbiota of low complexity (LCM) were highly susceptible to S. enterica induced colonization and enterocolitis. Colonization resistance was partially restored in LCM-animals by co-housing with conventional mice for 21 days (LCM(con21)). 16S rRNA sequence analysis comparing LCM, LCM(con21) and CON gut microbiota revealed that gut microbiota complexity increased upon conventionalization and correlated with increased resistance to S. enterica infection. Comparative microbiota analysis of mice with varying degrees of colonization resistance allowed us to identify intestinal ecosystem characteristics associated with susceptibility to S. enterica infection. Moreover, this system enabled us to gain further insights into the general principles of gut ecosystem invasion by non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. Mice harboring high commensal E. coli densities were more susceptible to S. enterica induced gut inflammation. Similarly, mice with high titers of Lactobacilli were more efficiently colonized by a commensal Lactobacillus reuteri(RR) strain after oral inoculation. Upon examination of 16S rRNA sequence data from 9 CON mice we found that closely related phylotypes generally display significantly correlated abundances (co-occurrence), more so than distantly related phylotypes. Thus, in essence, the presence of closely related species can increase the chance of invasion of newly incoming species into the gut

  10. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    are related to P. citrinum, P. gorlenkoanum is revived, Penicillium hetheringtonii sp. nov. and Penicillium tropicoides sp. nov. are described here as new species, and the combination Penicillium tropicum is proposed. Penicillium hetheringtonii is closely related to P. citrinum and differs in having slightly......Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii...... broader stipes, metulae in verticils of four or more and the production of an uncharacterized metabolite, tentatively named PR1-x. Penicillium tropicoides resembles P. tropicum, but differs in the slow maturation of the cleistothecia, slower growth at 30A degrees C and the production of isochromantoxins...

  11. Geographic variation in floral traits and the capacity of autonomous selfing across allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Dorien; Brys, Rein; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-04-21

    Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. In this study, we investigated variation in floral traits and its implications on the capacity of autonomous selfing in both allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species(Gentianaceae) across two distinct geographic regions(UK and mainland Europe). Although the magnitude and direction of floral differentiation varied between regions, sympatric populations were always significantly more divergent in floral traits and the capacity to self autonomously than allopatric populations. These results indicate that mating systems can vary substantially within a species and that the joint occurrence of plant species can have a major impact on floral morphology and capacity of autonomous selfing, most likely as a way to reduce the probability of interspecific interference.

  12. Secondary metabolite profiles and antifungal drug susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus and closely related species, Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroyuki; Ochiai, Eri; Kikuchi, Kazuyo; Yahiro, Maki; Toyotome, Takahito; Watanabe, Akira; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2015-05-01

    The incidence of Aspergillus infection has been increasing in the past few years. Also, new Aspergillus fumigatus-related species, namely Aspergillus lentulus, Aspergillus udagawae, and Aspergillus viridinutans, were shown to infect humans. These fungi exhibit marked morphological similarities to A. fumigatus, albeit with different clinical courses and antifungal drug susceptibilities. The present study used liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify the secondary metabolites secreted as virulence factors by these Aspergillus species and compared their antifungal susceptibility. The metabolite profiles varied widely among A. fumigatus, A. lentulus, A. udagawae, and A. viridinutans, producing 27, 13, 8, and 11 substances, respectively. Among the mycotoxins, fumifungin, fumiquinazoline A/B and D, fumitremorgin B, gliotoxin, sphingofungins, pseurotins, and verruculogen were only found in A. fumigatus, whereas auranthine was only found in A. lentulus. The amount of gliotoxin, one of the most abundant mycotoxins in A. fumigatus, was negligible in these related species. In addition, they had decreased susceptibility to antifungal agents such as itraconazole and voriconazole, even though metabolites that were shared in the isolates showing higher minimum inhibitory concentrations than epidemiological cutoff values were not detected. These strikingly different secondary metabolite profiles may lead to the development of more discriminative identification protocols for such closely related Aspergillus species as well as improved treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nicholas A; Kolter, Roberto

    2017-07-05

    Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat. IMPORTANCE Multicellular systems like bacterial biofilms and swarms rely on cooperative behaviors that could be undermined by exploitative invaders. Discriminating kin from nonkin is one way to help guard against such exploitation but has thus far been examined only intraspecifically, so the phylogenetic range of this important trait is unknown. We tested whether Bacillus subtilis treats other species as nonkin by testing a single strain against a

  14. Relapsing fever causative agent in Southern Iran is a closely related species to East African borreliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Saied Reza; Ghazinezhad, Behnaz; Kazemirad, Elham; Cutler, Sally Jane

    2017-10-01

    We obtained two blood samples from relapsing fever patients residing in Jask County, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran in 2013. Sequencing of a partial fragment of glpQ from two samples, and further characterization of one of them by analyzing flaB gene, and 16S-23S spacer (IGS) revealed the greatest sequence identity with East African borreliae, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia microti from Iran. Phylogenetic analyses of glpQ, flaB, and concatenated sequences (glpQ, flab, and IGS) clustered these sequences amongst East African Relapsing fever borreliae and B. microti from Iran. However, the more discriminatory IGS disclosed a unique 8-bp signature (CAGCCTAA) separating these from B. microti and indeed other relapsing fever borreliae. In southern Iran, relapsing fever cases are mostly from localities in which O. erraticus ticks, the notorious vector of B. microti, prevail. There are chances that this argasid tick serves as a host and vector of several closely related species or ecotypes including the one we identified in the present study. The distribution of this Borrelia species remains to be elucidated, but it is assumed to be endemic to lowland areas of the Hormozgan Province, as well as Sistan va Baluchistan in the southeast and South Khorasan (in Persian: Khorasan-e Jonobi) in the east of Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Bacillus subtilis Protects Public Goods by Extending Kin Discrimination to Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Lyons

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B. subtilis in different multicellular contexts. The effects of kin discrimination extend to nearby species, as the other subtilis clade species were treated with the same antagonism as nonkin. Species in the less-related pumilus clade started to display varied phenotypes but were mostly still discriminated against, while cereus clade members and beyond were no longer subject to kin discrimination. Seeking a reason why other species are perceived as antagonistic nonkin, we tested the ability of B. subtilis to steal communally produced surfactant from these species. We found that the species treated as nonkin were the only ones that made a surfactant that B. subtilis could utilize and that nonkin antagonism prevented such stealing when the two strains were mixed. The nonkin exclusion kin discrimination method thus allows effective protection of the cooperative behaviors prevalent in multicellularity while still permitting interactions with more distant species that are not a threat.

  16. Detecting Horizontal Gene Transfer between Closely Related Taxa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Adato

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the transfer of genetic material between organisms, is crucial for genetic innovation and the evolution of genome architecture. Existing HGT detection algorithms rely on a strong phylogenetic signal distinguishing the transferred sequence from ancestral (vertically derived genes in its recipient genome. Detecting HGT between closely related species or strains is challenging, as the phylogenetic signal is usually weak and the nucleotide composition is normally nearly identical. Nevertheless, there is a great importance in detecting HGT between congeneric species or strains, especially in clinical microbiology, where understanding the emergence of new virulent and drug-resistant strains is crucial, and often time-sensitive. We developed a novel, self-contained technique named Near HGT, based on the synteny index, to measure the divergence of a gene from its native genomic environment and used it to identify candidate HGT events between closely related strains. The method confirms candidate transferred genes based on the constant relative mutability (CRM. Using CRM, the algorithm assigns a confidence score based on "unusual" sequence divergence. A gene exhibiting exceptional deviations according to both synteny and mutability criteria, is considered a validated HGT product. We first employed the technique to a set of three E. coli strains and detected several highly probable horizontally acquired genes. We then compared the method to existing HGT detection tools using a larger strain data set. When combined with additional approaches our new algorithm provides richer picture and brings us closer to the goal of detecting all newly acquired genes in a particular strain.

  17. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José F.; Gauthier, Gregory M.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Gallo, Juan E.; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Marty, Amber J.; Carmen, John C.; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated...

  18. Species-specific relationships between water transparency and male coloration within and between two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo Cajas, Ruth F; Selz, Oliver M; Ripmeester, Erwin A P; Seehausen, Ole; Maan, Martine E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental variation in signalling conditions affects animal communication traits, with possible consequences for sexual selection and reproductive isolation. Using spectrophotometry, we studied how male coloration within and between populations of two closely related Lake Victoria cichlid

  19. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  20. Effects of Delayed Metamorphosis on Larval Survival, Metamorphosis, and Juvenile Performance of Four Closely Related Species of Tropical Sea Urchins (Genus Echinometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aminur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea, E. mathaei (Em, Echinometra sp. C (Ec, and E. oblonga (Eo. Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis attained metamorphic competence within 22–24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10 rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period, and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay

  1. Effects of delayed metamorphosis on larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile performance of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins (genus Echinometra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea), E. mathaei (Em), Echinometra sp. C (Ec), and E. oblonga (Eo). Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis) attained metamorphic competence within 22-24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10 rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period), and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines) than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay metamorphosis.

  2. Specificity of herbivore-induced hormonal signaling and defensive traits in five closely related milkweeds (Asclepias spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Patrick, Eamonn T; Knight, Anna C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recognition that phytohormonal signaling mediates induced responses to herbivory, we still have little understanding of how such signaling varies among closely related species and may generate herbivore-specific induced responses. We studied closely related milkweeds (Asclepias) to link: 1) plant damage by two specialist chewing herbivores (milkweed leaf beetles Labidomera clivicolis and monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus); 2) production of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA); 3) induction of defensive cardenolides and latex; and 4) impacts on Danaus caterpillars. We first show that A. syriaca exhibits induced resistance following monarch herbivory (i.e., reduced monarch growth on previously damaged plants), while the defensively dissimilar A. tuberosa does not. We next worked with a broader group of five Asclepias, including these two species, that are highly divergent in defensive traits yet from the same clade. Three of the five species showed herbivore-induced changes in cardenolides, while induced latex was found in four species. Among the phytohormones, JA and ABA showed specific responses (although they generally increased) to insect species and among the plant species. In contrast, SA responses were consistent among plant and herbivore species, showing a decline following herbivore attack. Jasmonic acid showed a positive quantitative relationship only with latex, and this was strongest in plants damaged by D. plexippus. Although phytohormones showed qualitative tradeoffs (i.e., treatments that enhanced JA reduced SA), the few significant individual plant-level correlations among hormones were positive, and these were strongest between JA and ABA in monarch damaged plants. We conclude that: 1) latex exudation is positively associated with endogenous JA levels, even among low-latex species; 2) correlations among milkweed hormones are generally positive, although herbivore damage induces a

  3. The evolution and diversity of a low complexity vaccine candidate, merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP-9), in Plasmodium vivax and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, Stella M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Bacon, David J; Collins, William E; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-12-01

    The merozoite surface protein-9 (MSP-9) has been considered a target for an anti-malarial vaccine since it is one of many proteins involved in the erythrocyte invasion, a critical step in the parasite life cycle. Orthologs encoding this antigen have been found in all known species of Plasmodium parasitic to primates. In order to characterize and investigate the extent and maintenance of MSP-9 genetic diversity, we analyzed DNA sequences of the following malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium gonderi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium simiovale, Plasmodium fieldi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium vivax and evaluated the signature of natural selection in all MSP-9 orthologs. Our findings suggest that the gene encoding MSP-9 is under purifying selection in P. vivax and closely related species. We further explored how selection affected different regions of MSP-9 by comparing the polymorphisms in P. vivax and P. falciparum, and found contrasting patterns between these two species that suggest differences in functional constraints. This observation implies that the MSP-9 orthologs in human parasites may interact differently with the host immune response. Thus, studies carried out in one species cannot be directly translated into the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel PCR-RFLP assay for molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and closely related species in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; M'rad, Selim; Amani, Hizem; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.), currently affects three million people, especially in low-income countries and results in high livestock production loss. DNA-based methods demonstrated genetic variability of E. granulosus s. l., and five species were recognized to belong to the complex, including E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) (genotypes G1-G3), Echinococcus equinus (genotype G4), Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5), Echinococcus canadensis (genotypes G6-G10), and the lion strain Echinococcus felidis. The characterization of Echinococcus species responsible for human and animal echinococcosis is crucial to adapt the preventive measures against this parasitic disease. The sequencing approach is the gold standard for genotyping assays. Unfortunately, developing countries do not often have access to these techniques. Based on in silico RFLP tools, we described an accurate PCR-RFLP method for Echinococcus spp. characterization. The double digestion with the HaeIII and HinfI restriction enzymes of the PCR product from nad1 gene (1071 bp) led to a clear discrimination between E. granulosus s. l. and most closely related species (Echinococcus shiquicus and Echinococcus multilocularis).Molecular procedures and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the efficiency and the reproducibility of this simple and fast PCR-RFLP method. This technique is proved useful for fresh/unfixed and FF-PET tissues and enables large-scale molecular epidemiological screening in developing countries.

  5. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollai, Giorgia; Tomassini Barbarossa, Iole; Masala, Carla; Solari, Paolo; Crnjar, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter) and to sugars (phagostimulatory). Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a) each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b) the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c) sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  6. Gustatory sensitivity and food acceptance in two phylogenetically closely related papilionid species: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Sollai

    Full Text Available In herbivorous insects, food selection depends on sensitivity to specific chemical stimuli from host-plants as well as to secondary metabolites (bitter and to sugars (phagostimulatory. Bitter compounds are noxious, unpalatable or both and evoke an aversive feeding response. Instead, sugars and sugar alcohols play a critical role in determining and enhancing the palatability of foods. We assumed that peripheral taste sensitivity may be related to the width of the host selection. Our model consists of two closely phylogenetically related Papilionid species exhibiting a difference in host plant choice: Papilio hospiton and Papilio machaon. The spike activity of the lateral and medial maxillary styloconic taste sensilla was recorded following stimulation with several carbohydrates, nicotine and NaCl, with the aim of characterizing their gustatory receptor neurons and of comparing their response patterns in the light of their different acceptability in feeding behaviour. The results show that: a each sensillum houses phagostimulant and phagodeterrent cells; b the spike activity of the gustatory neurons in response to different taste stimuli is higher in P. hospiton than in P. machaon; c sugar solutions inhibit the spike activity of the deterrent and salt cells, and the suppression is higher in P. machaon than in P. hospiton. In conclusion, we propose that the different balance between the phagostimulant and phagodeterrent inputs from GRNs of maxillary sensilla may contribute in determining the difference in food choice and host range.

  7. Circadian rhythms differ between sexes and closely related species of Nasonia wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo C Bertossa

    Full Text Available Activity rhythms in 24 h light-dark cycles, constant darkness, and constant light conditions were analyzed in four different Nasonia species for each sex separately. Besides similarities, clear differences are evident among and within Nasonia species as well as between sexes. In all species, activity in a light-dark cycle is concentrated in the photophase, typical for diurnal organisms. Contrary to most diurnal insect species so far studied, Nasonia follows Aschoff's rule by displaying long (>24 h internal rhythms in constant darkness but short (<24 h in constant light. In constant light, N. vitripennis males display robust circadian activity rhythms, whereas females are usually arrhythmic. In contrast to other Nasonia species, N. longicornis males display anticipatory activity, i.e. activity shortly before light-on in a light-dark cycle. As expected, N. oneida shows activity patterns similar to those of N. giraulti but with important differences in key circadian parameters. Differences in circadian activity patterns and parameters between species may reflect synchronization of specific life-history traits to environmental conditions. Scheduling mating or dispersion to a specific time of the day could be a strategy to avoid interspecific hybridization in Nasonia species that live in sympatry.

  8. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    OpenAIRE

    Alhmedi, A.; Haubruge, Eric; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species a...

  9. eShadow: A tool for comparing closely related sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovcharenko, Ivan; Boffelli, Dario; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2004-01-15

    Primate sequence comparisons are difficult to interpret due to the high degree of sequence similarity shared between such closely related species. Recently, a novel method, phylogenetic shadowing, has been pioneered for predicting functional elements in the human genome through the analysis of multiple primate sequence alignments. We have expanded this theoretical approach to create a computational tool, eShadow, for the identification of elements under selective pressure in multiple sequence alignments of closely related genomes, such as in comparisons of human to primate or mouse to rat DNA. This tool integrates two different statistical methods and allows for the dynamic visualization of the resulting conservation profile. eShadow also includes a versatile optimization module capable of training the underlying Hidden Markov Model to differentially predict functional sequences. This module grants the tool high flexibility in the analysis of multiple sequence alignments and in comparing sequences with different divergence rates. Here, we describe the eShadow comparative tool and its potential uses for analyzing both multiple nucleotide and protein alignments to predict putative functional elements. The eShadow tool is publicly available at http://eshadow.dcode.org/

  10. Interspecific competition, predation, and the coexistence of three closely related neotropical armoured catfishes (Siluriformes - Callichthyidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    Tropical ecosystems are renowned for their high biodiversity with many closely related species living together. Alpha diversity of tropical freshwater fishes is also extremely high, as exemplified by the cichlid fauna of the Great African lakes and the neotropical characins. Since

  11. CE of phytosiderophores and related metal species in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue; Scheuermann, Enrico B; Meda, Anderson R; Jacob, Peter; von Wirén, Nicolaus; Weber, Günther

    2007-10-01

    Phytosiderophores (PS) and the closely related substance nicotianamine (NA) are key substances in metal uptake into graminaceous plants. Here, the CE separation of these substances and related metal species is demonstrated. In particular, the three PS 2'-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), mugineic acid (MA), and 3-epi-hydroxymugineic acid (epi-HMA), and NA, are separated using MES/Tris buffer at pH 7.3. Moreover, three Fe(III) species of the different PS are separated without any stability problems, which are often present in chromatographic analyses. Also divalent metal species of Cu, Ni, and Zn with the ligands DMA and NA are separated with the same method. By using a special, zwitterionic CE capillary, even the separation of two isomeric Fe(III) chelates with the ligand ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(o-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (EDDHA) is possible (i.e., meso-Fe(III)-EDDHA and rac-Fe(III)-EDDHA), and for fast separations of NA and respective divalent and trivalent metal species, a polymer CE microchip with suppressed EOF is described. The proposed CE method is applicable to real plant samples, and enables to detect changes of metal species (Cu-DMA, Ni-NA), which are directly correlated to biological processes.

  12. Development of a qPCR Method for the Identification and Quantification of Two Closely Related Tuna Species, Bigeye Tuna (Thunnus obesus) and Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares), in Canned Tuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojolly, Daline; Doyen, Périne; Le Fur, Bruno; Christaki, Urania; Verrez-Bagnis, Véronique; Grard, Thierry

    2017-02-01

    Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) are among the most widely used tuna species for canning purposes. Not only substitution but also mixing of tuna species is prohibited by the European regulation for canned tuna products. However, as juveniles of bigeye and yellowfin tunas are very difficult to distinguish, unintentional substitutions may occur during the canning process. In this study, two mitochondrial markers from NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes were used to identify bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna, respectively, utilizing TaqMan qPCR methodology. Two different qPCR-based methods were developed to quantify the percentage of flesh of each species used for can processing. The first one was based on absolute quantification using standard curves realized with these two markers; the second one was founded on relative quantification with the universal 12S rRNA gene as the endogenous gene. On the basis of our results, we conclude that our methodology could be applied to authenticate these two closely related tuna species when used in a binary mix in tuna cans.

  13. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Wild plant species growing closely connected in a subalpine meadow host distinct root-associated bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Aleklett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots are known to harbor large and diverse communities of bacteria. It has been suggested that plant identity can structure these root-associated communities, but few studies have specifically assessed how the composition of root microbiota varies within and between plant species growing under natural conditions. We assessed the community composition of endophytic and epiphytic bacteria through high throughput sequencing using 16S rDNA derived from root tissues collected from a population of a wild, clonal plant (Orange hawkweed–Pilosella aurantiaca as well as two neighboring plant species (Oxeye daisy–Leucanthemum vulgare and Alsike clover–Trifolium hybridum. Our first goal was to determine if plant species growing in close proximity, under similar environmental conditions, still hosted unique root microbiota. Our results showed that plants of different species host distinct bacterial communities in their roots. In terms of community composition, Betaproteobacteria (especially the family Oxalobacteraceae were found to dominate in the root microbiota of L. vulgare and T. hybridum samples, whereas the root microbiota of P. aurantiaca had a more heterogeneous distribution of bacterial abundances where Gammaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria occupied a larger portion of the community. We also explored the extent of individual variance within each plant species investigated, and found that in the plant species thought to have the least genetic variance among individuals (P. aurantiaca still hosted just as diverse microbial communities. Whether all plant species host their own distinct root microbiota and plants more closely related to each other share more similar bacterial communities still remains to be fully explored, but among the plants examined in this experiment there was no trend that the two species belonging to the same family shared more similarities in terms of bacterial community composition.

  15. Poecilia picta, a Close Relative to the Guppy, Exhibits Red Male Coloration Polymorphism: A System for Phylogenetic Comparisons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Lindholm

    Full Text Available Studies on the evolution of female preference and male color polymorphism frequently focus on single species since traits and preferences are thought to co-evolve. The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, has long been a premier model for such studies because female preferences and orange coloration are well known to covary, especially in upstream/downstream pairs of populations. However, focused single species studies lack the explanatory power of the comparative method, which requires detailed knowledge of multiple species with known evolutionary relationships. Here we describe a red color polymorphism in Poecilia picta, a close relative to guppies. We show that this polymorphism is restricted to males and is maintained in natural populations of mainland South America. Using tests of female preference we show female P. picta are not more attracted to red males, despite preferences for red/orange in closely related species, such as P. reticulata and P. parae. Male color patterns in these closely related species are different from P. picta in that they occur in discrete patches and are frequently Y chromosome-linked. P. reticulata have an almost infinite number of male patterns, while P. parae males occur in discrete morphs. We show the red male polymorphism in P. picta extends continuously throughout the body and is not a Y-linked trait despite the theoretical prediction that sexually-selected characters should often be linked to the heterogametic sex chromosome. The presence/absence of red male coloration of P. picta described here makes this an ideal system for phylogenetic comparisons that could reveal the evolutionary forces maintaining mate choice and color polymorphisms in this speciose group.

  16. USE OF COMPETITIVE DNA HYBRIDIZATION TO IDENTIFY DIFFERENCES IN THE GENOMES OF TWO CLOSELY RELATED FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although recent technological advances in DNA sequencing and computational biology now allow scientists to compare entire microbial genomes, comparisons of closely related bacterial species and individual isolates by whole-genome sequencing approaches remains prohibitively expens...

  17. Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis, a new mould species closely related to A. fumigatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, Jos; Weig, Michael; Groß, Uwe; Meijer, Martin; Bader, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Two isolates belonging to Aspergillus section Fumigati were recovered from German soil on itraconazole containing agar media. Phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic characterization of both isolates show that they represent a novel species named Aspergillus oerlinghausenensis (holotype CBS

  18. Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: a reassessment, and description of five closely related species with and without warted conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Samuels, Gary J; Dodd, Sarah L; Lu, Bing-Sheng; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2006-01-01

    The type species of the genus Hypocrea (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi), H. rufa, is re-defined and epitypified using a combination of phenotype (morphology of teleomorphs and anamorphs, and characteristics in culture) and phylogenetic analyses of the translation-elongation factor 1alpha gene. Its anamorph, T. viride, the type species of Trichoderma, is re-described and epitypified. Eidamia viridescens is combined as Trichoderma viridescens and is recognised as one of the most morphologically and phylogenetically similar relatives of T. viride. Its teleomorph is newly described as Hypocrea viridescens. Contrary to frequent citations of H. rufa and T. viride in the literature, this species is relatively rare. Although both T. viride and T. viridescens have a wide geographic distribution, their greatest genetic diversity appears to be in Europe and North America. Hypocrea vinosa is characterised and its anamorph, T. vinosum sp. nov., is described. Conidia of T. vinosum are subglobose and warted. The new species T. gamsii is proposed. It shares eidamia-like morphology of conidiophores with T. viridescens, but it has smooth, ellipsoidal conidia that have the longest L/W ratio that we have seen in Trichoderma. Trichoderma scalesiae, an endophyte of trunks of Scalesia pedunculata in the Galapagos Islands, is described as new. It only produces conidia on a low-nutrient agar to which filter paper has been added. Additional phylogenetically distinct clades are recognised and provisionally delimited from the species here described. Trichoderma neokoningii, a T. koningii-like species, is described from a collection made in Peru on a fruit of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri.

  19. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  20. Phenology, growth, and fecundity as determinants of distribution in closely related nonnative taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marushia, Robin G.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Holt, Jodie S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species researchers often ask: Why do some species invade certain habitats while others do not? Ecological theories predict that taxonomically related species may invade similar habitats, but some related species exhibit contrasting invasion patterns. Brassica nigra, Brassica tournefortii, and Hirschfeldia incana are dominant, closely related nonnative species that have overlapping, but dissimilar, distributions. Brassica tournefortii is rapidly spreading in warm deserts of the southwestern United States, whereas B. nigra and H. incana are primarily limited to semiarid and mesic regions. We compared traits of B. tournefortii that might confer invasiveness in deserts with those of related species that have not invaded desert ecosystems. Brassica tournefortii, B. nigra and H. incana were compared in controlled experiments conducted outdoors in a mesic site (Riverside, CA) and a desert site (Blue Diamond, NV), and in greenhouses, over 3 yr. Desert and mesic B. tournefortii populations were also compared to determine whether locally adapted ecotypes contribute to desert invasion. Experimental variables included common garden sites and soil water availability. Response variables included emergence, growth, phenology, and reproduction. There was no evidence for B. tournefortii ecotypes, but B. tournefortii had a more rapid phenology than B. nigra or H. incana. Brassica tournefortii was less affected by site and water availability than B. nigra and H. incana, but was smaller and less fecund regardless of experimental conditions. Rapid phenology allows B. tournefortii to reproduce consistently under variable, stressful conditions such as those found in Southwestern deserts. Although more successful in milder, mesic ecosystems, B. nigra and H. incana may be limited by their ability to reproduce under desert conditions. Rapid phenology and drought response partition invasion patterns of nonnative mustards along a gradient of aridity in the southwestern United States

  1. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  2. Using SNPs with varying specificity to quantify hybridization between closely related but genetically distinct moth populations in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive insect species can potentially hybridize with closely related native populations to produce new phenotypes with deleterious economic and environmental consequences. Monitoring such events is often problematic because populations that can interbreed are typically sufficiently similar that it...

  3. Migratory New World blackbirds (icterids are more neophobic than closely related resident icterids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann

    Full Text Available Environments undergo short-term and long-term changes due to natural or human-induced events. Animals differ in their ability to cope with such changes which can be related to their ecology. Changes in the environment often elicit avoidance reactions (neophobia which protect animals from dangerous situations but can also inhibit exploration and familiarization with novel situations and thus, learning about new resources. Studies investigating the relationship between a species' ecology and its neophobia have so far been restricted to comparing only a few species and mainly in captivity. The current study investigated neophobia reactions to experimentally-induced changes in the natural environment of six closely-related blackbird species (Icteridae, including two species represented by two distinct populations. For analyses, neophobic reactions (difference in number of birds feeding and time spent feeding with and without novel objects were related to several measures of ecological plasticity and the migratory strategy (resident or migratory of the population. Phylogenetic relationships were incorporated into the analysis. The degree of neophobia was related to migratory strategy with migrants expressing much higher neophobia (fewer birds feeding and for a shorter time with objects present than residents. Furthermore, neophobia showed a relationship to diet breadth with fewer individuals of diet generalists than specialists returning when objects were present supporting the dangerous niche hypothesis. Residents may have evolved lower neophobia as costs of missing out on opportunities may be higher for residents than migrants as the former are restricted to a smaller area. Lower neophobia allows them approaching changes in the environment (e.g. novel objects quickly, thereby securing access to resources. Additionally, residents have a greater familiarity with similar situations in the area than migrants and the latter may, therefore, initially

  4. Illustrated guide to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire and related species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 33 species of Agrilus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) hypothesized to be most closely related to Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (the emerald ash borer), are described and illustrated. Morphology (adults and immatures), biology, distribution, detailed taxonomic history and systematics are presented fo...

  5. 75 FR 67251 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ...-XZ95 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Inseason Action To Close the Commercial Blacknose Shark and Non-Blacknose Small Coastal Shark Fisheries AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...: NMFS is closing the commercial blacknose shark and non- blacknose small coastal shark (SCS) fisheries...

  6. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  7. New insights into the phylogeny and worldwide dispersion of two closely related nematode species, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pereira

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is one of the greatest threats to coniferous forests worldwide, causing severe ecological damage and economic loss. The biology of B. xylophilus is similar to that of its closest relative, B. mucronatus, as both species share food resources and insect vectors, and have very similar morphological characteristics, although little pathogenicity to conifers has been associated with B. mucronatus. Using both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we show that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus form distinct phylogenetic groups with contrasting phylogeographic patterns. B. xylophilus presents lower levels of intraspecific diversity than B. mucronatus, as expected for a species that evolved relatively recently through geographical or reproductive isolation. Genetic diversity was particularly low in recently colonised areas, such as in southwestern Europe. By contrast, B. mucronatus displays high levels of genetic diversity and two well-differentiated clades in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA phylogenies. The lack of correlation between genetic and geographic distances in B. mucronatus suggests intense gene flow among distant regions, a phenomenon that may have remained unnoticed due to the reduced pathogenicity of the species. Overall, our findings suggest that B. xylophilus and B. mucronatus have different demographic histories despite their morphological resemblance and ecological overlap. These results suggest that Bursaphelenchus species are a valuable model for understanding the dispersion of invasive species and the risks posed to native biodiversity and ecosystems.

  8. New Microsatellite Markers for Tricyrtis macrantha (Convallariaceae and Cross-Amplification in Closely Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ohki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in Tricyrtis macrantha (sect. Brachycyrtis, Convallariaceae, a vulnerable species endemic to Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven, and genetic diversity per locus ranged from 0.142 to 0.812. Four markers were successfully amplified in other species of sect. Brachycyrtis (T. ishiiana, T. ishiiana var. surugensis, and T. macranthopsis. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the vulnerable and endangered species of Tricyrtis sect. Brachycyrtis, to aid in the development of conservation strategies for each species.

  9. Chromatographic resolution of closely related species in pharmaceutical chemistry: dehalogenation impurities and mixtures of halogen isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regalado, Erik L; Zhuang, Ping; Chen, Yadan; Makarov, Alexey A; Schafer, Wes A; McGachy, Neil; Welch, Christopher J

    2014-01-07

    In recent years, the use of halogen-containing molecules has proliferated in the pharmaceutical industry, where the incorporation of halogens, especially fluorine, has become vitally important for blocking metabolism and enhancing the biological activity of pharmaceuticals. The chromatographic separation of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals from associated isomers or dehalogenation impurities can sometimes be quite difficult. In an attempt to identify the best current tools available for addressing this important problem, a survey of the suitability of four chromatographic method development platforms (ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), core shell HPLC, achiral supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and chiral SFC) for separating closely related mixtures of halogen-containing pharmaceuticals and their dehalogenated isosteres is described. Of the 132 column and mobile phase combinations examined for each mixture, a small subset of conditions were found to afford the best overall performance, with a single UHPLC method (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing either phosphoric or perchloric acid with 150 mM sodium perchlorate) affording excellent separation for all samples. Similarly, a survey of several families of closely related halogen-containing small molecules representing the diversity of impurities that can sometimes be found in purchased starting materials for synthesis revealed chiral SFC (Chiralcel OJ-3 and Chiralpak IB, isopropanol or ethanol with 25 mM isobutylamine/carbon dioxide) as well as the UHPLC (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm ZORBAX RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 and the Gold PFP, acetonitrile/methanol based aqueous eluents containing phosphoric acid) as preferred methods.

  10. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  11. 12 CFR 225.123 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities closely related to banking. 225.123 Section 225.123 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.123 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Effective June 15...

  12. Epipactis krymmontana (Orchidaceae), a new species endemic to the Crimean Mountains and notes on the related taxa in the Crimea and bordering Russian Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fateryga, A.V.; Kreutz, K.; Fateryga, V.V.; Efimov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    A new obligately self-pollinating species, Epipactis krymmontana, is described from the Crimea. The species is closely related to E. condensata from which it differs by its relatively loose and usually much shorter inflorescence, relatively elongate ovaries, much paler epichile with less protruding

  13. Phylogeny, Traits, and Biodiversity of a Neotropical Bat Assemblage: Close Relatives Show Similar Responses to Local Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Frishkoff, Luke O; Mendenhall, Chase D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    If species' evolutionary pasts predetermine their responses to evolutionarily novel stressors, then phylogeny could predict species survival in an increasingly human-dominated world. To understand the role of phylogenetic relatedness in structuring responses to rapid environmental change, we focused on assemblages of Neotropical bats, an ecologically diverse and functionally important group. We examined how taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity shift between tropical forest and farmland. We then explored the importance of evolutionary history by ascertaining whether close relatives share similar responses to environmental change and which species traits might mediate these trends. We analyzed a 5-year data set (5,011 captures) from 18 sites in a countryside landscape in southern Costa Rica using statistical models that account and correct for imperfect detection of species across sites, spatial autocorrelation, and consideration of spatial scale. Taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity decreased with deforestation, and assemblages became more phylogenetically clustered. Species' responses to deforestation were strongly phylogenetically correlated. Body mass and absolute wing loading explained a substantial portion of species variation in species' habitat preferences, likely related to these traits' influence on maneuverability in cluttered forest environments. Our findings highlight the role that evolutionary history plays in determining which species will survive human impacts and the need to consider diversity metrics, evolutionary history, and traits together when making predictions about species persistence for conservation or ecosystem functioning.

  14. Inter- and intra-guild interactions related to aphids in nettle (Urtica dioica L.) strips closed to field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhmedi, A; Haubruge, E; Bodson, B; Francis, F

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment designed to assess the biodiversity related to nettle strips closed to crops, and more particularly the aphid and related beneficial populations, was established in experimental farm located in Gembloux (Belgium). Margin strips of nettle (Urtica dioica) closed to wheat (Triticum aestivum), green pea (Pisum sativum) and rape (Brassicae napus) fields were investigated. The diversity, abundance of aphids and related predators were analysed according to the plant crop species and the differential pesticide application (treated plot and control). Insects were visually observed every week during all the cultivation season. Two main families of aphidophagous predators were found in all field crops and nettle, the Coccinellidae and Syrphidae. The diversity of the aphidophagous predators was shown to be higher on nettle than in field crops, particularly the Chrysopidae, the Anthocoridae and the Miridae. However, a striking difference of ladybird abundance was observed according to the aphid host plant. In one side, Coccinella septempunctata was much more abundant on Acyrthosiphon pisum infested green pea than on the other host plant species. At the opposite, higher occurrence of Harmonia axyridis was observed on the aphid infested nettle plants than on the crop plants. In particular, none of H. axyridis was found in wheat crop. Also, more than only a significant positive correlation between predator and aphid abundance, specialised relations between particular aphid species and some so-called generalist predators was determined in the fields. Finally, intraguild interactions between the aphidophagous predators was assessed and shown that only a significant negative correlation between Episyrphus balteatus and H. axyridis related to the nettle aphid, Micrlophium carnosum, was observed. The relative distribution of the ladybirds, namely C. septempunctata and H. axyridis according to the host plant, nettle strips and crop plots was discussed in relation to

  15. Mycobacterium persicum sp. nov., a novel species closely related to Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium gastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Trovato, Alberto; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Borroni, Emanuele; Heidarieh, Parvin; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Shahbazi, Narges; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-06-01

    Four strains isolated in Iran from pulmonary specimens of unrelated patients are proposed as representative of a novel Mycobacterium species. Similarity, at the phenotypic level, with Mycobacterium kansasii is remarkable with the photochromogenic yellow pigmentation of the colonies being the salient feature. They differ, however, genotypically from this species and present unique sequences in 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes. The average nucleotide identity and the genome-to-genome distance fully support the status of an independent species. The name proposed for this species is Mycobacterium persicum sp. nov. with AFPC-000227T (=DSM 104278T=CIP 111197T) as the type strain.

  16. 12 CFR 225.126 - Activities not closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities not closely related to banking. 225.126 Section 225.126 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE... Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.126 Activities not closely related to banking. Pursuant to...

  17. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  18. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis of Wild Rice (Oryza minuta) and Its Comparison with Other Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Shahzad, Raheem; Seo, Chang-Woo; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Oryza minuta (Poaceae family) is a tetraploid wild relative of cultivated rice with a BBCC genome. O. minuta has the potential to resist against various pathogenic diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), white backed planthopper (WBPH) and brown plant hopper (BPH). Here, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of O. minuta. The mtDNA genome is 515,022 bp, containing 60 protein coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome organization and the gene content at the nucleotide level are highly similar (89%) to that of O. rufipogon. Comparison with other related species revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved among the Poaceae members. Similarly, O. minuta mt genome shared 24 protein-coding genes, 15 tRNA genes and 1 ribosomal RNA gene with other rice species (indica and japonica). The evolutionary relationship and phylogenetic analysis revealed that O. minuta is more closely related to O. rufipogon than to any other related species. Such studies are essential to understand the evolutionary divergence among species and analyze common gene pools to combat risks in the current scenario of a changing environment.

  19. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  20. A new isolation with migration model along complete genomes infers very different divergence processes among closely related great ape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mailund

    Full Text Available We present a hidden Markov model (HMM for inferring gradual isolation between two populations during speciation, modelled as a time interval with restricted gene flow. The HMM describes the history of adjacent nucleotides in two genomic sequences, such that the nucleotides can be separated by recombination, can migrate between populations, or can coalesce at variable time points, all dependent on the parameters of the model, which are the effective population sizes, splitting times, recombination rate, and migration rate. We show by extensive simulations that the HMM can accurately infer all parameters except the recombination rate, which is biased downwards. Inference is robust to variation in the mutation rate and the recombination rate over the sequence and also robust to unknown phase of genomes unless they are very closely related. We provide a test for whether divergence is gradual or instantaneous, and we apply the model to three key divergence processes in great apes: (a the bonobo and common chimpanzee, (b the eastern and western gorilla, and (c the Sumatran and Bornean orang-utan. We find that the bonobo and chimpanzee appear to have undergone a clear split, whereas the divergence processes of the gorilla and orang-utan species occurred over several hundred thousands years with gene flow stopping quite recently. We also apply the model to the Homo/Pan speciation event and find that the most likely scenario involves an extended period of gene flow during speciation.

  1. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Osathanunkul

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae, one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1 from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability.

