l'Elevage et de la Pêche). 2011. Plan. Stratégique de Relance du Secteur. Agricole (PSRSA), MAEP, 116p. Mario Quispe H, Manuel Tantalea V, José. Angulo T, Gina Casas V, Enrique. Serrano M. 2011. Helminth parasites in. Cavia tschudii (Rodentia, Caviidae) of. Cusco, Peru. Peruvian Journal of parasitology, 19(2): 5p.
Krascheninnikow, Serhij; Jeska, Edward L.
The Ouchterlony technique has been applied to three species of parasitic ciliates: Balantidium coli, B. caviae and B. wenrichi. Species specificity has been demonstrated by the occurrence of precipitation bands peculiar to B. coli and B. caviae, while B. wenrichi was distinguished by its limited reactivity with the antisera of the other two species. B. coli and B. caviae are shown to be immunologically more closely related to each other than to B. wenrichi. The antigenic properties of B. coli and B. caviae appear more complex than in B. wenrichi. PMID:14459337
Full Text Available The Electric ray Discopyge tschudii is distributed in the Southwest Atlantic from southern Brazil to southern Argentina and in the Southeast Pacific from Peru to southern Chile. The main threat to this species is fishing. Discopyge tschudii is noncommercial and individuals caught are discarded on board. The present study analyzes the distribution and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of this ray in San Matías Gulf (SMG, Argentina. A total of 1087 individuals were analyzed. The species presented an aggregate distribution, with the main concentrations in the northern and eastern areas of SMG, at depths below 100 m. Males ranged from 9 to 43 cm and females from 11 to 38 cm. The species presented sexual dimorphism. Males were larger and heavier than females and also matured at larger sizes. Size at 50% of maturity was estimated at 30 cm for males and 21 cm for females. A total of 199 embryos were sampled and the proportion of sexes showed no significant differences from the expected 1:1. The number of embryos per female varied from 1 to 12. The most frequent values were 2 and 5. Length at birth was estimated at 82.17 ± 3.87 mm. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the electric ray D. tschudii completes its reproductive cycle in SMG.
Alfonso Baldi; Andrea Lanza; Francesco Menicagli; Signorile, Pietro G.; Spugnini, Enrico P
Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by the ectopic proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. The pathogenesis of this disease is still obscure, and Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation is still the most widely accepted explanation. Endometriosis in animals has been so far described not only in baboons and a rhesus macaque but also in dogs and horses that are nonmenstruating animals. In this article, we report the histological and immu...
Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease characterized by the ectopic proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. The pathogenesis of this disease is still obscure, and Sampson’s theory of retrograde menstruation is still the most widely accepted explanation. Endometriosis in animals has been so far described not only in baboons and a rhesus macaque but also in dogs and horses that are nonmenstruating animals. In this article, we report the histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the first case of ovarian cystic endometriosis and adenomyosis in a guinea pig. The case presented supports the hypothesis that endometriosis is a disease not at all related to the phenomenon of retrograde menstruation but is a consequence of some alterations in the morphogenesis of the female genital system and therefore it could be found in any mammal. We suggest considering endometriosis among the other pathological phenotypes in animals displaying ovarian and uterine alterations and having a history of difficulties in conceiving.
Patiño Camargo, Luis; Zulueta, Julián de; Toro, Gabriel
Existe en Colombia el Toxoplasma caviae, organismo patógeno para el curí. Este hallazgo abre la posibilidad de que haya en el país toxoplasmosis humana. Nuestro informe es una sugestión a la curiosidad de los investigadores.
Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; P?rez, Alicia; Rodr?guez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J.
The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1-3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%)...
Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J
The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A₂ (PLA₂s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1-3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1-2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA₂-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA₂ dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms.
Sanz, Libia; Pla, Davinia; Pérez, Alicia; Rodríguez, Yania; Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Lomonte, Bruno; Calvete, Juan J.
The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs) constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30) and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome), the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome), 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%), and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7%) complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae) venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms. PMID:27338473
Full Text Available The venom proteome of the poorly studied desert coral snake Micrurus tschudii tschudii was unveiled using a venomic approach, which identified ≥38 proteins belonging to only four snake venom protein families. The three-finger toxins (3FTxs constitute, both in number of isoforms (~30 and total abundance (93.6% of the venom proteome, the major protein family of the desert coral snake venom. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s; seven isoforms, 4.1% of the venom proteome, 1–3 Kunitz-type proteins (1.6%, and 1–2 l-amino acid oxidases (LAO, 0.7% complete the toxin arsenal of M. t. tschudii. Our results add to the growing evidence that the occurrence of two divergent venom phenotypes, i.e., 3FTx- and PLA2-predominant venom proteomes, may constitute a general trend across the cladogenesis of Micrurus. The occurrence of a similar pattern of venom phenotypic variability among true sea snake (Hydrophiinae venoms suggests that the 3FTx/PLA2 dichotomy may be widely distributed among Elapidae venoms.
Full Text Available The Electric ray Discopyge tschudii is distributed in the Southwest Atlantic from southern Brazil to southern Argentina and in the Southeast Pacific from Peru to southern Chile. The main threat to this species is fishing. Discopyge tschudii is noncommercial and individuals caught are discarded on board. The present study analyzes the distribution and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of this ray in San Matías Gulf (SMG, Argentina. A total of 1087 individuals were analyzed. The species presented an aggregate distribution, with the main concentrations in the northern and eastern areas of SMG, at depths below 100 m. Males ranged from 9 to 43 cm and females from 11 to 38 cm. The species presented sexual dimorphism. Males were larger and heavier than females and also matured at larger sizes. Size at 50% of maturity was estimated at 30 cm for males and 21 cm for females. A total of 199 embryos were sampled and the proportion of sexes showed no significant differences from the expected 1:1. The number of embryos per female varied from 1 to 12. The most frequent values were 2 and 5. Length at birth was estimated at 82.17 ± 3.87 mm. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the electric ray D. tschudii completes its reproductive cycle in SMG.La raya eléctrica Discopyge tschudii se distribuye, en el Atlántico Sudoccidental, desde el sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y en el Pacifico Sudoriental desde Perú al sur de Chile. La principal amenaza para la especie es la pesca. Es una especie sin valor comercial y debido a esto los ejemplares capturados por las embarcaciones pesqueras son descartados a bordo. En el presente estudio se analizan la distribución espacial y las características morfológicas y reproductivas de la especie en el Golfo San Matías (GSM, Argentina. Un total de 1087 ejemplares fueron analizados. La especie presentó una distribución agregada, encontrándose las principales concentraciones en el sector norte
Full Text Available Se evaluó el efectoin vitrodeLactobacillus plantarumsobreYersinia pseudotuberculosisaislada de cuyes (Cavia porcellus e identificada bioquímica y molecularmente. Se deter-minó la viabilidad deL. plantaruma diferentes pH (3.25, 4.5, 7.6 y 8.2, sales biliaresbovinas (3, 4 y 5%, bilis bovina (0.5, 1 y 2% y temperatura (38 y 45°C. Se realizóantibiograma a ambas bacterias con Cefalotina, Cefepima, Ciprofloxacina, Dicloxacilina,Enrofloxacina, Gentamicina, Penicilina y Trimetropim-Sulfametoxasol. Se determina-ron los péptidos deL. plantarummediante HPLC y la cinética de crecimiento en dossustratos (MRS y Pro, midiéndose: biomasa, pH, consumo de azúcar total y ácidoláctico. Se observó un mejor crecimiento bajo pH 3.25, sales biliares 5%, bilis bovina2% y temperatura de 45°C con valores de 3.0·1012, 2.3·1012, 8.6·1011y 3.0·1012UFC/ml, respectivamente.L. plantarumy el sobrenadante inhibieron aY. pseudotuberculosis,con halos de 3 y 5 mm. Se observó resistencia deL. plantarumyY. pseudotuberculosisaPenicilina y Dicloxacilina, respectivamente, con sensibilidad de ambas cepas a los demásantibióticos. Se evidenciaron los péptidos VAL-TIR-VAL y TIR-GLI-GLI-FA-METen el sobrenadante deL. plantarum. Durante la fase logarítmica para los medios MRSy Pro se alcanzaron valores de 6.75·1012y 1.20·1012UFC/ml (biomasa, 6.96 y 5.49(pH, y 0.65 y 0.76%, (ácido láctico, respectivamente. La comparación de los mediosmediante un diseño de bloques al azar (P> 0.05, mostró similar comportamiento.L.plantarumdemostró su potencial probiótico en condicionesin vitro.
d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico
Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.
Full Text Available The research was conducted in the Laboratory of Science Education, University of Muhammadiyah Metro. The research is a descriptive analysis, morphological observations were made by identifying the nematode parasite found that Trichostrongylus sp, Strongyloides sp, Trichuris sp, Trichuris sp. The results showed the prevalence and intensity values is the large number of guinea pigs to parasites divided by the number of guinea pigs that are 100% inspected. While the intensity is seen from the total number of nematode parasites that infect in the number of guinea pigs infected with a parasite that is 2,3. The population in this study was 10 cows pigs (Cavia cobaya . This study took a part in the digestion of marmots (Cavia cobaya the intestines and stomach , then cut and taken part in the large intestine and be Indian ink or coloring 2-3 drops to be easily identified microscopically . Put the preparations into a petri dish , and given alcohol as much as 96 % with 2-3 drops . Taking part in the examination of the large intestine to taste then used the nematode worm structure with Indian ink dye to be observed , and placed in the glass object . Observed with a microscope. Document if the parasites are found by using the camera Erlina 2008. Identification of the observations made have found 3 types of parasites that attack the guinea pig (Cavia cobaya is Strongyloides sp on samples 1,2,3,4,5,6 , dan10 . Then parasite Trichuris sp species found in samples 8 and 9. Trichostrongylus sp parasite species found in sample 7 . Parasitic nematodes found were 3 types of Trichostrongylus sp, Strongyloides sp, Trichuris sp. Number of samples that have been observed as many as 10 cows pigs (Cavia cobaya , with the overall result is as much as 23 tails parasites. Kata kunci: nematode parasit, marmut (Cavia cobaya, sumber belajar biologi.
Full Text Available Aeromonas caviae strains have been isolated from blood and stool cultures of three immunocompetent patients, residents of Northern India, who presented with community acquired septicemia without any recent history of diarrhea. Cell culture infectivity test performed on Hep-2 cells have shown substantial degree of invasiveness in the isolated strains. This case unleashes a possibility of asymptomatic gastrointestinal carriage of such strains of A. caviae in a very large population of India, as several areas of India have very high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis (up to 13%. It needs to be appraised further in India as well as other countries having high rates of Aeromonas induced acute diarrhea/gastroenteritis.
Singh, Shanker K; Dimri, Umesh; Ahmed, Quazi Shahir; Sayedda, Kauser; Singh, Krishna Veer
The present study was intended to evaluate the efficacy of doramectin against seven naturally Trixacarus caviae infested male guinea pigs. Multiple skin scrapings of all the seven guinea pigs were found microscopically positive for T. caviae mites. Clinically these animals revealed, more or less denuded, very red often thickened, and crustated cutaneous lesions restricted at the sacral region and back. Doramectin 1 % (w/v) was administered intramuscularly at a dose rate of 400 μg/kg once weekly, which resulted in profound improvements in clinical conditions within 14 days after the first doramectin application. It took almost 28 days for the cutaneous lesions to disappear and to witness partial hair coat regrowth. Two moderately infested guinea pigs required only single injection of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure, while remaining five (one moderately infested and four severely infested) guinea pigs required two injections of doramectin to achieve complete parasitological cure. No adverse effects were revealed by any of the doramectin treated guinea pigs during the study period. Thus, it can be concluded from the present study that guinea pigs naturally infested by T. caviae mites can be cured safely using two doses of doramectin once in a week.
Lessa, Thais Borges; da Fonseca, Erika T; de Abreu, Dilayla Kelly; Rodrigues, Marcio Nogueira; Bertassoli, Bruno Machado; de Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo
The diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle. Along with other respiratory muscles, the diaphragm is responsible for the muscular contraction that generates the respiratory cycle and, as a consequence, the gaseous interchanges in the lungs. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus 1758) are largely used as experimental animals in many biology applications due to their easy management, low cost, and docile behavior. As the diaphragm exerts important effects on lung physiology and function, this study aimed at investigating the morphological characteristics of the muscle, through macroscopic, microscopic, and scanning electron microscopy to add reference data for future studies. We observed a "U"-shaped tendineous center and its morphology was similar to other mammals. These results cooperate with the descriptive and comparative anatomy of mammals, besides can be used as control data for areas of surgery and stem cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Héctor Aníbal Campos
Full Text Available En el presente estudio, mostramos los primeros resultados moleculares de formas colombianas de Cavia. Claramente, la población silvestre de C. anolaimae fue genéticamente diferenciada de la forma doméstica, C. porcellus, tal como ha sido demostrado por otros autores utilizando resultados morfométricos, osteológicos y cariotípicos. Ambas especies mostraron un considerable nivel de diversidad genética, aunque el segundo taxon mostró niveles mayores de esta diversidad. Los niveles de heterogeneidad genética también fueron mayores entre las poblaciones de C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 que entre las poblaciones de C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. Esos niveles significativos de heterogeneidad genética, y los consiguientes bajos niveles de flujo génico, fueron discutidos comparativamente con los resultados por otros autores analizando otros marcadores moleculares (citocromo-b mitocondrial. Los resultados aquí mostrados son coherentes con un complejo proceso de domesticación en Cavia porcellus.Population genetics of Colombian Guinea Pigs, Cavia spp. (Rodentia: Caviidae with RAPD molecular markers. The genus Cavia occurs in South America, mainly in grasslands.. We collected blood samples from 97 individuals in six field populations and analyzed them with RAPD molecular markers. One wild type (C. anolaimae was differentiated from the domestic form (C. porcellus, in agreement with other authors who used morphological, osteological and karyotipic results. Genetic diversity was considerable in both species, but higher in C. porcellus. The levels of genetic heterogeneity were also higher among the populations of C. porcellus (F ST = 0.254 than among the populations of C. anolaimae (F ST = 0.118. These significant levels of genetic heterogeneity, and the low levels of gene flow, were consistent with a complex domestication process for Cavia porcellus. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1481-1501. Epub 2008 September 30.
Sandra Regina Alexandre
Full Text Available In order to improve the sanitary control of a guinea pig colony, a study was conducted to determine the presence and identification of ectoparasites as well the efficacy of ectoparasiticides most commonly used in mites control. The guinea pigs mite Chirodiscoides caviae was identified with a high level of infestation, 314 mites per cm2 of hair. The infested guinea pigs were submitted to different treatment with Cypermethrin high-cis (0.1%, Trichlorfon (0.1%, Malathion (0.2% and Monossulfiran (12.5%. All there products showed efficacy.
Khan, A A; Cerniglia, C E
A 16S rDNA-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for the detection of Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas trota. These two species were identified from other Aeromonas spp. and closely related species by primers set (AER1 and AER2). The amplified product was 316 bp. The identity of the amplified product was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Two sets of primers (AER8 and AER9) were used for specific identification of Aer. caviae. Amplifying the 260 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene region and digesting it with AluI restriction enzyme, yielded 180- and 80-bp fragments. For PCR assay, template DNA was released by mixing equal volumes of homogenized seeded crab meat with Aer. caviae and Chelex 100 (6%) incubated for 10 min at 56 degrees C followed by addition of an equal volume of 0.1% Triton-X-100 and boiled for 10 min. The detection limit was between 50 and 100 cells g-1 of crab meat. This method is very rapid and obviates the need for DNA isolation from complex food matrices and is specific for detecting two Aeromonas species.
Ngou Ngoupayou, JD.
Full Text Available Guinea Pig Cavia porcellus L. As A Meat Producing Animal In Cameroon. Guinea pig Cavia porcellus farming for meat production remains a marginalised activity in Cameroon in spite of the advantages this specie offers. With the view to promote its production, a national countrywide survey was carried out in order to evaluate the production systems and constraints. Traditional guinea pig farming appears to be a secondary household activity undertaken by small farmers basically women. The extensive production system which reveals no management practices, integrates very well in the agricultural systems (small livestock, food crops and natural forages production of the western highlands and southern forest zones of Cameroon. Guinea pig productivity remains low due to many constraints such as predation, uncontrolled breeding, inbreeding, poor feeding, negative selection and lack of veterinary care. Nevertheless, guinea pig farming plays an important role in the well being of low income village dwellers as food security, cash savings and socio-cultural values within the populations of South Cameroon. The promotion of its production requires an awareness of animal scientists, development authorities, as well as on station research if improved raising conditions.
Magalhães, Geraldo Magela; Oliveira, Sílvia Cristina de Castro; Soares, Ana Cláudia de Brito; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; de Resende, Maria Aparecida
Mycetoma is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis caused by exogenous fungi or actinomycetes. This infection has a progressive course and shows a typical clinical characteristic of tumefaction, draining sinuses, and grains. Infection initiation is related to local trauma and can spread to muscle, underlying bone, and adjacent organs. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most frequent actinomycete isolated, while N. caviae is a rare agent. We present a case of mycetoma in a 37-year-old African-American man on the right hand. The infection had been apparent for four years prior to the consultation. When the infection did not respond to antibiotic therapy, the patient was referred to the Dermatology department. Routine laboratory studies were normal. X-ray examination of the hand showed an osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. On skin biopsy culture, on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar at 28 degrees C, a colony was isolated which was further identified as N. caviae by biochemical and hydrolysis testing. The patient was treated with oral trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ) 160/800 mg twice a day for 10 months. Four months after the beginning of the therapy, the subject exhibited clinical improvement and functional recovery of the hand. Five-year follow-up X-ray examination of the hand showed no osteolytic lesion on the hand bones. We report the first mycetoma case caused by N. caviae in our country with an unusual location on the hand. The patient showed clinical improvement with oral TMP/SMZ.
Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; Hilderink, Loes J; Oost, John van der; Vos, Willem M de; Plugge, Caroline M
A novel cellobiose-degrading and lactate-producing bacterium, strain Cavy grass 6T, was isolated from faecal samples of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Cells of the strain were ovalshaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, Gram-stain-positive and facultatively anaerobic. The strain gr at 25-40 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 4.5-9.5 (optimum 8.0). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Cavy grass 6T belongs to the genus Streptococcus with its closest relative being Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T with only 96.5 % similarity. Comparing strain Cavy grass 6T and Streptococcus devriesei CCUG 47155T, average nucleotide identity and level of digital DNA-DNA hybridization dDDH were only 86.9 and 33.3 %, respectively. Housekeeping genes groEL and gyrA were different between strain Cavy grass 6T and other streptococci. The G+C content of strain Cavy grass 6T was 42.6±0.3 mol%. The major (>10 %) cellular fatty acids of strain Cavy grass 6T were C16:0, C20 : 1ω9c and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). Strain Cavy grass 6T ferment a range of plant mono- and disaccharides as well as polymeric carbohydrates, including cellobiose, dulcitol, d-glucose, maltose, raffinose, sucrose, l-sorbose, trehalose, inulin and dried grass extract, to lactate, formate, acetate and ethanol. Based on phylogenetic and physiological characteristics, Cavy grass 6T can be distinguished from other members of the genus Streptococcus. Therefore, a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, family Streptococcaceae, order Lactobacillales is proposed, Streptococcuscaviae sp. nov. (type strain Cavy grass 6T=TISTR 2371T=DSM 102819T).
Suranjan; Sayantan; Jayashree; Piyali; Chinmoy; Amrita
Aeromonas caviae is commonly recognized as a low - virulence gram - negative bacillus. Human infections due to Aeromonas caviae may present as a variety of diseases, such as wound infection, acute gastroenteritis, septicemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis or endocarditis. It has rarely been reported as a causative organism of septicemia. We pre...
Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.
Fetzer, Tara J; Mans, Christoph
An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.
Tara J. Fetzer
Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.
Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang
The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.
Svetlana A Romanenko
Full Text Available The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia, is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11 considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.
Mariangela de Toledo Barbino
Full Text Available To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. Macroscopically, the fetuses livers have a reddish brown color and their division into lobes is clearly seen, as well as the presence of the gallbladder. The liver is divided into left lateral lobe, left medial lobe, right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, and caudate lobe with caudate and papillary processes. Through light microscopy, highly vascularized tissue is observed, and the left portion of the liver receive blood from the placenta through the umbilical vein, and the right portion is irrigated by the portal vein. The structures found on the liver of Guinea pig fetuses in late gestation are anatomically similar to those of other mammalian species.
Mariangela de Toledo Barbino
Full Text Available This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758] fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four cavities, it is surrounded by the pericardium, and it has three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. Foramen ovale has a great importance in the fetal circulation, but it could not be visualized in sections carried out in this study. Through these results we conclude that the hearts of Guinea pig fetuses differ from those of other species in structures such as the cranial vena cava, which is not divided into left and right, and that the walls thickness of left and right ventricles does not differ significantly.
Dunbar, Misha L; David, Emily M; Aline, Marian R; Lofgren, Jennifer L
Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs. PMID:26817977
Guenther, Anja; Brust, Vera; Dersen, Mona; Trillmich, Fritz
The evolution and maintenance of consistent individual differences, so called animal personalities, have attracted much research interest over the past decades. Variation along common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Individuals that are bolder and hence take more risks may be more successful in acquiring resources over the short term. Cautious individuals taking fewer risks may, on the other hand, live longer, but may also gather fewer resources over the short term. According to recent theory, individual differences in personality may be functionally related to individual differences in cognitive performance (i.e., the way in which individuals acquire or use information). Individual differences in the acquisition speed of cognitively challenging tasks are often associated with a speed-accuracy trade-off. Accuracy can be improved by investing more time in the decision-making process or, conversely, decisions can be made more quickly at the cost of making more mistakes. Hence, the speed-accuracy trade-off often involves a risk-reward trade-off. We tested whether 3 personality traits, boldness, activity, and aggressiveness, are correlated with individual learning, associative learning speed, and behavioral flexibility as assessed by reversal learning in wild cavies (Cavia aperea). We found strong positive relationships between all personality traits and learning speed, whereas flexibility was negatively associated with aggressiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that performance reflects individual differences in personality in a predictable way. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques
In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. © FEMS 2015.
Janzen, MID; Timmermans, PJA; Kruijt, JP; Vossen, JMH
Filial imprinting has been studied extensively in precocial birds. In these studies, inanimate objects were used as imprinting objects. Although attachment to the parents is common in mammals, experiments with inanimate objects are rare and mostly restricted to guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The
Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.
Stolarski, David J; Zohner, Justin J; Imholte, Michelle L; Chavey, Lucas J; Pocock, Ginger M; Buchanan, Kelvin C; Jindra, Nichole M; Figueroa, Manuel A; Thomas, Robert J; Rockwell, Benjamin A
.... Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin...
Graham, Jay P; Vasco, Karla; Trueba, Gabriel
Domestic animals and animal products are the source of pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in industrialized countries, yet little is known about the transmission of these bacteria in developing countries. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are commonly raised for food in the Andean region of South America, however, limited research has characterized this rodent as a reservoir of zoonotic enteric pathogens. In this study, we examined the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in 203 fecal samples from domestic animals of 59 households in a semi-rural parish of Quito, Ecuador. Of the twelve animal species studied, guinea pigs showed the highest prevalence of C. jejuni (n = 39/40; 97.5%). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic relationship of C. jejuni from domestic animals and 21 sequence types (STs) were identified. The majority of STs from guinea pigs appeared to form new clonal complexes that were not related to STs of C. jejuni isolated from other animal species and shared only a few alleles with other C. jejuni previously characterized. The study identifies guinea pigs as a major reservoir of C. jejuni and suggests that some C. jejuni strains are adapted to this animal species. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ortiz, P. E.
Full Text Available A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Family Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Family Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Family Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. The taphonomy indicates that the sequence is an owl pellet accumulation inside the cave. The general landscape corresponds to the oriental border of the Puna steppe, with scattered shrub and low brush vegetation. Near the site there are small tree groups of Polylepis australis as well as small streams covered with grass and ciperaceous vegetation known as Â«vegasÂ». Al1 the recorded taxa at Inca Cueva 5 exist today in Puna and Prepuna environments from Jujuy and Salta Provinces and southem Bolivia, excepting Cavia cf. C. tschudii. The modem records of this species in northem Argentina and southern Bolivia come from localities with high montane bunchgrass prairies and forests of the humid Yungas phytogeographical region. The presence of this species in the sequence suggests wetter climatic conditions on this region when the archaeological site was originated. Later drier conditions, caused probably by anthropic influence in the last 500 years, produced the retraction of Cavia tschudii to the moist eastern side of the Andes and its disappeareance of the Puna areas.El sitio arqueológico Inca Cueva 5 se encuentra en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, en el borde oriental de la región de la Puna (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m s n m y está fechado entre 2120 f 120 y 780 f 100 años radiocarbónicos AP. El estudio de una pequeña muestra de
Objectif : Une étude expérimentale sur les paramètres de la reproduction chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus) élevé en zone périphérique de Kinshasa a été réalisée. Son objectif est d'apprendre aux éleveurs des cobayes une gestion rationnelle de la reproduction par un choix judicieux des femelles actives à la saillie, ...
Mariangela de Toledo Barbino; Claudia Marinovic Oliveira; Erika Toledo Fonseca; Phelipe de Oliveira Favaron; Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Miglino
To describe the anatomy of the liver of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758]) fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Three fetuses of Guinea pig in late gestation have been used, which were dissected and had their livers removed. These were analized, described, and photographed macroscopically and microscopically through light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microsc...
Mariangela de Toledo Barbino; Claudia Marinovic Oliveira; Erika Toledo Fonseca; Phelipe de Oliveira Favaron; Márcio Nogueira Rodrigues; Maria Angélica Miglino
This study has been developed in order to describe the anatomy of the heart of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeu,1758]) fetuses in late gestation and to obtain anatomical characteristics that can support and help the understanding of the physiology of fetal circulation. Fetuses have been collected from three female in late gestation, which were described and photographed macroscopically, trhough light microscopy in HE and scanning electronic microscopy. The fetal heart is divided into four...
Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M
Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.
Müller, J; Clauss, M; Codron, D; Schulz, E; Hummel, J; Kircher, P; Hatt, J-M
Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn down by the mastication of an appropriate diet. In this study, we tested the effect of four different pelleted diets of increasing abrasiveness [due to both internal (phytoliths) and external abrasives (sand)] or whole grass hay fed for 2 weeks each in random order to 16 guinea pigs on incisor growth and wear, and tooth length of incisors and cheek teeth. There was a positive correlation between wear and growth of incisors. Tooth lengths depended both on internal and external abrasives, but only upper incisors were additionally affected by the feeding of whole hay. Diet effects were most prominent in anterior cheek teeth, in particular M1 and m1. Cheek tooth angle did not become shallower with decreasing diet abrasiveness, suggesting that a lack of dietary abrasiveness does not cause the typical 'bridge formation' of anterior cheek teeth frequently observed in guinea pigs. The findings suggest that other factors than diet abrasiveness, such as mineral imbalances and in particular hereditary malocclusion, are more likely causes for dental problems observed in this species. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Imziln, Boujama; Krovacek, Karel; Baloda, Suraj B.
.406) than those isolated from raw sewage (PVI = 0.175) or those from river waters (PVI = 0.09). These results suggest that stabilisation pond systems used for sewage purification under arid climate conditions in Marrakech, may have selected potentially enteropathogenic A. caviae strains.......A total of 100 Aeromonas caviae strains isolated from river waters (38 isolates), raw sewage (30 isolates) and effluents of stabilisation ponds (i.e. treated sewage; 32 isolates) in Marrakech, Morocco, were tested for the presence of putative virulence factors to delineate differences, if any...
Hildebrand, Falk; Ebersbach, Tine; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn
Background: Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared th...
