WorldWideScience

Sample records for species aves strigidae

  1. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  2. Ocupación y abundancia de aves rapaces nocturnas (Strigidae en la Reserva de la Biosfera Selva El Ocote, Chiapas, México Occupancy and abundance of nocturnal raptors (Strigidae in the Selva El Ocote Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerenciano Rivera-Rivera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluar la proporción de sitios ocupados explica la distribución espacial de los individuos dentro de una comunidad y es importante para desarrollar estrategias de conservación. En este estudio se evalúan los patrones de ocupación y abundancia de 5 especies de aves rapaces nocturnas en 2 sitios con diferentes niveles de heterogeneidad (estructura y composición del paisaje en la Reserva de la Biosfera Selva El Ocote. Se utilizaron puntos de conteo y provocación auditiva para estimar índices de ocupación y abundancia y modelos lineales generalizados para determinar las posibles relaciones entre los índices estimados y los atributos estructurales del hábitat. La variación espacial de los patrones de ocupación y abundancia se explica por la estructura del hábitat (i.e., altura de árboles, área basal, distancia con asentamientos humanos y áreas abiertas a escala local, y por la heterogeneidad (2 o más tipos de coberturas en el paisaje. Dado que se encontraron relaciones especie-específicas con los atributos del bosque tropical perennifolio, es recomendable promover el manejo diversificado y sustentable del paisaje que favorezca la presencia de áreas extensas con cobertura forestal y por lo tanto la persistencia de especies amenazadas asociadas al interior del bosque.Evaluation of occupancy explains the spatial distribution of species in the community and is important to develop conservation strategies. We evaluated occupancy and abundance patterns of nocturnal raptors in 2 sites with different level of heterogeneity (landscape structure and composition in the Selva El Ocote Biosphere Reserve. Through point counts and owl playback callings we estimate occupancy and abundance patterns. We explored possible relationships between patterns of recorded species and structural habitat attributes using generalized linear models. Occupancy and abundance spatial variation was explained by structural habitat characteristics (i.e., tree height

  3. Aspectos reprodutivos e dieta alimentar dos ninhegos de Rhinoptynx clamator (Aves: Strigidae no campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá-AP Nesting and diet of Rhinoptynx clamator (Aves: Strigidae from Campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá-AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurazo Mateus Okada Aguiar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar os aspectos comportamentais de nidificação, alimentação e desenvolvimento dos ninhegos de Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigidae em um fragmento florestal no Campus Marco Zero da Universidade Federal do Amapá. Apenas um ninho foi encontrado, no solo e na base de um tucumã Astrocaryum oleatum. Três ovos brancos com manchas marrons foram observados, cuja medida foi de 41 x 35 mm em média. A incubação durou 28 dias e foi efetuada pela fêmea, e o último filhote a nascer viveu apenas dois dias. Os filhotes sobreviventes foram medidos durante o seu desenvolvimento. Durante a estação reprodutiva foram coletadas algumas pelotas de regurgitação, sendo encontrados três tipos de vertebrados: Rattus sp., Micoureus cf. regina e Columbina talpacoti.We report nesting behavior, feeding and development of nestling of Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigidae in a forest fragment on Campus Marco Zero of Universidade Federal do Amapá. The nest was located on the ground, close to a palm Astrocaryum oleatum and three eggs were observed. These eggs were white whit brown spots and measured 41 x 35 mm in average. Incubation was made by female and lasted 28 days and the last owlet died two days after born. The remaining birds were measured during its development. Feeding items includes Rattus sp., Micoureus cf. regina and Columbina talpacoti.

  4. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  5. The time budget and behavioural traits of young and adult Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis (Franklin, 1831 (Aves: Strigiformes: Strigidae in and around a nesting site: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eric Ramanujam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A family of the Indian Eagle Owl Bubo bengalensis was monitored at their nest site at Nanmangalam Reserve Forest on the outskirts of Chennai City from 5 January to 8 March 2011.  Various behavioural patterns were identified and the time spent on each activity was noted.  All three types of subjects (viz.: breeding male, brooding/incubating female and young showed different behavioural characteristics. In the breeding female, high intensity activities were incubation, brooding, vigilance and out of sight (construed to be out hunting and low intensity activities comprised comfort movements, feeding, pellet regurgitation, feeding young, prey delivery and disturbed at the nest.  In the young, high intensity activities were resting and moving, while low intensity activities were feeding, pellet regurgitation and wing flapping.  In the male, the bulk of time was spent in vigilance and the other high intensity activity was out of sight (construed to be hunting.  Low intensity activities included comfort movements and prey delivery. The male hunted more than the female.  Forty-five prey items were delivered by the two parents and these items were identified to the species or generic level. 

  6. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Vergara, Francisco; Moreno, Lucila; Barrientos, Carlos; Ardiles, Karen; Cicchino, Armando

    2006-01-01

    A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identified were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Pi...

  7. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  8. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  9. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  10. Predicting geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species (Aves: Furnariidae in South America based on ecological niche modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Salete Gurgel Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phacellodomus Reichenbach, 1853, comprises nine species of Furnariids that occur in South America in open and generally dry areas. This study estimated the geographic distributions of Phacellodomus species in South America by ecological niche modeling. Applying maximum entropy method, models were produced for eight species based on six climatic variables and 949 occurrence records. Since highest climatic suitability for Phacellodomus species has been estimated in open and dry areas, the Amazon rainforest areas are not very suitable for these species. Annual precipitation and minimum temperature of the coldest month are the variables that most influence the models. Phacellodomus species occurred in 35 ecoregions of South America. Chaco and Uruguayan savannas were the ecoregions with the highest number of species. Despite the overall connection of Phacellodomus species with dry areas, species such as P. ruber, P. rufifrons, P. ferrugineigula and P. erythrophthalmus occurred in wet forests and wetland ecoregions.

  11. AVE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During 1998, ANAV began to optimize Human Resources to cope with the ERE and ANA-ANV integration. Project AVE was intended to achieve an orderly transfer of know-how, skills, attitudes and experiences. The most complex part was renovation of personnel with Operating Licenses. Nearly 140 people had joined the organization by late December 2003. This opportunity was seized to draw up a new Training Manual, and a common Initial Training Plan was designed for the two plants, accounting for the singularities of each one. The plan is divided into 5 modules: Common Training, Specific Training, PEI/CAT, Management, and on-the-job Training. The training environments were defined according to the nature of the capabilities to be acquired. Project AVE resulted in the merger of the Asco and Vandellos II Training services. (Author)

  12. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Aves: Cathartidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Graves, Gary R; Wylie, Douglas R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2013-12-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two species are similar and that vision plays an equally important role in the biology of both species, despite the apparently greater reliance on olfaction for finding carrion in turkey vultures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Comparison of eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of new world vultures (Aves: Cathartidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisney, Thomas J.; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Vultures are highly reliant on their sensory systems for the rapid detection and localization of carrion before other scavengers can exploit the resource. In this study, we compared eye morphology and retinal topography in two species of New World vultures (Cathartidae), turkey vultures (Cathartes...... aura), with a highly developed olfactory sense, and black vultures (Coragyps atratus), with a less developed sense of olfaction. We found that eye size relative to body mass was the same in both species, but that black vultures have larger corneas relative to eye size than turkey vultures. However......, the overall retinal topography, the total number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer, peak and average cell densities, cell soma area frequency distributions, and the theoretical peak anatomical spatial resolving power were the same in both species. This suggests that the visual systems of these two...

  14. Complex species status for extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes from the genus Euryapteryx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Huynen

    Full Text Available The exact species status of New Zealand's extinct moa remains unknown. In particular, moa belonging to the genus Euryapteryx have been difficult to classify. We use the DNA barcoding sequence on a range of Euryapteryx samples in an attempt to resolve the species status for this genus. We obtained mitochondrial control region and the barcoding region from Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI from a number of new moa samples and use available sequences from previous moa phylogenies and eggshell data to try and clarify the species status of Euryapteryx. Using the COI barcoding region we show that species status in Euryapteryx is complex with no clear separation between various individuals. Eggshell, soil, and bone data suggests that a Euryapteryx subspecies likely exists on New Zealand's North Island and can be characterized by a single mitochondrial control region SNP. COI divergences between Euryapteryx individuals from the south of New Zealand's South Island and those from the Far North of the North Island exceed 1.6% and are likely to represent separate species. Individuals from other areas of New Zealand were unable to be clearly separated based on COI differences possibly as a result of repeated hybridisation events. Despite the accuracy of the COI barcoding region to determine species status in birds, including that for the other moa genera, for moa from the genus Euryapteryx, COI barcoding fails to provide a clear result, possibly as a consequence of repeated hybridisation events between these moa. A single control region SNP was identified however that segregates with the two general morphological variants determined for Euryapteryx; a smaller subspecies restricted to the North Island of New Zealand, and a larger subspecies, found on both New Zealand's North and South Island.

  15. Complex species status for extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) from the genus Euryapteryx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2014-01-01

    The exact species status of New Zealand's extinct moa remains unknown. In particular, moa belonging to the genus Euryapteryx have been difficult to classify. We use the DNA barcoding sequence on a range of Euryapteryx samples in an attempt to resolve the species status for this genus. We obtained mitochondrial control region and the barcoding region from Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI) from a number of new moa samples and use available sequences from previous moa phylogenies and eggshell data to try and clarify the species status of Euryapteryx. Using the COI barcoding region we show that species status in Euryapteryx is complex with no clear separation between various individuals. Eggshell, soil, and bone data suggests that a Euryapteryx subspecies likely exists on New Zealand's North Island and can be characterized by a single mitochondrial control region SNP. COI divergences between Euryapteryx individuals from the south of New Zealand's South Island and those from the Far North of the North Island exceed 1.6% and are likely to represent separate species. Individuals from other areas of New Zealand were unable to be clearly separated based on COI differences possibly as a result of repeated hybridisation events. Despite the accuracy of the COI barcoding region to determine species status in birds, including that for the other moa genera, for moa from the genus Euryapteryx, COI barcoding fails to provide a clear result, possibly as a consequence of repeated hybridisation events between these moa. A single control region SNP was identified however that segregates with the two general morphological variants determined for Euryapteryx; a smaller subspecies restricted to the North Island of New Zealand, and a larger subspecies, found on both New Zealand's North and South Island.

  16. Molecular phylogenetics, vocalizations, and species limits in Celeus woodpeckers (Aves: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Brett W; Robbins, Mark B

    2011-10-01

    Species limits and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped diversification of woodpeckers and allies (Picidae) remain obscure, as inter and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships have yet to be comprehensively resolved for most genera. Herein, we analyzed 5020 base pairs of nucleotide sequence data from the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes to reconstruct the evolutionary history of Celeus woodpeckers. Broad geographic sampling was employed to assess species limits in phenotypically variable lineages and provide a first look at the evolution of song and plumage traits in this poorly known Neotropical genus. Our results strongly support the monophyly of Celeus and reveal several novel relationships across a shallow phylogenetic topology. We confirm the close sister relationship between Celeus spectabilis and the enigmatic Celeus obrieni, both of which form a clade with Celeus flavus. The Mesoamerican Celeus castaneus was placed as sister to a Celeus undatus-grammicus lineage, with the species status of the latter drawn into question given the lack of substantial genetic, morphological, and vocal variation in these taxa. We recovered paraphyly in Celeus elegans; however, this result appears to be the consequence of mitochondrial introgression from Celeus lugubris considering the monophyly of elegans at the ß-FIBI7 locus. A second instance of paraphyly was observed in Celeus flavescens with deep genetic splits and substantial phenotypic variation indicating the presence of two distinct species in this broadly distributed lineage. As such, we advocate elevation of Celeus flavescens ochraceus to species status. Our analysis of Celeus vocalizations and plumage characters demonstrates a pattern of lability consistent with a relatively recent origin of the genus and potentially rapid speciation history. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AVES: FRINGILLIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bully seedeater (S. suJphllTlltw), at 31 study areas in the southwestern Cape during January 1974-. October 1976. The data used here were obtained incidentally during a study (Milewski 1976) of the feeding ecology and habitat of the protea seedeater, a rare and threatened species whose biology is virtually unknown ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus) microsatellite loci and their utility in other penguin species (Spheniscidae, AVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sophia; Hart, Tom; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Trathan, Philip N; Rogers, Alex D

    2009-11-01

    We report the characterization of 25 microsatellite loci isolated from the macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus). Thirteen loci were arranged into four multiplex sets for future genetic studies of macaroni penguin populations. All 25 loci were tested separately in each of four other penguin species [Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica), gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) and king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus)]. Between eight and 12 loci were polymorphic per species. These loci are expected to be useful for studies of population genetic structure in a range of penguin species. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  20. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Valim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824, the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas B. cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican T. melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and T. massena Gould, 1938. We also found B. cicchinoi on T. melanurus, T. collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus B. cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  1. Two new species of Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae) parasitic on Neotropical trogons (Aves, Trogoniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Michel P; Weckstein, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Brueelia are described and illustrated. These new species and their type hosts are: Brueelia sueta ex Pharomachrus pavoninus (Spix, 1824), the Pavonine Quetzal and Brueelia cicchinoi ex Trogon viridis Linnaeus, the White-tailed Trogon. Both new species differ from the only Brueelia described on Trogon mexicanus by many morphological features, including those present in the male genitalia and female vulvar margin. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene for these two new species differ from one another by 13.6% uncorrected p-distance. Whereas Brueelia cicchinoi is only 0.3% divergent from previously published COI sequences identified as Brueelia sp. from the Mexican Trogon melanocephalus Gould, 1936 and Trogon massena Gould, 1938. We also found Brueelia cicchinoi on Trogon melanurus, Trogon collaris and Pharomachrus pavoninus. Thus Brueelia cicchinoi is found on multiple trogoniform hosts across an extremely large geographic distribution and has one of the largest number of host associations among Brueelia species.

  2. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  3. Predicting the distribution of four species of raptors (Aves: Accipitridae) in southern Spain: statistical models work better than existing maps

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Javier; Seoane, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Aim To test the effectiveness of statistical models based on explanatory environmental variables vs. existing distribution information (maps and breeding atlas), for predicting the distribution of four species of raptors (family Accipitridae): common buzzard Buteo buteo (Linnaeus, 1758), short-toed eagle Circaetus gallicus (Gmelin, 1788), booted eagle Hieraaetus pennatus (Gmelin, 1788) and black kite Milvus migrans (Boddaert, 1783). Location Andalusia, southe...

  4. On the current status of Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus (Aves: Galliformes: Phasianidae: keeping the common species common

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramesh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available It is ironic that while all efforts to save the Tiger (Panthera tigris are underway, another species of national importance, the Indian Peafowl, (Pavo cristatus is still to receive adequate attention. Illegal trade for train-feathers and mass mortality due to indiscriminate application of pesticides and herbicides in crop-fields are major causes of the recent decline in peafowl numbers. Though there has been increasing concern over the declining peafowl population, it is difficult to arrive at a realistic plan unless the current population size, the rate of decline and the causes of decline are scientifically quantified. Considering the need for conservation initiatives for peafowl, one must look beyond the ‘fire-fighting approach’ towards ‘keeping the common species common’ in order to be efficient with conservation investments and instill greater public participation.

  5. Multiple instances of paraphyletic species and cryptic taxa revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear RAD data for Calandrella larks (Aves: Alaudidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stervander, Martin; Alström, Per; Olsson, Urban; Ottosson, Ulf; Hansson, Bengt; Bensch, Staffan

    2016-09-01

    The avian genus Calandrella (larks) was recently suggested to be non-monophyletic, and was divided into two genera, of which Calandrella sensu stricto comprises 4-5 species in Eurasia and Africa. We analysed mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and nuclear Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequences from all species, and for cytb we studied 21 of the 22 recognised subspecies, with the aim to clarify the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and to compare large-scale nuclear sequence patterns with a widely used mitochondrial marker. Cytb indicated deep splits among the currently recognised species, although it failed to support the interrelationships among most of these. It also revealed unexpected deep divergences within C. brachydactyla, C. blanfordi/C. erlangeri, C. cinerea, and C. acutirostris. It also suggested that both C. brachydactyla and C. blanfordi, as presently circumscribed, are paraphyletic. In contrast, most of the many subspecies of C. brachydactyla and C. cinerea were unsupported by cytb, although two populations of C. cinerea were found to be genetically distinct. The RAD data corroborated the cytb tree (for the smaller number of taxa analysed) and recovered strongly supported interspecific relationships. However, coalescence analyses of the RAD data, analysed in SNAPP both with and without an outgroup, received equally strong support for two conflicting topologies. We suggest that the tree rooted with an outgroup - which is not recommended for SNAPP - is more trustworthy, and suggest that the reliability of analyses performed without any outgroup species should be thoroughly evaluated. We also demonstrate that degraded museum samples can be phylogenetically informative in RAD analyses following careful bioinformatic treatment. We note that the genus Calandrella is in need of taxonomic revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogeography of speciation of two sister species of neotropical amazona (Aves, Psittaciformes based on mitochondrial sequence data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V Rocha

    Full Text Available Coalescent theory provides powerful models for population genetic inference and is now increasingly important in estimates of divergence times and speciation research. We use molecular data and methods based on coalescent theory to investigate whether genetic evidence supports the hypothesis of A. pretrei and A. tucumana as separate species and whether genetic data allow us to assess which allopatric model seems to better explain the diversification process in these taxa. We sampled 13 A. tucumana from two provinces in northern Argentina and 28 A. pretrei from nine localities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A 491 bp segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I was evaluated using the haplotype network and phylogenetic methods. The divergence time and other demographic quantities were estimated using the isolation and migration model based on coalescent theory. The network and phylogenetic reconstructions showed similar results, supporting reciprocal monophyly for these two taxa. The divergence time of lineage separation was estimated to be approximately 1.3 million years ago, which corresponds to the lower Pleistocene. Our results enforce the current taxonomic status for these two Amazon species. They also support that A. pretrei and A. tucumana diverged with little or no gene flow approximately 1.3 million years ago, most likely after the establishment of a small population in the Southern Yungas forest by dispersion of a few founders from the A. pretrei ancestral population. This process may have been favored by habitat corridors formed in hot and humid periods of the Quaternary. Considering that these two species are considered threatened, the results were evaluated for their implications for the conservation of these two species.

  7. Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, new subgenus and species (Acari: Hypoderatidae) from the crested and parakeet auklets (Aves: Charadriiformes; Alcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, D B; Hoberg, E P

    1991-03-01

    In the genus Thalassornectes, a new subgenus, Alcidectes, and a new species, T. (Alcidectes) aukletae, are described from deutonymphs in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the crested auklet, Aethia cristatella (Pallas), and the parakeet auklet, Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas), from the eastern Pacific USSR. The new subgenus and species differ from one or both of the single species in each of the other two subgenera, Thalassornectes and Rallidectes, by (1) the normal size, position, and parallel arrangement of the genital papillae; (2) the larger size of seta sce; (3) the greater length and stronger development of setae sci, d1, l1, h, and sh; (4) the equal size of tarsi III and IV or their size subequal, with tarsus IV slightly longer than tarsus III; (5) both epimera I and sternum well developed and nearly equal in length; and (6) the free sclerotized posteriad extension from epimerite II on the ventral cuticular surface. This is the first hypoderatid reported from the host order Charadriiformes. The distribution of T. (Alcidectes) aukletae among auklets may be attributed to either cospeciation or may have an ecological basis; data are insufficient at present to sustain either hypothesis.

  8. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm.

  9. A case of leucism in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes with confirmation of species identity using cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Nogueira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.

  10. [New species of mites of the genus Ptilonyssus (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) isolated from Passeriformes (Aves: Passeriformes) from Russia and neighboring countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniukovich, M K; Butenko, O M

    2003-01-01

    Eight new species of the genus Ptilonyssus (Berl. et Troues.) (Gamasina: Rhinonyssidae) from nasal cavities of the passeriformes from territory of the former USSR are described: P. ammomani sp. n. from Ammomanus deserti (Alaudidae) collected in Turkmenistan; P. spini sp. n. from Spinus spinus (Fringillidae) of Kaliningrad district (Russia); P. ripariae sp. n. from Riparia riparia (Hirundinidae) and P. acanthopneustes sp. n. from Phylloscopus borealis (Sylviidae) collected in Tjumen district (Russia); P. pyrrhulinus sp. n. from Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Fringillidae) and P. anthi sp. n. from Anthus trivialis (Motacillidae) of Rjazan district; P. sylviicola sp. n. from Sylviae communis (Sylviidae) collected in Tatarstan; P. cyanosylviae sp. n. from Cyanosylvia svecica (Turdidae) collected from Novosibirsk district.

  11. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  12. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae) provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Svenja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2011-01-14

    Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes) is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni) and 22,737 bp (P. panini), they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB), which has been described from the chicken mitochondrial genome. As this RFB

  13. Full mitochondrial genome sequences of two endemic Philippine hornbill species (Aves: Bucerotidae provide evidence for pervasive mitochondrial DNA recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleidorn Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nowaday it is broadly accepted that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA may undergo recombination, the frequency of such recombination remains controversial. Its estimation is not straightforward, as recombination under homoplasmy (i.e., among identical mt genomes is likely to be overlooked. In species with tandem duplications of large mtDNA fragments the detection of recombination can be facilitated, as it can lead to gene conversion among duplicates. Although the mechanisms for concerted evolution in mtDNA are not fully understood yet, recombination rates have been estimated from "one per speciation event" down to 850 years or even "during every replication cycle". Results Here we present the first complete mt genome of the avian family Bucerotidae, i.e., that of two Philippine hornbills, Aceros waldeni and Penelopides panini. The mt genomes are characterized by a tandemly duplicated region encompassing part of cytochrome b, 3 tRNAs, NADH6, and the control region. The duplicated fragments are identical to each other except for a short section in domain I and for the length of repeat motifs in domain III of the control region. Due to the heteroplasmy with regard to the number of these repeat motifs, there is some size variation in both genomes; with around 21,657 bp (A. waldeni and 22,737 bp (P. panini, they significantly exceed the hitherto longest known avian mt genomes, that of the albatrosses. We discovered concerted evolution between the duplicated fragments within individuals. The existence of differences between individuals in coding genes as well as in the control region, which are maintained between duplicates, indicates that recombination apparently occurs frequently, i.e., in every generation. Conclusions The homogenised duplicates are interspersed by a short fragment which shows no sign of recombination. We hypothesize that this region corresponds to the so-called Replication Fork Barrier (RFB, which has been

  14. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Aves, Trogonidae in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest A contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Aves, Trogonidae na Mata Atlântica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pizo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Trogons are pan-tropical forest birds that eat a mix of fruits and arthropods. With direct observations of wild feeding birds, I assessed the relative contribution of fruits and arthropods to the diet of three trogon species (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus at Parque Estadual Intervales, southeast Brazil. Fruits and arthropods made the bulk of the food items recorded, with a tendency of frugivory increasing with body mass. The Trogon species differed in the proportion of fruits and arthropods taken, with T.viridis being the most frugivorous species (66% of feeding bouts, n = 47. The relative contribution of fruits and arthropods did not differ between the wet and dry seasons for any species. In the omnivorous gradient, T.viridis is close to the frugivorous extreme, whereas T.surrucura and T.rufus is next to the insectivorous end. Such a distinction may have important consequences for the territoriality and social behavior of these birds.Os surucuás são aves florestais pantropicais que se alimentam de frutos e artrópodes. Com observações diretas de aves forrageando na natureza, estudei a contribuição relativa de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta de três espécies de surucuás (Trogonviridis, T.surrucura, and T.rufus no Parque Estadual Intervales, sudeste do Brasil. Frutos e artrópodes foram os itens mais registrados, com uma tendência do grau de frugivoria aumentar com o aumento da massa corporal da ave. As três espécies diferiram em relação à proporção de frutos e artrópodes de que se alimentam; T.viridisfoi a espécie mais frugívora (66% dos registros, n = 47. As contribuições relativas de frutos e artrópodes para a dieta não diferiram entre as estações seca e úmida para nenhuma das três espécies. A diferença no grau de frugivoria aqui revelada pode ter conseqüências importantes para a territorialidade e organização social dos surucuás.

  15. First molecular characterization of a Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) infecting birds and description of a new species infecting storm petrels (Aves: Hydrobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier; Masello, Juan F; Bedolla, Yuliana; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2014-06-01

    During a survey of blood parasites in a population of Leach's and black storm petrels ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa and Oceanodroma melania) in Mexico, infection by a Hepatozoon species in erythrocytes of several birds was noted. Here we describe the species as Hepatozoon peircei sp. nov. Some species of Hepatozoon described from birds have been identified as lankesterellids when DNA molecular analyses were conducted. However, a sequence of 1,774 bp of the parasite found infecting storm petrels in this study clearly show the parasite is a species of the genus Hepatozoon. This is the first Hepatozoon species infecting birds to be characterized at the molecular level and the first found infecting erythrocytes and not leucocytes.

  16. Aberraciones cromáticas en aves de la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia” Chromatic aberrations in birds of the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ricardo Urcola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinan las aberraciones cromáticas que afectan el plumaje de las aves en la colección ornitológica del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. Estas alteraciones se deben a exceso o defecto en la producción y/o deposición del pigmento melanina, las familias afectadas pertenecen a Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae e Icteridae. Dentro de las aberraciones propuestas el leucismo parcial (40,5 % es la más numerosa, seguida por la dilución pastel (23,8 %, albinismo (14,3 % y finalmente los plumajes brown, ino y eumelanismo parcial (7,1 % cada una.The paper makes out a strong case for determine chromatic aberrations that affect the coloring of the birds in the ornithological collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales de Buenos Aires. These alterations are due to excess or deficiency in the production and/or deposition of melanin pigment, the affect families belong to Tinamidae, Spheniscidae, Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae, Anatidae, Falconidae, Rallidae, Charadriidae, Columbidae, Strigidae, Momotidae, Furnariidae, Mimidae, Motacillidae, Emberizidae and Icteridae. Within the proposed changes, the partial leucism (40,5 % is the most numerous, followed by pastel dilution (23,8 %, albinism (14,3 % and finally brown aberrations, ino and partial eumelanism, each one of then had (7,1 %.