  2. Bacteroides species produce Vibrio harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luis Caetano Martha; Ferreira, Lívia Queiroz; Ferreira, Eliane Oliveira; Miranda, Karla Rodrigues; Avelar, Kátia Eliane Santos; Domingues, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pilotto; Ferreira, Maria Candida de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Quorum sensing is a density-dependent gene regulation mechanism that has been described in many bacterial species in the last decades. Bacteria that use quorum sensing as part of their gene regulation circuits produce molecules called autoinducers that accumulate in the environment and activate target genes in a quorum-dependent way. Some specific clues led us to hypothesize that Bacteroides species can produce autoinducers and possess a quorum sensing system. First, Bacteroides are anaerobic bacteria that are frequently involved in polymicrobial infections. These infections often involve Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, two of the best understood examples of bacteria that employ quorum sensing systems as part of their pathogenesis. Also, studies have detected the presence of a quorum sensing gene involved in the production of autoinducers in Porphyromonas gingivalis, a species closely related to the Bacteroides genus. These and other evidences prompted us to investigate if Bacteroides strains could produce autoinducer molecules that could be detected by a Vibrio harveyi reporter system. In this paper, we show that supernatants of B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis strains are able to stimulate the V. harveyi quorum sensing system 2. Also, we were able to demonstrate that the stimulation detected is due to the production of autoinducer molecules and not the growth of reporter strains after addition of supernatant. Moreover, the phenomenon observed does not seem to represent the degradation of repressors possibly present in the culture medium used. We could also amplify bands from some of the strains tested using primers designed to the luxS gene of Escherichia coli. Altogether, our results show that B. fragilis, B. vulgatus and B. distasonis (but possibly some other species) can produce V. harveyi autoinducer 2-related molecules. However, the role of such molecules in the biology of these organisms remains unknown.

  3. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert; Andersen, Birgitte; Marinach-Patrice, Carine; Mazier, Dominique; De Hoog, G Sybren

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morphologically similar taxa. This study aimed to assess if strains of four closely-related plant pathogens, i.e., accurately Alternaria dauci (ten strains), Alternaria porri (six), Alternaria solani (ten), and Alternaria tomatophila (ten) could be identified using multilocus phylogenetic analysis and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) profiling of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on three loci, i.e., the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rRNA, and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) and Alternaria major antigen (Alt a 1) genes. Phylogenetic trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and A. porri, but these three species formed a clade separate from strains of A. dauci. The resolution improved in trees based on gpd and Alt a 1, which distinguished strains of the four species as separate clades. However, none provided significant bootstrap support for all four species, which could only be achieved when results for the three loci were combined. MALDI-TOF-based dendrograms showed three major clusters. The first comprised all A. dauci strains, the second included five strains of A. porri and one of A. solani, and the third included all strains of A. tomatophila, as well as all but one strain of A. solani, and one strain of A. porri. Thus, this study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a promising tool for identification of these four species of Alternaria which are closely-related plant pathogens. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two closely related ground beetle species with marked genital divergence using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Kotaro; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Nishimura, Osamu; Sota, Teiji

    2014-09-01

    Ground beetles of the subgenus Ohomopterus (genus Carabus) show marked divergence in species-specific male and female genital morphologies, which contributes to reproductive isolation among species. Characterizing the genetic basis of species-specific genital morphology is essential for understanding their diversification, but genomic information on Ohomopterus is not yet available. We analyzed mRNA extracted from abdominal sections of the last instar larvae and pupae of two sister species, Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) uenoi, which show marked differences in genital morphology, to compare transcriptomic profiles using Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 1,608,572 high-quality reads and assembled them into 176,278 unique sequences, of which 66,049 sequences were combined into 12,662 clusters. Differential expression analyses for sexed pupae suggested that four and five clusters were differentially expressed between species for males and females, respectively. We also identified orthologous sequences of genes involved in genital development in Drosophila, which potentially affect genital development and species-specific genital morphology in Ohomopterus. This study provides the first large transcriptomic data set for a morphologically diversified beetle group, which can facilitate future studies on the genetic basis of species-specific genitalia.

  5. Aspergillus europaeus sp. nov., a widely distributed soil-borne species related to A. wentii (section Cremei)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Samson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A new species belonging to Aspergillus section Cremei is described, A. europaeus sp. nov. This species is most closely related to A. wentii, A. dimorphicus, and A. chrysellus and can be distinguished by an unique phenotype (colour of sporulation, production of yellow soluble pigment on MEA, shape...

  6. Rapid identification of closely related muscle foods by vibrational spectroscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David I; Broadhurst, David; Clarke, Sarah J; Goodacre, Royston

    2005-12-01

    Muscle foods are an integral part of the human diet and during the last few decades consumption of poultry products in particular has increased significantly. It is important for consumers, retailers and food regulatory bodies that these products are of a consistently high quality, authentic, and have not been subjected to adulteration by any lower-grade material either by accident or for economic gain. A variety of methods have been developed for the identification and authentication of muscle foods. However, none of these are rapid or non-invasive, all are time-consuming and difficulties have been encountered in discriminating between the commercially important avian species. Whilst previous attempts have been made to discriminate between muscle foods using infrared spectroscopy, these have had limited success, in particular regarding the closely related poultry species, chicken and turkey. Moreover, this study includes novel data since no attempts have been made to discriminate between both the species and the distinct muscle groups within these species, and this is the first application of Raman spectroscopy to the study of muscle foods. Samples of pre-packed meat and poultry were acquired and FT-IR and Raman measurements taken directly from the meat surface. Qualitative interpretation of FT-IR and Raman spectra at the species and muscle group levels were possible using discriminant function analysis. Genetic algorithms were used to elucidate meaningful interpretation of FT-IR results in (bio)chemical terms and we show that specific wavenumbers, and therefore chemical species, were discriminatory for each type (species and muscle) of poultry sample. We believe that this approach would aid food regulatory bodies in the rapid identification of meat and poultry products and shows particular potential for rapid assessment of food adulteration.

  7. Chloroplast genome resources and molecular markers differentiate rubber dandelion species from weedy relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingxiao; Iaffaldano, Brian J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Cardina, John; Cornish, Katrina

    2017-02-02

    Rubber dandelion (Taraxacum kok-saghyz, TK) is being developed as a domestic source of natural rubber to meet increasing global demand. However, the domestication of TK is complicated by its colocation with two weedy dandelion species, Taraxacum brevicorniculatum (TB) and the common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale, TO). TB is often present as a seed contaminant within TK accessions, while TO is a pandemic weed, which may have the potential to hybridize with TK. To discriminate these species at the molecular level, and facilitate gene flow studies between the potential rubber crop, TK, and its weedy relatives, we generated genomic and marker resources for these three dandelion species. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of TK (151,338 bp), TO (151,299 bp), and TB (151,282 bp) were obtained using the Illumina GAII and MiSeq platforms. Chloroplast sequences were analyzed and annotated for all the three species. Phylogenetic analysis within Asteraceae showed that TK has a closer genetic distance to TB than to TO and Taraxacum species were most closely related to lettuce (Lactuca sativa). By sequencing multiple genotypes for each species and testing variants using gel-based methods, four chloroplast Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) variants were found to be fixed between TK and TO in large populations, and between TB and TO. Additionally, Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) resources developed for TO and TK permitted the identification of five nuclear species-specific SNP markers. The availability of chloroplast genomes of these three dandelion species, as well as chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers, will provide a powerful genetic resource for germplasm differentiation and purification, and the study of potential gene flow among Taraxacum species.

  8. Bolivian Rhinotragini VIII: new genera and species related to Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O.S. Clarke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophygopoda Tavakilian & Peñaherrera-Leiva, 2007 is redescribed. Four new, closely related genera are described. Panamapoda gen. nov., with P. panamensis (Giesbert, 1996; Paraphygopoda gen nov., with Paraphygopoda nappae sp. nov., P. albitarsis (Klug, 1825, P. viridimicans (Fisher, 1952, and, provisionally, P. longipennis (Zajciw, 1963; Para melitta gen. nov., with Paramelitta wappesi sp. nov., and P. aglaia (Newman, 1840; and Phygomelitta gen. nov., with one species, P. triangularis (Fuchs, 1961. All the species are illustrated (including genitalia; and keys to the genera, and their species, are provided.

  9. Aedeagus morphology as a discriminant marker in two closely related Cactophilic species of Drosophila (Diptera; Drosophilidae in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Fernando F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila serido and D. antonietae are sibling species belonging to the Drosophila buzzatii cluster. Morphologically, they can only be discriminated by quantitative traits. In this paper we analyze the length and equalized average curvature of four regions of the aedeagus of D. antonietae and D. serido. Specimens of D. serido and D. antonietae were classified correctly 96.74% of the time. Based only on the variable that most contributed to the discrimination of the groups (equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus, we observed significant intraspecific morphological divergence in D. serido in relation to the D. antonietae, in agreement with other markers. The high morphological divergence in equalized average curvature of the arch IV of the aedeagus shows that this region evolved faster than others, since the divergence of the two species. The importance of the present study to the understanding of the genetic basis that controls the formation of the aedeagus, in the species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster, is discussed.

  10. Differential water mite parasitism, phenoloxidase activity, and resistance to mites are unrelated across pairs of related damselfly species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia J Mlynarek

    Full Text Available Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five "species pairs", or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity. Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species' relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity.

  11. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2007-01-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseud...... by direct injection mass spectrometry and cluster analysis. Separate groupings were seen for all the six species even though only one isolate was included in this study for the two species A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis.......The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N....... pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl- sulochrin, TR-2...

  12. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S.; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human–chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. PMID:26430062

  13. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  14. Recombining without Hotspots: A Comprehensive Evolutionary Portrait of Recombination in Two Closely Related Species of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smukowski Heil, Caiti S; Ellison, Chris; Dubin, Matthew; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2015-10-01

    Meiotic recombination rate varies across the genome within and between individuals, populations, and species in virtually all taxa studied. In almost every species, this variation takes the form of discrete recombination hotspots, determined in some mammals by a protein called PRDM9. Hotspots and their determinants have a profound effect on the genomic landscape, and share certain features that extend across the tree of life. Drosophila, in contrast, are anomalous in their absence of hotspots, PRDM9, and other species-specific differences in the determination of recombination. To better understand the evolution of meiosis and general patterns of recombination across diverse taxa, we present a truly comprehensive portrait of recombination across time, combining recently published cross-based contemporary recombination estimates from each of two sister species with newly obtained linkage-disequilibrium-based historic estimates of recombination from both of these species. Using Drosophila pseudoobscura and Drosophila miranda as a model system, we compare recombination rate between species at multiple scales, and we suggest that Drosophila replicate the pattern seen in human-chimpanzee in which recombination rate is conserved at broad scales. We also find evidence of a species-wide recombination modifier(s), resulting in both a present and historic genome-wide elevation of recombination rates in D. miranda, and identify broad scale effects on recombination from the presence of an inversion. Finally, we reveal an unprecedented view of the distribution of recombination in D. pseudoobscura, illustrating patterns of linked selection and where recombination is taking place. Overall, by combining these estimation approaches, we highlight key similarities and differences in recombination between Drosophila and other organisms. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  16. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José F; Gauthier, Gregory M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Gallo, Juan E; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D; Marty, Amber J; Carmen, John C; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret; Saif, Sakina; Whiston, Emily A; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Goldman, William E; Mardis, Elaine R; Taylor, John W; McEwen, Juan G; Clay, Oliver K; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution

  17. Development of genome- and transcriptome-derived microsatellites in related species of snapping shrimps with highly duplicated genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Kaitlyn M; Solomon, Joseph W; Siller, Stefanie; Jessell, Linnet; Duffy, J Emmett; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2017-11-01

    Molecular markers are powerful tools for studying patterns of relatedness and parentage within populations and for making inferences about social evolution. However, the development of molecular markers for simultaneous study of multiple species presents challenges, particularly when species exhibit genome duplication or polyploidy. We developed microsatellite markers for Synalpheus shrimp, a genus in which species exhibit not only great variation in social organization, but also interspecific variation in genome size and partial genome duplication. From the four primary clades within Synalpheus, we identified microsatellites in the genomes of four species and in the consensus transcriptome of two species. Ultimately, we designed and tested primers for 143 microsatellite markers across 25 species. Although the majority of markers were disomic, many markers were polysomic for certain species. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between genome size and the number of polysomic markers. As expected, markers developed for a given species amplified better for closely related species than for more distant relatives. Finally, the markers developed from the transcriptome were more likely to work successfully and to be disomic than those developed from the genome, suggesting that consensus transcriptomes are likely to be conserved across species. Our findings suggest that the transcriptome, particularly consensus sequences from multiple species, can be a valuable source of molecular markers for taxa with complex, duplicated genomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Divergent hormonal responses to social competition in closely related species of haplochromine cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Verzijden, Machteld N.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    The diverse cichlid species flocks of the East African lakes provide a classical example of adaptive radiation. Territorial aggression is thought to influence the evolution of phenotypic diversity in this system. Most vertebrates mount hormonal (androgen, glucocorticoid) responses to a territorial

  19. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  20. Cardinium symbionts induce haploid thelytoky in most clones of three closely related Brevipalpus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T.V.M.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts that manipulate the reproduction of their host to increase their own transmission are widespread. Most of these bacteria are Wolbachia, but recently a new bacterium, named Cardinium, was discovered that is capable of the same manipulations. In the host species Brevipalpus

  1. Can ex situ plant collections differ in effectiveness, even 1 between closely related species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation of imperiled plant species often requires ex situ (offsite) living collections. Protocols for developing these collections most often emphasize sampling depth, but little is known about the genetics of such collections. This study compares how well a single collecting protocol can captu...

  2. Mutual intelligibility between closely related language in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, Charlotte; van Heuven, Vincent; Golubovic, Jelena; Schüppert, Anja; Swarte, Femke; Voigt, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  3. Use of Phage Antibodies to Distinguish Closely Related Species of Protozoan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Paget

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are typically identified in the laboratory using culture and microscopic observation. In this paper we describe the isolation and specificity of antibody fragments that can be used for the identification of Acanthamoeba. A phage library expressing a large repertoire (approx. 5×109 of antibody fragments was used to generate two libraries one enriched for bacteriophage that exhibit genus specific binding and the other containing bacteriophage that bind specifically to pathogenic Acanthamoeba. Individual clones were isolated on the basis of binding by ELISA, and then flowcytometry and immunofluorescence were used for further characterisation. Four monoclonal antibodies were isolated, specific for Acanthamoeba at the generic level with clone HPPG6 exhibiting the highest level of binding. Furthermore clone HPPG55 was specific for pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba.

  4. Temperature as an ecological factor in the distribution of two closely related freshwater Triclads: an experimental study. [Polycelis tenuis, polycelis nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascombe, C.; Pattee, E.; Bornard, C.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of temperature on the ecophysiology of two closely related limnophilic Triclads, Polycelis tenuis and P. nigra, in the Lyons region was investigated. Both species have the same physiological rate in the middle zone of the temperature range, but P. tenuis prevails at both ends of the range. It tolerates higher temperatures and its reproduction rate is greater in the cold. Also, because of the existence of physiological races, it seems adapted to a greater diversity of situations. It appears as a real eurytherm. These different points contribute to the explanation of the habitat of both species in the region.

  5. 29 CFR 541.703 - Directly and closely related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transit, is performing exempt work. If the employee also spends part of the day taking telephone orders... employee's exempt work cannot be performed properly. Work “directly and closely related” to the performance... related to exempt work: (1) Keeping time, production or sales records for subordinates is work directly...

  6. Phylogenetic evaluation of Geomyces and allies reveals no close relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, comb. nov., in bat hibernacula of eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Andrew M; Lindner, Daniel L

    2013-09-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats, caused by the fungus previously known as Geomyces destructans, has decimated populations of insectivorous bats in eastern North America. Recent work on fungi associated with bat hibernacula uncovered a large number of species of Geomyces and allies, far exceeding the number of described species. Communication about these species has been hindered by the lack of a modern taxonomic evaluation, and a phylogenetic framework of the group is needed to understand the origin of G. destructans and to target closely related species and their genomes for the purposes of understanding mechanisms of pathogenicity. We addressed these issues by generating DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA, MCM7, RPB2, and TEF1 from a diverse array of Geomyces and allies that included isolates recovered from bat hibernacula as well as those that represent important type species. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Geomyces and allies should be classified in the family Pseudeurotiaceae, and the genera Geomyces, Gymnostellatospora, and Pseudogymnoascus should be recognized as distinct. True Geomyces are restricted to a basal lineage based on phylogenetic placement of the type species, Geomyces auratus. Thus, G. destructans is placed in genus Pseudogymnoascus. The closest relatives of Pseudogymnoascus destructans are members of the Pseudogymnoascus roseus species complex, however, the isolated and long branch of P. destructans indicates that none of the species included in this study are closely related, thus providing further support to the hypothesis that this pathogen is non-native and invasive in eastern North America. Several conidia-producing isolates from bat hibernacula previously identified as members of Pseudeurotium are determined to belong to the genus Leuconeurospora, which is widespread, especially in colder regions. Teberdinia hygrophila is transferred to Pseudeurotium as Pseudeurotium

  7. Functionally relevant diversity of closely related Nitrospira in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Pester, Michael; Kitzinger, Katharina; Savio, Domenico F; Loy, Alexander; Rattei, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2015-03-01

    Nitrospira are chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria that catalyze the second step of nitrification in most oxic habitats and are important for excess nitrogen removal from sewage in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To date, little is known about their diversity and ecological niche partitioning within complex communities. In this study, the fine-scale community structure and function of Nitrospira was analyzed in two full-scale WWTPs as model ecosystems. In Nitrospira-specific 16S rRNA clone libraries retrieved from each plant, closely related phylogenetic clusters (16S rRNA identities between clusters ranged from 95.8% to 99.6%) within Nitrospira lineages I and II were found. Newly designed probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) allowed the specific detection of several of these clusters, whose coexistence in the WWTPs was shown for prolonged periods of several years. In situ ecophysiological analyses based on FISH, relative abundance and spatial arrangement quantification, as well as microautoradiography revealed functional differences of these Nitrospira clusters regarding the preferred nitrite concentration, the utilization of formate as substrate and the spatial coaggregation with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria as symbiotic partners. Amplicon pyrosequencing of the nxrB gene, which encodes subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase of Nitrospira, revealed in one of the WWTPs as many as 121 species-level nxrB operational taxonomic units with highly uneven relative abundances in the amplicon library. These results show a previously unrecognized high diversity of Nitrospira in engineered systems, which is at least partially linked to niche differentiation and may have important implications for process stability.

  8. Mutual intelligibility between closely related languages in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Golubović, J.; Schüppert, A.; Swarte, F.; Voigt, S.

    2017-01-01

    By means of a large-scale web-based investigation, we established the degree of mutual intelligibility of 16 closely related spoken languages within the Germanic, Slavic and Romance language families in Europe. We first present the results of a selection of 1833 listeners representing the mutual

  9. Population Dynamics Among six Major Groups of the Oryza rufipogon Species Complex, Wild Relative of Cultivated Asian Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunJung; Jung, Janelle; Singh, Namrata; Greenberg, Anthony; Doyle, Jeff J; Tyagi, Wricha; Chung, Jong-Wook; Kimball, Jennifer; Hamilton, Ruaraidh Sackville; McCouch, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    Understanding population structure of the wild progenitor of Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), the Oryza rufipogon species complex (ORSC), is of interest to plant breeders and contributes to our understanding of rice domestication. A collection of 286 diverse ORSC accessions was evaluated for nuclear variation using genotyping-by-sequencing (113,739 SNPs) and for chloroplast variation using Sanger sequencing (25 polymorphic sites). Six wild subpopulations were identified, with 25 % of accessions classified as admixed. Three of the wild groups were genetically and geographically closely related to the O. sativa subpopulations, indica, aus and japonica, and carried O. sativa introgressions; the other three wild groups were genetically divergent, had unique chloroplast haplotypes, and were located at the geographical extremes of the species range. The genetic subpopulations were significantly correlated (r 2  = 0.562) with traditional species designations, O. rufipogon (perennial) and O. nivara (annual), differentiated based on morphology and life history. A wild diversity panel of 95 purified (inbred) accessions was developed for future genetic studies. Our results suggest that the cultivated aus subpopulation is most closely related to an annual wild relative, japonica to a perennial wild relative, and indica to an admixed population of diverse annual and perennial wild ancestors. Gene flow between ORSC and O. sativa is common in regions where rice is cultivated, threatening the identity and diversity of wild ORSC populations. The three geographically isolated ORSC populations harbor variation rarely seen in cultivated rice and provide a unique window into the genetic composition of ancient rice subpopulations.

  10. Authentication of Closely Related Fish and Derived Fish Products Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Spectral Library Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessen, Merel A; van der Zwaan, Dennis J; Grevers, Sander; Dalebout, Hans; Staats, Martijn; Kok, Esther; Palmblad, Magnus

    2016-05-11

    Proteomics methodology has seen increased application in food authentication, including tandem mass spectrometry of targeted species-specific peptides in raw, processed, or mixed food products. We have previously described an alternative principle that uses untargeted data acquisition and spectral library matching, essentially spectral counting, to compare and identify samples without the need for genomic sequence information in food species populations. Here, we present an interlaboratory comparison demonstrating how a method based on this principle performs in a realistic context. We also increasingly challenge the method by using data from different types of mass spectrometers, by trying to distinguish closely related and commercially important flatfish, and by analyzing heavily contaminated samples. The method was found to be robust in different laboratories, and 94-97% of the analyzed samples were correctly identified, including all processed and contaminated samples.

  11. The identity of Albuca caudata Jacq. (Hyacinthaceae and a description of a new related species: A. bakeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martínez-Azorín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The name Albuca caudata Jacq. has been widely misunderstood or even ignored since its description in 1791. After studying herbarium specimens and living populations in South Africa, plants fitting Jacquin´s concept of that species are found to be widely distributed in the Eastern Cape, mainly in the Albany centre of Endemism. Furthermore, some divergent specimens matching Baker´s concept of A. caudata are described as a new related species: A. bakeri. Data on typification, morphology, ecology, and distribution are reported for both taxa. Affinities and divergences with other close allies are also discussed.

  12. Two new species of the Phanaeus endymion species group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Victor; Sánchez-Huerta, José Luis; Halffter, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Phanaeus bravoensis sp. n. is described from the coniferous-oak forests in the state of Guerrero, and P. huichol sp. n. from coniferous-oak forests and cloud forests in Jalisco and Nayarit. The new species are closely related to P. halffterorum and P. zoque respectively. Morphological trait combination, geographic distribution, and trophic habits show important differences among the studied species. A distribution map and an updated key to separate the species are included.

  13. 12 CFR 225.131 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; operation and management of a trust department; international banking; foreign exchange transactions... specialized lending provisions; marketing operations, including research, market development and advertising... Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.131 Activities closely related to banking. (a) Bank management...

  14. Takifugu obscurus is a euryhaline fugu species very close to Takifugu rubripes and suitable for studying osmoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai Harumi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome sequence of the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes is an enormously useful tool in the molecular physiology of fish. Euryhaline fish that can survive both in freshwater (FW and seawater (SW are also very useful for studying fish physiology, especially osmoregulation. Recently we learned that there is a pufferfish, Takifugu obscurus, common name "mefugu" that migrates into FW to spawn. If T. obscurus is indeed a euryhaline fish and shares a high sequence homology with T. rubripes, it will become a superior animal model for studying the mechanism of osmoregulation. We have therefore determined its euryhalinity and phylogenetic relationship to the members of the Takifugu family. Results The following six Takifugu species were used for the analyses: T. obscurus, T. rubripes, T. niphobles, T. pardalis, T. poecilonotus, and T. porphyreus. When transferred to FW, only T. obscurus could survive while the others could not survive more than ten days in FW. During this course of FW adaptation, serum Na+ concentration of T. obscurus decreased only slightly, but a rapid and large decrease occurred even in the case of T. niphobles, a peripheral fresh water species that is often seen in brackish river mouths. Phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of each species indicated that the six Takifugu species are very closely related with each other. Conclusion T. obscurus is capable of adapting to both FW and SW. Its genomic sequence shares a very high homology with those of the other Takifugu species such that the existing Takifugu genomic information resources can be utilized. These properties make "mefugu", which has drawn little attention from animal physiologists until this study, a useful model animal for studying the molecular mechanism of maintaining body fluid homeostasis.

  15. Close relatives find meaning to cope with cancer diagnosis and treatment of family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyh, Janelle M; Levine, Ellen G; Clay, Karine

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care has recently become a priority in the health care field and is implemented at the time of diagnosis rather than days or weeks before the child's death. Social constructivism theory in which humans generate meaning from their experiences was utilized as a general framework to determine the impact of pediatric palliative care on close relatives. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a substantive theory that explains how close relatives such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles of a child with cancer experience palliative care. The participants of the study included close relatives of children in palliative care. Semistructured interviews and journaling were used to collect data. Initial, focused, and axial coding procedures were used to manage the data and a content analysis of the textual data was performed. Findings from the data suggested a process of finding meaning which helps close relatives to let go of what they cannot control while holding on to what they can control. Social change implications of this study may include improving health care programming for close relatives utilizing supportive-expressive measures. This programming may promote mental health of the close relatives who will learn to deal with their adjustment difficulties and improve their coping skills.

  16. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: degree of sterility and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sophila bipectinata species complex, comprising four closely related species namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata,. D. malerkotliana and D. ... vials with four males (two each from the respective parental species, to increase the probability ...

  17. A Murine Herpesvirus Closely Related to Ubiquitous Human Herpesviruses Causes T-Cell Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-05-01

    The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology, because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4 + T cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By next-generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174-kb genome sequence containing 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, than to another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. IMPORTANCE Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  18. Close pairs of relative equilibria for identical point vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Tobias; Aref, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Numerical solution of the classical problem of relative equilibria for identical point vortices on the unbounded plane reveals configurations that are very close to the analytically known, centered, symmetrically arranged, nested equilateral triangles. New numerical solutions of this kind are fou...

  19. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are

  20. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  1. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and a key to Saudi Arabian species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... of the related species from Arabian region. A key to Saudi Arabian ... only two of these subgenera viz., Bracotritoma Csiki and. Phanerotoma s.str. .... species is also closely related to P. (B.) ebneri Fahringer from Sudan but ...

  2. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  3. Brain death: close relatives' use of imagery as a descriptor of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Ingvar; Haljamäe, Hengo; Ohlén, Joakim; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the use of imagery to describe the experience of confronting brain death in a close relative. The brain death of a loved one has been described as an extremely difficult experience for close relatives, evoking feelings of anger, emotional pain, disbelief, guilt and suffering. It can also be difficult for relatives to distinguish brain death from the state of coma and thus difficult to apprehend information about the diagnosis. Narrative theory and a hermeneutic phenomenological method guided the interpretation of 17 narratives from close relatives of brain dead patients. All narratives were scrutinized for experiences of brain death. Data were primarily collected in 1999. The primary analysis related to close relatives' experience of brain death in a loved one. A secondary analysis of the imagery they used to describe their experience was carried out in 2003. Six categories of imagery used to describe the experience of confronting a diagnosis of brain death in a loved one emerged: chaotic unreality; inner collapse; sense of forlornness; clinging to the hope of survival; reconciliation with the reality of death; receiving care which gives comfort. Participants also identified two pairs of dimensions to describe their feelings about the relationship between their brain dead relative's body and personhood: presence-absence and divisibility-indivisibility. Being confronted with brain death meant entering into the anteroom of death, facing a loved one who is 'living-dead', and experiencing a chaotic drama of suffering. It is very important for members of the intensive care unit team to recognize, face and respond to these relatives' chaotic experiences, which cause them to need affirmation, comfort and caring. Relatives' use of imagery could be the starting point for a caring conversation about their experiences, either in conversations at the time of the death or when relatives are contacted in a later follow-up.

  4. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    *For Correspondence. e-mail: bashisthsingh2004@rediffmail.com, ... A species complex constitutes groups of closely related species which have diverged ..... there is a strong reproductive isolation too (See review by Singh and Banerjee 2016) .... figure both the loops touch the chromocenter and in our microphotograph ...

  5. 12 CFR 225.129 - Activities closely related to banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... competitive advantage over firms competing with other holding company affiliates. To reduce the possibility... Board's amendment of § 225.4(a), which adds courier services to the list of closely related activities... generally in the provision of transportation services. During the course of the Board's proceedings...

  6. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  7. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  8. Tailor-made memory: natural differences in associative olfactory learning in two closely related wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.

    2009-01-01

    Learning and memory formation are often seen as traits that are purely beneficial, but they are associated with metabolic costs as well. Since costs and gains of learning and memory are expected to vary between species, the ease and speed with which stable (consolidated) long-term memory (LTM) is

  9. Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological response of selected eragrostis species to water-deficit stress. ... performing crop variety of Eragrostis tef under this stress, the responses of two varieties, ... Comparative study of closely related plant species might be a better ...

  10. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-02-12

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided.

  11. Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov., a species closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Nogueira, Christiane; Simmon, Keith E; Chimara, Erica; Cnockaert, Margo; Carlos Palomino, Juan; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard; Cardoso Leão, Sylvia

    2015-07-01

    Two isolates from water, D16Q19 and D16R27, were shown to be highly similar in their 16S rRNA, 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS), hsp65 and rpoB gene sequences to 'Mycobacterium franklinii' DSM 45524, described in 2011 but with the name not validly published. They are all nonpigmented rapid growers and are related phenotypically and genetically to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group. Extensive characterization by phenotypic analysis, biochemical tests, drug susceptibility testing, PCR restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene and ITS, DNA sequencing of housekeeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that 'M. franklinii' DSM 45524, D16Q19 and D16R27 belong to a single species that is separated from other members of the M. chelonae-M. abscessus group. On the basis of these results we propose the formal recognition of Mycobacterium franklinii sp. nov. Strain DSM 45524(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2149(T)) is the type strain.

  12. Patterns of tree species diversity in relation to climatic factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9-14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  13. Patterns of Tree Species Diversity in Relation to Climatic Factors on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Flores, Ramón; Pérez-Verdín, Gustavo; Wehenkel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity can be defined as variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial organisms, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes which they are part of. This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems. Numerous diversity indices combine richness and evenness in a single expression, and several climate-based explanations have been proposed to explain broad-scale diversity patterns. However, climate-based water-energy dynamics appears to be an essential factor that determines patterns of diversity. The Mexican Sierra Madre Occidental occupies an area of about 29 million hectares and is located between the Neotropical and Holarctic ecozones. It shelters a high diversity of flora, including 24 different species of Pinus (ca. 22% on the whole), 54 species of Quercus (ca. 9–14%), 7 species of Arbutus (ca. 50%) and many other trees species. The objectives of this study were to model how tree species diversity is related to climatic and geographic factors and stand density and to test the Metabolic Theory, Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis, Mid-Domain Effect, and the Water-Energy Dynamic Theory on the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango. The results supported the Productivity-Diversity Hypothesis, Physiological Tolerance Hypothesis and Water-Energy Dynamic Theory, but not the Mid-Domain Effect or Metabolic Theory. The annual aridity index was the variable most closely related to the diversity indices analyzed. Contemporary climate was found to have moderate to strong effects on the minimum, median and maximum tree species diversity. Because water-energy dynamics provided a satisfactory explanation for the patterns of minimum, median and maximum diversity, an understanding of this factor is critical to future biodiversity research. Quantile regression of the data showed that the three diversity parameters of tree species are generally higher in cold

  14. Biotic Interactions Shape the Ecological Distributions of Staphylococcus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastman, Erik K; Kamelamela, Noelani; Norville, Josh W; Cosetta, Casey M; Dutton, Rachel J; Wolfe, Benjamin E

    2016-10-18

    Many metagenomic sequencing studies have observed the presence of closely related bacterial species or genotypes in the same microbiome. Previous attempts to explain these patterns of microdiversity have focused on the abiotic environment, but few have considered how biotic interactions could drive patterns of microbiome diversity. We dissected the patterns, processes, and mechanisms shaping the ecological distributions of three closely related Staphylococcus species in cheese rind biofilms. Paradoxically, the most abundant species (S. equorum) is the slowest colonizer and weakest competitor based on growth and competition assays in the laboratory. Through in vitro community reconstructions, we determined that biotic interactions with neighboring fungi help resolve this paradox. Species-specific stimulation of the poor competitor by fungi of the genus Scopulariopsis allows S. equorum to dominate communities in vitro as it does in situ Results of comparative genomic and transcriptomic experiments indicate that iron utilization pathways, including a homolog of the S. aureus staphyloferrin B siderophore operon pathway, are potential molecular mechanisms underlying Staphylococcus-Scopulariopsis interactions. Our integrated approach demonstrates that fungi can structure the ecological distributions of closely related bacterial species, and the data highlight the importance of bacterium-fungus interactions in attempts to design and manipulate microbiomes. Decades of culture-based studies and more recent metagenomic studies have demonstrated that bacterial species in agriculture, medicine, industry, and nature are unevenly distributed across time and space. The ecological processes and molecular mechanisms that shape these distributions are not well understood because it is challenging to connect in situ patterns of diversity with mechanistic in vitro studies in the laboratory. Using tractable cheese rind biofilms and a focus on coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS

  15. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama...... to directly test for a predation cost to hybrids in the wild. Hybrid individuals were found significantly more susceptible to cormorant predation than individuals from either parental species. Such ecological selection against hybrids contributes to species integrity, and can enhance species diversification....

  16. Dissociation between sensitization and learning-related neuromodulation in an aplysiid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erixon, N J; Demartini, L J; Wright, W G

    1999-06-14

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of learning in Aplysia, appear to have been lost over the course of evolution in a distantly related aplysiid, Dolabrifera dolabrifera. This deficit is paralleled by a behavioral deficit: individuals of Dolabrifera do not express generalized sensitization (reflex enhancement of an unhabituated response after a noxious stimulus is applied outside of the reflex receptive field) or dishabituation (reflex enhancement of a habituated reflex). The goal of the present study was to confirm and extend this correlation by testing for the neuromodulatory traits and generalized sensitization in an additional species, Phyllaplysia taylori, which is closely related to Dolabrifera. Instead, our results indicated a lack of correlation between the neuromodulatory and behavioral phenotypes. In particular, sensory neuron homologues in Phyllaplysia showed the ancestral neuromodulatory phenotype typified by Aplysia. Bath-applied 10 microM serotonin significantly increased homologue spike duration and excitability. However, when trained with the identical apparatus and protocols that produced generalized sensitization in Aplysia, individuals of Phyllaplysia showed no evidence of sensitization. Thus, this species expresses the neuromodulatory phenotype of its ancestors while appearing to express the behavioral phenotype of its near relative. These results suggests that generalized sensitization can be lost during the course of evolution in the absence of a deficit in these two neuromodulatory traits, and raises the possibility that the two traits may support some other form of behavioral plasticity in Phyllaplysia. The results also raise the

  17. Relation of chironomids with Aeromonas species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan eLaviad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae, also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, pupa, and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6% and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a six-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship.

  18. Relationship of Dyadic Closeness with Work-Related Stress: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Yoav; Ben-Ari, Adital

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between work-related stress of both spouses and daily fluctuations in their affective states and dyadic closeness. Daily diary data from 169 Israeli dual-earner couples were analyzed using multilevel modeling. The findings indicate that work stress has no direct effect on dyadic closeness but rather is mediated by the…

  19. Effect of Trans, Trans-Farnesol on Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Several Closely Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudabaugh, Daniel B; Miller, Andrew N

    2015-12-01

    Bat white-nose syndrome, caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has dramatically reduced the populations of many hibernating North American bat species. The search for effective biological control agents targeting P. destructans is of great importance. We report that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol, which is also a Candida albicans quorum sensing compound, prevented in vitro conidial germination for at least 14 days and inhibited growth of preexisting hyphae of five P. destructans isolates in filtered potato dextrose broth at 10 °C. Depending on the inoculation concentrations, both spore and hyphal inhibition occurred upon exposure to concentrations as low as 15-20 µM trans, trans-farnesol. In contrast, most North American Pseudogymnoascus isolates were more tolerant to the exposure of trans, trans-farnesol. Our results suggest that some Candida isolates may have the potential to inhibit the growth of P. destructans and that the sesquiterpene trans, trans-farnesol has the potential to be utilized as a biological control agent.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships in Solanaceae and related species based on cpDNA sequence from plastid trnE-trnT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Montewka Melotto-Passarin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intergenic spacers of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA are very useful in phylogenetic and population genetic studiesof plant species, to study their potential integration in phylogenetic analysis. The non-coding trnE-trnT intergenic spacer ofcpDNA was analyzed to assess the nucleotide sequence polymorphism of 16 Solanaceae species and to estimate its ability tocontribute to the resolution of phylogenetic studies of this group. Multiple alignments of DNA sequences of trnE-trnT intergenicspacer made the identification of nucleotide variability in this region possible and the phylogeny was estimated by maximumparsimony and rooted with Convolvulaceae Ipomoea batatas, the most closely related family. Besides, this intergenic spacerwas tested for the phylogenetic ability to differentiate taxonomic levels. For this purpose, species from four other families wereanalyzed and compared with Solanaceae species. Results confirmed polymorphism in the trnE-trnT region at different taxonomiclevels.

  1. Convex optimisation approach to constrained fuel optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massioni, Paolo; Massari, Mauro

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes an interesting and powerful approach to the constrained fuel-optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion. The proposed approach is well suited for problems under linear dynamic equations, therefore perfectly fitting to the case of spacecraft flying in close relative motion. If the solution of the optimisation is approximated as a polynomial with respect to the time variable, then the problem can be approached with a technique developed in the control engineering community, known as "Sum Of Squares" (SOS), and the constraints can be reduced to bounds on the polynomials. Such a technique allows rewriting polynomial bounding problems in the form of convex optimisation problems, at the cost of a certain amount of conservatism. The principles of the techniques are explained and some application related to spacecraft flying in close relative motion are shown.