Ye, Ying; Xu, Xi-Hai; Li, Jia-Bin
Aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. We report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by Aeromonas caviae. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. The beta-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a new ampC gene that was closely related to those encoding the MOX-1, MOX-2 and MOX-3 beta-lactamases. This new plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase from China was named MOX-4. This is believed to be the first report of MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1 beta-lactamases in a multiresistant A. caviae.
Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V
The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.
Carnahan, A M; Joseph, S W
There are currently eight proposed or validated Aeromonas spp. of which five have been implicated in human disease: A. hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. veronii, and A. schubertii. Recent studies have extended the geographic distribution and source of isolation of the newer species and resulted in the possibility of two new species, A. jandaei and A. trota, from diarrheal, wound, blood and environmental sources.
CITED Benoit JB, Lopez-Martinez G, Patrick KR, Phillips ZP, Krause TB, Denlinger DL. 2011. Drinking a hot blood meal elicits a protective heat shock...stephensi but not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia Author(s): Jessica N. Buchta...ANOPHELES STEPHENSI BUT NOT PHLEBOTOMUS PAPATASI ARE INFLUENCED BY ACTIVELY WARMING GUINEA PIGS (CAVIA PORCELLUS) UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA1 JESSICA N
30 sept. 2017 ... Anvers : IMT. Salsac B 2004 Élevage des cobayes en Amérique du. Sud, expérimentation : impact de 3 types d'alimentation sur la prise des poids des cobayes durant la période d'engraissement. (Riobamba, Équateur), Haute École Provinciale de Hainaut Occidental, 37pages ;. Schmidt G 1980 Le cochon ...
Bezada Q., Sandra; Práctica privada.; Noé M., Norma; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Béjar C., Vilma; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “DAC”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Mascari G., Juan; Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agraria (INIA)
The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride for the treatment of dermatomicosis caused by Trichophyton sp. in guinea pig (Cavia cobayo) was evaluated in 200 guinea pigs of two months old, that showed typical clinical signs of dermatomicosis. Hair samples and skin grudges were taken for direct exam and for in vitro culture in Dermatophytes Test Medium and Mycobiotic. Skin biopsies for pathobiology were prepared. The guinea pig were divided in groups A and B of 100 animals each. Group A was treated w...
Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca
The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.
Macedo, Josenaldo S; Rocha, Brena P; Colodel, Edson M; Freitas, Sílvio H; Dória, Renata G S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim; Mendonça, Fábio S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Stryphnodendron fissuratum pods in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and test the hypothesis that this plant has teratogenic effects. Thus, sixteen guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups of four animals each. Groups 10, 20 and 40 consisted of guinea pigs that received commercial food that contained crushed pods of S. fissuratum at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40 g/kg, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. Control group consisted of guinea pigs under the same management conditions that did not receive crushed pods of S. fissuratum in their food. In all experimental groups, the main clinical signs of poisoning consisted of anorexia, prostration, absence of vocalizations, alopecia, diarrhea, and abortions within the adult guinea pigs. Those that did not abort gave birth to weak, malnourished pups, some of which had fetal malformations. The main teratogenic changes consisted of eventration, arthrogryposis, amelia of the forelimbs, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, anotia and agnathia. The reductions in the number of offspring and the malformations observed in the experimental groups suggest that S. fissuratum affects fetal development and is teratogenic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor
Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca
The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior. PMID:27025807
Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.
Vojniković, Bozidar; Vojniković, Davor; Brcić, Luka
In 14 experimental Cavia Coba'ya eyes were irradiated with UV-B light, lambda 312 nm, 25 J/cm2 in 15 minute exposure. Including the transmission of light through optical media: cornea, lens, humor aqueous and vitreous body, and pupil surface of 7 mm2, we can calculate that in these conditions retina can be really irradiated with 10 J/cm2. The half number of Cavia Coba'ya was simultaneously irradiated with visible light, lambda of 550-600 nm (1000 Lx). Control group was 5 Cavia Coba'ya. Two months after irradiation, eyes were enucleated and fixed in 4% formaldehyde. Histopathological findings showed alterations of all retinal layers: loss of ganglion cells, axons, reduction of photoreceptors, vacuolar degeneration and hyperplasia of retinal pigment epithelium. In the second group of irradiance, the eyes with visible light lambda 550-600 nm, all retinal alterations were in 50% decreased.
Camino M., Javier; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.; Hidalgo L., Víctor; Departamento de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima.
El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar los parámetros productivos y el porcentaje de grasa en la carcasa de dos genotipos de cuyes (Cavia porcellus) alimentados por nueve semanas con dos tipos de dieta. Se utilizó el diseño estadístico completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2x2, teniendo como factores dos genotipos (Cieneguilla-UNALM y Perú-INIA) y dos tipos de dietas (dieta 1: alimento balanceado, forraje verde y agua; dieta 2: alimento balanceado más vitamina C y agua), y se evaluó el p...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.
Grant, Robyn A; Delaunay, Mariane G; Haidarliu, Sebastian
All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared with terrestrial, diurnal mammals. The guinea pig diverged early from murid rodents (around 75 million years ago), and are ground-dwelling, diurnal animals. It would be predicted that, as a terrestrial mammal, they may have less whiskers and a reduced muscle architecture compared to arboreal, nocturnal rodents. We examined the mystacial whisker layout, musculature and movement capacity of Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) whiskers and found that they did indeed have a disorganized whisker layout, with a fortification around the eye area. In addition, there was a reduction in musculature, especially in the intrinsic muscles. Despite guinea pigs not cyclically moving their whiskers, the mystacial musculature was still very similar to that of murid rodents. We suggest that the conserved presence of whisker layout and musculature, even in visual mammals such as primates and guinea pigs, may indicate that whiskers still play an important role in these animals, including protecting the eyes and being involved in tactile social behaviors. Anat Rec, 300:527-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Balsiger, A; Clauss, M; Liesegang, A; Dobenecker, B; Hatt, J-M
When offered diets with hay ad libitum, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) clearly prefer open dishes over nipple drinkers, but whether this preference also applies in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is unsure. We tested the drinker preference of 10 guinea pigs when offered open dishes (OD) and nipple drinkers (ND) simultaneously and measured the amount of water consumed by each animal on four different diets (grass hay 100%, or as 10% of intake on diets of fresh parsley, seed mix or pelleted complete feed, respectively) on either of the drinking systems. All animals ingested the hay portion of the combined diets first. The amount of water consumed differed significantly between individual animals. Animals drank less water on parsley than on the other diets. Nine of 10 animals clearly preferred ND when having a choice, and eight of these drank more when on ND only. The difference between the drinking systems was not consistent across all diets: on hay, similar amounts of water were drunk when on OD or ND only. Differences in water intake were reflected in urine production. Because drinking from ND in guinea pigs involves jaw movements similar to those in chewing, the results could suggest that when motivation for oral processing behaviour is not satisfied by a diet, animals may respond in using ND beyond physiological water necessity. Whereas physiological water requirements are probably better investigated with other drinking systems due to a possible overestimation when using ND, offering ND to pet guinea pigs most likely offers a form of behavioural enrichment that at the same time may increase water intake and hence act as prophylaxis against urolithiasis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Fukui, Toshiaki; Shiomi, Naofumi; Doi, Yoshiharu
Complementation analysis of a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-negative mutant of Aeromonas caviae proved that ORF3 in the pha locus (a 402-bp gene located downstream of the PHA synthase gene) participates in PHA biosynthesis on alkanoic acids, and the ORF3 gene is here referred to as phaJAc. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) carrying phaJAc under the control of the T7 promoter overexpressed enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase, which was purified by one-step anion-exchange chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified hydratase corresponded to the amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence of phaJAc except for the initial Met residue. The enoyl-CoA hydratase encoded by phaJAc exhibited (R)-specific hydration activity toward trans-2-enoyl-CoA with four to six carbon atoms. These results have demonstrated that (R)-specific hydration of 2-enoyl-CoA catalyzed by the translated product of phaJAc is a channeling pathway for supplying (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA monomer units from fatty acid β-oxidation to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) biosynthesis in A. caviae. PMID:9457873
Dorrestein, G.M.; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van
The clinical symptoms of infestation with Trixacarus caviae in guinea-pigs are described. In general large areas of thickened, denuded skin, with a heavy secondary bacterial infection, and sometimes neurological signs, are observed in mangy cases. Antiparasitic therapy was successful with one or
Full Text Available As glândulas bulbouretrais (GBU no coelho (Oryctolagus cuniculus e na cobaia (Cavia porcellus desempenham um papel importante na fisiologia reprodutiva. No entanto, seus aspectos histológico e estereológico são escassos. Assim, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar características estereológicas entre as GBU do coelho e da cobaia como um primeiro passo para a compreensão das variáveis morfométricas que participam nos processos reprodutivos. Foram utilizados 5 coelhos e 5 cobaias adultos machos, saudáveis, obtidos do Biotério da Universidade de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. A região pélvica foi dissecada isolando-se a GBU de cada animal. Determinou-se o peso e o volume de cada glândula. Estas foram fixadas em formalina tamponada durante 24 horas e incluídas em paraplast. Cortes seriados de 4 μm de espessura foram corados com HE para análise estereológica. A média de células glandulares na GBU do coelho foi 19,50 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,35 e da cobaia 10,57 x 10(5mm³ (DP 2,07 e a porcentagem média de tecido glandular foi de 25,52% (DP 2,20 e 17,20% (DP 3,33, respectivamente. Todos os parâmetros estereológicos comparados tiveram uma diferença estatisticamente significativa (p<0,0001. Estas diferenças poderiam ser explicadas porque há maior proximidade celular do epitélio secretor, menor diâmetro do lúmen dos ácinos e da relação núcleo citoplasma na GBU do coelho. Assim, os ácinos da GBU apresentam maior quantidade de células por mm³ do que na GBU do coelho. Estes parâmetros podem ser influenciados por fatores hormonais, etários, sazonais e ambientais, entre outros. Considerar as características morfológicas da GBU nesses animais poderia condicionar o êxito da reprodução por parte do macho.
Bravo, L; Monté, R J; Alfonso, V; Cabrera, N; Gómez, M; Hernández, R; García, B
One hundred and fifty-five strains of Aeromonas isolated in the stools of children under 5 years presenting with acute diarrheal disease were studied. Using the Aerokey II system for the identification of species, 47 strains were identified as Aeromonas caviae, 58 as Aeromonas hydrophila, 23 as Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria, 14 as Aeromonas trota, 9 as Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii, 2 as Aeromonas jandaei and 2 as Aeromonas shubertii, Emphasis is placed on the advantages of this method which allowed for the classification of new species not identified previously in our country.
Vera Lúcia Mores Rall
Full Text Available Aeromonas has been described as an emergent foodborne pathogen of increasing importance. In this study, we report that 48% of 50 Pintado fish samples collected at the retail market of São Paulo city were positive for Aeromonas sp, as detected by the direct plating method. When the presence/absence method was used, the positivity was 42%. A. caviae was the most frequent species, followed by A. hydrophila and A. sobria. Production of cytotoxic enterotoxin, observed in suckling mouse assay, was detected in 67% of A. sobria strains, in 60% of A. hydrophila strains and in 40% of A. caviae strains. In vitro tests, performed with HEp-2 cells, showed that 88% of A. hydrophila, 27% of A. sobria and 13% of A. caviae strains were positive for this toxin. The in vivo production of cytotonic enterotoxin, tested after heating the filtrates at 56ºC for 20 minutes, was detected in 17% of A. sobria, in 10% of A. caviae and in none of A. hydrophila strains in vivo. All analyzed strains did not alter HEp-2 cells. 20% and 16% of A. sobria and A. caviae isolates, respectively, presented capacity to adhere to HEp-2 cells. In counterpart, invasion of HEp-2 cells was not observed in any isolate. The Aeromonas isolates were sensitive to the majority of the antimicrobiol agents tested.Bactérias do gênero Aeromonas têm sido descritas como patógenos emergentes de importância crescente em alimentos. Neste estudo, relatamos que 48% das amostras de peixe "Pintado" coletado no comércio de São Paulo, foram positivas para Aeromonas sp quando isoladas pelo método de plaqueamento direto. Quando o método Presença/Ausência foi utilizado, a porcentagem de positividade foi de 42%. A. caviae foi a espécie mais freqüente, seguida por A. hydrophila e A. sobria. Produção de enterotoxina citotóxica, determinada em camundongos recém-nascidos, foi observada em 67% das cepas de A. sobria, em 60% das de A. hydrophila e em 40% das de A. caviae. No teste in vitro em c
Full Text Available Wound healing is basically a complex process in which cellular and matrix act in concern to re-establish the integrity of injury tissues. This process can be simplified to be healing process consisted of haemostatic, inflammation, cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. The aimed of this research was to know the influence of freeze drying 90% Aloe vera application as mandible collagen density modulator in extraction socket of incisive Cavia cobaya. This research was done using Post Test Only Control Groups Design and Cavia cobaya as the sample. Six samples of each control group and 90% Aloe vera group applied to test each collagen density for three days and seven days. Then, the data was analyzed statistically using Mann Whitney with 5% significance rate. The result of the study indicates that administering 90% Aloe vera can accelerate the growth of collagen density in healing process of extraction socket. The conclusion is 90% Aloe vera can modulate the density of collageneous fiber in socket of extraction incicivus tooth wound of Cavia cobaya.
Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto
Full Text Available Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03º46'28.83''S e 38º26'36.52''S. Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63% samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37% of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77% of samples. CFU counts varied from < 10 to 1.4 x 10(4 CFU mL-1 . From the isolated strains seven species of Aeromonas were identified: A. caviae (29/69, A. veronii bv. sobria (13/69, A. veronii bv. veronii (8/69, A. trota (6/69, A. media (5/69, A. sobria (4/69 and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69. Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60% showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media, A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists.
Endoparasitos em cobaias (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae provenientes de biotérios de criação e experimentação do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Endoparasites in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (Mammalia, Rodentia, Caviidae from breeding and experimentation animal housing of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Luciana Casartelli Alves
Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre a prevalência e intensidade de infecção de endoparasitos em cobaias convencionais de linhagem Short Hair provenientes de biotérios de criação (A e experimentação (B do município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, avaliando-se a eficácia das medidas de prevenção entre eles. Para a realização do estudo, utilizou-se exame direto de mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal, a técnica de tricromo de WHEATLEY e exames coproparasitológicos pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun. Os parasitos encontrados através da técnica de exame direto da mucosa e do conteúdo intestinal e de tricromo de WHEATLEY com as respectivas prevalências foram: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera uncinata (34% e Giardia muris (24%. Nos exames de fezes realizados pelas técnicas de Ritchie e Kinyoun, foram encontrados os seguintes parasitos com as respectivas prevalências no biotério A: E. caviae (74%, Balantidium sp. (68%, Cyathodinium sp. (68% e Cryptosporidium sp. (5%. No biotério B, observou-se: E. caviae (58%, Balantidium sp. (42%, Cyathodinium sp. (25% e G. muris (8%. A alta prevalência de endoparasitos nos biotérios sugere a necessidade de se rever a eficácia das barreiras sanitárias adotadas.This paper discusses the prevalence and intensity of infection of endoparasites in conventionally maintained Short Hair guinea pigs colonies from a breeding (A and an experimental (B facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also evaluates the efficacy of the methods of prevention adopted by both facilities. The search of parasites was performed by direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents, WHEATLEY's trichrome method and coproparasitological examinations by Ritchie's and Kinyoun's techniques. The prevalences of endoparasites found throught direct examination of intestinal mucosa and its contents were: Balantidium sp. (78%, Cyathodinium sp. (68%, Eimeria caviae (38%, Paraspidodera
Bruno Cesar Schimming
Full Text Available The morphological evolution of the epididymal duct of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, L. was studied on 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 70, 90 and 100 days of age, being complex, which is due to the proper differentiation postnatal in the epididymal epithelium. Thus, it was observed that the initial segment of the epididymis reveals an increase of epithelial height corresponding to the average height of the main tubular epithelium cells, generally progressive after 45 days of age. The epithelial height in the middle segment were higher in younger stages (10 to 45 days than in the prepubertal age (60 days, and have a decrease among 70 to 100 days of age. The ductular terminal segment starts a gradual decrease of the epithelial heights from puberal age (70 days, until adult age (90 to 100 days. In addition, this segment showed epithelial waviness that disappeared after 70 days of age, when the lumen fills it with sperm and cellular exfoliation. The cell types of the epididymal tubular epithelium, principal cells, basal cells and apical cells, were observed in all ages. In the epididymis of very young animals, there was a predominance of undifferentiated columnar cells. After 20 days of age, there was natural prevalence of the principal cells on other cell types, what is a feature similar to other mammals.
Adolfo Sánchez Laiño
Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.
Bazay D., Gonzalo; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Carcelen C., Fernando; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Ara G., Miguel; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Jiménez A., Ronald; Centro de Investigación IVITA, El Mantaro, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Huancayo.; González V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Patología Aviar, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Quevedo G., William; Laboratorio de Zootecnia y Producción Agropecuaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos
El estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de los manano-oligosacáridos (MOS)sobre la ganancia de peso vivo, consumo de alimento y conversión alimenticia de cuyes (Cavia porcellus) durante la fase de engorde. Se distribuyeron 75 cuyes machos de 28 ±3 días de edad en tres tratamientos aplicados como aditivos a una dieta basal: (a) Control(sin aditivo), (b) Antibiótico Promotor del Crecimiento (APC) (aditivo Zn-Bacitracina, 0.1g/kg), y (c) MOS ((aditivo manano-oligosacárido, 0.5 g/kg). El ...
MALCA ACUÑA, LEOCADIO
The levels of absorption of zinc had been determined coming from leaf blades of the houses` roof by Medicago sativa; and its metabolism in Cavia porcellus, are presented. Leaf blades were made with an alloy of zinc. The content of zinc in the agricultural soil, and in Medicago sativa; irrigated with the rainfall collected from the houses` roofs, from Tumbes city –Perú. Two places of Tumbes were selected for the collection of the rainfall water. The pH, temperature, electrical conductivi...
Hisano, Tamao; Tsuge, Takeharu; Fukui, Toshiaki; Iwata, Tadahisa; Miki, Kunio; Doi, Yoshiharu
The (R)-specific enoyl coenzyme A hydratase ((R)-hydratase) from Aeromonas caviae catalyzes the addition of a water molecule to trans-2-enoyl coenzyme A (CoA), with a chain-length of 4-6 carbons, to produce the corresponding (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It forms a dimer of identical subunits with a molecular weight of about 14,000 and is involved in polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been determined at 1.5-A resolution. The structure of the monomer consists of a five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and a central alpha-helix, folded into a so-called "hot dog" fold, with an overhanging segment. This overhang contains the conserved residues including the hydratase 2 motif residues. In dimeric form, two beta-sheets are associated to form an extended 10-stranded beta-sheet, and the overhangs obscure the putative active sites at the subunit interface. The active site is located deep within the substrate-binding tunnel, where Asp(31) and His(36) form a catalytic dyad. These residues are catalytically important as confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and are possibly responsible for the activation of a water molecule and the protonation of a substrate molecule, respectively. Residues such as Leu(65) and Val(130) are situated at the bottom of the substrate-binding tunnel, defining the preference of the enzyme for the chain length of the substrate. These results provide target residues for protein engineering, which will enhance the significance of this enzyme in the production of novel PHA polymers. In addition, this study provides the first structural information of the (R)-hydratase family and may facilitate further functional studies for members of the family.
Megan K Watson
Full Text Available Vitamin D is an important hormone in vertebrates. Most animals acquire this hormone through their diet, secondary to exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation, or a combination thereof. The objectives for this research were to evaluate the clinical and physiologic effects of artificial UVB light supplementation on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus and to evaluate the long-term safety of artificial UVB light supplementation over the course of six months. Twelve juvenile acromelanic Hartley guinea pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: Group A was exposed to 12 hours of artificial UVB radiation daily and Group B received only ambient fluorescent light for 12 hours daily. Animals in both groups were offered the same diet and housed under the same conditions. Blood samples were collected every three weeks to measure blood chemistry values, parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OHD3 levels. Serial ophthalmologic examinations, computed tomography scans, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed during the course of the study. At the end of the study the animals were euthanized and necropsied. Mean ± SD serum 25-OHD3 concentrations differed significantly in the guinea pigs (p<0.0001 between the UVB supplementation group (101.49±21.81 nmol/L and the control group (36.33±24.42 nmol/L. An increased corneal thickness in both eyes was also found in the UVB supplementation compared to the control group (right eye [OD]: p<0.0001; left eye [OS]: p<0.0001. There were no apparent negative clinical or pathologic side effects noted between the groups. This study found that exposing guinea pigs to UVB radiation long term significantly increased their circulating serum 25-OHD3 levels, and that this increase was sustainable over time. Providing guinea pigs exposure to UVB may be an important husbandry consideration that is not currently recommended.
LUCIANA S. SIMÕES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The germinative, Sertoli and Leydig cells of two caviomorph rodents (Cavia porcellus and Dasyprocta agouti were counted as well as the estimation of the total volume of the testis and the total volume of seminiferous tubules and interstitium in prepubertal, pubertal and adult animals. The number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids cells increased during the pubertal phase in both rodents, notably the spermatid cells. The spermatocyte and spermatid slightly decreased in the adult of both rodents, but the increment in spermatogonia cells number was seen, mainly in cutias. The number of Sertoli cells increased in pubertal rodents, but in the adult the number reduced. Substantial number of Leydig cells was counted in pubertal and adult guinea pigs. In cutias, the number of Leydig cells increased in pubertal phase and decline in adults. The design-based stereological method has proven to be unbiased and reliable to be applied in reproduction studies.
Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.
White, SD; Guzman, DSM; Paul-Murphy, J; Hawkins, MG
© 2016 ESVD and ACVD. Background: Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. Hypothesis/Objectives: To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Animals: Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion crite...
Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Carter, Anthony M.; Aplin, John D.
Hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. We have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), human (Homo...... sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)--in order to assess whether evolutionary convergence to the hemomonochorial state is accompanied by a similar convergence of glycan expression. Placentae from 2 E. telfairi, 3 C. crocuta, 1 D. novemcinctus, 4 womenand 1 C. porcellus were fixed and processed...
Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb. As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan
Hisano, T; Fukui, T; Iwata, T; Doi, Y
Dimeric (R)-specific enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase from Aeromonas caviae catalyzes the hydration of trans-2-enoyl-CoAs with carbon lengths of 4-6 to yield their corresponding (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs and is essential for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis. The enzyme has been crystallized by vapour diffusion against a reservoir solution containing 20% polyethylene glycol 4000, 5% 2-propanol and 20 mM HEPES pH 7.0 at 298 K. Crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111.54 (3), b = 59.29 (1), c = 47.27 (4) A, beta = 113.04 (2) degrees and contain a dimeric molecule in the asymmetric unit. Flash-cooling of a crystal at 100 K alters its unit-cell parameters to a = 109.82 (7), b = 57.98 (6), c = 46.84 (2) A, beta = 112.71 (3) degrees. Native data to a resolution of 1.7 A have been collected with 94.5% completeness and an R(merge) of 4.0% under cryogenic (100 K) conditions using synchrotron radiation.
Full Text Available Economic Rationality and Production Management Goals of Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L. in Tropical Zones. The economic productivity of guinea pig in tropical environment was assessed from one hundred and ninety-seven pairs of measures related to reproductive female and weaning weights per litter reared in-door at the Research and Experimental Farm of the University of Dschang between February 2012 and March 2013. An econometric model of linear regression was developed to take into account the main factors affecting the relative weight productivity index at the weaning age of each gestating female. The main results reveal that the economic productivity of guinea pigs in tropical zone, already of a substantial level, could be even more improved by taking into account the main factors of variability. The analysis thus put into evidence that the relative importance of female reproductive weight; the litter size, and the total weight of the kids at weaning are factors having significant effects on the relative weight productivity index of the guinea pig. However, in linking the female weight to economic productivity, the study led to an irrational management of the reproductive herd and put in evidence that the decrease in productivity observed in guinea pig is mostly attributable to the fattening of the female.
A. S. Parra
Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el valor nutritivo de materias primas no convencionales en la elaboración de concentrado animal, de bajo coste y que no compitan con la alimentación del hombre, en la presente investigación se analizó el contenido nutricional de las vísceras abdominales de cuy (Cavia porcellus y de su harina, usando análisis proximal y perfil de ácidos grasos mediante cromatografía de gases. Se compararon estos resultados con materias primas convencionales como la harina de pescado y con vísceras de diversos animales. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la harina de vísceras de cuy puede competir con harinas de diversas procedencias dadas sus cualidades nutricionales (58% proteína, 28% grasa, 4% cenizas; además, el alto contenido de grasa en las vísceras frescas (55% base seca está constituido principalmente ácidos grasos poliinsaturados tipo omega 3, 6 y 9, siendo relevante el contenido de ácido linolénico, ácidos grasos que en la dieta de los animales son escasos y de alto costo. Es posible concluir que los componentes nutricionales de las vísceras de cuy la convierten en una materia prima promisoria en alimentación animal, estimulando así el aprovechamiento de estos residuos.
Alperi, Anabel; Martínez-Murcia, Antonio J; Ko, Wen-Chien; Monera, Arturo; Saavedra, Maria J; Figueras, Maria J
Two clinical Aeromonas strains (A2-50(T) and A2-67(T)) recovered from the wounds of two patients in Taiwan could not be assigned to any known species of this genus based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, which showed similarities of 99.6-99.8 % to those of the type strains of Aeromonas caviae, A. trota and A. aquariorum. The rpoD phylogenetic tree allocated these strains to two novel and independent phylogenetic lines, the neighbouring species being A. caviae, the type strain of which showed 93.2 % similarity (56 bp differences) to strain A2-50(T) and 92.2 % (63 bp differences) to strain A2-67(T). A multilocus phylogenetic analysis of five housekeeping genes (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ and gyrA; 3684 bp) confirmed that the two strains formed independent phylogenetic lineages within the genus. These data, together with phenotypic characterization and DNA-DNA reassociation results, revealed that these strains represent novel Aeromonas species, for which the names Aeromonas taiwanensis sp. nov. (type strain A2-50(T) =CECT 7403(T) =LMG 24683(T)) and Aeromonas sanarellii sp. nov. (type strain A2-67(T) =CECT 7402(T) =LMG 24682(T)) are proposed.
Full Text Available Background: Alveolar bone has an important role in providing support to teeth and dentures. Loss of support caused by alveolar resorption will cause functional and aesthetic problems. Preservation socket using bone graft is one way to maintain the dimensions of the alveolar bone. Moringa oleifera leaf can increase the activity of bone graft in the formation of new bone. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of combined Moringa oleivera leaf extract and demineralized freeze-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX towards the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tooth extraction sockets of cavia cobaya. Method: This study used 28 cavia cobayas divided into four groups. The combination of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX was inducted into the sockets of lower incisor tooth with certain dose in each group, ointment 1 containing PEG (a mixture of PEG 400 and PEG 4000 for control group, ointment 2 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active subtance consentration of 0.5% for group 1, ointment 3 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active substance concentration of 1% for group 2, and Ointment 4 containing Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX and PEG (at active substance consentration of 2% for group 3. paraffin block preparations were made for histopathology examination using hematoxylin eosin staining. Result: The results showed that there were significant differences of the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in each treatment group (p <0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the combination of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and DFDBBX at 2% cocentration can increase the number of osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the healing of tooth extraction sockets of cavia cobaya.