  17. Tere tulemast allveelaevale / Ave Alavainu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alavainu, Ave, 1942-

    2005-01-01

    22. nov. toimub Kärdla kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Tihhonovi "Balladi naeltest" lahtine proov. Loo on tõlkinud ja lavastanud Ave Alavainu. Lavastust mängitakse ka Jõgeval toimuvatel Betti Alveri XIII luulepäevadel "Tähetund"

  18. Digenean parasites of six species of birds from Formosa Province, Argentina Digéneos parásitos de seis especies de aves de la provincia de Formosa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lía Inés Lunaschi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge of the diversity of digenean parasites from birds collected in Formosa Province, Argentina. The helminthological survey of 15 specimens of 6 bird species revealed the presence of 5 digenean species: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 and Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae from the esophagus of Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae from the cloaca of Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae from the cloaca of Busarellus nigricollis (Latham and Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; and Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae from the bile canaliculi of G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot and Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. The present study adds new morphometric data on 2 species of digeneans (C. sorbens and G. propinquum and new host records for C. sorbens, G. propinquum, A. heterolecithodes and S. vicarium. The genera Clinostomatopsis Dollfus, 1932 and Glaphyrostomum Braun, 1901 are reported for the first time in Argentina.El propósito de este trabajo es incrementar el conocimiento sobre la diversidad de digéneos parásitos de aves recolectadas en la provincia de Formosa, Argentina. El estudio helmintológico de 15 ejemplares de 6 especies de aves reveló la presencia de 5 especies de digéneos: Clinostomatopsis sorbens (Braun, 1899 y Clinostomum marginatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Clinostomidae halladas en el esófago de Tigrisoma lineatum (Boddaert; Glaphyrostomum propinquum Braun, 1901 (Brachylaimidae recolectada de la cloaca de Guira guira (Gmelin; Stomylotrema vicarium Braun, 1901 (Stomylotrematidae encontrada en la cloaca de Busarellus nigricollis (Latham y Buteogallus meridionalis (Latham; Athesmia heterolecithodes (Braun, 1899 (Dicrocoeliidae hallada en los canalículos biliares de G. guira, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot y Rostrhamus sociabilis (Vieillot. El presente estudio

  19. Programa de conservacion para aves migratorias neotropicales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Finch; Marcia Wilson; Roberto Roca

    1992-01-01

    Mas de 250 especies de aves terrestres migran a Norte America durante la epoca reproductiva para aprovechar los sistemas templados. No obstante, las aves migratorias neotropicales pasan la mayor parte de su ciclo de vida en los habitat tropicales y subtropicales de paises latinoamericanos y caribefios donde viven en una asociacion cercana con las aves residentes. Para...

  20. Riqueza e diversidade de aves aquáticas de uma lagoa natural no sudeste do Brasil Species richness and diversity of waterbirds of a natural lake in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O aumento ou decréscimo das populações de aves aquáticas tem sido usado como indicador da qualidade de água e conseqüentemente da qualidade ambiental. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de inventariar e monitorar a avifauna aquática da maior lagoa da região do sistema cárstico de Lagoa Santa, região central de Minas Gerais, dentro da 'Área de Proteção Ambiental Carste de Lagoa Santa' (APA LS, a Lagoa do Sumidouro. A Lagoa ocupa uma área de aproximadamente 253 h na época de maior cheia e apresenta um perímetro de cerca de 12.072 m. Durante o período de junho de 1999 a dezembro de 2002 foram estimadas a riqueza e a abundância das aves aquáticas presentes na Lagoa. Foram registradas 27 espécies de aves aquáticas, distribuídas em 12 famílias. Das 27 espécies registradas, 12 foram consideradas residentes ou prováveis residentes e oito visitantes. Sete espécies não apresentaram nenhum padrão distinto de presença sazonal. A família mais bem representada foi Ardeidae com seis espécies perfazendo 23% do total de espécies. Em seguida, a família Anatidae com cinco espécies (15% e Scolopacidae sendo representada por três espécies (11% do total. Uma das espécies Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758 é considerada ameaçada de extinção no Estado de Minas Gerais, enquanto outras duas Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758 e Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789 são consideradas raras. Não houve diferença significativa entre a riqueza de espécies estimada para as três estações ('chuvosa', 'seca' e 'transição'. A diversidade de espécies mostrou-se significativamente diferente entre as três estações, sendo a estação chuvosa com a maior diversidade. A presença de espécies ameaçadas de extinção e local de parada de espécies migratórias faz com que a região da APA Carste de Lagoa Santa seja considerada uma área de extrema importância referente aos aspectos biológicos.Increases and decreases of waterfowl population have

  1. Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammler, Svenja; Ketmaier, Valerio; Havenstein, Katja; Krause, Ulrike; Curio, Eberhard; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2012-10-12

    The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden's Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12-19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay), and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant) sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae) from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus) from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A. leucocephalus. Because of the low potential for gene flow

  2. O Comportamento das Aves Poultry Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJ Campos

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos sobre o comportamento das aves, principalmente as galinhas, datam de 1912, quando o gênero Gallus passou a ser estudado com mais intensidade na área da Genética. Tais estudos eram simplesmente filosóficos até o início da década de 80, quando uma nova era da produção industrial avícola surgiu, objetivando um maior volume de produção econômica em todas as áreas de exploração. Esse objetivo reativou de maneira científica os estudos de comportamento das aves face à tecnologia de produção empregada nos sistemas de exploração, tornando-os mais acentuados já na década de 90, culminando com um simpósio internacional realizado nos Estados Unidos onde foram traçados os objetivos ou linhas de pesquisas na exploração avícola. O intuito era evitar problemas com os movimentos ambientalistas, traçando novos rumos para uma produção eficiente sem interferir no comportamento das aves já no início do novo milênio. Esta revisão, tem como objetivo principal uma análise científica e filosófica sobre o comportamento das aves em diversos métodos de exploração.Studies on poultry behavior initiated in 1972, at that time, fowls from Gallus domesticus species were the most important animal for the initial studies of Genetic. Since then, just the philosophical concepts where involved in those studies. However, at the beginning of 80 decade, these studies were intensified taking into account technological approaches for an economical industrial poultry production. Meanwhile, the reactions from activists involved in the behavior of the animal subjected to production became more strong at the beginning of 90's as well as those studies on chicken behavior. Finally, in 1998, an international symposium, promoted by chicken behavior scientists were held in the United States, in order to establish new methods of exploitation of poultry without interfering in its normal behavior, at the beginning of new millenium. The main

  3. Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss

    OpenAIRE

    Sammler, Svenja; Ketmaier, Valerio; Havenstein, Katja; Krause, Ulrike; Curio, Eberhard; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12...

  4. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  5. Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammler Svenja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12–19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay, and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. Conclusions We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A

  6. Efeito do gradiente altitudinal/latitudinal sobre espécies de aves florestais da família Furnariidae na Bacia do Rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil Effect of altitudinal/latitudinal gradient about forest ovenbirds species (Aves: Furnariidae in the Tibagi river basin, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de L. Fávaro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Variações na riqueza e abundância de Furnariidae florestais foram analisadas ao longo do gradiente altitudinal/latitudinal da bacia do rio Tibagi (BRT, Paraná, Brasil. A Floresta Ombrófila Mista (1060 m a.n.m. é a formação dominante no sul da BRT, enquanto que a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (298 m a.n.m., ocorre no norte. O número total de espécies obtidas na BRT foi 14. A riqueza e a abundância de Furnariidae foram maiores no sul (12 espécies, IPA = 2,01 do que no norte (cinco espécies, IPA = 0,45 da BRT. As similaridades também foram altas entre o sul e o centro da BRT. A estrutura da comunidade de Furnariidae também apresentou correlação positiva entre o sul e o centro da BRT (coeficiente de correlação por postos de Spearman; r s = 0,96, r s = 0,89, r s = 1,00. As relações evolutivas de alguns representantes de Furnariidae com o sul da América do Sul e com os Andes podem explicar a maior presença desta família no sul da BRT. Um outro aspecto que também pode ajudar a explicar os resultados apresentados por Furnariidae são as semelhanças entre a Floresta Ombrófila Mista do sul da BRT e outras florestas temperadas da América do Sul.Variations in richness and abundance of forest ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae were studied along an altitudinal/latitudinal gradient of the Tibagi river basin (TRB, southern Brazil. Mixed Temperate Rain Forest (1060 m a.s.l. is the dominant forest in the southern TRB while Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (298 m a.s.l. occurs in the northern. The total number of species obtained in the TRB was 14. Richness and Abundance of Furnariidae were greater in the southern (12 species, IPA = 2.01 than in the northern (five species, IPA = 0.45 TRB. Similarities were also greatest in the southern and in the middle TRB. The community structure of Furnariidae also presented a positive correlation between the southern and the middle TRB (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient; r s = 0.96, r s = 0.89, r s

  7. Comparative study of the digestive system of three species of tinamou. I. Crypturellus tataupa, Nothoprocta cinerascens, and Nothura maculosa (Aves: tinamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikilian, M; De Speroni, N B

    1996-04-01

    The morphology and histology, as well as the cytochemistry of complex carbohydrates, of the digestive system of Crypturellus tataupa (tataupa tinamou), Nothoprocta cinerascens (brushland tinamou), and Nothura maculosa (spotted tinamou) are described. The general morphology of the digestive system of these birds follows the basic model of the avian alimentary canal, although statistical analysis shows that the lengths of the organs are significantly different among the species. From cephalic to caudal regions the alimentary tract consists of esophagus, ingluvies or crop, proventriculus or glandular stomach, ventriculus or muscular stomach, small intestine, well-developed ceca, and rectum. Histologically, each section of the tract consists of four primary tissue layers: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia. Variations are found in the thickness of the esophageal epithelium, which shows the highest value in C. tataupa. In the proventriculus, the depth of the compound glands is greatest in N. cinerascens. The villi of the epithelial cells in the small intestine are most extensively developed in C. tataupa. Heterogeneity of mucins is detected not only in the surface coat of the alimentary tract but in the cellular content of the glands as well. Comparisons with the morphology of the digestive system of closely related and more advanced birds are made, and the possible relationship between morphological and cytochemical variation and the diet is discussed.

  8. Masayo Ave õpetab puudutama / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Jaapani disainerist ja arhitektist Masayo Avest, tema mõtteid disainist, arvamus eestlastest. 2006. a. juhendas M. Ave Eesti Kunstiakadeemias workshop'i, kus osalesid tootedisaini ja tekstiilieriala üliõpilased. Talve tekstuuride väljendamiseks sündis "Haptic Dictionary" ja näitus Tallinnas Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. 15 ill., neist 9 M. Ave töödest

  9. LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE EGGS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF POULTRY. TEORES DE COLESTEROL E ÁCIDOS GRAXOS EM OVOS DE DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES DE AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. OLIVEIRA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to evaluate the cholesterol level fatty acids of triacylglicerol and phosphofolipids of eggs of the different poultry species. The following results were observed: cholesterol: goose duck> turkey > chicken > quail. Fatty acids of triacylglicerols: palmitic acid: turkey > quail goose > duck chicken. Estearic acid: quail chicken> goose duck perua. Oleic acid : goose > chicken> quail duck turkey. α-Linoleic acid: chicken> turkey quail > goose duck. Arachidonic acid: turkey > quail duck> chicken> goose. Docosahexanoic acid: turkey> duck goose chicken > quail. Phospholipids of fatty acids: palmí]itic acid: duck> goose quail > chicken turkey. Estearic acid: chicken turkey > quail> goose > duck. Oleic acid: duck goose > quail > turkey> chicken. α-Linoleic acid: turkey > chicken quail > duck goose. Arachidonic acid: duck > goose > quail chicken > turkey. Docosahexanoic acid: chicken> goose > turkey> quail duck. These results can be of importance for food tables and dietetic treatment of patients.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o teor de colesterol, ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis e de fosfolipídeos de ovos de diferentes espécies de aves. Foram observados os seguintes resultados: As concentrações de colesterol foram maiores na: pata ≅ gansa > perua > galinha > codorna. As concentrações de ácidos graxos de triacilgliceróis: ácido palmítico: perua> gansa codorna > galinha >pata. Ácido esteárico: codorna galinha > gansa pata perua. Ácido oléico: gansa > galinha >codorna pata perua. Ácido -linoléico: galinha >codorna > perua > gansa pata. Ácido araquidônico: perua > codorna pata > galinha> gansa. Ácido docosaexanóico: perua > pata gansa galinha > codorna. Ácidos graxos de fosfolipídeos: ácido palmítico: pata > gansa codorna > galinha perua. Ácido esteárico: galinha

  10. DETERMINACIÓN DE SEXO EN AVES MEDIANTE HERRAMIENTAS MOLECULARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUBIA E. MATTA CAMACHO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La ausencia de dimorfismo sexual en los estadios juveniles y durante la edad adulta de gran cantidad de especies de aves, dificulta o imposibilita la determinación del sexo basados en el fenotipo. El empleo de marcadores moleculares para determinar el sexo de las aves es una herramienta útil debido a la exactitud y rapidez de los resultados y a su vez se constituye en un método que minimiza el estrés durante la toma de muestra, comparado con otras técnicas invasivas que pudieran afectar la salud o estabilidad biológica del animal. La determinación temprana del sexo en aves resulta de especial relevancia cuando se consideran programas de conservación ex situ, producción, explotación y estudios de ecología de poblaciones. Esta revisión presenta las metodologías usadas para determinar el sexo, haciendo especial énfasis en herramientas moleculares, presentando sus ventajas y limitaciones. Palabras clave: dimorfismo sexual, aves, CHD, tipificación molecular cromosoma W, cromosoma Z. ABSTRACT The lack of sexual dimorphism in nestling, juvenile or adult birds of large number of avian species, makes it difficult or impossible sex determination based on phenotipic characteristics. To use molecular markers for bird sex determination is a rapid and safe procedure; moreover this methodology minimizes the stress during sampling, compared to other invasive techniques that could affect the health or biological stability of the animal. The early sex determination in birds is of particular importance when considering ex situ conservation programs, production, exploitation or population ecology studies. This review presents the methodologies used to sex determination, making emphasize on molecular tools, showing its advantages and limitations. Keywords: sexual dimorphism, birds, CHD, molecular typing, W chromosome, Z chromosome

  11. Aves municipales oficiales de Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos M. Domínguez Cristóbal

    2009-01-01

    Las aves constituyen uno de los recursos de muy poco uso como símbolo oficial representativo de los municipios en Puerto Rico. Es muy probable que la decisión que màs pueda influenciar en esa selección esté relacionada con la movilidad de las aves ya que éstas no se limitan a una municipalidad en específico...

  12. Associations between chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera and albatrosses and petrels (Aves, Procellariiformes collected in Brazil Associações entre malófagos (Insecta, Phthiraptera e albatrozes e petréis (Aves, Procellariiformes capturados no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel P. Valim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chewing lice were searched on 197 skins of 28 species of procellariiform birds collected in Brazil. A total of 38 species of lice were found on 112 skins belonging to 22 bird species. The lice were slide-mounted and identified. A list of lice species found and their host species is given and some host-louse associations are discussed under an evolutionary perspective.Malófagos foram procurados em 197 peles de 28 espécies de aves Procellariiformes capturadas no Brasil. Um total de 38 espécies de piolhos foram encontradas em 112 peles pertencentes a 22 espécies de aves. Os piolhos foram montados em lâminas e identificados. Uma lista com as espécies de piolhos encontradas e seus hospedeiros é dada, além de algumas associações entre os piolhos e as aves serem discutidas sob uma perspectiva evolutiva.

  13. Mixed bird flocks: patterns of activity and species composition in a region of the Central Andes of Colombia Bandadas mixtas de aves: patrones de actividad y composición de especies en una región de la Cordillera Central de los Andes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Arbeláez-Cortés

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed bird flocks are groups of individuals from different species that travel and forage together. Such groups are common in several bird communities around the world. We present species composition and activity patterns of mixed bird flocks in a region of the Central Andes of Colombia. We compared the number of species per flock, as well as the number of flocks among 3 different habitats. We tested hypotheses concerning the flocks daily activity and the co-occurrences of species within them. We recorded 75 species, and the species number per flock varied from 4 to 21. Our data suggest that habitat affects the number of flocks but not their species number, and that the activity of flocks is similar throughout the day. In addition, the association of birds in flocks is affected by interspecific facilitation, with some species co-occurrences found more times than expected by chance. We hypothesize that some tanager species could have a role in flock cohesion. We witnessed 2 predator attacks upon flocks, a number of agonistic interactions among flock members, and squirrels following bird flocks. Our results meet some general patterns described for mixed bird flocks.Las bandadas mixtas de aves son grupos de individuos de diferentes especies que viajan y forrajean juntos, y son comunes en varias comunidades de aves alrededor del mundo. Presentamos la composición de especies y los patrones de actividad de las bandadas mixtas de aves en una región de la Cordillera Central de los Andes Colombianos. Comparamos el número de especies por bandada y el número de bandadas en 3 hábitats distintos. Evaluamos hipótesis relacionadas con la actividad de las bandadas durante el día y la presencia simultánea de especies en estos grupos. Observamos 75 especies, y el número de especies por bandada varió entre 4 y 21. Nuestros datos indican que el hábitat parece afectar el número de bandadas pero no su número de especies y que la actividad de las bandadas

  14. Sexagem cirúrgica em aves silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raso T.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a utilização da laparoscopia na sexagem de 349 aves silvestres nacionais e exóticas, pertencentes a 61 espécies, de 11 famílias e seis ordens. Foram sexadas aves com idades entre quatro meses e 42 anos e peso corpóreo entre 55g e 3,4kg. Com essa técnica foi possível visualizar as gônadas, avaliar seu estágio de desenvolvimento e observar os órgãos adjacentes. A técnica cirúrgica utilizando endoscópio rígido para sexagem de aves silvestres foi considerada rápida e segura. Nenhum óbito foi verificado durante ou em conseqüência do procedimento cirúrgico.

  15. Aves y literatura. El vuelo de las aves por la literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Andrés Manrique Granados

    2016-01-01

    La presencia de las aves en la literatura de Colombia puede rastrearse hasta sus inicios. Para todos es inmediata la imagen del ave negra de la María (1867), obra del vallecaucano Jorge Isaacs que cumple un papel figurativo fundamental similar al del poema El cuervo de 1845, del estadounidense Edgar Allan Poe, pues remite a la cercana muerte de la amada del protagonista [Isaacs, 1967, pág. 23; Poe, 1840, pág. 321]. La presencia de las aves en la escritura colombiana, así como en múltiples pro...

  16. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Castro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia, en la familia Ramphastidae no hay un dimorfismo sexual aparente, excepto en Pteroglossus viridis y en el género Selenidera. Muchos criadores de aves silvestres creen que los especímenes de Ramphastos toco pueden ser sexados usando las caracteríticas del pico. En este estudio, fueron analizadas algunas variables feno-típicas discriminantes en aves cuyo sexo fue previamente determinado con metodos citogenéticos. Un total de 51 especimenes de R. toco y 20 de R. dicolorus fueron estudiados. Los parámetros estadísticos significativos que son útiles para distinguir el sexo en estas especies son la longitud del culmen y del tomium, la longitud del pico corneo inferior y de la cloaca. Usando estos parámetros, los criadores de aves cautivas pueden sexar los especimenes de Ramphastos toco mediante análisis fenotípico y formar parejas reproductoras más rapidamente.Phenotypic sexual dimorphism seems to be rare in the Ramphastidae family, except in Pteroglossus viridis and in the genus Selenidera. Many breeders of wild birds believe that specimens of Ramphastos toco can be sexed using bill characteristics. In this study, various discriminant phenotypic variables were analyzed in birds which were sexed cytogenetically. Fifty-one specimens of R. toco and 20 R. dicolorus were studied. The statistically significant parameters which served to distinguish the sex in these species were the length of the culmen and tomium, length of the lower corneous beak and the cloaca. Using these parameters, capitive bird breeders can determine sex of R. toco specimens by phenotypic analysis and form breeding couples more quickly.

  17. Aves y literatura. El vuelo de las aves por la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Manrique Granados

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de las aves en la literatura de Colombia puede rastrearse hasta sus inicios. Para todos es inmediata la imagen del ave negra de la María (1867, obra del vallecaucano Jorge Isaacs que cumple un papel figurativo fundamental similar al del poema El cuervo de 1845, del estadounidense Edgar Allan Poe, pues remite a la cercana muerte de la amada del protagonista [Isaacs, 1967, pág. 23; Poe, 1840, pág. 321]. La presencia de las aves en la escritura colombiana, así como en múltiples producciones literarias destacadas en los cánones occidentales, está provista de profundos simbolismos que trascienden funciones tan determinadas como la de la romántica ave negra. Retomando simbolismos que tienen sus bases en el islam y el cristianismo, las imágenes de las aves se vinculan esencialmente con el alma humana y con el tránsito que recorre entre la tierra y el cielo tras la muerte, lo cual les otorga a los pájaros funciones de mediadores entre los dos mundos: un papel que tiene múltiples gamas y matices de significación en diversas culturas [Roque, 2009, págs. 236-237]. En consecuencia, más que ahondar en los referentes modernos de una metáfora como la del ave negra de mal presagio, veremos gamas de significados que tienen los pájaros en la literatura colombiana, y las circulaciones regionales e históricas de estos referentes alados, en particular entre escritores del Eje Cafetero.

  18. Karyotype description of two Neotropical Psittacidae species: the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus (Psittaciformes: Aves, and its significance for conservation plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor de Oliveira Lunardi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots are among the most threatened groups of birds in the world, and many species are facing extinction in a near future. At the same time, the taxonomic position of many species remains unclear. Karyotype analysis has been used to elucidate the phylogenetic status of many bird groups, also providing important information for both in situ and ex situ conservation plans. The objective of the present study was to describe for the first time the karyotypes of the endangered Hyacinth Macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus, and of the Hawk-headed Parrot, Deroptyus accipitrinus. A diploid number of 2n = 70 and a karyotype similar to the main pattern previously found for the genera Ara, Cyanopsitta, Aratinga, Propyrrhura, Pionites, Pionopsitta, Nandayus, and Guaruba were found for both species. These karyotype descriptions can be a starting point for the genetic monitoring of these two declining species.

  19. Dos nuevos registros de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae sobre Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae en la Argentina Two new records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae on Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Guardia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("yerutí yungueña" (Aves: Columbidae. Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.Two species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing and Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker are recorded for the first time on Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("Large-tailed dove" (Aves: Columbidae. In addition, C. gracilicapitis is recorded for the first time in Argentina.

  20. Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae, in mainland Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    Full Text Available Abstract The little owl Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769 is a small raptor that is widely distributed from northern to southern Portugal and several other countries in Europe, Asia and North Africa, and which has been introduced into New Zealand. In the current study, 18 fecal samples were collected from little owls kept at the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, which is located in Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Twelve (67% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Avispora in their feces. The oocysts of Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 38.9 × 32.9 µm, with a shape index of 1.18. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 21.1 × 20.1 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of a compact subspherical mass of granules. This is the fourth species of Avispora reported in Strigiformes.

  1. Two new records of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) on Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae) from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Guardia, Leonor

    2008-01-01

    Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin ("yerutí yungueña") (Aves: Columbidae). Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.Two species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing and Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker are recorded for t...

  2. Composicion de aves del Pacifico Sur de Nicaragua enfatizando las especies indicadoras dependientes de bosque [Community composition of Nicaragua's Pacific Slope forest birds, emphasizing forest quality-dependent species

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Torrez; W.J. Arendt; M. Sotelo

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of biological corridors, it is necessary to evaluate their fauna especially those species are bioindicators of habitat quality, to determine patterns and extent of community diversity and how such factors reflect the level of conservation within and among green corridors in general. We investigated how selected landscape features within the Paso...

  3. Técnica de Necropsia en Aves

    OpenAIRE

    L S Martínez-Acevedo

    2012-01-01

    En aves al igual que en otras especies, la necropsia hace parte integral de la medicina clínica. Esta se realiza con la finalidad de determinar la causa de enfermedad y muerte de un animal, confirmar un diagnóstico clínico o identificar la etiología de una enfermedad por medio de la toma de muestras complementarias. Siempre es indispensable tener en cuenta las diferencias anatómicas y biológicas de cada especie. El examen de necropsia es un procedimiento que debe realizarse de forma sistem...

  4. Padrões de interações mutualísticas entre espécies arbóreas e aves frugívoras em uma comunidade de Restinga no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, RS, Brasil Patterns of mutualistic interactions between tree species and frugivorous birds in a restinga community at Itapuã State Park, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Scherer

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Padrões de interação entre aves frugívoras e espécies arbóreas, com suas variações sazonais, foram determinados em uma mata de Restinga. Foram feitas observações visuais e capturas da avifauna, ao longo de um ano, estimando-se a conectância do sistema mutualístico e o índice de importância das espécies. Também foi elaborada a rede de interações do sistema e feita a análise da variação das interações entre as estações do ano. Foram registradas 18 espécies animais e 11 vegetais interagindo, com uma conectância de 25,3%. Turdus amaurochalinus e T. rufiventris apresentaram maior número de visitas, interagiram com a maioria das espécies arbóreas e tiveram o maior índice de importância, sendo caracterizadas como as principais dispersoras em potencial. Ocotea pulchella e Myrsine spp. foram registradas com os maiores números de eventos de consumo de frutos pelas aves. No entanto, Ficus organesis interagiu com mais espécies dispersoras, além de ter a maior importância na dieta das aves. Observaram-se variações na quantidade de eventos de frugivoria ao longo do ano, com um aumento significativo na primavera. Além disso, verificou-se um aumento nas espécies frugívoras durante a primavera e verão, bem como no número de espécies arbóreas visitadas nessas estações.Interaction patterns between frugivorous birds and tree species, with seasonal variations, were determined in a restinga forest. Visual observations and bird captures were performed throughout a year, estimating the connectance of the mutualistic system and the importance index of species. The interaction network of the system was also worked out and seasonal variation in these interactions was analyzed. Eighteen animal species and 11 tree species were recorded as interacting, with a connectance of 25.3%. Turdus amaurochalinus and T. rufiventris had the highest number of visits, interacted with most tree species and had the highest importance index

  5. Piojos (Phthiraptera: Insecta) de aves de la familia Laridae (Aves: Charadriiformes) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ-ACUÑA, DANIEL; FISCHER, CHRISTOF; PALMA, RICARDO; MORENO, LUCILA; BARRIENTOS, CARLOS; MUÑOZ, LISANDRO; ARDILES, KAREN; CICCHINO, ARMANDO

    2006-01-01

    Seis especies de piojos (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae) fueron colectadas sobre cuatro especies de aves marinas de la familia Laridae en la costa de Chile. Se registran: Saemundssonia sternae (Linnaeus, 1758) y Quadraceps sellatus (Burmeister, 1838) sobre el gaviotín boreal (Sterna hirundo, Linnaeus, 1758); Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780), Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) y Quadraceps ornatus (Grube, 1851) parasitando a la gaviota dominicana (Larus dominicanus Lichte...