  2. Annickia affinis and A. chlorantha (Enantia chlorantha)--A review of two closely related medicinal plants from tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, D K; Van Vuuren, S F; Moteetee, A N

    2015-12-24

    Annickia affinis (Exell) Versteegh & Sosef, closely related to A. chlorantha Setten & P.J.Maas (both species also referred to as Enantia chlorantha Oliv.), from the Annonaceae family, are multi-purpose medicinal plants used widely across tropical Africa. The two Annickia species are morphologically distinct from each other and have different distribution patterns, but are frequently confused. Furthermore, the name Enantia chlorantha is an illegitimate name, but is still used today. A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research and future prospectives are considered. While a myriad of publications cite the species "Enantia chlorantha", this is not the case for A. affinis and A. chlorantha, and no reviews are available for any of the species to date. Consequently, a summary of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and biological properties is presented here (for the period 1933 - November 2014) in order to substantiate their traditional importance as medicines for rural people in Africa. To this effect, these species seem to be the preferred traditional treatments for malaria in tropical Africa, an area suffering heavily under the malaria pandemic. Their chemical composition is dominated particularly by various isoquinoline alkaloids, as well as by acetogenins and sesquiterpenes, which have been isolated from the bark and leaves. All three of these classes of compounds have been reported to exhibit noteworthy biological activity. Due to their widespread use, especially of the bark, these species have already been categorized as threatened with extinction. Consequently this study further aims to identify areas where more research needs to be conducted involving these important species, and also to suggest possible means of increasing the biological activities of their extracts as a way to conserve the species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of closely related, uncultivated Coxiella tick endosymbiont population genomes reveals clues about the mechanisms of symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Castro Gordillo, Juan; Mahagna, Mustafa; Gottlieb, Yuval; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the symbiotic interaction between Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLE) and their tick hosts is challenging due to lack of isolates and difficulties in tick functional assays. Here we sequenced the metagenome of a CLE population from wild Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks (CRs) and compared it to the previously published genome of its close relative, CLE of R. turanicus (CRt). The tick hosts are closely related sympatric species, and their two endosymbiont genomes are highly similar with only minor differences in gene content. Both genomes encode numerous pseudogenes, consistent with an ongoing genome reduction process. In silico flux balance metabolic analysis (FBA) revealed the excess production of L-proline for both genomes, indicating a possible proline transport from Coxiella to the tick. Additionally, both CR genomes encode multiple copies of the proline/betaine transporter, proP gene. Modelling additional Coxiellaceae members including other tick CLE, did not identify proline as an excreted metabolite. Although both CRs and CRt genomes encode intact B vitamin synthesis pathway genes, which are presumed to underlay the mechanism of CLE-tick symbiosis, the FBA analysis indicated no changes for their products. Therefore, this study provides new testable hypotheses for the symbiosis mechanism and a better understanding of CLE genome evolution and diversity. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Genomic diversity in two related plant species with and without sex chromosomes--Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Cegan

    Full Text Available Genome size evolution is a complex process influenced by polyploidization, satellite DNA accumulation, and expansion of retroelements. How this process could be affected by different reproductive strategies is still poorly understood.We analyzed differences in the number and distribution of major repetitive DNA elements in two closely related species, Silene latifolia and S. vulgaris. Both species are diploid and possess the same chromosome number (2n = 24, but differ in their genome size and mode of reproduction. The dioecious S. latifolia (1C = 2.70 pg DNA possesses sex chromosomes and its genome is 2.5× larger than that of the gynodioecious S. vulgaris (1C = 1.13 pg DNA, which does not possess sex chromosomes. We discovered that the genome of S. latifolia is larger mainly due to the expansion of Ogre retrotransposons. Surprisingly, the centromeric STAR-C and TR1 tandem repeats were found to be more abundant in S. vulgaris, the species with the smaller genome. We further examined the distribution of major repetitive sequences in related species in the Caryophyllaceae family. The results of FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization on mitotic chromosomes with the Retand element indicate that large rearrangements occurred during the evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family.Our data demonstrate that the evolution of genome size in the genus Silene is accompanied by the expansion of different repetitive elements with specific patterns in the dioecious species possessing the sex chromosomes.

  5. Extracted facial feature of racial closely related faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewchavalit, Chalothorn; Akiba, Masakazu; Kanno, Tsuneo; Nagao, Tomoharu

    2010-02-01

    Human faces contain a lot of demographic information such as identity, gender, age, race and emotion. Human being can perceive these pieces of information and use it as an important clue in social interaction with other people. Race perception is considered the most delicacy and sensitive parts of face perception. There are many research concerning image-base race recognition, but most of them are focus on major race group such as Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid. This paper focuses on how people classify race of the racial closely related group. As a sample of racial closely related group, we choose Japanese and Thai face to represents difference between Northern and Southern Mongoloid. Three psychological experiment was performed to study the strategies of face perception on race classification. As a result of psychological experiment, it can be suggested that race perception is an ability that can be learn. Eyes and eyebrows are the most attention point and eyes is a significant factor in race perception. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to extract facial features of sample race group. Extracted race features of texture and shape were used to synthesize faces. As the result, it can be suggested that racial feature is rely on detailed texture rather than shape feature. This research is a indispensable important fundamental research on the race perception which are essential in the establishment of human-like race recognition system.

  6. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H. M.

    2012-09-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095-101 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770-3 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641-8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’.

  7. Dianthus aticii, a new species from Turkey (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergin Hamzaoğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the taxonomic revision of the Turkish Dianthus species, specimens collected from Bilecik, Seben (Bolu, and Nallıhan (Ankara were discovered that represent a new species. Its description, images, chorology, ecology, and threat category are provided. It was compared with a closely related species, D. zonatus, and differences are based on its general morphology and seed micromorphology.

  8. Dianthus aticii, a new species from Turkey (Caryophyllaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoğlu, Ergin; Koç, Murat; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the taxonomic revision of the Turkish Dianthus species, specimens collected from Bilecik, Seben (Bolu), and Nallıhan (Ankara) were discovered that represent a new species. Its description, images, chorology, ecology, and threat category are provided. It was compared with a closely related species, Dianthus zonatus, and differences are based on its general morphology and seed micromorphology. PMID:25931971

  9. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vethaak, A.D.; Cronie, R.J.A.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    North Atlantic coastal waters harbour two closely related sympatric sponges belonging to the genus Halichondria, viz. H. panicea and H. bowerbanki. From the study of their littoral and sublittoral microdistribution and ecology in the Oosterschelde area (= Eastern Scheldt, S.W. part of The

  10. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., on a broad array of issues related to preventing the introduction of invasive species and providing... outlined in the 2008-2012 National Invasive Species Management Plan. The meeting agenda is now available on... be no committee business conducted during the orientation session, which is closed to the public...

  11. Anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms in spouses and close relatives of burn survivors: When the supporter needs to be supported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Suzie; Gourlay, Catherine; Desjardins, Alexandra; Bodson-Clermont, Paule; Boucher, Marie-Ève

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety, depression and PTSD-related symptoms reported by spouses and close relatives of adult burn survivors. Potential associations between these symptoms and variables such as the severity of the burn were also explored. Participants were spouses (n=31) and close relatives (n=25) of hospitalized patients with acute burns. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed by the Hospital Distress Anxiety and Depression Scale and PTSD-related symptoms by the Modified PTSD Symptom Scale at both admission to and discharge from the burn unit. At admission, 77% of spouses and 56% of close relatives of burn patients reported anxiety, depression or PTSD-related symptoms in the clinical range. While spouses had higher scores than close relatives on symptom measures, significant differences were only established for anxiety symptoms (p<.02). A significant effect was found for gender, with women reporting more anxiety (p=.01) and depression (p=.02) symptoms than men. Results also showed a main effect for time, with anxiety (p<.0001), depression (p<.0001) and PTSD-related (p<.0001) symptoms being higher at admission than at discharge. Variables associated with the index patient, such as total body surface area burned, length of stay, number of ventilated days, facial burns, or level of care at admission, were not associated with outcome measures. Spouses and close relatives of burn survivors showed high levels of psychological distress in the first few days following admission, and more than a quarter still reported symptoms in the clinical range at discharge. Our analysis points to the need to offer psychological support and guidance to family members so that they can in turn provide effective support to the burn survivor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  13. DNA barcoding discriminates the noxious invasive plant species, floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), from non-invasive relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN DE Wiel, C C M; VAN DER Schoot, J; VAN Valkenburg, J L C H; Duistermaat, H; Smulders, M J M

    2009-07-01

    Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides L.f.), a member of the plant family Araliaceae originating from North America, is an example of an invasive aquatic species posing serious problems to the management of waterways outside of its original distribution area in Australia and Western Europe. As a consequence, its import was banned in the Netherlands. It can be difficult to distinguish H. ranunculoides from other species of the genus on a morphological basis. In this regard, DNA barcoding may become a good alternative once this could be performed on a routine basis. In this study, we show that it is possible to distinguish H. ranunculoides from a series of closely related congeners by using a single plastid DNA sequence, trnH-psbA. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The existence of fertile hybrids of closely related model earthworm species, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Plytycz

    Full Text Available Lumbricid earthworms Eisenia andrei (Ea and E. fetida (Ef are simultaneous hermaphrodites with reciprocal insemination capable of self-fertilization while the existence of hybridization of these two species was still debatable. During the present investigation fertile hybrids of Ea and Ef were detected. Virgin specimens of Ea and Ef were laboratory crossed (Ea+Ef and their progeny was doubly identified. 1 -identified by species-specific maternally derived haploid mitochondrial DNA sequences of the COI gene being either 'a' for worms hatched from Ea ova or 'f' for worms hatched from Ef ova. 2 -identified by the diploid maternal/paternal nuclear DNA sequences of 28s rRNA gene being either 'AA' for Ea, 'FF' for Ef, or AF/FA for their hybrids derived either from the 'aA' or 'fF' ova, respectively. Among offspring of Ea+Ef pairs in F1 generation there were mainly aAA and fFF earthworms resulted from the facilitated self-fertilization and some aAF hybrids from aA ova but none fFA hybrids from fF ova. In F2 generation resulting from aAF hybrids mated with aAA a new generations of aAA and aAF hybrids were noticed, while aAF hybrids mated with fFF gave fFF and both aAF and fFA hybrids. Hybrids intercrossed together produced plenty of cocoons but no hatchlings independently whether aAF+aAF or aAF+fFA were mated. These results indicated that Ea and Ef species, easy to maintain in laboratory and commonly used as convenient models in biomedicine and ecotoxicology, may also serve in studies on molecular basis of interspecific barriers and mechanisms of introgression and speciation. Hypothetically, their asymmetrical hybridization can be modified by some external factors.

  15. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others.

  16. Closed-form summations of Dowker's and related trigonometric sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvijović, Djurdje; Srivastava, H M

    2012-01-01

    Through a unified and relatively simple approach which uses complex contour integrals, particularly convenient integration contours and calculus of residues, closed-form summation formulas for 12 very general families of trigonometric sums are deduced. One of them is a family of cosecant sums which was first summed in closed form in a series of papers by Dowker (1987 Phys. Rev. D 36 3095–101; 1989 J. Math. Phys. 30 770–3; 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 2641–8), whose method has inspired our work in this area. All of the formulas derived here involve the higher-order Bernoulli polynomials. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (paper)

  17. Efficient distinction of invasive aquatic plant species from non-invasive related species using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanzadeh, R; Esselink, G; Kodde, L P; Duistermaat, H; van Valkenburg, J L C H; Marashi, S H; Smulders, M J M; van de Wiel, C C M

    2013-01-01

    Biological invasions are regarded as threats to global biodiversity. Among invasive aliens, a number of plant species belonging to the genera Myriophyllum, Ludwigia and Cabomba, and to the Hydrocharitaceae family pose a particular ecological threat to water bodies. Therefore, one would try to prevent them from entering a country. However, many related species are commercially traded, and distinguishing invasive from non-invasive species based on morphology alone is often difficult for plants in a vegetative stage. In this regard, DNA barcoding could become a good alternative. In this study, 242 samples belonging to 26 species from 10 genera of aquatic plants were assessed using the chloroplast loci trnH-psbA, matK and rbcL. Despite testing a large number of primer sets and several PCR protocols, the matK locus could not be amplified or sequenced reliably and therefore was left out of the analysis. Using the other two loci, eight invasive species could be distinguished from their respective related species, a ninth one failed to produce sequences of sufficient quality. Based on the criteria of universal application, high sequence divergence and level of species discrimination, the trnH-psbA noncoding spacer was the best performing barcode in the aquatic plant species studied. Thus, DNA barcoding may be helpful with enforcing a ban on trade of such invasive species, such as is already in place in the Netherlands. This will become even more so once DNA barcoding would be turned into machinery routinely operable by a nonspecialist in botany and molecular genetics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    . clade including the type isolate of A. niveus (CBS 115.27) constitutes a lineage closely related to A. carneus. Fennellia nivea, the hypothesized teleomorph is not related to this clade. Aspergillus allahabadii, A. niveus var. indicus, and two species originally placed in section Versicolores, A......Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...

  19. Ribosomal DNA in diploid and polyploid Setaria (Poaceae) species: number and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Nani, Thaís Furtado; Cenzi, Gisele; Pereira, Daniele Lais; Davide, Lisete Chamma; Techio, Vania Helena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Setaria Beauvois, 1812 is a genus of economically important forage species, including Setaria italica (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812 and Setaria viridis (Linnaeus, 1753) Beauvois, 1812, closely related species and considered as model systems for studies of C4 plants. However, complications and uncertainties related to taxonomy of other species of the genus are frequent due to the existence of numerous synonyms for the same species or multiple species with the same name, and overlapp...

  20. Radiating despite a Lack of Character: Ecological Divergence among Closely Related, Morphologically Similar Honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) Co-occurring in Arid Australian Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliot T; Wagner, Sarah K; Harmon, Luke J; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-02-01

    Quantifying the relationship between form and function can inform use of morphology as a surrogate for ecology. How the strength of this relationship varies continentally can inform understanding of evolutionary radiations; for example, does the relationship break down when certain lineages invade and diversify in novel habitats? The 75 species of Australian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae) are morphologically and ecologically diverse, with species feeding on nectar, insects, fruit, and other resources. We investigated Meliphagidae ecomorphology and community structure by (1) quantifying the concordance between morphology and ecology (foraging behavior), (2) estimating rates of trait evolution in relation to the packing of ecological space, and (3) comparing phylogenetic and trait community structure across the broad environmental gradients of the continent. We found that morphology explained 37% of the variance in ecology (and 62% vice versa), and we uncovered well-known bivariate relationships among the multivariate ecomorphological data. Ecological trait diversity declined less rapidly than phylogenetic diversity along a gradient of decreasing precipitation. We employ a new method (trait fields) and extend another (phylogenetic fields) to show that while species in phylogenetically clustered, arid-environment assemblages are similar morphologically, they are as varied in foraging behavior as those from more diverse assemblages. Thus, although closely related and similar morphologically, these arid-adapted species have diverged in ecological space to a similar degree as their mesic counterparts.

  1. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  2. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  3. RAPD and Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequence Analyses Reveal Zea nicaraguensis as a Section Luxuriantes Species Close to Zea luxurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yanli; Zheng, Mingmin; Rong, Tingzhao; Tang, Qilin

    2011-01-01

    Genetic relationship of a newly discovered teosinte from Nicaragua, Zea nicaraguensis with waterlogging tolerance, was determined based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA using 14 accessions from Zea species. RAPD analysis showed that a total of 5,303 fragments were produced by 136 random decamer primers, of which 84.86% bands were polymorphic. RAPD-based UPGMA analysis demonstrated that the genus Zea can be divided into section Luxuriantes including Zea diploperennis, Zea luxurians, Zea perennis and Zea nicaraguensis, and section Zea including Zea mays ssp. mexicana, Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis and Zea mays ssp. mays. ITS sequence analysis showed the lengths of the entire ITS region of the 14 taxa in Zea varied from 597 to 605 bp. The average GC content was 67.8%. In addition to the insertion/deletions, 78 variable sites were recorded in the total ITS region with 47 in ITS1, 5 in 5.8S, and 26 in ITS2. Sequences of these taxa were analyzed with neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to construct the phylogenetic trees, selecting Tripsacum dactyloides L. as the outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships of Zea species inferred from the ITS sequences are highly concordant with the RAPD evidence that resolved two major subgenus clades. Both RAPD and ITS sequence analyses indicate that Zea nicaraguensis is more closely related to Zea luxurians than the other teosintes and cultivated maize, which should be regarded as a section Luxuriantes species. PMID:21525982

  4. Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Cronk, Quentin

    2013-07-24

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size. Their dynamic nature gives them the potential for use in identifying and characterizing crop germplasm. However, their repetitive nature makes them challenging to study using conventional methods of molecular biology. Next generation sequencing and new computational tools have greatly facilitated the investigation of TE variation within species and among closely related species. (i) We generated low-coverage Illumina whole genome shotgun sequencing reads for multiple individuals of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and related species. These reads were analysed using both an alignment/mapping approach and a de novo (graph based clustering) approach. (ii) A standard set of ultra-conserved orthologous sequences (UCOS) standardized TE data between samples and provided phylogenetic information on the relatedness of samples. (iii) The mapping approach proved highly effective within the reference species but underestimated TE abundance in interspecific comparisons relative to the de novo methods. (iv) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique patterns of TE abundance indicating that the TE composition of the genome is evolving actively within this species. (v) LTR/Gypsy elements are the most abundant, comprising c.10% of the genome. (vi) Within T. cacao the retroelement families show an order of magnitude greater sequence variability than the DNA transposon families. (vii) Theobroma grandiflorum has a similar TE composition to T. cacao, but the related genus Herrania is rather different, with LTRs making up a lower proportion of the genome, perhaps because of a massive presence (c. 20%) of distinctive low complexity satellite-like repeats in this genome. (i) Short read alignment/mapping to reference TE contigs provides a simple and effective method of investigating

  5. Molecular Characterization of Natural Hybrids Formed between Five Related Indigenous Clade 6 Phytophthora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Treena I.

    2015-01-01

    Most Phytophthora hybrids characterized to date have emerged from nurseries and managed landscapes, most likely generated as a consequence of biological invasions associated with the movement of living plants and germplasm for ornamental, horticultural and agricultural purposes. Presented here is evidence for natural hybridization among a group of five closely related indigenous clade 6 Phytophthora species isolated from waterways and riparian ecosystems in Western Australia. Molecular characterization of hybrids consisted of cloning and sequencing two nuclear genes (ITS and ASF), sequencing of two further nuclear loci (BT and HSP) and of two mitochondrial loci (COI and NADH). Additionally, phenotypic traits including morphology of sporangia and optima and maxima temperatures for growth were also determined. In most cases the nuclear genes were biparentally and in all cases the mtDNA were uniparentally inherited, indicating hybrid formation through sexual crosses. Some isolates bear the molecular signature of three parents suggesting additional hybrid events, although it cannot be determined from the data if these were sequential or simultaneous. These species and their hybrids co-exist in riparian ecosystems and waterways where their ability for rapid asexual proliferation would enable them to rapidly colonize green plant litter. The apparent ease of hybridization could eventually lead to the merging of species through introgression. However, at this point in time, species integrity has been maintained and a more likely scenario is that the hybrids are not stable evolutionary lineages, but rather transient hybrid clones. PMID:26248187

  6. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  7. Response of the dominant rodent species to close-to-nature logging practices in a temperate mixed forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lešo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to answer the question whether differences exist in microhabitat preferences of the yellow-necked mouse and the bank vole between the natural forest and close-to-nature managed forest in the phase of stand regeneration. The two species were live-trapped during two periods in 2006 and 2007 on a square trapping grid established in a managed forest and a natural one. Ten microhabitat variables of each trapping point were measured to analyse their influence on the spatial distribution of the two species. At trapping points, the number of capture records for each species as a dependent variable was modelled using Generalised Linear Models. The herbal cover and a distance to the nearest woody debris were the most important measured microhabitat variables which affect the spatial distribution of both species. In the natural forest, the number of captures in both species increased significantly (p < 0.05 with a decreasing number of trees, increasing undergrowth coverage and decreasing distance to the nearest woody debris. In the managed forest, an increasing distance to the nearest tree and increasing herbal cover had a negative effect on the yellow-necked mouse occurrence (p < 0.001, while in contrast, the increase in values of the same variables increased frequency of occurrence of the bank vole (p < 0.001. Moreover, the bank vole was more frequent in the presence of woody debris (p < 0.002. The study demonstrated clearly that these species modify their spatial activity depending on the management of the woodland.

  8. Climate-Related Local Extinctions Are Already Widespread among Plant and Animal Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Wiens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current climate change may be a major threat to global biodiversity, but the extent of species loss will depend on the details of how species respond to changing climates. For example, if most species can undergo rapid change in their climatic niches, then extinctions may be limited. Numerous studies have now documented shifts in the geographic ranges of species that were inferred to be related to climate change, especially shifts towards higher mean elevations and latitudes. Many of these studies contain valuable data on extinctions of local populations that have not yet been thoroughly explored. Specifically, overall range shifts can include range contractions at the "warm edges" of species' ranges (i.e., lower latitudes and elevations, contractions which occur through local extinctions. Here, data on climate-related range shifts were used to test the frequency of local extinctions related to recent climate change. The results show that climate-related local extinctions have already occurred in hundreds of species, including 47% of the 976 species surveyed. This frequency of local extinctions was broadly similar across climatic zones, clades, and habitats but was significantly higher in tropical species than in temperate species (55% versus 39%, in animals than in plants (50% versus 39%, and in freshwater habitats relative to terrestrial and marine habitats (74% versus 46% versus 51%. Overall, these results suggest that local extinctions related to climate change are already widespread, even though levels of climate change so far are modest relative to those predicted in the next 100 years. These extinctions will presumably become much more prevalent as global warming increases further by roughly 2-fold to 5-fold over the coming decades.

  9. Trichoderma songyi sp. nov., a new species associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Soo; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Cho, Hae Jin; Fong, Jonathan J; Cheon, Woo-Jae; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-10-01

    A new species, Trichoderma songyi, was found to be associated with the pine mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) in Korea. This species was isolated from three different substrates: Tricholoma matsutake basidiomata, as well as roots of Pinus densiflora and soil in the fairy ring. Based on its molecular and phenotypic characteristics, we demonstrate that Trichoderma songyi is unique and distinguishable from closely related species. We performed phylogenetic analyses based on two molecular markers, the genes for both translation elongation factor 1-alpha and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Trichoderma songyi is closely related to Trichoderma koningii aggregate and Trichoderma caerulescens. Morphologically, Trichoderma songyi can be distinguished from these closely related taxa by its growth rates, colony morphology on PDA in darkness, and coconut-like odour. Due to the economic importance of the pine mushroom, the relationship between Trichoderma songyi and Tricholoma matsutake should be studied further.

  10. Isozyme variation in four species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidae from the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic studies of isozymes were done with four closely related species of the Simulium perflavum species group (Diptera: Simuliidade in the Brazilian Amazon, using last-instar larvae collected in the field. Ten enzymes were studied, which yielded 11 loci. Diagnostic loci were not found between Simulium maroniense cytotype D and Simulium rorotaense. Simulium maroniense and S. rorotaense differed from Simulium trombetense by two diagnostic loci (Me and Xdh, and Simulium perflavum differed from the other three species by four diagnostic loci (Me, Xdh, Mdh, and Got. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 1.30 to 2.30, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 18.2 to 63.6% and the mean heterozygosity values observed ranged from 0.062 to 0.108. Genetic distances among the species ranged from 0.010 to 0.581. The lowest value was obtained between S. maroniense and S. rorotaense, and the highest between S. perflavum and S. trombetense. The genetic relationships among the four S. perflavum group species indicate that they are closely related. The high similarity at the isozyme level, allied to previous studies of morphology and polytene chromosomes, may suggest that the divergence time since the separation of S. maroniense and S. rorotaense is still too recent for diagnostic loci to have evolved.

  11. A population study of killer viruses reveals different evolutionary histories of two closely related Saccharomyces sensu stricto yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shang-Lin; Leu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Tien-Hsien

    2015-08-01

    Microbes have evolved ways of interference competition to gain advantage over their ecological competitors. The use of secreted killer toxins by yeast cells through acquiring double-stranded RNA viruses is one such prominent example. Although the killer behaviour has been well studied in laboratory yeast strains, our knowledge regarding how killer viruses are spread and maintained in nature and how yeast cells co-evolve with viruses remains limited. We investigated these issues using a panel of 81 yeast populations belonging to three Saccharomyces sensu stricto species isolated from diverse ecological niches and geographic locations. We found that killer strains are rare among all three species. In contrast, killer toxin resistance is widespread in Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, but not in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces eubayanus populations. Genetic analyses revealed that toxin resistance in S. paradoxus is often caused by dominant alleles that have independently evolved in different populations. Molecular typing identified one M28 and two types of M1 killer viruses in those killer strains. We further showed that killer viruses of the same type could lead to distinct killer phenotypes under different host backgrounds, suggesting co-evolution between the viruses and hosts in different populations. Taken together, our data suggest that killer viruses vary in their evolutionary histories even within closely related yeast species. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparative transcriptome analysis and identification of candidate effectors in two related rust species (Gymnosporangium yamadae and Gymnosporangium asiaticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Si-Qi; Cao, Bin; Tian, Cheng-Ming; Liang, Ying-Mei

    2017-08-23

    Rust fungi constitute the largest group of plant fungal pathogens. However, a paucity of data, including genomic sequences, transcriptome sequences, and associated molecular markers, hinders the development of inhibitory compounds and prevents their analysis from an evolutionary perspective. Gymnosporangium yamadae and G. asiaticum are two closely related rust fungal species, which are ecologically and economically important pathogens that cause apple rust and pear rust, respectively, proved to be devastating to orchards. In this study, we investigated the transcriptomes of these two Gymnosporangium species during the telial stage of their lifecycles. The aim of this study was to understand the evolutionary patterns of these two related fungi and to identify genes that developed by selection. The transcriptomes of G. yamadae and G. asiaticum were generated from a mixture of RNA from three biological replicates of each species. We obtained 49,318 and 54,742 transcripts, with N50 values of 1957 and 1664, for G. yamadae and G. asiaticum, respectively. We also identified a repertoire of candidate effectors and other gene families associated with pathogenicity. A total of 4947 pairs of putative orthologues between the two species were identified. Estimation of the non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios for these orthologues identified 116 pairs with Ka/Ks values greater than1 that are under positive selection and 170 pairs with Ka/Ks values of 1 that are under neutral selection, whereas the remaining 4661 genes are subjected to purifying selection. We estimate that the divergence time between the two species is approximately 5.2 Mya. This study constitutes a de novo assembly and comparative analysis between the transcriptomes of the two rust species G. yamadae and G. asiaticum. The results identified several orthologous genes, and many expressed genes were identified by annotation. Our analysis of Ka/Ks ratios identified orthologous genes subjected to

  13. On the species of the Dugesia gonocephala group (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida) from Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Elizabeth J.

    1984-01-01

    Dugesia gonocephala is a species group, comprising numerous closely related species, which differ from each other in morphological and karyological aspects. In this paper known and presently described species, of the group from the eastern Mediterranean region, are reviewed. Hitherto the triclads of

  14. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  15. A new species of crinoid-associated Periclimenes from Honduras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Sammy

    2014-05-02

    A new species of crinoid associated Periclimenes, P. rincewindi sp. nov. is described from the Bay Islands (Honduras) in the Caribbean. The species associates with the swimming crinoid, Analcidometra armata and displays a unique colour pattern. Morphologically, the new species is closely related to the other known crinoid associates in the Caribbean, specifically Periclimenes crinoidalis, from which it can be distinguished by a suite of relatively minor morphological features.

  16. Three new species of Pristimantis (Lissamphibia, Anura from montane forests of the Cordillera Yanachaga in Central Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe three additional new species of Pristimantis from the Cordillera Yanachaga, a part of the Andes in central Peru. Analyses of DNA sequences of the mitochondrial rRNA genes show that onespecies is a close relative of P. bipunctatus (P. conspicillatus Group, another is a close relative of P. stictogaster (P. peruvianus Group, and the third is related to several species in the P. unistrigatus Group. The first two species are morphologically similar to their closest relatives but occur at lower elevations. Twenty-nine species of Pristimantis and Phrynopus are known from the vicinity of the Cordillera Yanachaga. The number of species, especially of Pristimantis, is high in the humid montane forestin comparison with other sites in humid montane forests in Peru, but the number is lower than on the western slopes of the Andes in Ecuador.

  17. Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Mills, G.; Ashmore, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified 83 species from existing publications suitable for inclusion in a database of sensitivity of species to ozone (OZOVEG database). An index, the relative sensitivity to ozone, was calculated for each species based on changes in biomass in order to test for species traits associated with ozone sensitivity. Meta-analysis of the ozone sensitivity data showed a wide inter-specific range in response to ozone. Some relationships in comparison to plant physiological and ecological characteristics were identified. Plants of the therophyte lifeform were particularly sensitive to ozone. Species with higher mature leaf N concentration were more sensitive to ozone than those with lower leaf N concentration. Some relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and Ellenberg habitat requirements were also identified. In contrast, no relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and mature leaf P concentration, Grime's CSR strategy, leaf longevity, flowering season, stomatal density and maximum altitude were found. The relative sensitivity of species and relationships with plant characteristics identified in this study could be used to predict sensitivity to ozone of untested species and communities. - Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone showed some relationships with physiological and ecological characteristics

  18. Determining the Effect of Natural Selection on Linked Neutral Divergence across Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Tanya N; Huber, Christian D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-08-01

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand how natural selection has shaped patterns of genetic variation across genomes. Studies in a variety of species have shown that neutral genetic diversity (intra-species differences) has been reduced at sites linked to those under direct selection. However, the effect of linked selection on neutral sequence divergence (inter-species differences) remains ambiguous. While empirical studies have reported correlations between divergence and recombination, which is interpreted as evidence for natural selection reducing linked neutral divergence, theory argues otherwise, especially for species that have diverged long ago. Here we address these outstanding issues by examining whether natural selection can affect divergence between both closely and distantly related species. We show that neutral divergence between closely related species (e.g. human-primate) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with human recombination rate. We also find that neutral divergence between distantly related species (e.g. human-rodent) is negatively correlated with functional content and positively correlated with estimates of background selection from primates. These patterns persist after accounting for the confounding factors of hypermutable CpG sites, GC content, and biased gene conversion. Coalescent models indicate that even when the contribution of ancestral polymorphism to divergence is small, background selection in the ancestral population can still explain a large proportion of the variance in divergence across the genome, generating the observed correlations. Our findings reveal that, contrary to previous intuition, natural selection can indirectly affect linked neutral divergence between both closely and distantly related species. Though we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the direct effects of purifying selection drive some of these patterns, such a scenario would be possible only

  19. The cost of mating: influences of life history traits and mating strategies on lifespan in two closely related Yponomeuta species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; Campos Louçã, J.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and

  20. Differential regulation of two closely related integrative and conjugative elements from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carraro Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    , ICESt3 and closely related ICEs, which we identified by analysis of recently sequenced genomes of firmicutes. This is the first report of a partial shutdown of the activity of an ICE executed by a strain belonging to its primary host species. The sharp increase of ICESt3 copy number suggests an induction of replication; such conditional intracellular replication may be common among ICEs.

  1. A simple method to design non-collision relative orbits for close spacecraft formation flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Li, JunFeng; Jiang, FangHua; Bernelli-Zazzera, Franco

    2018-05-01

    A set of linearized relative motion equations of spacecraft flying on unperturbed elliptical orbits are specialized for particular cases, where the leader orbit is circular or equatorial. Based on these extended equations, we are able to analyze the relative motion regulation between a pair of spacecraft flying on arbitrary unperturbed orbits with the same semi-major axis in close formation. Given the initial orbital elements of the leader, this paper presents a simple way to design initial relative orbital elements of close spacecraft with the same semi-major axis, thus preventing collision under non-perturbed conditions. Considering the mean influence of J 2 perturbation, namely secular J 2 perturbation, we derive the mean derivatives of orbital element differences, and then expand them to first order. Thus the first order expansion of orbital element differences can be added to the relative motion equations for further analysis. For a pair of spacecraft that will never collide under non-perturbed situations, we present a simple method to determine whether a collision will occur when J 2 perturbation is considered. Examples are given to prove the validity of the extended relative motion equations and to illustrate how the methods presented can be used. The simple method for designing initial relative orbital elements proposed here could be helpful to the preliminary design of the relative orbital elements between spacecraft in a close formation, when collision avoidance is necessary.

  2. Two-species occupancy modeling accounting for species misidentification and nondetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambert, Thierry; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James; Mulder, Kevin P.; Brand, Adrianne B,

    2018-01-01

    1. In occupancy studies, species misidentification can lead to false positive detections, which can cause severe estimator biases. Currently, all models that account for false positive errors only consider omnibus sources of false detections and are limited to single species occupancy. 2. However, false detections for a given species often occur because of the misidentification with another, closely-related species. To exploit this explicit source of false positive detection error, we develop a two-species occupancy model that accounts for misidentifications between two species of interest. As with other false positive models, identifiability is greatly improved by the availability of unambiguous detections at a subset of site-occasions. Here, we consider the case where some of the field observations can be confirmed using laboratory or other independent identification methods (“confirmatory data”). 3. We performed three simulation studies to (1) assess the model’s performance under various realistic scenarios, (2) investigate the influence of the proportion of confirmatory data on estimator accuracy, and (3) compare the performance of this two-species model with that of the single-species false positive model. The model shows good performance under all scenarios, even when only small proportions of detections are confirmed (e.g., 5%). It also clearly outperforms the single-species model.

  3. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  4. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  5. The major differences in chemical composition and antibacterial activity of two closely related Leonotis species (Lamiaceae may have taxonomic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Eloff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Leonotis species are used widely for medicinal purposes in Africa. There have been drastic changes in the taxonomic treatment of Leonotis species during the past decade. Two species, L. dysophylla and L. microphylla occurring in Pretoria have been considered as varieties of the same species and as different species by different authors. Because Leonotis species are used widely as medicinal plants inter alia against bacterial infections, we decided to compare the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of four plants from each of two populations of the species. The chemical composition of acetone extracts of finely ground leaves was determined by thin layer chromatography followed by spraying with vanillin-sulphuric acid. There were hardly any differences between plants from the same population. There were major differences between the two species in the composition of pigments separated by thin layer chromatography and for compounds visualized with the vanillin-sulphuric acid spray reagent. This supported the viewpoint that the two species should not be considered as varieties. The major differences found in chemical composition indicate that chemical parameters may play an important role in resolving taxonomic differences. Because such a small quantity of material is needed, it may be feasible to analyze one or two leaves obtained from herbarium sheets as an additional taxonomic parameter. The antibacterial activity of the acetone extracts was determined using a two-fold serial dilution microplate method with tetrazolium violet as indicator of growth. The specific strains of the four most important nosocomial bacterial pathogens suggested by the United States National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards were used: Staphylococcus aureus (American Type Culture Collection 29213, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 21212. The minimum inhibitory activity of the

  6. The relation of close friends to cognitive performance in old age: the mediating role of leisure activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Baeriswyl, Marie; Kliegel, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:From a conceptual point of view, close friends are an important resource for promoting activity engagement in old age. Leisure activity engagement in turn is a key predictor of cognitive performance. Empirically, it remains unclear so far whether leisure activity engagement mediates between having close friends on the one hand and cognitive performance on the other, which we investigated in a large sample of older adults. We assessed cognitive performance (Mill Hill vocabulary scale and Trail Making Test (TMT) parts A and B) in 2,812 older adults. Participants reported information on leisure activity engagement and close friends. A larger number of leisure activities and a larger number of close friends were significantly related to better cognitive performance in the Mill Hill vocabulary scale and TMT parts A and B. A larger number of close friends were significantly related to a larger number of leisure activities. The number of leisure activities mediated more than half of the relation of the number of close friends to performance in all three cognitive measures. Having close friends may be helpful to stimulate and promote activity participation in old age. By enhancing individuals' cognitive reserve, this may finally preserve their cognitive performance level in old age.

  7. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.

    2014-04-24

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Validation of microsatellite multiplexes for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two hybridizing species of coral reef fish (Plectropomus spp., Serranidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, H.B.; Feldheim, K.A.; Jones, G.P.; Ma, K.; Mansour, H.; Perumal, S.; Williamson, D.H.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are often considered ideal markers to investigate ecological processes in animal populations. They are regularly used as genetic barcodes to identify species, individuals, and infer familial relationships. However, such applications are highly sensitive the number and diversity of microsatellite markers, which are also prone to error. Here, we propose a novel framework to assess the suitability of microsatellite datasets for parentage analysis and species discrimination in two closely related species of coral reef fish, Plectropomus leopardus and P. maculatus (Serranidae). Coral trout are important fisheries species throughout the Indo-Pacific region and have been shown to hybridize in parts of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. We first describe the development of 25 microsatellite loci and their integration to three multiplex PCRs that co-amplify in both species. Using simulations, we demonstrate that the complete suite of markers provides appropriate power to discriminate between species, detect hybrid individuals, and resolve parent-offspring relationships in natural populations, with over 99.6% accuracy in parent-offspring assignments. The markers were also tested on seven additional species within the Plectropomus genus with polymorphism in 28-96% of loci. The multiplex PCRs developed here provide a reliable and cost-effective strategy to investigate evolutionary and ecological dynamics and will be broadly applicable in studies of wild populations and aquaculture brood stocks for these closely related fish species. 2014 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of Trametes and related genera based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Some species of Trametes and their related genera are so similar in microstructure characteristics that it is ... We found that both the conserved domains and the variable domains all ..... closely-related species was similar.

  10. Verbascumkurdistanicum (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from Hakkâri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fırat, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Verbascumkurdistanicum Fırat (Scrophulariaceae), is described and illustrated as a new species that is located in Hakkâri, Turkey. In this study, diagnostic morphological characters of this and closely related species (Verbascumoreophilum K.Koch and Verbascumpyramidatum M. Bieb) are discussed. Furthermore, distribution maps for the three taxa are provided.

  11. Evolutionary relationships between Rhynchosporium lolii sp. nov. and other Rhynchosporium species on grasses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M King

    Full Text Available The fungal genus Rhynchosporium (causative agent of leaf blotch contains several host-specialised species, including R. commune (colonising barley and brome-grass, R. agropyri (couch-grass, R. secalis (rye and triticale and the more distantly related R. orthosporum (cocksfoot. This study used molecular fingerprinting, multilocus DNA sequence data, conidial morphology, host range tests and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the relationship between Rhynchosporium species on ryegrasses, both economically important forage grasses and common wild grasses in many cereal growing areas, and other plant species. Two different types of Rhynchosporium were found on ryegrasses in the UK. Firstly, there were isolates of R. commune that were pathogenic to both barley and Italian ryegrass. Secondly, there were isolates of a new species, here named R. lolii, that were pathogenic only to ryegrass species. R. lolii was most closely related to R. orthosporum, but exhibited clear molecular, morphological and host range differences. The species was estimated to have diverged from R. orthosporum ca. 5735 years before the present. The colonisation strategy of all of the different Rhynchosporium species involved extensive hyphal growth in the sub-cuticular regions of the leaves. Finally, new species-specific PCR diagnostic tests were developed that could distinguish between these five closely related Rhynchosporium species.

  12. Why related bacterial species bloom simultaneously in the gut: principles underlying the 'Like will to like' concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sebastian E; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2014-02-01

    The large intestine is host to a complex ecological community composed predominantly of obligate anaerobic bacteria belonging to the classes Bacteroidia and Clostridia. This community confers benefits through its metabolic activities and host interactions. However, a microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) characterized by a decreased abundance of Clostridia and a bloom of facultative anaerobic Proteobacteria is commonly observed during inflammation in the large bowel. Here we review recent insights into the principles that favour simultaneous increases in the abundance of closely related species belonging to the Proteobacteria during inflammation, which provides important clues for the rational design of strategies to treat dysbiosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  14. A novel enterovirus species identified from severe diarrheal goats

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Mingyue; He, Jia; Lu, Haibing; Liu, Yajing; Deng, Yingrui; Zhu, Lisai; Guo, Changming; Tu, Changchun; Wang, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    Backgrounds The Enterovirus genus of the family of Picornaviridae consists of 9 species of Enteroviruses and 3 species of Rhinoviruses based on the latest virus taxonomy. Those viruses contribute significantly to respiratory and digestive disorders in human and animals. Out of 9 Enterovirus species, Enterovirus E-G are closely related to diseases affecting on livestock industry. While enterovirus infection has been increasingly reported in cattle and swine, the enterovirus infections in small...