S D Puthucheary
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments giving rise to infections in both fish and humans. Identification of aeromonads to the species level is problematic and complex due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aeromonas hydrophila or Aeromonas sp were genetically re-identified using a combination of previously published methods targeting GCAT, 16S rDNA and rpoD genes. Characterization based on the genus specific GCAT-PCR showed that 94 (96% of the 98 strains belonged to the genus Aeromonas. Considering the patterns obtained for the 94 isolates with the 16S rDNA-RFLP identification method, 3 clusters were recognised, i.e. A. caviae (61%, A. hydrophila (17% and an unknown group (22% with atypical RFLP restriction patterns. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed with the obtained rpoD sequences showed that 47 strains (50% clustered with the sequence of the type strain of A. aquariorum, 18 (19% with A. caviae, 16 (17% with A. hydrophila, 12 (13% with A. veronii and one strain (1% with the type strain of A. trota. PCR investigation revealed the presence of 10 virulence genes in the 94 isolates as: lip (91%, exu (87%, ela (86%, alt (79%, ser (77%, fla (74%, aer (72%, act (43%, aexT (24% and ast (23%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study emphasizes the importance of using more than one method for the correct identification of Aeromonas strains. The sequences of the rpoD gene enabled the unambiguous identication of the 94 Aeromonas isolates in accordance with results of other recent studies. Aeromonas aquariorum showed to be the most prevalent species (50% containing an important subset of virulence genes lip/alt/ser/fla/aer. Different combinations of the virulence genes present in the isolates indicate their probable role in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections.
Puthucheary, S D; Puah, Suat Moi; Chua, Kek Heng
Aeromonas species are common inhabitants of aquatic environments giving rise to infections in both fish and humans. Identification of aeromonads to the species level is problematic and complex due to their phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. Aeromonas hydrophila or Aeromonas sp were genetically re-identified using a combination of previously published methods targeting GCAT, 16S rDNA and rpoD genes. Characterization based on the genus specific GCAT-PCR showed that 94 (96%) of the 98 strains belonged to the genus Aeromonas. Considering the patterns obtained for the 94 isolates with the 16S rDNA-RFLP identification method, 3 clusters were recognised, i.e. A. caviae (61%), A. hydrophila (17%) and an unknown group (22%) with atypical RFLP restriction patterns. However, the phylogenetic tree constructed with the obtained rpoD sequences showed that 47 strains (50%) clustered with the sequence of the type strain of A. aquariorum, 18 (19%) with A. caviae, 16 (17%) with A. hydrophila, 12 (13%) with A. veronii and one strain (1%) with the type strain of A. trota. PCR investigation revealed the presence of 10 virulence genes in the 94 isolates as: lip (91%), exu (87%), ela (86%), alt (79%), ser (77%), fla (74%), aer (72%), act (43%), aexT (24%) and ast (23%). This study emphasizes the importance of using more than one method for the correct identification of Aeromonas strains. The sequences of the rpoD gene enabled the unambiguous identication of the 94 Aeromonas isolates in accordance with results of other recent studies. Aeromonas aquariorum showed to be the most prevalent species (50%) containing an important subset of virulence genes lip/alt/ser/fla/aer. Different combinations of the virulence genes present in the isolates indicate their probable role in the pathogenesis of Aeromonas infections.
Schöpper, Hanna; Palme, Rupert; Ruf, Thomas; Huber, Susanne
Stress, when extreme or chronic, can have a negative impact on health and survival of mammals. This is especially true for females during reproduction when self-maintenance and investment in offspring simultaneously challenge energy turnover. Therefore, we investigated the effects of repeated stress during early- and mid-gestation on the maternal stress axis, body weight gain and reproductive output. Female guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, n = 14) were either stressed (treatment: exposure to strobe light in an unfamiliar environment on gestational day -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42) or left completely undisturbed (control) throughout pregnancy. Females of both groups received the same respective diets, and reproductive parameters were evaluated upon parturition. Additionally, hormonal data were obtained from blood and feces. The stress exposure induced a significant increase in plasma cortisol concentrations during the afternoon. In contrast to this short-term response in plasma cortisol concentrations, we found no significant differences in the levels of cortisol metabolites in feces collected after stress exposure between groups and even significantly decreased levels of fecal cortisol metabolites on non-stress days over time in treatment females. Among treatment females, gain in body weight was attenuated over gestation and body weight was lower compared to control females during lactation, especially in cases of large litter sizes. No differences could be seen in the reproductive parameters. We conclude that repeated stress exposure with strobe light during early- and mid-gestation results in a down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and lower weight gain in treatment females, but has no effect on reproductive output.
Schencke, Carolina; Vasconcellos, Adriana; Sandoval, Cristian; Torres, Paulina; Acevedo, Francisca; Del Sol, Mariano
In the context of the search for cost-efficient treatments, Ulmo (Eurcyphia cordifolia) honey is an excellent alternative for treating burn wounds and could have a profound medical, social, and economic impact. Ascorbic acid is an enzymatic co-factor necessary for the synthesis of collagen and the proliferation of fibroblasts and has been proposed as a coadjuvant to strengthen the healing effects of honey. The aim of this work was to evaluate by morphometric studies the healing wounds caused by burns treated with Ulmo honey alone and supplemented with ascorbic acid in guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Fifteen guinea pigs were used and divided randomly into three groups: positive control (C+), experimental with unsupplemented honey (H), and experimental with supplemented honey (SH). A uniform deep burn covering 1 cm(2) of the back skin was performed. The following indices were calculated for the morphometric study: superficial contraction index of the wound, deep contraction index of the wound, wound severity index, global healing index, global contraction index, and dermal proliferation area. The superficial contraction index of the wound, global healing index, global contraction, and dermal proliferation area values of the experimental with supplemented honey group were higher than the other groups (P ascorbic acid) promotes an appropriate action to support the healing effect. This study showed that by supplementing the Ulmo honey with ascorbic acid, the healing and contraction effects can be strengthened in burn wounds compared to unsupplemented honey. These results were proof of the synergy between honey and ascorbic acid in healing burn wounds.
Mariangela Toledo Barbino
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p91 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do coração de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O coração do feto é dividido em quatro cavidades, envolvido pelo pericárdio, e possui três camadas: epicárdio, miocárdio e endocárdio. O forame oval possui grande importância na circulação fetal, porém não foi visualizado nos cortes realizados neste estudo. Através desses resultados concluímos que os corações de fetos de Guinea pig diferem dos de outras espécies em estruturas como a veia cava cranial, que não se divide em esquerda e direita, e que a espessura das paredes dos ventrículos direito e esquerdo não diferem significativamente.
Mariangela Toledo Barbino
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar. O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.
Carnahan, A M; Behram, S; Joseph, S W
A small subset (n = 18) of highly discriminatory tests was derived from the feature frequency of 50 tests used in the study of 167 predominantly clinical Aeromonas strains. Seven of these eighteen tests were used to construct a flexible, dichotomous key, Aerokey II, for identifying clinical aerontonads: esculin hydrolysis, gas from glucose, acid from arabinose, indole production, acid from sucrose, Voges-Proskauer reaction, and resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms). This schema was initially evaluated in a single-blind trial of 60 well-characterized clinical Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 21), A. caviae (n = 19), and A. veronii bv. sobria (n = 20) strains from an independent laboratory. Of the 60 strains tested, 58 (97%) were accurately identified to the species level. Aerokey II was further evaluated with 18 additional American Type Culture Collection and reference strains representing the more recently proposed taxa A. veronii bv. veronii, A. schubertii, A. jandaei, and A. trota and accurately identified all of these strains.
Ítalo A. Sherlock
Full Text Available Foi verificada a transmissão sucessiva do T. cruzi em três gerações da cobaia Cavia porcellus sem a participação de triatomíneos. Embora não fosse determinado qual das vias, se placentária, leite, excreções ou contágio direto pelo qual o protozoário foi transmitido para os descendentes, chama-se atenção para a importância da manutenção de reservatórios da Doença de Chagas, mesmo na ausência de vetores invertebrados.The sucessive transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi among three generations of the guinea pig Cavia porcellus without the participation of triatomine bugs is verified. Although the mode of transmission, such as congenital, infected milk or other excretion or direct contagion was not defined, this maybe of importance in natural maintenance of reservoirs of T. cruzi without the invertebrate vectors.
Janda, J M; Reitano, M; Bottone, E J
A group of 147 Aeromonas isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources was subjected to the biotyping scheme of Popoff and Veron. Of the 147 isolates biotyped, 137 (93%) could be identified, with Aeromonas hydrophila predominating (48%) and equal percentages (25 to 27%) of the other two species (Aeromonas sobria and Aeromonas caviae). A number of additional biochemical properties were found to be significantly associated with one or more of these three species. These included lysine decarboxylase activity, hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes, lecithinase production, staphylolytic activity, arbutin hydrolysis, and acid production from utilization of various carbohydrates. By incorporating these phenotypic properties into an extended biotyping system, 98% of the isolates were identified. Selective distribution of individual species with respect to certain body sites was noted. PMID:6690467
Smith, Brian J; Wegenast, Daniel J; Hansen, Ryan J; Hess, Ann M; Kendall, Lon V
Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Plasma levels of Bup-HCl peaked at 2331 pg/mL at 1 h after administration and declined to 165 pg/mL by 12 h. Plasma concentrations of Bup-SR peaked at 1344 pg/mL at 26 h after administration and declined to 429 pg/mL by 48 h. The PWP of the Bup-HCltreated guinea pigs peaked at 674 g at 1 h and declined to 402 g at 6 h, whereas that of Bup-SRtreated guinea pigs at 1 h was 361 g, 555 g at 6 h (significantly higher than that after Bup-HCl), and peaked at 680 g at 12 h. The PWP of both treatments was similar from 24 to 72 h and ranged from 348 to 450 g. The plasma concentration and PWP showed good correlation. These results suggest that Bup-SR provides consistent analgesia equivalent to that of Bup-HCl for a prolonged period of time and that Bup-SR is an alternative method of analgesia in guinea pigs.
eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy.
White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
N'G. D.V. Kouakou
Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum Jacq. Associated with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke on Productivity of Females (Cavia porcellus L During the Reproductive Cycle. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum Jacq. The association of this forage with Euphorbia heterophylla (L. Klotz. & Garcke improves the organic matter digestibility of the mixed diet compared to P. maximum distributed alone in growing male guinea pigs. In order to determine the effect of this diet during gestation and lactation in female guinea pigs, three diets: P. maximum (PAN basic diet; P. maximum associated to E. heterophylla (PANEUPH and P. maximum associated to pellets for rabbit (PANGRAN, were distributed ad libitum to multiparous guinea pigs (604.9 ± 40.8 g. The daily ingestion during gestation and lactation were 59.8±11.2 and 53.2±8.5; 61.5±5.2 and 72.9±16.4; 83.1±12.9 and 111.3±13.9 g DM.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. Similarly, the rates of fecundity were 111.1±0.9; 188.9±0.6 and 244.4±0.5% respectively for PAN, PANEUPH and PANGRAN. The individual birth weight and weight gain during lactation of the piglets were 58.7±12.4, 75.6±16.2 and 102.5±12 g and 2.4±0.6; 4.1±0.9 and 6.5±1.2 g.d-1 respectively for PAN, PANEUPH, and PANGRAN. In conclusion, the association of P. maximum and E. heterophylla significantly improves ingestion, digestibility, fecundity, birth weight and weaning weight in guinea pigs in comparison to Panicum maximum used as a sole diet.
Full Text Available Tooth extraction can cause inflammation leading to alveolar ridge resorption. In addition, prominent ridge has crucial role for making denture su-ccessfully. Thus, socket preservation is needed to prevent greater alveolar ridge resorption. An innovative material, a combination of Aloe vera and xe-nograft (XCB, is then considered as a biogenic stimulator that can reduce inflammation, as a result, the growth of alveolar bone is expected to be impro-ved. This research is aimed to prove whether the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can stimulate BMP2 and increase osteoblasts. Forty-eight Cavia co-baya animals were divided into eight groups each of which consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya animals were then extracted and filled with PEG as Group Control, XCB as Group XCB, Aloe vera as Group Aloe vera, and a combination of Aloe vera +XCB as Group Aloe vera +XCB. Next, the first four groups were sacrificed seven days after extraction, and the second four groups were sacrificed 30 days after extrac-tion. And then, immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to examine BMP2 expression and osteoblasts. Based on the re-sult known that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblasts. It can be concluded that the mixture of Aloe vera and xenograft can increase BMP2 expression and amount of osteoblast cel . It can be used as an alternative material to increase the growth of alveolar bone after extraction.
Yi, Seung-Won; You, Myung-Jo; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Joong-Ki; Shin, Gee-Wook
Seventy Aeromonas strains were identified by phylogenetic analysis using housekeeping genes (gyrB and rpoD) in order to investigate etiological agents for aeromoniasis in farmed eels (Anguilla japonica). The phylogenetic analysis showed that Aeromonas aquariorum (n=22, 31.4%) was the predominant species among the investigated eel strains, followed by Aeromonas caviae (n=16, 22.9%), A. veronii (n=13, 18.6%), A. hydrophila (n=12, 17.1%), A. jandaei (n=4, 5.7%), A. media (n=2, 2.9%), and A. trota (n=1, 1.4%). The potential virulence of the present strains was estimated by performing PCR assays using the following seven virulence genes: cytotoxic enterotoxin (act), two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast), glycerophospholipid:cholesterol acyltransferase (gcaT), DNase (exu), lipase (lip), and flagellin (fla). The detection rates of act, alt, ast, gcaT, exu, lip, and fla among all 70 strains were 91.4%, 55.7%, 27.1%, 97.1%, 95.7%, 100%, and 98.6%, respectively. In genotyping of enterotoxin genes, act(+)/alt(+)/ast(+), act(+)/alt(+)/ast(-), and act(+)/alt(-)/ast(-) genotypes were prevalent in A. hydrophila (8/12 strains), A. aquariorum (13/22 strains), and A. caviae (14/16 strains), respectively, suggesting a high heterogeneity among Aeromonas species. In this study, A. aquariorum, which has been an unrecorded species in Korea, can be an etiological agent for aeromoniasis of eel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramboarina, C; Scheftel, J M; Monteil, H
Sixty-two Aeromonas strains (39 of clinical and 23 of environmental origin) were identified. The suicide phenomenon and autoagglutination were studied. Identification is based on esculin hydrolysis; fermentation of arabinose salicin, sucrose and mannitol; gas production from glucose, indole and beta hemolysis; Voges-Proskauer and decarboxylation reactions; and finally resistance to cephalothin (30 micrograms) and colistin (4 micrograms/ml). Thirty-four per cent of A hydrophila, 33% A caviae, 28% A veronii subspecies sobria, 3% A jandaei, 2% A veronii subspecies veronii were accurately identified. Also, several new species were identified such as A trota, A enteropelogenes, A schubertii, A ichthiosmia, according to the more recently proposed taxa. This identification scheme could enhance our knowledge concerning virulence factors, pathogenicity and environmental distribution.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective of the present study was to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas species with respect to their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping and virulence factors, in order to find a phenotypic marker of enteropathogenicity. METHODS: A total of 55 Aeromonas spp. inclusive of 19 isolates from cases of diarrhoea, and 36 from water samples comprising, 10 isolates of A. hydrophila, 21 isolates each of A. sobria, and A. caviae, two isolates of A. jandaei and one isolate of A. veronii were subjected to analysis of their biochemical characteristics, serogrouping, and virulence factors. RESULTS: Among the differences recorded in the biochemical characteristics in the three major species, the most striking characteristic was fermentation of lactose, which was observed in all the 11 A. caviae isolates recovered from water samples. None of the 10 clinical isolates of A. caviae tested fermented lactose. The clinical Aeromonas isolates belonged to seven typable serogroups, O:13, O:14, O:16, O:21, O:27, O:32 and O:35. The environmental isolates belonged to eight different serogroups, such as, O:3, O:11, O:14, O:16, O:18, O:28, O:64 and O:78 and were predominated by serotypes O:18 and O:64. Among the virulence factors tested, 89% of the environmental isolates produced b haemolysin, while only 62.3% of clinical isolates were able to do so. There was no significant difference between the clinical and environmental aeromonads with respect to their enterotoxigenicity in suckling mice in vivo, cytotoxicity in vitro in Vero cell monolayers, and ability to produce siderophores. CONCLUSION: Efforts to delineate the differences between the clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. did not reveal significant difference between them. However, difference was observed with respect to their ability to produce b haemolysin, wherein, higher percentage of environmental isolates was haemolytic. The results also suggest
Beebe, Nichole L; Schofield, Brett R
Perineuronal nets (PNs) are aggregates of extracellular matrix molecules that surround some neurons in the brain. While PNs occur widely across many cortical areas, subcortical PNs are especially associated with motor and auditory systems. The auditory system has recently been suggested as an ideal model system for studying PNs and their functions. However, descriptions of PNs in subcortical auditory areas vary, and it is unclear whether the variation reflects species differences or differences in staining techniques. Here, we used two staining techniques (one lectin stain and one antibody stain) to examine PN distribution in the subcortical auditory system of four different species: guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), mice (Mus musculus, CBA/CaJ strain), Long-Evans rats (Rattus norvegicus), and naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber). We found that some auditory nuclei exhibit dramatic differences in PN distribution among species while other nuclei have consistent PN distributions. We also found that PNs exhibit molecular heterogeneity, and can stain with either marker individually or with both. PNs within a given nucleus can be heterogeneous or homogenous in their staining patterns. We compared PN staining across the frequency axes of tonotopically organized nuclei and among species with different hearing ranges. PNs were distributed non-uniformly across some nuclei, but only rarely did this appear related to the tonotopic axis. PNs were prominent in all four species; we found no systematic relationship between the hearing range and the number, staining patterns or distribution of PNs in the auditory nuclei. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McMahon, M A; Wilson, I G
A range of commercially available organic vegetables (n = 86) was examined for the presence of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, E. coli O 157. Listeria and Aeromonas spp., to provide information on the occurrence of such organisms in organic vegetables in Northern Ireland. The study was not designed to quantify such organisms or to compare occurrence with conventionally farmed vegetables. Standard enrichment techniques were used to isolate and identify enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species. No Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli. E. coli O 157, Listeria were found in any of the samples examined. Aeromonas species were isolated from 34% of the total number of organic vegetables examined. Many (64%) of the organic vegetables examined were "ready-to-eat" after minimal processing, i.e., washing. Aeromonas spp. was isolated from 41% of these vegetables. Aeromonas spp. was not recovered from certain vegetable types. The most commonly isolated species of Aeromonas was Aeromonas schubertii with 21.0% of all samples contaminated with this species; 5.8% of samples contained A. hydrophila, 5.8% A. trota, 3.5% A. caviae and 2.3% contained A. veronii biovar veronii. Although Aeromonas species are frequently detected in organic vegetables, the absence of accepted enteric pathogens was encouraging, and does not support the allegation of organic foods being of high risk due to the farming methods used.
Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn. to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya
Full Text Available Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process. Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process. Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test. Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.
Daniel Paredes - López
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la harina de hojas de Erythrina sobre los perfiles bioquímicos, parámetros biológicos y tejido hepático de Cavia porcellus . S e utilizaron 75 cuyes machos de 13 días de edad, formándose 5 grupos experimentales con tres repeticiones cada uno. Todos se alimentaron con 100 g/día de King grass y alimento balanceado para cuyes ad libitum . Las hojas con peciolo se secaron y se molturar on a 1 mm de diámetro. La sangre se obtuvo a los 75 días de edad de la vena safena lateral y en suero sanguíneo se determinó perfiles de glucosa, proteína total, albumina, aspartato aminotrasferasa, alanino aminotransferasa, lactato deshidrogenasa y urea. Trozos de hígado se procesaron hasta obtener los cortes histológicos. Los perfiles de proteína total y albumina mostraron regresión lineal positiva (p < 0,05, el rendimiento de carcasa regresión lineal negativa (p < 0,05 y la estructura histológica del h ígado no tuvo cambios a medida que incrementó el nivel de harina de Erytrhina en la ración. La Erythrina causó una respuesta contrastante entre los perfiles de proteína total y albumina en sangre y el rendimiento de carcasa y no causó alteración estructura l del hígado.
EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.
Rather, M A; Willayat, M M; Wani, S A; Munshi, Z H; Hussain, S A
The present study describes incidence and enterotoxin gene profile of Aeromonas spp. from human diarrhoeal samples (83) and raw meats (171). The samples were screened for isolation of Aeromonads. Aeromonas spp. contaminated raw meats of all kinds under the study and per cent contamination in chicken, mutton and beef was 14·03, 22·89 and 19·35, respectively. Of the 83 diarrhoeal samples from children, 6 (7·22%) were positive for presence of Aeromonas spp. Seven different species of Aeromonas (Aer. hydrophila, Aer. caviae, Aer. veronii bv sobria, Aer. trota, Aer. schubertii, Aer. jandaei and Aer. allosaccharophila) could be identified from foods and from diarrhoeal samples two species (Aer. caviae and Aer. hydrophila) were encountered. Unique primers were designed, and a multiplex PCR was standardized for detection of three enterotoxin genes (act, alt, ast) in the Aeromonas spp. Of the 39 isolates, 35 (89·74%) carried one or more enterotoxin genes: act, alt and ast genes were detected in 30 (76·92%), 31 (79·48%) and 4 (10·25%) isolates, respectively. The enterotoxin genes from a strain recovered from mutton were sequenced and submitted to GenBank and the accession no.s KC687135, KC633828 and KC687134 were provided for alt, ast and act, respectively, by the GenBank. The occurrence of enterotoxigenic Aeromonads in raw meats and diarrhoeal samples is a public health concern. Given the increasing evidence of involvement of Aeromonads in foodborne outbreaks, the standardization of single-step multiplex PCR will be helpful tool for detection of enterotoxin genes in Aeromonas spp. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
H. A. Jurado-Gámez
Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el comportamiento de las variables fisicoquímicas y microbiológicasdurante la maduración de la carne de cuy (Cavia porcellus, utilizandodos métodos de insensibilización (desnucamiento y electronarcosis. La investigaciónse realizó en los laboratorios de la Universidad de Nariño y se utilizaron 24 animales:12 para cada método. Los animales ayunaron 12 h antes del sacrificio y las canalesse maduraron en refrigeración (2 a 4°C durante 24 h. Se determinaron las variablespH, acidez, temperatura, capacidad de retención de agua (CRA, conductibilidadeléctrica (CE y pérdida de agua en refrigeración cada 4 h. Se evaluaron los parámetrosmicrobiológicos coliformes totales y fecales a las 0, 16 y 24 h, además de Listeria sp. yla presencia de antibióticos (sulfamidas al inicio de la maduración. Para detectar diferenciaentre métodos de insensibilización para las variables fisicoquímicas se utilizó undiseño de medidas repetidas en el tiempo; para las demás variables se utilizó estadísticadescriptiva. Los resultados mostraron que el mejor tiempo de maduración fue a las 16horas, con un pH promedio de 5,42, acidez de 0,272 % y CRA de 12,73. Además, lasvariables microbiológicas estuvieron por debajo de la norma vigente garantizando lainocuidad de la carne evaluada. No se observó diferencia estadísticas entre métodos deinsensibilización y los resultados de antibióticos fueron negativos. Se concluye que eltiempo adecuado de maduración para la carne de cuy fue de 16 horas sin diferencias enel método de insensibilización.
Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana
Mountain spotted fever in areas where both species circulate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Carnahan, A M; Chakraborty, T; Fanning, G R; Verma, D; Ali, A; Janda, J M; Joseph, S W
Previous DNA hybridization studies established 12 Aeromonas genospecies, from which nine phenotypic species have been proposed: Aeromonas hydrophila, A. sobria, A. caviae, A. media, A. veronii, A. schubertii, A. salmonicida, A. eucrenophila, and A. jandaei. We have delineated a new Aeromonas genospecies, A. trota, on the basis of 13 strains isolated primarily from fecal specimens from southern and southeastern Asia. All strains were highly related to the proposed type strain, AH2 (ATCC 49657T): 51 to 100% (60 degrees C) and 49 to 99% (75 degrees C), with 0.2 to 2.2 divergence. AH2 was only 16 to 41% (60 degrees C) related to all other Aeromonas type strains and DNA group definition strains. The unique profile of A. trota includes negative reactions for esculin hydrolysis, arabinose fermentation, and the Voges-Proskauer test, positive reactions for cellobiose fermentation, lysine decarboxylation, and citrate utilization, and susceptibility to ampicillin, as determined by the broth microdilution MIC method and the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method (10 micrograms). Nine of the A. trota strains were from a single study of 165 geographically diverse aeromonads. This finding questions the efficacy of screening fecal specimens for Aeromonas spp. with ampicillin-containing media and suggests a previously unrecognized prevalence of this new species.
Effets de la substitution par l'arachide fourragère (Arachis glabrata de l'herbe à éléphant (Pennisetum purpurum sur le nombre d'ovulations et les mortalités prénatales chez le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L. adulte
Full Text Available Effects of Arachis glabrata Substitution to Pennisetum purpurum on the Ovulations'Number and the Prenatal Mortalities in Adult Guinea-pig Cavia porcellus L. In order to study the effects of Pennisetum purpurum substitution by Arachis glabrata on the ovulations' number and the prenatal mortalities in guinea-pigs, 36 animals including 30 females and 6 males were divided into 3 identical groups. To each group were randomly allotted one of the three diets characterised by its substitution level. The number of ovulation (2.20 ± 0.30, identical between the two rations with less legumes forage has been higher compared to the diet containing the greatest quantity of legume (2.00 ± 0.40. Only the group of guinea-pigs fed with a ration including the second highest level of forage legume recorded one prenatal mortality, which represented 4.20% of formed zygotes.
Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.
Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n = 5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.
Wimalasena, S H M P; Shin, Gee-Wook; Hossain, Sabrina; Heo, Gang-Joon
To investigate the potential enterotoxicity and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonads from pet turtles as a risk for human infection, one hundred and two Aeromonas spp. were isolated from the feces, skin and rearing environments of pet turtles and identified by biochemical and gyrB sequence analyses. Aeromonas enteropelogenes was the predominant species among the isolates (52.9%) followed by A. hydrophila (32.4%), A. dharkensis (5.9%), A. veronii (4.9%) and A. caviae (3.9%). Their potential enterotoxicities were evaluated by PCR assays for detecting genes encoding cytotoxic enterotoxin (act) and two cytotonic enterotoxins (alt and ast). 75.8% of A. hydrophila isolates exhibited the act+/alt+/ast+ genotype, whereas 94.4% of A. enteropelogenes isolates were determined to be act-/alt-/ast-. In an antimicrobial susceptibility test, most isolates were susceptible to all tested antibiotics except amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Non-susceptible isolates to penicillins (ampicillin and amoxicillin) and fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) were frequently observed among the A. enteropelogenes isolates. Few isolates were resistant to imipenem, amikacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. Collectively, these results suggest that pet turtles may pose a public health risk of infection by enterotoxigenic and antimicrobial resistant Aeromonas strains.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...
Wei Ching Khor
Full Text Available Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are primarily inhabitants of the aquatic environment. Humans acquire this organism from a wide range of food and water sources as well as during aquatic recreational activities. In the present study, the diversity and distribution of Aeromonas species from freshwater lakes in Malaysia was investigated using glycerophospholipid-cholesterol acyltransferase (GCAT and RNA polymerase sigma-factor (rpoD genes for speciation. A total of 122 possible Aeromonas strains were isolated and confirmed to genus level using the API20E system. The clonality of the isolates was investigated using ERIC-PCR and 20 duplicate isolates were excluded from the study. The specific GCAT-PCR identified all isolates as belonging to the genus Aeromonas, in agreement with the biochemical identification. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the rpoD gene sequence and all 102 isolates were identified as: A. veronii 43%, A. jandaei 37%, A. hydrophila 6%, A. caviae 4%, A. salmonicida 2%, A. media 2%, A. allosaccharophila 1%, A. dhakensis 1% and Aeromonas spp. 4%. Twelve virulence genes were present in the following proportions--exu 96%, ser 93%, aer 87%, fla 83%, enolase 70%, ela 62%, act 54%, aexT 33%, lip 16%, dam 16%, alt 8% and ast 4%, and at least 2 of these genes were present in all 102 strains. The ascV, aexU and hlyA genes were not detected among the isolates. A. hydrophila was the main species containing virulence genes alt and ast either present alone or in combination. It is possible that different mechanisms may be used by each genospecies to demonstrate virulence. In summary, with the use of GCAT and rpoD genes, unambiguous identification of Aeromonas species is possible and provides valuable data on the phylogenetic diversity of the organism.
e. Biochemical screening and serological tests for Salmonellae. Identification of Salmonella species was done biochemically. Triple sugar Iron (TSI) agar motility, urease and citrate utilization tests were also used to screen the isolates before serologic testing was performed. (Cheesbrough, 2002; Perilla, 2003). Triple sugar ...
each Station, samples for diversity data were collected by plankton net, which was towed at the surface water, while those for Spatial distribution and abundance were collected using a l l Van. Dorn water Sampler. A total of 13 Species belonging to 52 different genera were identified. Cyanobacteria were the most diverse ...