  6. Morfometría y fecundidad de Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae en especies simpátricas de aves costeras de Chile Morphometry and fecundity of Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae in sympatric coastal bird species of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA RIQUELME

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se compara la morfología y fecundidad de individuos adultos del acantocéfalo Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae extraídos del intestino de cuatro especies de aves costeras Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein 1823, Larus pipixcan Wagler 1831, Podiceps occipitalis Garnot 1826 y Numenius phaeopus Linné 1758, capturadas en Caleta Lenga (36º45' S, 73º10' O, Chile. Los resultados señalan que la identidad de la especie hospedadora es un factor relevante para entender las variaciones de la morfología y de la fecundidad del parásito. Los acantocéfalos recolectados desde L. dominicanus y L. pipixcan eran los de mayor tamaño corporal. Además, la fecundidad de los parásitos aumentaba con su tamaño corporal. Sin embargo, el análisis de los residuos de la regresión entre la fecundidad y la longitud total del cuerpo de P. bullocki mostró que la fecundidad del parásito en L. dominicanus es similar a la encontrada en L. pipixcan y que en estas especies es significativamente mayor que la encontrada en los parásitos recolectados de P. occipitalis. Se discute que para establecer qué hospedadores son de mejor calidad para este parásito, aparte de su desempeño reproductivo del parásito en cada especie hospedadora, es necesario también considerar la abundancia de los hospedadores y la magnitud que alcanzan las poblaciones del parásito en cada una de ellasWe describe and compare the variations in morphology and fecundity of Profilicollis bullocki Mateo, Córdova & Guzmán 1982 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae adults collected from 4 alternative sympatric and definitive marine coastal bird host species (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein 1823, Larus pipixcan Wagler 1831, Podiceps occipitalis Garnot 1826 and Numenius phaeopus Linné 1758, sampled at Caleta Lenga, Chile (36º45' S, 73º10' W. Results show that the specific identity of the host species is a relevant factor to explain morphometric

  7. Salmonella Enteritidis em Aves: Retrospectiva no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva EN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Enteritidis (SE emergiu como um grande problema avícola e de saúde pública no Brasil a partir de 1993. Os estudos epidemiológicos, incluindo a fagotipagem e sonda complementar de rRNA, sugerem a entrada de SE no Brasil via importação de material genético avícola contaminado, provavelmente no final da década de 80. As taxas de crescimento da avicultura brasileira na década de 90 criaram condições favoráveis para a manutenção e proliferação da SE nos plantéis avícolas. Além disso, o uso indiscriminado de antibióticos em aves, particularmente as quinolonas, encorajou a manutenção de lotes positivos para SE. As cepas de SE isoladas de aves têm mostrado alta sensibilidade aos antibióticos de uso comum em avicultura, incluindo as quinolonas. Entretanto, o aumento da resistência antimicrobiana e multirresistência tem sido observado em cepas de origem humana. Os últimos levantamentos realizados no ano de 2001 continuam a mostrar que a SE em materiais avícolas é o principal sorovar responsável pelas infecções humanas. Embora as carcaças de frangos apresentem altas taxas de contaminação por SE, são os ovos e seus derivados - principalmente a maionese caseira - os principais responsáveis pelos surtos humanos. O uso de vacinas específicas em poedeiras e reprodutoras tem se mostrado uma ferramenta auxiliar no controle de SE. O procedimento mais indicado para o controle de SE na avicultura está na aquisição e produção de lotes livres do agente. As rações e matérias primas de origem animal parecem não ser tão importantes na perpetuação do problema de SE, porém, os roedores parecem ser reservatórios ambientais importantes de SE em granjas contaminadas.

  8. Impactos del AVE en el turismo de Bocairent

    OpenAIRE

    Francés Gimeno, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se va a realizar un análisis de los impactos que ha generado la llegada del AVE en la localidad de Bocairent. Población sin estación pero que supuestamente se encuentra dentro del área de influencia y forma parte de una asociación con fines turísticos que se llama AVE Villena y Levante Interior. Para ello se han analizado tanto las condiciones de la localidad, como la de la estación receptiva de turistas, además, de las organizaciones encargadas para atraer a este tipo ...

  9. Population trends and survival of nesting green sea turtles Chelonia mydas on Aves Island, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cruz, Marco A.; Lampo, Margarita; Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Solé, Genaro; Rodriguez-Clark, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term demographic data are valuable for assessing the effect of anthropogenic impacts on endangered species and evaluating recovery programs. Using a 2-state open robust design model, we analyzed mark-recapture data from green turtles Chelonia mydas sighted between 1979 and 2009 on Aves Island, Venezuela, a rookery heavily impacted by human activities before it was declared a wildlife refuge in 1972. Based on the encounter histories of 7689 nesting females, we estimated the abundance, annual survival, and remigration intervals for this population. Female survival varied from 0.14-0.91, with a mean of 0.79, which is low compared to survival of other populations from the Caribbean (mean = 0.84) and Australia (mean = 0.95), even though we partially corrected for tag loss, which is known to negatively bias survival estimates. This supports prior suggestions that Caribbean populations in general, and the Aves Island population in particular, may be more strongly impacted than populations elsewhere. It is likely that nesters from this rookery are extracted while foraging in remote feeding grounds where hunting still occurs. Despite its relatively low survival, the nesting population at Aves Island increased during the past 30 years from approx. 500 to >1000 nesting females in 2009. Thus, this population, like others in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, seems to be slowly recovering following protective management. Although these findings support the importance of long-term conservation programs aimed at protecting nesting grounds, they also highlight the need to extend management actions to foraging grounds where human activities may still impact green turtle populations.

  10. Diversidad de insectos y aves insectivoras de sotobosque en hábitats pertubados de selva lluviosa tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Luis Germán

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available To examine variation in species composition, stability and diversity of insectivorous birds and their prey in understory habitats of disturbed rainforest, from March 1993 to May 1994 we measured structural variables of the vegetation and quantified bird and insect species richness and diversity at eight plots ranging from 0 to over 10 years of secondary succesion. Of all the vegetation variables, only canopy cover tended. to increase with forest age. Variation of DBH classes and total density of plants among plots explained changes in both insect richness and diversity. While variation in bird species richness and diversity among plots did not show significant trends, the abundance of insectivores was related both to foliage height diversitv and DBH diversity. Insect abundance explained both bird abundance and species richness, and insect richness was an adequate predictor of abundance of insectivorous birds. The polar coordinates of the study plots (Bray-Curtis ordination based on the abundances of insectivorous birds were inversely related to forest age.Para examinar la variación en abundancia y diversidad de aves insectívoras y de sus presas en sotobosque de selva lluviosa tropical perturbada, entre marzo de 1993 y mayo de 1994 medimos variables estructurales de la vegetación y cuantificamos la  abundancia, riqueza y diversidad de insectos y aves en ocho parcelas de 0 a más de 10 años de sucesión secundaria. Exceptuando la cobertura del dosel, que aumentó con la madurez del bosque, la vegetación no presentó tendencias relacionadas con el tiempo de regeneración del bosque. La variación en cuanto a tamaños de tallos (clases de DAP y a la densidad total de plantas entre parcelas estuvo relacionada con las diferencias de riqueza y diversidad de insectos. Aunque la variación en riqueza y diversidad de aves insectívoras no presentó tendencias significativas, su abundancia estuvo relacionada tanto con la diversidad de estratos

  11. South African red data book - Aves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided on 101 South African bird species thought to be eligible for conservation attention. A list is also provided of 35 species which might qualify for inclusion in a revised South African Red Data Book....

  12. Karyotypic characterization of Ramphastidae (Piciformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Márcio Siqueira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotypes of nine species of the family Ramphastidae were determined and compared with that of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco, the only ramphastid karyotype so far reported in the literature. Differences in the morphology of the largest chromosomes allowed to identify three karyotype groups. The first group included the species R. toco, Baillonius bailloni, Pteroglossus castanotis, P. aracari and Selenidera maculirostris, in which only the first pair of chromosomes was metacentric. The second group included four Ramphastos species (R. dicolorus, R. ariel, R. vitellinus, R. tucanus cuvieri with two pairs of metacentric macrochromosomes (the first and the seventh. The third group was represented by a single species, A. laminirostris, in which all the autosomal chromosomes were telocentric. All of the species had subtelocentric Z chromosomes, similar in size to homologues of the first pair. Sex chromosome W was a small chromosome. The chromosome number ranged from 2n = 62 in P. aracari to 114 in R. toco. The cytotaxonomic relationships among toucan species are discussed, based on chromosome analysis.

  13. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  14. Systematic revision of the Phorusrhacidae (Aves: Ralliformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarenga Herculano M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil remains of birds belonging to the family Phorusrhacidae were studied in several museums of South America, North America and Europe, the main objective being to characterize this family and solve the chaotic state of the nomenclature and classification of these birds. Reconstruction of some species has been done, with the purpose of having an idea about the size, body weight, posture and habit based in their skeletons. The European species, Ameghinornis minor and Aenigmavis sapea are refuted as belonging to this family. Also several forms described from the Tertiary of Argentina are refuted, because they are based on inadequate segments of the skeleton for a good identification, as is the case of the genera Cunampaia, Smiliornis, Pseudolarus, Lophiornis and Riacama, frequently refered to as belonging to the Phorusrhacidae. The Phorusrhacidae family probably originated in South America, since the end of the Cretaceous, as a result of an endemism formed by the isolation of this landmass. During the end of the Pliocene, with the emersion of the Panama isthmus, the family spread to the North America where at least one species is known Titanis walleri, which perhaps represents the last known species of this family, probably becoming extinct in the beginning of the Pleistocene. A systematic revision has been conducted, dealing with the countless problems of nomenclature, and the Phorusrhacidae is now composed of five subfamilies, which are: Brontornithinae, Phorusrhacinae, Patagornithinae, Psilopterinae and Mesembriornithinae in which 13 genera and 17 species are considered. Characters of all taxa are described and a geochronological distribution of all species is presented.

  15. Aves ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero José Ignacio

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available La altiplanicie andina conocida con el nombre de Sabana de Bogotá, situada en la llamada "tierra fría" de los Andes Orientales de Colombia, a 2600 metros sobre el nivel del mar y con temperatura media de 13o C., esta bordeada en todo su derredor por montañas cuya altura en ningún sitio se eleva a menos de 2700 metros y esto solamente en el lado occidental, hacia el valle del Magdalena. Sin embargo, es visitada con alguna frecuencia por aves propias de pisos climáticos más cálidos y aun del llamado "Tropical" o "tierra caliente". Por lo que se ha podido averiguar, las aves visitantes observadas hasta ahora proceden de las vertientes occidentales y del valle del Magdalena; ninguna, con la única posible excepción de Elanoides forticatus yetapa, viene de las faldas orientales que descienden hasta los llanos del Meta pues hacia este lado de la Sabana se hallan las montañas más altas, cuya mayor depresión -la de Chipaque- es de 3150 metros en el sitio por donde pasa la carretera de Bogotá a Villavicencio. Parece por lo tanto que este ramal de la cordillera constituye una barrera infranqueable para las aves que habitan en el oriente de Cundinamarca, mientras que el ramal occidental, de menor altura, no lo es para las que habitan en las vertientes que conducen al Magdalena.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Castro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Con frecuencia, en la familia Ramphastidae no hay un dimorfismo sexual aparente, excepto en Pteroglossus viridis y en el género Selenidera. Muchos criadores de aves silvestres creen que los especímenes de Ramphastos toco pueden ser sexados usando las caracteríticas del pico. En este estudio, fueron analizadas algunas variables feno-típicas discriminantes en aves cuyo sexo fue previamente determinado con metodos citogenéticos. Un total de 51 especimenes de R. toco y 20 de R. dicolorus fueron estudiados. Los parámetros estadísticos significativos que son útiles para distinguir el sexo en estas especies son la longitud del culmen y del tomium, la longitud del pico corneo inferior y de la cloaca. Usando estos parámetros, los criadores de aves cautivas pueden sexar los especimenes de Ramphastos toco mediante análisis fenotípico y formar parejas reproductoras más rapidamente.

  17. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.; Jhon Jairo Calderón L.

    2017-01-01

    Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los muni...

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Composition of Diet of the Ural Owl, Strix Uralensi (Strigidae, Strigiformes, in the Central Part of European Russia (The Example of the Republic of Mordovia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreychev A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the Ural Owl feeding spectrum are presented. In Russia the Ural owl eats over twenty species of mammals, thirty bird species and a number of animals of other classes. The research tasks included the identification of the species of the victims of a large owl in Mordovia, their quantitative data and the characteristics of osteological material from pellets. It was found out that mammals, in particular rodents, are the basis for the Ural owl food. The Ural Owl’s diet consists mainly of gray voles (47.7 %. On the second place there is a red vole (31.4 %. The share of mice is only 7.3 %. Th e predator hunts for the forest mouse most oft en. In pellets the mass fraction of bone remains varies in the range from 3.4 to 44.8 %. Th e average proportion of bone remains is, as a rule, up to 25 %, with the content of only one or two small rodents in pellets; the remains of three to six individuals - up to 45 % of the weight of dry pellet. Among all the bones of mammals, the lower jaws, femoral and tibia bones give the greatest information about the number and composition of victims of the Ural owl. In pellets the brachial and nameless bones of the victims are presented in smaller numbers.

  19. CRANIAL OSTEOLOGY OF CYCLARHIS GUJANENSIS (AVES: VIREONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO MATIUSSI PREVIATTO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The small passerine Cyclaris gujanensis can tear into small pieces large or heavy-bodied preys that could not be swallowed whole such as frogs, snakes, bats and birds. However there are few studies on the cranial anatomy of this species. Thus, we focused on the description of the cranial osteology to contribute to the anatomical knowledge of this species and to make some assumptions about functional anatomy. The fossa temporalis is shallow but broad and the fossa of os palatinum is deepened. The os quadratum processes are long and thick. The os pterygoideum is enlarged and the upper jaw is strongly inclined ventrally (140° with reference to the skull. The rostral extremity of rhamphotheca is hooked with ventral concavity to fit the mandible (pincer form. The mandible fossae are deepened and broad and its bulky medial process probably provides mandible stability and strong support to the muscles attached on it. All these peculiar characteristics probably indicate a considerable force in the C. gujanensis jaws and partially explain its distinctive feeding habit compared with the other Vireonidae. Nevertheless, new studies with functional approaches to analysis the forces of the muscle fibers and the cranial kinesis are needed to prove the hypotheses mentioned above.

  20. Diversidad y distribución de las especies de Mallophaga (Insecta en Aves y Mamíferos de la Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Mateo, M. P.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the entomological collection of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, MNCN (Madrid, Spain and the literature, a total of 145 species of birds and 12 species of mammals that could be potential hosts of Mallophaga, are cited for Madrid. These species are potential hosts to 306 species of Mallophaga. Only 29 species of birds (20% and 2 species of mammals (14,3% have been searched for the presence of Mallophaga. These species could be potential hosts of 91 different Mallophaga species, but only 40 species (44% are recorded. Each species present in Madrid is indicated with its the host, the material known and respective references.

    Se presenta información general sobre la biodiversidad y distribución de los Mallophaga parásitos de aves y mamíferos en la Comunidad de Madrid. Con base en datos obtenidos en colecciones del MNCN (Madrid y revisión de la bibliografía de referencia, se obtienen un total de 145 especies de aves y 12 de mamíferos hospedadores potenciales de 306 especies de malófagos en la Comunidad de Madrid. De ésas, solo 29 especies de aves (20 % y 2 de mamíferos (14,3 % han sido exploradas, las cuales podrían estar parasitadas por, al menos, 91 especies diferentes de malófagos, pero solo se conocen citas de 40 especies (44 %. En cada especie indicada se señalan los hospedadores conocidos, material y referencia correspondiente para cada especie de Mallophaga citada en la Comunidad de Madrid.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the spoonbills (Aves: Threskiornithidae) based on mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry; Yeung, Carol K.L.; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Spoonbills (genus Platalea) are a small group of wading birds, generally considered to constitute the subfamily Plataleinae (Aves: Threskiornithidae). We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among the six species of spoonbills using variation in sequences of the mitochondrial genes ND2 and cytochrome b (total 1796 bp). Topologies of phylogenetic trees reconstructed using maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were virtually identical and supported monophyly of the spoonbills. Most relationships within Platalea received strong support: P. minor and P. regia were closely related sister species, P. leucorodia was sister to the minor-regia clade, and P. alba was sister to the minor-regia-leucorodia clade. Relationships of P. flavipes and P. ajaja were less well resolved: these species either formed a clade that was sister to the four-species clade, or were successive sisters to this clade. This phylogeny is consistent with ideas of relatedness derived from spoonbill morphology. Our limited sampling of the Threskiornithinae (ibises), the putative sister group to the spoonbills, indicated that this group is paraphyletic, in agreement with previous molecular data; this suggests that separation of the Threskiornithidae into subfamilies Plataleinae and Threskiornithinae may not be warranted.

  2. Vision in the peafowl (Aves: Pavo cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan S

    2002-12-01

    The visual sense of the Indian blue-shouldered peafowl Pavo cristatus was investigated with respect to the spectral absorption characteristics of the retinal photoreceptors, the spectral transmittance of the ocular media and the topographic distribution of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer. Microspectrophotometry revealed a single class of rod, four spectrally distinct types of single cone and a single class of double cone. In the case of the single cone types, which contained visual pigments with wavelengths of maximum absorbance (lambda(max)) at 424, 458, 505 and 567 nm, spectral filtering by the ocular media and the different cone oil droplets with which each visual pigment is associated gives predicted peak spectral sensitivities of 432, 477, 537 and 605 nm, respectively. Topographic analysis of retinal ganglion cell distribution revealed a large central area of increased cell density (at peak, 35,609 cells mm(-2)) with a poorly defined visual streak extending nasally. The peafowl has a calculated maximum spatial resolution (visual acuity) in the lateral visual field of 20.6 cycles degrees(-1). These properties of the peafowl eye are discussed with respect to its visual ecology and are compared with those of other closely related species.

  3. Codon usage bias and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) gene is a subunit of the respiratory chain complex I and involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To understand the pattern of compositional properties, codon usage and expression level of mitochondrial ND1 genes in pisces, aves, and mammals, we used bioinformatic approaches as no work was reported earlier. In this study, a perl script was used for calculating nucleotide contents and different codon usage bias parameters. The codon usage bias of MT-ND1 was low but the expression level was high as revealed from high ENC and CAI value. Correspondence analysis (COA) suggests that the pattern of codon usage for MT-ND1 gene is not same across species and that compositional constraint played an important role in codon usage pattern of this gene among pisces, aves, and mammals. From the regression equation of GC12 on GC3, it can be inferred that the natural selection might have played a dominant role while mutation pressure played a minor role in influencing the codon usage patterns. Further, ND1 gene has a discrepancy with cytochrome B (CYB) gene in preference of codons as evident from COA. The codon usage bias was low. It is influenced by nucleotide composition, natural selection, mutation pressure, length (number) of amino acids, and relative dinucleotide composition. This study helps in understanding the molecular biology, genetics, evolution of MT-ND1 gene, and also for designing a synthetic gene.

  4. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  5. Crianza Artificial de Aves Rapaces Nocturnas en Cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Sastre-Corredor

    2009-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo, fue realizar el seguimiento a dos casos de aves rapaces neonatos que ingresaron al Centro de Recepción y Rehabilitación de Fauna Silvestre (CRRFS) de la Secretaria Distrital de Ambiente (SDA), con el fin de registrar, conocer e informar el manejo general de los mismos. Al momento de ingresar el primer grupo de ejemplares al CRRFS, se detectaron varias limitaciones de tipo físico, por ejemplo insumos alimentarios en mal estado o inexistencia de los mismos, y de...

  6. Identificación de parásitos gastrointestinales en aves silvestres en cautiverio

    OpenAIRE

    García Corredor, Diego José; Sánchez Parada, Oscar Javier; Pulido Medellín, Martin Orlando; Andrade Becerra, Roy José

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo identifica los parásitos gastrointestinales que presentaron las aves silvestres en cautiverio, en el municipio de Tibasosa (Boyacá, Colombia). Se tomaron 100 muestras de materia fecal de aves silvestres correspondientes a 11 familias (Psittacidae, Ramphastidae, Ophistocomidae, Cracidae, Anatidae, Icteridae, Alaudidae, Burhinidae, Phoenicopteridae, Anhimidae y Rallidae) y 16 especies (Ara ararauna, Ara macao, Amazona spp, Amazona ochrocephala, Ramphastos toco,...

  7. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carrapatos em aves capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Daniele Alves Costa Santolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%. Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae. All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.A prevalência das infecções parasitárias e em particular, aquelas causadas por ectoparasitos, pode influenciar na biologia e ecologia das aves silvestres. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a ocorrência e identificar as espécies de carrapatos coletadas em aves silvestres capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. As aves foram coletadas em rede-de-neblina durante o período de outubro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. No total foram capturadas 223 aves representadas por 53 espécies, 19 famílias em 9 ordens. Parasitismo por formas imaturas de carrapatos, foram encontradas em 19 aves (n = 7 espécies correspondendo a uma prevalência de 8,5%. Foram coletados 44 carrapatos onde 23 estavam em estágio de ninfa e 21 em estágio de larva. Houve associação entre o parasitismo por carrapatos

  8. Riqueza y abundancia de aves en bosques ribereños de diferentes anchos en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Copán, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inty T Arcos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudió se realizó en la microcuenca del río Sesesmiles, Departamento de Copán, Honduras. El propósito fue explorar el efecto del ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños sobre la riqueza y abundancia de especies de aves que visitan estos bosques. Se encontraron 1 294 aves pertenecientes a 145 especies en bosques ribereños. La diversidad de aves estuvo ligada al ancho de franja de los bosques ribereños: se encontró mayor número de especies e individuos, en anchos iguales o mayores a 50 m. Las especies pertenecientes al grupo alimenticio de los insectívoros y nectarívoros fueron las más abundantes en las franjas ribereñas. Todas las especies de aves identificadas dependen de los bosques ribereños y responden al ancho del bosque; aún las especies más generalistas tienen algún grado de dependencia a las franjas ribereñas más anchas. Para conservar las poblaciones de aves en los paisajes agrícolas fragmentados es de suma importancia mantener franjas ribereñas que sean mayores a 50 m de ancho y que brinden suficientes habitas y recursos.Richness and abundance of birds in riparian forest belts of varied breadths at the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras. Riparian forests protect many species of plants and animals. We studied bird communities in riparian forest belts of the Sesesmiles river microwatershed, Copan, Honduras (140o 43’ 12" - 140o 58’ 35" N, 88o 53’ 23" - 89o 14’ 17" W. The main goal was to explore the effects of belt breadth on the richness and abundance of avian species visiting these forests. We selected 20 belts, and randomly established 30 observation points to monitor bird presence in the dry (March-April 2005 and rainy (June-July 2005 season (N= 60 observations. A total of 1 294 birds belonging to 145 species were recorded. Bird diversity was significantly correlated to the breadth of the riparian belts, with a greater number of species and individuals in belts 50 m wide or wider

  9. Grupos avicaptores del Tardiglaciar : las aves de Berroberria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Diez Fernandez-Lomana

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo presentamos un estudio sobre marcas de cortes en aves de Berroberria. Los restos proceden de un nivel Magdaleniense superior final datable mediante C14 y con la ayuda de estudios palinológicos y arqueológicos. Los restos avianos pertenecen a la especie Lagopus mutus (perdiz nival y evidencian la caza de esta especie por grupos humanos. El estudio realizado plantea la existencia de poblaciones que recurrían a la caza de aves en épocas del año concretas, las cuales desarrollaron una estrategia de descuartizamiento primario en el lugar de caza y de descarnación en la cavidad. La ausencia de restos avianos quemados, y la minuciosidad en el desmembramiento y deshuesado, implican una búsqueda de carne aviar para un consumo no inmediato. Se postula un acopio de carne, con técnicas de secado y ahumado, para ulteriores necesidades alimenticias, ligadas al encarecimiento de los recursos durante el invierno. Las especies avianas presentes aportan algunas notas sobre las consiciones climáticas que imperaban en la zona.

  10. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los municipios de Colón-Génova, La Unión, Arboleda y San Pedro de Cartago en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Las observaciones en campo y colectas generales de plantas muestran que 25 especies vegetales son consumidas por aves frugívoras, ocho especies son aprovechadas por aves nectarívoras y nueve especies son aprovechadas por aves insectívoras. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un listado de especies de plantas potenciales como fuente de recursos para las aves, algunas nativas y otras introducidas, que pueden ser útiles para el manejo de paisajes cafeteros en la región a través de la implementación de estrategias de producción y propagación para la restauración.