  15. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoth, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex) may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans, and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri) have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  16. Relational mobility explains between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William

    2010-10-01

    In the current research, we tested a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to other people than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure to close friends may be explained by the construct of relational mobility, the general degree to which individuals in a society have opportunities to form new relationships and terminate old ones. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural differences (Japan vs. United States) in self-disclosure to a close friend were mediated by individuals' perceptions of relational mobility. In Study 2, two separate measures of relational mobility predicted self-disclosure within a single culture (Japan), and this relationship was mediated by the motivation to engage in self-disclosure to strengthen personal relationships. We conclude that societies and social contexts higher in relational mobility (in which relationships can be formed and dissolved relatively easily) produce stronger incentives for self-disclosure as a social-commitment device.

  17. Transcriptome sequencing of Crucihimalaya himalaica (Brassicaceae) reveals how Arabidopsis close relative adapt to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qin; Wang, Qia; Han, Xi; Guan, Yanlong; Sun, Hang; Zhong, Yang; Huang, Jinling; Zhang, Ticao

    2016-02-01

    The extreme environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) provides an ideal natural laboratory for studies on adaptive evolution. Few genome/transcriptome based studies have been conducted on how plants adapt to the environments of QTP compared to numerous studies on vertebrates. Crucihimalaya himalaica is a close relative of Arabidopsis with typical QTP distribution, and is hoped to be a new model system to study speciation and ecological adaptation in extreme environment. In this study, we de novo generated a transcriptome sequence of C. himalaica, with a total of 49,438 unigenes. Compared to five relatives, 10,487 orthogroups were shared by all six species, and 4,286 orthogroups contain putative single copy gene. Further analysis identified 487 extremely significantly positively selected genes (PSGs) in C. himalaica transcriptome. Theses PSGs were enriched in functions related to specific adaptation traits, such as response to radiation, DNA repair, nitrogen metabolism, and stabilization of membrane. These functions are responsible for the adaptation of C. himalaica to the high radiation, soil depletion and low temperature environments on QTP. Our findings indicate that C. himalaica has evolved complex strategies for adapting to the extreme environments on QTP and provide novel insights into genetic mechanisms of highland adaptation in plants.

  18. Statistical approaches to use a model organism for regulatory sequences annotation of newly sequenced species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    Full Text Available A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms.

  19. Three new species of Trichoderma with hyaline ascospores from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z X; Zhuang, W Y

    2015-01-01

    Collections of Trichoderma having hyaline ascospores from different areas of China were examined. Using combined analyses of morphological data, culture characters and phylogenetic information based on rDNA sequences of partial nuc translation elongation factor 1-α encoding gene (TEF1-α) and the gene encoding the second largest nuc RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2), three new species, Trichoderma applanatum, T. oligosporum and T. sinoluteum, were discovered and are described. Trichoderma applanatum produces continuous flat to pulvinate, white to cream stromata with dense orange or pale brown ostioles, and simple acremonium-like to verticillium-like conidiophores, belongs to the Hypocreanum clade and is closely related to T. decipiens. Trichoderma oligosporum forms reddish brown stromata with a downy surface, hyaline conidia and gliocladium-like conidiophores, and is closely related to but distinct from T. crystalligenum in the Psychrophila clade. Trichoderma sinoluteum, as a member of the Polysporum clade, is characterized by pale yellow stromata, white pustulate conidiomata, pachybasium-like conidiophores, and hyaline conidia. Differences between the new species and their close relatives are discussed. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. Transcription, Signaling Receptor Activity, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Fatty Acid Metabolism Mediate the Presence of Closely Related Species in Distinct Intertidal and Cold-Seep Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann; Van Belleghem, Steven; Derycke, Sofie

    2015-12-03

    Bathyal cold seeps are isolated extreme deep-sea environments characterized by low species diversity while biomass can be high. The Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barents Sea, 1,280 m) is a rather stable chemosynthetic driven habitat characterized by prominent surface bacterial mats with high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Here, the nematode Halomonhystera hermesi thrives in high abundances (11,000 individuals 10 cm(-2)). Halomonhystera hermesi is a member of the intertidal Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex that includes five cryptic species (GD1-5). GD1-5's common habitat is characterized by strong environmental fluctuations. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of H. hermesi and GD1, H. hermesi's closest relative. Genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are more strongly expressed in H. hermesi than in GD1, and many genes were only observed in H. hermesi while being completely absent in GD1. Both observations could in part be attributed to high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Additionally, fatty acid elongation was also prominent in H. hermesi confirming the importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids in this species. Significant higher amounts of transcription factors and genes involved in signaling receptor activity were observed in GD1 (many of which were completely absent in H. hermesi), allowing fast signaling and transcriptional reprogramming which can mediate survival in dynamic intertidal environments. GC content was approximately 8% higher in H. hermesi coding unigenes resulting in differential codon usage between both species and a higher proportion of amino acids with GC-rich codons in H. hermesi. In general our results showed that most pathways were active in both environments and that only three genes are under natural selection. This indicates that also plasticity should be taken in consideration in the evolutionary history of Halomonhystera species. Such plasticity, as well as possible

  1. Molecular diversity among seven Solanum (eggplant and relatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... Seven Solanum species (eggplants) were investigated for molecular diversity. Besides its ... Eggplant comprises three closely related cultivated species .... generated with SSR data was submitted to 2-way Mantel test (Man-.

  2. Infection with a Hepatozoon sp. closely related to Hepatozoon felis in a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex -Pseudalopex -gymnocercus) co-infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A; Fresneda, Karina; Rossi, Daniel; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Baneth, Gad

    2012-05-25

    A species of Hepatozoon closely related to Hepatozoon felis found in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of a wild Pampas gray fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) is described. The fox was euthanized after showing severe incoordination. On necropsy and histopathology there was bilateral, diffuse, severe, sub-acute, necrotizing bronchointerstitial pneumonia, with intracytoplasmic and intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. Canine distemper virus was detected by immunohistochemistry in the bronchiolar epithelium, syncytial cells, alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes. The skeletal muscle and myocardium contained multiple round to oval protozoan cysts ranging from 64 μm × 75 μm to 98 μm × 122 μm, with a central eosinophilic meront-like core surrounded by concentric rings of mucinous material resembling Hepatozoon americanum cysts but smaller in size. Macrophages within rare pyogranulomas and monocytes/macrophages in adjacent sinusoidal blood vessels in the skeletal muscle contained intracytoplasmic round protozoa consistent with merozoites or developing gamonts of Hepatozoon. Hepatozoon sp. infection was confirmed by PCR of skeletal muscle and the sequenced 18S rRNA PCR product was found to be 99% identical to H. felis by BLAST analysis and deposited in GenBank as accession number HQ020489. It clustered together in the phylogenetic analysis with published H. felis sequences and separately from H. canis, H. americanum and other Hepatozoon species. However, the close relatedness of the fox Hepatozoon to H. felis does not rule out infection with a different and possibly unknown Hepatozoon species. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics and chemical composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species (Onagraceae) in relation to floral visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoń, Sebastian; Komoń-Janczara, Elwira; Denisow, Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Main conclusion The floral nectars were sucrose-dominant; however, nectar protein and amino acid contents differed, indicating that composition of nitrogenous compounds may vary considerably even between closely related plant species, irrespectively of nectary structure. Numerous zoophilous plants attract their pollinators by offering floral nectar; an aqueous solution produced by specialized secretory tissues, known as floral nectaries. Although many papers on nectaries and nectar already exist, there has been a little research into the structure of nectaries and/or nectar production and composition in species belonging to the same genus. To redress this imbalance, we sought, in the present paper, to describe the floral nectary, nectar production, and nectar composition in five nocturnal Oenothera species with respect to their floral visitors. The structure of nectaries was similar for all the species investigated, and comprised the epidermis (with nectarostomata), numerous layers of nectary parenchyma, and subsecretory parenchyma. Anthesis for a single flower was short (ca. 10-12 h), and flowers lasted only one night. The release of floral nectar commenced at the bud stage (approx. 4 h before anthesis) and nectar was available to pollinators until petal closure. Nectar concentration was relatively low (ca. 27%) and the nectar was sucrose-dominant, and composed mainly of sucrose, glucose and fructose. The protein content of the nectar was also relatively low (on average, 0.31 µg ml -1 ). Nevertheless, a great variety of amino acids, including both protein and non-protein types, was detected in the nectar profile of the investigated taxa. We noted both diurnal and nocturnal generalist, opportunistic floral insect visitors.

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus-Related Species in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eLamoth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is the main etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis (IA. Other Aspergillus species belonging to the section Fumigati (A. fumigatus complex may occasionally be the cause of IA. These strains are often misidentified, as they cannot be distinguished from A. fumigatus by conventional morphological analysis and sequencing methods. This lack of recognition may have important consequences as these A. fumigatus-related species often display some level of intrinsic resistance to azoles and other antifungal drugs. A. lentulus, A. udagawae, A. viridinutans and A. thermomutatus (Neosartorya pseudofischeri have been associated with refractory cases of IA. Microbiologists should be able to suspect the presence of these cryptic species behind a putative A. fumigatus isolate on the basis of some simple characteristics, such as defect in sporulation and/or unusual antifungal susceptibility profile. However, definitive species identification requires specific sequencing analyses of the beta-tubulin or calmodulin genes, which are not available in most laboratories. Multiplex PCR assays or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization – time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS gave promising results for rapid and accurate distinction between A. fumigatus and other Aspergillus spp. of the section Fumigati in clinical practice. Improved diagnostic procedures and antifungal susceptibility testing may be helpful for the early detection and management of these particular IA cases.

  5. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    , aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet...... as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance...

  6. Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species Composition, Relative Abundance and Distribution of the Avian Fauna of Entoto Natural Park and Escarpment, Addis Ababa. ... Eucalyptus plantation, soil erosion, deforestation, habitat fragmentation, settlement and land degradation were the main threats for the distribution of birds in the present study area.

  7. Penicillium daejeonium sp. nov., a new species isolated from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Hyunkyu; An, Tae-Jin; Kim, Chang Sun; Choi, Young Phil; Deng, Jian-Xin; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-08-01

    Two isolates of monoverticillate Penicillium species were collected from a grape and schisandra fruit in Korea. Multigene phylogenetic analyses with the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and genes encoding β-tubulin (benA) and calmodulin (cmd), as well as morphological analyses revealed that the two isolates are members of the P. sclerotiorum complex in Penicillium subgenus Aspergilloides, but different from species of the P. sclerotiorum complex. The isolates are closely related to P. cainii, P. jacksonii, and P. viticola in terms of their multigene phylogeny, but their colony and conidiophore morphologies differ from those of closely related species. The name P. daejeonium is proposed for this unclassified new species belonging to the P. sclerotiorum complex in subgenus Aspergilloides.

  8. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  9. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  10. Effects of turbidity on the neural structures of two closely related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neural structures of the sister species Pseudobarbus afer and P. asper were compared. P. afer, a redfin minnow which inhabits clear, perennial mountain streams, was found to have larger neural structures related to vision than P. asper, which inhabits turbid, intermittent streams of the Gamtoos River system, ...

  11. Delineation of the species Haemophilus influenzae by phenotype, multilocus sequence phylogeny, and detection of marker genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Overballe, MD; Kilian, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    To obtain more information on the much-debated definition of prokaryotic species, we investigated the borders of Haemophilus influenzae by comparative analysis of H. influenzae reference strains with closely related bacteria including strains assigned to Haemophilus haemolyticus, cryptic genospec......To obtain more information on the much-debated definition of prokaryotic species, we investigated the borders of Haemophilus influenzae by comparative analysis of H. influenzae reference strains with closely related bacteria including strains assigned to Haemophilus haemolyticus, cryptic...... genospecies biotype IV, and the never formally validated species "Haemophilus intermedius". Multilocus sequence phylogeny based on six housekeeping genes separated a cluster encompassing the type and the reference strains of H. influenzae from 31 more distantly related strains. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene...

  12. Incorporating trnH-psbA to the core DNA barcodes improves significantly species discrimination within southern African Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephris Gere

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the discriminatory power of the core DNA barcodes (rbcLa + matK for land plants may have been overestimated since their performance have been tested only on few closely related species. In this study we focused mainly on how the addition of complementary barcodes (nrITS and trnH-psbA to the core barcodes will affect the performance of the core barcodes in discriminating closely related species from family to section levels. In general, we found that the core barcodes performed poorly compared to the various combinations tested. Using multiple criteria, we finally advocated for the use of the core + trnH-psbA as potential DNA barcode for the family Combretaceae at least in southern Africa. Our results also indicate that the success of DNA barcoding in discriminating closely related species may be related to evolutionary and possibly the biogeographic histories of the taxonomic group tested.

  13. Comparison of the oropharyngeal cavity in the Starksiini (Teleostei: Blenniiformes: Labrisomidae): taste buds and teeth, including a comparison with closely-related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishelson, Lev; Baldwin, Carole C; Hastings, Philip A

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the distribution of taste buds and teeth in the oropharyngeal cavity of 13 species of adult (18-60 mm SL) Starksiini fishes inhabiting subtidal waters of the Neotropical region. Four types of taste buds described previously in other fish groups were observed within the oropharyngeal cavity, of which type I, situated on prominent protruding papillae, is the most common. The number of taste buds in this cavity varies considerably, ranging from ca. 202 in Starksia lepicoelia to ca. 770 in S. sluiteri. In all the studied species, taste buds are more numerous on the posterior (160-396) than on the anterior (42-294) part of the oropharyngeal cavity. The presence of different numbers of taste buds in different Starksiini species of the same standard length suggests that numbers of taste buds are not directly correlated with size and may be species-specific. Teeth are found on the premaxilla, dentary, vomer, palatine (in some species) and the upper and lower pharyngeal jaws (third pharyngobranchials and fifth ceratobranchials, respectively); the form and number of teeth and taste buds on each of these sites differs among the various species of Starksiini and between them and closely related species of the labrisomid tribes Labrisomini, Mnierpini, and Paraclinini. The results thus suggest potential systematic value in certain features of the oropharyngeal cavity for blenniiform fishes. It is also shown that benthic-feeding omnivorous fishes have higher densities of taste buds than piscivorous fishes. A possible correlation among numbers of taste buds, their positions in the oropharyngeal cavity, and other parameters is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Shifts in relative stocking of common tree species in Kentucky from 1975 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Jeffrey A. Stringer; Jeffery A. Turner

    2008-01-01

    Changes in species-specific relative stocking indicate the extent to which a species is either increasing or decreasing in a particular system. Changes in relative stocking values of common tree species in Kentucky from 1988 to 2004 were compared to values calculated for 1975 to 1988. Mean annual increase in relative stocking between 1988 and 2004 was greatest for...

  15. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome....... The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA......-DNA hybridization and multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 concatenated housekeeping genes. SNP analysis clustered 34/38 genomes within their accepted species. The pangenomic and SNP trees showed that V. harveyi is the most conserved of the four species studied and V. campbellii may be divided into at least three...

  16. Azole-Resistance in Aspergillus terreus and Related Species: An Emerging Problem or a Rare Phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zoran

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Invasive mold infections associated with Aspergillus species are a significant cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. The most frequently occurring aetiological pathogens are members of the Aspergillus section Fumigati followed by members of the section Terrei. The frequency of Aspergillus terreus and related (cryptic species in clinical specimens, as well as the percentage of azole-resistant strains remains to be studied.Methods: A global set (n = 498 of A. terreus and phenotypically related isolates was molecularly identified (beta-tubulin, tested for antifungal susceptibility against posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole, and resistant phenotypes were correlated with point mutations in the cyp51A gene.Results: The majority of isolates was identified as A. terreus (86.8%, followed by A. citrinoterreus (8.4%, A. hortai (2.6%, A. alabamensis (1.6%, A. neoafricanus (0.2%, and A. floccosus (0.2%. One isolate failed to match a known Aspergillus sp., but was found most closely related to A. alabamensis. According to EUCAST clinical breakpoints azole resistance was detected in 5.4% of all tested isolates, 6.2% of A. terreus sensu stricto (s.s. were posaconazole-resistant. Posaconazole resistance differed geographically and ranged from 0% in the Czech Republic, Greece, and Turkey to 13.7% in Germany. In contrast, azole resistance among cryptic species was rare 2 out of 66 isolates and was observed only in one A. citrinoterreus and one A. alabamensis isolate. The most affected amino acid position of the Cyp51A gene correlating with the posaconazole resistant phenotype was M217, which was found in the variation M217T and M217V.Conclusions:Aspergillus terreus was most prevalent, followed by A. citrinoterreus. Posaconazole was the most potent drug against A. terreus, but 5.4% of A. terreus sensu stricto showed resistance against this azole. In Austria, Germany, and the United Kingdom posaconazole-resistance in all A. terreus

  17. Effects of 'target' plant species body size on neighbourhood species richness and composition in old-field vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon S Schamp

    Full Text Available Competition is generally regarded as an important force in organizing the structure of vegetation, and evidence from several experimental studies of species mixtures suggests that larger mature plant size elicits a competitive advantage. However, these findings are at odds with the fact that large and small plant species generally coexist, and relatively smaller species are more common in virtually all plant communities. Here, we use replicates of ten relatively large old-field plant species to explore the competitive impact of target individual size on their surrounding neighbourhoods compared to nearby neighbourhoods of the same size that are not centred by a large target individual. While target individuals of the largest of our test species, Centaurea jacea L., had a strong impact on neighbouring species, in general, target species size was a weak predictor of the number of other resident species growing within its immediate neighbourhood, as well as the number of resident species that were reproductive. Thus, the presence of a large competitor did not restrict the ability of neighbouring species to reproduce. Lastly, target species size did not have any impact on the species size structure of neighbouring species; i.e. they did not restrict smaller, supposedly poorer competitors, from growing and reproducing close by. Taken together, these results provide no support for a size-advantage in competition restricting local species richness or the ability of small species to coexist and successfully reproduce in the immediate neighbourhood of a large species.

  18. Multilocus phylogeny and MALDI-TOF analysis of the plant pathogenic species Alternaria dauci and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Sophie; Madrid, Hugo; Gerrits Van Den Ende, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species-complexes of morp......The genus Alternaria includes numerous phytopathogenic species, many of which are economically relevant. Traditionally, identification has been based on morphology, but is often hampered by the tendency of some strains to become sterile in culture and by the existence of species...... trees based on ITS sequences did not differentiate strains of A. solani, A. tomatophila, and A. porri, but these three species formed a clade separate from strains of A. dauci. The resolution improved in trees based on gpd and Alt a 1, which distinguished strains of the four species as separate clades...... of A. solani, and the third included all strains of A. tomatophila, as well as all but one strain of A. solani, and one strain of A. porri. Thus, this study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a promising tool for identification of these four species of Alternaria which are closely...

  19. Relative abundance of mosquito species in Katsina Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted on the relative abundance of mosquito species, around selected areas of Katsina metropolis, Katsina State, Nigeria during the months of January, February, April and June 2010. Mosquitoes were collected from five sampling sites: Kofar Durbi, Kofar Kaura, Kofar Marusa, GRA and Layout. These were ...

  20. Evidence for the robustness of protein complexes to inter-species hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Leducq

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous efforts devoted to the identification of genetic incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility and inviability, little is known about the effect of inter-species hybridization at the protein interactome level. Here, we develop a screening platform for the comparison of protein-protein interactions (PPIs among closely related species and their hybrids. We examine in vivo the architecture of protein complexes in two yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii that diverged 5-20 million years ago and in their F1 hybrids. We focus on 24 proteins of two large complexes: the RNA polymerase II and the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which show contrasting patterns of molecular evolution. We found that, with the exception of one PPI in the NPC sub-complex, PPIs were highly conserved between species, regardless of protein divergence. Unexpectedly, we found that the architecture of the complexes in F1 hybrids could not be distinguished from that of the parental species. Our results suggest that the conservation of PPIs in hybrids likely results from the slow evolution taking place on the very few protein residues involved in the interaction or that protein complexes are inherently robust and may accommodate protein divergence up to the level that is observed among closely related species.

  1. Verbascum kurdistanicum (Scrophulariaceae, a new species from Hakkâri, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fırat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbascum kurdistanicum Fırat (Scrophulariaceae, is described and illustrated as a new species that is located in Hakkâri, Turkey. In this study, diagnostic morphological characters of this and closely related species (V. oreophilum K.Koch and V. pyramidatum M. Bieb are discussed. Furthermore, distribution maps for the three taxa are provided.

  2. Power, attraction, and reference in macrolevel social relations: An analysis of closed groups and closed societies based on the psychology of the “Soviet person”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radina Nadezhda K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the features of social-relationship systems are analyzed based on the data from a sociopsychological empirical study conducted in two stages (2002 and 2014 on a large sample with the help of g. Kelly’s Repertory grid Technique. A. V. Petrovsky’s three-factor interpersonal-relationships model as interpreted for closed groups by M. Yu. Kondratev and the concept of the closed society as described by Karl Popper provide the foundation for the theoretical hypothesis we tested. The empirical data obtained in 2002 came from 391 participants of different ages who were living in provincial towns in the Nizhny Novgorod region. The elderly respondents (232 people had lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents (159 people got their education and started their careers in the USSR. Soviet society is considered to be closed because of its authoritarian and collectivist nature, static social structure, and dogmatic ideology. It is argued that both closed societies and closed groups are characterized by a rigid hierarchical social structure, isolation from other systems, and depersonalization of social relations. We have proved that members of a closed group and citizens of a closed society have similar social-relationship matrices.

  3. Phylogenetic Pattern, Evolutionary Processes and Species Delimitation in the Genus Echinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, A J

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and stable alpha taxonomy requires a clear conception of what constitutes a species and agreed criteria for delimiting different species. An evolutionary or general lineage concept defines a species as a single lineage of organisms with a common evolutionary trajectory, distinguishable from other such lineages. Delimiting evolutionary species is a two-step process. In the first step, phylogenetic reconstruction identifies putative species as groups of organisms that are monophyletic (share a common ancestor) and exclusive (more closely related to each other than to organisms outside the group). The second step is to assess whether members of the group possess genetic exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained by gene flow among populations) or ecological exchangeability (where cohesion is maintained because populations occupy the same ecological niche). Recent taxonomic reviews have recognized nine species within the genus Echinococcus. Phylogenetic reconstructions of the relationships between these putative species using mtDNA and nuclear gene sequences show that for the most part these nine species are monophyletic, although there are important incongruences that need to be resolved. Applying the criteria of genetic and ecological exchangeability suggests that seven of the currently recognized species represent evolutionarily distinct lineages. The species status of Echinococcus canadensis and Echinococcus ortleppi could not be confirmed. Coalescent-based analyses represent a promising approach to species delimitation in these closely related taxa. It seems likely, from a comparison of sister species groups, that speciation in the genus has been driven by geographic isolation, but biogeographic scenarios are largely speculative and require further testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  5. Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef

    2015-01-10

    Three new species of the family Phthiracaridae, Austrophthiracarus longisetosus sp. nov., Phthiracarus allocotos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus amboroensis sp. nov. from Bolivia are described and figured. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Additional descriptions and taxonomical notes for three ptyctimous species: Acrotritia peruensis (Hammer, 1961), Acrotritia vestita (Berlese, 1913), and Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) sedecimus Niedbała, 2004 are added. A list of twenty six ptyctimous species from Bolivia is presented, ten of these species are new records for the fauna of Bolivia. A key to all species of ptyctimous mites of Bolivia is presented.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Satellite DNA in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Jagannathan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite DNAs are highly repetitive sequences that account for the majority of constitutive heterochromatin in many eukaryotic genomes. It is widely recognized that sequences and locations of satellite DNAs are highly divergent even in closely related species, contributing to the hypothesis that satellite DNA differences may underlie speciation. However, due to its repetitive nature, the mapping of satellite DNAs has been mostly left out of recent genomics analyses, hampering the use of molecular genetics techniques to better understand their role in speciation and evolution. Satellite DNAs are most extensively and comprehensively mapped in Drosophila melanogaster, a species that is also an excellent model system with which to study speciation. Yet the lack of comprehensive knowledge regarding satellite DNA identity and location in its sibling species (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia has prevented the full utilization of D. melanogaster in studying speciation. To overcome this problem, we initiated the mapping of satellite DNAs on the genomes of the D. melanogaster species complex (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia using multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH probes. Our study confirms a striking divergence of satellite DNAs in the D. melanogaster species complex, even among the closely related species of the D. simulans clade (D. simulans, D. mauritiana, and D. sechellia, and suggests the presence of unidentified satellite sequences in these species.

  7. Malaria in Africa: vector species' niche models and relative risk maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Moffett

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. We provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in Africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km. Using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector species based on species occurrence records since 1980, 19 climatic variables, altitude, and land cover data (in 14 classes. For seven vectors (Anopheles coustani, A. funestus, A. melas, A. merus, A. moucheti, A. nili, and A. paludis these are the first published niche models. We predict that Central Africa has poor habitat for both A. arabiensis and A. gambiae, and that A. quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis have restricted habitats in Southern Africa as claimed by field experts in criticism of previous models. The results of the niche models are incorporated into three relative risk models which assume different ecological interactions between vector species. The "additive" model assumes no interaction; the "minimax" model assumes maximum relative risk due to any vector in a cell; and the "competitive exclusion" model assumes the relative risk that arises from the most suitable vector for a cell. All models include variable anthrophilicity of vectors and spatial variation in human population density. Relative risk maps are produced from these models. All models predict that human population density is the critical factor determining malaria risk. Our method of constructing relative risk maps is equally general. We discuss the limits of the relative risk maps reported here, and the additional data that are required for their improvement. The protocol developed here can be used for any other vector-borne disease.

  8. PCR amplification of repetitive sequences as a possible approach in relative species quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballin, Nicolai Zederkopff; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Karlsson, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Both relative and absolute quantifications are possible in species quantification when single copy genomic DNA is used. However, amplification of single copy genomic DNA does not allow a limit of detection as low as one obtained from amplification of repetitive sequences. Amplification...... of repetitive sequences is therefore frequently used in absolute quantification but problems occur in relative quantification as the number of repetitive sequences is unknown. A promising approach was developed where data from amplification of repetitive sequences were used in relative quantification of species...... to relatively quantify the amount of chicken DNA in a binary mixture of chicken DNA and pig DNA. However, the designed PCR primers lack the specificity required for regulatory species control....

  9. Identification of distinct quantitative trait loci associated with defence against the closely related aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and A. kondoi in Medicago truncatula

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Su-Min

    2012-03-21

    Aphids are a major family of plant insect pests. Medicago truncatula and Acyrthosiphon pisum (pea aphid, PA) are model species with a suite of resources available to help dissect the mechanism underlying plant-aphid interactions. A previous study focused on monogenic and relatively strong resistance in M. truncatula to PA and other aphid species. In this study a moderate resistance to PA was characterized in detail in the M. truncatula line A17 and compared with the highly susceptible line A20 and the more resistant line Jester. The results show that PA resistance in A17 involves both antibiosis and tolerance, and that resistance is phloem based. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n=114) from a cross between A17 and A20 revealed that one locus, which co-segregated with AIN (Acyrthosiphon-induced necrosis) on chromosome 3, is responsible for the reduction of aphid biomass (indicator of antibiosis) for both PA and bluegreen aphid (BGA, A. kondoi), albeit to a lesser degree for PA than BGA. Interestingly, two independent loci on chromosomes 5 and 3 were identified for the plant biomass reduction (indicator of plant tolerance) by PA and BGA, respectively, demonstrating that the plant\\'s tolerance response to these two closely related aphid species is distinct. Together with previously identified major resistant (R) genes, the QTLs identified in this study are powerful tools to understand fully the spectrum of plant defence against sap-sucking insects and provide opportunities for breeders to generate effective and sustainable strategies for aphid control. 2012 The Author.

  10. Interactions among species in a tri-trophic system: the influence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BioMAP

    persistence/abundance are affected by more than two interacting species (Begon ... importance of methodology in revealing why an endangered population is ..... closely related butterfly which also oviposits on thyme buds) failed because the ...

  11. Ward identities and consistency relations for the large scale structure with multiple species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Marco; Pietroni, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We present fully nonlinear consistency relations for the squeezed bispectrum of Large Scale Structure. These relations hold when the matter component of the Universe is composed of one or more species, and generalize those obtained in [1,2] in the single species case. The multi-species relations apply to the standard dark matter + baryons scenario, as well as to the case in which some of the fields are auxiliary quantities describing a particular population, such as dark matter halos or a specific galaxy class. If a large scale velocity bias exists between the different populations new terms appear in the consistency relations with respect to the single species case. As an illustration, we discuss two physical cases in which such a velocity bias can exist: (1) a new long range scalar force in the dark matter sector (resulting in a violation of the equivalence principle in the dark matter-baryon system), and (2) the distribution of dark matter halos relative to that of the underlying dark matter field

  12. The gut microbial community of Midas cichlid fish in repeatedly evolved limnetic-benthic species pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Frickey, Tancred; Jones, Julia C; Meyer, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Gut bacterial communities are now known to influence a range of fitness related aspects of organisms. But how different the microbial community is in closely related species, and if these differences can be interpreted as adaptive is still unclear. In this study we compared microbial communities in two sets of closely related sympatric crater lake cichlid fish species pairs that show similar adaptations along the limnetic-benthic axis. The gut microbial community composition differs in the species pair inhabiting the older of two crater lakes. One major difference, relative to other fish, is that in these cichlids that live in hypersaline crater lakes, the microbial community is largely made up of Oceanospirillales (52.28%) which are halotolerant or halophilic bacteria. This analysis opens up further avenues to identify candidate symbiotic or co-evolved bacteria playing a role in adaptation to similar diets and life-styles or even have a role in speciation. Future functional and phylosymbiotic analyses might help to address these issues.

  13. A universal nonlinear relation among boundary states in closed string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Isao; Matsuo, Yutaka; Watanabe, Eitoku

    2004-01-01

    We show that the boundary states satisfy a nonlinear relation (the idempotency equation) with respect to the star product of closed string field theory. This relation is universal in the sense that various D-branes, including the infinitesimally deformed ones, satisfy the same equation, including the coefficient. This paper generalizes our analysis [hep-th/0306189] in the following senses. (1) We present a background-independent formulation based on conformal field theory. It illuminates the geometric nature of the relation and allows us to more systematically analyze the variations around the D-brane background. (2) We show that the Witten-type star product satisfies a similar relation but with a more divergent coefficient. (3) We determine the coefficient of the relation analytically. The result shows that the α parameter can be formally factored out, and the relation becomes universal. We present a conjecture on vacuum theory based on this computation. (author)

  14. Veluticeps fasciculata sp. nov. (Gloeophyllaceae, Basidiomycota), a close relative to V. berkeleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao Yang; Karen K. Nakasone; Shuang-Hui. He

    2016-01-01

    A new brown-rot fungal species, Veluticeps fasciculata, is described from southern China. It is characterized by perennial effused basidiocarps with smooth or tuberculose hymenophore, nodose-septate generative hyphae, fasciculate cystidia (as hyphal pegs in hymenophore) and relatively small basidiospores. It occurs on wood of Cunninghamia...

  15. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  16. Conflict over non-partitioned resources may explain between-species differences in declines: the anthropogenic competition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Human alterations of habitats are causing declines in many species worldwide. The extent of declines varies greatly among closely related species, for often unknown reasons that must be understood in order to maintain biodiversity. An overlooked factor is that seasonally breeding species compete for nest sites, which are increasingly limited in many anthropogenically degraded environments. I used evolutionary game theory to predict the outcome of competition between individuals that differ in their competitive ability and timing of nesting. A range of species following evolutionarily stable strategies can co-exist when there are sufficient nest sites, but my model predicts that a reduction in nest site availability has greater impacts on late-nesting species, especially the stronger competitors, whereas early-nesting, stronger species decline only slightly. These predictions are supported by data on 221 bird and 43 bumblebee species worldwide. Restoration and provision of nest sites should be an urgent priority in conservation efforts. More broadly, these results indicate a new ecological principle of potentially widespread importance: rapid reductions in the abundance of resources for which species' preferences have not diversified will result in unprecedented conflicts that reduce the potential for species co-existence. Understanding the causes of species declines is crucial to preventing the losses. Whilst much work on species vulnerability shows broad scale effects, an enduring mystery is the variation in population trends between closely related species. I combined evolutionary modelling with three global-scale long-term data sets to reveal that competition for scarce nest sites causes variation in declines. The impact of the loss of nest sites on differential declines among closely related species from very different taxa indicates a new ecological principle of widespread importance: the effect of habitat degradation on competition among species. A lack of

  17. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  18. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  19. Mapania sapuaniana (Cyperaceae), a new sedge species from Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabdin, Z.; Culham, A.; Simpson, D.A.; Meekiong, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mapania sapuaniana, a spectacular new sedge species from Lanjak Entimau, Sarawak, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to M. richardsii and M. borneensis but differs in having broad leaves with a distinct pseudopetiole, reddish purple or maroon coloration on the underside of the leaf

  20. The evolution of different maternal investment strategies in two closely related desert vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Agha, Mickey; Loughran, Caleb; Tennant, Laura A.; Sinervo, Barry

    2017-01-01

    We compared egg size phenotypes and tested several predictions from the optimal egg size (OES) and bet-hedging theories in two North American desert-dwelling sister tortoise taxa, Gopherus agassizii and G. morafkai, that inhabit different climate spaces: relatively unpredictable and more predictable climate spaces, respectively. Observed patterns in both species differed from the predictions of OES in several ways. Mean egg size increased with maternal body size in both species. Mean egg size was inversely related to clutch order in G. agassizii, a strategy more consistent with the within-generation hypothesis arising out of bet-hedging theory or a constraint in egg investment due to resource availability, and contrary to theories of density dependence, which posit that increasing hatchling competition from later season clutches should drive selection for larger eggs. We provide empirical evidence that one species, G. agassizii, employs a bet-hedging strategy that is a combination of two different bet-hedging hypotheses. Additionally, we found some evidence for G. morafkai employing a conservative bet-hedging strategy. (e.g., lack of intra- and interclutch variation in egg size relative to body size). Our novel adaptive hypothesis suggests the possibility that natural selection favors smaller offspring in late-season clutches because they experience a more benign environment or less energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., winter) than early clutch progeny, that emerge under harsher and more energetically challenging environmental conditions (i.e., summer). We also discuss alternative hypotheses of sexually antagonistic selection, which arise from the trade-offs of son versus daughter production that might have different optima depending on clutch order and variation in temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) among clutches. Resolution of these hypotheses will require long-term data on fitness of sons versus daughters as a function of

  1. Effect of Wind on the Relation of Leaf N, P Stoichiometry with Leaf Morphology in Quercus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry correlates closely to leaf morphology, which is strongly impacted by wind at multiple scales. However, it is not clear how leaf N, P stoichiometry and its relationship to leaf morphology changes with wind load. We determined the leaf N and P concentrations and leaf morphology—including specific leaf area (SLA and leaf dissection index (LDI—for eight Quercus species under a simulated wind load for seven months. Leaf N and P concentrations increased significantly under these conditions for Quercus acutissima, Quercus rubra, Quercus texana, and Quercus palustris—which have elliptic leaves—due to their higher N, P requirements and a resultant leaf biomass decrease, which is a tolerance strategy for Quercus species under a wind load. Leaf N:P was relatively stable under wind for all species, which supports stoichiometric homeostasis. Leaf N concentrations showed a positive correlation to SLA, leaf N and P concentrations showed positive correlations to LDI under each wind treatment, and the slope of correlations was not affected by wind, which indicates synchronous variations between leaf stoichiometry and leaf morphology under wind. However, the intercept of correlations was affected by wind, and leaf N and P use efficiency decreased under the wind load, which suggests that the Quercus species changes from “fast investment-return” in the control to “slow investment-return” under windy conditions. These results will be valuable to understanding functional strategies for plants under varying wind loads, especially synchronous variations in leaf traits along a wind gradient.

  2. Comparative demography of two co-occurring Linum species with different distribution patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2013), s. 963-970 ISSN 1435-8603 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : closely related species * flax * habitat occupancy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.405, year: 2013

  3. Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov., a yeast species isolated from the gut of the rhinoceros beetle Allomyrina dichotoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Yun; Chen, Liang; Ke, Tao; Hui, Feng-Li

    2014-11-01

    Two strains representing Wickerhamiella allomyrinae f.a., sp. nov. were isolated from the gut of Allomyrina dichotoma (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) collected from the Baotianman National Nature Reserve, Nanyan, Henan Province, China. Sequence analyses of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that this novel species was located in the Wickerhamiella clade (Saccharomycetes, Saccharomycetales), with three described species of the genus Candida, namely Candida musiphila, Candida spandovensis and Candida sergipensis, as the most closely related species. The novel species differed from these three species by 9.3-9.8% sequence divergence (35-45 nt substitutions) in the D1/D2 sequences. The species could also be distinguished from the closely related species, C. musiphila, C. spandovensis and C. sergipensis, by growth on vitamin-free medium and at 37 °C. The type strain is Wickerhamiella allomyrinae sp. nov. NYNU 13920(T) ( =CICC 33031(T) =CBS 13167(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  4. Species specific anaesthetics for fish anaesthesia and euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, Gareth D; Owen, Stewart F; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna C

    2017-08-02

    There is a need to ensure that the care and welfare for fish maintained in the laboratory are to the highest standards. This extends to the use of anaesthetics for both scientific study, humane killing and euthanasia at end of life. An anaesthetic should not induce negative behaviours and fish should not seek to avoid the anaesthetic. Surprisingly little information is available to facilitate a humane choice of anaesthetic agent for fish despite over 100 years of use and the millions of fish currently held in thousands of laboratories worldwide. Using a chemotaxic choice chamber we found different species specific behavioural responses among four closely related fish species commonly held in the laboratory, exposed to three widely used anaesthetic agents. As previously found for zebrafish (Danio rerio), the use of MS-222 and benzocaine also appears to induce avoidance behaviours in medaka (Oryzias latipes); but etomidate could provide an alternative choice. Carp (Cyprinus carpio), although closely related to zebrafish showed avoidance behaviours to etomidate, but not benzocaine or MS-222; and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) showed no avoidance to the three agents tested. We were unable to ascertain avoidance responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and suggest different test paradigms are required for that species.

  5. A new species of the Liolaemus alticolor-bibronii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae) from East-central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Laura Estela; Quinteros, AndrÉs sebastiÁn; Stellatelli, Oscar anÍbal; Bellagamba, Patricio Juan; Block, Carolina; Madrid, Enrique Alberto

    2018-02-15

    We describe a new species of Liolaemus of the L. alticolor-bibronii group of the subgenus Liolaemus sensu stricto. We studied meristic, morphometric and qualitative pattern characters. Statistical tests were performed in order to evaluate morphological differences among the candidate species and the most closely geographically distributed species. Molecular analyses of Cyt-b mitochondrial gene were performed in order to estimate the position of the new species in relation to other taxa. We also recorded natural history data such as habitat, behavior, reproductive state, diet, and body temperature. Liolaemus absconditus sp. nov. differs from other species of Liolaemus in presenting a distinct combination of morphological character states of lepidosis and color pattern, being phylogenetically close to Liolaemus tandiliensis, Liolaemus gracilis and Liolaemus saxatilis. The new species is a saxicolous and endemic lizard of the Tandilia Mountain Range System of Buenos Aires Province.