Alphonsa Vijaya Joseph
Full Text Available Background: The genus Aeromonas include gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped and oxidase positive bacteria comprising several species, associated with the aquatic environment. Aeromonas species have been implicated in human pathogenesis and are linked with gastroenteritis, muscle infections, septicemia, and skin diseases. In fish they are renowned as enteric pathogens causing haemorrhagic septicemia, fin rot, soft tissue rot and furunculosis resulting in major die-offs and fish kills. Aim: This study reports the occurrence of potential pathogenic Aeromonas sp. in tropical seafood (Squids, Prawns and Mussels, aquafarms and mangroves of Cochin, Kerala, South India. Materials and Methods :Tropical seafood (Squid, Prawn and Mussel, sediment and water samples from aquafarms and associated mangroves were screened for Aeromonas contamination. The isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and subjected to morphological and biochemical characterization. Haemolytic assay was used for determining pathogenicity of the organisms. Antibiotic susceptibility against 12 antibiotics were performed and the MAR index was calculated. Results: A total of 134 isolates were recovered from the samples of which 15 were identified as Aeromonas species by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and were assigned to 5 species namely, A. hydrophila, A. enteropelogenes, A. caviae, A. punctataand A. aquarorium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic analyses revealed relatedness and variability among the strains. All the isolates were haemolytic on blood agar indicating their pathogenicity. The isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to vancomycin (86.66%, ampicillin (46.66%, nalidixic acid (20%, tetracycline (6.66%, co-trimaxozole (6.66% and rifampicin (6.66% and were susceptible to antibiotics like gentamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim, azithromycin, cefixime and chloramphenicol. 20% of Aeromonas sp. showed MAR index > 0.2 indicative of the
Mackay, D R; Manders, E K; Saggers, G C; Banducci, D R; Prinsloo, J; Klugman, K
Aeromonas hydrophila infections are a recognized complication of the use of medicinal leeches. The authors performed an experiment designed to find a safe and practical way to sterilize the leech gut of pathogenic organisms. Leeches were incubated for a 12-hour period in solutions of antibiotic effective against A. hydrophila. The incubations in the antibiotic solutions failed to eradicate pathogenic bacteria from the gut of the leeches. The authors examined cultures of bacteria isolated from the guts of the commonly used Hirudo medicinalis (European leech) and found a wide variety of pathogenic organisms. A. hydrophila is widely believed to be the most common enteric pathogen, but the authors found A. sobria more frequently in their experiment. They also cultured the guts of the leech H. michaelseni recently used clinically in South Africa. A. caviae was the most common pathogen encountered in these leeches. A. caviae and A. sobria cause a spectra of disease similar to A. hydrophila. The authors endorse the current recommendation that all patients who have leech therapy for congested flaps or replants receive broad-spectrum prophylactic antibiotics. This appears to be the safest and simplest way to prevent leech-related infections.
Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.
The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...
Hankel, Julia; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Warschau, Martina; Thöle, Anna Milena; Fehr, Michael
Renal tumours apparently are rare not only in cats and dogs, but also in guinea pigs and can be difficult to diagnose. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical findings in guinea pigs with renal tumours. Furthermore, the symptoms, diagnostic possibilities and therapy are compared with renal tumours in other small animals, including cats and dogs. During a period of 4 years and 4 months the data of guinea pigs that had been presented in the clinic were retrospectively analysed. The analysis comprised guinea pigs that underwent a macroscopical and histopathological postmortem examination, and were diagnosed to have a renal neoplasm. Four guinea pigs had a renal tumour. The percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall necropsied carcasses and the number of organs originating from guinea pigs was 4.7 % and the percentage of renal neoplasms in relation to the overall diagnosed tumours of the abdominal and pelvic cavities was 30.7 %. Histology and immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of renal pleomorphic sarcomas in all four cases. In two of the four guinea pigs, the classical triad, as described for cats and dogs with renal tumours (weight loss, abdominal mass and haematuria), was observed. During clinical examination, a prominent, apparently painful abdominal mass in the region of the kidneys was palpable in all four cases. Applying radiography, the suspected diagnosis of a mass in the area of the kidney was confirmed in three cases, and in two animals the renal origin of the masses was determined by ultrasound examination. Because a renal neoplasm is a pain-inducing disease with a high risk of metastases in domestic animals, a prompt nephrectomy should be performed when azotaemia is absent.
Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K
To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.
and domestic sheep (Webster 1969). This relationship was investigated in the hyrax and guineapig. The known increase in metabolism at lowered ambient .... heart rate and oxygen consumption in rodents. Am. J. Physiol. 221: 1580-1586. OWEN, Jr. R.B. 1969. Heart rate, a measure of metabolism in the blue- winged teal.
Stephan, F; Artis, J P; Lanot, R
The first inferior molar has been extracted, a part of its being reimplanted or not. A new molar of normal form regenerated, apparently from the apex of the tooth germ, in all cases in which the alveolus was left free or implanted with a tooth freagment deprived of pulpa.
tolerance and renal function in the dassie. Zool. Afr. 7: 451-469. MORHARDT,J.E. & MORHARDT, S.S. 1971. Correlations between heart rate and oxygen consumption in rodents. Am. J. Physiol. 221: 1580-1586. OWEN, Jr. R.B. 1969. Heart rate, a measure of metabolism in the blue- winged teal. Compo Biochem. Physiol.
fertilité (96%), de fécondité (184%), de fécondité nette (184%), de viabilité à la naissance (100%) et de viabilité au sevrage (97,83%) les plus élevés ont été également enregistrés chez ces femelles soumises à la ration contenant 22% de PB (RG22). Le gain total, le gain moyen quotidien (GMQ) et l'indice de consommation ...
184%), de viabilité à la naissance (100%) et de viabilité au sevrage (97,83%) les plus élevés ont été également enregistrés chez ces femelles soumises à la ration contenant 22% de PB (RG22). Le gain total, le gain moyen quotidien (GMQ) et ...
Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; de Carvalho, Fatima Cristiane Teles; Vieira, Regine Helena S Dos Fernandes; Dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Macrae, Andrew; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres
Thirty water samples were collected, at two week intervals, from the estuary of the River Cocó. The aim was to characterize the presence, distribution and types of Aeromonas spp, in the estuary of the River Cocó, Ceara, Brazil (03°46'28.83''S e 38°26'36.52''S). Aeromonas were identified in 19 (63%) samples analyzed by plating and CFU counts. Presence/absence tests were positive for 11 (37%) of the samples resulting in the detection of Aeromonas in a total of 23 (77%) of samples. CFU counts varied from trota (6/69), A. media (5/69), A. sobria (4/69) and A. hydrophila and Aeromonas sp. (2/69). Of the 38 strains tested, 23 (60%) showed resistance to at least one of the eight antimicrobials. Multiple resistance to antibiotics was observed in A. caviae, A. media , A. sóbria and A. veronii bv. sobria. Aeromonas caviae showed the highest multiple resistance, being resistant to four antibiotics. The presence of those microorganisms may contribute to the occurrence of gastroenteritis, mainly in children, since they are considered opportunists.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...
Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.
Barbara L. Illman
Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazardsâare now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...
John F. Caratti
The FIREMON Species Composition (SC) method is used to provide ocular estimates of cover and height measurements for plant species on a macroplot. The SC method provides plant species composition and coverage estimates to describe a stand or plant community and can be used to document changes over time. It is suited for a wide variety of vegetation types and is...
USA Today, 1981
Elaborates on the problem of expanding human activity to the world's plant and animal species. Concludes that preserving an individual species is largely a waste of time and effort and that the best way to protect the most species of plants and animals is to save their environments over large tracts of land. (DB)
Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.
Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...... play an important role in protecting local species. However, outcomes of conservation actions are often highly uncertain and if European zoos want to support the conservation of threatened species, they are faced with the question of which species to target first and which conservation strategy...... to choose. Current decision-making in resource allocation and conservation planning is often, as in many other disciplines, based on little scientific ground. Here, we propose a Decision Analysis framework to support the Ex-situ guidelines of the Species Survival Commission of the IUCN. In which we assessed...
In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys
Abstract. The present work deals with a systematic study on WFn species using ab initio density functional method. The geometrical features related to the equilibrium structures of WFn species up to n = 5 are high- lighted and the effect of addition as well as removal of an electron is discussed. The chemical stability of.
Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik
the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....
On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.
The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...
Sadovsky, Michael G.
A simple model of species origin resulted from dynamic features of a population, solely, is developed. The model is based on the evolution optimality in space distribution, and the selection is gone over the mobility. Some biological issues are discussed.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...
Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.
Determining the distribution pattern of a species is important to increase scientific knowledge, inform management decisions, and conserve biodiversity. To infer spatial and temporal patterns, species distribution models have been developed for use with many sampling designs and types of data. Recently, it has been shown that count, presence-absence, and presence-only data can be conceptualized as arising from a point process distribution. Therefore, it is important to understand properties of the point process distribution. We examine how the hierarchical species distribution modeling framework has been used to incorporate a wide array of regression and theory-based components while accounting for the data collection process and making use of auxiliary information. The hierarchical modeling framework allows us to demonstrate how several commonly used species distribution models can be derived from the point process distribution, highlight areas of potential overlap between different models, and suggest areas where further research is needed.
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...
Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.
Biologists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries all bandied about the term "species," but very rarely actually said what they meant by it. Often, however, one can get inside their thinking by piecing together some of their remarks. One of the most nearly explicit-appropriately, for the man who wrote a book called The Origin of Species - was Charles Darwin: "Practically, when a naturalist can unite two forms together by others having intermediate characters, he treats the one as a variety of the other… He later translated this into evolutionary terms: "Hereafter, we shall be compelled to acknowledge that the only distinction between species and well-marked varieties is, that the latter are known, or believed, to be connected at the present day by intermediate gradations, whereas species were formerly thus connected"(1:484-5.) Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».
Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.
The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.
Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.
Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].
Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel
Western lad/“an Dose/7.x Mar. 50/1 Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. ..... collected during the survey. The high percentage of T. aduncns caught in gillnets in the coastal waters indicates that they may be the most abundant inshore dolphin species around Zanzibar. ... This area is relatively shallow (maximum depth. <50m) and may not meet ...
Gomes, Vitor H. F.; Ijff, Stephanie D.; Raes, Niels
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in ecology and conservation. Presence-only SDMs such as MaxEnt frequently use natural history collections (NHCs) as occurrence data, given their huge numbers and accessibility. NHCs are often spatially biased which may generate inaccuracies in SD...
Abstract—Incidental catches (bycatch) in gillnet fisheries off Zanzibar (Unguja Island), as a source of mortality among several species of dolphins, were reported in a questionnaire survey conducted in 1999. As a follow-up to that survey, from January 2000 to August 2003, we monitored the incidental catches of dolphins ...
Solem, Alan; And Others
Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…
Brown, Mark; And Others
This unit is intended to examine the causes of the endangerment of Florida's plant and animal species with a detailed look at varied ecological systems. Individual lessons are designed to be used either by individual students progressing at their own rate or by small groups. Units may be modified for use by large groups. (Author/RE)
Gabel, Lisa A.; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn
Direct relationships between induced mutation in the "DCDC2" candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and…
. Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...... function ap-proach as well as a fixed effects non-radial technique to reveal input specific alloca-tive and output oriented technical efficiency measures as well as measures of envi-ronmental efficiency. We also consider functional consistency by imposing convexity on the translog profit function model...
Wright, Jason T.
One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.
Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit
Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).
Full Text Available Onychomycosis caused by mould infection is rare. A 40 year old male patient presented with dystrophic finger nails and multiple, erythematous lesions with slightly raised borders and scaling all over the body. The patient was a known diabetic. He did not respond to griseofulvin. Samples from nails and skin scales were cultured. From the nails, Penicillium species and from the skin scales. Trichophyton rubrum were isolated. Ketoconazole therapy (200 mg twice daily x 4 mths led to complete cure with negative cultures and normalization of nails.
Gabel, Lisa A; Manglani, Monica; Escalona, Nicholas; Cysner, Jessica; Hamilton, Rachel; Pfaffmann, Jeffrey; Johnson, Evelyn
Direct relationships between induced mutation in the DCDC2 candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene in mice and changes in behavioral measures of visual spatial learning have been reported. We were interested in determining whether performance on a visual-spatial learning and memory task could be translated across species (study 1) and whether children with reading impairment showed a similar impairment to animal models of the disorder (study 2). Study 1 included 37 participants who completed six trials of four different virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 4 × 6 mixed factorial repeated measures ANOVA indicated consistency in performance between humans and mice on these tasks, enabling us to translate across species. Study 2 included a total of 91 participants (age range = 8-13 years). Eighteen participants were identified with reading disorder by performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Participants completed six trials of five separate virtual Hebb-Williams maze configurations. A 2 × 5 × 6 mixed factorial ANCOVA (gender as covariate) indicated that individuals with reading impairment demonstrated impaired visuo-spatial performance on this task. Overall, results from this study suggest that we are able to translate behavioral deficits observed in genetic animal models of dyslexia to humans with reading impairment. Future studies will utilize the virtual environment to further explore the underlying basis for this impairment.
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...
California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.
This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The five-year permit authorizes up to 130 loggerhead, 70 Kemp's ridley, 60...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA140 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Fort Fisher. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at Fort...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA850 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C... threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The Permit Holder is issued a five-year permit to study shortnose...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA086 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Comment'' from the Features box on the Applications and Permits for Protected Species (APPS) home page.... 10022-01 is requested under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C...
P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik
-group, an insular species swarm distributed in the archipelagos of Madeira and the Canary Islands. We discuss the differences between the new species and their relatives and present information on the subterranean environment of Madeira. An updated overview of the subterranean biodiversity of millipedes......Two new species of the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, C. julesvernei and C. oromii, are described from the subterranean ecosystem of Madeira Island, Portugal. Species are illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. The new species belong to the Cylindroiulus madeirae...
Pereira, Ricardo José Do Nascimento; Wake, David B.
In the mid-20th century, Ernst Mayr (1942) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (1958) championed the significance of 'circular overlaps' or 'ring species' as the perfect demonstration of the gradual nature of species formation. As an ancestral species expands its range, wrapping around a geographic barrier......, derived taxa within the ring display interactions typical of populations, such as genetic and morphological intergradation, while overlapping taxa at the terminus of the ring behave largely as sympatric, reproductively isolated species. Are ring species extremely rare or are they just difficult to detect......? What conditions favour their formation? Modelling studies have attempted to address these knowledge gaps by estimating the biological parameters that result in stable ring species (Martins et al. 2013), and determining the necessary topographic parameters of the barriers encircled (Monahan et al. 2012...
Elisabeth Regina Tempel Stumpf
Full Text Available Beyond aesthetics, the contemporary landscaping intends to provide other benefits for humans and environment, especially related to the environmental quality of urban spaces and conservation of the species. A trend in this direction is the reduction in the use of exotic plants in their designs, since, over time, they can become agents of replacement of native flora, as it has occurred in Rio Grande do Sul with many species introduced by settlers. However, the use of exotic species is unjustifiable, because the flora diversity of the Bioma Pampa offers many native species with appropriate features to the ornamental use. The commercial cultivation and the implantation of native species in landscaped areas constitute innovations for plant nurseries and landscapers and can provide a positive reduction in extractivism, contributing to dissemination, exploitation and preservation of native flora, and also decrease the impact of chemical products on environment. So, this work intends to identify native species of Bioma Pampa with features and uses similar to the most used exotic species at Brazilian landscaping. The species were selected from consulting books about native plants of Bioma Pampa and plants used at Brazilian landscaping, considering the similarity on habit and architecture, as well as characteristics of leafs, flowers and/or fruits and environmental conditions of occurrence and cultivation. There were identified 34 native species able to properly replace exotic species commonly used. The results show that many native species of Bioma Pampa have interesting ornamental features to landscape gardening, allowing them to replace exotic species that are traditionally cultivated.
Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.
Gadi V.P. Reddy
Full Text Available Several new mite species have been reported from certain plants from Guam. Most remarkably, the spider mite, Tetranychus marianae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae and the predatory mite Phytoseius horridus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae (Solanum melongena have been found on eggplant. The noneconomically important species of Brevipalpus californicus(Banks Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae,Eupodes sp. (Acarina: Eupodidae and predator Cunaxa sp. (Prostigmata: Cunaxidae have been reported on guava (Psidium guajava L.. Also, the non-economically important species Brevipalpus californicus Prostigmata: Tenuipalpidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Astigmata: Glycyphagidae and a predator Amblyseius obtusus, species group Amblyseius near lentiginosus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae, have been recorded on cycad (Cycas micronesica.
Full Text Available The first earthworm species named was Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758. Since then, there were some 6000earthworm (Oligochaeta: Megadrili species names described, from which ca. 3000–3500 are valid. In order to help the orientation in such a huge amount of data a web-based database was created. Each record contains the basic data of the species names described; i.e. family, genus, specific epithet, author, year, reference to the original description and optionally the valid combination of the species name and deposition of type specimens. The database is searchable by every field mentioned and the resulted list can be arranged alphabetically.
Full Text Available The success of invasive species has been explained by two contrasting but non-exclusive views: (i intrinsic factors make some species inherently good invaders; (ii species become invasive as a result of extrinsic ecological and genetic influences such as release from natural enemies, hybridization or other novel ecological and evolutionary interactions. These viewpoints are rarely distinguished but hinge on distinct mechanisms leading to different management scenarios. To improve tests of these hypotheses of invasion success we introduce a simple mathematical framework to quantify the invasiveness of species along two axes: (i interspecific differences in performance among native and introduced species within a region, and (ii intraspecific differences between populations of a species in its native and introduced ranges. Applying these equations to a sample dataset of occurrences of 1,416 plant species across Europe, Argentina, and South Africa, we found that many species are common in their native range but become rare following introduction; only a few introduced species become more common. Biogeographical factors limiting spread (e.g. biotic resistance, time of invasion therefore appear more common than those promoting invasion (e.g. enemy release. Invasiveness, as measured by occurrence data, is better explained by inter-specific variation in invasion potential than biogeographical changes in performance. We discuss how applying these comparisons to more detailed performance data would improve hypothesis testing in invasion biology and potentially lead to more efficient management strategies.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department's Natural Heritage Inventory (NHI) maintains a database of uncommon, rare, threatened and endangered species and natural...
Full Text Available Identification of the Armillaria species in selected coniferous stands (Scots pine stands, Norway spruce stands and fir stands was the aim of the work carried out on the basis of mating tests and consideration of macroscopic traits of fruit-bodies. One species of Armillaria [A. ostoyae (Romagnesi Herink] was found in Scots pine stands, three species [A. ostoyae, A. cepistipes Velenovský and A. borealis Marxmüller et Korhonen] were found in Norway spruce stands and two species [A. ostoyae and A. cepistipes] were found in fir stands.
Full Text Available No recent systematic treatment of the Colombian species of Spigelia (Loganiaceae exists. Two species were described in 1818 from New Granada (Colombia by Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth. The Panamá Canal Zone species have been enumerated by Standley. R. Knuth has listed the Venezuelan species. Spigelia anthelmia L. has been reported from the Dutch west Indian islands of Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire, adjacent to Venezuela, by Boldingh", Spigelia pedunculata R. & S. has been reported from Ecuador by William Jameson.No recent systematic treatment of the Colombian species of Spigelia (Loganiaceae exists. Two species were described in 1818 from New Granada (Colombia by Humboldt, Bonpland and Kunth. The Panamá Canal Zone species have been enumerated by Standley. R. Knuth has listed the Venezuelan species. Spigelia anthelmia L. has been reported from the Dutch west Indian islands of Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire, adjacent to Venezuela, by Boldingh", Spigelia pedunculata R. & S. has been reported from Ecuador by William Jameson.
Multi-species wild herbivore systems vs. domestic single species systems: a comparison of net animal productivity. PS Goodman. Abstract. Reports the results of a study conducted to compare the short and medium term net annual harvested animal production for six areas situated in the semi-arid bushveld of north eastern ...
The endemic canopy tree Cephalosphaera usambarensis is a valuable timber species in montane rainforest of Tanzania. Here we evaluate an experiment in which mature trees of species other than C. usambarensis were removed from an area in the East Usambara Mountains. We compared stage/size structure of the ...
Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A
Species distribution models typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change. Here, we incorporated the context dependency of species interactions into a dynamic species distribution model. We developed a multi-species model that uses a time-series of observational survey data to evaluate how abiotic conditions and species interactions affect the dynamics of three rocky intertidal species. The model further distinguishes between the direct effects of abiotic conditions on abundance and the indirect effects propagated through interactions with other species. We apply the model to keystone predation by the sea star Pisaster ochraceus on the mussel Mytilus californianus and the barnacle Balanus glandula in the rocky intertidal zone of the Pacific coast, USA. Our method indicated that biotic interactions between P. ochraceus and B. glandula affected B. glandula dynamics across >1000 km of coastline. Consistent with patterns from keystone predation, the growth rate of B. glandula varied according to the abundance of P. ochraceus in the previous year. The data and the model did not indicate that the strength of keystone predation by P. ochraceus varied with a mean annual upwelling index. Balanus glandula cover increased following years with high phytoplankton abundance measured as mean annual chlorophyll-a. M. californianus exhibited the same
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.
Steffen, Pascal; Kwiatkowski, Marcel; Robertson, Wesley D.; Zarrine-Afsar, Mash; Deterra, Diana; Richter, Verena; Schlueter, Hartmut
Many diseases are associated with protein species perturbations. A prominent example of an established diagnostic marker is the glycated protein species of hemoglobin, termed HbA1c. HbA1c concentration is increased in the blood of diabetes mellitus patients due to their poor control of blood glucose
Liu, F.; Cai, L.; Crous, P.W.; Damm, U.
In a preliminary analysis, 21 Colletotrichum strains with large conidia preserved in the CBS culture collection clustered with a recently described species, C. gigasporum, forming a clade distinct from other currently known Colletotrichum species complexes. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (ITS,
Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Species Codes: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) 2c Table 2c to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...: FMP Forage Fish Species (all species of the following families) Species Description Code Bristlemouths...
Arava, Shlomy; Kumar, Jayprakash N.; Maksymenko, Shimon
Enolonium species/iodo(III) enolates of carbonyl compounds have been suggested to be intermediates in a wide variety of hypervalent iodine induced chemical transformations of ketones, including α-C-O, α-C-N, α-C-C, and alpha-carbon- halide bond formation, but they have never been characterized. We....... Our results open up chemical space for designing a variety of new transformations. We showcase the ability of enolonium species to react with prenyl, crotyl, cinnamyl, and allyl silanes with absolute regioselectivity in up to 92% yield....... report that these elusive umpoled enolates may be made as discrete species that are stable for several minutes at-78 degrees C, and report the first spectroscopic identification of such species. It is shown that enolonium species are direct intermediates in C-O, C-N, C-Cl, and C-C bond forming reactions...
Sandler, Ronald L
.... In this book, Ronald L. Sandler examines the value of species and the ethical significance of species boundaries and discusses what these mean for species preservation in the light of global climate change, species...
Scarpa, F.; Cossu, P.; Lai, T.; Sanna, D.; Curini-Galletti, M.; Casu, M.
Given the pending biodiversity crisis, species delimitation is a critically important task in conservation biology, but its efficacy based on single lines of evidence has been questioned as it may not accurately reflect species limits and relationships. Hence, the use of multiple lines of evidence
Killer, Jiří; Pechar, R.; Švec, P.; Salmonová, H.; Švejstil, R.; Geigerová, M.; Rada, V.; Vlková, E.; Mekadim, Ch.
Roč. 67, č. 7 (2017), s. 2903-2909 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08803S; GA MZe QJ1510338 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Lactobacillus sp. nov. * oral cavity * guinea pig Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016
Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi
Full Text Available Identification of clinically significant Nocardia species is essential for the definitive diagnosis, predict antimicrobial susceptibility, epidemiological purposes, and for an effective treatment. Conventional identification of Nocardia species in routine medical laboratories which is based on phenotypic (cellular morphology, colonial characteristics, biochemical and enzymatic profiles, and chemotaxonomic characteristics is often laborious, and time-consuming. The procedure requires expertise, and newer species can be difficult to differentiate with accuracy from other related species. Alternative methods of identification, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and molecular biology techniques allow a better characterization of species. The taxonomy of the genus Nocardia has been dramatically been revised during the last decade and more than 30 valid human clinical significance species of Nocardia have been reported. The use of molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or PCR restriction endonuclease analysis has been the focus of recent investigations to distinguish the isolates of Nocardia from other actinomycetes genera. The methods have revolutionized the characterization of the Nocardiae by providing rapid, sensitive, and accurate identification procedures. The present review describes the currently known medically important pathogenic species of Nocardia.
The Palearctic Chaetocnema species are revised. Seven species are described as new: Chaetocnema belka new species; Chaetocnema bergeali new species; Chaetocnema eastafghanica new species; Chaetocnema franzi new species; Chaetocnema igori new species; Chaetocnema lubischevi new species; Chaetocnema t...
Franzén, Markus; Schweiger, Oliver; Betzholtz, Per-Eric
The species-area relationship (SAR) is one of the most thoroughly investigated empirical relationships in ecology. Two theories have been proposed to explain SARs: classical island biogeography theory and niche theory. Classical island biogeography theory considers the processes of persistence, extinction, and colonization, whereas niche theory focuses on species requirements, such as habitat and resource use. Recent studies have called for the unification of these two theories to better explain the underlying mechanisms that generates SARs. In this context, species traits that can be related to each theory seem promising. Here we analyzed the SARs of butterfly and moth assemblages on islands differing in size and isolation. We tested whether species traits modify the SAR and the response to isolation. In addition to the expected overall effects on the area, traits related to each of the two theories increased the model fit, from 69% up to 90%. Steeper slopes have been shown to have a particularly higher sensitivity to area, which was indicated by species with restricted range (slope = 0.82), narrow dietary niche (slope= 0.59), low abundance (slope= 0.52), and low reproductive potential (slope = 0.51). We concluded that considering species traits by analyzing SARs yields considerable potential for unifying island biogeography theory and niche theory, and that the systematic and predictable effects observed when considering traits can help to guide conservation and management actions.
Carstensen, Daniel W.; Dalsgaard, Bo; Svenning, Jens-Christian
Biogeographical systems can be analyzed as networks of species and geographical units. Within such a biogeographical network, individual species may differ fundamentally in their linkage pattern, and therefore hold different topological roles. To advance our understanding of the relationship...... and a wide altitudinal range-span are related to a wide distribution on many islands and across several biogeographical modules. On the other hand, species restricted to interior forest are mainly characterized as peripherals and, thus, have narrow and localized distributions within biogeographical modules...
Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40 value...
Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.
Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine
Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855
Chukanov, Nikita V
This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.
Vividly illustrated with full-color maps and detailed graphics, The Atlas of Endangered Species catalogs the inhabitants of a wide variety of ecosystems, including forests, mangroves, and coral reefs...
Creutz, M.; Tytgat, M.
Coupling gauge fields to the chiral currents from an effective Lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons naturally gives rise to a species doubling phenomenon similar to that seen with fermionic fields in lattice gauge theory. 17 refs.
Hansen, C R; Pressler, T; Ridderberg, W
Achromobacter species leads to chronic infection in an increasing number of CF patients. We report 2 cases of Achromobacter ruhlandii cross-infection between patients after well-described indirect contact....
Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.
Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)
Full Text Available A general anthropocentric view of the human species affects the environment and is a major contributing factor in the environmental crisis we are currently facing. A species egalitarian society would have positive effects on the crisis, and particularly in regards to short term goals of decreasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Additionally it would increase the quality of life and alleviate the suffering of countless beings, nonhuman animals and humans alike.
The paper argues that some of the limitations and problems examined by Darwin and modern biologists in relation to the working of natural selection in the case of speciation may be one aspect of more general rules which have some counterpart in the competitive selection of organisational species in capitalist economic development. In biology the laws of structure and change that characterise the selection among species are very different from those that characterise the selection of the membe...
Alex C. Wiedenhoeft
These pages are written to be the final step in the identification process; you will be directed to them by the key in Chapter 6. Each species or group of similar species in the same genus has its own set of pages. The information in the first page describes the characteristics of the wood covered in the manual. The page shows images of similar or confusable woods,...
DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.
Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio
We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.
Full Text Available Erythrocyte membrane proteins from 44 representative mammals were studied. Protein 4.2 was not detected in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus (N = 14, Southern Brazilian swamp large rats (Myocastor coypus (N = 2, cutias (Dasyprocta sp (N = 4, and horses (Equus caballus (N = 13. These animals also presented high ankyrin concentrations except for the horse which did not exhibit a sharp band, although minor components located between proteins 2 and 3 could account for the ankyrin family. The rodents studied did present band 6, which was not detectable in other common rodents such as white rats (Rattus norvegicus (N = 9 and mice (Mus musculus (N = 12. Since the absence of protein 4.2 does not disrupt the cytoskeleton membrane, we suggest that it is not an essential protein. Its absence may be compensated physiologically by the higher ankyrin concentration observed.
Weir, B.S.; Johnston, P.R.; Damm, U.
The limit of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the Colletotrichum ITS gene tree. All taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined C. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. We accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the C. gloeosporioides complex. These include C. asianum, C. cordylinicola, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. horii, C. kahawae subsp. kahawae, C. musae, C. nupharicola, C. psidii, C. siamense, C. theobromicola, C. tropicale, and C. xanthorrhoeae, along with the taxa described here as new, C. aenigma, C. aeschynomenes, C. alatae, C. alienum, C. aotearoa, C. clidemiae, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, C. salsolae, and C. ti, plus the nom. nov. C. queenslandicum (for C. gloeosporioides var. minus). All of the taxa are defined genetically on the basis of multi-gene phylogenies. Brief morphological descriptions are provided for species where no modern description is available. Many of the species are unable to be reliably distinguished using ITS, the official barcoding gene for fungi. Particularly problematic are a set of species genetically close to C. musae and another set of species genetically close to C. kahawae, referred to here as the Musae clade and the Kahawae clade, respectively. Each clade contains several species that are phylogenetically well supported in multi-gene analyses, but within the clades branch lengths are short because of the small number of phylogenetically informative characters, and in a few cases individual gene trees are incongruent. Some single genes or combinations of genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, can be used to reliably distinguish most taxa and will need to be developed as secondary barcodes for species level identification, which is important because many of these fungi are of biosecurity
Deborah M. Finch; Dean Pearson; Joseph Wunderle; Wayne Arendt
Including terrestrial animal species in the invasive species strategy plan is an important step in invasive species management. Invasions by nonindigenous species threaten nearly 50 percent of imperiled native species in the United States and are the Nation's second leading cause of species endangerment. Invasion and conversion of native habitats by exotic species...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts to...
Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility
Theoretically, there are reasons to believe that large genome size should favour speciation. Several major factors contributing to genome size, such as duplications and transposable element activity have been proposed to facilitate the formation of new species. However, it is also possible that small genome size promotes speciation. For example, selection for genome reduction may be resolved in different ways in incipient species, leading to incompatibilities. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements may also be more stably inherited in smaller genomes. Here I review the following lines of empirical evidence bearing on this question: (i) Correlations between genome size and species richness of taxa are often negative. (ii) Fossil evidence in lungfish shows that the accumulation of DNA in the genomes of this group coincided with a reduction in species diversity. (iii) Estimates of speciation interval in mammals correlate positively with genome size. (iv) Genome reductions are inferred at the base of particular species radiations and genome expansions at the base of others. (v) Insect clades that have been increasing in diversity up to the present have smaller genomes than clades that have remained stable or have decreased in diversity. The general pattern emerging from these observations is that higher diversification rates are generally found in small-genome taxa. Since diversification rates are the net effect of speciation and extinction, large genomes may thus either constrain speciation rate, increase extinction rate, or both. I argue that some of the cited examples are unlikely to be explained by extinction alone.
Papke, R Thane; Zhaxybayeva, Olga; Feil, Edward J; Sommerfeld, Katrin; Muise, Denise; Doolittle, W Ford
Prokaryotic (bacterial and archaeal) species definitions and the biological concepts that underpin them entail clustering (cohesion) among individuals, in terms of genome content and gene sequence similarity. Homologous recombination can maintain gene sequence similarity within, while permitting divergence between, clusters and is thus the basis for recent efforts to apply the Biological Species Concept in prokaryote systematics and ecology. In this study, we examine isolates of the haloarchaeal genus Halorubrum from two adjacent ponds of different salinities at a Spanish saltern and a natural saline lake in Algeria by using multilocus sequence analysis. We show that, although clusters can be defined by concatenation of multiple marker sequences, barriers to exchange between them are leaky. We suggest that no nonarbitrary way to circumscribe "species" is likely to emerge for this group, or by extension, to apply generally across prokaryotes. Arbitrary criteria might have limited practical use, but still must be agreed upon by the community.
Full Text Available Scandinavian members of the acrocarpous moss genus Oncophorus were revised after field observations had suggested unrecognized diversity. Based on molecular (nuclear: internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, ITS; plastid: trnGUCC G2 intron, trnG, rps4 gene + trnS-rps4 spacer, rps4 and morphological evidence, four morphologically distinguishable species are recognized, Oncophorus elongatus (I.Hagen Hedenäs, O. integerrimus Hedenäs sp. nov. (syn. O. virens var. elongatus Limpr., O. virens (Hedw. Brid., and O. wahlenbergii Brid. (O. sardous Herzog, syn. nov.. Oncophorus elongatus was earlier recognized, but much of its variation was hidden within O. wahlenbergii. Its circumscription is here expanded to include plants with long leaves having mostly denticulate or sharply denticulate upper margins and with long and narrow marginal cells in the basal portion of the sheathing leaf lamina. The new species O. integerrimus sp. nov. differs from O. virens in having more loosely incurved leaves and entire or almost entire upper leaf margins. Besides these characters, the species in the respective pairs differ in quantitative features of the leaf lamina cells. Several cryptic entities were found, in several cases as molecularly distinct as some of the morphologically recognizable species, and phylogeographic structure is present within O. elongatus and O. virens.
Puzanowska-Tarasiewicz, Helena; Kuźmicka, Ludmiła; Tarasiewicz, Mirosław
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mainly free radicals which including non-paired electrons. They are constantly formed as side products of biological reactions. They are also generated directly and indirectly by the cells which were exposed to environmental stress, i.e., UV radiation, ionizing radiation, xenobioticts, light-absorbing compounds, e.g., porphyrines. These factors, which are a source of free radicals, initiate a significant signaling cascade inducing many changes in cells, such as cancerogenic transformation or cell death. Cells protect themselves against oxidative stress by means of antioxidative enzymes and compounds which in their structure have redox sensitive spots.
He, F.; Gaston, K.J.
The number of individuals, or the abundance, of a species\\ud in an area is a fundamental ecological parameter and a\\ud critical consideration when making management and conservation decisions (Andrewartha and Birch 1954; Krebs\\ud 1978; Gaston 1994; Caughley and Gunn 1996). However,\\ud unless the scale is very fine or localized (e.g., in a measurable habitat or a forest stand), abundance is not readily determined. At coarse or regional scales for many species, information on commonness and rar...
Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Crous, P.W.
Colletotrichum acutatum is known as an important anthracnose pathogen of a wide range of host plants worldwide. Numerous studies have reported subgroups within the C. acutatum species complex. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3) of 331 strains previously identified as C. acutatum and other related taxa, including strains from numerous hosts with wide geographic distributions, confirmed the molecular groups previously recognised and identified a series of novel taxa. Thirty-one species are accepted, of which 21 have not previously been recognised. Colletotrichum orchidophilum clusters basal to the C. acutatum species complex. There is a high phenotypic diversity within this complex, and some of the species appear to have preferences to specific hosts or geographical regions. Others appear to be plurivorous and are present in multiple regions. In this study, only C. salicis and C. rhombiforme formed sexual morphs in culture, although sexual morphs have been described from other taxa (especially as laboratory crosses), and there is evidence of hybridisation between different species. One species with similar morphology to C. acutatum but not belonging to this species complex was also described here as new, namely C. pseudoacutatum. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Colletotrichum limetticola (R.E. Clausen) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. lupini (Bondar) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. salicis (Fuckel) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. acerbum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. australe Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brisbanense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cosmi Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. costaricense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. cuscutae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. guajavae Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. indonesiense Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. johnstonii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. kinghornii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. laticiphilum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. melonis Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C
Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.
Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. Taxonomic novelties: New combination - Colletotrichum phyllanthi (H. Surendranath Pai) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Name replacement - C. petchii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. annellatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. beeveri Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. brassicicola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brasiliense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous & Massola, C. colombiense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, C. constrictum Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. cymbidiicola Damm, P.F. Cannon
Vegetation composition and structure influences bird species community assemblages in the highland agricultural landscape of Nyandarua, Kenya. ... Bird species diversity increased with increasing density of woody plant species and vegetation structural heterogeneity. Two gradients of increasing vegetation structural ...
Allmon, Warren D; Yacobucci, Margaret M
"Although the species is one of the fundamental units of biological classification, there is remarkably little consensus among biologists about what defines a species, even within distinct subdisciplines...
... Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across... CONTACT: Kelsey Brantley, National Invasive Species Council Program Specialist and ISAC Coordinator, (202...
Cleary, Daniel F.R.
Parasitoid assemblages infesting Yponomeuta species in the Netherlands were investigated. Parasitoid species richness and community composition were related to host species, habitat, temporal and spatial variation. Both community structure and species richness did not differ among habitats. There
Full Text Available Este estudio caracteriza la dieta de Leopardus colocolo en los alrededores del lago Junín, en el centro del Perú, a partir de los restos de las presas presentes en 43 heces. El origen de las heces del predador se determinó a partir del ADN mitocondrial de las células epiteliales intestinales adheridas a la superficie de las heces, utilizando como marcador la región de control. Los restos de las presas fueron identificados utilizando literatura especializada y la comparación con especímenes de colección, identificando un total of 14 ítems alimenticios pertenecientes a mamíferos de las familias Cricetidae (6, Chinchillidae (1 y Caviidae (1 y aves de las familias Anatidae (3 y Rallidae (2, y un grupo de aves no identificadas (1. Los roedores fueron el principal componente de la dieta de L. colocolo, en frecuencia y biomasa, seguido por las aves. Entre los ítems alimenticios consumidos, el roedor cricétido pequeño Calomys sp. fue el más frecuente; sin embargo, el mayor aporte de biomasa relativa fue proporcionado por el roedor mediano Cavia tschudii. La amplitud de nicho obtenida fue baja (Bsta= 0.17, indicando una dieta especializada. Nuestros resultados confirman que, como ocurre con la mayoría de felinos pequeños neotropicales, L. colocolo es un predador especializado en la captura de vertebrados, principalmente mamíferos pequeños. No se registró variación estacional en la dieta y el análisis de las clases de edad de los roedores cricétidos mostró que los adultos fueron los más consumidos. Se infiere que L. colocolo tiene un patrón de actividad diurno y nocturno.
Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…
layers. In addition to Taxodium ascendens, other woody species may include Nyssa biflora, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Clethra...occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Clethra alnifolia, Lyonia lucida, and Styrax americanus.” This small patch Ecological System covers over 2900 acres...Cephalanthus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Clethra alnifolia, Lyonia lucida, and Styrax americanus.” As mapped, this small patch Ecological
Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...
Andersen, Sophie Susanna Strindberg; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M
) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison...
different tree species. The data presented here would therefore help in the planning and management of tropical forest reserves and development of management inteiventions to enhance forest productivity and ecological balance. Materials and methods. Study site. Kalinzu Forest Reserve is a tropical rain forest locate<.! in.
Apr 4, 2010 ... the market were tested for example voriconazole. This study therefore paves the way for more studies with larger sample sizes, and in different parts of the country in order to understand the local epidemiology of yeast species and to study the local epidemiological susceptibility patterns. These would.
Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...
methiin), S-propyl cysteine sulfoxide. (PCSO, propiin), S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO, alliin) and S- (trans-1- propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PeCSO, isoalliin) in considerable amounts in T. acutiloba. These compounds have been well known to occur in most Allium species. Also, the presence of lectin-like proteins.
Lorbeer, J.W.; Seyb, A.M.; Boer, de M.; Ende, van den J.E.
Abstract. A number of Botrytis species are pathogens of bulb crops. Botrytis squamosa (teleomorph= Botrytotinia squamosa) causal agent of botrytis leaf blight and B. allii the causal agent of botrytis neck rot are two of the most important fungal diseases of onion. The taxonomics of several of the
Smith, Jean, M., Comp.
Presented are two articles, an annotated bibliography, and other information useful in teaching about endangered species, especially those found in Florida. The articles provide an ethical rationale, teaching suggestions, and a discussion of the value of wildlife. Descriptions of over 100 pertinent books, periodicals, movies, and filmstrips are in…
SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.
J. Stoof (Jeroen)
textabstractGastric Helicobacter species are adapted to colonize the acidic environment of the stomach. Colonization with H pylori is life long if untreated, and can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and eventually to gastric cancer. Although H pylori is sensitive to many antibiotics in vitro,
Palmer, Jonathan C; Lord, Megan S; Pinyon, Jeremy L; Wise, Andrew K; Lovell, Nigel H; Carter, Paul M; Enke, Ya Lang; Housley, Gary D; Green, Rylie A
Biological components of perilymph affect the electrical performance of cochlear implants. Understanding the perilymph composition of common animal models will improve the understanding of this impact and improve the interpretation of results from animal studies and how it relates to humans. Analysis and comparison of the proteomes of human, guinea pig, and cat perilymph. Multiple perilymph samples from both guinea pigs and cats were analysed via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins were identified using the Mascot database. Human data were obtained from a published dataset. Proteins identified were refined to form a proteome for each species. Over 200 different proteins were found per species. There were 81, 39, and 64 proteins in the final human, guinea pig, and cat proteomes, respectively. Twenty-one proteins were common to all three species. Fifty-two percent of the cat proteome was found in the human proteome, and 31% of the guinea pig was common to human. The cat proteome had similar complexity to the human proteome in three protein classes, whereas the guinea pig had a similar complexity in two. The presence of albumin was significantly higher in human perilymph than in the other two species. Immunoglobulins were more abundant in the human than in the cat proteome. Perilymph proteomes were compared across three species. The degree of crossover of proteins of both guinea pig and cat with human indicate that these animals suitable models for the human cochlea, albeit the cat perilymph is a closer match. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E47-E52, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Tara G Martin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of
Daniel M. Evans; Judy P. Che-Castaldo; Deborah Crouse; Frank W. Davis; Rebecca Epanchin-Niell; Curtis H. Flather; R. Kipp Frohlich; Dale D. Goble; Ya-Wei Li; Timothy D. Male; Lawrence L. Master; Matthew P. Moskwik; Maile C. Neel; Barry R. Noon; Camille Parmesan; Mark W. Schwartz; J. Michael Scott; Byron K. Williams
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) has succeeded in shielding hundreds of species from extinction and improving species recovery over time. However, recovery for most species officially protected by the ESA - i.e., listed species - has been harder to achieve than initially envisioned. Threats to species are persistent and pervasive, funding has been insufficient...
Álisson Sobrinho Maranho
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.
Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer
Kindt, R.; Ordonez, J.; Smith, E.
The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible species. 91.4 Section 91.4... species. Five or fewer of the species listed below will be identified as eligible each year; those eligible species will be provided to each contestant with the information provided in § 91.1. (a) Whistling...
Reynolds, Mark D.; Sullivan, Brian L.; Hallstein, Eric; Matsumoto, Sandra; Kelling, Steve; Merrifield, Matthew; Fink, Daniel; Johnston, Alison; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Bruns, Nicholas E.; Reiter, Matthew E.; Veloz, Sam; Hickey, Catherine; Elliott, Nathan; Martin, Leslie; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Spraycar, Paul; Golet, Gregory H.; McColl, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A.
In an era of unprecedented and rapid global change, dynamic conservation strategies that tailor the delivery of habitat to when and where it is most needed can be critical for the persistence of species, especially those with diverse and dispersed habitat requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a strategy for migratory waterbirds. We analyzed citizen science and satellite data to develop predictive models of bird populations and the availability of wetlands, which we used to determine temporal and spatial gaps in habitat during a vital stage of the annual migration. We then filled those gaps using a reverse auction marketplace to incent qualifying landowners to create temporary wetlands on their properties. This approach is a cost-effective way of adaptively meeting habitat needs for migratory species, optimizes conservation outcomes relative to investment, and can be applied broadly to other conservation challenges. PMID:28845449
Domínguez-García, Virginia; Muñoz, Miguel A
Understanding the architectural subtleties of ecological networks, believed to confer them enhanced stability and robustness, is a subject of outmost relevance. Mutualistic interactions have been profusely studied and their corresponding bipartite networks, such as plant-pollinator networks, have been reported to exhibit a characteristic "nested" structure. Assessing the importance of any given species in mutualistic networks is a key task when evaluating extinction risks and possible cascade effects. Inspired in a recently introduced algorithm--similar in spirit to Google's PageRank but with a built-in non-linearity--here we propose a method which--by exploiting their nested architecture--allows us to derive a sound ranking of species importance in mutualistic networks. This method clearly outperforms other existing ranking schemes and can become very useful for ecosystem management and biodiversity preservation, where decisions on what aspects of ecosystems to explicitly protect need to be made.
Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1
Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.
Johri, Parul; Krenek, Sascha; Marinov, Georgi K; Doak, Thomas G; Berendonk, Thomas U; Lynch, Michael
Population-genomic analyses are essential to understanding factors shaping genomic variation and lineage-specific sequence constraints. The dearth of such analyses for unicellular eukaryotes prompted us to assess genomic variation in Paramecium, one of the most well-studied ciliate genera. The Paramecium aurelia complex consists of ∼15 morphologically indistinguishable species that diverged subsequent to two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs, as long as 320 MYA) and possess extremely streamlined genomes. We examine patterns of both nuclear and mitochondrial polymorphism, by sequencing whole genomes of 10-13 worldwide isolates of each of three species belonging to the P. aurelia complex: P. tetraurelia, P. biaurelia, P. sexaurelia, as well as two outgroup species that do not share the WGDs: P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum. An apparent absence of global geographic population structure suggests continuous or recent dispersal of Paramecium over long distances. Intergenic regions are highly constrained relative to coding sequences, especially in P. caudatum and P. multimicronucleatum that have shorter intergenic distances. Sequence diversity and divergence are reduced up to ∼100-150 bp both upstream and downstream of genes, suggesting strong constraints imposed by the presence of densely packed regulatory modules. In addition, comparison of sequence variation at non-synonymous and synonymous sites suggests similar recent selective pressures on paralogs within and orthologs across the deeply diverging species. This study presents the first genome-wide population-genomic analysis in ciliates and provides a valuable resource for future studies in evolutionary and functional genetics in Paramecium. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sridhar, Jayanth; Flynn, Harry W; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Dubovy, Sander; Miller, Darlene
To report the clinical presentation, antibiotic sensitivities, treatment strategies, and visual outcomes associated with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species. A noncomparative consecutive case series. Microbiology database records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients with endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species from 1990 to 2012 at a large university referral center. The corresponding clinical records were then reviewed to evaluate the endophthalmitis clinical features and treatment outcomes. Seven patients were identified. Clinical settings included endogenous (n = 3), posttraumatic (n = 2), trabeculectomy bleb-associated (n = 1), and postpenetrating keratoplasty (n = 1). Five patients presented with hypopyon. Presenting visual acuity ranged from 20/60 to light perception in nonendogenous cases and 1/200 to light perception in endogenous cases. Klebsiella was sensitive to aminoglycosides, third-generation cephalosporins, and second- and third-generation fluoroquinolones in all cases. Initial treatment strategies were vitreous tap and injection (n = 4), pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics (n = 2), and anterior chamber tap and injection (n = 1). All three endogenous cases later underwent enucleation or evisceration. In nonendogenous cases, the final visual acuity was 20/70 or better in all 4 patients. Endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella species is associated with poor visual outcomes. Endogenous cases had high rates of enucleation or evisceration.
Garthwaite, R. L.; Potts, D. C.; Veron, J. E. N.; Done, T. J.
Electrophoretic surveys of 13 enzyme-coding loci distinguished unambiguously five morphologically defined species of Porites and two species of Goniopora. Each species was identifiable solely by unique, qualitative banding patterns at 1 6 loci. Genetic distances give preliminary estimates that these Porites species diverged from common ancestors 8 22 Ma during the Miocene, and that the two Goniopora species diverged about 3.5 Ma in the Pliocene, assuming Porites evolved from Goniopora 55 million years ago (Ma).
A cet effet, une enquête conduite suivant la méthode en boule de neige a été utilisée. Il ressort ... au Bénin passera par la mise en place de stratégies participatives avec les éleveurs permettant l'adoption effective des cobayes dans les habitudes alimentaires et son utilisation dans les centres de formation et de recherche.
Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e Silva
Full Text Available Abstract: This study describes the development of the central nervous system in guinea pigs from 12th day post conception (dpc until birth. Totally, 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed macroscopically and by means of light and electron microscopy. The neural tube closure was observed at day 14 and the development of the spinal cord and differentiation of the primitive central nervous system vesicles was on 20th dpc. Histologically, undifferentiated brain tissue was observed as a mass of mesenchymal tissue between 18th and 20th dpc, and at 25th dpc the tissue within the medullary canal had higher density. On day 30 the brain tissue was differentiated on day 30 and the spinal cord filling throughout the spinal canal, period from which it was possible to observe cerebral and cerebellar stratums. At day 45 intumescences were visualized and cerebral hemispheres were divided, with a clear division between white and gray matter in brain and cerebellum. Median sulcus of the dorsal spinal cord and the cauda equina were only evident on day 50. There were no significant structural differences in fetuses of 50 and 60 dpc, and animals at term were all lissencephalic. In conclusion, morphological studies of the nervous system in guinea pig can provide important information for clinical studies in humans, due to its high degree of neurological maturity in relation to its short gestation period, what can provide a good tool for neurological studies.
Holcombe, H; Parry, N M; Rick, M; Brown, D E; Albers, T M; Refsal, K R; Morris, J; Kelly, R; Marko, S T
A commercial diet fed to a colony of inbred strain 13 guinea pigs for approximately 6 weeks was subsequently recalled for excessive levels of vitamin D. Twenty-one of 62 animals exhibited clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy, and poor body condition. Nine affected and 4 clinically normal animals were euthanized for further evaluation, including serum chemistry, urinalysis, and gross and/or histopathology. Macroscopic findings included white discoloration in multiple organs in 8 animals, and microscopic evaluation confirmed multiorgan mineralization in tissues from 7 animals. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated in 10 animals. Serum inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased in all exposed animals; however, total calcium and ionized calcium levels were not significantly higher in exposed animals than in control strain 13 guinea pigs from a different institution. The data support a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D with metastatic calcification. Following the diet recall, the remaining guinea pigs increased their food intake and regained body condition. Diagnostic testing of 8 animals euthanized approximately 3 months after returning to a normal diet demonstrated that serum parathyroid hormone remained significantly lower, and ionized calcium and ionized magnesium were significantly higher, in recovered animals compared to controls and exposed animals. These results indicate that diagnostic tests other than serum calcium are necessary for a diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro
An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.
Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A
Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species’ natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs. PMID:25199089
Greene, Nathaniel T; Anbuhl, Kelsey L; Williams, Whitney; Tollin, Daniel J
There are three main acoustical cues to sound location, each attributable to space- and frequency-dependent filtering of the propagating sound waves by the outer ears, head, and torso: Interaural differences in time (ITD) and level (ILD) as well as monaural spectral shape cues. While the guinea pig has been a common model for studying the anatomy, physiology, and behavior of binaural and spatial hearing, extensive measurements of their available acoustical cues are lacking. Here, these cues were determined from directional transfer functions (DTFs), the directional components of the head-related transfer functions, for 11 adult guinea pigs. In the frontal hemisphere, monaural spectral notches were present for frequencies from ∼10 to 20 kHz; in general, the notch frequency increased with increasing sound source elevation and in azimuth toward the contralateral ear. The maximum ITDs calculated from low-pass filtered (2 kHz cutoff frequency) DTFs were ∼250 μs, whereas the maximum ITD measured with low-frequency tone pips was over 320 μs. A spherical head model underestimates ITD magnitude under normal conditions, but closely approximates values when the pinnae were removed. Interaural level differences (ILDs) strongly depended on location and frequency; maximum ILDs were 10 kHz. Removal of the pinna reduced the depth and sharpness of spectral notches, altered the acoustical axis, and reduced the acoustical gain, ITDs, and ILDs; however, spectral shape features and acoustical gain were not completely eliminated, suggesting a substantial contribution of the head and torso in altering the sounds present at the tympanic membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Johns, J M; Walters, P A; Zimmerman, L I
Three groups of 15 offspring from guinea pig dams were injected twice daily throughout gestation with one of three doses (0.5, 1.5 or 2.5 mg/kg) of nicotine-hydrogen tartrate. These offspring and 15 saline-exposed offspring were tested on several behavioral measures. Offspring of nicotine-treated dams had significantly lower rates of spontaneous alternation as neonates. The 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg nicotine-exposed offspring also alternated less at puberty than control offspring and would not enter an unfamiliar stimulus alley that a majority of controls entered. Nicotine offspring, as adults, performed significantly poorer than their controls on errors and trials to criterion on a discrimination and reversal task. Prenatal nicotine treatment resulted in performance deficits on both learned and innate behavioral measures throughout development and adulthood.
Conclusion et application des résultats : L'amélioration des paramètres de productivité (croissance et taille de nichée) est possible chez les cobayes locaux, mais elle exige l'apport des géniteurs performants venant soit d'autres régions du pays, soit d'ailleurs (Belgique). Ainsi, nous pouvons promouvoir et améliorer ...
La caviaculture présente en zones urbaine et rurale sous forme traditionnelle souffre d'un manque de suivi et de technicité, car menée essentiellement par les enfants et les adolescents sans formation préalable. La pratique durable de cet élevage nécessitera un réel changement au niveau de la sensibilisation des ...
Full Text Available The aim was to establish the genetic diversity and population structure of three guinea pig lines, from seven production zones located in Nariño, southwest Colombia. A total of 384 individuals were genotyped with six microsatellite markers. The measurement of intrapopulation diversity revealed allelic richness ranging from 3.0 to 6.56, and observed heterozygosity (Ho from 0.33 to 0.60, with a deficit in heterozygous individuals. Although statistically significant (p < 0.05, genetic differentiation between population pairs was found to be low. Genetic distance, as well as clustering of guinea-pig lines and populations, coincided with the historical and geographical distribution of the populations. Likewise, high genetic identity between improved and native lines was established. An analysis of group probabilistic assignment revealed that each line should not be considered as a genetically homogeneous group. The findings corroborate the absorption of native genetic material into the improved line introduced into Colombia from Peru. It is necessary to establish conservation programs for native-line individuals in Nariño, and control genealogical and production records in order to reduce the inbreeding values in the populations.
30 sept. 2017 ... J M Umba, JC K Kashala*, J B O Lunumbi*, A Atangana** et D Khasa**. Centre de promotion et de diffusion de mini-élevages, Institut Agro-Vétérinaire (ISAV) de Kimwenza. *Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Lubumbashi, B.P. 1825 Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du. Congo.