  11. Niche evolution and diversification in a Neotropical radiation of birds (Aves: Furnariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeholzer, Glenn F; Claramunt, Santiago; Brumfield, Robb T

    2017-03-01

    Rapid diversification may be caused by ecological adaptive radiation via niche divergence. In this model, speciation is coupled with niche divergence and lineage diversification is predicted to be correlated with rates of niche evolution. Studies of the role of niche evolution in diversification have generally focused on ecomorphological diversification but climatic-niche evolution may also be important. We tested these alternatives using a phylogeny of 298 species of ovenbirds (Aves: Furnariidae). We found that within Furnariidae, variation in species richness and diversification rates of subclades were best predicted by rate of climatic-niche evolution than ecomorphological evolution. Although both are clearly important, univariate regression and multivariate model averaging more consistently supported the climatic-niche as the best predictor of lineage diversification. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence, suggesting that climatic-niche divergence may be an important driver of rapid diversification in addition to ecomorphological evolution. However, this pattern may depend on the phylogenetic scale at which rate heterogeneity is examined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Aves acuáticas de la Laguna de Agua Dulce y el Estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández Vázquez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la presencia y número de aves acuáticas, así como la distribución estacional y espacial de los diferentes grupos en la laguna de Agua Dulce y el estero El Ermitaño, Jalisco, México, entre diciembre de 1997 a noviembre de 1998. Considerando únicamente el mes de máxima abundancia de cada especie hubo 86 471 aves en ambos humedales (29 686 en Agua Dulce y 56 785 en El ermitaño, y una abundancia acumulada (suma de las abundancias mensuales de 179 808 aves (66 976 en Agua Dulce y 112 832 en Ermitaño. Se identificaron 87 especies de aves, de las cuales 78 especies estuvieron presentes en Agua Dulce y 73 especies en El Ermitaño. La riqueza y abundancia fueron influenciados por la llegada de aves migratorias por lo que el mayor número de especies e individuos se presentó durante el invierno. En general las aves mostraron preferencia por áreas someras, excepto las marinas que prefirieron áreas arenosas y protegidas por dunas como las que se encuentran en Agua Dulce. Los demás grupos como los patos y afines prefirieron las áreas con salinidades bajas, como las que se encuentran al sureste del estero El Ermitaño. La mayor abundancia de aves playeras fue observada en niveles de agua bajos, y al igual que las garzas se les observó con mayor frecuencia en sitios con salinidades altas e influenciados por las variaciones en las mareas, como los que se encuentran cerca de la boca-barra del ErmitañoWater birds from Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary, Jalisco, Mexico. Waterbird abundance, and seasonal and spatial distribution, were studied in two natural water pools at Jalisco, México, from December 1997 through November 1998. Maximum monthly abundance in Agua Dulce lake and El Ermitaño estuary was 86 471 birds (29 686 in Agua Dulce and 56 785 in Ermitaño, with a total cummulative abundance of 179 808 individuals (66 976 in Agua Dulce and 112 832 in Ermitaño. A total of 87 waterbirds species were recorded, 78 in Agua Dulce

  13. Afecções cirúrgicas em aves: estudo retrospectivo

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Ferreira de Castro

    2010-01-01

    As aves representam a grande maioria das espécies da fauna silvestre mantidas como animais de companhia em nosso meio e respondem diretamente pela crescente demanda pelo atendimento médico veterinário. O avanço na área da anestesiologia viabilizou a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos mais longos e complexos e contribuiu para o desenvolvimento e aprimoramento da técnica operatória em aves, contudo, dados nacionais de casuística relacionados às afecções cirúrgicas de aves ainda são inexiste...

  14. Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae in Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae in South America Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi (Nematoda, Acuariidae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae na América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. da Silveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of a species of Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, on anatid hosts in South America, causing granulomas. It is also the first detailed description and record of a species of Echinuria, for South America in the Rosy-billed Pochard, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Fifty-two rosy-billed pochards were examined for helminths in the Municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar (locality of Fazenda Sossego and (locality of Ponta da Antena, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and Alvear, Province of Corrientes, northern Argentina. Samples were obtained from 2003 to 2004. After the catch each bird was immediately frozen with dry ice. Prior to necropsy birds were sexed, weighted, measured, and the state of maturity (juvenile or adult determined, based on the presence or absence of a bursa of Fabricius. The granulomas with the nematodes were found in the proximal esophagus at the junction with the proventriculus. Two birds had one (fistulated and two granulomas, respectively. One of the birds was from the wintering grounds along the coastal region in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The other, from one of the breeding grounds in northern Argentina, was captured before the trip to the wintering grounds along the migratory flyway. Prevalence was 3.8% while the mean intensity of infection was 7.2. Morphometry of males and females and the comparison with previous descriptions and illustrations allowed the identification of the present specimens as E. uncinata.Este é o primeiro registro de uma espécie do gênero Echinuria Soloviev, 1912, em hospedeiros anatídeos na América do Sul, causando granulomas. É, também, a primeira descrição detalhada e o primeiro registro de Echinuria uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Soloviev, 1912, para a América do Sul, e o primeiro registro de um nematóide acuarióideo em Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816. Cinqüenta e dois marrecões foram examinados para helmintos nas localidades de Fazenda Sossego e

  15. Nuevos avistamientos de aves para Tamaulipas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Rubén Rodríguez-Ruíz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los inventarios y registros avifaunísticos facilitan el conocimiento de la composición de las comunidades de aves y ayudan a la comprensión de las interacciones en los ecosistemas. En este trabajo obtuvimos registros notables de cinco especies de aves de 2005 a 2011 en los municipios de Altamira, El Mante, González, Jaumave, Madero, Matamoros, Miquihuana y Soto La Marina, en el estado de Tamaulipas. Registramos por primera vez la presencia de Aphelocoma californica e Icterus wagleri en el estado, confirmando las predicciones de algunos autores. Con la colecta de un nido, reafirmamos la presencia de Psarocolius montezuma en el sur del estado. Registramos nuevamente la presencia de Falco femoralis en la entidad, especie reportada hace algunos años como extirpada. ParaLepidocolaptes affinis definimos parte de su área de distribución en los límites neotropicales del estado. Las modificaciones antropogénicas en los ecosistemas son algunos de los principales factores que influyen en los movimientos distribucionales de las especies; por esto, es necesario incrementar el esfuerzo de muestreo que permita el registro de un mayor número de especies y así poder tener un mejor conocimiento de su distribución y temporalidad a nivel local y regional para entender su historia natural y ecología a escalas más finas.

  16. Aves acuáticas de la laguna de Acuitlapilco, Tlaxcala, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Fonseca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la abundancia y distribución estacional de las aves acuáticas en la laguna de Acuitlapilco, Tlaxcala, México. De febrero de 2011 a enero de 2012, realizamos censos en puntos de conteo para el registro de las especies. Registramos un total de 36 especies de aves acuáticas con una abundancia total acumulada de 48,794 individuos. Doce de las especies registradas fueron residentes, 10 migratorias y 14 fueron especies transitorias o de registro accidental. Observamos que la mayor riqueza de especies y abundancia de aves fueron en invierno, cuando la mayoría de las especies migratorias llegaron a la laguna. Nuestros resultados muestran que esta área es importante para especies de aves acuáticas tanto residentes como migratorias, y refleja la necesidad de un mayor número de estudios sobre el papel de las lagunas continentales como reservorios de biodiversidad.

  17. Presencia y abundancia de aves de la Isla Farallón de San Ignacio, Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Guevara Medina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la presencia y abundancia de aves que utilizan la isla Farallón de San Ignacio, Sinaloa, documentamos las aves observadas durante 46 visitas de cinco días a la isla entre 2003 y 2008. Registramos 57 especies de aves. En la isla anidaron regularmente cinco especies de aves marinas:Sula nebouxii, S. leucogaster, Phaethon aethereus, Phalacrocorax auritus y Larus heermanni. En 2008 anidó una rapaz, Falco peregrinus. Además, observamos 24 especies de aves acuáticas no reproductoras y 27 especies de aves terrestres. La temporada reproductiva de las especies anidantes coincide con la época de alta productividad primaria en el sur del Golfo de California. La isla es importante como sitio de anidación para P. aethereus y es una de las dos colonias más importantes en el Golfo de California. Para el resto de las especies anidantes, la isla tiene una importancia marginal, pues otras islas albergan colonias mayores. Debido a la ausencia de vegetación, las aves terrestres usan la isla sólo de manera ocasional y por breves periodos, especialmente los migrantes neotropicales durante la migración. Al comparar con otras islas de la parte sur del Golfo de California, Farallón de San Ignacio exhibió una riqueza de especies mayor a lo esperado de acuerdo con su tamaño. Esta discordancia se podría explicar por un esfuerzo mayor en el muestreo y posiblemente por la existencia de una mayor cantidad de especies de aves terrestres usando los hábitats costeros de Sinaloa y dispersándose ocasionalmente a islas cercanas.

  18. La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Tercera parte: Feekaje “Pava” (Penelope jacquacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniceto Nejedeka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave feekaje, “pava” (Penelope jacquacu, elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la tercera parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  19. Ritmos circadianos en el metabolismo del calcio en aves de postura.

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Cardona Héctor Jairo

    1999-01-01

    Se revisó literatura relacionada con las variaciones circadianas en el metabolismo del calcio en aves de postura y se concluye que la información analizada y discutida suministra evidencia suficiente que demuestra la existencia de ritmos circadianos en diferentes procesos relacionados con el metabolismo y la alimentación del calcio en las aves de postura. Esto demuestra la necesidad de ajustar el momento y la cantidad de calcio a suministrar...

  20. A novel Haemosporida clade at the rank of genus in North American cranes (Aves: Gruiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Sarah A; Hartup, Barry K; Snowden, Karen F; Medeiros, Matthew C; Outlaw, Diana C; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2017-04-01

    The unicellular blood parasites in the order Haemosporida are highly diverse, infect many vertebrates, are responsible for a large disease burden among humans and animals, and have reemerged as an important model system to understand the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of host-parasite interactions. The phylogenetics and systematics of Haemosporida are limited by poor sampling of different vertebrate host taxa. We surveyed the Haemosporida of wild whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) (Aves: Gruiformes) using a combination of morphological and molecular approaches. We identified Haemoproteus antigonis in blood smears based on published morphological descriptions. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome oxidase (coI) sequences placed H. antigonis parasites in a novel clade, distinct from all avian Haemosporida genera for which cytb and/or coI sequences are available. Molecular clock and divergence estimates suggest this crane clade may represent a new genus. This is the first molecular description of H. antigonis and the first report of H. antigonis in wild whooping cranes, an endangered bird in North America. Further sampling of Haemosporida, especially from hosts of the Gruiformes and other poorly sampled orders, will help to resolve the relationship of the H. antigonis clade to other avian Haemosporida genera. Our study highlights the potential of sampling neglected host species to discover novel lineages of diverse parasite groups. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Moa (Aves : Dinornithiformes) nesting material from rockshelters in the semi-arid interior of South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The first descriptions of plant remains from the nests of extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) are presented. The samples of desiccated nesting material were collected during excavation of Holocene sediments within five rockshelters in semi-arid regions of southern South Island, New Zealand, between 1964 and 2006. The nesting materials were attributed to moa on the basis of associated moa coprolites, feathers and eggshell fragments. The nesting material includes short, clipped twigs from a range of locally available tree, shrub and liane species. These twig clippings show a size distribution similar to those recorded from moa gizzard content samples. Other nesting material from the sites includes longer twigs and fragments of bark. The plant materials suggest general similarities between the nests of moa and those of the extant Australasian ratites, emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and cassowary (Casuarius spp.). (author). 37 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  2. Aves marinas de las costas e islas colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista de aves marinas que presento en este artículo se refiere en su mayor parte a especies que varios autores (véase Obras citadas han señalado en las costas e islas marítimas de Colombia o en las aguas extraterritoriales del Mar Caribe y del Océano Pacífico inmediatamente próximas a este país. Los ejemplares examinados que menciono fuera de tales referencias pertenecen casi todos a la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales y se señalan con las siglas ICN. Unos pocos son del museo de historia natural del Colegio Biffi, en Barranquilla, a cuyo custodio, el Hermano Hildeberto María, doy las gracias por haberme permitido examinarlos. Los que señalo con las palabras Exped. Askoy, seguidas de un numero (de la serie del American Museum of Natural History, forman parte de una interesante colección que nos envió en 1942 el doctor Robert Cushman Murphy, actual Director del Departamento de Aves del American Museum of Natural History, Nueva York. Estos fueron obtenidos por la expedición oceanográfica que, bajo la dirección del doctor Murphy, realizaron en la goleta "Askoy" varios miembros de aquel museo, acompañados por el Comandante Eduardo Fallon, de la Marina Colombiana, en aguas del Pacifico desde Panamá hasta el Ecuador. La Expedición de la "Askoy", que duró de febrero a mayo de 1941, exploró varias bahías y ensenadas en el litoral del Chocó y del Departamento del Valle, así como las islas de Gorgona y Gorgonilla al norte de la costa de Nariño, y el peñón inhabitado de Malpelo, posesión oceánica colombiana situada a unos 500 kilómetros al occidente de Buenaventura, en la latitud de 3° 59' 07" N. y la longitud de 81° 34' 27" W. de Greenwich, según posición determinada por Murphy (1936, I, p. 319, fig. 49 .

  3. Interacciones entre el estornino pinto (Sturnus vulgaris) y aves nativas de Argentina por el uso de cavidades

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez, Lucía M.; Girini, Juan M.; Palacio, Facundo X.; Fiorini, Vanina D.; Montalti, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Resumen: El estornino pinto, Sturnus vulgaris, es un ave introducida en Argentina que nidifica en cavidades y puede desplazar a otras aves de sus nidos. Durante las temporadas reproductivas 2010 y 2011 observamos en el parque Pereyra Iraola 3 intentos de usurpación de nidos de aves nativas, hornero (Furnarius rufus), carpintero real (Colaptes melanochloros) y carpintero campestre (C. campestris). Además, en 2 ocasiones se observaron estorninos nidificando en cavidades que estaban construyendo...

  4. Factores técnicos y ambientales implicados en la electrocución de aves en los tendidos eléctricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izquierdo Rosigue, A.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Technical and environmental factors responsible of bird electrocution have been analyzed in low and medium tension power lines in a bird important area placed in the south of Alicante province (SE Spain. One hundred eighty six dead birds (119 birds of prey have been located in 182 poles inspected. Most species are legally protected and some are in jeopardy. Some pole types with suspended insulators have caused the same number of victims than poles with rigid insulators. Poles with rigid insulators in two levels produce more accidents than poles with one level. A different pole use according to the habitat has been observed. Birds of prey avoid poles in cultures, in the vicinity of roads and in flatlands or in hill tops. Furthermore, more electrocutions occur near bath zones. Poles in high places and located near to human altered habitats, where feeding is easy, are preferred by remainder birds.

    Se analizan los factores técnicos y ambientales responsables de la electrocución de aves en tendidos de media y baja intensidad -situados en un área con una valiosa población de aves- en el sur de la provincia de Alicante. Se han localizado 186 aves muertas (119 rapaces en 182 postes visitados. La mayoría han sido especies protegidas, encontrándose, algunas de ellas, especialmente amenazadas. Los resultados muestran que algunos tipos de poste, con aisladores suspendidos, provocan un número de accidentes similar a otros tipos de postes con aisladores rígidos. Los postes con aisladores rígidos en dos planos producen más víctimas que los que presentan un único plano. Se observa que las aves realizan un uso diferente del poste en función del hábitat que lo rodea. Las rapaces evitan los postes situados sobre cultivos, los más próximos a las carreteras y los ubicados en zonas llanas o en las partes más altas de las laderas. Se encuentran más rapaces electrocutadas en aquellos postes próximos a zonas de baño. Para el resto de aves los

  5. Rahvusvahelise kogemusega personalijuht Ave Kareda: Personalijuhi koostöö juhiga peaks rajanema aususel ja usaldusel / Ave Kareda ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kareda, Ave

    2009-01-01

    Logistikaettevõtte DHL Baltikumi personalijuht Ave Kareda vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad ettevõtete personalipoliitikat, personalijuhi rolli, personaliosakonna võimalusi juhi ja inimeste vahel, rahvusvahelisuse osatähtsust personalitöös, mentorlust ning juhi ebaeetilisi otsuseid raskes olukorras

  6. ASOCIACIONES ENTRE AVES MARINAS Y SOTALIA GUIANENSIS EN EL SUR DEL GOLFO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍNIVE ESPINOZA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones entre aves marinas y mamíferos marinos es un evento común en todos los mares y océanos del mundo. Muchos autores han denominado estas asociaciones como relaciones comensalistas, oportunistas o parasitarias, según el efecto que dicha interacción resulte sobre una o ambas especies relacionadas. Con la finalidad de describir la existencia de agrupaciones entre Sotalia guianensis y aves marinas en la porción sur del Golfo de Venezuela, desde junio 2011 a junio 2012 se realizaron observaciones en plataformas móviles de grupos de este cetáceo y aves marinas, utilizando el protocolo "group-follow" bajo la metodología de "Ad libitum sampling". Todos los avistamientos fueron georreferenciados, realizándose anotaciones de la ocurrencia o no-asociación con aves marinas, de igual forma, se registró la especie y el número de aves presentes al momento de la interacción. Se realizaron 721 avistamientos, de los cuales en 197 eventos se registró asociación entre aves marinas y Sotalia guianensis. Las especies de aves marinas residentes que presentaron mayor frecuencia en eventos de asociación con S. guianensis fueron: Fregata magnificens (49%; n=98, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (29,5%; n=59 y Pelecanus occidentalis (22,5%; n=45; siendo Thalasseus maxima (71%; n=142 la única especie migratoria. Durante las observaciones realizadas en el período de muestreo se notó la presencia de una especie de golondrina (Riparia riparia en un solo evento de agrupación con Sotalia guianensis. Dichas asociaciones aves-delfines, sólo fueron observadas cuando notables congregaciones de peces fueron registrados, donde el o los grupos de delfines realizaban alguna actividad con grandes movimientos de agua, lo que pudiese permitir a las aves realizar un menor gasto energético en la ubicación y la captura de la presa.

  7. Inventario de las aves de un bosque altoandino: comparación de dos métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Hurd Frank Galfierd

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Capturing birds with mist-nets has been the sole method used or proposed for making species inventories of several Neotropical forests, but this method has rarely been evaluated relative to the use of visual and auditory observations in these forests. This study compares the effectiveness and efficiency of these two methods in the elaboration of the list of bird species on a 15 ha study plot of forest and subparamo vegetation in the Eastern Andes of Colombia. Over ten months we made 11 visits of 4-6 days each, observing and running nets along ca. 3 km of study trails. Of 102 total species recorded, 101 were observed and 50 captured; 52 were observed but not captured vs. only one that was only recorded with the nets. The observations were more efficient in accumulating species, with a mean of 68.4 per visit vs. 17.1 species captured. More than half of the species observed had been recorded after a single visit, and over 90% in six visits; the corresponding figures for mist-net captures were four and nine visits. Compared with the totallist, the mist net sample was biased towards small species « 50 g; some diet groups or foraging guilds were over- or underrepresented in this sample. We conclude that visual and auditory observations are more effective and efficient for making inventories of birds in these forests. Mist nets are a useful supplement to these observations, but not a substitute; their greatest utility lies in obtaining other sorts of data.La captura con redes de niebla ha sido utilizada o propuesta como método único para realizar inventarios de aves en varios bosques neotropicales, pero pocas veces ha sido evaluado en este medio en relación a otros métodos como el de las observaciones visuales y auditivas. Este estudio compara la efectividad y eficiencia de estos dos métodos en la elaboración de la lista de las especies de aves de una parcela de 15 ha de bosque altoandino y subpáramo en la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia

  8. Algunas de las aves emblemáticas del Eje Cafetero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Uribe Restrepo

    2016-12-01

    La región del Eje Cafetero no es una excepción, por el contrario, su variedad de climas, paisajes y ecosistemas albergan un gran número de especies de aves. Es difícil estimar la cantidad exacta de especies de aves en esta región, pero dicho número con seguridad supera las seiscientas cincuenta especies. Las aves conquistaron con éxito la geografía montañosa de las cordilleras Central y Occidental, y los humedales del valle interandino del río Cauca, irradiando sus múltiples formas, tamaños, colores, cantos y adaptaciones hasta conformar un caleidoscopio de indescriptible belleza.

  9. Building a SuAVE browse interface to R2R's Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository program (R2R) is creating and evaluating a new browse portal based on the SuAVE platform and the R2R linked data graph. R2R manages the underway sensor data collected by the fleet of US academic research vessels, and provides a discovery and access point to those data at its website, www.rvdata.us. R2R has a database-driven search interface, but seeks a more capable and extensible browse interface that could be built off of the substantial R2R linked data resources. R2R's Linked Data graph organizes its data holdings around key concepts (e.g. cruise, vessel, device type, operator, award, organization, publication), anchored by persistent identifiers where feasible. The "Survey Analysis via Visual Exploration" or SuAVE platform (suave.sdsc.edu) is a system for online publication, sharing, and analysis of images and metadata. It has been implemented as an interface to diverse data collections, but has not been driven off of linked data in the past. SuAVE supports several features of interest to R2R, including faceted searching, collaborative annotations, efficient subsetting, Google maps-like navigation over an image gallery, and several types of data analysis. Our initial SuAVE-based implementation was through a CSV export from the R2R PostGIS-enabled PostgreSQL database. This served to demonstrate the utility of SuAVE but was static and required reloading as R2R data holdings grew. We are now working to implement a SPARQL-based ("RDF Query Language") service that directly leverages the R2R Linked Data graph and offers the ability to subset and/or customize output.We will show examples of SuAVE faceted searches on R2R linked data concepts, and discuss our experience to date with this work in progress.

  10. ENFERMEDAD DE NEWCASTLE EN AVES DE TRASPATIO DEL EJE CAFETERO COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyn Romero P

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la circulación del virus de la enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC en aves de traspatio de siete municipios del eje cafetero por medio de la técnica ELISA. Materiales y métodos. Fueron encuestados 465 predios para evaluar las normas de bioseguridad de las aves de traspatio de los municipios de Armenia, Circasia, Quimbaya, Montenegro, Filandia, Calarcá y La Tebaida del Departamento del Quindío. Se analizaron 662 muestras de suero para detectar anticuerpos IgG contra el virus de la ENC por ELISA. Resultados. La seroprevalencia de la ENC en la población de aves evaluada fue del 30.7%.(203/662, que corresponde al 38.5% de los predios encuestados. No se encontró asociación entre la especie y la seroreactividad (p=0.21, ni entre la distribución de los anticuerpos por grupos productivos y la edad (p>0.05. Los predios de traspatio son manejados de forma extensiva, albergan en las mismas instalaciones aves de diferentes especies y edades en el 64.3% (299/465, con edades en intervalos entre tres meses y cinco años. Fueron detectadas malas prácticas de manejo de la gallinaza y la mortalidad, sin encontrar asociación estadísticamente significativa entre las variables evaluadas y la presencia de anticuerpos anti-virus de ENC (p>0.05. Conclusiones. Es necesario el establecimiento de planes adecuados de vacunación de las aves de traspatio, la vigilancia epidemiológica activa, la observación de los casos sospechosos, sin dejar de lado la educación y capacitación, sobre el adecuado manejo de los animales, dirigida a los propietarios de las aves como medidas de control de la enfermedad.

  11. A new look at the holotype and type locality of Setopagis maculosa (Todd, 1920) Aves: Caprimulgidae), with remarks on its systematic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thiago V V; Ingels, Johan; Cavarzere, Vagner; Silveira, Luís Fábio

    2015-08-12

    Setopagis maculosa (Todd, 1920) (Aves: Caprimulgidae) was described based on a single male specimen collected by Samuel Milton Klages in French Guiana, northeastern South America. Since then, no new specimens have been collected nor have any reliable records been made, and the validity of the species has been questioned. A detailed analysis of the holotype reveals that it has unique and distinctive morphological traits that support the validity and taxonomic status of the species, which is provisionally placed in Setopagis. We present new information on the type locality at the time of its collection, which may shed some light on the habitat preferences of the species, and we provide details on its plumage that have been largely overlooked and that will be important for future field identification.

  12. PRESENCIA DEL VIRUS DE INFLUENZA AVIAR EN AVES SILVESTRES DE LOS HUMEDALES DE PUERTO VIEJO, LIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia H., Karen; Icochea D., Eliana; González V., Rosa; Ghersi, Bruno; González Z., Armando

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la presencia del virus de influenza aviar (IA) en aves silvestres presentes en los Humedales de Puerto Viejo, en el departamento de Lima. Novecientas muestras de heces frescas de 18 especies de aves silvestres fueron colectadas desde abril de 2008 hasta febrero de 2009. Dichas muestras se analizaron mediante aislamiento viral en huevos embrionados de pollo SPF. Se logró aislar siete cepas de virus de IA de baja patogenicidad del subtipo H12N5 (seis cepas...

  13. Relación del Virus del Oeste del Nilo con las Aves Silvestres

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Soler-Tovar; Victor J Vera

    2009-01-01

    El Virus del Oeste del Nilo (VON) es un Flavivirus que produce una encefalomielitis y puede afectar aves y mamíferos; los efectos varían desde poco notorios hasta la muerte, y en su difusión es importante la participación de especies animales como las aves donde es transmitido a través de mosquitos vectores. El VON se conoce de Uganda desde 1937 y está ampliamente distribuido en África, el oriente y la región sur y tropical de Eurasia. En el Hemisferio Occidental, el VON fue la primera causa ...

  14. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  15. Biology of larks (Aves: Alaudidae) in the central Namib Desert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biology of six species of larks in the Namib Desert near Walvis Bay, South West Africa, was studied in 1964, 1965 and 1966. 2. All species reproduced following rainfall in summer and autumn months, with the appearance of green grass and abundant insects on which the birds fed. 3. The primarily insectivorous species ...

  16. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945 merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on an extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  17. DNA barcoding and phylogeny of Calidris and Tringa (Aves: Scolopacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zuhao; Tu, Feiyun

    2017-07-01

    The avian genera Calidris and Tringa are the largest of the widespread family of Scolopacidae. The phylogeny of members of the two genera is still a matter of controversial. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) can serve as a fast and accurate marker for the identification and phylogeny of animal species. In this study, we analyzed the COI barcodes of thirty-one species of the two genera. All the species had distinct COI sequences. Two hundred and twenty-one variable sites were identified. Kimura two-parameter distances were calculated between barcodes. Neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods were used to construct phylogenetic trees. All the species could be discriminated by their distinct clades in the phylogenetic trees. The phylogenetic trees grouped all the species of Calidris and Tringa into different monophyletic clade, respectively. COI data showed a well-supported phylogeny for Calidris and Tringa species.