  6. Effect of diet on dental development in four species of catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Wendy

    2003-09-01

    In this study, dental development is described in two pairs of closely related catarrhine primate species that differ in their degree of folivory: 1) Hylobates lar and Symphalangus syndactylus, and 2) Papio hamadryas hamadryas and Semnopithecus entellus. Growth increments in histological thin sections are used to reconstruct the chronology of dental development to determine how dental development is accelerated in the more folivorous species of each pair. Although anterior tooth formation appears to be unrelated to diet, both S. syndactylus and S. entellus initiate the slowest-forming molar earlier than the related less-folivorous species, which supports the hypothesis that dental acceleration is related to food processing. S. syndactylus initiates M2 crown formation at an earlier age than H. lar, and S. entellus initiates and completes M3 at an earlier age than P. h. hamadryas. Similar stages of M3 eruption occur earlier in the more folivorous species; however, the sex of the individual may also play a role in creating such differences. Although the age at M3 emergence is close to that reported for the end of body mass growth in lar gibbons, hamadryas baboons, and Hanuman langurs, M3 emergence may not be coupled to body mass growth in siamangs. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...... National Patient Registry. Cox regression analysis was used to analyse data and all analyses were adjusted for age, gender, social class, cohabitation, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Worries/demands from and conflicts with children were associated with IHD hospitalization in an exposure-dependent manner...

  8. Two new species of the Pterostichus macrogenys species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae discovered in shallow subterranean habitats in northern Honshu, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kôji Sasakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subterranean environments have recently received attention as a habitat for Carabidae beetles, and many new species have been discovered using collection techniques devised for this habitat. We report the discovery of two new species of the macrogenys species group of the Pterostichus subgenus Nialoe Tanaka, 1958, collected by subterranean baited traps in northern Honshu, Japan. Pterostichus shinbodakensis Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from Mt. Shinbodake, Niigata Prefecture, and P. tateishiyamanus Sasakawa & Itô, sp. n. is described from the southeastern foot of Mt. Tateishiyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Comparative male genital morphology shows that among the known species, the two new species are most closely related to P. falcispinus Sasakawa, 2005 and P. chokaisanus Sasakawa, 2009, respectively. In addition, sympatric occurrence of P. shinbodakensis with a smaller, unidentified species of the species group was also confirmed. The implications of these results for future studies of the macrogenys species group, as well as those of Nialoe, are discussed.

  9. Sequencing of whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA of Diospyros species (Ebenaceae) endemic to New Caledonia: many species, little divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara; Paun, Ovidiu; Munzinger, Jérôme; Chase, Mark W; Samuel, Rosabelle

    2016-06-01

    Some plant groups, especially on islands, have been shaped by strong ancestral bottlenecks and rapid, recent radiation of phenotypic characters. Single molecular markers are often not informative enough for phylogenetic reconstruction in such plant groups. Whole plastid genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) are viewed by many researchers as sources of information for phylogenetic reconstruction of groups in which expected levels of divergence in standard markers are low. Here we evaluate the usefulness of these data types to resolve phylogenetic relationships among closely related Diospyros species. Twenty-two closely related Diospyros species from New Caledonia were investigated using whole plastid genomes and nrDNA data from low-coverage next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference on separate plastid and nrDNA and combined matrices. The plastid and nrDNA sequences were, singly and together, unable to provide well supported phylogenetic relationships among the closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species. In the nrDNA, a 6-fold greater percentage of parsimony-informative characters compared with plastid DNA was found, but the total number of informative sites was greater for the much larger plastid DNA genomes. Combining the plastid and nuclear data improved resolution. Plastid results showed a trend towards geographical clustering of accessions rather than following taxonomic species. In plant groups in which multiple plastid markers are not sufficiently informative, an investigation at the level of the entire plastid genome may also not be sufficient for detailed phylogenetic reconstruction. Sequencing of complete plastid genomes and nrDNA repeats seems to clarify some relationships among the New Caledonian Diospyros species, but the higher percentage of parsimony-informative characters in nrDNA compared with plastid DNA did not help to resolve the phylogenetic tree

  10. Western Amazonian Ticapimpla (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae): Four New Species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, with a Key to Species of the Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Edgard Palacio; Gavin R. Broad; Ilari E. Sääksjärvi; Anu Veijalainen

    2010-01-01

    Ticapimpla is a small genus closely related to the New World genera Acrotaphus and Hymenoepimecis. It has been previously reported from Costa Rica and Brazil. In this paper, we describe four new species: T. amazonica from Ecuador and Peru, T. carinata from Colombia and Peru, T. matamatae from Colombia, and T. soinii from Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All have been collected in Western Amazonia, suggesting a South American origin for the genus. A key to the known species of the genus is provided.

  11. Reproductive interference explains persistence of aggression between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Jonathan P; Okamoto, Kenichi W; Anderson, Christopher N; Grether, Gregory F

    2015-04-07

    Interspecific territoriality occurs when individuals of different species fight over space, and may arise spontaneously when populations of closely related territorial species first come into contact. But defence of space is costly, and unless the benefits of excluding heterospecifics exceed the costs, natural selection should favour divergence in competitor recognition until the species no longer interact aggressively. Ordinarily males of different species do not compete for mates, but when males cannot distinguish females of sympatric species, females may effectively become a shared resource. We model how reproductive interference caused by undiscriminating males can prevent interspecific divergence, or even cause convergence, in traits used to recognize competitors. We then test the model in a genus of visually orienting insects and show that, as predicted by the model, differences between species pairs in the level of reproductive interference, which is causally related to species differences in female coloration, are strongly predictive of the current level of interspecific aggression. Interspecific reproductive interference is very common and we discuss how it may account for the persistence of interspecific aggression in many taxonomic groups. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Language Adaptation for Extending Post-Editing Estimates for Closely Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open-source toolkit for predicting human post-editing efforts for closely related languages. At the moment, training resources for the Quality Estimation task are available for very few language directions and domains. Available resources can be expanded on the assumption that MT errors and the amount of post-editing required to correct them are comparable across related languages, even if the feature frequencies differ. In this paper we report a toolkit for achieving language adaptation, which is based on learning new feature representation using transfer learning methods. In particular, we report performance of a method based on Self-Taught Learning which adapts the English-Spanish pair to produce Quality Estimation models for translation from English into Portuguese, Italian and other Romance languages using the publicly available Autodesk dataset.

  13. Differentiation of closely related fungi by electronic nose analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlshøj, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2007-01-01

    the electronic nose potentially responded to, volatile metabolites were collected, by diffusive sampling overnight onto tubes containing Tenax TA, between the 7th and 8th day of Incubation.Volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and the results indicated that mail alcohols...... as well as the noacheese ociated P. expansum have been investigated by electronic nose, GC-MS, and LGMS analysis. The isolates were inoculated on yeast extract sucroseagar in 20-mL headspace flasks and electronicnose analysis was performed daily for a-74period. To assess which volatile metabolites...... by high pressure liquid chromatography, coupled-to a diode array detector and a time of flight mass spectrometer. Several mycotoxins were detected in samples from the specles P.nordicum, P.roqueforti, P.paneum, P.carneum, and P.expansum. Differentiation of closely related mycotoxin producing fungi...

  14. Characterisation of peacock (Pavo cristatus) mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence and its use in differentiation from closely related poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Das, D K; Dhara, A; Swarup, D; Yadav, M P; Gupta, P K

    2007-04-01

    1. Poaching of peacocks, the national bird of India, is illegal. People kill this beautiful pheasant bird for tail feathers and mix the meat with chicken or turkey. Differentiation of the meat of these species is essential in order to address the ambiguity about the origin of the sample. 2. The present study was carried out to investigate the use of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for identification of these species. 3. Peacock mitochondrial 12S rRNA partial gene was amplified using universal primers, cloned and characterised. It was found to be 446 nucleotides long. 4. Sequence analysis revealed 86.8 and 84.1% similarity with reported turkey and chicken sequences, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the peacock is much closer to the turkey than the chicken. 5. PCR-RFLP of 446 bp amplicon using commonly available restriction enzymes AluI and Sau3AI produced a differential pattern for identifying these poultry species unambiguously.

  15. Temperature- and body mass-related variation in cyclic gas exchange characteristics and metabolic rate of seven weevil species: Broader implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, C J; Chown, S L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of temperature on metabolic rate and characteristics of the gas exchange patterns of flightless, sub-Antarctic Ectemnorhinus-group species from Heard and Marion islands was investigated. All of the species showed cyclic gas exchange with no Flutter period, indicating that these species are not characterized by discontinuous gas exchange cycles. Metabolic rate estimates were substantially lower in this study than in a previous one of a subset of the species, demonstrating that open-system respirometry methods provide more representative estimates of standard metabolic rate than do many closed-system methods. We recommend that the latter, and especially constant-pressure methods, either be abandoned for estimates of standard metabolic rate in insects, or have their outputs subject to careful scrutiny, given the wide availability of the former. V(.)CO(2) increase with an increase in temperature (range: 0-15 degrees C) was modulated by an increase in cycle frequency, but typically not by an increase in burst volume. Previous investigations of temperature-related changes in cyclic gas exchange (both cyclic and discontinuous) in several other insect species were therefore substantiated. Interspecific mass-scaling of metabolic rate (ca. 0.466-0.573, excluding and including phylogenetic non-independence, respectively) produced an exponent lower than 0.75 (but not distinguishable from it or from 0.67). The increase of metabolic rate with mass was modulated by an increase in burst volume and not by a change in cycle frequency, in keeping with investigations of species showing discontinuous gas exchange. These findings are discussed in the context of the emerging macrophysiological metabolic theory of ecology.

  16. The Gene Pool Concept Applied to Crop Wild Relatives: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) can provide important resources for the genetic improvement of cultivated species. Because crops are often closely related to many wild species, and because exploration of CWR for useful traits can take many years and substantial resources, the categorization of CWR based o...

  17. Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., an uniseriate black Aspergillus species isolated from grapes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Varga, János; Susca, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    uvarum sp. nov. isolates produced secalonic acid, common to other Aspergillus japonicus-related taxa, and geodin, erdin and dihydrogeodin, which are not produced by any other black aspergilli. None of the isolates were found to produce ochratoxin A. The novel species is most closely related to two......A novel species, Aspergillus uvarum sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on internal transcribed spacers (ITS), beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by AFLP analysis and by extrolite profiles. Aspergillus...

  18. Enhanced degradation of haloacid by heterologous expression in related Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xianbin; Deng, Liyu; Kong, Ka Fai; Tsang, Jimmy S H

    2013-10-01

    Haloacids are environmental pollutant and can be transformed to non-toxic alkanoic acids by microbial dehalogenase. Bacterium Burkholderia species MBA4 was enriched from soil for its ability to bioremediate haloacids such as mono-chloroacetate (MCA), mono-bromoacetate (MBA), 2-mono-chloropropionate, and 2-mono-bromopropionate. MBA4 produces an inducible dehalogenase Deh4a that catalyzes the dehalogenation process. The growth of MBA4 on haloacid also relies on the presence of a haloacid-uptake system. Similar dehalogenase genes can be found in the genome of many related species. However, wildtype Burkholderia caribensis MWAP64, Burkholderia phymatum STM815, and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 were not able to grow on MCA. When a plasmid containing the regulatory and structural gene of Deh4a was transformed to these species, they were able to grow on haloacid. The specific enzyme activities in these recombinants ranges from 2- to 30-fold that of MBA4 in similar condition. Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR showed that the relative transcript levels in these recombinant strains ranges from 9 to over 1,600 times that of MBA4 in similar condition. A recombinant has produced nearly five times of dehalogenase that MBA4 could ever achieve. While the expressions of Deh4a were more relaxed in these phylogenetically related species, an MCA-uptake activity was found to be inducible. These metabolically engineered strains are better degraders than the haloacid-enriched MBA4. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chemical similarity and local community assembly in the species rich tropical genus Piper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Diego; Jaramillo, M Alejandra; Marquis, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Community ecologists have strived to find mechanisms that mediate the assembly of natural communities. Recent evidence suggests that natural enemies could play an important role in the assembly of hyper-diverse tropical plant systems. Classic ecological theory predicts that in order for coexistence to occur, species differences must be maximized across biologically important niche dimensions. For plant-herbivore interactions, it has been recently suggested that, within a particular community, plant species that maximize the difference in chemical defense profiles compared to neighboring taxa will have a relative competitive advantage. Here we tested the hypothesis that plant chemical diversity can affect local community composition in the hyper-diverse genus Piper at a lowland wet forest location in Costa Rica. We first characterized the chemical composition of 27 of the most locally abundant species of Piper. We then tested whether species with different chemical compositions were more likely to coexist. Finally, we assessed the degree to which Piper phylogenetic relationships are related to differences in secondary chemical composition and community assembly. We found that, on average, co-occurring species were more likely to differ in chemical composition than expected by chance. Contrary to expectations, there was no phylogenetic signal for overall secondary chemical composition. In addition we found that species in local communities were, on average, more phylogenetically closely related than expected by chance, suggesting that functional traits other than those measured here also influence local assembly. We propose that selection by herbivores for divergent chemistries between closely related species facilitates the coexistence of a high diversity of congeneric taxa via apparent competition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Aspergillus fumigatus and Related Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugui, Janyce A.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.; Juvvadi, Praveen R.; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Steinbach, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. Among the pathogenic aspergilli, Aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section Fumigati that morphologically resemble A. fumigatus. Patients that are at risk for acquiring aspergillosis are those with an altered immune system. Early diagnosis, species identification, and adequate antifungal therapy are key elements for treatment of the disease, especially in cases of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis that often advance very rapidly. Incorporating knowledge of the basic biology of Aspergillus species to that of the diseases that they cause is fundamental for further progress in the field. PMID:25377144

  1. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well...... as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance...

  2. Dorstenia triseriata (Moraceae a new and endangered species from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Machado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Moraceae is described, illustrated and compared to its close morphological relatives. Dorstenia triseriata presents similarities with Dorstenia turnerifolia but distinguished by size of peduncle, diameter of receptacle, number of bract rows, color of marginal bracts, and by an indistinct fringe on inflorescence. A conservation assessment based on IUCN criteria determines the new species to be vulnerable (VU.

  3. The bladed Bangiales (Rhodophyta) of the South Eastern Pacific: Molecular species delimitation reveals extensive diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, Marie-Laure; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto; Ramírez, María Eliana; Macaya, Erasmo C; Contador, Cristian Bulboa; Woods, Helen; Wyatt, Christopher; Brodie, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    A molecular taxonomic study of the bladed Bangiales of the South Eastern Pacific (coast of Chile) was undertaken based on sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and chloroplast rbcL for 193 specimens collected from Arica (18°S) in the north to South Patagonia (53°S) in the south. The results revealed for the first time that four genera, Porphyra, Pyropia, Fuscifolium and Wildemania were present in the region. Species delimitation was determined based on a combination of a General Mixed Yule Coalescence model (GMYC) and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) coupled with detection of monophyly in tree reconstruction. The overall incongruence between the species delimitation methods within each gene was 29%. The GMYC method led to over-splitting groups, whereas the ABGD method had a tendency to lump groups. Taking a conservative approach to the number of putative species, at least 18 were recognized and, with the exception of the recently described Pyropia orbicularis, all were new to the Chilean flora. Porphyra and Pyropia were the most diverse genera with eight 'species' each, whereas only a 'single' species each was found for Fuscifolium and Wildemania. There was also evidence of recently diverging groups: Wildemania sp. was distinct but very closely related to W. amplissima from the Northern Hemisphere and raises questions in relation to such disjunct distributions. Pyropia orbicularis was very closely related to two other species, making species delimitation very difficult but provides evidence of an incipient speciation. The difference between the 'species' discovered and those previously reported for the region is discussed in relation to the difficulty of distinguishing species based on morphological identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  5. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  6. A new species of Bachia (Teiidae, Sauria) from Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, with notes on the zoogeography of the genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    Bachia guianensis nov. spec, is described from Guri, Estado Bolivar, Venezuela, on the basis of a single specimen. The species is closely related to Bachia heteropa (Lichtenstein), but differs from this species in lacking the interparietal scale.

  7. Wide prevalence of hybridization in two sympatric grasshopper species may be shaped by their relative abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Katja; Hau, Yvonne; Weyer, Jessica; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-09-16

    Hybridization between species is of conservation concern as it might threaten the genetic integrity of species. Anthropogenic factors can alter hybridization dynamics by introducing new potentially hybridizing species or by diminishing barriers to hybridization. This may even affect sympatric species pairs through environmental change, which so far has received little attention. We studied hybridization prevalence and the underlying behavioral mechanisms in two sympatric grasshopper species, a rare specialist (Chorthippus montanus) and a common generalist (Chorthippus parallelus). We conducted a mate choice experiment with constant intraspecific density and varying heterospecific density, i.e. varying relative frequency of both species. Mate choice was frequency-dependent in both species with a higher risk of cross-mating with increasing heterospecific frequency, while conspecific mating increased linearly with increasing conspecific density. This illustrates that reproductive barriers could be altered by environmental change, if the relative frequency of species pairs is affected. Moreover, we performed a microsatellite analysis to detect hybridization in twelve syntopic populations (and four allotopic populations). Hybrids were detected in nearly all syntopic populations with hybridization rates reaching up to 8.9 %. Genetic diversity increased for both species when hybrids were included in the data set, but only in the common species a positive correlation between hybridization rate and genetic diversity was detected. Our study illustrates that the relative frequency of the two species strongly determines the effectiveness of reproductive barriers and that even the more choosy species (Ch. montanus) may face a higher risk of hybridization if population size decreases and its relative frequency becomes low compared to its sister species. The asymmetric mate preferences of both species may lead to quasi-unidirectional gene flow caused by unidirectional

  8. Phytophthora megakarya and Phytophthora palmivora, Closely Related Causal Agents of Cacao Black Pod Rot, Underwent Increases in Genome Sizes and Gene Numbers by Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Kronmiller, Brent A.; Shen, Danyu; Strem, Mary D.; Amoako-Attah, Ishmael; Akrofi, Andrew Yaw; Begoude, B.A. Didier; ten Hoopen, G. Martijn; Coulibaly, Klotioloma; Kebe, Boubacar Ismaël; Melnick, Rachel L.; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Tyler, Brett M.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing cacao black pod rot. Although Ppal is a cosmopolitan pathogen, cacao is the only known host of economic importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. We sequenced and compared the Pmeg and Ppal genomes and identified virulence-related putative gene models (PGeneM) that may be responsible for their differences in host specificities and virulence. Pmeg and Ppal have estimated genome sizes of 126.88 and 151.23 Mb and PGeneM numbers of 42,036 and 44,327, respectively. The evolutionary histories of Pmeg and Ppal appear quite different. Postspeciation, Ppal underwent whole-genome duplication whereas Pmeg has undergone selective increases in PGeneM numbers, likely through accelerated transposable element-driven duplications. Many PGeneMs in both species failed to match transcripts and may represent pseudogenes or cryptic genetic reservoirs. Pmeg appears to have amplified specific gene families, some of which are virulence-related. Analysis of mycelium, zoospore, and in planta transcriptome expression profiles using neural network self-organizing map analysis generated 24 multivariate and nonlinear self-organizing map classes. Many members of the RxLR, necrosis-inducing phytophthora protein, and pectinase genes families were specifically induced in planta. Pmeg displays a diverse virulence-related gene complement similar in size to and potentially of greater diversity than Ppal but it remains likely that the specific functions of the genes determine each species’ unique characteristics as pathogens. PMID:28186564

  9. The susceptibility of Asian, European and North American Fraxinus species to the ash dieback pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus reflects their phylogenetic history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; McKinney, Lea Vig; Hietala, Ari M.

    2017-01-01

    susceptibility where closely related Asian, European and North American species in section Fraxinus had relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA in the leaves and supported high production of apothecia. Leaves from some North American species also contained relatively high levels of H. fraxineus DNA, supported...... that there is species-specific variation in disease susceptibility among European and North American Fraxinus species, but a wider comparison at the genus level has been missing so far. We assessed disease symptoms and pathogen apothecium development in 17 Fraxinus species from Asia, Europe and North America exposed...

  10. Mayfly and fish species identification and sex determination in bleak (Alburnus alburnus) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasz, G; Takács, P; Boda, P; Varbiro, G; Pirger, Z

    2017-12-01

    Besides food quality control of fish or cephalopods, the novel mass spectrometry (MS) approaches could be effective and beneficial methods for the investigation of biodiversity in ecological research. Our aims were to verify the applicability of MALDI-TOF MS in the rapid identification of closely related species, and to further develop it for sex determination in phenotypically similar fish focusing on the low mass range. For MALDI-TOF MS spectra analysis, ClinProTools software was applied, but our observed classification was also confirmed by Self Organizing Map. For verifying the wide applicability of the method, brains from invertebrate and vertebrate species were used in order to detect the species related markers from two mayflies and eight fish as well as sex-related markers within bleak. Seven Ephemera larvae and sixty-one fish species related markers were observed and nineteen sex-related markers were identified in bleak. Similar patterns were observed between the individuals within one species. In contrast, there were markedly diverse patterns between the different species and sexes visualized by SOMs. Two different Ephemera species and male or female fish were identified with 100% accuracy. The various fish species were classified into 8 species with a high level of accuracy (96.2%). Based on MS data, dendrogram was generated from different fish species by using ClinProTools software. This MS-based dendrogram shows relatively high correspondence with the phylogenetic relationships of both the studied species and orders. In summary, MALDI-TOF MS provides a cheap, reliable, sensitive and fast identification tool for researchers in the case of closely related species using mass spectra acquired in a low mass range to define specific molecular profiles. Moreover, we presented evidence for the first time for determination of sex within one fish species by using this method. We conclude that it is a powerful tool that can revolutionize ecological and

  11. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences.

  12. Wild Allium species (Alliaceae used in folk medicine of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbonova Parvina A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto available sources from literature mentioned several wild growing Allium species as "edible" or "medicinally used" but without any further specification. Methods New data were gained during recent research missions: Allium plants were collected and shown to the local population which was asked for names and usage of these plants. Results Information was collected about current medical applications of sixteen wild species, nine of which belong to different sections of Allium subgenus Melanocrommyum. These plants are used against headache, cold, and stomach problems, and are mostly applied fresh or after boiling. Conclusion Close taxonomic relatives of the common onion were used similar to cultivated onion species, but medical use like garlic was mostly reported for species taxonomically not related to garlic.

  13. Description of a new species of the genus Bitomus Szepligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidaefrom India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samiuddin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bitomus Szepligeti is described and illustrated from India. The taxonomic validity of new species has been supported by description of detail morphology, four illustrations and detail discussion. Its distinguishing characters from other closely related species are also discussed. These are: clypeus 1.3x as wide as high, mesonotum 0.8x as wide as long, propodeum with a short mid-longitudinal carina anteriorly, vain r arising from basal third of stigma.

  14. A pospiviroid from symptomless portulaca plants closely related to iresine viroid 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Roenhorst, J W; Hooftman, M; Meekes, E T M; Flores, R; Serra, P

    2015-07-02

    In symptomless plants of portulaca a potential new pospiviroid was characterized. Analysis by both double and return PAGE showed the presence of a circular RNA. RT-PCR and sequencing revealed a genome of 351 nt with properties characteristic of members of the genus Pospiviroid and with highest sequence identity (circa 80%) with iresine viroid 1 (IrVd-1). The circular RNA from portulaca was shown to replicate independently in its original host, thus showing that it is indeed a viroid. Based on its molecular characteristics, it should be considered a new species. However, since no biological differences have yet been found with its closest relative IrVd-1, the viroid from portulaca does not fulfil all criteria for species demarcation of the ICTV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological Specialization of Two Photobiont-Specific Maritime Cyanolichen Species of the Genus Lichina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Ortiz-Álvarez

    Full Text Available All fungi in the class Lichinomycetes are lichen-forming and exclusively associate with cyanobacteria. Two closely related maritime species of the genus Lichina (L. confinis and L. pygmaea show similar distribution ranges in the Northeast Atlantic, commonly co-occurring at the same rocky shores but occupying different littoral zones. By means of 16S rRNA and phycocyanin operon markers we studied a the phylogenetic relationships of cyanobionts associated with these species, b the match of divergence times between both symbionts, and c whether Lichina species differ in photobiont association and in how geography and ecology affect selectivity. The cyanobionts studied are closely related to both marine and freshwater strains of the genus Rivularia. We found evidence of a high specificity to particular cyanobiont lineages in both species: Lichina pygmaea and L. confinis incorporate specific lineages of Rivularia that do not overlap at the haplotype nor the OTU levels. Dating divergences of the fungal and cyanobacterial partners revealed an asynchronous origin of both lineages. Within each fungal species, selectivity varied across the studied area, influenced by environmental conditions (both atmospheric and marine, although patterns were highly correlated between both lichen taxa. Ecological speciation due to the differential association of photobionts to each littoral zone is suspected to have occurred in marine Lichina.

  16. Metabolomic analysis of three Mollicute species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Vanyushkina

    Full Text Available We present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class Mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, Spiroplasma melliferum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii. To understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. The results of metabolome, proteome and genome profiling suggest a fundamental difference in the adaptation of the three closely related Mollicute species to stress conditions. As the transaldolase is not annotated in Mollicutes, we propose variants of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzed by annotated enzymes for three species. For metabolite detection we employed high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We used liquid chromatography method - hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica column - as it effectively separates highly polar cellular metabolites prior to their detection by mass spectrometer.

  17. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain.

  18. Alpha proteobacteria of genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): Epidemiology and characteristics of Anaplasma species related to veterinary and public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The Anaplasma species are important globally distributed tick-transmitted bacteria of veterinary and public health importance. These pathogens, cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animal species including humans. Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor and Amblyomma genera of ticks are the important vectors of Anaplasma. Acute anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon blood smear examination followed by antibodies and nucleic acid detection. All age groups are susceptible but prevalence increases with age. Serological cross-reactivity is one of the important issues among Anaplasma species. They co-exist and concurrent infections occur in animals and ticks in same geographic area. These are closely related bacteria and share various common attributes which should be considered while developing vaccines and diagnostic assays. Movement of susceptible animals from non-endemic to endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine/ovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Tetracyclines are currently available drugs for clearance of infection and treatment in humans and animals. Worldwide vaccine is not yet available. Identification, elimination of reservoirs, vector control (chemical and biological), endemic stability, habitat modification, rearing of tick resistant breeds, chemotherapy and tick vaccination are major control measures of animal anaplasmosis. Identification of reservoirs and minimizing the high-risk tick exposure activities are important control strategies for human granulocytic anaplasmosis.

  19. Elucidation of Operon Structures across Closely Related Bacterial Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guojun

    2014-01-01

    About half of the protein-coding genes in prokaryotic genomes are organized into operons to facilitate co-regulation during transcription. With the evolution of genomes, operon structures are undergoing changes which could coordinate diverse gene expression patterns in response to various stimuli during the life cycle of a bacterial cell. Here we developed a graph-based model to elucidate the diversity of operon structures across a set of closely related bacterial genomes. In the constructed graph, each node represents one orthologous gene group (OGG) and a pair of nodes will be connected if any two genes, from the corresponding two OGGs respectively, are located in the same operon as immediate neighbors in any of the considered genomes. Through identifying the connected components in the above graph, we found that genes in a connected component are likely to be functionally related and these identified components tend to form treelike topology, such as paths and stars, corresponding to different biological mechanisms in transcriptional regulation as follows. Specifically, (i) a path-structure component integrates genes encoding a protein complex, such as ribosome; and (ii) a star-structure component not only groups related genes together, but also reflects the key functional roles of the central node of this component, such as the ABC transporter with a transporter permease and substrate-binding proteins surrounding it. Most interestingly, the genes from organisms with highly diverse living environments, i.e., biomass degraders and animal pathogens of clostridia in our study, can be clearly classified into different topological groups on some connected components. PMID:24959722

  20. A measure of the denseness of a phylogenetic network. [by sequenced proteins from extant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.

    1978-01-01

    An objective measure of phylogenetic denseness is developed to examine various phylogenetic criteria: alpha- and beta-hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochrome c, and the parvalbumin family. Attention is given to the number of nucleotide replacements separating homologous sequences, and to the topology of the network (in other words, to the qualitative nature of the network as defined by how closely the studied species are related). Applications include quantitative comparisons of species origin, relation, and rates of evolution.

  1. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg M Brunnschweiler

    Full Text Available Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive

  2. Long-term changes in species composition and relative abundances of sharks at a provisioning site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M; Abrantes, Kátya G; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-species shark feeding site in Fiji. Using direct observation sampling methods, eight species of sharks (bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, tawny nurse shark Nebrius ferrugineus, silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus, sicklefin lemon shark Negaprion acutidens, and tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier) displayed inter-annual site fidelity between 2003 and 2012. Encounter rates and/or relative abundances of some species changed over time, overall resulting in more individuals (mostly C. leucas) of fewer species being encountered on average on shark feeding dives at the end of the study period. Differences in shark community composition between the years 2004-2006 and 2007-2012 were evident, mostly because N. ferrugineus, C. albimarginatus and N. acutidens were much more abundant in 2004-2006 and very rare in the period of 2007-2012. Two explanations are offered for the observed changes in relative abundances over time, namely inter-specific interactions and operator-specific feeding protocols. Both, possibly in combination, are suggested to be important determinants of species composition and encounter rates, and relative abundances at this shark provisioning site in Fiji. This study, which includes the most species from a spatially confined shark provisioning site to date, suggests that long-term provisioning may result in competitive exclusion among shark

  3. Traits related to species persistence and dispersal explain changes in plant communities subjected to habitat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto

    2012-01-01

    Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal in dete...... rural landscapes in NW Europe, mitigating the spatial isolation of remaining grasslands should be accompanied by restoration measures aimed at improving habitat quality for low competitors, abiotically dispersed and perennial, clonal species.......Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...

  4. A new species of the genus Pontogeneia (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Matsukawa-ura Inlet, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirayama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A new species of the genus Pontogeneia taken from a shallow inlet of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, is described and figured. The new species is closely related to P. intermedia from Japan Sea and California but is distinguished from it by a slightly dilated propod of gnathopod 1, the presence of

  5. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered fish, the slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa and cross-species amplification across five related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Moon, S J; Han, S H; Kim, K Y; Bang, I C

    2016-09-02

    The slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Gobioninae) is an endangered freshwater fish species endemic to Korea. The current strategies for its conservation involve the study of population genetic characters and identification of management units. These strategies require suitable molecular markers to study genetic diversity and genetic structure. Here, we developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for P. tenuicorpa for the first time by applying an enrichment method from a size-selected genomic library. The developed microsatellite markers produced a total of 101 alleles (average 11.2). The observed and expected heterozygosities averaged 0.805 and 0.835, respectively. Among the nine identified markers, five markers showed successful amplification across five related Korean Gobioninae species. Thus, the microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful to establish conservation strategies for both P. tenuicorpa and other related species.

  6. Catheter-related bacteraemia and infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C C; Wang, J Y; Lin, S H; Tan, C K; Wang, C Y; Liao, C H; Chou, C H; Huang, Y T; Lin, H I; Hsueh, P R

    2011-02-01

    We describe five patients with positive blood culture for Kocuria species. Three patients had catheter-related bacteraemia and one had infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria kristinae, and one had a K. marina isolate, which was considered to be a contaminant. Identification of the isolates was further confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In conclusion, Kocuria species are an unusual cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. Accurate identification with molecular methods is imperative for the diagnosis of these unusual pathogens. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Comparative leaf morpho-anatomical studies of two South American species of Cardiospermum (Sapindaceae) with special reference to adaxial domatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solís, S.M.; Ferrucci, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical studies of leaves of two closely related Cardiospermum species from South America, C. procumbens and C. pterocarpum, were assayed. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, non-glandular and glandular trichomes, secretory cells present in the epidermis

  8. Skull ontogeny and modularity in two species of Lagenorhynchus: Morphological and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Daniela L; Viglino, Mariana; Flores, David A; Cappozzo, Humberto L

    2017-02-01

    Comparisons of skull shape between closely related species can provide information on the role that phylogeny and function play in cranial evolution. We used 3D-anatomical landmarks in order to study the skull ontogeny of two closely related species, Lagenorhynchus obscurus and Lagenorhynchus australis, with a total sample of 52 skulls. We found shared trends between species, such as the relative compression of the neurocranium and the enlargement of the rostrum during ontogeny. However, these are common mammalian features, associated with prenatal brain development and sensory capsules. Moreover, we found a posterior displacement of the external nares and infraorbital foramina, and a strong development of the rostrum in an anteroposterior direction. Such trends are associated with the process of telescoping and have been observed in postnatal ontogeny of other odontocetes, suggesting a constraint in the pattern. Interspecific differences related to the deepness of facial region, robustness of the feeding apparatus and rostrum orientation may be related with the specific lifestyles of L. obscurus and L. australis. We also tested the presence of three different modules in the skull (basicranium, neurocranium, rostrum), all of which presented strong integration. Only the rostrum showed a different ontogenetic trajectory between species. Even though we detected directional asymmetry, changes in this feature along ontogeny were not detectable. Because asymmetry may be related to echolocation, our results suggest a functional importance of directional asymmetry from the beginning of postnatal life. J. Morphol. 278:203-214, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov., a New Species Related to Burkholderia thailandensis and the Fifth Member of the Burkholderia pseudomallei Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuanyok, Apichai; Mayo, Mark; Scholz, Holger; Hall, Carina M; Allender, Christopher J; Kaestli, Mirjam; Ginther, Jennifer; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Bollig, Molly C; Stone, Joshua K; Settles, Erik W; Busch, Joseph D; Sidak-Loftis, Lindsay; Sahl, Jason W; Thomas, Astrid; Kreutzer, Lisa; Georgi, Enrico; Gee, Jay E; Bowen, Richard A; Ladner, Jason T; Lovett, Sean; Koroleva, Galina; Palacios, Gustavo; Wagner, David M; Currie, Bart J; Keim, Paul

    2017-03-01

    During routine screening for Burkholderia pseudomallei from water wells in northern Australia in areas where it is endemic, Gram-negative bacteria (strains MSMB43 T , MSMB121, and MSMB122) with a similar morphology and biochemical pattern to B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis were coisolated with B. pseudomallei on Ashdown's selective agar. To determine the exact taxonomic position of these strains and to distinguish them from B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis , they were subjected to a series of phenotypic and molecular analyses. Biochemical and fatty acid methyl ester analysis was unable to distinguish B. humptydooensis sp. nov. from closely related species. With matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight analysis, all isolates grouped together in a cluster separate from other Burkholderia spp. 16S rRNA and recA sequence analyses demonstrated phylogenetic placement for B. humptydooensis sp. nov. in a novel clade within the B. pseudomallei group. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of the three isolates in comparison with MLST data from 3,340 B. pseudomallei strains and related taxa revealed a new sequence type (ST318). Genome-to-genome distance calculations and the average nucleotide identity of all isolates to both B. thailandensis and B. pseudomallei , based on whole-genome sequences, also confirmed B. humptydooensis sp. nov. as a novel Burkholderia species within the B. pseudomallei complex. Molecular analyses clearly demonstrated that strains MSMB43 T , MSMB121, and MSMB122 belong to a novel Burkholderia species for which the name Burkholderia humptydooensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain MSMB43 T (American Type Culture Collection BAA-2767; Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Microorganisms LMG 29471; DDBJ accession numbers CP013380 to CP013382). IMPORTANCE Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. The genus Burkholderia consists of a diverse group of species, with

  10. Chromosomal evolution of the Canidae. I. Species with high diploid numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R K; Nash, W G; O'Brien, S J

    1987-01-01

    The Giemsa banding patterns of seven canid species, including the grey wolf (Canis lupus), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), the grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), and the fennec (Fennecus zerda), are presented and compared. Relative to other members of Canidae, these species have high diploid complements (2n greater than 64) consisting of largely acrocentric chromosomes. They show a considerable degree of chromosome homoeology, but relative to the grey wolf, each species is either missing chromosomes or has unique chromosomal additions and rearrangements. Differences in chromosome morphology among the seven species were used to reconstruct their phylogenetic history. The results suggest that the South American canids are closely related to each other and are derived from a wolf-like progenitor. The fennec and the bat-eared fox seem to be recent derivatives of a lineage that branched early from the wolf-like canids and which also includes the grey fox.

  11. The Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of B. cereus and B.thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, MichaelR.; Smriti, B.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic-Bussod, M.; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti,Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman,Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee P.; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, DonnaL.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Payl; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2005-08-18

    The sequencing and analysis of two close relatives of Bacillus anthracis are reported. AFLP analysis of over 300 isolates of B.cereus, B. thuringiensis and B. anthracis identified two isolates as being very closely related to B. anthracis. One, a B. cereus, BcE33L, was isolated from a zebra carcass in Nambia; the second, a B. thuringiensis, 97-27, was isolated from a necrotic human wound. The B. cereus appears to be the closest anthracis relative sequenced to date. A core genome of over 3,900 genes was compiled for the Bacillus cereus group, including Banthracis. Comparative analysis of these two genomes with other members of the B. cereus group provides insight into the evolutionary relationships among these organisms. Evidence is presented that differential regulation modulates virulence, rather than simple acquisition of virulence factors. These genome sequences provide insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to the host range and virulence of this group of organisms.

  12. Use of DNA barcodes to identify invasive armyworm Spodoptera species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component for sustaining adequate food production is the protection of local agriculture from invasive pest insects. Essential to this goal is the ability to accurately distinguish foreign from closely related domestic species, a process that has traditionally required identification of d...

  13. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  14. Transcriptional responses of Treponema denticola to other oral bacterial species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sarkar

    Full Text Available The classic organization by Socransky and coworkers categorized the oral bacteria of the subgingival plaque into different complexes. Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia are grouped into the red complex that is highly correlated with periodontal disease. Socransky's work closely associates red with orange complex species such as Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia but not with members of the other complexes. While the relationship between species contained by these complexes is in part supported by their ability to physically attach to each other, the physiological consequences of these interactions and associations are less clear. In this study, we employed T. denticola as a model organism to analyze contact-dependent responses to interactions with species belonging to the same complex (P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, the closely associated orange complex (using F. nucleatum and P. intermedia as representatives and the unconnected yellow complex (using Streptococcus sanguinis and S. gordonii as representatives. RNA was extracted from T. denticola alone as well as after pairwise co-incubation for 5 hrs with representatives of the different complexes, and the respective gene expression profiles were determined using microarrays. Numerous genes related to motility, metabolism, transport, outer membrane and hypothetical proteins were differentially regulated in T. denticola in the presence of the tested partner species. Further analysis revealed a significant overlap in the affected genes and we identified a general response to the presence of other species, those specific to two of the three complexes as well as individual complexes. Most interestingly, many predicted major antigens (e.g. flagella, Msp, CTLP were suppressed in responses that included red complex species indicating that the presence of the most closely associated species induces immune-evasive strategies. In summary, the data

  15. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  16. Relative brain size and morphology of some South African bats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-03

    Apr 3, 1987 ... closely related to basal metabolic rate than ecological factors (Hofman 1983 .... CBS values for the two rhinolophid species, and a single value for the ..... Relative brain size and demographic strategies in didelphid marsupials.