Holowaychuk, Marie K.
A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs.
Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing the invasion of alien weed species in Finland based on a review of their occurrence in the Finnish weed flora. The evaluation was conducted for the three phases of the invasion process, i.e. introduction, naturalization and invasion. The literature review revealed that 815 alien weed species occur in Finland of which 314 are regarded as naturalized. Based on their occurrence in different climate zones, the risk of naturalization of new harmful alien weed species was deemed low for those species not currently found in Finland, but higher for species occurring as casual aliens in Finland. In the latter group, 10 species of concern were detected. Exploration of the distribution patterns of naturalized species within Finland revealed species occupancy to be dependent on the residence time of the species. Established neophytes can be expected to extend their ranges and to increase occupation of agricultural habitats in the future.;
Full Text Available Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the
Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter
The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these
Rylands, Anthony B; Mittermeier, Russell A
Primatology as a discrete branch of science involving the study of primate behavior and ecology took off in the 1960s after discovery of the importance of primates as models for biomedical research and the realization that primates provide insights into the evolutionary history of humans. Osman Hill's unfortunately incomplete monograph series on the comparative anatomy and taxonomy of the primates(1) and the Napiers' 1967 A Handbook of Living Primates(2) recorded the world's view of primate diversity at this time. This taxonomy remained the baseline for nearly three decades, with the diversity of each genus being represented by some species, but extensively as subspecies. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dang, Yan; Walker, David J F; Vautour, Kaitlin E; Dixon, Steven; Holmes, Dawn E
Insight into the mechanisms for arsenic detoxification by Geobacter species is expected to improve the understanding of global cycling of arsenic in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments. Analysis of 14 different Geobacter genomes showed that all of these species have genes coding for an arsenic detoxification system (ars operon), and several have genes required for arsenic respiration (arr operon) and methylation (arsM). Genes encoding four arsenic repressor-like proteins were detected in the genome of G. sulfurreducens; however, only one (ArsR1) regulated transcription of the ars operon. Elimination of arsR1 from the G. sulfurreducens chromosome resulted in enhanced transcription of genes coding for the arsenic efflux pump (Acr3) and arsenate reductase (ArsC). When the gene coding for Acr3 was deleted, cells were not able to grow in the presence of either the oxidized or reduced form of arsenic, while arsC deletion mutants could grow in the presence of arsenite but not arsenate. These studies shed light on how Geobacter influences arsenic mobility in anoxic sediments and may help us develop methods to remediate arsenic contamination in the subsurface. This study examines arsenic transformation mechanisms utilized by Geobacter, a genus of iron-reducing bacteria that are predominant in many anoxic iron-rich subsurface environments. Geobacter species play a major role in microbially mediated arsenic release from metal hydroxides in the subsurface. This release raises arsenic concentrations in drinking water to levels that are high enough to cause major health problems. Therefore, information obtained from studies of Geobacter should shed light on arsenic cycling in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments, which may help reduce arsenic-associated illnesses. These studies should also help in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect arsenic contaminants in anoxic subsurface environments. We examined 14 different Geobacter genomes and found
Johnson, Ronald; Mills, John
The AOAC GovVal study compared the VIDAS Listeria species Xpress (LSX) to the Health Products and Food Branch MFHPB-30 reference method for detection of Listeria on stainless steel. The LSX method utilizes a novel and proprietary enrichment media, Listeria Xpress broth, enabling detection of Listeria species in environmental samples with the automated VIDAS in a minimum of 26 h. The LSX method also includes the use of the chromogenic media, chromID Ottaviani Agosti Agar (OAA) and chromID Lmono for confirmation of LSX presumptive results. In previous AOAC validation studies comparing VIDAS LSX to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference methods, the LSX method was approved as AOAC Official Method 2010.02 for the detection of Listeria species in dairy products, vegetables, seafood, raw meats and poultry, and processed meats and poultry, and as AOAC Performance Tested Method 100501 in a variety of foods and on environmental surfaces. The GovVal comparative study included 20 replicate test portions each at two contamination levels for stainless steel where fractionally positive results (5-15 positive results/20 replicate portions tested) were obtained by at least one method at one level. Five uncontaminated controls were included. In the stainless steel artificially contaminated surface study, there were 25 confirmed positives by the VIDAS LSX assay and 22 confirmed positives by the standard culture methods. Chi-square analysis indicated no statistical differences between the VIDAS LSX method and the MFHPB-30 standard methods at the 5% level of significance. Confirmation of presumptive LSX results with the chromogenic OAA and Lmono media was shown to be equivalent to the appropriate reference method agars. The data in this study demonstrate that the VIDAS LSX method is an acceptable alternative method to the MFHPB-30 standard
Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne
The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Species Codes-Non-FMP Species 2d Table 2d to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 2d Table 2d to Part 679—Species Codes—Non-FMP Species Species description Code...
Iamiceli, AnnaLaura; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Lucchetti, Dario; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abate, Vittorio; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Fulgenzi, AnnaRita; Iacovella, Nicola; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Melotti, Paolo; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; di Domenico, Alessandro; Miniero, Roberto
Metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), have been determined in species of Mediterranean marine organisms collected from areas supposed to be at background contamination levels. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) approach was adopted for the determination of all the metals. Arsenic, Cd and Pb determined in the 42 samples, do not exceed the pertinent maximum level except a sample of hake. In wild fish, the concentration range for Cr, Ni, V and Cu was, respectively: 0.07-0.09, 87.6-124, 0.022-0.075 and 0.79-1.74 μg/g fresh weight (fw). The farmed fish samples show concentration levels below the wild fish ones, except for Cr which range at the same levels. Cadmium and Pb show a high sample number under the quantification limit. The elements do not bio-magnify among the species considered and appear to show low variations in relation to organisms' position in the food chain and at sampling sites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adalton Mazetti Fernandes
Full Text Available Nitrification can lead to substantial losses of the applied N through nitrate leaching and N2O emission. The regulation of nitrification may be a strategy to improve fertilizer N recovery and increase its agronomic efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibiting capacity of nitrification in soil by Brachiaria species. The greenhouse experiment was conducted using pots with 10 dm³ of a Red Latosol sample. The treatments consisted of the cultivation of three forage species (Brachiaria brizantha, B. ruziziensis and B. decumbens and four n rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/pot, and the control (without plants. In the absence of the forage plants, all N fertilization levels raised the N-NO3- soil levels, as a result of nitrification. The mineralization of organic matter supplied much of the N requirement of the forage plants and nitrification was influenced in the rhizosphere of B. brizantha; however, this effect was not high enough to alter the N-NH4+ level in the total soil volume of the pot.
Colombo, Paola S; Flamini, Guido; Rodondi, Graziella; Giuliani, Claudia; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina
The genus Primula is the largest among the Primulaceae and is widespread mainly in the cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Since the beginning of the Twentieth century, several studies on the phytochemical composition of different species of Primula have been carried out. The main constituents examined were tissue and epicuticular flavonoids and saponins, which are of therapeutic significance. Only in recent years studies of the volatiles emitted by leaves and flowers have been carried out as well, but they are restricted to a small number of species. Only a few authors have documented the morphology and function of glandular trichomes in relation to the production of flavonoids and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The use of Primula in folk medicine is described in the literature. Investigation of the biological and pharmacological activities of Primula are reported. This study aims at providing a collection of publications on the genus Primula along with a critical revision of literature data. It focuses on the possible taxonomic significance of the secondary metabolites and on their ecological role as attractors for pollinators and deterrents against herbivores and parasites, in order to build the base for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
G W Wieger Wamelink
Full Text Available Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others are not. Are they rare due to: intrinsic reasons, dispersal capacity, the effects of management or abiotic circumstances? Habitat preference of rare plant species may play an important role in determining why some species are rare. Based on an extensive data set of soil parameters we investigated if rarity is due to a narrow habitat preference for abiotic soil parameters. For 23 different abiotic soil parameters, of which the most influential were groundwater-table, soil-pH and nutrient-contents, we estimated species responses for common and rare species. Based on the responses per species we calculated the range of occurrence, the range between the 5 and 95 percentile of the response curve giving the habitat preference. Subsequently, we calculated the average response range for common and rare species. In addition, we designed a new graphic in order to provide a better means for presentation of the results. The habitat preferences of rare species for abiotic soil conditions are significantly narrower than for common species. Twenty of the twenty-three abiotic parameters showed on average significantly narrower habitat preferences for rare species than for common species; none of the abiotic parameters showed on average a narrower habitat preference for common species. The results have major implications for the conservation of rare plant species; accordingly management and nature development should be focussed on the maintenance and creation of a broad range of environmental conditions, so that the requirements of rare species are met. The conservation of (abiotic gradients within ecosystems is particularly important for preserving rare species.
Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, Christopher H; Zhang, Yalin
Three new species, Pediopsis tripartita, P. subtilis and Ruandopsis elongata spp. nov., from Madagascar are described. These species represent the first records of their respective genera in Madagascar. Images of adults and genitalia of the three species are provided.
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC321 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...
Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires
BACKGROUND: Sporotrichosis is a chronic (sub)cutaneous infection caused by thermodimorphic fungi in the order, Ophiostomatales. These fungi are characterized by major differences in routes of transmission, host predilections, species virulence, and susceptibilities to antifungals. Sporothrix species
Bidzilya, Oleksiy V; Budashkin, Yury I
Chrysoesthia halimionella, sp. n., Megacraspedus uzunsyrtus, sp. n., Aristotelia confusella, sp. n., and Dirhinosia interposita, sp. n., are described from Ukraine. Adults and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and compared with related species.
Vasoo, Shawn; Yong, Lee Kien; Sultania-Dudani, Priyanka; Scorza, Mary Lou; Sekosan, Marin; Beavis, Kathleen G; Huhn, Gregory D
Phoma species are primarily phytopathogens which have been reported to sporadically cause human disease. We report a patient with phaeohyphomycotic cysts caused by Phoma species, which were initially mistaken for ganglions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferris, V R
Nematology is a taxon-based science, and a correct understanding of species and their relationships is basic to all nematological research. Modern methods of systematic analysis have reshaped issues concerning species recognition.
Perez-Garcia, Felix; Gonzalez-Benito, Elena M
Seed germination of four Halimium species [H. atriplicifolium (Lam.) Spach, H. halimifolium (L.) Willk., H. ocymoides (Lam.) Willk., H. umbellatum (L.) Spach ssp. viscosum (Willk.) O. Bòlos & Viso] and eight Helianthemum species...
Full Text Available The trend for elevating known subspecies to the status of species on the basis of inappropriate evidence can potentially divert important conservation funds away from other species.
Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina Dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo
... (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes...
Ten parasites species, namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia were observed in the stool samples. The distribution of species in ...
Twelve different antibiotics were used against bacterial species to record their sensitivity. The antibiotics were amikacin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, ofloxacin, sulphamethoxazole trimethoprim and tetracycline. The species that showed sensitivity to ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...
invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both ...
Lubbert Y.Th. Westra
Full Text Available The taxonomic revision of the infrequently collected genus Tetrameranthus by Westra (1985 is updated. A new species is described from French Guiana and Amapá, Brazil, increasing the number of species in this genus to seven.
Full Text Available In this paper, a new species, Cystolepiota pseudofumosifolia, is introduced. C. pseudofumosifolia is characterized by granulose or powdery pileus with an anatomic structure that is loosely globose, as well as ellipsoid cells in chains in the pileus covering the cheilocystidia. This new species is compared to the related and similar Cystolepiota species in morphology and molecular phylogeny based on Internal transcribed spacer sequences. Both types of data support our specimens as a new species in the genus Cystolepiota.
Full Text Available The paper presents eleven species of Ascochyta recently collected in central and southern part of Poland. Two of them, Ascochyta bondarceviana Melnik and Ascochyta equiseti (Desm. Grove noted in Poland for the first time, are illustrated with microphotographs. In addition, nine other species are newly reported on their host plants species in the country. Short characteristics of the fungi species based on the collected specimens and the distribution maps of all fungi taxa are presented.
Adler, P. B.; White, Ethan P.; Lauenroth, W. K.; Kaufman, D. M.; Rassweiler, A.; Rusak, J. A.
The species-area relationship (SAR) plays a central role in biodiversity research, and recent work has increased awareness of its temporal analog, the species-time relationship (STR). Here we provide evidence for a general species-time-area-relationship (STAR), in which species number is a function of the area and time span of sampling, as well as their interaction. For eight assemblages ranging from lake zooplankton to desert rodents, this model outperformed a sampling-based model and two si...
Robert D. Davic
Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.
J. J.A. van der Walt
Full Text Available A revision of the South African species of Commiphora (Burseraceae is presented in which 2 keys are provided to the 18 species recognized. A comprehensive morphological study, including an anatomical study of the stems and leaves, was regarded as essential for an accurate delimitation of the different species. Maps, sketches and photographs serve for illustration.
Braak, ter C.J.F.
To assess the impact of environmental change on biological communities knowledge about species-environment relationships is indispensable. Ecologists attempt to uncover the relationships between species and environment from data obtained from field surveys. In the survey, species are scored on their
An endangered species is a population of organisms, which are at high risk of becoming extinct either due to loss of habitat, ... Key words: Endangered species, Extinct, Environmental degradation, Climate change, in-situ, ex-situ. INTRODUCTION .... management of flora and fauna with fauna species been of main interest.
Bordetella species are Gram-negative coccobacilli. There are currently nine described species that constitute the genus Bordetella. Historically, this genus is subdivided into two groups of species: the “classical” and “non-classical” Bordetella. The classical Bordetella are the most studied group r...
Over the past couple of decades Madagascar has witnessed an explosion in the number of primate species generally recognized. Much of this proliferation can be traced less to increasing knowledge of the lemur fauna than to the complete replacement of biological notions of the species by the Phylogenetic Species ...
Curtis H. Flather; Carolyn Hull Sieg
In virtually all ecological communities around the world, most species are represented by few individuals, and most individuals come from only a few of the most common species. Why this distribution of species abundances is so regularly observed among different taxonomic sets in geographically diverse systems is a question that has received considerable theoretical and...
..., notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30.... The full ISAC will also consider a white paper entitled, Invasive Species and Climate Change, as drafted by the ISAC Task Team on Climate Change. DATES: Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee...
Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…
Water depth and current speed, dissolved oxygen concentration and substrate types were the main environmental variables influencing the distribution of Labeo species in Malebo Pool and these species are accordingly divided in two groups. Three species: Labeo sorex, L. nasus and L. macrostomus prefer deep, rocky ...
This study aimed to find out the Aphidoidea species feeding on herbaceous and shrub plants of Bartýn province. As a result, total of 28 aphid species belonging to 14 genus and 4 tribes of the super family Aphidoidea were determined. Of these determined species, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis farinosa J. F. Gmelin, Aphis ...
Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler
Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endangered species. 216.5 Section 216.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.5 Endangered species. It is A... endangered or threatened species and their critical habitats. The Initial Environmental Examination for each...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depleted species. 216.15 Section 216.15 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Prohibitions § 216.15 Depleted species. The following species or population stocks have been designated by the...
... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Endangered Species Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of March 3, 2009 The Endangered Species Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies The Endangered Species Act (ESA), 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq...
Jun 17, 2009 ... This study aimed to find out the Aphidoidea species feeding on herbaceous and shrub plants of Bartın province. As a result, total of 28 aphid species belonging to 14 genus and 4 tribes of the super family. Aphidoidea were determined. Of these determined species, Aphis fabae Scopoli, Aphis farinosa J. F..
More than 200 valid Sarcocystis species have been described in the parasitological literature. The developmental life cycle in the intermediate host and definitive host has only been described for a few species. The majority of species have been identified based solely on the presence of the sarcocy...
Ned B. Klopfenstein; Brian W. Geils
The fourth issue of Invasive Species Science Update has finally arrived. This newsletter has no set publication schedule, but our intent is to deliver invasive species information on a timely basis. The RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG) has been reorganized and recharged. General information on the ISWG is presented in a publication by Butler and others (2009...
This newsletter is designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as to highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), a core group of scientists who volunteer to disseminate RMRS invasive species...
Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Sneekes, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.
Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention
Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega; Jack Butler
Invasive Species Science Updates are designed to keep managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, as well as highlight breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate...
Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega
Welcome to the fifth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update. The newsletter is produced by the RMRS Invasive Species Working Group (ISWG), which is a core group of scientists who volunteer to coordinate outreach of RMRS invasive species science to managers and the public. After publishing the past four newsletters, we...
Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...
Weiger Wamelink, G.W.; Goedhart, P.W.; Frissel, J.Y.
Biodiversity, including plant species diversity, is threatened worldwide as a result of anthropogenic pressures such as an increase of pollutants and climate change. Rare species in particular are on the verge of becoming extinct. It is still unclear as to why some plant species are rare and others
Demography of threatened tree species in Vietnam (Summary for the library) Effective conservation of threatened tree species requires information on natural dynamics and future prospects of populations of these species. Such information can be obtained from demographic studies. We investigated the
Dhakal, Dipesh; Sohng, Jae Kyung
Nocardia spp. are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Various species of the genus Nocardia have attracted attention due to their detrimental effects on human health. Recent discoveries, however, have exposed their importance as producers of bioactive compounds and degraders of complex organic compounds, as well as their involvement in biotransformation into valuable products. This unit includes general protocols for the laboratory maintenance of Nocardia spp., including growth in liquid medium, growth on solid agar, and long-term storage. Nocardia sp. CS682 (KCTC11297BP), isolated from soil collected in Jeonnam, Korea, is used as a prototype for explaining the considerations for efficient laboratory maintenance of Nocardia spp. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Bryson, Robert W; Linkem, Charles W; Dorcas, Michael E; Lathrop, Amy; Jones, Jason M; Alvarado-Díaz, Javier; Grünwald, Christoph I; Murphy, Robert W
Members of the Crotalus triseriatus species group of montane rattlesnakes are widely distributed across the highlands of Mexico and southwestern USA. Although five species are currently recognized within the group, species limits remain to be tested. Genetic studies suggest that species may be paraphyletic and that at least one cryptic species may be present. We generate 3,346 base pairs of DNA sequence data from seven nuclear loci to test competing models of species delimitation in the C. triseriatus group using Bayes factor delimitation. We also examine museum specimens from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt for evidence of cryptic species. We find strong support for a nine-species model and genetic and morphological evidence for recognizing two new species within the group, which we formally describe here. Our results suggest that the current taxonomy of the C. triseriatus species group does not reflect evolutionary history. We suggest several conservative taxonomic changes to the group, but future studies are needed to better clarify relationships among species and examine genetic patterns and structure within wide-ranging lineages.
Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.
This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.
Wilkinson, John W.
Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and
Srinivasan, Umesh; Raza, Rashid Hasnain; Quader, Suhel
1. Animals group for various benefits, and may form either simple single-species groups, or more complex multi-species associations. Multi-species groups are thought to provide anti-predator and foraging benefits to participant individuals. 2. Despite detailed studies on multi-species animal groups, the importance of species in group initiation and maintenance is still rated qualitatively as 'nuclear' (maintaining groups) or 'attendant' (species following nuclear species) based on species-specific traits. This overly simplifies and limits understanding of inherently complex associations, and is biologically unrealistic, because species roles in multi-species groups are: (i) likely to be context-specific and not simply a fixed species property, and (ii) much more variable than this dichotomy indicates. 3. We propose a new view of species importance (measured as number of inter-species associations), along a continuum from 'most nuclear' to 'least nuclear'. Using mixed-species bird flocks from a tropical rainforest in India as an example, we derive inter-species association measures from randomizations on bird species abundance data (which takes into account species 'availability') and data on 86 mixed-species flocks from two different flock types. Our results show that the number and average strength of inter-species associations covary positively, and we argue that species with many, strong associations are the most nuclear. 4. From our data, group size and foraging method are ecological and behavioural traits of species that best explain nuclearity in mixed-species bird flocks. Parallels have been observed in multi-species fish shoals, in which group size and foraging method, as well as diet, have been shown to correlate with nuclearity. Further, the context in which multi-species groups occur, in conjunction with species-specific traits, influences the role played by a species in a multi-species group, and this highlights the importance of extrinsic factors in
Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.
Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.
Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.
Crkvenjakov, R.; Dramanac, R.
A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called (species) genome. The definition of species based on chromosomes, genes, or genome common to its member organisms has been implied or mentioned in passing numerous times. Some population biologists think that members of species have similar ``homeostatic genotypes,`` which are to a degree resistant to mutation or environmental change in the production of a basic phenotype.
Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.
A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.
Oijen, van D.; Feijen, M.; Hommel, P.W.F.M.; Ouden, den J.; Waal, de R.W.
Question: Do tree species, with different litter qualities, affect the within-forest distribution of forest understorey species on intermediate to base-rich soils? Since habitat loss and fragmentation have caused ancient forest species to decline, those species are the main focus of this study.
Gordon C. Reese; Kenneth R. Wilson; Curtis H. Flather
1. Species richness, the number of species in a defined area, is the most frequently used biodiversity measure. Despite its intuitive appeal and conceptual simplicity, species richness is often difficult to quantify, even in well surveyed areas, because of sampling limitations such as survey effort and species detection probability....
A key to the European species of the Pteromalus altus group is presented. The relationship between this group and species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) is confirmed. One new species: P. villosae, associated with Euphorbia villosa Waldst. & Kit.is presented. Two new species of the albipennis
urve for protein @wialysis 0f Aumnmnas spa-ﬁes. 6. 5 .1. 3. E Poultry. 2 i! Fish. [:1 Human. 1. U. A. hydrophila A' sobria A. caviae A. salmonicida. Figure 2: Chart showing average proteins of species of. Aeromonas isoloied ﬁshes, pouﬁry and man ...
It was noticed that there is a distinct difference in the position of the penis in the two species. In Pro cavia the penis opening is situated immediately below the anus, while it is placed further forward in Heterohyrax. The distance between the anus and penis was measured in situ, measurements being as follows: P. capensis.
Török, Tamás; Varga, Erzsébet
The mullein (Verbascum phlomoides L., V thapsus L., V. thapsiforme Schrad., V. speciosum L.) is a medicinal herb known and used for a long time, especially in traditional Turkish medicine. The aims of our study were to identify the species and study the plant's major active substances both qualitatively and quantitatively, comparing it to data found in scientific literature. The plants were identified as probable hybrids of V. phlomoides and V. thapsiforme. Microscopic analysis of the flowers showed no major difference between the specimens. The diameter of both stomata and pollen we observed was around 15-20 μm. Important flavonoids like rutin and quercetin were identified. Dosage resulted in a 0.135% total flavonoid aglycone content. (expressed as hypericin) and a 1.3% total flavonoid glycoside content (expressed as rutoside). Thin layer chromatography from saponines revealed two spots. A hemolytic index of 13095 was also determined. Repeating the dosage experiment a year later resulted in significantly lower flavonoid aglycone and glycoside content (0.006% and 0.95% respectively) as well as a hemolytic index of approximately 4000.
Wyatt, G A K; West, S A; Gardner, A
Darwin suggested that the discovery of altruism between species would annihilate his theory of natural selection. However, it has not been formally shown whether between-species altruism can evolve by natural selection, or why this could never happen. Here, we develop a spatial population genetic model of two interacting species, showing that indiscriminate between species helping can be favoured by natural selection. We then ask if this helping behaviour constitutes altruism between species, using a linear-regression analysis to separate the total action of natural selection into its direct and indirect (kin selected) components. We show that our model can be interpreted in two ways, as either altruism within species, or altruism between species. This ambiguity arises depending on whether or not we treat genes in the other species as predictors of an individual's fitness, which is equivalent to treating these individuals as agents (actors or recipients). Our formal analysis, which focuses upon evolutionary dynamics rather than agents and their agendas, cannot resolve which is the better approach. Nonetheless, because a within-species altruism interpretation is always possible, our analysis supports Darwin's suggestion that natural selection does not favour traits that provide benefits exclusively to individuals of other species. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Prothero, Donald R
Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available The flagship species approach is an enduring strategy in conservation. Academic discussion on flagship species has focussed on two dimensions: on what basis should they be selected and how have they been put to use. Here we consider a third dimension, namely the manner in which flagship species act and have the capacity to galvanise and influence conservation outcomes. Drawing on concepts from the social sciences, viz. affordance, framing, and actor-networks; we discuss examples of flagship species to propose a theory of flagship species action. In brief, our theory posits that a flagship species is one with traits that afford the assembly of relatively coherent networks of associations with ideational elements located in pre-existing cultural framings. These associations give rise to opportunities to align with deep cultural frames, contemporary cultural phenomena and political economy such that when a conservation action is introduced, forms of agency cause the species and human publics to change. The species becomes re-framed (or reinvigorated as a cultural asset speaking for a wider nature, publics and political agendas. Further our theory posits that species with traits that enrol in idea networks incorporating human fears, will have limited flagship capacity. This is because the ability of the representations produced to align with frames incorporating collective aspirations is constrained. In terms of applied conservation practice, our theory suggests that: a key criteria for selecting potential flagship species is presence in existing cultural frames, that effective deployment of flagship species requires an understanding of the species′ cultural associations, and a species ability to galvanise action may be limited to certain times and places. Furthermore, once deployed conservation interests will never have full control over the flagship species: it may act in uncertain and unexpected ways.
Grenouillet, Gaël; Comte, Lise
Species' range shifts in response to ongoing climate change have been widely documented, but although complex spatial patterns in species' responses are expected to be common, comprehensive comparisons of species' ranges over time have undergone little investigation. Here, we outline a modeling framework based on historical and current species distribution records for disentangling different drivers (i.e. climatic vs. nonclimatic) and assessing distinct facets (i.e. colonization, extirpation, persistence, and lags) of species' range shifts. We used extensive monitoring data for stream fish assemblages throughout France to assess range shifts for 32 fish species between an initial period (1980-1992) and a contemporary one (2003-2009). Our results provide strong evidence that the responses of individual species varied considerably and exhibited complex mosaics of spatial rearrangements. By dissociating range shifts in climatically suitable and unsuitable habitats, we demonstrated that patterns in climate-driven colonization and extirpation were less marked than those attributed to nonclimatic drivers, although this situation could rapidly shift in the near future. We also found evidence that range shifts could be related to some species' traits and that the traits involved varied depending on the facet of range shift considered. The persistence of populations in climatically unsuitable areas was greater for short-lived species, whereas the extent of the lag behind climate change was greater for long-lived, restricted-range, and low-elevation species. We further demonstrated that nonclimatic extirpations were primarily related to the size of the species' range, whereas climate-driven extirpations were better explained by thermal tolerance. Thus, the proposed framework demonstrated its potential for markedly improving our understanding of the key processes involved in range shifting and also offers a template for informing management decisions. Conservation strategies
Full Text Available A new species of Calogalesus Kieffer, 1912, C. sinicus sp. n., is described and illustrated, collected from a Chinese prickly ash (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. orchard in Yunnan province of China. This is the third described species of the genus in the World. The new species can be distinguished from the other two described Calogalesus species by the head profile, proportions of the antennal segments, tridentate mandible, and mandible length. A key to World species of the genus is provided.