  18. Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae e seus recursos florais em uma área urbana do Sul do Brasil Hummingbirds (Aves, Trochilidae and their flowers in an urban area of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Baza Mendonça

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de flores visitadas por beija-flores e a partilha de recursos entre estas aves foram estudadas em uma área urbana do sul do Brasil. Vinte e duas espécies de plantas, em sua maioria exóticas e/ou não-ornitófilas, receberam visitas dos beija-flores. As espécies de beija-flores registradas apresentaram diferentes combinações de características morfológicas (massa, comprimento do bico, comprimento da asa e relação bico/asa, que refletiram no conjunto de flores exploradas e no papel comunitário desempenhado por cada espécie. De um modo geral, beija-flores com nichos tróficos mais amplos foram também os mais freqüentes na área de estudo, indicando que o ambiente urbano pode ser mais favorável às espécies generalistas.The main purpose of this study was to identify the assemblage of flowers used by hummingbirds in an urban area of southern Brazil, as well as describe the patterns of resource partitioning among the hummingbird species. Twenty two plant species were recorded, which flowers are visited by ten hummingbird species. Most of these plants are exotics and regarded as non-ornithophilous. The hummingbirds displayed different combinations of morphological features (mass, bill length, wing length and relation bill/wing, which were reflected in the sets of flowers visited and the community role played by each species. In general, hummingbirds with largest niche breadths were also the most frequent ones, indicating that urban areas could be more suitable for generalist species.

  19. Muuseumihoone autorid : minevikuga tuleb silmitsi seista / Tsuyoshi Tane, Lina Ghotmeh, Dan Dorell ; interv. Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tane, Tsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Rahva Muuseumi arhitektuurivõistluse võiduprojekti autorid Tsuyoshi Tane, Lina Ghometh ja Dan Dorell omavahelisest koostööst, võistlustööst, vastuseid kriitikale. Teistest premeeritud projektidest. Ave Randviiru kommentaar "Võidutöö teeb ajaloole psühhoanalüüsi"

  20. Mis motiveerib Eesti, Soome ja Tšehhi õpetajaid? / Ave Abroi ; kommenteerinud Kertu Laanesoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abroi, Ave

    2009-01-01

    Artikkel on ilmunud Ave Abroi Tartu Ülikooli Euroopa Kolledžis 2008. aastal kaitstud magistritöö "Õpetajate motiveerimise võimalused Euroopa Liidus Eesti, Tšehhi ja Soome näitel" põhjal. Kommenteerib Audentese erakooli inglise keele õpetaja Kertu Laanesoo

  1. Estudio de la fauna de aves de la cueva de Pico Ramos (Muskiz, Bizkaia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Castaños

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los restos de Aves de la cuenca de Pico Ramos. Destaca entre las especies halladas la presencia de Alca Gigante (Pinguinus impennis a cuya extinción y hallazgos holocenos se dedica especial atención. Se ofrecen datos osteométricos y biogeográficos de las restantes especies.

  2. Restos de aves en los yacimientos prehistóricos vascos. Estudios realizados.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Elorza

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se indican los estudios realizados, hasta el momento, de arqueozoología de aves en el País Vasco. Se hace especial referencia a los trabajos más antiguos y se presentan varias avifaunas, algunas inéditas, de forma cualitativa.

  3. Atlas de aves: Un metodo para documentar distribucion y seguir poblaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Alvarez-Lopez, Humberto; Kattan, Gustavo; Murcia, Carolina

    1988-01-01

    Los Atlas de Aves son proyectos nacionales o regionalies para trazar en mapas la distribucion en reproduccion de cada especie de ave. Ese procedimiento se esta usando en Europa, Australia, Nueva Zelanda, Norteamerica, y partes de Africa. El tama?o de los cuadrados varia de medio grado de latitud y Iongitud hasta 5 x 5 km. El trabajo de campo de cada proyecto exige aproxlmadamente cinco a?os, pero los aficionados pueden llevar a cabo la mayor parte del trabajo. Es posible almacenar los resultados en un computador personal. Hay muchos beneficios: (I) se presenta la distribucion corriente de las aves de la nacion, del estado, o de la Iocalidad; (2) se desarrolla nueva informacion especialmente sobre especies raras o en peligro; (3) se descubren areas que tienen una avlfauna sobresaliente o habitats raros y ayuda a su proteccion, (4) se documentan cambios de dlstribucion; (5) se pueden usar para documentar cambios de poblacion, especialmente en los tropicos donde otros metodos son mas dificiles de usar porque hay muchas especies y no hay muchos observadores calificados en la identificacion de sonidos de las aves; (6) son proyectos buenos de investigacion para estudiantes graduados; (7) los turistas y los jefes de excursiones de historia natural pueden contribuir con muchas informaciones

  4. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation

  5. Problems of display postures in the Charadrii (Aves: Charadriiformes)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies of displays in the Charadrii (= waders or shorebirds) show that the same posture in different species, even quite closely related, may have a different function in a given context. As a corollary to this, two species even in the same genus may have quite different display postures to convey the same message.

  6. Ácaros plumícolas (Acari: Astigmata) em aves do Cerrado do Distrito Federal, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kanegae,Mieko Ferreira; Valim,Michel; Fonseca,Marcelo Andrade da; Marini,Miguel Ângelo; Freire,Nicolau Maués Serra

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os ácaros plumícolas em aves do cerrado. O mesmo foi realizado na Fazenda Água Limpa (FAL), Distrito Federal, Brasil, entre janeiro e agosto de 2002. As aves foram capturadas com rede de neblina e anilhadas. Foram amostradas 696 aves pertencentes a 83 espécies e 25 famílias de Passeriformes e não-Passeriformes. Foram encontrados ácaros plumícolas pertencentes a cinco famílias: Analgidae, Trouessartiidae, Proctophyllodidae, Avenzoariidae e Psoroptoididae. O...

  7. Survey of chicken abattoir for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Pesquisa de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L.L. Cortez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Campylobacter is of great importance to public health because it includes several species that may cause diarrhea. These species may be found in water, food and in the intestinal tract of chickens. This study investigated the presence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken abattoirs in São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 288 samples of feces, feathers, scald water, evisceration water, chiller water, and the rinse water of eviscerated, not eviscerated and chilled carcasses were collected in six chicken abattoirs. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR was performed in Campylobacter spp.-positive isolates using the gene HIP, specific for hippuricase enzyme from Campylobacter jejuni and aspartokinase gene, specific to detect Campylobacter coli. The percentage of positive isolates of Campylobacter jejuni was 4.9% (14/288. Isolation was greater in feces samples (22%, 8/36. One sample was positive for the species C. coli. In conclusion, the results indicate that it is necessary to improve quality control for Campylobacter spp. in chicken abattoirs.O gênero Campylobacter tem grande destaque em saúde pública, principalmente por pertencerem a este gênero várias espécies que podem causar diarréia. Estas espécies podem ser encontradas em amostras de água, alimentos e no trato intestinal das aves. Este estudo investigou a presença de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli em abatedouros de aves no Estado de São Paulo. As 288 amostras foram coletadas em seis estabelecimentos e incluíram: fezes; penas; água de escaldamento, de evisceração e de resfriamento; e água de enxaguadura de carcaça não eviscerada, eviscerada e resfriada. Após o isolamento microbiológico das amostras positivas de Campylobacter spp. foi realizada uma Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR utilizando o gene HIP, da hipuricase, específico para Campylobacter jejuni e o gene da enzima aspartoquinase, específico para Campylobacter coli. A

  8. Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia y Orinoquia Colombianas Notas sobre aves de la Amazonia y Orinoquia Colombianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero H. José Ignacio

    1960-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a report is given concerning the distribution of some birds in the Colombian Amazonian and Orinoco drainages; also, some previous identifications are amended having at the present time more and better material recently collected and better facilities for studying. In addition, five new species. are recorded for the first time in the fauna of these regions and four new species and subespecies are added to the previous known list of Colombian birds. In this paper a report is given concerning the distribution of some birds in the Colombian Amazonian and Orinoco drainages; also, some previous identifications are amended having at the present time more and better material recently collected and better facilities for studying. In addition, five new species. are recorded for the first time in the fauna of these regions and four new species and subespecies are added to the previous known list of Colombian birds.

  9. The construction of women and the situation of exile in Aves exóticas by Reina Roffé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Vannesa Mendez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyze the construction of a different style of woman in the stories compiled in the book´s Reina Roffé Aves Exóticas (2004. The female characters that appear are crossed by different ways of exile, as the political exile caused by military dictatorships. It is also interesting as, in the second edition of Aves, Roffé raises a new reading of the play Frankenstein by Mary Shelley.

  10. Taxonomy of the Loggerhead Kingbird (Tyrannus caudifasciatus) complex (Aves: Tyrannidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando H. Garrido; James W. Wiley; George B. Reynard

    2009-01-01

    We examined the complex of populations of the Loggerhead Kingbird (Tyrannus caudifasciatus), a West Indian endemic. We separate populations in Puerto Rico and Isla Vieques (T. taylori), and Hispaniola (T. gabbii) as distinct species. Subspecific distinction is assigned to populations in Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and Cuban satellites (T. caudifasciatus caudifasciatus);...

  11. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Holt, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world's major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Aves de Caldas: la complejidad cotidiana entre la sobrevivencia y la belleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ruíz Rodgers

    2016-12-01

    En la región andina central de Colombia, la belleza resulta aún más difícil de analizar debido a que es una región muy heterogénea, con una variación altitudinal amplia, una topografía desigual, condiciones climáticas y edafológicas diversas, diferentes formaciones vegetales (bosque andino, bosque de niebla, páramos, nieves perpetuas y zonas productivas (cafetales, guaduales, ganadería, cultivos de papa, frutales, minería, etc.. Toda esta heterogeneidad produce una gran riqueza de especies, solo Caldas acoge el cuarenta y ocho por ciento de las aves que se encuentran en el país. Esta riqueza se representa además en la importancia que tienen las aves gracias a sus múltiples interacciones, su efecto en el ecosistema y sus diferentes estrategias evolutivas.

  13. A advertência poética de Hilda Hilst em As aves da noite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens da Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1967 y 1969, Hilda Hilst escribió ocho piezas de teatro, entre ellas, As aves da noite, en la cual relata los últimos momentos de seis prisioneros en la celda del hambre, en un campo de concentración nazi. En este artículo, analizamos As aves da noite como una pieza de advertencia sobre el terror impuesto por cualquier estado totalitario, no solamente el instaurado por el nacionalsocialismo alemán. El análisis fue fundamentado, entre otros pensadores, en Alain Badiou, para quien el siglo XX no ha cumplido la promesa de la modernidad y la vida y por el contrario solamente he cumplido su destino y su designio positivo a través del terror. Nos apoyamos en las ideas de Hannah Arendt para analizar el odio y la violencia de los estados totalitarios.

  14. Eye Morphology and Retinal Topography in Hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are a group of small, highly specialized birds that display a range of adaptations to their nectarivorous lifestyle. Vision plays a key role in hummingbird feeding and hovering behaviours, yet very little is known about the visual systems of these birds. In this study, we measured eye morphology in 5 hummingbird species. For 2 of these species, we used stereology and retinal whole mounts to study the topographic distribution of neurons in the ganglion cell layer. Eye morphology (expressed as the ratio of corneal diameter to eye transverse diameter) was similar among all 5 species and was within the range previously documented for diurnal birds. Retinal topography was similar in Amazilia tzacatl and Calypte anna. Both species had 2 specialized retinal regions of high neuron density: a central region located slightly dorso-nasal to the superior pole of the pecten, where densities reached ∼ 45,000 cells · mm(-2), and a temporal area with lower densities (38,000-39,000 cells · mm(-2)). A weak visual streak bridged the two high-density areas. A retina from Phaethornis superciliosus also had a central high-density area with a similar peak neuron density. Estimates of spatial resolving power for all 3 species were similar, at approximately 5-6 cycles · degree(-1). Retinal cross sections confirmed that the central high-density region in C. anna contains a fovea, but not the temporal area. We found no evidence of a second, less well-developed fovea located close to the temporal retina margin. The central and temporal areas of high neuron density allow for increased spatial resolution in the lateral and frontal visual fields, respectively. Increased resolution in the frontal field in particular may be important for mediating feeding behaviors such as aerial docking with flowers and catching small insects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Record of Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lohmann Arend

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first record of the Spot-winged Pigeon Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae for Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. One individual was observed on 10 September 2006 in an open area (cattle pasture and shrubby vegetation in the town of Anita Garibaldi (center-south of the state. We suggest that this punctual encounter is a result of the recent expansion of this species’ distribution due to landscape modification in the region.

  16. Food partitioning between breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. Scheibler

    Full Text Available I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal, share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Pianka’s index was 0.98. Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81% and White-tailed Kites (63%. This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.

  17. AVE0991, a nonpeptide analogue of Ang-(1-7), attenuates aging-related neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Teng; Xue, Liu-Jun; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qing-Guang; Xue, Xiao; Ou, Zhou; Gao, Qing; Shi, Jian-Quan; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2018-04-17

    During the aging process, chronic neuroinflammation induced by microglia is detrimental for the brain and contributes to the etiology of several aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. As a newly identified axis of renin-angiotensin system, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MAS1 axis plays a crucial role in modulating inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. However, its relationship with aging-related neuroinflammation is less studied so far. In this study, by using SAMP8 mice, an animal model of accelerated aging, we revealed that the neuroinflammation in the aged brain might be attributed to a decreased level of Ang-(1-7). More importantly, we provided evidence that AVE0991, a nonpeptide analogue of Ang-(1-7), attenuated the aging-related neuroinflammation via suppression of microglial-mediated inflammatory response through a MAS1 receptor-dependent manner. Meanwhile, this protective effect might be ascribed to the M2 activation of microglia induced by AVE0991. Taken together, these findings reveal the association of Ang-(1-7) with the inflammatory response in the aged brain and uncover the potential of its nonpeptide analogue AVE0991 in attenuation of aging-related neuroinflammation.

  18. A new record of the Restinga Tyrannulet Phylloscartes kronei (Aves, Rynchocyclidae at Ilha do Cardoso State Park, southeastern Brazil (Scientific Note. Novo registro de maria-da-restinga, Phylloscartes kronei (Aves, Rynchocyclidae no Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso, Sudeste do Brasil (Nota Científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto João PIRATELLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During an expedition to Ilha do Cardoso State Park, in Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil, two individuals of the Restinga Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes kronei, Aves: Rynchocyclidae were captured with a 36 mm mesh mist net in a restinga area (25o 12.243’S and 47o 59.502’W at Núcleo Marujá. This random record highlights the relevance of this protected area for this globally threatened species (vulnerable, where it is apparently abundant, due to the existence of suitable sites for its survival and reproduction. Durante uma expedição ao Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso, em Cananéia, SP, dois indivíduos de maria-da-restinga (Phylloscartes kronei, Aves: Rynchocyclidae foram capturados com uma rede de neblina de malha 36 mm em uma área de restinga (25o 12.243’S e 47o 59.502’O, no Núcleo Marujá. Esse registro fortuito ressalta a relevância desta Unidade de Conservação para esta espécie globalmente ameaçada (vulnerável, onde ela aparentemente é abundante, devido à existência de habitats adequados à sua sobrevivência e reprodução.

  19. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny for the hornbills (Aves: Bucerotidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan-Carlos T; Sheldon, Ben C; Collar, Nigel J; Tobias, Joseph A

    2013-05-01

    The hornbills comprise a group of morphologically and behaviorally distinct Palaeotropical bird species that feature prominently in studies of ecology and conservation biology. Although the monophyly of hornbills is well established, previous phylogenetic hypotheses were based solely on mtDNA and limited sampling of species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all 61 extant hornbill species, based on nuclear and mtDNA gene sequences extracted largely from historical samples. The resulting phylogenetic trees closely match vocal variation across the family but conflict with current taxonomic treatments. In particular, they highlight a new arrangement for the six major clades of hornbills and reveal that three groups traditionally treated as genera (Tockus, Aceros, Penelopides) are non-monophyletic. In addition, two other genera (Anthracoceros, Ocyceros) were non-monophyletic in the mtDNA gene tree. Our findings resolve some longstanding problems in hornbill systematics, including the placement of 'Penelopides exharatus' (embedded in Aceros) and 'Tockus hartlaubi' (sister to Tropicranus albocristatus). We also confirm that an Asiatic lineage (Berenicornis) is sister to a trio of Afrotropical genera (Tropicranus [including 'Tockus hartlaubi'], Ceratogymna, Bycanistes). We present a summary phylogeny as a robust basis for further studies of hornbill ecology, evolution and historical biogeography. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. First record of Charadrius melodus Ord (Aves Charadriiformes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Júnior Severino Mendes de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Charadrius melodus Ord, 1824 were captured at Diamante Branco saline, at Galinhos municipal district in Rio Grande do Norte, at the Northeast coast of Brazil. Four individuals were captured in October and two in December. All of them were in adult phase, showing the intermediary plumage with moults of the outline feathers. One individual captured in October showed moult for the first primary pinion and other captured also in October showed moult in the second pair of rectrices. The captures of C. melodus in Rio Grande do Norte consist in the first record of the species for Brazil.

  1. Investigation of Leptin gene in broiler and layer chicken lines Investigação do gene da Leptina em linhagens de aves de corte e postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Ninov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin, a polypeptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, plays an important role in feed intake regulation, energy metabolism and reproduction in several species. Its function has been intensively studied in mammals; however, in birds limited information is available. The cDNA sequence for chicken leptin has been reported, and high hepatic expression levels of leptin were associated with fat deposition in selected bird lines. However, controversies still remain concerning to the chicken leptin gene and several authors failed to amplify this gene from genomic DNA or cDNA. In view of this controversy and the importance of this gene, the present study aimed to investigate the leptin gene in a population of birds developed by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Research Center (Brazil. First of all, the sequences of Gallus gallus leptin gene (GenBank AF012727 and Mus musculus (GenBank NM_008493 were aligned with the objective of designing primers in conserved regions among the two species, since 94.6% of similarity is described in the literature in those species. For all four pairs of primers designed, several amplification tests were performed with both DNA and cDNA, but neither unique fragment nor expected band size was ever achieved. The leptin sequence in GenBank does not represent the sequence of the chicken leptin gene.A leptina, hormônio polipeptídico secretado principalmente pelo tecido adiposo, tem um papel importante na regulação da ingestão de alimentos, metabolismo de energia e reprodução em mamíferos. A função do gene da leptina tem sido intensamente estudada em mamíferos, porém, em aves, ainda é pouco conhecida. O cDNA deste gene foi identificado em galinhas, e a alta expressão hepática e os níveis de leptina no plasma foram associados à alta deposição de gordura presente em linhagens de aves selecionadas. Entretanto, permanecem controvérsias sobre o gene da leptina em galinhas, pois diversos autores não conseguiram

  2. Anticuerpos séricos contra la enfermedad de Newcastle e Influenza Aviar en aves rapaces de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos contra los virus de la Enfermedad de Newcastle (ENC e Influenza aviar (IA, para comprender la contribución de las aves silvestres en la transmisión de estos virus en Chile. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron 63 aves pertenecientes a los órdenes Falconiformes y Strigiformes desde centros de rehabilitación de aves de las zonas central y sur de Chile. Se realizaron las pruebas de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación (IHA para detectar anticuerpos contra el virus ENC e inmunodifusión en gel agar (IDGA y ELISA para IA. Resultados. Se detectaron 14 aves positivas (22.2% para anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC. En cambio, no se registraron anticuerpos séricos sanguíneos para el virus de la IA. Conclusiones. La presencia de aves rapaces positivas en los centros de rescate a los anticuerpos séricos contra el virus de la ENC puede ser explicada por el consumo de carne de pollos que han sido vacunados contra ENC o consumo de aves que han adquirido directamente el virus vacunal a través de los distintos procedimientos de administración (aerosoles, bebederos de la vacuna o por el ingreso a los centros de rescate de aves rapaces migratorias, las que podrían facilitar la diseminación de la infección desde los países de origen, hecho que debe ser investigado.

  3. Digenean parasites of Ciconiiform birds from Argentina Digéneos parásitos de aves Ciconiiformes de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana B. Drago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The helminthological survey of 13 specimens of 5 ciconiiform species revealed the presence of 10 species of intestinal digeneans: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 in Tigrisoma lineatum and Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 in T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 and Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi and Drago, 2006 in Ardea cocoi and Ardea alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 in A. alba and T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard and Haviland, 1924 in A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 in A. cocoi and Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 and Petasiger sp. 2 in Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix was free of digeneans. The reports of A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum and D. lacombeensis represent new host records; the other reports are new geographical records. Moreover, the specimens described as Apharyngostrigea brasiliana Szidat, 1929 by Labriola and Suriano (1998 were analyzed and transferred to A. ardearum.El estudio parasitológico de 13 ejemplares pertenecientes a 5 especies de aves Ciconiiformes reveló la presencia de 10 especies de digéneos intestinales: Sphincterodiplostomum musculosum Dubois, 1936 en Tigrisoma lineatum y Ardea alba; Tylodelphys elongata (Lutz, 1928 en T. lineatum; Apharyngostrigea ardearum (Lutz, 1928 y Dolichorchis lacombeensis Lunaschi y Drago, 2006 en Ardea cocoi y A. alba; Posthodiplostomum nanum Dubois, 1937 en A. alba y T. lineatum; Ascocotyle diminuta (Stunkard y Haviland, 1924 en A. alba; Petasiger sp.1 en A. cocoi y Paryphostomum segregatum Dietz, 1909, Strigea vaginata (Brandes, 1888 y Petasiger sp. 2 en Coragyps atratus. Syrigma sibilatrix no se encontró parasitada por digéneos. El presente estudio aporta nuevos registros de hospedadores para A. ardearum, T. elongata, S. musculosum y D. lacombeensis y nuevos registros geográficos para las restantes especies. Además, los organismos descritos como Apharyngostrigea brasiliana

  4. Entamoeba sp. (Sarcomastigophora: Endamoebidae) from ostriches (Struthio camelus) (Aves: Struthionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, R A; Herrera, S; Castro, A; Ponce, F

    2000-10-01

    The first case of Entamoeba of the 1-nucleate mature cyst group in birds is described. Trophozoites and cysts of Entamoeba have been found in ostriches (Struthio camelus) from farms located all over Spain. The cysts are large (13.47microm mean diameter); they possess one nucleus when mature, with a large endosome and peripheral chromatine arranged in small granules; chromatoid bodies, when present, are large and elongated. Trophozoites are large (19. 88microm mean diameter), with a clear differentiation between ecto- and endoplasm, this containing numerous vacuoles; the nucleus is large and diffuse. The characteristics of this amoeba resembles but do not completely fulfill those of E. suis and E. chattoni; also, these species are from mammals.

  5. Myrmeciza and related antbirds (Aves, Formicariidae as army ant followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin O. Willis

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Antbirds of the genera Myrmeciza (including Sipia and Myrmoborus, Gymnocichla, and Sclateria hop near or on the ground in fairly dense vegetation, "pounding" their tails downward. Where dense understory vegetation is widespread and ants move in it for long distances, certain of these antbirds become regular ant followers: M. immaculata and M. fortis in cluttered moist foothill forest from Costa Rica to upper Amazonia; Gymnocichla nudiceps in moist cluttered second growth of Central America to Colombia. Where the forest understory is more open, Myrmeciza species follow ants mainly in cluttered patches: M. exsul in lowland forest west of the Andes, M. myotherina east of the Andes. Myrmeciza or relatives that specialize on water-edge or very dense zones rarely follow ants.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in Ramphastos toco and Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Márcio S; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M; Rocha, Guaracy T

    2003-03-01

    Phenotypic sexual dimorphism seems to be rare in the Ramphastidae family, except in Pteroglossus viridis and in the genus Selenidera. Many breeders of wild birds believe that specimens of Ramphastos toco can be sexed using bill characteristics. In this study, various discriminant phenotypic variables were analyzed in birds which were sexed cytogenetically. Fifty-one specimens of R. toco and 20 R. dicolorus were studied. The statistically significant parameters which served to distinguish the sex in these species were the length of the culmen and tomium, length of the lower corneous beak and the cloaca. Using these parameters, captive bird breeders can determine sex of R. toco specimens by phenotypic analysis and form breeding couples more quickly.