  17. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...

  18. Capsular Polysaccharide Expression in Commensal Streptococcus Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Sørensen, Uffe B; Yao, Kaihu; Yang, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of a capsular polysaccharide is considered a hallmark of most invasive species of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, in which the capsule is among the principal virulence factors and is the basis for successful vaccines. Consequently, it was previously assumed that capsule....... pneumoniae evolved by import of cps fragments from commensal Streptococcus species, resulting in a mosaic of genes of different origins. The demonstrated antigenic identity of at least eight of the numerous capsular polysaccharide structures expressed by commensal streptococci with recognized serotypes of S...... of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is the basis for successful vaccines against infections caused by this important pathogen. Contrasting with previous assumptions, this study showed that expression of capsular polysaccharides by the same genetic mechanisms is a general property of closely related species...

  19. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  20. Thermal Tolerance in Widespread and Tropical Drosophila Species: Does Phenotypic Plasticity Increase with Latitude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Mitchell, Katherin A

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of insects can often be related to variation in their response to thermal extremes, which in turn may reflect differences in plastic responses or innate variation in resistance. Species with widespread distributions are expected to have evolved higher levels of plasticity than....... The results do not support the hypothesis that widely distributed species have larger phenotypic plasticity for thermal tolerance limits, and Drosophila species distributions are therefore more closely linked to differences in innate thermal tolerance limits....

  1. DNA barcodes and molecular diagnostics to distinguish an introduced and native Laricobius (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) species in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.A. Davis; N.P. Havill; Z.N. Adelman; A. Caccone; L.T. Kok; S.M. Salom

    2011-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics based on DNA barcodes can be powerful identification tools in the absence of distinctive morphological characters for distinguishing between closely related species. A specific example is distinguishing the endemic species Laricobius rubidus from Laricobius nigrinus, a biological control agent of hemlock...

  2. Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae with descriptions of three new species from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Aguilar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

  3. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  4. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  5. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  6. Unimodal models to relate species to environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their

  7. Identification of the same polyomavirus species in different African horseshoe bat species is indicative of short-range host-switching events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Sasaki, Michihito; Dool, Serena E; Ito, Kimihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Teeling, Emma C; Hall, William W; Orba, Yasuko; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2017-10-06

    Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are considered to be highly host-specific in different mammalian species, with no well-supported evidence for host-switching events. We examined the species diversity and host specificity of PyVs in horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus spp.), a broadly distributed and highly speciose mammalian genus. We annotated six PyV genomes, comprising four new PyV species, based on pairwise identity within the large T antigen (LTAg) coding region. Phylogenetic comparisons revealed two instances of highly related PyV species, one in each of the Alphapolyomavirus and Betapolyomavirus genera, present in different horseshoe bat host species (Rhinolophus blasii and R. simulator), suggestive of short-range host-switching events. The two pairs of Rhinolophus PyVs in different horseshoe bat host species were 99.9 and 88.8 % identical with each other over their respective LTAg coding sequences and thus constitute the same virus species. To corroborate the species identification of the bat hosts, we analysed mitochondrial cytb and a large nuclear intron dataset derived from six independent and neutrally evolving loci for bat taxa of interest. Bayesian estimates of the ages of the most recent common ancestors suggested that the near-identical and more distantly related PyV species diverged approximately 9.1E4 (5E3-2.8E5) and 9.9E6 (4E6-18E6) years before the present, respectively, in contrast to the divergence times of the bat host species: 12.4E6 (10.4E6-15.4E6). Our findings provide evidence that short-range host-switching of PyVs is possible in horseshoe bats, suggesting that PyV transmission between closely related mammalian species can occur.

  8. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia I.; Berumen, Michael L.; Arrigoni, Roberto; Waheed, Zarinah; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Caragnano, Annalisa; Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. © Tullia I. Terraneo et al.

  9. Pachyseris inattesa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia): A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia I.

    2014-08-13

    A new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. n., is described from the Red Sea. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P. inattesa sp. n. has micro-morphological characters typical of the genus Pachyseris. This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae. A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P. inattesa sp. n., the genus type species P. rugosa, and P. speciosa, all present in the Red Sea, was performed using the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between COI and 16S-rRNA. The results confirm that P. inattesa sp. n. is a monophyletic lineage closely related to the other Pachyseris species examined. © Tullia I. Terraneo et al.

  10. Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community ... variables on bird species diversity and richness of respective foraging guilds, and ... of the species assessed: (1) increasing closed cover due to woody plant density, ...

  11. New chloroplast microsatellite markers suitable for assessing genetic diversity of Lolium perenne and other related grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Kerstin; Hodkinson, Trevor R; Barth, Susanne

    2012-11-01

    their ability to monitor genetic diversity within breeding pools, to trace maternal inheritance and to distinguish closely related species.

  12. Two new species of Thyronectria from Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, Julia; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Blanco, María N; Moreno, Gabriel; Olariaga, Ibai; Tello, Salvador; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Thyronectria growing in Mediterranean vegetation are described from southern Spain; they are T. giennensis from Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia and T. pistaciae from Pistacia lentiscus. Both species are characterized by morphology of sexual and asexual morphs and by DNA data. They have olivaceous to green-brown muriform ascospores and are closely related to T. asturiensis and T. roseovirens, as determined by multigene phylogenetic analyses of a matrix containing six loci (ITS and 28S regions of nuc rDNA, ACT1, RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and TUB2 genes). We also report that Cucurbitaria bicolor is a synonym of Thyronectria rhodochlora, the type species of Thyronectria. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slik, J. W. Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Alves, Luciana F.; Ashton, Peter; Balvanera, Patricia; Bastian, Meredith L.; Bellingham, Peter J.; van den Berg, Eduardo; Bernacci, Luis; da Conceição Bispo, Polyanna; Blanc, Lilian; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Boeckx, Pascal; Bongers, Frans; Boyle, Brad; Bradford, Matt; Brearley, Francis Q.; Breuer-Ndoundou Hockemba, Mireille; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Calderado Leal Matos, Darley; Castillo-Santiago, Miguel; Catharino, Eduardo L. M.; Chai, Shauna-Lee; Chen, Yukai; Colwell, Robert K.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Clark, Connie; Clark, David B.; Clark, Deborah A.; Culmsee, Heike; Damas, Kipiro; Dattaraja, Handanakere S.; Dauby, Gilles; Davidar, Priya; DeWalt, Saara J.; Doucet, Jean-Louis; Duque, Alvaro; Durigan, Giselda; Eichhorn, Karl A. O.; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Eler, Eduardo; Ewango, Corneille; Farwig, Nina; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Ferreira, Leandro; Field, Richard; de Oliveira Filho, Ary T.; Fletcher, Christine; Forshed, Olle; Franco, Geraldo; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Gillespie, Thomas; Gillet, Jean-François; Amarnath, Giriraj; Griffith, Daniel M.; Grogan, James; Gunatilleke, Nimal; Harris, David; Harrison, Rhett; Hector, Andy; Homeier, Jürgen; Imai, Nobuo; Itoh, Akira; Jansen, Patrick A.; Joly, Carlos A.; de Jong, Bernardus H. J.; Kartawinata, Kuswata; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Kelly, Daniel L.; Kenfack, David; Kessler, Michael; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Kooyman, Robert; Larney, Eileen; Laumonier, Yves; Laurance, Susan; Laurance, William F.; Lawes, Michael J.; do Amaral, Ieda Leao; Letcher, Susan G.; Lindsell, Jeremy; Lu, Xinghui; Mansor, Asyraf; Marjokorpi, Antti; Martin, Emanuel H.; Meilby, Henrik; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Metcalfe, Daniel J.; Medjibe, Vincent P.; Metzger, Jean Paul; Millet, Jerome; Mohandass, D.; Montero, Juan C.; de Morisson Valeriano, Márcio; Mugerwa, Badru; Nagamasu, Hidetoshi; Nilus, Reuben; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Onrizal; Page, Navendu; Parolin, Pia; Parren, Marc; Parthasarathy, Narayanaswamy; Paudel, Ekananda; Permana, Andrea; Piedade, Maria T. F.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Poorter, Lourens; Poulsen, Axel D.; Poulsen, John; Powers, Jennifer; Prasad, Rama C.; Puyravaud, Jean-Philippe; Razafimahaimodison, Jean-Claude; Reitsma, Jan; dos Santos, João Roberto; Roberto Spironello, Wilson; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Rozak, Andes Hamuraby; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Rutishauser, Ervan; Saiter, Felipe; Saner, Philippe; Santos, Braulio A.; Santos, Fernanda; Sarker, Swapan K.; Satdichanh, Manichanh; Schmitt, Christine B.; Schöngart, Jochen; Schulze, Mark; Suganuma, Marcio S.; Sheil, Douglas; da Silva Pinheiro, Eduardo; Sist, Plinio; Stevart, Tariq; Sukumar, Raman; Sun, I.-Fang; Sunderland, Terry; Suresh, H. S.; Suzuki, Eizi; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Tang, Jangwei; Targhetta, Natália; Theilade, Ida; Thomas, Duncan W.; Tchouto, Peguy; Hurtado, Johanna; Valencia, Renato; van Valkenburg, Johan L. C. H.; Van Do, Tran; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Verbeeck, Hans; Adekunle, Victor; Vieira, Simone A.; Webb, Campbell O.; Whitfeld, Timothy; Wich, Serge A.; Williams, John; Wittmann, Florian; Wöll, Hannsjoerg; Yang, Xiaobo; Adou Yao, C. Yves; Yap, Sandra L.; Yoneda, Tsuyoshi; Zahawi, Rakan A.; Zakaria, Rahmad; Zang, Runguo; de Assis, Rafael L.; Garcia Luize, Bruno; Venticinque, Eduardo M.

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, we use a fitted value of Fisher’s alpha and an approximate pantropical stem total to estimate the minimum number of tropical forest tree species to fall between ∼40,000 and ∼53,000, i.e., at the high end of previous estimates. Contrary to common assumption, the Indo-Pacific region was found to be as species-rich as the Neotropics, with both regions having a minimum of ∼19,000–25,000 tree species. Continental Africa is relatively depauperate with a minimum of ∼4,500–6,000 tree species. Very few species are shared among the African, American, and the Indo-Pacific regions. We provide a methodological framework for estimating species richness in trees that may help refine species richness estimates of tree-dependent taxa. PMID:26034279

  14. Frost hardiness of tree species is independent of phenology and macroclimatic niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M; Bruelheide, H

    2015-03-01

    The differences in timing in bud burst between species have been interpreted as an adaptation to late frost events in spring. Thus, it has been suggested that the degree of frost susceptibility of leaves is species-specific and depends on the species' phenology and geographic distribution range. To test for relationships between frost tolerance and phenology as well as between frost tolerance and distribution range across Central European tree species, we studied the frost hardiness of closed buds before bud burst and of freshly opened buds at the time of bud burst. We hypothesized that species with early bud burst and species distributed in eastern and northern areas were more frost tolerant than species with late bud burst and species distributed in western and southern areas. Frost hardiness was estimated by exposing twigs to 11 frost temperatures between -4 °C and -80 °C and by assessing tissue damage by the electrolyte leakage method. In contrast to our hypotheses, neither frost hardiness of closed buds nor frost hardiness of freshly opened buds were related to any variable describing species' macroclimatic niche. Furthermore, frost hardiness of freshly opened buds did not differ among species. Thus, the investigated species with early bud burst take higher risks of frost damage than the species with late bud bursts. These findings indicate that frost hardiness might not play the key role in limiting the geographic distribution ranges previously anticipated.

  15. Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conrads, G.; de Soet, J.J.; Song, L.; Henne, K.; Sztajer, H.; Wagner-Döbler, I.; Zeng, A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two closely related species of mutans streptococci, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, are associated with dental caries in humans. Their acidogenic and aciduric capacity is directly associated with the cariogenic potential of these bacteria. To survive acidic and

  16. Molecular characterization of Babesia and Cytauxzoon species in wild South-African meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Menard, Sandie; Berry, Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Piroplasms, including Babesia, Cytauxzoon and Theileria species, frequently infect domestic and wild mammals. At present, there is no information on the occurrence and molecular identity of these tick-borne blood parasites in the meerkat, one of South Africa's most endearing wildlife celebrities. Meerkats live in territorial groups, which may occur on ranchland in close proximity to humans, pets and livestock. Blood collected from 46 healthy meerkats living in the South-African Kalahari desert was screened by microscopy and molecular methods, using PCR and DNA sequencing of 18S rRNA and ITS1 genes. We found that meerkats were infected by 2 species: one species related to Babesia sp. and one species related to Cytauxzoon sp. Ninety one percent of the meerkats were infected by the Cytauxzoon and/or the Babesia species. Co-infection occurred in 46% of meerkats. The pathogenicity and vectors of these two piroplasm species remains to be determined.

  17. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V.; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models’ eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and th...

  18. Integrative analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression efficiently distinguishes samples from closely related ethnic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs are a type of genetic marker that is informative for tracing the ancestral ethnicity of individuals. Application of AIMs has gained substantial attention in population genetics, forensic sciences, and medical genetics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, the materials of AIMs, are useful for classifying individuals from distinct continental origins but cannot discriminate individuals with subtle genetic differences from closely related ancestral lineages. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that gene expression (GE also is a heritable human variation that exhibits differential intensity distributions among ethnic groups. GE supplies ethnic information supplemental to SNPs; this motivated us to integrate SNP and GE markers to construct AIM panels with a reduced number of required markers and provide high accuracy in ancestry inference. Few studies in the literature have considered GE in this aspect, and none have integrated SNP and GE markers to aid classification of samples from closely related ethnic populations. Results We integrated a forward variable selection procedure into flexible discriminant analysis to identify key SNP and/or GE markers with the highest cross-validation prediction accuracy. By analyzing genome-wide SNP and/or GE markers in 210 independent samples from four ethnic groups in the HapMap II Project, we found that average testing accuracies for a majority of classification analyses were quite high, except for SNP-only analyses that were performed to discern study samples containing individuals from two close Asian populations. The average testing accuracies ranged from 0.53 to 0.79 for SNP-only analyses and increased to around 0.90 when GE markers were integrated together with SNP markers for the classification of samples from closely related Asian populations. Compared to GE-only analyses, integrative analyses of SNP and GE markers showed comparable testing

  19. Surfing among species, populations and morphotypes: Inferring boundaries between two species of new world silversides (Atherinopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Mariano; Rosso, Juan José; Mabragaña, Ezequiel; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan Martín

    2016-01-01

    Atherinopsidae are widespread freshwater and shallow marine fish with singular economic importance. Morphological, genetical and life cycles differences between marine and estuarine populations were already reported in this family, suggesting ongoing speciation. Also, coexistence and interbreeding between closely related species were documented. The aim of this study was to infer boundaries among: (A) Odontesthes bonariensis and O. argentinensis at species level, and intermediate morphs; (B) the population of O. argentinensis of Mar Chiquita Lagoon and its marine conspecifics. To achieve this, we integrated, meristic, Geometrics Morphometrics and DNA Barcode approaches. Four groups were discriminated and subsequently characterized according to their morphological traits, shape and meristic characters. No shared haplotypes between O. bonariensis and O. argentinensis were found. Significative-meristic and body shape differences between the Mar Chiquita and marine individuals of O. argentinensis were found, suggesting they behave as well differentiated populations, or even incipient ecological species. The fact that the Odontesthes morphotypes shared haplotypes with both, O. argentinensis and O. bonariensis, but also possess meristic and morphometric distinctive traits open new questions related to the origin of this morphogroup. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Species coexistence: macroevolutionary relationships and the contingency of historical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rachel M; Weir, Jason T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-30

    Evolutionary biologists since Darwin have hypothesized that closely related species compete more intensely and are therefore less likely to coexist. However, recent theory posits that species diverge in two ways: either through the evolution of 'stabilizing differences' that promote coexistence by causing individuals to compete more strongly with conspecifics than individuals of other species, or through the evolution of 'fitness differences' that cause species to differ in competitive ability and lead to exclusion of the weaker competitor. We tested macroevolutionary patterns of divergence by competing pairs of annual plant species that differ in their phylogenetic relationships, and in whether they have historically occurred in the same region or different regions (sympatric versus allopatric occurrence). For sympatrically occurring species pairs, stabilizing differences rapidly increased with phylogenetic distance. However, fitness differences also increased with phylogenetic distance, resulting in coexistence outcomes that were unpredictable based on phylogenetic relationships. For allopatric species, stabilizing differences showed no trend with phylogenetic distance, whereas fitness differences increased, causing coexistence to become less likely among distant relatives. Our results illustrate the role of species' historical interactions in shaping how phylogenetic relationships structure competitive dynamics, and offer an explanation for the evolution of invasion potential of non-native species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Functional requirements driving the gene duplication in 12 Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Jia, Yanxiao; Gao, Yang; Tian, Dacheng; Yang, Sihai; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2013-08-15

    Gene duplication supplies the raw materials for novel gene functions and many gene families arisen from duplication experience adaptive evolution. Most studies of young duplicates have focused on mammals, especially humans, whereas reports describing their genome-wide evolutionary patterns across the closely related Drosophila species are rare. The sequenced 12 Drosophila genomes provide the opportunity to address this issue. In our study, 3,647 young duplicate gene families were identified across the 12 Drosophila species and three types of expansions, species-specific, lineage-specific and complex expansions, were detected in these gene families. Our data showed that the species-specific young duplicate genes predominated (86.6%) over the other two types. Interestingly, many independent species-specific expansions in the same gene family have been observed in many species, even including 11 or 12 Drosophila species. Our data also showed that the functional bias observed in these young duplicate genes was mainly related to responses to environmental stimuli and biotic stresses. This study reveals the evolutionary patterns of young duplicates across 12 Drosophila species on a genomic scale. Our results suggest that convergent evolution acts on young duplicate genes after the species differentiation and adaptive evolution may play an important role in duplicate genes for adaption to ecological factors and environmental changes in Drosophila.

  2. Cognitive functioning is more closely related to real-life mobility than to laboratory-based mobility parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannouli, Eleftheria; Bock, Otmar; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that mobility depends on cognitive resources, but the exact relationships between various cognitive functions and different mobility parameters still need to be investigated. This study examines the hypothesis that cognitive functioning is more closely related to

  3. Evaluation of a multiple-species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia N. Manley; William J. Zielinski; Matthew D. Schlesinger; Sylvia R. Mori

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring is required of land managers and conservation practitioners to assess the success of management actions. "Shortcuts" are sought to reduce monitoring costs, most often consisting of the selection of a small number of species that are closely monitored to represent the status of many associated species and environmental correlates. Assumptions...

  4. Phylogenetic and Phylogenomic Definition of Rhizopus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P. Gryganskyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R. microsporus as the basal species and the sister lineage to R. stolonifer and two closely related species R. arrhizus and R. delemar. A comparative analysis of the mating type locus across Rhizopus reveals that its structure is flexible even between different species in the same genus, but shows similarities between Rhizopus and other mucoralean fungi. The topology of single-gene phylogenies built for two genes involved in mating is similar to the phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the total length of the genome assemblies showed that genome size varies by as much as threefold within a species and is driven by changes in transposable element copy numbers and genome duplications.

  5. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  6. Comparative study of salinity tolerance of an oceanic sea skater, Halobates micans and its closely related fresh water species, Metrocoris histrio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sekimoto, T.; Osumi, Y.; Shiraki, T.; Kobayashi, A.; Emi, K.; Nakajo, M.; Moku, M.; Košťál, Vladimír; Katagiri, C.; Harada, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 14 (2014), s. 1141-1148 ISSN 2150-4091 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ocean ic sea skaters * fresh water halobatinae species * salinity tolerance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49746

  7. A new species of Pristimantis from southern Ecuador (Anura, Craugastoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Paul; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Diana; Páez, Nadia; Ron, Santiago R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pristimantis is described from Reserva Buenaventura, southern Ecuador, at elevations between 878 and 1082 m. A molecular phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes shows that the new species is closely related to Pristimantis phoxocephalus, Pristimantis riveti, and Pristimantis versicolor. The new species differs from them and other morphologically similar congeners in having a low W-shaped dermal ridge in the scapular region, a large conical tubercle on the upper eyelid and on the heel, a thin mid dorsal fold, and a longitudinal lateral fold starting behind the tympanic fold and extending along the anterior two thirds of the flank. The new species inhabits cloud forests in the Pacific slopes of the Andes. PMID:27551223

  8. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  9. Relative lack of regeneration of shade-intolerant canopy species in some South African forests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Midgley, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species such as Celtis Africana, are experiencing relative recruitment bottlenecks, because there are usually fewer recruits [i.e. individuals <20 cm diameter at breast height, (dbh)] than canopy individuals. The species with low recruitment...

  10. A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae: Amarylloideae: Clinantheae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to C. mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to C. viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from C. mirabilis by its wider leaves, ...

  11. Contrasting extremes in water-related stresses determine species survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.; van Bodegom, P. M.; van Dam, J. C.; Aerts, R.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. Especially the occurrence of both excessive dry and wet moisture conditions at a particular site has strong implications for the survival of species, because plants need traits that allow them to respond to such counteracting conditions. However, adapting to one stress may go at the cost of the other, i.e. there exists a trade-off in the tolerance for wet conditions and the tolerance for dry conditions. Until now, both large-scale (global) and plot-scale effects of soil moisture conditions on plant species composition have mostly been investigated through indirect environmental measures, which do not include the key soil physical and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Moreover, researchers only determined effects of one of the water-related stresses, i.e. either oxygen or drought stress. In order to quantify both oxygen and drought stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. High variability and extremes in resource availability can be highly detrimental to plant species ('you can only die once'). We show that co-occurrence of oxygen and drought stress reduces the percentage of specialists within a vegetation plot. The percentage of non-specialists within a vegetation plot, however, decreases significantly with increasing stress as long as only one of the stresses prevails, but increases significantly with an

  12. [Resources of Lycium species and related research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Jun; Wang, Ying

    2008-09-01

    Solanaceae Lycium speices are deciduous shrubs. In ancient Chinese medicine works, Lycium plants are described to work well in nourshing liver and kidney, enhancing eyesight, enriching blood, invigorating sex, reducing rheumatism and so on. More of their functions such as immunity improvement, anti-oxydation, anti-aging, anti-cancer, growth stumulation, hemopoiesis enhancing, incretion regulating, blood sugar reducing, bearing improvement and many other new functions are conformed in modern clinic researches. Lycium is also widely used in brewing, beverage and many other products. The world Lycium-related researches are mostly on Lycium species genesis and evolution, sexual evolution, active ingredient separation and pharmacological effects. The future research direction is indicated in this article, molecular evolution and systematics rather than traditional taxonomy will do better in explanation of present global distribution of Lycium species; comparative genomics research on Lycium will be a whole new way to deep gene resources exploration; relationship of genetic diversity and active ingredient variation on L. barbarum and L. chinense will lay theory basis for new germplasm development, breeding, cultivation and production regionalization.

  13. Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence, and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Craig C; Pratt, Renae C; Bank, Sarah; Bourke, Gayleen; Bragg, Jason G; Doughty, Paul; Keogh, J Scott; Laver, Rebecca J; Potter, Sally; Teasdale, Luisa C; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Oliver, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia-Gehyra nana and close relatives-we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing, and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages and infer their divergence history and patterns of morphological evolution. Gehyra nana is found to include nine divergent lineages and is paraphyletic with four other species from the Kimberley region of north-west Australia. Across these 13 taxa, 12 of which are restricted to rocky habitats, several lineages overlap geographically, including on the diverse Kimberley islands. Morphological evolution is dominated by body size shifts, and both body size and shape have evolved gradually across the group. However, larger body size shifts are observed among overlapping taxa than among closely related parapatric lineages of G. nana, and sympatric lineages are more divergent than expected at random. Whether elevated body size differences among sympatric lineages are due to ecological sorting or character displacement remains to be determined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Pipe closing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klahn, F.C.; Nolan, J.H.; Wills, C.

    1979-01-01

    The closing device closes the upper end of a support tube for monitoring samples. It meshes with the upper connecting piece of the monitorung sample capsule, and loads the capsule within the bore of the support tube, so that it is fixed but can be released. The closing device consists of an interlocking component with a chamber and several ratchets which hang down. The interlocking component surrounds the actuating component for positioning the ratchets. The interlocking and actuating components are movable axially relative to each other. (DG) [de

  15. Climate‐induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin; Mackenzie, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm‐water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole...... was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained...... and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA...

  16. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-05-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata , 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra . The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra , suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species.

  17. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    this section. The data indicate that Aspergillus section Flavi involves 22 species, which can be grouped into seven clades. Two new species, A. pseudocaelatus sp. nov. and A. pseudonomius sp. nov. have been discovered, and can be distinguished from other species in this section based on sequence data...... and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  18. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical montane tree species in relation to leaf nutrients, successional strategy and growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Niyonzima, Felix; Adolfsson, Lisa; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of tree leaves is typically positively related to nutrient content and little affected by changes in growth temperature. These relationships are, however, often poorly supported for tropical trees, for which interspecific differences may be more strongly controlled by within-leaf nutrient allocation than by absolute leaf nutrient content, and little is known regarding photosynthetic acclimation to temperature. To explore the influence of leaf nutrient status, successional strategy and growth temperature on the photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees, we collected data on photosynthetic, chemical and morphological leaf traits of ten tree species in Rwanda. Seven species were studied in a forest plantation at mid-altitude (~1,700 m), whereas six species were studied in a cooler montane rainforest at higher altitude (~2,500 m). Three species were common to both sites, and, in the montane rainforest, three pioneer species and three climax species were investigated. Across species, interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity was not related to leaf nutrient content. Instead, this variation was related to differences in within-leaf nitrogen allocation, with a tradeoff between investments into compounds related to photosynthetic capacity (higher in pioneer species) versus light-harvesting compounds (higher in climax species). Photosynthetic capacity was significantly lower at the warmer site at 1,700 m altitude. We conclude that (1) within-leaf nutrient allocation is more important than leaf nutrient content per se in controlling interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity among tree species in tropical Rwanda, and that (2) tropical montane rainforest species exhibit decreased photosynthetic capacity when grown in a warmer environment.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Alwan

    Full Text Available Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103 and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2 of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65. Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  1. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van Velzen

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based, nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based, and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75% than for older species (∼97% (P<0.00001. Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001. The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2% as well as empirical data (93.1%, indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  2. The dual challenges of generality and specificity when developing environmental DNA markers for species and subspecies of Oncorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor M. Wilcox; Kellie J. Carim; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. Here, we developed qPCR (quantitative PCR) markers which distinguish westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewsi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri...

  3. Temporal-spatial dynamics in orthoptera in relation to nutrient availability and plant species richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob J J Hendriks

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability in ecosystems has increased dramatically over the last century. Excess reactive nitrogen deposition is known to negatively impact plant communities, e.g. by changing species composition, biomass and vegetation structure. In contrast, little is known on how such impacts propagate to higher trophic levels. To evaluate how nitrogen deposition affects plants and herbivore communities through time, we used extensive databases of spatially explicit historical records of Dutch plant species and Orthoptera (grasshoppers and crickets, a group of animals that are particularly susceptible to changes in the C:N ratio of their resources. We use robust methods that deal with the unstandardized nature of historical databases to test whether nitrogen deposition levels and plant richness changes influence the patterns of richness change of Orthoptera, taking into account Orthoptera species functional traits. Our findings show that effects indeed also propagate to higher trophic levels. Differences in functional traits affected the temporal-spatial dynamics of assemblages of Orthoptera. While nitrogen deposition affected plant diversity, contrary to our expectations, we could not find a strong significant effect of food related traits. However we found that species with low habitat specificity, limited dispersal capacity and egg deposition in the soil were more negativly affected by nitrogen deposition levels. Despite the lack of significant effect of plant richness or food related traits on Orthoptera, the negative effects of nitrogen detected within certain trait groups (e.g. groups with limited disperse ability could be related to subtle changes in plant abundance and plant quality. Our results, however, suggest that the changes in soil conditions (where many Orthoptera species lay their eggs or other habitat changes driven by nitrogen have a stronger influence than food related traits. To fully evaluate the negative effects of nitrogen

  4. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  5. Phylogeography and systematics of zebra mussels and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelembiuk, Gregory W; May, Gemma E; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The genus Dreissena includes two widespread and aggressive aquatic invaders, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis. This genus evolved in the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin, characterized by dynamic instability over multiple timescales and a unique evolutionary environment that may predispose to invasiveness. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the demographic history of Dreissena species in their endemic range, to reconstruct intraspecific phylogeographic relationships among populations, and to clarify systematics of the genus, using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We found four deeply diverged clades within this genus, with a basal split that approximately coincided with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Divergence events within the four base clades were much more recent, corresponding to geographically disjunct sets of populations, which might represent species complexes. Across all taxa, populations of Dreissena shared a common pattern of genetic signatures indicating historical population bottlenecks and expansions. Haplotype diversity was relatively low in Ponto-Caspian drainages relative to more stable tectonic lakes in Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey. The phylogeographic and demographic patterns in the endemic range of Dreissena might have resulted from vicariance events, habitat instability, and the high fecundity and passive dispersal of these organisms.

  6. Embarrassment When Illness Strikes A Close Relative: A World Mental Health Survey Consortium Multi-Site Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kessler, Ronald C.; de Graaf, Ron; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Zarkov, Zahari; Viana, Maria Carmen; Huang, Y.Q.; Hu, Chiyi; Posada-Villa, Jose A.; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Karam, Aimee N.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Gureje, Oye; Ferry, Finola; Sagar, Rajesh; Anthony, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background This global study seeks to estimate the degree to which a family member might feel embarrassed when a close relative is suffering from an alcohol, drug, or mental health condition (ADMC) versus a general medical condition (GMC). To date, most studies have considered embarrassment and stigma in society and internalized by the afflicted individual, but have not assessed family embarrassment in a large scale study. Method In 16 sites of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), standardized assessments were completed including items on family embarrassment. Site matching was used to constrain local socially shared determinants of stigma-related feelings, enabling a conditional logistic regression model that estimates the embarrassment close relatives may hold in relation to family members affected by an ADMC, GMC, or both conditions. Results There was a statistically robust association such that subgroups with an ADMC-affected relative were more likely to feel embarrassed as compared to subgroups with a relative affected by a GMC (p<0.001), even with covariate adjustments for age and sex. Conclusions The pattern of evidence from this research is consistent with conceptual models for interventions that target individual- and family-level stigma-related feelings of embarrassment as might be part of the obstacles to effective early intervention and treatment for ADMC conditions. Macro-level interventions are underway, but micro-level interventions also may be required among family members, along with care for each person with an ADMC. PMID:23298443

  7. Effects of flooding duration, -frequency and -depth on the presence of saplings of six woody species in north-west Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, S.J.; Kramer, K.; Pelsma, T.

    2006-01-01

    Under natural conditions the zonation of woody species in floodplains is to a large extent determined by hydrological conditions. Flood survival varies even among closely related species of the same genus. Most studies that quantify flood survival of seedlings and saplings of European floodplain

  8. Strain, clone and species : comments on three basic concepts of bacteriology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursing, BM; Ursing, JB

    Different aspects of the terms strain, clone and species are discussed. The term strain is commonly used to denote a pure culture - here called 'the strain in the taxonomic sense' - but does also refer to a natural concept closely related to the clone. The term clone on the other hand is used both

  9. Calcium signaling in closely related protozoan groups (Alveolata): non-parasitic ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) vs. parasitic Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, H; Sehring, I M; Mohamed, I K; Miranda, K; De Souza, W; Billington, R; Genazzani, A; Ladenburger, E-M

    2012-05-01

    The importance of Ca2+-signaling for many subcellular processes is well established in higher eukaryotes, whereas information about protozoa is restricted. Recent genome analyses have stimulated such work also with Alveolates, such as ciliates (Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and their pathogenic close relatives, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma). Here we compare Ca2+ signaling in the two closely related groups. Acidic Ca2+ stores have been characterized in detail in Apicomplexa, but hardly in ciliates. Two-pore channels engaged in Ca2+-release from acidic stores in higher eukaryotes have not been stingently characterized in either group. Both groups are endowed with plasma membrane- and endoplasmic reticulum-type Ca2+-ATPases (PMCA, SERCA), respectively. Only recently was it possible to identify in Paramecium a number of homologs of ryanodine and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate receptors (RyR, IP3R) and to localize them to widely different organelles participating in vesicle trafficking. For Apicomplexa, physiological experiments suggest the presence of related channels although their identity remains elusive. In Paramecium, IP3Rs are constitutively active in the contractile vacuole complex; RyR-related channels in alveolar sacs are activated during exocytosis stimulation, whereas in the parasites the homologous structure (inner membrane complex) may no longer function as a Ca2+ store. Scrutinized comparison of the two closely related protozoan phyla may stimulate further work and elucidate adaptation to parasitic life. See also "Conclusions" section. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiota of radish plants, cultivated in closed and open ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirranen, L. S.

    It is common knowledge that microorganisms respond to environmental changes faster than other representatives of the living world. The major aim of this work was to examine and analyze the characteristics of the microbiota of radish culture, cultivated in the closed ecological system of human life-support Bios-3 and in an open system in different experiments. Microbial community of near-root, root zone and phyllosphere of radish were studied at the phases of seedlings, root formation, technical ripeness—by washing-off method—like microbiota of the substrate (expanded clay aggregate) and of the seeds of radish culture. Inoculation on appropriate media was made to count total quantity of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria, bacteria of coliform group, spore-forming, Proteus group, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria, growing on Fermi medium, yeasts, microscopic fungi, Actinomyces. It was revealed that formation of the microbiota of radish plants depends on the age, plant cultivation technology and the specific conditions of the closed system. Composition of microbial conveyor-cultivated in phytotrons varied in quality and in quantity with plant growth phases—in the same manner as cultivation of even-aged soil and hydroponics monocultures which was determined by different qualitative and quantitative composition of root emissions in the course of plant vegetation. The higher plant component formed its own microbial complex different from that formed prior to closure. The microbial complex of vegetable polyculture is more diverse and stable than the monoculture of radish. We registered the changes in the species composition and microorganism quantity during plant cultivation in the closed system on a long-used solution. It was demonstrated that during the short-term (7 days) use of the nutrient solution in the experiments without system closing, the species composition of the microbiota of radish plants was more diverse in a multiple-aged vegetable polyculture (61

  11. Organic superalkalis with closed-shell structure and aromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Benzene (C6H6) and polycyclic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene (C10H8), anthracene (C14H10) and coronene (C24H12) are well known aromatic organic compounds. We study the substitution of Li replacing all H-atoms in these hydrocarbons using density functional method. The vertical ionisation energy of such lithiated species, i.e. C6Li6, C10Li8, C14Li10 and C24Li12 ranges 4.24-4.50 eV, which is lower than the ionisation energy (IE) of Li atom. Thus, these species may behave as superalkalis due to their lower IE than alkali metal. However, these lithiated species possess planar and closed-shell structure, unlike typical superalkalis. Furthermore, all Li-substituted species are aromatic although their degree of aromaticity is reduced as compared to corresponding hydrocarbon analogues. We have further explored the structure of C6Li6 as star-like, unlike its inorganic analogue B3N3Li6, which appears as fan-like structure. We have also demonstrated that the interaction of C6Li6 with a superhalogen (such as BF4) is similar to that of a typical superalkali (such as OLi3). This may further suggest that the proposed lithiated species may form a new class of closed-shell organic superalkalis with aromaticity.

  12. A new species of Aphaobiella Pretner, 1949 from Grintavec Mt., Slovenia (Coleoptera: Cholevidae, Leptodirinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Mauro Giachino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aphaobiella kofleri sp. n. from Grintavec, Zgornje, Ravni (Slovenia is described and illustrated. The description of this new species, closely related to A. budnarlipoglavseki budnarlipoglavseki Pretner, 1949, increases the zoogeographical knowledge of this genus endemic to Slovenia.

  13. Two new species of Protomyctophum (Pisces, Teleostei, Myctophidae) from the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokofiev, Artém M.

    2004-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Protomyctophum from the Southern Ocean are described. P. mcginnisi n. sp. (from off the Southern Shetland Islands) is most closely related to P. bolini (Fraser-Brunner, 1949), from which it differs in photophore arrangement, in metallic shine of the photophores, and in

  14. Tree architecture and life-history strategies across 200 co-occurring tropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, Y.; Kohyama, T.S.; Kubo, T.; Kassim, A.R.; Poorter, L.; Sterck, F.J.; Potts, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tree architecture is thought to allow species to partition horizontal and vertical light gradients in the forest canopy. Tree architecture is closely related to light capture, carbon gain and the efficiency with which trees reach the canopy. Previous studies that investigated how light gradients

  15. 75 FR 8053 - A Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... EPA's policy to include all comments it receives in the public docket without change and to make the... Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change AGENCY... Framework for Categorizing the Relative Vulnerability of Threatened and Endangered Species to Climate Change...

  16. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Genetic interactions underlying hybrid male sterility in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Paras Kumar; Singh, Bashisth Narayan

    2006-06-01

    Understanding genetic mechanisms underlying hybrid male sterility is one of the most challenging problems in evolutionary biology especially speciation. By using the interspecific hybridization method roles of Y chromosome, Major Hybrid Sterility (MHS) genes and cytoplasm in sterility of hybrid males have been investigated in a promising group, the Drosophila bipectinata species complex that consists of four closely related species: D. pseudoananassae, D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata and D. malerkotliana. The interspecific introgression analyses show that neither cytoplasm nor MHS genes are involved but X-Y interactions may be playing major role in hybrid male sterility between D. pseudoananassae and the other three species. The results of interspecific introgression analyses also show considerable decrease in the number of males in the backcross offspring and all males have atrophied testes. There is a significant positive correlation between sex - ratio distortion and severity of sterility in backcross males. These findings provide evidence that D. pseudoananassae is remotely related with other three species of the D. bipectinata species complex.

  18. Genomic comparison of closely related Giant Viruses supports an accordion-like model of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Filée, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Genome gigantism occurs so far in Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae (order Megavirales). Origin and evolution of these Giant Viruses (GVs) remain open questions. Interestingly, availability of a collection of closely related GV genomes enabling genomic comparisons offer the opportunity to better understand the different evolutionary forces acting on these genomes. Whole genome alignment for five groups of viruses belonging to the Mimiviridae and Phycodnaviridae families show that there is no tr...