Koutny, H; Joachim, A; Tichy, A; Baumgartner, W
Bovine eimeriosis is considered to be of considerable importance for the productivity and health of cattle worldwide. Despite the importance of cattle farming in Austria, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of bovine Eimeria spp. The objective of this study was to obtain detailed information about the occurrence of different Eimeria spp. on Austrian dairy farms. Fecal samples from individual calves (n = 868) from 296 farms all over Austria (82 districts) were collected. Additionally, each farmer was questioned about the occurrence of calf diarrhea, and about the knowledge on coccidiosis and possible control measures. On 97.97% of the investigated farms, calves excreted Eimeria oocysts, and 83.67% of the individual samples were positive. After sporulation of positive samples pooled from each farm, 11 Eimeria species were found, with E. bovis (in 65.54% of the samples and 27.74% of the farms), E.zuernii (63.85%/13.86%), E. auburnensis (56.76%/13.41%) and E. ellipsoidalis (54.05%/14.38%) being the most prevalent, followed by E. alabamensis (45.61%/11.56%), E. subspherica (35.14%/5.5.05%), E. cylindrica (33.11%/7.00%), and E. canadensis (31.08%/7.74%). E. wyomingensis, E. pellita and E. bukidnonensis were only found sporadically (3.04-4.73% of the samples and 0.16-0.59% of the farms). Mixed infections were present on all farms (2-9 Eimeria species/farm). Prevalences by state provinces were high throughout with 77.1-87.9% of the samples and 93.8-100% of the farms. Lower Austria had the highest percentage of positive farms, and Vorarlberg the lowest. Individual OPG (oocysts per gram of feces) values were generally low; 75% of the samples had an OPG of 1,000 or less. The highest detected OPG was 72,400. The mean OPG was 2,525 with above average numbers in Tirol, Carinthia, and Lower Austria. The mean OPG values were significantly positively correlated with the cattle density in the different districts. The majority of the samples were from
It has been historically thought that in conditions that permit growth, most unicellular species do not to age. This was particularly thought to be the case for symmetrically dividing species, as such species lack a clear distinction between the soma and the germline. Despite this, studies of the symmetrically dividing species Escherichia coli and Schizosaccharomyces pombe have recently started to challenge this notion. They indicate that E. coli and S. pombe do age, but only when subjected to environmental stress. If true, this suggests that aging may be widespread among microbial species in general, and that studying aging in microbes may inform other long-standing questions in aging. This review examines the recent evidence for and against replicative aging in symmetrically dividing unicellular organisms, the mechanisms that underlie aging, why aging evolved in these species, and how microbial aging fits into the context of other questions in aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Of the 37 species of the European Union concern eight are already present and two present a future potential risk for Romania. This paper brings updated information regarding these species in Romania. The presence of eight invasive alien species of concern to the European Union have already been recorded in Romania: two plant species Cabomba caroliniana and Heracleum sosnowskyi, two crustaceans Orconectes limosus and Eriocheir sinensis, two fish species Pseudorasbora parva and Perccottus glenii, one reptile Trachemys scripta and one mammal Myocastor coypus. Other two species of Union concern (Lithobates catesbeianus and Procyon lotor may soon become invaders in Romania. We emphasize the urgent need to assess their current distribution and impact or potential to establish and possible impact at national level.
Mann, Michael D
When designing animal studies, investigators must choose a species that is appropriate for the research. In this paper, the author examines various criteria that can be used to guide this selection. He discusses the concepts of phylogenetic group and sentience and finds them not to be useful in the selection of appropriate species in biomedical research. He identifies other criteria that are more useful as justifications for species selection, including susceptibility to a targeted disease process, tendency to engage in a targeted behavior, suitable size for the experimental techniques to be used, presence of a large body of data relevant to the study, species specificity (the species itself is the target of the research), intergenerational interval, similarity to humans, contractual specification and existing guidelines. He proposes that investigators should use these justifications, and perhaps others, to choose the most scientifically appropriate species for animal studies.
Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Rossman, Amy; Andersen, Birgitte
Morphology and phylogeny has been used to distinguish members of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Stemphylium. A third method for distinguishing species is by chemotaxonomy. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium via HPLC-UV-MS analysis, while...... also exploring the potential of chemotaxonomy as a robust identification method for Stemphylium. Several species were found to have species-specific metabolites, while other species were distinguishable by a broader metabolic profile rather than specific metabolites. Many previously described...... metabolites were found to be important for distinguishing species, while some unknown metabolites were also found to have important roles in distinguishing species of Stemphylium. This study is the first of its kind to investigate the chemical potential of Stemphylium across the whole genus....
Henriksson, Anna; Yu, Jun; Wardle, David A; Trygg, Johan; Englund, Göran
The species richness hypothesis, which predicts that species-rich communities should be better at resisting invasions than species-poor communities, has been empirically tested many times and is often poorly supported. In this study, we contrast the species richness hypothesis with four alternative hypotheses with the aim of finding better descriptors of invasion resistance. These alternative hypotheses state that resistance to invasions is determined by abiotic conditions, community saturation (i.e., the number of resident species relative to the maximum number of species that can be supported), presence/absence of key species, or weighted species richness. Weighted species richness is a weighted sum of the number of species, where each species' weight describes its contribution to resistance. We tested these hypotheses using data on the success of 571 introductions of four freshwater fish species into lakes throughout Sweden, i.e., Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), tench (Tinca tinca), zander (Sander lucioperca), and whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus). We found that weighted species richness best predicted invasion success. The weights describing the contribution of each resident species to community resistance varied considerably in both strength and sign. Positive resistance weights, which indicate that species repel invaders, were as common as negative resistance weights, which indicate facilitative interactions. This result can be contrasted with the implicit assumption of the original species richness hypothesis, that all resident species have negative effects on invader success. We argue that this assumption is unlikely to be true in natural communities, and thus that we expect that weighted species richness is a better predictor of invader success than the actual number of resident species.
Protopopova Vira V.
Full Text Available The investigation results of the transformer species participation (Echinocystis lobata (Michx. Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L. in different plant communities of the Ukrainian Polissya (Forest zone of Ukraine are presented. All the abovementioned species are strong edificators in the region that can significantly change important species composition parameters of communities and character of landscape.
Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.
Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... the many ecological and anthropogenic processes that combine to facilitate the translocation of invasive species and the subsequent expansion of their populations. Successful alien species have been observed to rapidly expand their ranges until some limit, typically climate-imposed, is reached. Comparisons...
California Department of Resources — This is the Biological Observation Database point layer representing baseline observations of sensitive species (as defined by the MSCP) throughout San Diego County....
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the five-species Jungle game in the framework of evolutionary game theory. We address the coexistence and biodiversity of the system using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Then, we find that the inhibition from the bottom-level species to the top-level species can be critical factors that affect biodiversity, no matter how it is distributed, whether homogeneously well mixed or structured. We also find that predators' different preferences for food affect species' coexistence.
Robinson, Christopher M; Seto, Donald; Jones, Morris S; Dyer, David W; Chodosh, James
Adenoviruses are medium-sized double stranded DNA viruses that infect vertebrates. Human adenoviruses cause an array of diseases. Currently there are 56 human adenovirus types recognized and characterized within seven species (A-G). Of those types, a majority belongs to species D. In this review, the genomic conservation and diversity are examined among human adenoviruses within species D, particularly in contrast to other human adenovirus species. Specifically, homologous recombination is presented as a driving force for the molecular evolution of human adenoviruses and the emergence of new adenovirus pathogens. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Mina; Baek, Seong-Yeol; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Samson, Robert A
Eurotium strains were isolated from 77 loaves of meju (dried fermented soybeans), in various regions of Korea from 2008 to 2010. Morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of β-tubulin were examined. They were identified as Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, E. repens, E. rubrum, and E. tonophilum. Of these species, E. chevalieri and E. tonophilum had not been previously reported in association with meju. E. chevalieri and E. repens were the species isolated most frequently. This paper summarizes the morphological characteristics of six Eurotium species and provides key to identify the species from meju.
Narang, S K; Kaiser, P E; Seawright, J A
Sibling species D, a new member of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus species complex was identified in collections from Pickwick Lake, Tishomingo County, Mississippi and Choctawhatchee, Bay County, in West Florida. This species occurred sympatrically with the previously described species, A, B and C. Evidence for identification of species D includes diagnostic allozymes, a lack of polytene chromosomes in the ovarian nurse cells, and inviability of F1 progeny and lack of sperm transfer in hybridization crosses. An electrophoretic taxonomic key for distinguishing species D from A, B and C is presented.
Jonas S. Döge
Full Text Available The Drosophila peruensis species group was recently proposed and includes four taxa: D. atalaia Vilela & Sene, 1982, D. boraceia Vilela & Val, 2004, D. pauliceia Ratcov & Vilela, 2007, and D. peruensis Wheeler, 1959. All these species have most of setae or setulae of mesonotum arinsing from dark spots, wings with crossveins darker (except in D. atalaia and hypandrium squared-shaped mostly fused to gonopods. Here, we describe two new species, Drosophila itacorubi sp. nov. and Drosophila paraitacorubi sp. nov., belonging to this species group. The male genitalia of these species are figured. An identification key to the D. peruensis species group is provided.
Parveen, Iffat; Singh, Hemant K; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Pradhan, Udai C; Babbar, Shashi B
The indiscriminate collections of Paphiopedilum species from the wild for their exotic ornamental flowers have rendered these plants endangered. Although the trade of these endangered species from the wild is strictly forbidden, it continues unabated in one or other forms that elude the current identification methods. DNA barcoding that offers identification of a species even if only a small fragment of the organism at any stage of development is available could be of great utility in scrutinizing the illegal trade of both endangered plant and animal species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to develop DNA barcodes of Indian species of Paphiopedilum along with their three natural hybrids using loci from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. The five loci tested for their potential as effective barcodes were RNA polymerase-β subunit (rpoB), RNA polymerase-β' subunit (rpoC1), Rubisco large subunit (rbcL) and maturase K (matK) from the chloroplast genome and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) from the nuclear genome. The intra- and inter-specific divergence values and species discrimination rates were calculated by Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) method using mega 4.0. The matK with 0.9% average inter-specific divergence value yielded 100% species resolution, thus could distinguish all the eight species of Paphiopedilum unequivocally. The species identification capability of these sequences was further confirmed as each of the matK sequences was found to be unique for the species when a blast analysis of these sequences was carried out on NCBI. nrITS, although had 4.4% average inter-specific divergence value, afforded only 50% species resolution. DNA barcodes of the three hybrids also reflected their parentage. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Silvano, Amy; Guyer, Craig; Steury, Todd; Grand, James B.
Most imperiled species are rare or elusive and difficult to detect, which makes gathering data to estimate their response to habitat restoration a challenge. We used a repeatable, systematic method for selecting focal species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis. Our objective was to select suites of focal species that would be useful as surrogates when predicting effects of restoration of habitat characteristics preferred by imperiled species. We developed 27 habitat profiles that represent general habitat relationships for 118 imperiled species. We identified 23 regularly encountered species that were sensitive to important aspects of those profiles. We validated our approach by examining the correlation between estimated probabilities of occupancy for species of concern and focal species selected using our method. Occupancy rates of focal species were more related to occupancy rates of imperiled species when they were sensitive to more of the parameters appearing in profiles of imperiled species. We suggest that this approach can be an effective means of predicting responses by imperiled species to proposed management actions. However, adequate monitoring will be required to determine the effectiveness of using focal species to guide management actions.
Mark J. Costello
Full Text Available Estimates of global species richness should consider what factors influence the rate of species discovery at global scales. However, past studies only considered regional scales and/or samples representing <0.4% of all named species. Here, we analysed trends in the rate of description for all fish species (2% of all named species. We found that the number of species described has slowed for (a brackish compared to marine and freshwater species, (b large compared to small sized fish, (c geographically widespread compared to localised, (d species occurring in the tropics and northern hemisphere compared to southern hemisphere, and (e neritic (coastal species compared to pelagic (offshore species. Most (68% of the variation in year of description was related to geographic location and depth, and contrary to expectations, body size was a minor factor at just 6% (on a standardised scale. Thus most undiscovered species will have small geographic ranges, but will not necessarily be of smaller body size than currently known species. Accordingly, global assessments of how many species may exist on Earth need to account for geographic variation.
Volker U Schwartze
Full Text Available Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of the five species of the genus have been found to be involved in mucormycosis, namely L. corymbifera, L. ramosa and L. ornata. However, it is not clear whether the clinical situation reflects differences in virulence between the species of Lichtheimia or whether other factors are responsible. In this study the virulence of 46 strains of all five species of Lichtheimia was investigated in chicken embryos. Additionally, strains of the closest-related genus Dichotomocladium were tested. Full virulence was restricted to the clinically relevant species while all strains of L. hyalospora, L. sphaerocystis and Dichotomocladium species were attenuated. Although virulence differences were present in the clinically relevant species, no connection between origin (environmental vs clinical or phylogenetic position within the species was observed. Physiological studies revealed no clear connection of stress resistance and carbon source utilization with the virulence of the strains. Slower growth at 37°C might explain low virulence of L. hyalospora, L. spaherocystis and Dichotomocladium; however, similarly slow growing strains of L. ornata were fully virulent. Thus, additional factors or a complex interplay of factors determines the virulence of strains. Our data suggest that the clinical situation in fact reflects different virulence potentials in the Lichtheimiaceae.
Jeffrey A. Hutchings; Stuart H. M. Butchart; Ben Collen; Michael K. Schwartz; Robin S. Waples
Conservation biology research exhibits a striking but unhelpful dichotomy. Analyses of species decline, extinction risk, and threat mitigation typically encompass broad taxonomic and spatial scales. By contrast, most studies of recovery lack generality, pertaining to specific species, populations, or locales. Narrowly focused analyses offer a weak empirical basis for...
Condamine, Fabien L; Hines, Heather M
Investigating how species coped with past environmental changes informs how modern species might face human-induced global changes, notably via the study of historical extinction, a dominant feature that has shaped current biodiversity patterns. The genus Bombus, which comprises 250 mostly cold-adapted species, is an iconic insect group sensitive to current global changes. Through a combination of habitat loss, pathogens and climate change, bumblebees have experienced major population declines, and several species are threatened with extinction. Using a time-calibrated tree of Bombus, we analyse their diversification dynamics and test hypotheses about the role of extinction during major environmental changes in their evolutionary history. These analyses support a history of fluctuating species dynamics with two periods of historical species loss in bumblebees. Dating estimates gauge that one of these events started after the middle Miocene climatic optimum and one during the early Pliocene. Both periods are coincident with global climate change that may have extirpated Bombus species. Interestingly, bumblebees experienced high diversification rates during the Plio-Pleistocene glaciations. We also found evidence for a major species loss in the past one million years that may be continuing today. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
The velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Willd) is one of the key species for domestication in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to help the sustainable management and conservation of this species, its structural characteristics and ethnobotanical traits were studied in the 4 vegetation types (typical dense forest, degraded dense ...
migratory breeding in the Palaearctic region and. 69 are mainly African (south of the Sahara desert) or tropical species which also occur in the. Palaearctic region. There are 199 Palaearctic winter visitors in Ethiopia, including 21 passage migrants. Of these, 169 are only visitors with no resident forms. There are 47 species, ...
Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.
The Botryosphaeriaceae includes several species that are serious canker and leaf pathogens of Pro- teaceae. In the present study, sequence data for the ITS nrDNA region were used in conjunction with morphological observations to resolve the taxonomy of species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with
Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...
Both languages and species are threatened with extinction. This talk will compare patterns of cultural and biological diversity. The aims will be to compare the extinction risk of languages with other groups and then compare the patterns of the global distribution of languages and species. The factors influencing diversity and threat will be considered.
Making interspecific hybridizations, where possible remains an unparalleled option for studying the intricacies of speciation. In the Drosophila bipectinata species complex comprising of four species, namely D. bipectinata, D. parabipectinata, D. malerkotliana and D. pseudoananassae, interspecific hybrids can be obtained ...
During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.
Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.
This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive ...
Kelly Burnett; Susan J. Frankel; Melody Keena; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Michael E. Ostry; Carolyn Hull Sieg
Invasive species are one of the greatest threats to forest, range, aquatic, and urban forest ecosystem health. They contribute to the endangerment of native species and may lead to other severe ecological and financial consequences in our Nationâs wildlands and urban forests. Costs the public pays for damage, losses, and control efforts are estimated at more than $138...
Dennis E. Desjardin; D. Jean Lodge; Cassius V. Stevani; Eiji. Nagasawa
Seven species of Mycena are reported as luminescent, representing specimens collected in Belize, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Japan (Bonin Islands), Malaysia (Borneo) and Puerto Rico. Four of them represent new species (Mycena luxaeterna, M. luxarboricola, M. luxperpetua, M. silvaelucens) and three represent new reports of...
Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.
Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are
Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme
The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance
D. J. B. Killick
Full Text Available The South African species of Myrica are revised, the 19 species previously recognized being reduced to 9. One variety is elevated to specific rank, viz. M. conifera Burm.f. var. Integra A. Chev. becomes M. Integra (A. Chev. Killick.
LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik
It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...
Introduction. Amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of vertebrates, with at least one third of over 6,000 known species being threatened with extinction (Stuart et al.,. 2004, 2008). Many reasons are attributed to the decline of amphibian species such as global warming, habitat destruction and modification ...
Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.
Alangium sect. Rhytidandra is confined to SE Asia, the Pacific and East Australia, and contains 13 species. Five species, viz. Alangium brassii, A. glabrum, A. gracile, A. guadalcanalense, and A. velutinum are described as new, whereas A. villosum subsp. solomonense is raised to specific rank: A.
The research included clinical material collected from the patients of the Specialist Medical Unit for Tubereles. Lung Diseases and Oncology in Olsztyn with particular consideration to the respiratory system and to Trichosporon species. In total 3 species were isolated: Trichosporon beigelii Vuillemin, Trichosporon capitatum Diddens et Lodder and Trichosporon pullulans Diddens et Lodder. T. beigelii dominated in the materiał examined.
that the urban gardens are a storehouse of biodiversity including species that run the risk of disappearance in the natural habitat. ... Species assortment and biodiversity conservation in homegardens of Bahir Dar.  consumption, and significantly ... Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea. The topography of the City is ...
... Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across... development, introduction pathways, and new invaders. ISAC will also consult with Western-based scientists and... Invasive Species Council Program Analyst and ISAC Coordinator, (202) 513-7243; Fax: (202) 371-1751, Dated...
Unique alleles were found at EST(B) in S. zambezensis and LGG(B) in S. nigromaculatus, whereas the outgroup species Parauchenoglanis ngamensis had private alleles at SDH(A), MPI(C) and LGG(A). The species boundaries were tested using controlled breeding studies between S. nigromaculatus and S. zambezensis.
Bothmer, Roland Von; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke
Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala.......Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala....
Tulbaghia (wild Garlic) is a plant genus most closely related to the genus Allium both in the family Alliaceae and is entirely indigenous to Southern Africa. Indigenous people use several species of the genus as food and medicine, and few species are commonly grown as ornamentals. Biological and pharmacological ...
Rank, Christian; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal
Decimation of cereal growth and yields by hemiparasitic Striga species cannot be accounted for entirely by the removal of host-plant resources. The production of toxic compounds by the parasite has been suggested. An investigation of three species of the economically important Striga and the rela...
Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut
Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...
Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia). –. (c) Details of the laboratory stocks of D. malerkotliana ..... Bock I. R. 1971a Taxonomy of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Univ. Tex. Publ. 6, 273–280. Bock I. R. 1971b Intra and interspecific chromosomal inversions in the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. Chromosoma 34,.
Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean
To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…
Many native species of plants and animals in the Great Basin have a restricted geographic distribution that reflects the regionâs biogeographic history. Conservation of these species has become increasingly challenging in the face of changing environmental conditions and land management practices. This paper provides an overview of major stressors contributing to...
Videira, S.I.R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Kolecka, A.; Haren, van L.; Boekhout, T.; Crous, P.W.
The genus Ramularia includes numerous phytopathogenic species, several of which are economically important. Ramularia eucalypti is currently the only species of this genus known to infect Eucalyptus by causing severe leaf-spotting symptoms on this host. However, several isolates identified as R.
Abreu, J.A.; Martins, E.S.; Catarino, L.
Genus Maerua has around 60 species represented on the African continent, of which three have been reported for Angola. Two new species of Maerua (Capparaceae) from Angola are here described. Both are closely similar to M. juncea subsp. juncea, being distinguished by floral traits such as the
J.W. Van Sambeek; J.E. Preece
The genus Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, includes over 65 ash species native to the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere (Miller, 1955). Several of the ash species are important forest trees noted for their tough, highly resistant to shock, straight grained wood as well as being excellent shade trees for parks and residential...
New species of haematozoa, namely Leucocytozoon ugwidi sp. nov. from the Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and Haemoproteus skuae sp. nov. from the Subantarctic Skua Catharacta antarctica, are described. These are the first species to be recorded from the families Phalacrocoracidae and Stercorariidae, ...
Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF
The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S.
Jul 11, 2011 ... dominated the Mesozoic forest along with the other gymnosperms. The Family Cycadaceae consists of single genus Cycas and about 110 species. These plants are distributed in the tropical and .... reconstruction of the phylogeny of closely related species as well as in the studies of population genetics.
We identified two species of thermophilic Campylobacter in companion dogs in Jos. Majority of C. jejuni were isolated from mucoid faeces while mixed infections of the two species were more common among diarrhoeic dogs. Pet owners should observe strict hand hygiene especially after handling dogs or their faeces to ...
Henderson, Lynette K.
The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…
Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains one of the most common infections of the female genital tract. Correct identification of the isolated Candida species is essential to direct the empirical antifungal therapy. Objectives: This local study was conducted to identify the spectrum of Candida species associated with VVC using ...
In November 1999. during a field trip along the eastern slopes of the Californian Sierra Nevada, at five different localities a Grimmia species was found that, with some doubt, was identified as Grimmia mariniana Sayre. Recent comparison with fresh material of this species, and with the type
Oliveira, Carlos Alexandre Miranda; de Melo, Filipe Augusto Gonçalves; Bertaco, Vinicius de Araújo; de Astarloa, Juan M. Díaz; Rosso, Juan J.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio
DNA barcoding has been used extensively to solve taxonomic questions and identify new species. Neotropical fishes are found in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, with a large number of species yet to be described, many of which are very difficult to identify. Characidae is the most species-rich family of the Characiformes, and many of its genera are affected by taxonomic uncertainties, including the widely-distributed, species-rich genus Astyanax. In this study, we present an extensive analysis of Astyanax covering almost its entire area of occurrence, based on DNA barcoding. The use of different approaches (ABGD, GMYC and BIN) to the clustering of the sequences revealed ample consistency in the results obtained by the initial cutoff value of 2% divergence for putative species in the Neighbor-Joining analysis using the Kimura-2-parameter model. The results indicate the existence of five Astyanax lineages. Some groups, such as that composed by the trans-Andean forms, are mostly composed of well-defined species, and in others a number of nominal species are clustered together, hampering the delimitation of species, which in many cases proved impossible. The results confirm the extreme complexity of the systematics of the genus Astyanax and show that DNA barcoding can be an useful tool to address these complexes questions. PMID:27992537
habitat size (Willis, 1979), foraging modes. (Marone, 1991) and floristic composition (Wiens and Rotenberry, 1981) have influence in the distribution of the species. The highest number of avian species was observed in the forest habitat. This is probably due to the diversity of vegetation that provided heterogeneous habitat ...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...
Niamir, A.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Munoz, A.R.; Real, R.
Aim The spatial resolution of species atlases and therefore resulting model predictions are often too coarse for local applications. Collecting distribution data at a finer resolution for large numbers of species requires a comprehensive sampling effort, making it impractical and expensive. This
Andersen, Birgitte; Hollensted, Morten
Ulocladium, which is phylogenetically related to Alternaria, contains species that are food spoilers and plant pathogens, but also species that have potential as enzyme producers and bio-control agents. Ulocladium spp. are often found on dead vegetation, in soil, air and dust, but also on food...
that the urban gardens are a storehouse of biodiversity including species that run the risk of disappearance in the ... Consequently, enhancement of biodiversity in urban homegardens is very crucial which its composition ..... Several factors such as agro-ecological conditions and socio-cultural factors can play role in species ...
Full Text Available Species from Cucurbitaceae family are not widely present in Serbia, although because of their morphological and decorative features deserve more attention. The aim of this paper was to study the morphological variability and usage of ten species of the Cucurbiataceae family. Based on genetic variability, species were grouped into 8 clusters. Fruit characteristics of most investigated species showed great similarity and the greatest differences were attained for flower and fruit characteristics. The longest was the fruit of Trichosanthes cucumerina (46.2 cm, while the shortest of Cucumis myriocarpus (3.4 cm which had the smallest circumference as well (4.4 cm. The largest circumference of fruit was recorded for the species Cucumis aculeatus (16.4 cm. In terms of fruit color Momordica balsamina had a red fruit, allocated from other species whose fruits were in various shades of green. Variability is reflected in large variations in size, shape and color of fruit. Considerating that usages of these species are multiple (food for humans and animals, ornamental studyed species deserve special attention in their further propagation and use.
Mee-Sook Kim; Jack Butler
This electronic newsletter (Invasive Species Science Update) is published by the Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) Cross-Program, Interdisciplinary Project team on Invasive Species. This newsletter will be published 3 times per year and is intended to enhance communication among RMRS scientists, wildland managers, other partners, stakeholders, and customers about...
Linden, J.W. van der; Warris, A.; Verweij, P.E.
Polyphasic taxonomy has had a major impact on the species concept of the genus Aspergillus. New sibling species have been described that exhibit in vitro susceptibility profiles that differ significantly from that of Aspergillus fumigatus. While acquired resistance is an emerging problem in A.
Mercédesz, Ludányi; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Kiss, B.; Roessink, I.
Three native crayfish species, i.e.~Astacus astacus, Astacus leptodactylus and Austropotamobius torrentium, occur in Hungary. Lately, however, non-indigenous crustaceans have also invaded the country Their most recent distribution and impact on the occurrences of the native species is not clear.
The sixth issue of the Rocky Mountain Research Station's (RMRS) Invasive Species Science Update is now complete. Published approximately once per year, this newsletter keeps managers and other users up-to-date with recently completed and ongoing research by RMRS scientists, and covers breaking news related to invasive species issues. The newsletter is produced by...
Hybridisation between native Oreochromis species and introduced Nile tilapia O. niloticus in the Kafue River, Zambia. ... Keywords: aquaculture, ecosystem tradeoffs, fisheries management, introgression, invasive species, microsatellites, Old World cichlids. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2014, 39(1): 23–34.
Justin B. Runyon; Jack L. Butler; Megan M. Friggens; Susan E. Meyer; Sharlene E. Sing
Invasive species present one of the greatest threats to the health and sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Invasive plants, animals, and diseases are known to have significant negative effects on biological diversity and the ecological structure and functions of native ecosystems. Moreover, the economic cost imposed by invasive species is enormousâthe damage...
Bland, Lucie M; Bielby, Jon; Kearney, Stephen; Orme, C David L; Watson, James E M; Collen, Ben
One in 6 species (13,465 species) on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is classified as data deficient due to lack of information on their taxonomy, population status, or impact of threats. Despite the chance that many are at high risk of extinction, data-deficient species are typically excluded from global and local conservation priorities, as well as funding schemes. The number of data-deficient species will greatly increase as the IUCN Red List becomes more inclusive of poorly known and speciose groups. A strategic approach is urgently needed to enhance the conservation value of data-deficient assessments. To develop this, we reviewed 2879 data-deficient assessments in 6 animal groups and identified 8 main justifications for assigning data-deficient status (type series, few records, old records, uncertain provenance, uncertain population status or distribution, uncertain threats, taxonomic uncertainty, and new species). Assigning a consistent set of justification tags (i.e., consistent assignment to assessment justifications) to species classified as data deficient is a simple way to achieve more strategic assessments. Such tags would clarify the causes of data deficiency; facilitate the prediction of extinction risk; facilitate comparisons of data deficiency among taxonomic groups; and help prioritize species for reassessment. With renewed efforts, it could be straightforward to prevent thousands of data-deficient species slipping unnoticed toward extinction. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
With the view of investigating the degree of divergence between each species pair, we planned to study the polytene chromosomes of the F1 hybrids, as it would mirror the level of compatibility between the genomes of the parental species. Two sets of crosses were made, one involving homozygous strains of all four ...
antimicrobial resistance in the community. Methods: The isolates were identified to the species level by conventional methods, and their susceptibility to 20 antibiotics was tested by disk diffusion and to vancomycin by agar dilution. Results: The species distribution was as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis 45 (30.2 %), S.