  7. The evolutionary history of cockatoos (Aves: Psittaciformes: Cacatuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicole E; Phillips, Matthew J; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Alfaro-Núñez, Alonzo; Willerslev, Eske; Mawson, Peter R; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Cockatoos are the distinctive family Cacatuidae, a major lineage of the order of parrots (Psittaciformes) and distributed throughout the Australasian region of the world. However, the evolutionary history of cockatoos is not well understood. We investigated the phylogeny of cockatoos based on three mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA genes obtained from 16 of 21 species of Cacatuidae. In addition, five novel mitochondrial genomes were used to estimate time of divergence and our estimates indicate Cacatuidae diverged from Psittacidae approximately 40.7 million years ago (95% CI 51.6-30.3 Ma) during the Eocene. Our data shows Cacatuidae began to diversify approximately 27.9 Ma (95% CI 38.1-18.3 Ma) during the Oligocene. The early to middle Miocene (20-10 Ma) was a significant period in the evolution of modern Australian environments and vegetation, in which a transformation from mainly mesic to xeric habitats (e.g., fire-adapted sclerophyll vegetation and grasslands) occurred. We hypothesize that this environmental transformation was a driving force behind the diversification of cockatoos. A detailed multi-locus molecular phylogeny enabled us to resolve the phylogenetic placements of the Palm Cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus), Galah (Eolophus roseicapillus), Gang-gang Cockatoo (Callocephalon fimbriatum) and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), which have historically been difficult to place within Cacatuidae. When the molecular evidence is analysed in concert with morphology, it is clear that many of the cockatoo species' diagnostic phenotypic traits such as plumage colour, body size, wing shape and bill morphology have evolved in parallel or convergently across lineages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Noteworthy bird records at Lagoa Santa, southeastern Brazil Registros notáveis de aves em Lagoa Santa, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lagoa Santa, a small town in southeastern Brazil where naturalist Peter Lund lived, is regarded nowadays as an important historical site for the biological sciences. From 1847 to 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, hosted by Lund, collected 343 bird species. This material is an outstanding reference for many modern ornithological studies. The present paper reports the occurrence of some rare and threatened birds for the region of Lagoa Santa between 1998 and 2005. In this account I list the Rusty-margined Guan Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815; the Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758; the Maguari Stork Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789; the Wood Stork Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758; the Black Hawk-eagle Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820 and the Turquoise-fronted Parrot Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. It is also reported the southernmost record for the Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758 and the range extension of the Crowned Slaty flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus (d'Orbigny and Lafresnaye, 1837. These data can be used as a baseline for studies of colonization and extinction.Lagoa Santa, cidade onde viveu Peter Lund é um dos sítios de maior importância histórica para as ciências biológicas. Durante os anos de 1847 e 1855, J.T. Reinhardt, a convite de Lund, coletou 343 espécies de aves que são hoje referência para vários estudos ornitológicos. O presente artigo relata a ocorrência de algumas aves raras e/ou ameaçadas para a região de Lagoa Santa, entre 1998 e 2005. A lista de espécies inclui a jacupemba Penelope superciliaris Temminck, 1815, o colhereiro Platalea ajaja Linnaeus, 1758, a maguari Ciconia maguari (Gmelin, 1789, a cabeça-seca Mycteria americana Linnaeus, 1758, o gavião-pega-macaco Spizaetus tyrannus (Wied, 1820; e o papagaio-verdadeiro Amazona aestiva (Linnaeus, 1758. Relata-se também a ocorrência mais meridional da arara-canindé Ara ararauna (Linnaeus, 1758, e a expansão da distribui

  9. A bumblefoot outbreak and fatal septicemia in captive aquatic birds in Brazil Surto de esparavão e septicemia fatal em aves aquáticas cativas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Romero Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A bumblefoot outbreak with different prognosis according to host species was studied in captive aquatic avian species. Six wood ducks (Aix sponsa, three scarlet-ibis (Eudocimus ruber, two black-swans (Cygnus atratus, five white-faced ducks (Dendrocygna viduata and two roseate spoonbills (Platalea ajaja were kept in a common pen with abrasive pavement pond margin, predisposing to podal skin wear. Incoordination and mortality occurred in the two roseate spoonbils and one black swan. Coagulase-positive penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the synovial fluid and from the liver. All birds sharing the pen presented active or cicatricial foot lesions, indicating a possible challenge to the environmental Staphylococci. However, except for the roseate spoonbill and the black swan, which had fatal disease, for all other species the case did not evolve to a clinically debilitating or fatal disease. The different susceptibility to a fatal Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive infection is discussed.Este trabalho relata um surto de esparavão em aves aquáticas cativas com prognóstico variado conforme a espécie de ave. Foram examinados um marreco carolina (Aix sponsa, três guarás (íbis vermelha (Eudocimus ruber, dois cisnes negros (Cygnus atratus, cinco marrecas piadeiras (Dendrocygna viduata e dois colhereiros (Platalea ajaja mantidos em recinto comunitário, em cativeiro e em criatório. No recinto, a piscina é margeada por borda de cimento abrasivo que possibilita a abrasão da pele podal. Todas as aves apresentaram erosões da pele na face de apoio dos pés, indicando fator predisponente (erosão similar e possível semelhante desafio infeccioso. Entretanto, incoordenação e mortalidade ocorreram em colhereiros e no cisne negro, mas não nas outras espécies. Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positivo e resistente à penicilina foi isolado do líquido sinovial e do fígado das aves recém-mortas e conservadas em geladeira

  10. Comunidade de aves da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Pernambuco, Brasil Bird communities of the Gurjaú Reserve, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maria de Lyra-Neves

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos quali-quantitativos foram realizados em um fragmento florestal da Reserva Estadual de Gurjaú, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram registradas 220 espécies de aves no levantamento qualitativo. Através da contagem por pontos, foram identificadas 175 espécies em 6.470 contatos (270 amostras. A freqüência de ocorrência de 75% foi registrada para 43 espécies (19,6%; para a maioria das espécies a freqüência de ocorrência esteve abaixo de 25%.A qualitative and quantitative bird surveys were carried out in a forest fragment in Gurjau Reserve, Santo Agostinho Cape, Pernambuco State, Brazil. By qualitative census were registered 220 different bird species. Concerning the point counts, were identified 175 different species in 6.470 contacts (270 samples. A frequency of occurrence of 75% was registered for 43 species (19,6%; the most part of species had a frequency of occurrence below 25%.

  11. Falco sparverius (Aves: Falconiformes preying upon Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.

  12. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  13. Cloacal morphology of Nothura maculosa (Temminck, 1815), Aves tinamiformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, C A; Mahecha, G A

    1996-10-01

    Cloacae of male Nothura maculosa (spotted tinamous) were dissected and studied with routine histological and histochemical techniques. In the cloaca of this species the following cranio-caudally oriented regions can be recognized: the coprodeum, the urodeum and the proctodeum, separated by the coprourodeal and the uroproctodeal folds respectively. The coprodeum is an abrupt dilatation of the rectum which receives the ureters, contrary to other birds in which they open into the urodeum. The urodeum is the smallest compartment of the cloaca. Its wall presents the paracloacal vascular bodies and the ductus deferens receptacles which open into the ejaculatory fossa through a pair of papillae. The ejaculatory fossa forms the ventral floor of the urodeum and is characterized by the presence of a secretory epithelium and a lamina propria showing rich vascularization. The proctodeum is connected to the exterior through the cloacal opening and ventrally it presents the phallic structures and the proctodeal lamella. Its dorsolateral wall forms the cloacal bursa, its mucosa shows morphological variations depending on the degree of regression. Enclosing the uroproctodeal wall are the cloacal sphincter muscle and the skin.

  14. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  15. Nitrógeno dietario como un nutriente limitante en aves frugívoras Dietary nitrogen as a limiting nutrient in frugivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSQUE CARLOS

    2000-09-01

    las complejas interacciones involucradas en la regulación de las necesidades proteicas de las aves frugívorasFruit pulp is considered nutritionally inadequate for frugivorous birds because of its low protein content. Consequently, frugivores are expected to minimize their nitrogen losses as an adaptation to frugivory . In this review we examine properties of fruit and physiological traits of frugivores that affect their ability to subsist on fruit diets. Most tropical and temperate fruit seem to contain enough nitrogen to satisfy bird’s requirements if their food intake was adjusted to meet their energy needs, but requirements depend on body mass. Birds of larger body size should require foods having a higher ratio of nitrogen to energy than smaller species. However, digestible nitrogen may in fact be limiting because fruit pulp seems to contain considerable amounts of nonproteinaceous nitrogen and an amino acid composition that deviates from that required by birds. Both of these characteristics of fruit pulps should augment nitrogen losses of frugivores and consequently their needs when consuming natural diets. In terms of their physiology, we expect frugivores to maximize their nitrogen extraction efficiency from the diet and hint the possibility that low urinary nitrogen losses of frugivores might be related to a low metabolic rate. Minimization of endogenous fecal losses could be the most important adaptation of frugivores to subsist on nitrogen poor diets. It is not evident how specialized frugivores can have lower than expected nitrogen requirements when compared to birds of other dietary groups. We suggest several areas of research that should improve our understanding of the complex interactions involved in the regulation of protein needs of frugivorous birds

  16. Endogenous recipes for controlling arthropod ectoparasites of domestic poultry Receitas caseiras para o controle do ectoparasita artrópode nas aves domésticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidou Salifou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the inventory of medicinal plants and other methods used in controlling external parasitic diseases of backyard poultry in the localities of Djougou and Ouaké (department of Donga, Benin. It consists of a survey undertaken from December 2010 to March 2011 through visits and interviews with 210 poultry famers. The results indicate that 13 species of medicinal plants are used in controlling ectoparasites. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica and Parkia biglobosa are believed to treat external parasitic diseases in the area of this study. Annona senegalensis was the most frequently cited plant (18%, p Este estudo é uma contribuição ao inventário de plantas curativas e outros métodos endógenos usados no combate aos ectoparasitos de pássaros de currais nas aldeias de Djougou e Ouaké (departamento do Donga, em Benin. A pesquisa foi conduzida entre dezembro de 2010 e março de 2011, durante visitas e entrevistas com 210 criadores de aves. Os resultados indicam que 13 espécies de plantas curativas são utilizadas no combate aos ectoparasitos. Annona senegalensis, Tectona grandis, Securidaca longepedunculata, Indigofera hirsuta, Lophira lanceolata, Hyptis spicigera, Steganotaenia araliacea, Oxytenanthera abyssinica, Nicotiana tabacum, Jatropha curcas, Ficus exasperata, Azadirachta indica e Parkia biglobosa, são usadas para tratar uma doença parasitária externa na área de estudo. Annona senegalensis foi a planta mais frequentemente usada (18%, p < 0.05 como medicação contra os parasitas externos das aves. Outras receitas tradicionais como o óleo de palma e a cinza tem sido comunicadas.

  17. Diversidad de aves en el Centro Agropecuario Cotové, Santa Fe de Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caty Milena Martínez-Bravo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro Agropecuario Cotové, en el municipio de Santa Fe de Antioquia (Colombia, se estudió la diversidad de aves utilizando las metodologías de puntos fijos de conteo y redes de niebla en cinco usos del suelo (Frutales, Sistema silvopastoril, Bosque secundario, Pastoreo con baja densidad de árboles y Pastos de corte, para analizar la influencia sobre la composición, riqueza y abundancia de la avifauna. Se registraron 6 633 individuos de 101 especies, de las cuales 11 especies son migratorias. En términos de abundancia, la mayoría de las especies fueron raras y pocas comunes. Los gremios alimenticios mejor representados fueron insectívoros y frugívoros. El índice de Shannon indica que el Sistema silvopastoril presenta los valores de diversidad alfa más altos y los frutales los más bajos. Los usos del suelo que compartieron más especies fueron sistema Silvopastoril y Pastoreo con baja densidad de árboles. La heterogeneidad ambiental del centro actúa de forma diferente para las especies, beneficia en su mayoría aves de baja y media especificidad de hábitat, y con preferencia de hábitats de borde y áreas abiertas, por lo que se deben implementar acciones de manejo dirigidas a la conservación de áreas de regeneración natural y conectividad entre usos del suelo, para que las poblaciones de especies de aves presentes en la zona puedan ser mantenidas en el tiempo.

  18. La pájara vida: breve historia de la observación de aves en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Germán Naranjo

    2016-12-01

    Colombia tiene una larga tradición ornitológica, pero a pesar de ello la observación de aves como pasatiempo solo en años recientes se hizo popular, lo cual no deja de ser curioso en un país que se enorgullece de tener la máxima riqueza de especies de aves silvestres en su territorio. Si bien la gran mayoría de los estudiosos de las aves son verdaderos apasionados por su oficio, la línea divisoria entre sus afanes y los de quienes se consideran primariamente pajareros apenas se empieza a trazar ya bien entrado el siglo XXI.

  19. Estudo retrospectivo de afecções cirúrgicas em aves

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Matera, Julia M.

    2013-01-01

    Avaliaram-se retrospectivamente as cirurgias realizadas em aves no Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, durante período de oito anos. De um total de 90 intervenções cirúrgicas para diagnóstico e/ou tratamento de afecções, 27 foram ortopédicas e 63 de tecidos moles. Quanto ao percentual de cirurgias ortopédicas realizadas segundo as diferentes ordens, observou-se: Psittaciformes 85,19%, Pici...

  20. LOS TANINOS EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE LAS AVES COMERCIALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Coello

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de revisión aborda la importancia de los ácidos fenólicos, flavonoides, taninos y sus compuestos derivados en la nutrición y alimentación de las aves. Los sorgos café presentan altos tenores de taninos, lo cual les proporciona como ventajas la resistencia a pájaros y a algunas plagas, sin embargo, reducen el valor nutricional del grano para las aves. Las informaciones sobre el contenido de estos compuestos es aún incierta, principalmente en la literatura, donde los sorgos café tienen sólo estimaciones sobre su contenido de taninos. Estos compuestos afectan también la ganancia de peso y la conversión de alimentos. En el aspecto nutricional, los taninos reducen la disponibilidad de metionina, This review article discusses the effects of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins and derivatives in poultry feeding and nutrition. The high tannin sorghum is advantageous for grain producers because of its resistance to birds’ attacks and insects, as compared to low tannin cultivar, but the nutritional value is reduced. The information about the amont of these compounds is really uncertain in scientific literature, and the high tannin sorghum has only estimated values for its tannin percentage. It’s clear that tannins affect weight gain and feed efficiency. The tannin can affect necesitando de la suplementación de este aminoácido, mientras para las proteínas los valores de digestibilidad varian de 45.5 a 66.7% en comparación con 89.9% de los sorgos bajos en taninos. Por otro lado, la presencia de taninos combinada con micotoxinas pueden determinar reducciones significativas del comportamiento de las aves. Se sugiere, por tanto, como forma de disminuir los efectos perjudiciales de estos compuestos en raciones formuladas con sorgo café, la suplementación de metionina, no obstante, la utilización de niveles suplementarios de vitaminas y el uso de calentamiento en horno microondas, no mostró resultados positivos

  1. Simulaton of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 Cogeneration Plant with DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The simulator contest proposed for the ECOS 2003 conference has been solved using the DNA energy system simulator. The contest concerns the steam process of the Avedøreværket Unit 1 (AVV1) power plant. The plant is a 250 MWCHP plant with a maximum district heat production of 330 MJ/s. The plant has...... a net electric efficiency of 42% and a maximum energy utilization of 92%. In this paper it is demonstrated, that the DNA model of AVV1 can calculate the whole flow sheet balance at any load point, i.e., any possible combination of power production and district heat production. The paper also contains...

  2. Diversidad de Piojos de Aves Silvestres en Bosque Seco Tropical al Norte del Tolima -resumen-

    OpenAIRE

    M K Ariza-Lozano; Gloria María Ariza-Lozano; M J Gómez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Los Phthiraptera son insectos ápteros dorsoventralmente aplanados. Se encuentran divididos en cuatro subórdenes de los cuales Amblycera e Ischnocera son los que parasitan aves. En Colombia los estudios de ectoparásitos son escasos en comparación con otros grupos de insectos‚ los existentes poseen un enfoque generalmente taxonómico. Con respecto al departamento del Tolima hasta el momento se ha realizado una única investigación en la que se identificaron los organismos hasta el nivel de famili...

  3. Saurios como predadores de ectoparásitos de aves guaneras

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, José; Jahncke, Jaime

    1998-01-01

    Las altas densidades de las colonias favorecen el rápido contagio de ectopárasitos en las poblaciones de aves guaneras, destacando la garrapata Ornitodoros amblus, que en algunos casos llega a causar la muerte de los pichones. La lagartija Microlophus peruvianus ha sido introducida en las islas guaneras con la intención de reducir las poblaciones de garrapatas. En el presente estudio se observa que existe una predación sobre ectoparásitos por parte de las poblaciones de saurios en los tres lu...

  4. Manual de métodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves terrestres

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. John Ralph; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Peter Pyle; Thomas E. Martin; David F DeSante; Borja Milá

    1996-01-01

    El presente manual es una recopilación de métodos de campo para la determinación de índices de abundancia y datos demográficos de poblaciones de aves terrestres en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Está dirigido a biólogos, técnicos de campo, e investigadores de cualquier parte del Continente Americano. Los métodos descritos incluyen cuatro tipos de censos...

  5. EL LABORATORIO CLÍNICO EN HEMATOLOGÍA DE AVES EXÓTICAS

    OpenAIRE

    Gálvez Martínez, Carlos Fernando; Ramírez Benavides, Ginés Fernando; Osorio, José Henry

    2009-01-01

    El empleo de las técnicas de laboratorio en la práctica veterinaria, es una herramienta indispensable que aporta información valiosa en el momento de confirmar un diagnóstico. El hemograma es uno de los estudios de rutina con mayor importancia. Los parámetros normales en el hemograma, pueden ser un indicador del buen estado de salud del animal. Sin embargo, un hemograma normal, no excluye la posibilidad de que el ave sea un portador asintomático de entidades como la psitacosis, enfermedades v...

  6. Parasitos de aves e mamíferos silvestres em cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Marie de Souza Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os animais silvestres são hospedeiros de uma grande variedade de parasitos que podem interferir em sua conservação ex situ. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os parasitos gastrointestinais (PGI e ectoparasitos dos animais do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (CETAS do Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA de Recife, Pernambuco, além de determinar os aspectos do manejo em cativeiro que possam estar relacionados com os parasitos identificados. Foram coletados ectoparasitos e amostras fecais de 223 aves e mamíferos, as quais foram processadas pelos métodos: microscopia direta, flutuação e sedimentação. Helmintos e/ou protozoários foram detectados em 91 (40,8% amostras fecais, sendo 64 (70,3% de aves e 27 (29,7% de mamíferos. Ovos de Capillaria sp., Ascaridida, Spirurida e oocistos de Eimeria sp. foram detectados nas amostras fecais das aves, enquanto ovos de Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Strongylida e oocistos de Coccídios foram encontrados nas amostras fecais de mamíferos. Os ectoparasitos identificados em aves foram Colpocephalum turbinatum, Kurodaia (Kurodaia fulvofasciata, Halipeurus sp., Naubates sp., Saemundssonia sp., Austromenopon sp., Paragoniocotes sp., Brueelia sp., Myrsidea sp. and Pseudolynchia sp., enquanto em mamíferos os ectoparasitos identificados foram Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma varium, A. calcaratum, A. nodosum, Ornithodoros talaje e Ctenocephalides felis felis. A. calcaratum e O. talaje são registrados pela primeira vez em Pernambuco e T. tetradactyla é apresentado como novo hospedeiro de O. talaje. Nenhum dos animais estudados apresentou sinais clínicos em decorrência da infecção/infestação parasitária. Parasitos com potencial zoonótico como T. trichiura, Strongyloides sp., T. canis e Ancylostoma sp. foram identificados em primatas não humanos e carnívoros. Precárias condições estruturais

  7. Aportación a las patologías de aves en cautividad

    OpenAIRE

    Melián Melián, Ayose

    2015-01-01

    Por ello, el objetivo general de la presente tesis doctoral es contribuir a un mayor conocimiento de la Medicina y la Sanidad aviar de las especies en cautividad de una colección zoológica a través de la revisión de los casos clínicos, datos anatomopatológicos y análisis laboratoriales complementarios, Para ello, se emplearon los siguientes objetivos específicos: Objetivos específicos: 1.- Diagnóstico clínico y patológico de enfermedades en aves en cautividad. 2.- Determi...

  8. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nidificação de aves em duas localidades amazonicas : sucesso e adaptações

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshika Oniki Willis

    1986-01-01

    Resumo: As taxas de sucesso em ninhos de aves bera como as características de ninhos e ovos relacionados com o ambiente foram estudadas em duas localidades brasileiras tropicais, Belém e Manaus. As taxas de mortalidade em ninhos de aves, de Belém e Manaus, medidas pela fórmula N/(P + S + N), sugerida por Mayfield (1975) variaram entre 1,5 e 6,8 % por dia para diferentes tipos de ninhos e habitats. Sendo que estas figuras às vezes não são significantemente mais altas que taxas constatadas em z...

  10. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-02-24

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed.

  11. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  12. Aves acuáticas del estero El Salado, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul Magaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El estero El Salado es un cuerpo costero único en la región de Bahía de Banderas, México, que se encuentra sometido a la fuerte presión del crecimiento urbano de la ciudad de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco. Su evaluación como hábitat para la avifauna acuática puede contribuir al establecimiento de las bases técnicas para la toma de decisiones acertadas en el diseño de estrategias de conservación y explotación de sus hábitats. Con este fin, de junio de 1996 a mayo de 1997, se realizó una visita mensual al estero. En cada visita se realizaron dos transectos de 250 m de largo, de la boca a la cabeza del estero, de acuerdo al método modificado del censo de transecto en banda. Se determinaron 28 especies de aves acuáticas y se contabilizaron 1,304 individuos. De acuerdo con su presencia a lo largo del año, se registraron 16 especies residentes, 11 residentes de invierno y una migratoria. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la importancia de la zona como espacio de sustentación alimenticia, de descanso y de anidación para aves acuáticas temporales y residentes.

  13. Radiological verification survey results at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ001V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W. R. Grace facility. The property at 14 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 14 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  14. INTERVENTION PHYSIOTHERAPY IN THE COMMUNITY: REPORT OF CASE OF A PATIENT WITH AVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Nogueira e Ferreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was verify the benefits of the physical therapist s intervention in the community in attention to AVE patient. This study describes a 74 year-old patient's case, feminine sex, attacked by AVE eight years ago, and possessesed the body s right side committed and was submit to physical therapeutics treatment once a week for four followed following. The patient is accompanied by PSF(Programa de Saúde da Família Inocoop neighborhood in the distrit of Jequié city, in the inclusion s areas of the Unidade de Saúde Padre Hilário Terrosi. She presented sinergismo flexor pattern and disagreements in the deambulação. We emphasized treatment the cinesioterapia with emphasis in PNF s technique, besides measures preventive to decrease complications of the hypertension, diabetes and falls. The movement of abduction foot s fingers was reestablished, as well as extension and deflection of fingers and ankle. In a significant less way, but representing patient's evolution, improvement her posture was gotten and march s aid, obtaining more safety. The patient woke up tocorporal conscience to hemiplégico side. The orientations for improvement of circulatory dynamics, hygiene, posture was valid. Conclusion: The physiotherapist's presence in the community becomes important because contribue for the promotion, prevention, recovery and rehabilitation obeing the beginnings of the current health s model and consequently promoting the improvement the life s quality of the population.

  15. Radiological verification survey results at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ003V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 7 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 7 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  16. Radiological verification survey results as 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ004V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 13 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 13 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  17. Radiological verification survey results at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ002V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 3 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 3 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  18. Radiological verification survey results at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ005V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 15 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 15 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  19. Radiological verification survey results at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey (PJ006V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, R.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) conducted remedial action during 1993 at the Pompton Plains Railroad Spur and eight vicinity properties in the Wayne and Pequannock Townships in New Jersey as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are in the vicinity of the DOE-owned Wayne Interim Storage Site (WISS), formerly the W.R. Grace facility. The property at 17 Peck Ave., Pequannock, New Jersey is one of these vicinity properties. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey at this property. The purpose of the survey, conducted between September and December 1993, was to confirm the success of the remedial actions performed to remove any radioactive materials in excess of the identified guidelines. The verification survey included surface gamma scans and gamma readings at 1 meter, beta-gamma scans, and the collection of soil and debris samples for radionuclide analysis. Results of the survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the property at 17 Peck Ave. were within applicable DOE guidelines. Based on the results of the remedial action data and confirmed by the verification survey data, the portions of the site that had been remediated during this action successfully meet the DOE remedial action objectives

  20. Rectification of radiation-induced damage in swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, P.; Goyal, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radioprotective of effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post irradiation intervals viz. 12 hours, 24 hours. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radioprotective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract

  1. Biologia reprodutiva e uso de habitat por Cantorchilus Leucotis (Lafresnaye, 1845 (aves, Troglodytidae no Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Fernanda Albonette de Nóbrega

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento atual sobre o sucesso reprodutivo e características da história de vida da maioria das espécies de aves neotropicais é deficiente. A qualidade do habitat onde o ninho é construído é um dos fatores que influenciam o sucesso reprodutivo das aves. Este estudo objetivou determinar atributos da história de vida, assim como o padrão de uso de habitat a fim de compreender a dinâmica reprodutiva de Cantorchilus leucotis no Pantanal de Poconé, entre o rio Bento Gomes e Cuiabá, o qual é sujeito a alagamento de janeiro à abril. Cantorchilus leucotis foi registrado pelos métodos de captura com rede de neblina (1.560 horas, observação por censo auditivo (5.600 horas e procura por ninhos (234 horas, durante os anos de 2001, 2002 e 2006. Foram encontrados 87 ninhos de C. leucotis durante as estações reprodutivas dos anos pesquisados, destes, 58 foram abandonados na fase de construção, quatro foram destruídos por intempéries climáticas, e apenas 25 ninhos chegaram à fase de postura de ovos. A porcentagem simples de sucesso reprodutivos foi de 12% (n = 25. A predação foi a maior causa de perda de ninhos ativos (76%. Desses ninhos, 94,7% encontrava-se em fase de ovo e 5,2% em fase de filhote. Dos 87 ninhos encontrados, 52 (59.8% foram encontrados no Cambarazal, 26 ninhos (29.8% no Brejo e nove ninhos (10.4% no Landi. O parasitismo de ninho não foi observado. A espécie foi registrada ao longo de todos os anos de pesquisa, o que lhe conferiu o status de residente. O cambarazal, por se tratar de uma floresta úmida, apresentou locais ideais para confecção do ninho e a disponibilidade de alimento requerido pela espécie.The existing knowledge on the reproductive success and characteristics of the life history of most species of Neotropical birds is scarce. The quality of the habitat where the nest is built is one of the factors that may or may not favor the reproductive success of birds. This study aimed to determine life

  2. Determinación de los factores que inciden en la captura incidental de aves marinas en la flota palangrera pelágica chilena Determination of factors affecting the bycatch of seabirds in Chilean pelagic longline fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la variabilidad de la tasa de captura incidental de aves marinas en la pesquería palangrera pelágica de pez espada (Xiphias gladius y diversos factores temporales, ambientales, espaciales y pesqueros, entre 2007 y 2009. Los resultados muestran que las operaciones de pesca de esta flota afectan principalmente a los albatros, grupo que concentra el 83,7% de la captura incidental de aves marinas registrada en el período. Esta captura incidental se debe en primera instancia a la presencia del Frente Subtropical del Pacífico Sur, sistema que provoca la sobreposición entre la actividad de esta flota con la distribución espacial de aves marinas durante la fase residente del período no reproductivo. La variabilidad en esta captura incidental estaría fuertemente relacionada a los estímulos visuales (medido mediante el porcentaje de luces químicas y porcentaje de calamar y las condiciones de luminosidad ambiental existentes en los períodos de forrajeo diurno y nocturno de estas aves marinas durante el calado (medido a través del desfase de la hora del ocaso con respecto a la hora de inicio del calado y fase lunar.We analized the relationship between the variability in the rate of seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fishery for swordfish (Xiphias gladius, and several temporary, environmental, spatial and fisheries factors for the fishing period from 2007 to 2009. The results show that the fishing operations of this fleet mainly affect the albatross, group that accounts for 83.7% of the incidental catch of seabirds recorded in the period. This bycatch is due primarily to the presence of the South Pacific Subtropical Front, a system that causes the overlap between the activities of this fleet with the spatial distribution of these seabird species during the resident phase of the nonbreeding period. By the other hand, the variability in bycatch would be strongly linked to visual stimuli (measured by the percentage of

  3. Naised käsu korras firmade juhatusse! Jah või ei? / Kairi Alt, Aveli Kippari, Karl Koort... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Columbus IT Partner Eesti AS personalijuht Kairi Alt, Stele ja Riveli omanik Aveli Kippari, AS Panaviatic'i turundusjuht Karl Koort, OÜ Tarkvara Tehnoloogia Arenduskeskuse tegevjuht Indrek Vainu, AS PricewaterhouseCoopers auditiosakonna direktor Eva Jansen, Kalev Chocolate Factory tootmisjuht Hardo Reinike

  4. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1947, - (2008), s. 1-38 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Astigmata * feather mites * systematics * Brazil * Proctophyllodidae * Aves * Passeriformes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01947p038.pdf

  5. Ruumi kohta arvamuse avaldamiseks ei pea olema arhitekt / Katrin Koov, Ave Kongo ; intervjueerinud Merle Karro-Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koov, Katrin, 1973-

    2016-01-01

    Erahuvikoolina tegutseva arhitektuurikooli eestvedamisel töötatakse välja ruumiõppe valikainemoodulit gümnaasiumile. Ruumiõppest räägivad arhitektide liidu president, arhitektuurikooli õpetaja Katrin Koov ja Saue gümnaasiumi kunstiõpetaja Ave Kongo

  6. Dos nuevos registros de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) sobre Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae) en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor GUARDIA

    2008-01-01

    Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae), Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin (“yerutí yungueña”) (Aves: Columbidae). Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.