  19. Alterations in the energy budget of Arctic benthic species exposed to oil-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromso, N-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: gho@akvaplan.niva.noph; Sva, Eirin [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Carroll, JoLynn [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, Lionel [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Center, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); De Coen, Wim [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Smolders, Roel [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (UA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Environmental Toxicology, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Overaas, Helene [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Multiconsult AS, Hoffsveien 1, N-0275 Oslo (Norway); Hylland, Ketil [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), CIENS, Gaustadalleen, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2007-06-15

    We studied cellular energy allocation (CEA) in three Arctic benthic species (Gammarus setosus (Amphipoda), Onisimus litoralis (Amphipoda), and Liocyma fluctuosa (Bivalvia)) exposed to oil-related compounds. The CEA biomarker measures the energy budget of organisms by biochemically assessing changes in energy available (carbohydrates, protein and lipid content) and the integrated energy consumption (electron transport system activity (ETS) as the cellular aspect of respiration). Energy budget was measured in organisms subjected to water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and drill cuttings (DC) to evaluate whether these compounds affect the energy metabolism of the test species. We observed significantly lower CEA values and higher ETS activity in G. setosus subjected to WAF treatment compared to controls (p {<=} 0.03). Higher CEA value and lower cellular respiration were observed in O. litoralis exposed to DC compared to controls (p = 0.02). No difference in the energy budget of L. fluctuosa was observed between the treatments (p {>=} 0.19). Different responses to oil-related compounds between the three test species are likely the result of differences in feeding and burrowing behavior and species-specific sensitivity to petroleum-related compounds.

  20. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  1. Two new species of Commiphora (Burseraceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Swanepoel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora steynii Swanepoel and C.  gariepensis Swanepoel, here described as new species, are known only from the Kaokoveld and Gariep Centres of Endemism respectively. Illustrations of the plants and distribution maps are provided. Diagnostic characters of C.  steynii include the pale ashy grey, non-peeling bark and the lack of wart-like projections around the large lenticels. Diagnostic characters of C. gariepensis include the stamen number which varies between four and eight, and the milky-watery latex which does not squirt when branches are damaged. When without leaves or fruit, C. gariepensis can easily be confused with several other species. Comprehensive tables with diagnostic morphological features to distinguish between the new species and closely related taxa are presented.

  2. A new species of Microkayla (Anura: Craugastoridae: Holoadeninae) from Department La Paz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE LA Riva, Ignacio; Cortez, Claudia; Burrowes, Patricia A

    2017-12-12

    We describe a new species of direct-developing frog of the genus Microkayla from the Cordillera Real of the Bolivian Andes, in the Department of La Paz. The new species, Microkayla huayna sp. nov., is closely related to M. teqta and can be distinguished from other species of the genus by its brown dorsal skin and the presence of a large dark brown vocal sac in males. This is the second species of Microkayla known from the Zongo Valley, and the ninth in the Cordillera Real, contributing to a total of 22 described species in Bolivia. Given its small distribution range, we recommend to considering it as Vulnerable according to IUCN criteria.

  3. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies. Experiment 1 examined the species differences across rhesus macaques, nonhuman apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans, and humans while they viewed movies of various animals' species-typical behaviors. We found that each species had distinct viewing patterns of the models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets. Experiment 2 tested the effect of individuals' experience on chimpanzee and human viewing patterns. We presented movies depicting natural behaviors of chimpanzees to three groups of chimpanzees (individuals from a zoo, a sanctuary, and a research institute differing in their early social and physical experiences. We also presented the same movies to human adults and children differing in their expertise with chimpanzees (experts vs. novices or movie-viewing generally (adults vs. preschoolers. Individuals varied within each species in their patterns of gaze toward models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets depending on their unique individual experiences. We thus found that the viewing patterns for social stimuli are both individual- and species-specific in these closely-related primates. Such individual/species-specificities are likely related to both individual experience and species-typical temperament, suggesting that primate individuals acquire their unique attentional biases through both ontogeny and evolution. Such unique attentional biases may help them learn

  4. Primate social attention: Species differences and effects of individual experience in humans, great apes, and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Fumihiro; Shepherd, Stephen V; Hirata, Satoshi; Call, Josep

    2018-01-01

    When viewing social scenes, humans and nonhuman primates focus on particular features, such as the models' eyes, mouth, and action targets. Previous studies reported that such viewing patterns vary significantly across individuals in humans, and also across closely-related primate species. However, the nature of these individual and species differences remains unclear, particularly among nonhuman primates. In large samples of human and nonhuman primates, we examined species differences and the effects of experience on patterns of gaze toward social movies. Experiment 1 examined the species differences across rhesus macaques, nonhuman apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, and orangutans), and humans while they viewed movies of various animals' species-typical behaviors. We found that each species had distinct viewing patterns of the models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets. Experiment 2 tested the effect of individuals' experience on chimpanzee and human viewing patterns. We presented movies depicting natural behaviors of chimpanzees to three groups of chimpanzees (individuals from a zoo, a sanctuary, and a research institute) differing in their early social and physical experiences. We also presented the same movies to human adults and children differing in their expertise with chimpanzees (experts vs. novices) or movie-viewing generally (adults vs. preschoolers). Individuals varied within each species in their patterns of gaze toward models' faces, eyes, mouths, and action targets depending on their unique individual experiences. We thus found that the viewing patterns for social stimuli are both individual- and species-specific in these closely-related primates. Such individual/species-specificities are likely related to both individual experience and species-typical temperament, suggesting that primate individuals acquire their unique attentional biases through both ontogeny and evolution. Such unique attentional biases may help them learn efficiently about their

  5. ”How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region?”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgaard, Hanne; Ottesen, Aase Marie

    How do the patients and their close relatives experience The Coordinated Investigation Model of Dementia in the North Denmark Region? The aim of the project was to investigate how the patients and their close relatives experienced the investigation and the subsequent social medicine intervention,...... with lowest effective cost. A formal agreement regarding follow-up should be implemented. The relatives should be more involved during both investigation period and in the socio-medical follow-up....

  6. A new species of Mesocyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae from Southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo SUÁREZ-MORALES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomical status of several neotropical species of Mesocyclops is still uncertain. Furthermore, several new species with a restricted distributional range have been described recently in this region. From littoral zooplankton samples collected in the lowlands of the State of Tabasco, Southeastern Mexico, male and female specimens of a previously unknown species of Mesocyclops were found. This new species is described herein based on both sexes and following the upgraded standards set for the taxonomic study of this genus, including SEM analysis. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of several characters: the unique shape of the antennular hyaline membrane, the ornamentation of both maxillule and maxilla, the ornamentation of the fourth swimming leg, the shape and structure of the genital receptacle, and the ornamentation of the furcal rami. It is most closely related to other neotropical species such as M. meridianus Kiefer, 1926 and M. pseudomeridianus Defaye & Dussart, 1989. This is the eleventh species of Mesocyclops known from Mexico, and also the third new species described upon Mexican material. Due to the affinity of the Tabasco fauna with the Caribbean and the South American copepod faunas, the new species is expected to have a relatively wide geographical distribution in the neotropical region.

  7. Signals of speciation: Volatile organic compounds resolve closely related sagebrush taxa, suggesting their importance in evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidre M. Jaeger; Justin B. Runyon; Bryce A. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play important roles in the environmental adaptation and fitness of plants. Comparison of the qualitative and quantitative differences in VOCs among closely related taxa and assessing the effects of environment on their emissions are important steps to deducing VOC function and evolutionary importance.

  8. Relational Mobility Explains Between- and Within-Culture Differences in Self-Disclosure to Close Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Maddux, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The current research proposes a novel explanation for previously demonstrated findings that East Asians disclose less personal information to others than do Westerners. We propose that both between- and within-culture differences in self-disclosure toward close friends may be explained by the construct of "relational mobility" - the general degree to which individuals in the society have the opportunities to form new and terminate old relationships. In Study 1, we found that cross-cultural di...

  9. Gill rakers in six teleost species: influence of feeding habit and body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gottlieb Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the structure of the gill rakers of Parapimelodus valenciennis and Parapimelodus nigribarbis (planktivorous, Serrasalmus maculatus and Hoplias malabaricus (piscivorous, Iheringichthys labrosus (benthophagous and Hypostomus commersonii (detritivorous and related it with the body size and feeding habits of these species. The species of Parapimelodus and H. commersonii showed long, filiform and closely spaced gill rakers, similar to those of species that use the gill rakers as a filter to assist in the retention of small particles. The widely spaced gill rakers of I. labrosus probably allow the retention of insect larvae, but not particles of inorganic matter. In H. malabaricus and S. maculatus the gill rakers are most likely related to prey capture and swallowing, as observed in other piscivorous species. In general, gill raker length and the distance between gill rakers have a positive relationship with fish length. The gill rakers show adaptations related to the diet of the fish, but morphological variation may occur even between species whose feeding habits are the same.

  10. Relative Prevalence of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Virus Species in Wine Grape-Growing Regions of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhineet M Sharma

    Full Text Available Some diseases manifest as one characteristic set of symptoms to the host, but can be caused by multiple pathogens. Control treatments based on plant symptoms can make it difficult to effectively manage such diseases, as the biology of the underlying pathogens can vary. Grapevine leafroll disease affects grapes worldwide, and is associated with several viral species in the family Closteroviridae. Whereas some of the viruses associated with this disease are transmitted by insect vectors, others are only graft-transmissible. In three regions of California, we surveyed vineyards containing diseased vines and screened symptomatic plants for all known viral species associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Relative incidence of each virus species differed among the three regions regions, particularly in relation to species with known vectors compared with those only known to be graft-transmitted. In one region, the pathogen population was dominated by species not known to have an insect vector. In contrast, populations in the other surveyed regions were dominated by virus species that are vector-transmissible. Our survey did not detect viruses associated with grapevine leafroll disease at some sites with characteristic disease symptoms. This could be explained either by undescribed genetic diversity among these viruses that prevented detection with available molecular tools at the time the survey was performed, or a misidentification of visual symptoms that may have had other underlying causes. Based on the differences in relative prevalence of each virus species among regions and among vineyards within regions, we expect that region and site-specific management strategies are needed for effective disease control.

  11. Differentiation of Three Centella Species in Australia as Inferred from Morphological Characteristics, ISSR Molecular Fingerprinting and Phytochemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ali; Cho, Jun-Lae; Wong, Ka Ho; Li, Kong M; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Li, George Q

    2017-01-01

    Centella asiatica is one of the popular herbs used for inflammatory and neural conditions. Its differentiation from similar species is currently lacking. The aims of this study were to differentiate the three closely related Centella species using methods based on morphological characters, genetic biodiversity, phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities. According to the morphological characteristics, the collected samples were identified as three species: C. asiatica, Centella cordifolia and Centella erecta and clustered into three groups based on their morphometric variability. Dendogram constructed on the basis of the intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR) analyses were consistent with the morphological grouping. Centella cordifolia had the highest triterpene glycosides, phenolics and antioxidant capacity, followed by C. asiatica , then C. erecta , therefore, was genetically and chemically closer to C. asiatica , while C. erecta was distinctively different from them. The results confirm the occurrence of the closely related three species of Centella in Australia, and the differentiation among them can be achieved via the combination of morphometric, molecular and phytochemical methods. This first comparative botanical study on Centella species provides a foundation for further systematic study and medicinal development of Centella .

  12. Differentiation of Three Centella Species in Australia as Inferred from Morphological Characteristics, ISSR Molecular Fingerprinting and Phytochemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alqahtani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Centella asiatica is one of the popular herbs used for inflammatory and neural conditions. Its differentiation from similar species is currently lacking. The aims of this study were to differentiate the three closely related Centella species using methods based on morphological characters, genetic biodiversity, phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities. According to the morphological characteristics, the collected samples were identified as three species: C. asiatica, Centella cordifolia and Centella erecta and clustered into three groups based on their morphometric variability. Dendogram constructed on the basis of the intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR analyses were consistent with the morphological grouping. Centella cordifolia had the highest triterpene glycosides, phenolics and antioxidant capacity, followed by C. asiatica, then C. erecta, therefore, was genetically and chemically closer to C. asiatica, while C. erecta was distinctively different from them. The results confirm the occurrence of the closely related three species of Centella in Australia, and the differentiation among them can be achieved via the combination of morphometric, molecular and phytochemical methods. This first comparative botanical study on Centella species provides a foundation for further systematic study and medicinal development of Centella.

  13. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia; Patiño, Belén; Benito-Peña, Elena; Moreno-Bondi, María C.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  14. Species-specific optical genosensors for the detection of mycotoxigenic Fusarium fungi in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltomaa, Riikka; Vaghini, Silvia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Patiño, Belén [Department of Microbiology III, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Benito-Peña, Elena, E-mail: elenabp@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moreno-Bondi, María C., E-mail: mcmbondi@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-09-07

    Plant-pathogenic Fusarium species, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum, are the major producers of fumonisins which are one of the most common mycotoxins found in maize. Herein, we report the development of specific and sensitive genosensors for detecting these two closely related Fusarium species in food samples. The sensors are based on species-specific capture and detection probes, which bind to the intergenic spacer region of rDNA (IGS). Oligonucleotide functionalized magnetic microbeads are used to capture the target DNA which is then detected using biotinylated detection probes and a streptavidin-coupled label. The developed genosensors had detection limits of 1.8 pM and 3.0 pM for F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, respectively, using synthetic DNA targets. Furthermore, the biosensors were used to analyze natural fungal contamination of commercial maize samples. After amplification of the genomic DNA the sensors detected the presence of the fungi, in accordance with previous results obtained with PCR. No cross-reactivity between F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, or other fungi species tested, was observed. The developed biosensors can provide a valuable tool to evaluate the potential for mycotoxin contamination in conditions where detection of mycotoxins directly is challenging. - Highlights: • Optical genosensors detect fumonisin producing Fusarium species in maize samples. • Oligonucleotide probes designed on the intergenic spacer region of rDNA can distinguish between closely related species. • Sandwich hybridization assay with magnetic microbeads allows species-specific detection of Fusarium spp. directly from PCR.

  15. QTL for the species-specific male and female genital morphologies in Ohomopterus ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabe, Masataka; Takami, Yasuoki; Sota, Teiji

    2010-12-01

    Animals with internal fertilization often exhibit marked diversification in genital morphology among closely related species. However, our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying genital evolution is still limited. We constructed genetic linkage maps and analysed quantitative trait loci (QTL) for F(2) hybrids of two closely related species of the carabid beetles Carabus (Ohomopterus) iwawakianus and C. (O.) maiyasanus, which show matching male and female genital shapes within species, but marked differences in genital morphologies between species. The linkage maps comprised both amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite markers. Composite interval mapping to detect QTL for three traits of male copulatory piece (length, width, weight) and two traits for female vaginal appendix (length, width) resulted in the detection of one to five significant QTL for each trait. The QTL explained large proportions of phenotypic variance. Thus, the interspecific difference in the genital morphologies appeared to be determined by relatively small numbers of genes with large genetic effects. QTL of different traits for the same or different sexes co-occurred on five of eight linkage groups with significant QTL; in particular, three QTL for different male and female genital traits occurred almost at the same position. Each of the male genital traits showed uniform signs of additive genetic effects, suggesting that directional selection has led to species-specific morphologies. However, the signs of additive genetic effects in each female genital trait were not uniform, suggesting that coevolution between sexes is not necessarily concerted. This result requires further assessment because the sample size of F(2) females was small. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The experience of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke--six months after discharge from a rehabilitation clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Britt; Sundin, Karin

    2010-03-01

    Being a close relative brings with it a large number of consequences, with the life situation changing over time. The aim of this study was to illuminate the experiences of being a middle-aged close relative of a person who has suffered a stroke 6 months after being discharged from a medical rehabilitation clinic. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine middle-aged close relatives and analysed using a content analysis with a latent approach. The analysis revealed that being close to someone who had suffered a stroke 6 months after discharge meant; a struggling for control and a renewal of family life in the shadow of suffering and hope. The middle-aged close relatives began to perceive the changed reality. They were struggling to take on something new, become reconciled and find a balance in their family life. Their ability to work, relief from caring concerns and having support and togetherness with others seemed to be essential for the close relatives in their efforts to manage their life situation and maintain their well-being. Having reached the 'halfway point' in their lives and still with half of their life in front of them created worries. They felt dejected about their changed relationships and roles, experience a sense of loss of shared child responsibilities, a negative impact on their marital relationships and sexual satisfaction. They felt trapped in a caring role and they worried about how to endure in the future. The middle-aged close relatives' experiences were of being alone and neglected, in an arduous and complex life situation filled with loss and grief. The findings highlights that health professionals need to see and listen to the close relatives' experiences of transition in order to provide appropriate support adjusted to their varying needs during a time of renewal.

  17. Secondary metabolites characteristic of Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium steckii and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrom, J.; Christophersen, C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2000-01-01

    an unidentified tunicate. The carboxylic acids and the benzopyran were identified on the basis of mass spectrometry, and one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopic techniques. The structures 1 and 2 resemble tanzawaic acid A-D, previously isolated from Penicillium citrinum. Screening of isolates of species related...

  18. The Relations Among Threatened Species, Their Protection, and Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Colding

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN, and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos . Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ~ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ~ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species, but also of ecosystem processes and functions, such information is being lost rapidly.

  19. Neozygites osornensis sp. nov., a fungal species causing mortality to the cypress aphid Cinara cupressi in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Cristian Montalva; Barta, Marek; Pérez, Eladio Rojas; Flores, Eduardo Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    An entomophthoralean fungus causing epizootics in populations of the cypress aphid, Cinara cupressi Buckton, in Chile is described as a new species, Neozygites osornensis Montalva et Barta. The aphid pathogen is described based on morphological characters. An exhaustive description, illustrations and a comparison with closely related species are provided. The fungus differs from similar Neozygites species by smaller hyphal bodies, nuclei, primary conidia, capilliconidia and capilliphores and by noticeably different shape of capilliconidia. A key to aphid-pathogenic species of Neozygites is also included.

  20. Comparative leaf and root anatomy of two Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from different habitat in relation to their potential adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusala, D.; Supriatna, J.; Nisyawati, Sopandie, D.

    2017-07-01

    Dendrobium capra and Dendrobium arcuatum are closely related in phylogeny, but they have very contrasting vegetative morphology and habitats. D. capra is known as a species that is well-adapted to dry lowland teak forest habitat in East Java, where most trees drop their leaves in summer, while D. arcuatum has adapted to mid or high land moist forest at elevation up to 800 m dpl. In order to investigate their potential adaptation to drought stress in the climate change era, we have compared and analyzed the leaf and root anatomical characteristics of both species. Transversal sections were made using hand mini microtome, dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %. Leaf scraping technique has been used to prepare paradermal sections, and then dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 %. Quantitative anatomical characteristics between D. capra and D. arcuatum have been compared using a t-test. The result showed that there were significant differences on anatomical characters between both species. Compared to D. arcuatum, D. capra shows more developed anatomical features for adapting to drought and dry condition. These anatomical features were a thicker cuticle, thicker epidermis, presence of hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, broader primary vascular bundle, well developed xylem's sclerenchyma, lower stomatal density, thicker and high proportion of velamen.

  1. Enrofloxacin: pharmacokinetics and metabolism in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cadenas, Cristina; Sierra-Vega, Matilde; García-Vieitez, Juan J; Diez-Liébana, M José; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana; Fernández-Martínez, Nélida

    2013-12-01

    Enrofloxacin is a fluorquinolone exclusively developed for use in veterinary medicine (1980). The kinetics of enrofloxacin are characterized, in general terms, by high bioavailability in most species and rapid absorption after IM, SC or oral administration. However, several studies reported that enrofloxacin showed low bioavailability after oral administration in ruminants. This drug has a broad distribution in the organism, excellent tissue penetration and long serum half-life. Also, enrofloxacin is characterized by a low host toxicity, a broad antibacterial spectrum and high bactericidal activity against major pathogenic bacteria (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative), and intracellular organisms found in diseased animals. The kinetics vary according to the route of administration, formulation, animal species, age, body condition, and physiological status, all of which contribute to differences in drug efficacy. The pharmacokinetic properties of drugs are closely related to their pharmacological efficiency, so it is important to know their behavior in each species that is used. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in several domestic animal species.

  2. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  3. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  4. Molecular and morphological approaches for species delimitation and hybridization investigations of two Cichla species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. F. Mourão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The hybridization is a widely-discussed issue in several studies with fish species. For some authors, hybridization may be related with diversification and speciation of several groups, or also with the extinction of populations or species. Difficulties to differentiate species and hybrids may be a problem to correctly apply a management of wild species, because hybrid lineages, especially the advanced ones, may resemble the parental species. The genus Cichla Bloch & Schneider, 1801 constitutes an interesting experimental model, considering that hybridization and taxonomic uncertainties hinder a correct identification. Considering these problems, in this study, we developed genetic methodologies and applied meristic and morphometric approaches in wild samples in order to identify species and for test a possible hybridization between Cichla kelberi Kullander & Ferreira, 2006 and Cichla piquiti Kullander & Ferreira, 2006. For this, C. kelberi, C. piquiti and potential hybrid ( carijó individuals were collected in Paraná and Tietê rivers (SP, Brazil. For meristic and morphometric methods, the individuals were analyzed using the statistical software Pcord 5:31, while for molecular methods, primers for PCR-multiplex were designed and enzyme for PCR-RFLP were selected, under the species-specific nucleotide. All results indicated that the carijó is not an interspecific hybrid, because it presented identical genetic pattern and morphology closed to C. piquiti. Thus, we propose that carijó is a C. piquiti morphotype. In addition, this study promotes a new molecular tool that could be used in future research, monitoring and management programs of the genus Cichla.

  5. Comparative genomics of four closely related Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages reveals variable evolution among core genes with therapeutic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragusa Gregory R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because biotechnological uses of bacteriophage gene products as alternatives to conventional antibiotics will require a thorough understanding of their genomic context, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of four closely related phages isolated from Clostridium perfringens, an important agricultural and human pathogen. Results Phage whole-genome tetra-nucleotide signatures and proteomic tree topologies correlated closely with host phylogeny. Comparisons of our phage genomes to 26 others revealed three shared COGs; of particular interest within this core genome was an endolysin (PF01520, an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and a holin (PF04531. Comparative analyses of the evolutionary history and genomic context of these common phage proteins revealed two important results: 1 strongly significant host-specific sequence variation within the endolysin, and 2 a protein domain architecture apparently unique to our phage genomes in which the endolysin is located upstream of its associated holin. Endolysin sequences from our phages were one of two very distinct genotypes distinguished by variability within the putative enzymatically-active domain. The shared or core genome was comprised of genes with multiple sequence types belonging to five pfam families, and genes belonging to 12 pfam families, including the holin genes, which were nearly identical. Conclusions Significant genomic diversity exists even among closely-related bacteriophages. Holins and endolysins represent conserved functions across divergent phage genomes and, as we demonstrate here, endolysins can have significant variability and host-specificity even among closely-related genomes. Endolysins in our phage genomes may be subject to different selective pressures than the rest of the genome. These findings may have important implications for potential biotechnological applications of phage gene products.

  6. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropialanceolata species complex updated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Sandra C; Hughey, Jeffery R; Rosas, Luis E Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropialanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropiamontereyensis sp. nov., Pyropiacolumbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropiaprotolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropiamontereyensis and Pyropiacolumbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropialanceolata or Pyropiapseudolanceolata. Pyropiaprotolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropiabajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropianereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyramumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropialanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  7. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus vs. Hymenoscyphus albidus – A comparative light microscopic study on the causal agent of European ash dieback and related foliicolous, stroma-forming species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Hans-Otto; Bemmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    in combination with molecular work. Hy. fraxineus was described from Europe as a cryptic species that differed from Hy. albidus by molecular data alone. However, the Hy. albidus/Hy. fraxineus species complex represents one of many examples within the ascomycetes in which subtle microscopic differences between closely related species, in this case the presence or absence of croziers at the ascus base, are strictly correlated with molecular characteristics. Two species that closely resemble Hy. albidus and Hy. fraxineus form pseudosclerotia in Aesculus leaves and again differ from each other mainly in the ascus base: Hymenoscyphus aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum from Europe lacks croziers, whereas Hymenoscyphus honshuanus from Japan on Aesculus turbinata possesses croziers. Other taxa treated here include Hymenoscyphus vacini, a European species growing on stromatized net veins of skeletonized leaves of Acer, and Hymenoscyphus torquatus, a Chinese species on unidentified herbaceous stems. An equivalent stroma-forming North American species on leaves of Fraxinus, Rutstroemia longipes (Rutstroemiaceae), is discussed and compared. A key to the Hymenoscyphus species that form a dark stroma on leaves of Acer, Aesculus, Fraxinus, and Picrasma is provided. PMID:25544935

  8. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando H.A. Farache

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sycophaginae is a group of non-pollinating fig wasps considered closely related to the fig pollinators (Agaoninae, Tetrapusiinae, and Kradibiinae in the most recent phylogenetic analyses. They occur in all tropical regions and are associated with Ficus subgenera Urostigma and Sycomorus. There are six described genera of Sycophaginae, and two are native and confined to the Neotropics, namely Idarnes Walker, 1843 and Anidarnes Bouček, 1993. Genus Idarnes is divided into three morphologically distinct groups that were proven to be monophyletic by recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In this paper we reviewed the Idarnes incertus species-group and provide detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations for the species belonging to this group. Three previously described species were redescribed: I. brasiliensis (Mayr, 1906 comb. nov., I. hansoni Bouček, 1993, and I. incertus (Ashmead, 1900. Seventeen new species are described by Farache and Rasplus: I. amacayacuensis sp. n., I. amazonicus sp. n., I. americanae sp. n., I. badiovertex sp. n., I. brevis sp. n., I. brunneus sp. n., I. comptoni sp. n., I. cremersiae sp. n., I. dimorphicus sp. n., I. flavicrus sp. n., I. flaviventris sp. n., I. gibberosus sp. n., I. gordhi sp. n., I. maximus sp. n., I. nigriventris sp. n., I. pseudoflavus sp. n. and I. ramirezi sp. n. We provided keys for the identification of the species as well as for recognising the different species-groups of Idarnes and a closely related genus (Sycophaga Westwood, 1840. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships among 13 species of the I. incertus species-group were inferred using four molecular markers and discussed in the light of Ficus taxonomy and host specificity.

  9. Identification and characterization of bacterial symbionts in three species of filth fly parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betelman, Kfir; Caspi-Fluger, Ayelet; Shamir, Maayan; Chiel, Elad

    2017-09-01

    Facultative bacterial symbionts are widespread among insects and have diverse effects on their biology. Here, we focused on bacterial symbionts of three ecologically and economically important filth flies parasitoid species-Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia endius and Muscidifurax raptor. Both Spalangia species harbored a Sodalis bacterium that is closely related to Spalangia praecaptivus (a free-living bacterium) and to Sodalis symbionts of weevils. This is the only case of Sodalis infection in the important order Hymenoptera. We also found, for the first time in this parasitoid guild, a Rickettsia infecting the two Spalangia spp., albeit in much higher prevalence in S. cameroni. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses revealed that it is closely related to Rickettsia felis and other Rickettsia species from the 'transitional' group. All three parasitoid species harbored Wolbachia. Using multi-locus sequence typing, we found that M. raptor harbors a single Wolbachia strain whereas the Spalangia spp. have multiple strains. By controlled crossings, we found that Wolbachia infection in S. endius causes incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility and increased longevity, thereby promoting Wolbachia's spread. In contrast, no effects of Wolbachia on the reproduction and longevity of M. raptor were found. This study underscores the diversity and nature of symbiotic interactions between microbes and insects. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Root transcript profiling of two Rorippa (brassicaceae) species reveals gene clusters associated with extreme submergence tolerance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasidharan, R.; Mustroph, A.; Boonman, A.; Akman, M.; Ammerlaan, A.M.H.; Breit, T.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Tienderen, van P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

  11. Genome-wide comparative analysis of four Indian Drosophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sujata; Khanna, Radhika

    2017-12-01

    Comparative analysis of multiple genomes of closely or distantly related Drosophila species undoubtedly creates excitement among evolutionary biologists in exploring the genomic changes with an ecology and evolutionary perspective. We present herewith the de novo assembled whole genome sequences of four Drosophila species, D. bipectinata, D. takahashii, D. biarmipes and D. nasuta of Indian origin using Next Generation Sequencing technology on an Illumina platform along with their detailed assembly statistics. The comparative genomics analysis, e.g. gene predictions and annotations, functional and orthogroup analysis of coding sequences and genome wide SNP distribution were performed. The whole genome of Zaprionus indianus of Indian origin published earlier by us and the genome sequences of previously sequenced 12 Drosophila species available in the NCBI database were included in the analysis. The present work is a part of our ongoing genomics project of Indian Drosophila species.

  12. The systematic position of Equus hydruntinus, an extinct species of Pleistocene equid⋆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ariane; Eisenmann, Vera; Ambler, Graeme K.

    2003-05-01

    Palaeolithic people commonly hunted Equus hydruntinus, an extinct species of equid whose cursorial body proportions suggest an adaptation to semi-arid conditions. Despite the frequency with which it is encountered in fossil deposits, only partial cranial remains have been reported until now. As a result, the systematic affiliation of the species remains a subject of controversy. Two nearly complete E. hydruntinus crania are presented here for the first time. These skulls show that E. hydruntinus is a distinct species, more closely related to the hemiones (Asiatic asses) than to any other equid. This suggests that the social organisation of E. hydruntinus followed one of two known equid sociotypes: resource defense territoriality.

  13. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens; Poulsen, Knud; Blomqvist, Trinelise

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a member of the Mitis group of streptococci which, according to 16S rRNA-sequence based phylogenetic reconstruction, includes 12 species. While other species of this group are considered prototypes of commensal bacteria, S. pneumoniae is among the most frequent microbial...... of unique genes and their origin support the model that the entire cluster of S. pneumoniae, S. pseudopneumoniae, and S. mitis lineages evolved from pneumococcus-like bacteria presumably pathogenic to the common immediate ancestor of hominoids. During their adaptation to a commensal life style, most...

  14. Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species detected in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Pittius, Nicolaas Gey; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita L

    2018-05-01

    Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa. These were all found using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. The isolates were further characterised by sequence analysis of the partial fragments of hsp65, rpoB and sodA. The genome of the type strain was also elucidated. Gene (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) and protein sequence data analysis of 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT 6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) revealed that these isolates belong to a unique Mycobacterium species. Differences in phenotypic and biochemical traits between the isolates and closely related species further supported that these isolates belong to novel Mycobacterium species. We proposed the name Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov. for this new species. The type strain is GPK 1020 T (=CIP 110823T=ATCC BAA-2758).

  15. The draft genome of the pest tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni: resources for the genomic analysis of hybridising species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Anthony Stuart; Shearman, Deborah C A; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A; Deshpande, Nandan P; Wilkins, Marc R; Sherwin, William B; Sved, John A

    2014-12-20

    The tephritid fruit flies include a number of economically important pests of horticulture, with a large accumulated body of research on their biology and control. Amongst the Tephritidae, the genus Bactrocera, containing over 400 species, presents various species groups of potential utility for genetic studies of speciation, behaviour or pest control. In Australia, there exists a triad of closely-related, sympatric Bactrocera species which do not mate in the wild but which, despite distinct morphologies and behaviours, can be force-mated in the laboratory to produce fertile hybrid offspring. To exploit the opportunities offered by genomics, such as the efficient identification of genetic loci central to pest behaviour and to the earliest stages of speciation, investigators require genomic resources for future investigations. We produced a draft de novo genome assembly of Australia's major tephritid pest species, Bactrocera tryoni. The male genome (650-700 Mbp) includes approximately 150 Mb of interspersed repetitive DNA sequences and 60 Mb of satellite DNA. Assessment using conserved core eukaryotic sequences indicated 98% completeness. Over 16,000 MAKER-derived gene models showed a large degree of overlap with other Dipteran reference genomes. The sequence of the ribosomal RNA transcribed unit was also determined. Unscaffolded assemblies of B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi were then produced; comparison with B. tryoni showed that the species are more closely related than any Drosophila species pair. The similarity of the genomes was exploited to identify 4924 potentially diagnostic indels between the species, all of which occur in non-coding regions. This first draft B. tryoni genome resembles other dipteran genomes in terms of size and putative coding sequences. For all three species included in this study, we have identified a comprehensive set of non-redundant repetitive sequences, including the ribosomal RNA unit, and have quantified the major satellite DNA

  16. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    support high abundance of biting flies due to the favourable conditions within the forest for breeding, refuge and easy migration of adult females to animal cages to seek for blood meal. Table 1: Abundance of Biting Flies in Relation to Species in the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden. Site. Stomoxys calcitrans. Haematopota.

  17. A new species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Lysmatidae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjeevi; Baeza, J Antonio

    2017-12-12

    A new species of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata baueri n. sp., is described based on a single specimen from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from other morphologically similar species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 by the number of teeth, length and shape of the rostrum, the length of the antennular peduncle relative to the scaphocerite, the number of meral and ischial articles in the second pereiopods, and the number of spines on the flexor margin of the dactyli from the third to fifth pereiopods. Morphological characters demonstrate that L. baueri n. sp., is most closely related to the eastern Pacific L. californica (Stimpson, 1866), L. nayaritensis Wicksten, 2000 and L. porteri (Rathbun, 1907).

  18. Relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in Gorilla, Pan and the human species from the study of their areas and centres of area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Schaaf, A

    1996-01-01

    In order to quantify the relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in hominoid primates, a new methodology based on image analysis was developed and applied to a series of 134 hominoid skulls (52 Gorilla gorilla; 30 Pan troglodytes; 44 Homo sapiens, and, as comparison material, 8 Pongo pygmaeus). The areas and the centres of area of the orbital and nasal openings were determined automatically. The orbitonasal triangle connecting these three centres of area was then constructed. This triangle was used to quantify the elongation of the face. It was most elongated in gorilla, shortest in the human species and intermediate in Pan; the elongation in Pongo was close to that in Gorilla. The proportions of the areas of the orbital and nasal openings in the face were related to the extent of the bony structures of the midface and were thus used to quantify the facial robustness. A robust face was demonstrated in Gorilla, but a gracile face in the human species. Robusticity in Pan was intermediate.

  19. On Neotropical Merophysiinae with descriptions of a new genus and new species (Coleoptera, Endomychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-Varela, Emmanuel; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Huo, Lizhi; Seidel, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Intensive survey of museum collections and new field collecting resulted in discovery of six new, closely related species of the Neotropical Merophysiinae. A new species of the genus Lycoperdinella Champion, L. boliviensis sp. n., from Bolivia and Brazil, and five new species from Mexico for which a new genus is proposed here as Rueckeria gen. n.: R. inecol (type species), R. nigrileonis, R. ocelotl, R. puma, R. skelleyi spp. n., have been discovered. Lycoperdinella, Rueckeria gen. n., L. subcaeca Champion and all new species are diagnosed, described, and illustrated. Keys to the species of Lycoperdinella and Rueckeria and a distribution map are provided. A lectotype of Lycoperdinella subcaeca Champion, 1913 is designated. Molecular barcodes of three new species of Rueckeria are provided in order to help with the identification of these taxa. PMID:29674866

  20. Species from within the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, P. erythroseptica and P. sansomeana, readily hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaiefarahani, Banafsheh; Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa, Reza; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-08-01

    During a study on the phylogenetic relationships between species in the Phytophthora cryptogea complex and related species, Phytophthora erythroseptica and Phytophthora sansomeana, 19 hybrid isolates with multiple polymorphisms in the nuclear sequences were observed. Molecular characterization of hybrids was achieved by sequencing three nuclear (internal transcribed spacers, β-tubulin (TUB), heat shock protein 90) and two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NADH)) gene regions and cloning of the single-copy nuclear gene, TUB. Based on the molecular studies the hybrid isolates belonged to six distinct groups between P. cryptogea, P. erythroseptica, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, P. sansomeana, and Phytophthora sp. kelmania. In all cases, only a single coxI and NADH allele was detected and nuclear genes were biparentally inherited, suggesting that the hybrids arose from sexual recombination events. Colony morphology, growth rate, cardinal temperatures, breeding system, and morphology of sporangia, oogonia, oospores, and antheridia were also determined. Some morphological differences between the hybrids and the parental species were noted; however, they were not sufficient to reliably distinguish the taxa and DNA markers from nuclear and mitochondrial genes will to be necessary for their identification. The parental species are all important pathogens of agricultural fields that have been transported globally. With the apparent ease of hybridization within this group there is ample opportunity for virulent hybrids to form, perhaps with extended host ranges. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A note on the new species of the genus Isopsera (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae: Phaneropterinae) from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Rajendra; Mal, Jhabar; Swaminathan, R

    2015-05-29

    A new species of the genus, Isopsera: Isopsera arcuata Nagar, Mal, Swaminathan sp. nov. (Orthoptera:Phaneropteridae Burmeister, 1838; Phaneropterinae Burmeister, 1838) is described. The holotype (♂) was collected from South India: Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu). The geographical location had the following specifications: 12⁰58 N 77⁰35E 930MSL South India. The described species differs from the two closely related species, I. caligula Ingrisch and I. spinosa Ingrisch, based on the structure of the male sub-genital plate, cerci and stridulatory file on the left tegmen.

  2. Exploiting fine-scale genetic and physiological variation of closely related microbes to reveal unknown enzyme functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badur, Ahmet H; Plutz, Matthew J; Yalamanchili, Geethika; Jagtap, Sujit Sadashiv; Schweder, Thomas; Unfried, Frank; Markert, Stephanie; Polz, Martin F; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Rao, Christopher V

    2017-08-04

    Polysaccharide degradation by marine microbes represents one of the largest and most rapid heterotrophic transformations of organic matter in the environment. Microbes employ systems of complementary carbohydrate-specific enzymes to deconstruct algal or plant polysaccharides (glycans) into monosaccharides. Because of the high diversity of glycan substrates, the functions of these enzymes are often difficult to establish. One solution to this problem may lie within naturally occurring microdiversity; varying numbers of enzymes, due to gene loss, duplication, or transfer, among closely related environmental microbes create metabolic differences akin to those generated by knock-out strains engineered in the laboratory used to establish the functions of unknown genes. Inspired by this natural fine-scale microbial diversity, we show here that it can be used to develop hypotheses guiding biochemical experiments for establishing the role of these enzymes in nature. In this work, we investigated alginate degradation among closely related strains of the marine bacterium Vibrio splendidus One strain, V. splendidus 13B01, exhibited high extracellular alginate lyase activity compared with other V. splendidus strains. To identify the enzymes responsible for this high extracellular activity, we compared V. splendidus 13B01 with the previously characterized V. splendidus 12B01, which has low extracellular activity and lacks two alginate lyase genes present in V. splendidus 13B01. Using a combination of genomics, proteomics, biochemical, and functional screening, we identified a polysaccharide lyase family 7 enzyme that is unique to V. splendidus 13B01, secreted, and responsible for the rapid digestion of extracellular alginate. These results demonstrate the value of querying the enzymatic repertoires of closely related microbes to rapidly pinpoint key proteins with beneficial functions. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  4. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  5. Predicting relative species composition within mixed conifer forest pixels using zero‐inflated models and Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon L. Savage; Rick L. Lawrence; John R. Squires

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and land management applications would often benefit from maps of relative canopy cover of each species present within a pixel, instead of traditional remote-sensing based maps of either dominant species or percent canopy cover without regard to species composition. Widely used statistical models for remote sensing, such as randomForest (RF),...