Bing, A U; Loh, S F; Morris, T; Hughes, H; Dixon, J M; Helgason, K O
Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by Actinomyces species characterized by abscess formation, tissue fibrosis, and draining sinuses. The spectrum of infections caused by Actinomyces species ranges from classical invasive actinomycosis to a less invasive form of superficial skin and soft tissue infection. We present a review detailing all Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections in NHS Lothian between 2005 and 2013, Actinomyces species isolated from breast infections referred to the United Kingdom Anaerobe Reference Unit between 1988 and 2014, and cases describing Actinomyces breast infections published in the medical literature since 1994. Actinomyces species are fastidious organisms which can be difficult to identify and are likely to be underascertained as a cause of breast infections. Due to improved diagnostic methods, they are increasingly associated with chronic, recurrent breast infections and may play a more significant role in these infections than has previously been appreciated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.
Huillet, Thierry E.
Copulas offer a very general tool to describe the dependence structure of random variables supported by the hypercube. Inspired by problems of species abundances in Biology, we study three distinct toy models where copulas play a key role. In a first one, a Marshall-Olkin copula arises in a species extinction model with catastrophe. In a second one, a quasi-copula problem arises in a flagged species abundance model. In a third model, we study completely random species abundance models in the hypercube as those, not of product type, with uniform margins and singular. These can be understood from a singular copula supported by an inflated simplex. An exchangeable singular Dirichlet copula is also introduced, together with its induced completely random species abundance vector.
Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...
Full Text Available In a previous study, Miralles and Vences (2013 compared seven different methods of species delimitation applied to the genus Madascincus. While focusing on methodological aspects their study involved an extensive data set of multilocus DNA sequences and of comparative morphology. On this basis they emphasized the need of revising the taxonomy of Madascincus, and revealed the existence of at least two well-supported candidate species. The present paper provides formal descriptions of these two taxa: (1 M. miafina sp. n., a species from dry areas of northern Madagascar, morphologically very similar to M. polleni (although both species are not retrieved as sister taxa, and (2 M. pyrurus sp. n., a montane species occurring >1500 m above sea level, endemic to the central highlands of Madagascar (Ibity and Itremo Massifs. Phylogenetically, M. pyrurus is the sister species of M. igneocaudatus, a taxon restricted to the dry littoral regions of the south and south-west of Madagascar in lowlands <500 m above sea level. To facilitate future taxonomic work, we furthermore elaborated an identification key for species of Madascincus. Finally, some aspects of the biogeographic patterns characterising the different main clades within the genus Madascincus are provided and discussed for the first time in the light of a robust phylogenetic framework.
ARSENIC SPECIES. CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON , FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES Arsenic-associated cancer (lung, bladder, skin, liver, kidney) remains a significant world- wide public health problem (e.g., Taiwan, Chile, Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand). R...
ARSENIC SPECIES CAUSE RELEASE OF IRON FROM FERRITIN GENERATING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES Arsenic-associated cancer (lung, bladder, skin, liver, kidney) remains a significant world- wide public health problem (e.g., Taiwan, Chile, Bangladesh, India, China and Thailand). Rece...
Knegtering, E; Hendrickx, L.C W P; van der Windt, H.J.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.
The authors examined the willingness of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to support public species conservation measures as a function of species characteristics, NGOs' interests, and interests harmed by the measures. In an experiment, 39 policy makers from nature conservation, mobility and
Danny J Gustafson
Full Text Available Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium, during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes seed sources of the dominant grasses. There were genetic differences between subordinate species growing in the cultivar versus local ecotype communities, indicating that intraspecific genetic variation in the dominant grasses affected the genetic composition of subordinate species during community assembly. A positive association between genetic diversity of S. nutans, C. fasciculata, and S. integrifolium and species diversity established the role of an intraspecific biotic filter during community assembly. Our results show that intraspecific variation in dominant species can significantly modulate the genetic composition of subordinate species.
Cho, Moses A
Full Text Available Differences in within-species phenology and structure driven by factors including topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables present important challenges for species differentiation with remote sensing in the Kruger National Park, South...
... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... regulations to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...
... Constrictor, Four Python Species, and Four Anaconda Species as Injurious Reptiles AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to add Indian python (Python molurus, including Burmese python Python molurus bivittatus), reticulated python (Broghammerus reticulatus or Python reticulatus), Northern African python (Python sebae...
Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M
A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided.
Ricardo C. Benine
Full Text Available A new species of Moenkhausia is described from tributaries of the rio Paraguay, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from congeners by characters related to body coloration, the number of lateral line scales, the degree of poring of the lateral line, and number of scales rows above and below the lateral line. Molecular analyses using partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase I from specimens of the new species and specimens belonging to morphologically similar species demonstrated that the new species is easily differentiated by their high genetic distance and by their position in the phylogenetic hypothesis obtained through the Maximum Parsimony methodology. The analyses of three samples of M. oligolepis also revealed that they have high genetic distances and belong to different monophyletic groups suggesting that this species corresponds to a species complex rather than a single species.
Cao, Huan-Xi; Salle, John LA; Zhu, Chao-Dong
The Chinese species of Pediobius Walker, 1846 are treated in this paper, resulting in 34 species, of which 5 are newly described: P. bisulcatus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P. elongatus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P.petiolapilus Cao & Zhu sp. n., P. prominentis Cao & Zhu, sp. n., and P. tortricida Cao & Zhu, sp. n. Nine species are also newly recorded from China: P. anomalus (Gahan, 1920), P. bethylicidus Kerrich, 1973, P. bruchicida (Rondani, 1872), P. cassidae Erdös, 1958, P. claviger (Thomson, 1878), P. erionotae Kerrich, 1973, P. phragmitis Bouček, 1965, P. saulius (Walker, 1839), and P. tetratomus (Thomson, 1878). Four new synonyms are proposed: P. illiberidis Liao, 1987 under P. pyrgo (Walker, 1839) syn. n., P. planiceps Sheng & Kamijo, 1992 under P. inexpectatus Kerrich, 1973 syn. n., P. sinensis Sheng & Wang, 1994 under P. facialis (Giraud, 1863) syn. n., and P. songshaominus Liao, 1987 under P. yunanensis Liao, 1987 syn. n. The species-group concept is used to compare similar species, of which eight are recognized in China including two newly recognized groups: the cassidae-group and the crassicornis-group. One species complex, the P. eubius complex, is also recognized. An updated checklist of the Chinese species of Pediobius is provided, with species-group placement. New host records for Pediobius species from China are summarized in a table and valid species possibly present in China but not included in this study in another table. A key to all known females and males of Chinese Pediobius is also provided.
Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia
Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)
... scalloped hammerhead sharks indicated that these species are overfished and experiencing overfishing. As... Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) in response to several shark stock assessments that were... fishing mortality and effort in order to rebuild overfished Atlantic shark species while ensuring that a...
Maltby, L.; Blake, N.; Brock, T.C.M.; Brink, van den P.J.
Single-species acute toxicity data and (micro)mesocosm data were collated for 16 insecticides. These data were used to investigate the importance of test-species selection in constructing species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) and the ability of estimated hazardous concentrations (HCs) to protect
Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori
The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.
Full Text Available Two new species of Omyomymar Schauff viz., O. huberi sp. nov. and O. noyesi sp. nov., are described from Tamil Nadu, India. A key to Oriental Omyomymar species is provided with color images of new species for easy morphological diagnosis.
Lenssen, J.P.M.; Menting, F.B.J.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Blom, C.W.P.M.
In riparian wetlands total standing crop often fails to account for a significant part of the observed variation in species richness and species composition within communities. In this study, we used abundance of the dominant species instead of total standing crop as the biotic predictor variable
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA573 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP...
... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Workshops (this AP is also called the...
Emilie B. Henderson; Janet L. Ohmann; Matthew J. Gregory; Heather M. Roberts; Harold S.J. Zald
Landscape management and conservation planning require maps of vegetation composition and structure over large regions. Species distribution models (SDMs) are often used for individual species, but projects mapping multiple species are rarer. We compare maps of plant community composition assembled by stacking results from many SDMs with multivariate maps constructed...
Bokma, F; Bokma, J; Monkkonen, M
In response to the suggestion that the latitudinal gradient in species richness is the result of stochastic processes of species distributions, we created a computer simulation program that enabled us to study random species distributions over irregularly shaped areas. Our model could not explain
Dirk Nikolaus Karger
Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.
Full Text Available The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.
Yu, Jin; Walther, G; Van Diepeningen, A D; Gerrits Van Den Ende, A H G; Li, Ruo-Yu; Moussa, T A A; Almaghrabi, O A; De Hoog, G S
Mucormycosis caused, in part, by representatives of the genus Cunninghamella is a severe infection with high mortality in patients with impaired immunity. Several species have been described in the literature as etiologic agents. A DNA barcoding study using ITS rDNA and tef-1α provided concordance of molecular data with conventional characters. The currently accepted Cunninghamella species were well supported in phylogenetic trees of both markers except for C. septata with ITS that clustered in the C. echinulata clade. Sequence variability was distinctly higher for the ITS than for tef-1α. Intraspecific ITS variability of some of the species exceeded that between some closely related species, but the marker remained applicable for species identification. The most variable species for both markers was C. echinulata. Cunninghamella bertholletiae is the main pathogenic species; infections by C. blakesleeana, C. echinulata, and C. elegans are highly exceptional. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Huang, Yan-Jang S; Ayers, Victoria B; Lyons, Amy C; Unlu, Isik; Alto, Barry W; Cohnstaedt, Lee W; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L
Recent reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) isolates from Culex species mosquitoes have resulted in concern regarding a lack of knowledge on the number of competent vector species for ZIKV transmission in the new world. Although observations in the field have demonstrated that ZIKV isolation can be made from Culex species mosquitoes, the detection of ZIKV in these mosquitoes is not proof of their involvement in a ZIKV transmission cycle. Detection may be due to recent feeding on a viremic vertebrate, and is not indicative of replication in the mosquito. In this study, susceptibility of recently colonized Culex species mosquitoes was investigated. The results showed a high degree of refractoriness among members of Culex pipiens complex to ZIKV even when exposed to high-titer bloodmeals. Our finding suggests that the likelihood of Culex species mosquitoes serving as secondary vectors for ZIKV is very low, therefore vector control strategies for ZIKV should remain focused on Aedes species mosquitoes. Our demonstration that Culex quinquefasciatus from Vero Beach, FL, is refractory to infection with ZIKV is especially important and timely. Based on our data, we would conclude that the autochthonous cases of Zika in Florida are not due to transmission by C. quinquefasciatus, and so control efforts should focus on other species, logically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.
Full Text Available Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species - the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva, the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica, and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060 differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively. This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.
Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N
Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus.
Eli D Lazarus
Full Text Available Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.
Lazarus, Eli D; McGill, Brian J
Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.
Mark John Costello
Full Text Available This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of a species and/or population, a species status may vary geographically and over time. Criteria for selecting traits were that they could be applied to most taxa, were easily available, and their inclusion would result in new research and/or management applications. Numerical traits were favoured over categorical. Habitat was excluded as it can be derived from a selection of these traits. Ten traits were prioritized for inclusion in the most comprehensive open access database on marine species (World Register of Marine Species, namely taxonomic classification, environment, geography, depth, substratum, mobility, skeleton, diet, body size and reproduction. These traits and statuses are being added to the database and new use cases may further subdivide and expand upon them.
Fišer, Cene; Robinson, Christopher T; Malard, Florian
The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science, and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new "species" paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category-which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research. Cryptic species fall within this paradigm shift: they are continuously being reported from diverse animal phyla but are poorly considered in current tests of ecological and evolutionary theory. The aim of this review is to integrate cryptic species in biodiversity science. In the first section, we address that the absence of morphological diversification is an evolutionary phenomenon, a "process" counterpart to the long-studied mechanisms of morphological diversification. In the next section regarding taxonomy, we show that molecular delimitation of cryptic species is heavily biased towards distance-based methods. We also stress the importance of formally naming of cryptic species for better integration into research fields that use species as units of analysis. Finally, we show that incorporating cryptic species leads to novel insights regarding biodiversity patterns and processes, including large-scale biodiversity assessments, geographic variation in species distribution and species coexistence. It is time for incorporating multicriteria species approaches aiming to understand speciation across space and taxa, thus allowing integration into biodiversity conservation while accommodating for species uncertainty. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.
Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.
The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...
Pfennig, Karin S; Rodriguez Moncalvo, Verónica G; Burmeister, Sabrina S
Whether environmental effects during juvenile development can alter the ontogeny of adult mating behaviour remains largely unexplored. We evaluated the effect of diet on the early expression of conspecific recognition in spadefoot toads, Spea bombifrons. We found that juvenile toads display phonotaxis behaviour six weeks post-metamorphosis. However, preference for conspecifics versus heterospecifics emerged later and was diet dependent. Thus, the environment can affect the early development of species recognition in a way that might alter adult behaviour. Evaluating such effects is important for understanding variation in hybridization between species and the nature of species boundaries.
Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem.
Hernández-Serna, Andrés; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda
A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification.
Full Text Available A new automatic identification system using photographic images has been designed to recognize fish, plant, and butterfly species from Europe and South America. The automatic classification system integrates multiple image processing tools to extract the geometry, morphology, and texture of the images. Artificial neural networks (ANNs were used as the pattern recognition method. We tested a data set that included 740 species and 11,198 individuals. Our results show that the system performed with high accuracy, reaching 91.65% of true positive fish identifications, 92.87% of plants and 93.25% of butterflies. Our results highlight how the neural networks are complementary to species identification.
Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie
Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013
Yang, Dongfeng; Yang, Shushen; Zhang, Yuejin; Liu, Yonghong; Meng, Xianhai; Liang, Zongsuo
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is one of the most important and popular plant of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), but Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge f. alb have also been reported to have the same therapeutic effects as S. miltiorrhiza. To better distinguish between these species, the phytochemical profiles of three Salvia species were investigated by liquid chromatography. All the Salvia species were good sources of tanshinones, with the contents of phenolics being high in S. miltiorrhiza and S. miltiorrhiza f. alb, but not in S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. These results pave the way for a better phytotherapy exploitation of these plants.
Waddell, Jack; Sander, Len; Kessler, David
We study the behavior of two species, differentiated only by their dispersal rates in an environment providing heterogeneous growth rates. Previous deterministic studies have shown that the slower-dispersal species always drives the faster species to extinction, while stochastic studies show that the opposite case can occur given small enough population and spatial heterogeneity. Other models of similar systems demonstrate the existence of an optimum dispersal rate, suggesting that distinguishing the species as faster or slower is insufficient. We here study the interface of these models for a small spatial system and determine the conditions of stability for a single species outcome.
Full Text Available Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lowest DNA C-value among the perennials, indicating that native species with low nuclear content may also possess an invasive potential.
Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier
An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. © M.L. Tantely et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.
Tantely Michaël Luciano
Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.
Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier
An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. PMID:27101839
Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Low, Van Lun; Maleewong, Wanchai; Saeung, Atiporn
Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia), S. (G.) myanmarense and S. (G.) monglaense, are described from females, males, pupae and larvae from Myanmar. The two new species are placed in the S. asakoae species-group, and are similar to each other in the female and male but distinguished in the pupa by the presence or absence of an anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, and in the larva by a unique pattern of colored markings on the abdomen. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these species from related species. The COI gene sequences of both species are compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. Both new species are most closely related to each other, further supporting their morphological classification in the S. asakoae species-group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Xue Min; Choi, Ji Ae; Choi, In Sun; Kook, Joong Ki; Chang, Young-Hyo; Park, Geon; Jang, Sook Jin; Kang, Seong Ho; Moon, Dae Soo
Molecular methods have the potential to improve the speed and accuracy of Acinetobacter species identification in clinical settings. The goal of this study is to develop species-specific PCR assays based on differences in the RNA polymerase beta-subunit gene (rpoB) to detect nine commonly isolated Acinetobacter species including Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Acinetobacter ursingii, Acinetobacter bereziniae, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, and Acinetobacter schindleri. The sensitivity and specificity of these nine assays were measured using genomic DNA templates from 55 reference strains and from 474 Acinetobacter clinical isolates. The sensitivity of A. baumannii-specific PCR assay was 98.9%, and the sensitivity of species-specific PCR assays for all other species was 100%. The specificities of A. lwoffii- and A. schindleri-specific PCR were 97.8 and 98.9%, respectively. The specificity of species-specific PCR for all other tested Acinetobacter species was 100%. The lower limit of detection for the nine species-specific PCR assays developed in this study was 20 or 200 pg of genomic DNA from type strains of each species. The Acinetobacter species-specific PCR assay would be useful to determine the correct species among suggested candidate Acinetobacter species when conventional methods including MALDI-TOF MS identify Acinetobacter only to the genus level. The species-specific assay can be used to screen large numbers of clinical and environmental samples obtained for epidemiologic study of Acinetobacter for the presence of target species. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.
França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.
Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5% subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be
Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry
Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.
Empirical treatment for enteric fevers should, therefore, be discouraged while quinolones, cefepime, carbapenem, azithromycin and third generation cephalosporins be given preference. KEY WORDS: Susceptibility, Antimicrobial, Salmonella species, Enteric fever. INTRODUCTION. In the 21st century, enteric fever in the.
Eroukhmanoff, F; Hermansen, J S; Bailey, R I; Sæther, S A; Sætre, G-P
Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology was strongly influenced by precipitation regimes and that it appeared to be the target of divergent selection within Italian sparrows. Interestingly, however, the degree of parental genetic contribution in the hybrid species had no effect on phenotypic beak variation. Moreover, beak height divergence may mediate genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with isolation-by-adaptation within this hybrid species. The study illustrates how hybrid species may be relatively unconstrained by their admixed genetic background, allowing them to adapt rapidly to environmental variation.
Mayo, Michael; Watson, Anna T.
A collection consisting of the images of 774 live moth individuals, each moth belonging to one of 35 different UK species, was analysed to determine if data mining techniques could be used effectively for automatic species identification. Feature vectors were extracted from each of the moth images and the machine learning toolkit WEKA was used to classify the moths by species using the feature vectors. Whereas a previous analysis of this image dataset reported in the literature  required that each moth's least worn wing region be highlighted manually for each image, WEKA was able to achieve a greater level of accuracy (85%) using support vector machines without manual specification of a region of interest at all. This paper describes the features that were extracted from the images, and the various experiments using different classifiers and datasets that were performed. The results show that data mining can be usefully applied to the problem of automatic species identification of live specimens in the field.
Wang, C R; Chen, J; Zhao, J P; Chen, A H; Zhai, Y Q; Li, L; Zhu, X Q
Parasites of the genus Orientobilharzia belong to Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea, Schistosomatidae, and the type species is Orientobilharzia turkestanicum. O. turkestanicum was first described by Skrjabin from cattle in Russian Turkestan in 1913. Adult worms of Orientobilharzia species live in the portal veins or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep and other mammals, and often cause orientobilharziasis in China, India, Mongolia, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran in Asia, and Russia and Turkey in Europe. More importantly, the cercariae of Orientobilharzia species can infect humans and often cause cercarial dermatitis. Though Orientobilharzia species have been confirmed as zoonotic agents, they have been largely neglected, compared with other pathogens causing cercarial dermatitis, such as Trichobilharzia spp., Schistosoma spindale and Bilharziella sp., which have attracted considerable attention. Here we review the current status of knowledge on the taxonomy of Orientobilharzia spp., human and animal infections with Orientobilharzia spp., and address some considerations for further work on the systematics and pathogenesis of these organisms.
Moeses Andrigo Danner
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize cultivated genotypes of three jabuticaba species (Plinia cauliflora, P. trunciflora, and P. jaboticaba. Phenology and fruit growth, as well as leaf, flower and fruit traits were evaluated. Variability in all traits was observed among genotypes of the three jabuticaba species. The trait peduncle size is indicated for differentiation of the three species under study. The leaf and fruit sizes of the genotypes P. trunciflora 3, P. trunciflora 4, P. trunciflora 5 and P. jaboticaba 1 differ from those described in the literature for these species, indicating the formation of ecotypes. Jabuticaba fruit skin contains high anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, with potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.
A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.
Reviews "The Grolier World Encyclopedia of Endangered Species" and describes a lesson plan for grades five and six that includes library media skills objectives, science objectives, resources, instructional roles, activity and procedure for completion, evaluation, and follow-up. (LRW)
Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Graham, Catherine H.; Pearman, Peter B.; Svenning, Jens-Christian
Species distribution modelling has its origin in the late 1970s when computing capacity was limited. Early work in the field concentrated mostly on the development of methods to model effectively the shape of a species' response to environmental gradients (Austin 1987, Austin et al. 1990). The methodology and its framework were summarized in reviews 10–15 yr ago (Franklin 1995, Guisan and Zimmermann 2000), and these syntheses are still widely used as reference landmarks in the current distribution modelling literature. However, enormous advancements have occurred over the last decade, with hundreds – if not thousands – of publications on species distribution model (SDM) methodologies and their application to a broad set of conservation, ecological and evolutionary questions. With this special issue, originating from the third of a set of specialized SDM workshops (2008 Riederalp) entitled 'The Utility of Species Distribution Models as Tools for Conservation Ecology', we reflect on current trends and the progress achieved over the last decade.
Sitterle, Emilie; Frealle, Emilie; Foulet, Françoise; Cabaret, Odile; Cremer, Genevieve; Guillot, Jacques; Delhaes, Laurence; Botterel, Françoise
We report the first human case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton bullosum in a 21-year-old male who had a skin lesion located on his forearm. The dermatophyte was isolated in culture and further identified by sequence analysis of internal transcripted spacer regions. The species T. bullosum is a zoophilic dermatophyte rarely isolated from the coat of horses in Africa and Asia. In the present case, it was probably transmitted by contact with an infected donkey in a rural area in France. Antifungal therapy led to remission of the lesion in the patient after 2 months of treatment. T. bullosum ITS region sequences were closely related to those of the African species of Arthroderma benhamiae and grouped in a zoophilic cluster with Trichophyton verrucosum, T. erinacei and the Trichophyton anamorph of A. benhamiae (zoophilic species of the T. mentagrophytes complex). Systematic molecular identification could contribute to an accurate identification of this unusual species.
Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian
Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...... on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and beta-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and others. Aspergillus alabamensis, A. terreus var. floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var....... floccosus, A. terreus var. africanus, A. terreus var. aureus, while Aspergillus hortai is recognised at species level. Aspergillus terreus NRRL 4017 is described as the new species A. pseudoterreus. Also included in section Terrei are some species formerly placed in sections Flavipedes and Versicolores. A...
Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao
BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Endangered Species Consultation Request report for bald eagles and peregrine falcons on Muscatatuck NWR. This consultation was in response to the...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the past Camas NWR has focused on mapping and treating only Russian knapweed and swainsonpea. We have other species present in lower numbers and quite possibly...
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We initiated management of 3 species of plants that are introduced and invasive at Palmyra Atoll NWR. The work consisted of describing the distributions of these...
Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.
Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E.
Robert J. Whittaker; Henry Eden W Cottee-Jones
... considerable confusion over what exactly a keystone species is. Several authors have argued that the term is too broadly applied, while others have pointed out the technical and theoretical limitations of the concept...
Descriptions of two new mysids, Siriella africana ap. nov. collected from Agulhas Bank and S. intermedia sp. nov. collected from Laccadives are given. The present paper contains observations on two species of mysidacea collected from the Indian...
California Department of Resources — A compiled density of threatened and endangered species built around 2000m wide hexagonal cells. The dataset was created by generating a blank hex grid, intersecting...
Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.
This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.
Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn
Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349
Allmon, Warren D; Yacobucci, Margaret M
.... The literature of paleobiology, in particular, is littered with qualifiers and cautions about applying the term to the fossil record or equating such species with those recognized among living organisms...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...
Anna A Vanyushkina
Full Text Available We present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class Mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, Spiroplasma melliferum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii. To understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. The results of metabolome, proteome and genome profiling suggest a fundamental difference in the adaptation of the three closely related Mollicute species to stress conditions. As the transaldolase is not annotated in Mollicutes, we propose variants of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzed by annotated enzymes for three species. For metabolite detection we employed high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We used liquid chromatography method - hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica column - as it effectively separates highly polar cellular metabolites prior to their detection by mass spectrometer.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the vulnerability of watercress darter and other fish species in Alabama after a significant fish kill in Roebuck Spring pond in 2008.
EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.
Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.
Clauset, Aaron; Redner, Sidney
Within large taxonomic assemblages, the number of species with adult body mass M is characterized by a broad but asymmetric distribution, with the largest mass being orders of magnitude larger than the typical mass. This canonical shape can be explained by cladogenetic diffusion that is bounded below by a hard limit on viable species mass and above by extinction risks that increase weakly with mass. Here we introduce and analytically solve a simplified cladogenetic diffusion model. When appropriately parameterized, the diffusion-reaction equation predicts mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species. Under this model, we show that a specific tradeoff between the strength of within-lineage drift toward larger masses (Cope's rule) and the increased risk of extinction from increased mass is necessary to produce realistic mass distributions for both taxa. We then make several predictions about the evolution of avian specie...
Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria
Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.
Geron, Chris; Harley, Peter; Guenther, Alex
Isoprene emission capacity measurements are presented from 18 North American oak ( Quercus) species and species from six other genera previously found to emit significant quantities of isoprene. Sampling was conducted at physiographically diverse locations in North Carolina, Central California, and Northern Oregon. Emissions from several sun leaves of each species were measured at or near standard conditions (leaf temperature of 30°C and photosynthetically active radiation of 1000 μmol m -2 s -1) using environmentally controlled cuvette systems and gas chromatography with reduction gas detectors. Species mean emission capacity ranged from 39 to 158 μg C g -1 h -1 (mean of 86), or 22 to 79 nmol m -2 s -1 (mean of 44). These rates are 2-28 times higher than those previously reported from the same species, which were summarized in a recent study where isoprene emission rates were assigned based on published data and taxonomy. These discrepancies were attributed to differences in leaf environment during development, measurement technique (branch or plant enclosure versus leaf enclosure), and lack of environmental measurements associated with some of the earlier branch enclosure measurements. Mass-based emission capacities for 15 of 18 oak species, sweetgum ( Liquidambar styraciflua), and poplars ( Populus trichocarpa and P. deltoides) were within ranges used in current biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission models, while measured rates for the remaining three oak species, Nyssa sylvatica, Platanus occidentalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix nigra, and Populus hybrids ( Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) were considerably higher. In addition, mean specific leaf mass of the oak species was 30% higher than assumed in current emission models. Emission rates reported here and in other recent studies support recent conclusions that isoprene emission capacities for sun leaves of high emitting species may be better represented by a value of 100±50 μg C g -1 h
Stamper, Trevor; Weidner, Lauren; Nigoghosian, Gregory; Nunes, Ludmila D
When dealing with physical remains, morphological assessment for species is a traditional approach to entomological specimen identification. A dichotomous key guides the user through taxa determination for a specimen by providing a series of dual-choice nodes that center around morphological differences. Each nodal choice leads to either a new set of dichotomous choices or a taxa decision. We evaluated student’s ability to utilize a dichotomous key down to species for a limited set of taxa, b...
Renner, Susanne S.; Hausner, Gerlinde
Three new species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae) are described, illustrated, and placed in a phylogenetic context: S. gentryana from western Ecuador and adjacent Colombia, S. lozaniana from the western Andes in Colombia, and S. vasqueziana from Amazonian Peru. In addition, Siparuna calantha from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, originally described by Janet Perkins as a variety of a Mexican entity, is raised to species rank because its broader leaves and more numerous carpels readily distinguish...
Renner, Susanne S.; Hausner, Gerlinde
A new species of Siparuna (Siparunaceae), S. ficoides, is described, illustrated, and placed in a phylogenetic context based on morphological and DNA sequence data. The species, which is a monoecious subcanopy tree, is known from three collections made near Manaus, Brazil (two from the same tree), and one in the state of Bolivar, Venezuela. Se describe y se ilustra una nueva especie de Siparuna (Siparunaceae), S. ficoides, ademas se la ubica en un contexto filogenetico basado en dato...