  7. Dos nuevos registros de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae sobre Leptotila megalura (Aves: Columbidae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor GUARDIA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies de piojos masticadores (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae, Physconelloides ceratoceps Ewing y Columbicola gracilicapitis Carriker, son registradas por primera vez sobre Leptotila megalura Sclater & Salvin (“yerutí yungueña” (Aves: Columbidae. Además, C. gracilicapitis es citada por primera vez para la Argentina.

  8. Potencial de árvores frutíferas para a atração de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ribeiro Góes-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar o potencial atrativo de aves presente em oito espécies de árvores frutíferas: Callicarpa reevesii Wall.ex Walp., Ficus microcarpa L.f., Ficus tomentella Miq., Michelia champaca L., Morus nigra L., Nectandra nitidula Nees, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham. A interação de aves-plantas foi observada no município de Ouro Fino (MG, nos domínios da Serra da Mantiqueira. As referentes árvores foram observadas durante 24 horas nos períodos em que estavam frutificando, entre julho de 2007 a abril de 2008. Com o uso de ferramentas de análise de diversidade biológica, pode-se constatar que as espécies com maiores potenciais de atração de aves foram Ficus microcarpa, Ficus tomentella, Morus nigra, Nectandra nitidula e Schinus terebinthifolius e as espécies de aves que apresentaram alto índice de interação com as árvores foram Dacnis cayana, Elaenia flavogaster, Tangara cayana, Tersina viridis, Thraupis sayaca, Turdus amaurochalinus e Turdus rufiventris.

  9. AVES; SULIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mass of food needed to hand-rear a captive Cape gannet chick is given by ..... consumed more food during the growth period than those reared naturally and attained a ... grow as fast as wild birds and were lighter at fledging (Kushlan I 977a).

  10. Ave Maria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imer, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    På nationalmuseerne i Grønland og i Danmark ligger en guldgrube af indskrifter, som giver os en enestående mulighed for at beskrive skriftkulturen hos landbefolkningen i middelalderen. Fra nordbotidens Grønland (ca. 985-1450) stammer omkring 150 genstande med runer og latinske bogstaver, som vise...

  11. Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae from Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae in Argentina Contracaecumovale (Nematoda: Anisakidae de Rollandia rolland Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Aves, Podicipedidae na Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Adelina Galeano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy on 15 specimens of white-tufted grebe, Rollandiarolland, caught in the Mar Chiquita and Chascomús lagoons (Buenos Aires province, revealed the presence of Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. This nematode shows a marked specificity for podicipediform birds. The specimens were identified from morphological study on features such as cephalic and esophageal structures and caudal papillae, using both optical and scanning electron microscopy. This is the first record of C. ovale parasitizing R. rolland in Argentina.Necropsia de 15 espécimes de mergulhão-de-orelha-branca, Rollandiarolland, coletados nas lagoas Mar Chiquita e Chascomús (Província de Buenos Aires, revelou a presença de Contracaecumovale (Linstow, 1907. Esse nematóide tem uma marcada especificidade pelas aves podicipediformes. Os espécimes foram identificados a partir de características, tais como estruturas morfológicas cefálicas e esofágicas e papilas caudais, utilizando-se microscopia óptica e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Esse é o primeiro registro de C. ovale parasito de R. rolland na Argentina.

  12. Riqueza e densidade de aves que nidificam em cavidades em plantações abandonadas de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Siqueira Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Monoculturas de árvores, como as de espécies de eucalipto, têm substituído florestas naturais, impactando a fauna pela perda de habitat e recursos. Diversas espécies de aves necessitam de ocos em árvores para nidificar. A falta de recursos como cavidades formadas pela degradação da árvore ou locais apropriados para serem criadas cavidades leva a diminuição na abundância das populações destas espécies. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de comparar a riqueza e a densidade de aves que nidificam em ocos em áreas de plantação de eucalipto abandonadas com áreas de vegetação nativa em duas unidades de conservação em Minas Gerais. Em cada tipo de vegetação de cada reserva foram estabelecidos 25 pontos, nas quais foi utilizado o método de contagem por remoção para o levantamento das espécies de aves. A riqueza de espécies de aves de cada área foi estimada por Jackniffe e a densidade foi estimada através do método de máxima verossimilhança; modelos candidatos que poderiam influenciar a abundância das aves foram avaliados utilizando-se o Critério de Informação Akaike (AIC. Os resultados mostraram que a riqueza de espécies foi maior nas áreas de florestas nativas e que a densidade foi significantemente mais alta nas áreas de florestas nativas, e que o tipo de vegetação e a hora do dia influenciam na abundância e detecção das aves. Esses resultados indicam que as plantações de eucaliptos influenciam negativamente a comunidade de aves que nidificam em ocos, provavelmente por causa da falta de cavidades ou de sub-bosque. Plantações de eucaliptos normalmente não substituem as florestas nativas e seu uso deve ser controlado em áreas de conservação.

  13. Connecting Amazonian, Cerrado, and Atlantic Forest histories: Paraphyly, old divergences, and modern population dynamics in tyrant-manakins (Neopelma/Tyranneutes, Aves: Pipridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurucho, João Marcos Guimarães; Ashley, Mary V; Ribas, Camila C; Bates, John M

    2018-06-11

    Several biogeographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain connections between Amazonian and Atlantic forest biotas. These hypotheses are related to the timing of the connections and their geographic patterns. We performed a phylogeographic investigation of Tyrant-manakins (Aves: Pipridae, Neopelma/Tyranneutes) which include species inhabiting the Amazon and Atlantic forests, as well as gallery forests of the Cerrado. Using DNA sequence data, we determined phylogenetic relationships, temporal and geographic patterns of diversification, and recent intraspecific population genetic patterns, relative to the history of these biomes. We found Neopelma to be a paraphyletic genus, as N. chrysolophum is sister to Neopelma + Tyranneutes, with an estimated divergence of approximately 18 Myrs BP, within the oldest estimated divergence times of other Amazonian and Atlantic forest avian taxa. Subsequent divergences in the group occurred from Mid Miocene to Early Pliocene and involved mainly the Amazonian species, with an expansion into and subsequent speciation in the Cerrado gallery forests by N. pallescens. We found additional structure within N. chrysocephalum and N. sulphureiventer. Analysis of recent population dynamics in N. chrysocephalum, N. sulphureiventer, and N. pallescens revealed recent demographic fluctuations and restrictions to gene flow related to environmental changes since the last glacial cycle. No genetic structure was detected across the Amazon River in N. pallescens. The tyrant-manakins represent an old historical connection between the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Distribución espacial y temporal de aves playeras (Orden: Charadriiformes en Laguna San Ignacio, Baja California Sur, México Temporal and spatial distribution of shorebirds (Charadriiformes at San Ignacio Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Francisco Mendoza

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la pérdida o degradación de humedales han declinado las poblaciones de algunas especies tales como las aves playeras. En vista de que ha crecido el interés internacional por los estudios ecológicos sobre estas especies, se determinó la abundancia, distribución y riqueza espacio-temporal de las aves playeras en Laguna San Ignacio, Península de Baja California. Se realizaron 12 censos mensuales (octubre 2007-septiembre 2008 en el perímetro interno de la laguna; la cual se dividió en cuatro zonas, dos al norte y dos al sur. Temporalmente las abundancias menores se presentaron en mayo (1 585 aves y las mayores en octubre (47 410. Las especies más abundantes fueron: el picopando canelo (Limosa fedoa; 55% de los registros totales, el playero occidental (Calidris mauri; 23% y el playero pihuiuí (Tringa semipalmata; 10%. Estas especies fueron más abundantes en otoño. El picopando canelo y el playero pihuiuí estabilizaron sus números en invierno y primavera y estuvieron presentes en verano en bajos números, el playero occidental mostró oscilaciones notorias. Se presentan los primeros reportes del playero rojizo del Pacifico (Calidris canutus roselaari para la zona. La riqueza y abundancia estuvieron influenciadas temporal y espacialmente por las aves migratorias. Las mayores abundancias se presentaron al sur de la laguna, probablemente por la disponibilidad del alimento. Los resultados presentes permitieron incluir al área en la Red Hemisférica de Reservas para las Aves Playeras como sitio de importancia internacional.Baja California Peninsula has several wetlands that represent important ecosystems for shorebirds. San Ignacio Lagoon is one of these sites, and supports 10% of the total abundance of shorebirds reported in this Peninsula. Since there is few information about this group in this area, we studied spatial and temporal changes in abundance and distribution of shorebirds in San Ignacio Lagoon. For this, we conducted twelve

  15. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Hernández; Sergio Serrano; Xóchitl A. Hernández; María Isabel Robles

    2012-01-01

    Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009). Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se iden...

  16. AVE5026, a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Dahl, O E; Mismetti, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AVE5026 is a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin, with a novel anti-thrombotic profile resulting from high anti-factor (F)Xa activity and residual anti-FIIa activity. AVE5026 is in clinical development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, a frequent complication....... The primary safety outcome was the incidence of major bleeding. RESULTS: The primary efficacy outcome was assessed in 464 patients. There was a significant dose-response across the five AVE5026 groups for VTE prevention (Pincidence of VTE ranging from 5.3% to 44.1% compared with 35...

  17. Comunidades de aves y lepidopteros diurnos y las relaciones entre ellas en bosque nuboso y cafetal de Finca Santa Maura, Jinotega

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Torrez; W. Arendt; J. M. Maes

    2013-01-01

    Para evaluar la diversidad de aves y mariposas ninfálidas visitamos la Estación Biológica Juan Roberto Zarruk en Jinotega, donde colectamos datos en todos los hábitats presentes en la finca. Obtuvimos 123 especies de aves y 29 especies de ninfálidos. El hábitat con mayor riqueza para aves fue el cafetal y para ninfálidos el tacotal. Entre las especies más comunes...

  18. Difracción de luz a través de una pluma de ave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Pérez García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha utilizado una pluma de ave para estudiar la difracción de la luz, tanto de forma cualitativa como cuantitativa. La medida experimental de la separación entre los puntos luminosos del patrón de difracción obtenido con un puntero láser ha permitido determinar el espaciado entre las barbas y entre las bárbulas de la pluma. Los resultados obtenidos muestran un acuerdo satisfactorio con los correspondientes a la estructura típica de una pluma. Los materiales empleados, los conceptos involucrados y los resultados experimentales convierten a esta experiencia en un excelente recurso didáctico para el estudio de la difracción, tanto en los primeros cursos universitarios como en los últimos cursos del Bachillerato.

  19. Motion Rehab AVE 3D: A VR-based exergame for post-stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Mateus; Bazzanello Henrique, Patrícia Paula; Brum, Manoela Rogofski; Colussi, Eliane Lucia; De Marchi, Ana Carolina Bertoletti; Rieder, Rafael

    2017-11-01

    Recent researches about games for post-stroke rehabilitation have been increasing, focusing in upper limb, lower limb and balance situations, and showing good experiences and results. With this in mind, this paper presents Motion Rehab AVE 3D, a serious game for post-stroke rehabilitation of patients with mild stroke. The aim is offer a new technology in order to assist the traditional therapy and motivate the patient to execute his/her rehabilitation program, under health professional supervision. The game was developed with Unity game engine, supporting Kinect motion sensing input device and display devices like Smart TV 3D and Oculus Rift. It contemplates six activities considering exercises in a tridimensional space: flexion, abduction, shoulder adduction, horizontal shoulder adduction and abduction, elbow extension, wrist extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion and abduction. Motion Rehab AVE 3D also report about hits and errors to the physiotherapist evaluate the patient's progress. A pilot study with 10 healthy participants (61-75 years old) tested one of the game levels. They experienced the 3D user interface in third-person. Our initial goal was to map a basic and comfortable setup of equipment in order to adopt later. All the participants (100%) classified the interaction process as interesting and amazing for the age, presenting a good acceptance. Our evaluation showed that the game could be used as a useful tool to motivate the patients during rehabilitation sessions. Next step is to evaluate its effectiveness for stroke patients, in order to verify if the interface and game exercises contribute into the motor rehabilitation treatment progress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efeito de diferentes tratamentos químicos em cama para aves de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lucca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar diferentes tratamentos químicos em cama aviária para frango de corte. Foram 2 utilizadas 500 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos: Hidróxido de cálcio (500g/m ; Sulfato de Alumínio (500g/m ; Sulfato de cálcio (1000g/m ; Sulfato de cálcio 48% + Filosilicato Expandido 28% (500g/m e testemunha com quatro repetições. As amostras de cama aviária foram coletadas a cada sete dias para determinação do pH, umidade e contagem bacteriana nos meios de cultura Ágar MacConkey, Plate Count Agar (PCA. O peso das aves não se diferenciaram estatisticamente aos 42 dias, porém se observou significância na mortalidade e a conversão alimentar, entretanto em relação ao pH da cama o ideal seria após o término da segunda semana fazer nova aplicação dos produtos químicos. Todos os tratamentos foram eficazes quanto à umidade. Na contagem bacteriana com o meio PCA para mesófilas totais houve redução do desenvolvimento bacteriano, porém com o meio Ágar MacConkey para Enterobactérias totais somente o tratamento a base de Sulfato de cálcio (48% + Filosilicato expandido (28% se mostrou significativo (P < 0,05. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se sistema SISVAR (Sistema de Analise Estatístico e Planejamento de Sistemas, 2006.

  1. Aspectos histomorfométricos y cuantitativos del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Aves, Columbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las variaciones estructurales y cuantitativas del ovario de Patagioenas maculosa (Temminck, 1813 durante el ciclo anual 2005 - 2006. Treinta y cinco hembras adultas se capturaron en el Departamento Río Primero (Córdoba, Argentina. Las gónadas se extrajeron, pesaron y fijaron en formol tamponado a pH 7.0 y procesaron de acuerdo a la técnica de inclusión en parafina. En la mayoría de las aves el análisis morfohistológico del ovario reveló un notorio desarrollo de la gónada desde mayo a febrero, observándose 4 ó 5 folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ de 4 mm y folículos preovulatorios. El incremento del peso gonadal con un valor máximo en setiembre y octubre concordó con las características morfológicas de la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Luego de la ovipostura, los escasos folículos en desarrollo y abundantes folículos postovulatorios y atrésicos indicaron el comienzo de la regresión ovárica. En los meses de marzo y abril, el ovario exhibió el aspecto del reposo gonadal con abundantes ovocitos primarios, folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos blancos ≤ 2 mm, escasos folículos vitelogénicos amarillos ≥ 2 mm y folículos atrésicos pequeños. El peso mínimo fue registrado en marzo. De los resultados se infiere que P. maculosa ovipone durante la mayor parte del año y que la prolongada actividad gonadal de esta ave estaría relacionada con la gran disponibilidad de alimento en el área de muestreo.

  2. Seasonal changes in the use of marine food resources by Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: carbon isotopes and osmoregulatory physiology Cambios estacionales en el uso de recursos alimenticios marinos en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (furnariidae, aves: isótopos de carbono y fisiología osmoregulatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Passerines lack functional salt glands and to a large extent avoid feeding on marine invertebrates. An exception is Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Previous studies reported that the contents of its gastrointestinal tract had a lower osmolality than seawater suggesting that birds were supplementing their marine invertebrate diet with terrestrial invertebrates and fresh water at certain periods of the year. We report seasonal changes in the diet of C. nigrofumosus at two contrasting coastal localities in Central Chile and document the potential correlation between weather and feeding habits with osmoregulatory features in this species. We expected that C. nigrofumosus would increase its use of osmotically challenging marine dietary sources when fresh water is available. Animals were collected at El Quisco and Los Vilos from central Chile during the mist cool winter and during the hot and dry summer. Immediatly after capture several physiological and morphological variables were determined at the field. We used stable isotope analysis as a proxy variable to measure the relative contribution of marine and terrestrial sources to the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Our results support the notion that osmoregulatory factors constraint dietary selection: in both localities birds consumed more marine prey when environmental conditions were less stressing, i.e., when lower environment temperatures, higher humidity and more fresh water was available. Our results also indicate that osmoregulatory physiology does not respond in a similar fashion in both seasons and suggest that osmoregulatory physiology of birds is affected by environmental variables in a complex fashionLas aves paseriformes no poseen glándula de la sal funcional y en gran medida evitan el consumo de invertebrados marinos. Una excepción es Cinclodes nigrofumosus. Estudios previos han documentado que el contenido del tracto gastrointestinal posee una osmolalidad menor que el agua de mar, lo que

  3. Tamaño relativo encefálico e índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae Relative encephalic size and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (Aves: Charadriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTELA PISTONE

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la composición cuantitativa encefálica y se estimaron índices cerebrales en Vanellus c. chilensis (tero o queltehue. Se estimó el volumen porcentual e índices cerebrales del encéfalo total y de siete de sus componentes, como así también los núcleos de relevo de las vías trigeminal, visual y acústica. El telencéfalo es el componente de mayor volumen relativo, siendo el neoestriado la estructura telencefálica de tamaño superior. El desarrollo del estriado propiamente dicho, tecto óptico y los núcleos de relevo de las vías visual y trigeminal concuerdan con la dieta carnívora de Vanellus c. chilensis. El tamaño relativo del Wulst y de los núcleos de la vía acústica se asocia a las complicadas tácticas que utiliza esta especie en la defensa del nido. Los índices cerebrales de las estructuras encefálicas analizadas indican que Vanellus c. chilensis es un ave progresivaThe quantitative encephalic composition and cerebral indices of Vanellus c. chilensis (southern lapwing were analyzed. The percentual volumes and cerebral indices for the whole encephalon and for seven components were calculated as well as relevous nuclei of the trigeminal, visual and acoustic pathways. The component of greater relative volume is the telencephalon. The neostriatum is the most developed encephalic structure. Developing of bulbus olfactorius, striatum, tectum opticum and relevous nuclei of visual and trigeminal pathways are according with the carnivorous diet of Vanellus c. chilensis. The relative size of Wulst and relevous nuclei of acoustic pathway appears associated with the complex tactics used by this species in the defense of nest. Cerebral indices of all the analyzed structures suggest that Vanellus c. chilensis is a progresive bird

  4. Estructura de la comunidad y asociación de las aves acuáticas con la heterogeneidad espacial del complejo lagunar Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmara Zárate-Ovando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Para probar la hipótesis que la heterogeneidad espacial determina la diversidad de aves acuáticas en un humedal costero, comparamos la densidad, diversidad y composición de especies de aves acuáticas entre habitats y otras unidades de paisaje del complejo Bahía Magdalena-Almejas, Baja California Sur, México. Se realizaron censos de aves acuáticas en 329 segmentos de habitat de la línea de costa interna del complejo lagunar, desde febrero 2002 hasta febrero 2003. La densidad de aves fue mayor en invierno y otoño en las tres lagunas del área de estudio; de las zonas, la densidad fue mayor en la costa insular; y de los habitats en playa arenosa y dunas pero en los pocos segmentos de sustrato antrópico la densidad fue alta. La diversidad fue significativamente mayor en otoño; en Canal Santo Domingo; en la costa peninsular; y de los habitats en manglar-dunas y manglar. La modificación del habitat natural costero y el disturbio por tránsito de embarcaciones no tuvieron influencia en la densidad o diversidad de aves acuáticas, pero la riqueza acumulada mayor ocurrió en las costas bien conservadas y sin disturbio. El análisis de la composición de especies mostró diferencias entre las asociaciones de Canal Santo Domingo y Bahía Magdalena. El ambiente pelágico y el manglar tuvieron diferencia mayor en la composición de especies con respecto a las asociaciones de los demás habitats, tales diferencias en elencos de especies por habitat sugieren que la comunidad de aves está estructurada de acuerdo a los recursos naturales disponibles de las lagunas, zonas y habitats, en relación con la complejidad estructural de las unidades de paisaje. Las condiciones ecológicas del complejo lagunar ocasionan que las aves acuáticas piscívoras sean el grupo dominante de esta comunidad.Community structure and association of waterbirds with spatial heterogeneity in the Bahía Magdalena-Almejas wetland complex, Baja California Sur, Mexico. To test

  5. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  6. Prava trećih država u gospodarskom pojasu obalne države

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vokić Žužul

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Predmet ovoga rada je analiza prava koja u gospodarskom pojasu obalne države mogu ostvarivati sve obalne i neobalne države. uz detaljan prikaz pravnog uređenja materije u odredbama Konvencije o pravu mora iz 1982., razmatraju se i vladajuća gledišta međunarodnopravne doktrine te rješenja u zakonodavstvima pojedinih zemalja. Posebna pozornost je posvećena ostvarivanju tuh prava u potencijalnom hrvatskom gospodarskom pojasu, prvenstveno mogućim zahtjevima od strane susjednih neobalnih država i država u nepovoljnom geografskom položaju. Sva pitanja razmatrana u ovom radu upućuju na zaključak da ispunjavanje dužnosti prema drugim državama u budućem gospodarskom pojasu RH ne bi trebalo imati utjecaja na donošenje odluke o njegovom proglašenju.

  7. Aves ocasionales en la Sabana de Bogotá y las Lagunas de Fúquene y de Tota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borrero José Ignacio

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available En números anteriores de esta misma revista publiqué algunas listas preliminares anotando la presencia ocasional de ciertas aves en la Sabana de Bogotá y la Laguna de Fúquene. A continuación hago mención de otras especies que he encontrado en las mismas localidades o también en la Laguna de Tota, Boyacá, a 3015 metros de altitud. Por considerarlo de importancia desde el punto de vista de la distribución geográfica, doy también datos referentes a la presencia de un ave migratoria norteamericana (Colymbus niqricollis californicus en la Laguna de Tota.

  8. Nota sobre colisiones de aves en las ventanas de edificios universitarios en Puerto Vallarta, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota presenta las observaciones de 15 colisiones de aves en ventanas de edificios de la Universidad de Guadalajara en Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, a lo largo de 94 días de estudio (24 de enero al 27 de abril del 2003. Columbina passerina fue la especie que presentó el mayor número de fatalidades: ocho.

  9. Estudo retrospectivo de afecções cirúrgicas em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se retrospectivamente as cirurgias realizadas em aves no Serviço de Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, durante período de oito anos. De um total de 90 intervenções cirúrgicas para diagnóstico e/ou tratamento de afecções, 27 foram ortopédicas e 63 de tecidos moles. Quanto ao percentual de cirurgias ortopédicas realizadas segundo as diferentes ordens, observou-se: Psittaciformes 85,19%, Piciformes 7,41%, Anseriformes 3,70% e Falconiformes 3,70%. Para as de tecidos moles os Psittaciformes representaram 92,06%, Columbiformes 3,17%, Passeriformes 3,17% e Anseriformes 1,60%. Entre os tipos de afecções ortopédicas encontradas as fraturas apresentaram a maior ocorrência (88,90%, seguidas de luxação (3,70%, avulsão traumática de extremidade (3,70% e artrite/osteomielite (3,70%. Dentre as afecções cirúrgicas de tecidos moles as neoplasias apresentaram a maior ocorrência (30,15%, seguidas das neoformações cutâneas ou de anexos não neoplásicos (17,46%, neoformações cutâneas sem diagnóstico (7,94%, distocia (7,94%, fístula de papo (7,94%, hérnia abdominal (4,76%, sinusite (4,76%, gangrena de extremidade de membros (3,17%, perfuração de esôfago (3,17%, prolapso de cloaca (3,17%, "Necrose avascular de dígito" (1,59%, ferida na região da quilha (1,59%, perfuração de cavidade celomática (1,59%, neoformação em cavidade celomática sem diagnóstico (1,59%, corpo estranho em trato gastrointestinal (1,59% e otite (1,59%. A distribuição das afecções cirúrgicas segundo as espécies acometidas mostrou o "grupo dos papagaios", representado em sua maioria por espécies do gênero Amazona, como prevalente. O conhecimento das afecções cirúrgicas e espécies de aves mais acometidas acrescentam informações para aqueles que já atuam nesta área e servem como indicador de estudo para futuros cirurgiões de aves.