  6. Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, David H; Wagner, Warren L

    2015-01-01

    During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands a new endemic species of Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae) has come to light and is described herein: Heliotropiumperlmanii Lorence & W. L. Wagner. It is known only from the island of Eiao and appears most closely related to Heliotropiummarchionicum Decne., also endemic to the Marquesas and known from Nuku Hiva. An amended description of Heliotropiummarchionicum and key to separate the Marquesan species are given and their differences discussed.

  7. Heliotropium ( Boraginaceae ) in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) with description of a new species

    OpenAIRE

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands a new endemic species of Heliotropium L. ( Boraginaceae ) has come to light and is described herein: Heliotropium perlmanii Lorence & W. L. Wagner. It is known only from the island of Eiao and appears most closely related to Heliotropium marchionicum Decne., also endemic to the Marquesas and known from Nuku Hiva. An amended description of Heliotropium marchionicum and key to separate the Marquesan species are given...

  8. Chemical cues mediate species recognition in field crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances eTyler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs are important in mate choice in many insects, and may be used for species recognition if CHC profiles differ between potentially hybridizing species. In the sibling field cricket species Gryllus campestris and G. bimaculatus, females of G. bimaculatus are tolerant towards G. campestris males and can mate with them. However, G. campestris females are highly aggressive towards heterospecific G. bimaculatus males, and matings between them never happen. We examined whether cricket females might use CHCs to determine the species identity of their potential mates. We firstly analyzed the cuticular chemical profile by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to assess the potential of CHCs to be used for species recognition in these crickets. We then manipulated females’ ability to detect chemical cues by carrying out chemical ablation of the antennae, and measured changes in aggressive responses to heterospecific males. We show that there are significant interspecies differences in CHC expression for both sexes, and that females with chemically ablated antennae reduce aggressive behavior towards heterospecific males. Our findings support the prediction that cuticular semiochemicals can play a key role in reproductive isolation between closely related insect species.

  9. Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites for Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae) and cross-amplification in related species1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Xie, Hongxian; Yang, Yi; Huang, Yelin; Wang, Jianwu; Tan, Fengxiao

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Chloroplast and mitochondrial microsatellites were identified to study the population genetics of Millettia pinnata (Fabaceae). Methods and Results: Based on publicly available plastid genome sequence data of M. pinnata, 42 primer pairs were developed, of which 17 displayed polymorphisms across 89 individuals from four populations. For chloroplast loci, two to six alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.391 to 0.857. For mitochondrial loci, two to four alleles were recovered and the unbiased haploid diversity ranged from 0.264 to 0.740. Sixteen of the 17 screened markers could be successfully amplified in the related species M. pulchra. Conclusions: The 17 microsatellite markers developed here exhibited variation in M. pinnata and 16 presented transferability in the related species M. pulchra, suggesting that these markers will be valuable for genetic studies across M. pinnata and its related species. PMID:28529836

  10. Rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Du, Qiuyang; Qin, Haiwen; Shi, Juan; Wu, Zhiyi; Shao, Weidong

    2018-02-01

    The gypsy moth- Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus)-is a worldwide forest defoliator and is of two types: the European gypsy moth and the Asian gypsy moth. Because of multiple invasions of the Asian gypsy moth, the North American Plant Protection Organization officially approved Regional Standards for Phytosanitary Measures No. 33. Accordingly, special quarantine measures have been implemented for 30 special focused ports in the epidemic areas of the Asian gypsy moth, including China, which has imposed great inconvenience on export trade. The Asian gypsy moth and its related species (i.e., Lymantria monocha and Lymantria xylina ) intercepted at ports are usually at different life stages, making their identification difficult. Furthermore, Port quarantine requires speedy clearance. As such, it is difficult to identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species only by their morphological characteristics in a speedy measure. Therefore, this study aimed to use molecular biology technology to rapidly identify the Asian gypsy moth and its related species based on the consistency of mitochondrial DNA in different life stages. We designed 10 pairs of specific primers from different fragments of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species, and their detection sensitivity met the need for rapid identification. In addition, we determined the optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification temperature of the 10 pairs of specific primers, including three pairs of specific primers for the Asian gypsy moth ( L. dispar asiatic ), four pairs of specific primers for the nun moth ( L. monocha ), and three pairs of specific primers for the casuarina moth ( L. xylina ). In conclusion, using our designed primers, direct rapid identification of the Asian gypsy moth and its related species is possible, and this advancement can help improve export trade in China.

  11. Number of endemic and native plant species in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2002-01-01

    By simple and multiple regression analyses we investigate updated species numbers of endemic and native vascular plants and seed plants in the Galapagos Archipelago in relation to geographical parameters. We find that the best models to describe species numbers are regression models with log......-transformed species numbers as dependent and log-transformed modified area (i.e. area not covered with barren lava) as an independent variable. This holds both for total species number, for native species number, for endemic species number and for total number of seed plants as well as number of endemic seed plants...

  12. Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvarnstrom, A; Svedin, N; Wiley, C; Veen, T; Gustafsson, L

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in relative fitness of competing species is a key factor affecting the structure of communities. However, it is not intuitive whys species that are ecologically similar should differ in their response to environmental changes. Here we show that two sympatric

  13. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  14. Micrandra inundata (Euphorbiaceae), a new species with unusual wood anatomy from black-water river banks in southern Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Berry; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2004-01-01

    Micrandra inundata is a distinctive new species adapted to seasonally flooded black-water river banks in southern Venezuela. Trees rarely exceed 10 m in height but have thick basal trunks composed of very lightweight wood. It has the smallest leaves and fruits of any known Micrandra species and appears to be most closely related to M. minor Benth. The botanical...

  15. Xenograft survival in two species combinations using total-lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has profound immunosuppressive actions and has been applied successfully to allotransplantation but not xenotransplantation. Cyclosporine (CsA) has not generally permitted successful xenotransplantation of organs but has not been used in combination with TLI. TLI and CsA were given alone and in combination to rats that were recipients of hamster or rabbit cardiac xenografts. Combined TLI and CsA prolonged survival of hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts from three days in untreated controls to greater than 100 days in most recipients. TLI alone significantly prolonged rabbit to rat xenograft survival with doubling of survival time. However, combined treatment did not significantly prolong rabbit-to-rat cardiac xenograft survival compared with TLI alone. The hamster and rat are phylogenetically closely related. Transplants from hamsters to rat are concordant xenografts since the time course of unmodified rejection is similar to first-set rejection of allografts. Although the rabbit-to-rat transplant is also between concordant species (average survival of untreated controls: 3.2 days) the rabbit and rat are more distantly related. These results suggest that TLI is an effective immunosuppressant when applied to cardiac xenotransplants in these animal models; that the choice of species critically affects xenograft survival when TLI and/or CsA are used for immunosuppression; and that the closely related species combination tested has markedly prolonged (greater than 100 days) survival using combined TLI and CsA

  16. A new species of Clinanthus from northern Peru (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Clinantheae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Segundo; Meerow, Alan W

    2016-01-01

    Clinanthus milagroanthus S. Leiva & Meerow, sp. nov. is described from the Department of La Libertad in Peru. The new species is most closely related to Clinanthus mirabilis (Ravenna) Meerow, with further affinities to Clinanthus viridiflorus (R. & P.) Meerow. It can be distinguished from Clinanthus mirabilis by its wider leaves, the much more brightly colored and wide spreading limb, and the much lighter colored perigone tube (yellowish green vs. dark green in Clinanthus mirabilis). A conspicuous bulge just proximal to the midpoint of the tube is a unique character of the new species.

  17. Cyathea arjae Latiff (Cyatheaceae), A New Species of Dwarf Tree-Fern from Sayap, Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latiff, A.

    2015-01-01

    A dwarf tree-fern, Cyathea arjae Latiff is described as a new species from Sayap, Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. This new species belongs to Schizocaena group which has basiscopic veins that originate from the costa and not from the costule. It is closely related to C. capitata in having simply pinnate fronds of which the apex is a deltoid lamina. Holttums key was modified. (author)

  18. Mycobacterium alsiense, a novel, slowly growing species isolated from two patients with pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Elvira; Tortoli, Enrico; Fischer, Arno

    2007-01-01

    A previously undescribed, slowly growing Mycobacterium species was isolated from pulmonary specimens of two patients, one from Denmark and one from Italy. The isolates showed unique 16S rRNA internal transcribed spacers and hsp65 sequences: the 16S rRNA was most closely related to Mycobacterium...

  19. 1 Species Diversity and Relative Abundance.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    from beach seine landings along the central coast during the study period. Landing sites were Winneba, Saltpond and Cape Coast. (Fig. 1). Fish identification was done in the laboratory using manuals (Schneider, 1990;. Kwei & Ofori-Adu, 2005). The identifications were to the family and species levels. Various fish species ...

  20. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Ellis, Angela E; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2009-02-01

    During 2001 to 2004, 4 species of hawks (Buteo and Accipiter spp.) from Georgia were surveyed for Sarcocystis spp. infections by examining intestinal sections. In total, 159 of 238 (66.8%) hawks examined were infected with Sarcocystis spp. Samples from 10 birds were characterized by sequence analysis of a portion of the 18S rRNA gene (783 base pairs). Only 3 of the 10 sequences from the hawks were identical; the remainder differed by at least 1 nucleotide. Phylogenetic analysis failed to resolve the position of the hawk Sarcocystis species, but they were closely related several Sarcocystis species from raptors, rodents, and Sarcocystis neurona. The high genetic diversity of Sarcocystis suggests that more than 1 species infects these 4 hawk species; however, additional molecular or experimental work will be required to determine the speciation and diversity of parasites infecting these avian hosts. In addition to assisting with determining species richness of Sarcocystis in raptors, molecular analysis should be useful in the identification of potential intermediate hosts.

  1. Long-Term Changes in Species Composition and Relative Abundances of Sharks at a Provisioning Site

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnschweiler, Juerg M.; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Barnett, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Diving with sharks, often in combination with food baiting/provisioning, has become an important product of today's recreational dive industry. Whereas the effects baiting/provisioning has on the behaviour and abundance of individual shark species are starting to become known, there is an almost complete lack of equivalent data from multi-species shark diving sites. In this study, changes in species composition and relative abundances were determined at the Shark Reef Marine Reserve, a multi-...

  2. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae described from NE Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Bistrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae. It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, H. diversipunctatus sp. n. and H. globosus sp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality “Khon Kaen” (a city and province. Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  3. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  4. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  5. Open-closed homotopy algebra in mathematical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiura, Hiroshige; Stasheff, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss various aspects of open-closed homotopy algebras (OCHAs) presented in our previous paper, inspired by Zwiebach's open-closed string field theory, but that first paper concentrated on the mathematical aspects. Here we show how an OCHA is obtained by extracting the tree part of Zwiebach's quantum open-closed string field theory. We clarify the explicit relation of an OCHA with Kontsevich's deformation quantization and with the B-models of homological mirror symmetry. An explicit form of the minimal model for an OCHA is given as well as its relation to the perturbative expansion of open-closed string field theory. We show that our open-closed homotopy algebra gives us a general scheme for deformation of open string structures (A ∞ algebras) by closed strings (L ∞ algebras)

  6. Geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Carrara, Francesco; Mari, Lorenzo; Altermatt, Florian; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2016-02-16

    Elevational gradients of biodiversity have been widely investigated, and yet a clear interpretation of the biotic and abiotic factors that determine how species richness varies with elevation is still elusive. In mountainous landscapes, habitats at different elevations are characterized by different areal extent and connectivity properties, key drivers of biodiversity, as predicted by metacommunity theory. However, most previous studies directly correlated species richness to elevational gradients of potential drivers, thus neglecting the interplay between such gradients and the environmental matrix. Here, we investigate the role of geomorphology in shaping patterns of species richness. We develop a spatially explicit zero-sum metacommunity model where species have an elevation-dependent fitness and otherwise neutral traits. Results show that ecological dynamics over complex terrains lead to the null expectation of a hump-shaped elevational gradient of species richness, a pattern widely observed empirically. Local species richness is found to be related to the landscape elevational connectivity, as quantified by a newly proposed metric that applies tools of complex network theory to measure the closeness of a site to others with similar habitat. Our theoretical results suggest clear geomorphic controls on elevational gradients of species richness and support the use of the landscape elevational connectivity as a null model for the analysis of the distribution of biodiversity.

  7. Comparative studies of jaw morphology and ontogeny in two species of asexually reproducing Dorvilleidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macnaughton, Martin Oliver; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Worsaae, Katrine

    2011-01-01

    found in closely related species (Macnaughton et al. 2009). Details of dentition and numbers of maxillary plates as well as the ontogenetic growth patterns of the jaws were found to provide significant information of systematic value. Based on detailed studies of jaw ontogeny and morphology, Dorvillea...

  8. The Role of Documentation Quality in Anesthesia-Related Closed Claims: A Descriptive Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Bryan A; Geisz-Everson, Marjorie; Boust, Rebecca R

    2016-09-01

    Clinical documentation is a critical tool in supporting care provided to patients. Sound documentation provides a picture of clinical events that can be used to improve patient care. However, many other uses for clinical documentation are equally important. Such documentation informs clinical decision support tools, creates a legal record of patient care, assists in financial reimbursement of services, and serves as a repository for secondary data analysis. Conversely, poor documentation can impair patient safety and increase malpractice risk exposure by reflecting poor or inaccurate information that ultimately may guide patient care decisions.Through an examination of anesthesia-related closed claims, a descriptive qualitative study emerged, which explored the antecedents and consequences of documentation quality in the claims reviewed. A secondary data analysis utilized a database generated by the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation closed claim review team. Four major themes emerged from the analysis. Themes 1, 2, and 4 primarily describe how poor documentation quality can have negative consequences for clinicians. The third theme primarily describes how poor documentation quality that can negatively affect patient safety.

  9. Heliotropium (Boraginaceae in the Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia with description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Lorence

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the preparation of the Vascular Flora of the Marquesas Islands a new endemic species of Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae has come to light and is described herein: Heliotropium perlmanii Lorence & W. L. Wagner. It is known only from the island of Eiao and appears most closely related to H. marchionicum Decne., also endemic to the Marquesas and known from Nuku Hiva. An amended description of H. marchionicum and key to separate the Marquesan species are given and their differences discussed.

  10. Experiments for habitation-related technologies in closed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Tsuyoshi; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary habitation experiments, including facility implementation tests, investigation of work load and psychological and physiological effect of human subjects, environmental monitoring tests, and integrated implementation tests were performed in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Results showed insufficient ability of CO 2 separator, issues of overtime work of subjects and inadequate communication between subjects and supporting staff outside the modules. Countermeasures for these issues were developed. Results show that habitation experiments from fiscal year 2005 on the CEEF were judged to be feasible. (author)

  11. 27 CFR 70.485 - Closing agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Administrative Remedies § 70.485 Closing agreements... disadvantage through consummation of such an agreement. (b) Scope of closing agreement—(1) In general. A...

  12. Species delimitation in the reef coral genera Echinophyllia and Oxypora (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae) with a description of two new species

    KAUST Repository

    Arrigoni, Roberto

    2016-09-09

    Scleractinian corals are affected by environment-induced phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific morphological variation caused by genotype. In an effort to identify new strategies for resolving this taxonomic issue, we applied a molecular approach for species evaluation to two closely related genera, Echinophyllia and Oxypora, for which few molecular data are available. A robust multi-locus phylogeny using DNA sequence data across four loci of both mitochondrial (COI, ATP6-NAD4) and nuclear (histone H3, ITS region) origin from 109 coral colonies was coupled with three independent putative species delimitation methods based on barcoding threshold (ABGD) and coalescence theory (PTP, GMYC). Observed overall congruence across multiple genetic analyses distinguished two traditional species (E. echinoporoides and O. convoluta), a species complex composed of E. aspera, E. orpheensis, E. tarae, and O. glabra, whereas O. lacera and E. echinata were indistinguishable with the sequenced loci. The combination of molecular species delimitation approaches and skeletal character observations allowed the description of two new reef coral species, E. bulbosa sp. n. from the Red Sea and E. gallii sp. n. from the Maldives and Mayotte. This work demonstrated the efficiency of multi-locus phylogenetic analyses and recently developed molecular species delimitation approaches as valuable tools to disentangle taxonomic issues caused by morphological ambiguities and to re-assess the diversity of scleractinian corals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, Andrea; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection.

  14. An experimental test of fitness variation across a hydrologic gradient predicts willow and poplar species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojing; Savage, Jessica A; Riggs, Charlotte E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-05-01

    Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly. We performed an experimental test of environmental filtering in 14 closely related willow and poplar species (family Salicaceae) by transplanting cuttings of each species into 40 common gardens established along a natural hydrologic gradient in the field, where competition was minimized and herbivory was controlled. We analyzed species fitness responses to the hydrologic environment based on cumulative growth and survival over two years using aster fitness models. We also examined variation in nine drought and flooding tolerance traits expected to contribute to performance based on a priori understanding of plant function in relation to water availability and stress. We found substantial evidence that environmental filtering along the hydrologic gradient played a critical role in determining species distributions. Fitness variation of each species in the field experiment was used to model their water table depth optima. These optima predicted 68% of the variation in species realized hydrologic niches based on peak abundance in naturally assembled communities in the surrounding region. Multiple traits associated with water transport efficiency and water stress tolerance were correlated with species hydrologic niches, but they did not necessarily covary with each other. As a consequence, species occupying similar hydrologic niches had different combinations of trait values

  15. On integrable c < 1 open-closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.V.

    1994-01-01

    The integrable structure of open-closed string theories in the (p, q) conformal minimal model backgrounds is presented. The relation between the τ-function of the closed string theory and that of the open-closed string theory is uncovered. The resulting description of the open-closed string theory is shown to fit very naturally into the framework of the sl(q, C) KdV hierarchies. In particular, the twisted bosons which underlie and organise the structure of the closed string theory play a similar role here and may be employed to derive loop equations and correlation function recursion relations for the open-closed strings in a simple way. (orig.)

  16. Subsocial behaviour and brood adoption in mixed-species colonies of two theridiid spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsted, Lena; Agnarsson, Ingi; Bilde, Trine

    2012-12-01

    Cooperation and group living often evolves through kin selection. However, associations between unrelated organisms, such as different species, can evolve if both parties benefit from the interaction. Group living is rare in spiders, but occurs in cooperative, permanently social spiders, as well as in territorial, colonial spiders. Mixed species spider colonies, involving closely related species, have rarely been documented. We examined social interactions in newly discovered mixed-species colonies of theridiid spiders on Bali, Indonesia. Our aim was to test the degree of intra- and interspecific tolerance, aggression and cooperation through behavioural experiments and examine the potential for adoption of foreign brood. Morphological and genetic analyses confirmed that colonies consisted of two related species Chikunia nigra (O.P. Cambridge, 1880) new combination (previously Chrysso nigra) and a yet undescribed Chikunia sp. Females defended territories and did not engage in cooperative prey capture, but interestingly, both species seemed to provide extended maternal care of young and indiscriminate care for foreign brood. Future studies may reveal whether these species adopt only intra-specific young, or also inter-specifically. We classify both Chikunia species subsocial and intra- and interspecifically colonial, and discuss the evolutionary significance of a system where one or both species may potentially benefit from mutual tolerance and brood adoption.

  17. A diminutive new species of cave-dwelling Wolf Snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Boie, 1826) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar M S, Shahrul; Muin, Mohd Abdul; Wood, Perry L; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2014-06-12

    A newly discovered, diminutive, cave-dwelling, lowland species of the colubrid snake genus Lycodon Boie is described from a limestone cave along the Thai-Malaysian border in the state of Perlis, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. Lycodon cavernicolus sp. nov. is most closely related to L. butleri Boulenger, an endemic, upland, forest-dwelling species from Peninsular Malaysia of the fasciatus group but is separated from L. butleri and all other species of the L. fasciatus group and the closely related L. ruhstrati group by having the combination of 245 (male) and 232 (female) ventral scales; 113 (male) and 92 (female) paired, subcaudal scales; a single precloacal plate; nine or 10 supralabials; 10 or 11 infralabials; a maximum total length of 508 mm (female); a relative tail length of 0.25-0.27; an immaculate venter in juveniles and dark-brown, posterior, ventral scale margins in adults; and dorsal and caudal bands in juveniles white. The discovery of L. cavernicolus sp. nov. adds to a rapidly growing list of newly discovered reptiles from karst regions and limestone forests of Peninsular Malaysia, underscoring the fact that these areas should be studied before they are quarried as they harbor a significant portion of the Peninsular Malaysia's herpetological diversity.

  18. Historical introgression drives pervasive mitochondrial admixture between two species of pelagic sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Shannon; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Eddy, Corey; Duffy, Clinton; Yang, Lei; Li, Chenhong; Bazinet, Adam L; Mona, Stefano; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2017-05-01

    We use a genomic sampling of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers to examine a pattern of genetic admixture between Carcharhinus galapagensis (Galapagos sharks) and Carcharhinus obscurus (dusky sharks), two well-known and closely related sharks that have been recognized as valid species for more than 100years. We describe widespread mitochondrial-nuclear discordance in which these species are readily distinguishable based on 2152 nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms from 910 independent autosomal regions, but show pervasive mitochondrial admixture. The species are superficially morphologically cryptic as adults but show marked differences in internal anatomy, as well as niche separation. There was no indication of ongoing hybridization between the species. We conclude that the observed mitochondrial-nuclear discordance is likely due to historical mitochondrial introgression following a range expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synthetic Hexaploids Derived from Wild Species Related to Sweet Potato

    OpenAIRE

    SHIOTANI, Itaru; KAWASE, Tsuneo; 塩谷, 格; 川瀬, 恒男

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of germplasm of the wild species in sweet-potato breeding has been conducted for the last three decades. Such attempts brought some remarkable achievments in improving root yield, starch content and resistance to the nematodes of sweet potato. Some wild plants in polyploid series may have many genes potentially important for further improvement of the agronomic traits. However, the genomic relationship between the wild relatives and hexaploid sweet potato (2n=6x=90) has been u...

  20. Brain infarction correlates more closely with acrolein than with reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Ryotaro; Park, Hyerim; Ishii, Itsuko; Yoshida, Madoka; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Toida, Toshihiko; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Kojima, Soichi; Ikeguchi, Yoshihiko; Pegg, Anthony E; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2011-01-28

    Although it is thought that the major factor responsible for cell damage is reactive oxygen species (ROS), our recent studies have shown that acrolein is more toxic than ROS. Thus, the relative importance of acrolein and ROS in cell damage during brain infarction was compared using photochemically induced thrombosis model mice. The levels of acrolein-conjugated albumin, and of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-conjugated albumin and 8-OHdG were evaluated as indicators of damage produced by acrolein and ROS, respectively. The increase in acrolein-conjugated albumin was much greater than the increase in HNE-conjugated albumin or 8-OHdG, suggesting that acrolein is more strongly involved in cell damage than ROS during brain infarction. It was also shown that infarction led more readily to RNA damage than to DNA or phospholipid damage. As a consequence, polyamines were released from RNA, and acrolein was produced from polyamines, especially from spermine by spermine oxidase. Production of acrolein from spermine by spermine oxidase was clarified using spermine synthase-deficient Gy mice and transglutaminase 2-knockout mice, in which spermine content is negligible or spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase activity is elevated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionary and domestication history of Cucurbita (pumpkin and squash) species inferred from 44 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Heather R; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2017-06-01

    Phylogenetics can facilitate the study of plant domestication by resolving sister relationships between crops and their wild relatives, thereby identifying the ancestors of cultivated plants. Previous phylogenetic studies of the six Cucurbita crop lineages (pumpkins and squashes) and their wild relatives suggest histories of deep coalescence that complicate uncovering the genetic origins of the six crop taxa. We investigated the evolution of wild and domesticated Cucurbita using the most comprehensive and robust molecular-based phylogeny for Cucurbita to date based on 44 loci derived from introns of single-copy nuclear genes. We discovered novel relationships among Cucurbita species and recovered the first Cucurbita tree with well-supported resolution within species. Cucurbita comprises a clade of mesophytic annual species that includes all six crop taxa and a grade of xerophytic perennial species that represent the ancestral xerophytic habit of the genus. Based on phylogenetic resolution within-species we hypothesize that the magnitude of domestication bottlenecks varies among Cucurbita crop lineages. Our phylogeny clarifies how wild Cucurbita species are related to the domesticated taxa. We find close relationships between two wild species and crop lineages not previously identified. Expanded geographic sampling of key wild species is needed for improved understanding of the evolution of domesticated Cucurbita. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Species Identity of the Widely Cultivated Ganoderma, ‘G. lucidum’ (Ling-zhi), in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Cun; Xi, Rui-Jiao; Li, Yi; Wang, Dong-Mei; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Ling-zhi, a widely cultivated fungus in China, has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Although the name ‘Ganoderma lucidum’, a species originally described from England, has been applied to the fungus, their identities are not the same. This study aims to clarify the identity of this medicinally and economically important fungus. Specimens of Ling-zhi from China (field collections and cultivated basidiomata of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’), G. lucidum from UK and other related Ganoderma species, were examined both morphologically and molecularly. High variability of basidioma morphology was found in the cultivated specimens of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’, while some microscopic characters were more or less consistent, i.e. short clavate cutis elements, Bovista-type ligative hyphae and strongly echinulate basidiospores. These characters were also found in the holotype of G. sichuanense, a species originally described from Sichuan, China, and in recent collections made in the type locality of the species, which matched the diagnostic characters in the prologue. For comparison, specimens of closely related species, G. lucidum, G. multipileum, G. resinaceum, G. tropicum and G. weberianum, were also examined. DNA sequences were obtained from field collections, cultivated basidiomata and living strains of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’, specimens from the type locality of G. sichuanense, and specimens of the closely related species studied. Three-gene combined analyses (ITS+IGS+rpb2) were performed and the results indicated that the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’ shared almost identical sequences with G. sichuanense. Based on both morphological and molecular data, the identity of the Chinese ‘G. lucidum’ (Ling-zhi) is considered conspecific with G. sichuanense. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations are provided in addition to discussion of nomenclature implications. PMID:22911713

  3. Partitioning sources of variation in vertebrate species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To explore biogeographic patterns of terrestrial vertebrates in Maine, USA using techniques that would describe local and spatial correlations with the environment. Location: Maine, USA. Methods: We delineated the ranges within Maine (86,156 km2) of 275 species using literature and expert review. Ranges were combined into species richness maps, and compared to geomorphology, climate, and woody plant distributions. Methods were adapted that compared richness of all vertebrate classes to each environmental correlate, rather than assessing a single explanatory theory. We partitioned variation in species richness into components using tree and multiple linear regression. Methods were used that allowed for useful comparisons between tree and linear regression results. For both methods we partitioned variation into broad-scale (spatially autocorrelated) and fine-scale (spatially uncorrelated) explained and unexplained components. By partitioning variance, and using both tree and linear regression in analyses, we explored the degree of variation in species richness for each vertebrate group that Could be explained by the relative contribution of each environmental variable. Results: In tree regression, climate variation explained richness better (92% of mean deviance explained for all species) than woody plant variation (87%) and geomorphology (86%). Reptiles were highly correlated with environmental variation (93%), followed by mammals, amphibians, and birds (each with 84-82% deviance explained). In multiple linear regression, climate was most closely associated with total vertebrate richness (78%), followed by woody plants (67%) and geomorphology (56%). Again, reptiles were closely correlated with the environment (95%), followed by mammals (73%), amphibians (63%) and birds (57%). Main conclusions: Comparing variation explained using tree and multiple linear regression quantified the importance of nonlinear relationships and local interactions between species

  4. Patterns of leaf morphology and leaf N content in relation to winter temperatures in three evergreen tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Sonia; Gallardo-López, Victoria; González-Zurdo, Patricia; Escudero, Alfonso

    2012-09-01

    The competitive equilibrium between deciduous and perennial species in a new scenario of climate change may depend closely on the productivity of leaves along the different seasons of the year and on the morphological and chemical adaptations required for leaf survival during the different seasons. The aim of the present work was to analyze such adaptations in the leaves of three evergreen species ( Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Pinus pinaster) and their responses to between-site differences in the intensity of winter harshness. We explore the hypothesis that the harshness of winter would contribute to enhancing the leaf traits that allow them to persist under conditions of stress. The results revealed that as winter harshness increases a decrease in leaf size occurs in all three species, together with an increase in the content of nitrogen per unit leaf area and a greater leaf mass per unit area, which seems to be achieved only through increased thickness, with no associated changes in density. P. pinaster was the species with the most intense response to the harshening of winter conditions, undergoing a more marked thickening of its needles than the two Quercus species. Our findings thus suggest that lower winter temperatures involve an increase in the cost of leaf production of evergreen species, which must be taken into account in the estimation of the final cost and benefit balance of evergreens. Such cost increases would be more pronounced for those species that, like P. pinaster, show a stronger response to the winter cold.

  5. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.

  6. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S

    2012-10-01

    Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Comparative analysis of diosgenin in Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants by UPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tao; Fan, Lan-Lan; Chen, Hong-Li; Zhu, Guo-Yuan; Suen, Hau-Man; Tang, Yi-Na; Zhu, Lin; Chu, Chu; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-08-09

    Dioscorea is a genus of flowering plants, and some Dioscorea species are known and used as a source for the steroidal sapogenin diosgenin. To screen potential resource from Dioscorea species and related medicinal plants for diosgenin extraction, a rapid method to compare the contents of diosgenin in various plants is crucial. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) method was developed for identification and determination of diosgenin in various plants. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted. Twenty-four batches of plant samples from four Dioscorea species, one Smilax species and two Heterosmilax species were analyzed by using the developed method.The present method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Diosgenin was found in three Dioscorea species and one Heterosmilax species, namely D. zingiberensis, D. septemloba, D. collettii and H. yunnanensis. The method is suitable for the screening of diosgenin resources from plants. D. zingiberensis is an important resource for diosgenin harvesting.

  8. Sapromyza lopesi sp. n. from Brazil: a species related to S. duodecimvittata (Frey, 1919 (Diptera: Lauxaniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Shewell

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Sapromyza lopesi, is described from Brazil, and compared with its closest relative, S. duodecimvittata (Frey. Some remarks are made on the generic classification of South American Lauxaniidae as it affects these and other species.

  9. Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Mizoram, northeastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalnuntluanga; Lalramliana

    2013-01-01

    Schistura maculosa, a new species of loach, is described from Tuingo and Pharsih Rivers, tributaries of Tuivai River (Barak drainage) in Mizoram, northeastern India. It is distinguished from other closely related Schistura species in having an axillary pelvic lobe; an incomplete lateral line; 20-30 narrow black bars on the body; 3-4 rows of black spots horizontally across the dorsal-fin; a slightly emarginate caudal-fin, with 5-7 rows of black spots more or less regularly arranged vertically on rays across the fin, and 8+8 branched caudal-fin rays.

  10. A new species of Piper (Piperaceae) from the Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlach, Justin

    2002-01-01

    A new species of Piper (Piperaceae), P. silhouettanum, is described from the Anse Mondon river valley, Silhouette Island, Seychelles. This species is close to P. nigrum but distinguished by its different venation, glabrous leaves, persistent elongated stipules and reduced bracts. This species is

  11. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisés A.

    2016-11-22

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  12. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisé s A.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Simison, W. Brian; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  13. Seedling Growth Strategies in Bauhinia Species: Comparing Lianas and Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhi-Quan; Poorter, Lourens; Cao, Kun-Fang; Bongers, Frans

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Lianas are expected to differ from trees in their growth strategies. As a result these two groups of woody species will have different spatial distributions: lianas are more common in high light environments. This study determines the differences in growth patterns, biomass allocation and leaf traits in five closely related liana and tree species of the genus Bauhinia. Methods Seedlings of two light-demanding lianas (Bauhinia tenuiflora and B. claviflora), one shade-tolerant liana (B. aurea), and two light-demanding trees (B. purpurea and B. monandra) were grown in a shadehouse at 25 % of full sunlight. A range of physiological, morphological and biomass parameters at the leaf and whole plant level were compared among these five species. Key Results The two light-demanding liana species had higher relative growth rate (RGR), allocated more biomass to leaf production [higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and higher leaf area ratio (LAR)] and stem mass fraction (SMF), and less biomass to the roots [root mass fraction (RMF)] than the two tree species. The shade-tolerant liana had the lowest RGR of all five species, and had a higher RMF, lower SMF and similar LMF than the two light-demanding liana species. The two light-demanding lianas had lower photosynthetic rates per unit area (Aarea) and similar photosynthetic rates per unit mass (Amass) than the trees. Across species, RGR was positively related to SLA, but not to LAR and Aarea. Conclusions It is concluded that the faster growth of light-demanding lianas compared with light-demanding trees is based on morphological parameters (SLA, LMF and LAR), and cannot be attributed to higher photosynthetic rates at the leaf level. The shade-tolerant liana exhibited a slow-growth strategy, compared with the light-demanding species. PMID:17720978

  14. A novel Botrytis species is associated with a newly emergent foliar disease in cultivated Hemerocallis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Grant-Downton

    Full Text Available Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as 'spring sickness' were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of 'spring sickness' symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.

  15. Genomic relations among 31 species of Mammillaria haworth (Cactaceae) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattagajasingh, Ilwola; Mukherjee, Arup Kumar; Das, Premananda

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-one species of Mammillaria were selected to study the molecular phylogeny using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. High amount of mucilage (gelling polysaccharides) present in Mammillaria was a major obstacle in isolating good quality genomic DNA. The CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) method was modified to obtain good quality genomic DNA. Twenty-two random decamer primers resulted in 621 bands, all of which were polymorphic. The similarity matrix value varied from 0.109 to 0.622 indicating wide variability among the studied species. The dendrogram obtained from the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis revealed that some of the species did not follow the conventional classification. The present work shows the usefulness of RAPD markers for genetic characterization to establish phylogenetic relations among Mammillaria species.

  16. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Lindstrom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Py. montereyensis sp. nov., Py. columbiensis sp. nov., and Py. protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Py. columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Py. lanceolata or Py. pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Py. nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Py. lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California.

  17. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  18. Identification of Escherichia coli and Shigella Species from Whole-Genome Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaway, Marie A; Schaefer, Ulf; Tewolde, Rediat; Dallman, Timothy J; Jenkins, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Escherichia coli and Shigella species are closely related and genetically constitute the same species. Differentiating between these two pathogens and accurately identifying the four species of Shigella are therefore challenging. The organism-specific bioinformatics whole-genome sequencing (WGS) typing pipelines at Public Health England are dependent on the initial identification of the bacterial species by use of a kmer-based approach. Of the 1,982 Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. isolates analyzed in this study, 1,957 (98.4%) had concordant results by both traditional biochemistry and serology (TB&S) and the kmer identification (ID) derived from the WGS data. Of the 25 mismatches identified, 10 were enteroinvasive E. coli isolates that were misidentified as Shigella flexneri or S. boydii by the kmer ID, and 8 were S. flexneri isolates misidentified by TB&S as S. boydii due to nonfunctional S. flexneri O antigen biosynthesis genes. Analysis of the population structure based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data derived from the WGS data showed that the remaining discrepant results belonged to clonal complex 288 (CC288), comprising both S. boydii and S. dysenteriae strains. Mismatches between the TB&S and kmer ID results were explained by the close phylogenetic relationship between the two species and were resolved with reference to the MLST data. Shigella can be differentiated from E. coli and accurately identified to the species level by use of kmer comparisons and MLST. Analysis of the WGS data provided explanations for the discordant results between TB&S and WGS data, revealed the true phylogenetic relationships between different species of Shigella, and identified emerging pathoadapted lineages. © Crown copyright 2017.

  19. The nuclear higher-order structure defined by the set of topological relationships between DNA and the nuclear matrix is species-specific in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Santiago, Evangelina; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2017-01-15

    During the interphase the nuclear DNA of metazoan cells is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to constituents of a nuclear substructure or compartment known as the nuclear matrix. The stable interactions between DNA and the nuclear matrix (NM) correspond to a set of topological relationships that define a nuclear higher-order structure (NHOS). Current evidence suggests that the NHOS is cell-type-specific. Biophysical evidence and theoretical models suggest that thermodynamic and structural constraints drive the actualization of DNA-NM interactions. However, if the topological relationships between DNA and the NM were the subject of any biological constraint with functional significance then they must be adaptive and thus be positively selected by natural selection and they should be reasonably conserved, at least within closely related species. We carried out a coarse-grained, comparative evaluation of the DNA-NM topological relationships in primary hepatocytes from two closely related mammals: rat and mouse, by determining the relative position to the NM of a limited set of target sequences corresponding to highly-conserved genomic regions that also represent a sample of distinct chromosome territories within the interphase nucleus. Our results indicate that the pattern of topological relationships between DNA and the NM is not conserved between the hepatocytes of the two closely related species, suggesting that the NHOS, like the karyotype, is species-specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fuelwood quality of promising tree species for alkaline soil sites in relation to tree age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Inst., Lucknow (India). Biomass Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The fuelwood quality of five tree species suitable for afforestation of alkaline soil sites was investigated in relation to tree age for establishing harvest rotation cycles. Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica were found to be the most suitable species for short rotation fuel wood forestry programmes because of their high wood density, biomass yield, low ash and moisture content, and good heat of combustion at the juvenile stage. The performance of other species like Acacia auriculiformis, Terminalia arjuna and Sesbania formosa is discussed. (author)

  1. An estimate of the number of tropical tree species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slik, J. W Ferry; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Aiba, Shin Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The high species richness of tropical forests has long been recognized, yet there remains substantial uncertainty regarding the actual number of tropical tree species. Using a pantropical tree inventory database from closed canopy forests, consisting of 657,630 trees belonging to 11,371 species, ...

  2. Development of microsatellite loci in Scrophularia incisa (Scrophulariaceae) and cross-amplification in congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Hong; Chen, Chuan; Ma, Qing; Li, Pan; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2014-02-01

    To elucidate the population genetics and phylogeography of Scrophularia incisa, microsatellite primers were developed. We also applied these microsatellite markers to its closely related species S. dentata and S. kiriloviana. • Using the compound microsatellite marker technique, 12 microsatellite primers were identified in S. incisa. The number of alleles ranged from 14 to 26 when assessed in 78 individuals from four populations. With high cross-species transferability, these primers also amplified in S. dentata and S. kiriloviana. • These results indicate that these microsatellite markers are adequate for detecting and characterizing population genetic structure in the Chinese species of sect. Tomiophyllum at fine and range-wide geographical scales.

  3. Flowering calendar and morphometric featur