  10. Checklist das aves do Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pacheco Nunes

    Full Text Available RESUMO Em contraste com vários outros estados brasileiros, apenas recentemente o Mato Grosso do Sul iniciou o inventário organizado de sua avifauna. Relacionamos 630 espécies de aves para o Mato Grosso do Sul, pertencentes a 26 ordens e 74 famílias, que corresponde a 34% da avifauna ocorrente no Brasil. Cerca de 90% dessas espécies apresentam registros comprobatórios de ocorrência no estado conforme as normas propostas pelo CBRO. As demais ainda aguardam documentação comprobatória adequada. Quarenta e cinco espécies foram incluídas na lista terciária por apresentarem problemas de documentação comprobatória devido à ausência de circunstanciação e distribuição incompatível. A grande diversidade de fitofisionomias e paisagens sob influência dos biomas Cerrado, Pantanal, Chaco, Bosques Chiquitanos e Mata Atlântica são responsáveis em parte, pela diversidade de espécies ocorrentes no Mato Grosso do Sul. No entanto, várias dessas fitofisionomias e paisagens já foram suprimidas e/ou alteradas pela pecuária e principalmente monoculturas ( Pinus, Eucalyptus e cana-de-açúcar. Trinta e sete espécies de aves ocorrentes no estado encontram-se presentes em listas de espécies ameaçadas de extinção em âmbito global e/ou nacional. Ainda existem grandes lacunas de conhecimento sobre a avifauna sul-matogrossense, notadamente no Pantanal do Paiaguás e em regiões limítrofes com o estado de Goiás e países como Paraguai (Chaco e a Bolívia (Bosques Chiquitanos. Instituições como Embrapa Pantanal e Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, bem como o trabalho de consultores ambientais e observadores de aves foram relevantes no avanço do conhecimento sobre a avifauna no estado. Grande parte dos museus institucionais no exterior abriga exemplares coletados no Mato Grosso do Sul, dentre os quais se destacam o Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, EUA, o American Museum of Natural History (Nova York, EUA, o The Field

  11. Deposição diária e sazonal de gordura subcutânea em Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied (Aves, Furnariidae Daily and seasonal deposition of subcutaneous fat in Phacellodomus rufifrons, a Neotropical ovenbird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando F. Goulart

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aves que habitam regiões temperadas acumulam gordura a fim de sobreviver às condições extremas da noite. Níveis de deposição de gordura nessas aves aumentam ao longo do dia e atingem um pico no entardecer e diminuem ao longo da noite, quando a alimentação não é possível. Aliado a isso, existe o aumento estacional dos depósitos de lipídeos assim que o inverno se aproxima, e permite que a ave sobreviva naquela estação. Pouco se conhece sobre esses padrões em aves tropicais. O presente trabalho verifica a dinâmica de deposição de gordura de Phacellodomus rufifrons (Wied, 1821, um furnarídeo (Passeriformes, Furnariidae endêmico da região Neotropical, em um ambiente tropical bastante sazonal, o cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, no Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, município de Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais. Os dados de gordura subcutânea foram classificados visualmente em aves capturadas. Foram estabelecidas quatro categorias para a variação da gordura subcutânea depositada na cavidade da fúrcula. Foi encontrado um aumento significativo nos níveis de gordura ao longo do dia, como para espécies de regiões temperadas, mas não ouve variação ao longo das estações do ano. A massa corporal média não variou ao longo do ano e nem ao longo do dia. Os resultados mostram que variações diárias no cerrado podem atuar como fator de estresse que pode desencadear a adaptações fisiológicas para atravessar a noite. Por outro lado, variações estacionais podem ser balanceadas pelo habito dos indivíduos de P. rufifrons pernoitarem durante todo o ano dentro do ninho, um comportamento relativamente raro entre os Passeriformes.It is known that birds inhabiting temperate regions accumulate fat in order to survive a night of extreme conditions. Levels of fat depots arise as the day goes by, reaching its pick at dusk and decreasing along the night hours when no

  12. Patrón de actividad y abundancia de aves en un relleno sanitario de Chile central Abundance and activity-pattern of birds at a landfill in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los rellenos sanitarios constituyen un foco de atracción para la avifauna, aunque las implicancias de esta relación no han sido exploradas en el país. Nosotros monitoreamos la actividad de aves en un relleno sanitario ubicado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Santiago, capital administrativa de Chile. Las principales aves en el área fueron la gaviota dominicana (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, el tiuque (Milvago chimango Vieillot, la garza boyera {Buculbus ibis Linnaeus y el águila (Geranoaetus melanoleucus Swann. La gaviota dominicana alcanzó los valores de abundancia más altos (entre 358 y 1950 individuos por día y destacó por su comportamiento bimodal, directamente relacionado con los niveles de operación en el relleno sanitario. En el caso del águila se registró una conducta carroñera cleptoparásita sobre los tiuques, estos últimos seleccionan desechos orgánicos (pescados, tripas, carne, que les son usurpados por ellas. Finalmente señalamos medidas simples de manejo que deberían disminuir los números de aves en este tipo de actividad industrial.Landfills are considered an attractive habitat for several bird species; however, implications of this condition have not yet been explored in the country. We monitored birds' activity patterns that use a landfill located in the vicinity of Santiago, Chile's capital. Main birds recorded in the area were, Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, Chimango caracara (Milvago chimango Vieillot, Cattle egret (Buculbus ibis Linnaeus and Black Chested Eagle (Geranoaetus melanoleucus Swann. Kelp Gull was the most abundant species, (with values between 358 to 1950 individuals per day and that also displayed a bimodal behavior linked directly to the landfill operation levels. In the case of Black Chested Eagle, we observed a kleptoparasitic behavior over Chimango Caracara which selected organic offal (fishes, innards, meat for its feeding and that are stolen by the eagle. Finally we

  13. Cativeiro de aves como fonte de Cryptococcus neoformans na cidade de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiú Wander Fernando de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans é a levedura capsulada causadora de criptococose em humanos e animais. A variedade neoformans, encontrada em diversas fontes ambientais, inclusive habitats de aves, é importante causa de mortalidade em indivíduos com AIDS em todo o Mundo. Contudo, ainda não há estudos sobre a sua ecologia na região Centro Oeste brasileira, onde há registro da ocorrência de casos humanos da micose. Para estudar fontes saprofíticas de C. neoformans, na cidade de Campo Grande, foram coletadas 20 amostras de excretas de aves em distintos ambientes. Suspensão das amostras em salina estéril foram semeadas em placas com meio ágar níger. Após 5 dias, colônias mucóides marrom-escuro foram subcultivadas para identificação através de provas morfofisiológicas, determinação da variedade e sorotipagem. C. neoformans var. neoformans sorotipo A foi isolado de 10 (50% das amostras, comprovando a ocorrência saprofítica de C. neoformans na cidade de Campo Grande, relacionada a habitat de aves em cativeiro.

  14. Aves de la confluencia del Caquetá y Orteguaza (Base aérea de Tres Esquinas Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available Los autores enumeran 156 especies y subespecies de aves coleccionadas (410 ejemplares y 24 adicionales observadas entre el 11 de agosto y el 18 de septiembre de 1947 alrededor de la base aérea militar de Tres Esquinas, cerca de la confluencia de los ríos Caquetá y Orteguaza, en la Amazonia colombiana. Entre ellas, 10 se registran por primera vez en la avifauna de Colombia.  La introducción comprende una breve reseña geográfica (un mapa y ecológica (tres fotografías de la región, y algunos datos de interes ornitogeográfico acerca de la presencia allá de tres migratorias (2 del sur y 1 del norte y otras 28 aves que muy raras veces han sido señaladas en Colombia. Además de las diez aves nuevas para este país, se extiende hasta el Alto Caquetá el área de dispersión geográfica de otras 22 (12 colecionadas y 10 observadas que son mas o menos comunes en otras partes del territorio colombiano, pero que hasta ahora no habían sido señaladas en aquella región.

  15. Differential effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in Valdivian temperate rainforests Efectos diferenciales de la fragmentación del hábitat sobre aves y mamíferos del bosque valdiviano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOUGLAS A. KELT

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Four recent studies on Chilean vertebrates underscore the very different effects that habitat fragmentation may have under different conditions. In southern Chile, birds exhibited significant species-area relationships, whereas the more depauperate small mammal community did not. The avifauna of highly isolated rainforest remnants in Fray Jorge National Park (IV Región presented steeper species-area relations than those in southern Chile, reminiscent of land-bridge islands after faunal relaxation. The small mammal results were unexpected but may reflect the reduced vagility and immigration potential of this group. Additionally, the inter-remnant matrix habitat may support large populations of only some species, allowing them to capitalize on resources that are available in forest remnants. Such an effect is less likely for birds due to their greater vagility. Although the influence of remnant area is more clearly demonstrated for birds in Chile, it appears that small mammal assemblages may be more immediately impacted by habitat fragmentation than are birds, and that further fragmentation of temperate rainforests will seriously impoverish the small mammal assemblage, many of whose members are endemic to this region. Further research should emphasize the role of the inter-remnant matrix, of habitat corridors, and of the relative sensitivity of different species to matrix/corridor quality and remnant isolationCuatro estudios recientes en vertebrados chilenos subrayan los efectos muy diversos que la fragmentación del hábitat puede tener bajo diversas condiciones. En el sur de Chile, las aves exhibieron relaciones significativas entre la riqueza de especies y el área de hábitat ("especies-area", mientras que tal relación no se observó en la comunidad de pequeños mamíferos, la cual tiene menos especies. La avifauna de los fragmentos remanentes altamente aislados del Parque Nacional Fray Jorge (IV Región presentaron relaciones especies

  16. Actividad reproductiva de Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae en Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Isla de Aves, una isla a 650km de La Guaira, Venezuela, protegida como Refugio de Fauna Silvestre, constituye el segundo sitio de mayor anidación de la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus 1758 en el Caribe. El seguimiento de la población comenzó en 1972 y de manera más continua desde 1978. Los datos históricos indican que la captura de hembras en la isla, afectó severamente la población hasta 1978, cuando fue construida una base científico-naval. Durante las temporadas de anidación entre 2001-2008 con excepción de 2003 y 2004, las hembras fueron marcadas con placas metálicas y medidas. Asimismo, se muestreó durante 458 noches, en donde se observaron 5 154 eventos, con un máximo de 53 por noche. Los posibles eventos no observados fueron calculados ajustando la distribución temporal de eventos observados a una curva normal. El total de eventos estimados varió de =637.1±106.6 en 2001 a =2 853±42.5 en 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5gl=60.37, p<0.0001. El intervalo entre reanidaciones fue de =10.7±1.32 días. La frecuencia de anidación se calculó en =1.71±1.6 veces por hembra. El número de hembras estimadas varió entre =373±12.5 para 2001 y =1 669±56.1 para 2008 (ANOVA F(5.6gl=89.42, p<0.0001. La tendencia es significativa (r=0.842, p=0.036. Los resultados indican que el número de hembras que anidan en Isla de Aves ha aumentado, y se sugiere que más de 30 años de protección del área de reproducción está resultando en un creciente número de hembras.

  17. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Alvarez, A.; Modrý, David; Foronda, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2016), s. 1817-1825 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeria barbarae n. sp * Alectoris barbara * Canary Island Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  18. Primer registro de cráneos asignados a Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae procedentes de la Formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno Medio-tardío, Chile First record of skulls assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae from the Bahía Inglesa formation (middle-late Miocene, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los cráneos de los Spheniscidae (como los de todas las aves, aunque escasos en el registro paleontológico, muestran importantes caracteres a nivel taxonómico. Hasta el momento se conocían solo seis cráneos en todo el mundo: Paraptenodytes antarctica y una nueva especie de Spheniscidae procedentes de las formaciones Gaiman (Mioceno temprano y Puerto Madryn (Mioceno tardío de Argentina, respectivamente; Spheniscus megaramphus y 3S. urbinai de la formación Pisco (Mioceno tardío de Perú, Marplesornis novaezealandiae del Plioceno de Nueva Zelanda y un resto de Sphenicidae cf Spheniscus procedente de la formación Bahía Inglesa (Mioceno medio-tardío. De esta última unidad provienen cinco restos craneanos recientemente descubiertos en la localidad de Caldera (Región de Atacama, Chile, los cuales fueron descritos y asignados preliminarmente a Palaeospheniscus. Estos materiales constituyen el primer registro de cráneos para la especie y significan un importante aporte al conocimiento de la avifauna fósil de Chile y en particular de la formación Bahía InglesaAlthough the skulls of the Spheniscidae are unusual in the paleontologic record, they show important features useful in the systematics of the group, as well as in the rest of the birds. Until now, fossil occurrences were restricted to six skulls: Paraptenodytes antarctica and one new species from the Gaiman formation (Early Miocene and Puerto Madryn formation (late Miocene of Argentina, respectively; Spheniscus megaramphus and S. urbinai from the Pisco Formation (Late Miocene, Perú; Marplesornis novaezealandiae from New Zealand (Pliocene; and Spheniscidae cf. Spheniscus from the Bahía Inglesa Formation (Middle-Late Miocene, Chile. Five new materials have been exhumed from this last unit. These skulls, which come from the Caldera locality (Region of Atacama, Chile, have been preliminarily assigned to Palaeospheniscus (Aves, Spheniscidae, constituting the first skulls described for

  19. Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi (Eucestoda, Hymenolepididae from Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves: Anatidae: first record for the Neotropical Region and a new host Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi (Eucestoda: Hymenolepididae em Netta peposaca (Vieillot (Aves, Anatidae: primeiro registro para Região Neotropical e novo hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane F. da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred eight rosy-billed pochards, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816, collected in Brazil and Argentina were examined for endoparasites. Collection sites included the municipalities of Santa Vitória do Palmar and Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil (wintering site and Alvear, Corrientes Province, northern Argentina (nesting site. Birds were frozen in dry ice after collection. During necropsy they were categorized according to sex and maturation, either adult or juvenile. The cestode Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi, 1896 was found (prevalence 68.5%, mean infection was 2. The mean prevalence of D. laevis in Alvear (25.9% was higher than found in Jaguarão and Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande do Sul (19%, and could be related to the nesting site and to the period when the birds may ingest a higher amount of food. This is the first record of a species of the genus Diploposthe in anatideans from South America, and the first record of the species in N. peposaca. Details of the cirrus pouch and vagina were described based on histological sections.Com o objetivo de conhecer a helmintofauna do marrecão, Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816, na América do Sul, 108 aves foram amostradas. Os pontos de captura foram os municípios de Santa Vitória do Palmar e Jaguarão, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil (pólo de invernia, e em Alvear, Província de Corrientes, região norte da Argentina (pólo de nidificação, entre 2002 e 2004. As aves foram congeladas em gelo seco logo após o abate. Durante o procedimento de necropsia tiveram o sexo identificado, e foram classificadas de acordo com estado de maturação sexual, em juvenil e adulto. O cestóide Diploposthe laevis (Bloch Jacobi, 1896 foi encontrado com prevalência média de 68,5% e intensidade média de infecção de dois espécimes por hospedeiro. A prevalência média de D. laevis em Alvear (25,9% foi maior do que a encontrada em Jaguarão e Santa Vitória do Palmar, Rio Grande

  20. Presencia de campylobacter jejuni en aves de corral y sus manipuladores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available En una granja procesadora de aves en la ciudad de Cali, donde se sacrifican 12.000 animales diarios, se escogió para buscar Campylobacter jejuni una muestra de 120 pollos tomando como base una prevalencia del 80% y empleando un muestreo sistemático para dar una mayor cobertura teniendo en cuenta que la procedencia de los animales variaba diariamente. El porcentaje de positividad en materia fecal fue de 98.33% (118/120. Con la finalidad de averiguar el grado de higiene empleado en la manipulación de las canales, se frotó la superficie de ellos antes y después de introducirle las vísceras que es sabido van dentro del pollo al llegar al consumidor; se encontró que las canales con vísceras estaban contaminadas en un 18.33% (11/60 mientras que antes de este procedimiento la contaminación tan solo fue del 8.33% (5/60. También fueron examinadas 62 personas para buscar en ellas el C. jejuni encontrhndose en 5 (8.06% la bacteria. A todas las cepas aisladas se les probó la sensibilidad a la eritromicina usando disco de 15 Ug observándose un 100% de sensibilidad a la droga.

  1. Composição das comunidades de aves em duas florestas secundárias contíguas no Sudeste do Brasil. Birds communities composition of two secondary forests in the Southeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas décadas são necessárias até queuma floresta secundária apresente uma estruturasemelhante à de uma área em estádio avançado.Há espécies de aves florestais que dependem deflorestas avançadas, enquanto outras utilizamflorestas secundárias. Neste trabalho se comparaa riqueza de espécies de aves, a estrutura tróficada comunidade e a presença de espécies dedistribuição restrita em duas florestas secundáriascontíguas, mas com estruturas de vegetação distintas:os parques estaduais Alberto Löfgren - PEALe Cantareira - PEC. As aves foram amostradas emtrajetos efetuados entre agosto de 2005 e dezembrode 2008, e a vegetação foi avaliada a partir de 100pontos quadrantes por parque. A riqueza e onúmero de espécies de aves com distribuiçãorestrita foram significativamente maiores no PEC.As guildas insetívoros do sub-bosque, insetívorosterrestres e frugívoros terrestres apresentaramriqueza menor de espécies no PEAL em relação aoPEC. Concluiu-se que a avifauna florestal doPEAL é um subconjunto da avifauna do PEC,que a vegetação menos desenvolvida do primeiroe dificuldades de estabelecimento de populaçõessão as possíveis causas das diferenças observadasentre os parques e que ações de manejo podemaumentar a riqueza no PEAL, o que seriaimportante regionalmente.Many decades are required to asecondary forest shows a structure similar to anarea in advanced stage. Some forest bird speciesdepend on forest in advanced stage, while othersuse secondary forests. This work compares therichness of bird species, the trophic structure of thecommunity and the presence of species ofrestricted distribution in two adjacent secondaryforests, but with different structures of vegetation:the State Parks Alberto Löfgren - PEAL andCantareira - PEC. Birds were sampled on pathsmade between August 2005 and December 2008and vegetation was evaluated from 100 points perpark. The richness and number of bird specieswith restricted

  2. Variación temporal y espacial de aves playeras en la laguna Barra de Navidad, Jalisco, en tres temporadas no reproductivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hay un escaso conocimiento de las aves playeras en los humedales costeros de Jalisco, y en particular en la laguna Barra de Navidad. El presente trabajo contribuye al conocimiento de este grupo de aves y describe su distribución temporal y espacial en la laguna Barra de Navidad durante tres temporadas no reproductivas (1999-2000, 2006-2007 y 2008-2009. Se realizaron censos mensuales de noviembre-abril en las tres temporadas con el fin de registrar todas las especies de aves playeras. Se identificaron 19 especies (tres residentes y 16 visitantes de invierno, de las cuales Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa y Tringa semipalmata presentaron la mayor abundancia. Doce especies son consideradas como prioritarias en la “Estrategia para la Conservación y Manejo de las Aves Playeras y su Hábitat en México”. El mayor número de especies fue registrado en noviembre, diciembre y marzo en la primera y tercera temporada. El mayor número de individuos fue registrado alimentándose en marea baja, principalmente en diciembre, enero y febrero de la primera y tercera temporada. En marea baja hubo un mayor número de especies e individuos alimentándose en la zona C. Esta zona se caracterizó por tener sustratos lodosos expuestos durante marea baja y que fueron aprovechados por las aves para alimentarse. La laguna Barra de Navidad proporcionó hábitats de alimentación y descanso para las aves residentes y migratorias. Sin embargo, estos hábitats se ven amenazados por las actividades humanas realizadas dentro de la laguna, que sin duda tendrán consecuencias negativas para la distribución y abundancia de las aves playeras.

  3. Territorial behaviour and dominance hierarchy of Anthracothorax nigricollis Vieillot 1817 (Aves: Trochilidae) on food resources

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo-Silva, Lucas Eduardo; Bessa, Eduardo [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Dominant species are those which delimit and defend territories from other individuals of the same or different species. Subordinate species are those which, furtive and sneakily, use sources of nectar from other individuals. This study aimed to describe the aggressive interactions between species of hummingbirds, define which species are dominant and which are subordinate, investigate if the sharing of resources occurs during the visits, and compare the behaviour of the dominant species in d...

  4. Frugivoria por aves em Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae em ambientes antropizados na região de Sorocaba–SP. Frugivory by birds in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae at anthropic environment in Sorocaba–SP region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Francine LAMBERTI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As aves, assim como toda fauna consumidora de frutos possuem grande importância no processo de dispersão de sementes. O declínio de suas populações pode gerar consequências para a reprodução e para o crescimento populacional dessas plantas zoocóricas, se a dispersão não for adequada ou se a quantidade de sementes dispersas for insuficiente. A espécie Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae, nativa do Brasil, é popularmente conhecida como pitangueira. Possui frutos globosos e sulcados, apresentando cores brilhantes desde o laranja, até vermelho ou preto, com polpa carnosa e agridoce, normalmente com umaa duas sementes. O presente estudo caracterizou as espécies de aves consumidoras dos frutos de E. uniflora, em dois ambientes da região de Sorocaba, Estado de São Paulo. O estudo foi realizado entre fevereiro e setembro de 2012 com seis indivíduos de E. uniflora, sendo três em ambiente altamente antropizado, e três em área menos antropizada. A avifauna foi amostrada por meio de observações focais, considerando sua riqueza, abundância relativa, frequência de visitas, comportamento e diversidade. O padrão fenológico de E. uniflora também foi descrito, assim como a quantidade de frutos produzidos. Foram realizadas 116 horasde observação focal, durante as quais foram registradas 185 visitas de aves pertencentes àsfamílias Thamnophilidae, Vireonidae, Turdidae, Thraupidae consumindo seus frutos. Os resultadosobtidos indicam que áreas menos antropizadas, mais arborizadas e com fragmentos mais próximos, como a área urbana de Araçoiaba, apresentam maior riqueza, abundância e diversidade de aves consumidoras de E. uniflora, quando comparada com a área urbana de Sorocaba. The birds, as all frugivorous animals, have great importance to seed dispersion process. Populational decline can generate consequences for the reproduction and population growth of many zoochoric plants if the dispersion is not adequate or if the amount of

  5. Abundance of two Dendrocincla woodcreepers (aves: Dendrocolaptidae in relation to forest structure in Central Amazonia O uso do habitat por duas espécies de arapaçus Dendrocincla (aves: Dendrocolaptidae em relação a estrutura da floresta na Amazônia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cintra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to verify how the structure of the forest affects the occurence and abundance of neotropical birds. Our research was undertaken between January 2002 and July 2004 at the Reserva Ducke, near Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W in central Amazonia, to verify how the forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of two bird species: the Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa and the White-chinned Woodcreeper Dendrocincla merula. Bird species occurrence was recorded using lines of 20 mist-nets (one sample unit, along 51 1-km transects distributed along 9 pararel 8 km trails covering an area of 6400 ha. Along these transects, we placed 50 x 50m plots where we recorded forest structure components (tree abundance, canopy openness, leaf litter, standing dead trees, logs, proximity to streams, and altitude. We then related these variables to bird occurence and abundance using multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models, respectively. We found that D. fuliginosa frequently used plateau areas; being more abundant in areas with more trees. On the other hand, D. merula occurred more frequently and was more abundant in areas with low tree abundance. Our results suggest that although both species overlap in the reserve (both were recorded in at least 68% of the sampled sites, they differ in the way they use the forest microhabitats. Therefore, local variation in the forest structure may contribute to the coexistence of congeneric species and may help to maintain local alpha diversity.Em florestas neotropicais, poucos estudos tem sido conduzidos para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta o uso desse ambiente por aves. Este estudo foi realizado entre Janeiro de 2002 e Julho de 2004 na Reserva Ducke próximo a Manaus (02º55',03º01'S; 59º53',59º59'W, para verificar como a estrutura da floresta afeta a ocorrência e abundância de duas espécies de aves: o Arapaçu-pardo, Dendrocincla

  6. New drive axles for hybrid applications in low-floor city busses. The electric axle AVE 130; Neue Antriebsachse fuer Hybridapplikationen in Niederflur-Stadtbussen. Die Elektroachse AVE 130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solka, Ulrich [ZF Passau GmbH (Germany); Mueller, Axel M. [ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the mechanically constructional structure of the electrically driven low-floor axle AVE 130 of ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Friedrichshafen, Federal Republic of Germany). The characteristics of the electric drive are presented with the particularities of the implemented asynchronous machine and the road performances which can be developed by a city bus using this axle. Also the system characteristics of a hybrid bus with serial hybrid drive system concerning to aggregate arrangement, mass balances and the interaction of the aggregates in the drive briefly are discussed. The results of numerical simulation regarding fuel saving potential in these systems round the remarks off.

  7. Resíduos de aves e suínos: Potencialidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Luan Hachmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento intenso da população mundial aumenta a demanda por alimentos. As carnes de frango e de suíno são as fontes mais exploradas de proteína na alimentação humana. Porém, com os métodos intensivos de produção, esses sistemas tem gerado insatisfação quanto ao aspecto ambiental e tem sido questionados quanto à sua sustentabilidade. A disposição inadequada dos resíduos gerados nos criatórios de suínos e aves afeta diretamente a qualidade do meio ambiente e a saúde pública. Assim deve-se buscar alternativas para minimizar os impactos causados ao meio, melhorando o aproveitamento e destinação desses resíduos. A aplicação desses resíduos nas áreas de produção agrícola é favorável à, tendo em vista que são uma fonte de nutrientes de grande demanda pelas culturas. Além disso é uma forma sustentável para destinação dos resíduos, já que promove seu reaproveitamento de forma a não poluir o ambiente e com alto retorno econômico. Dessa forma é possível aliar preservação ambiental com progresso econômico, promovendo uma produção sustentável.

  8. Are camouflaged seeds less attacked by wild birds? Sementes camufladas são menos atacadas por aves silvestres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat, corn and rice crops in Brazil use seeds treated with systemic insecticide/nematicide carbofuran, mixed to rhodamine B red dye. Carbofuran is toxic and rhodamine B is attractive to wild birds that eat up these seeds, resulting in notable mortality during planting. A field experiment was performed in southeast Brazil to evaluate if camouflaged seeds would be less consumed by wild birds in comparison to commercial seeds with red-colored rhodamine B and aposematic blue seeds. Camouflaged seeds were less removed than seeds with rhodamine B and natural colors. The camouflaging was more effective in the presence of irregularities and litter. There was no removal of blue-colored seeds. As legislation requires treated seeds to receive a different color to avoid accidents with humans, camouflaging may be used as replacement of rhodamine B to reduce mortality rates of wild birds.Plantações de trigo milho e arroz no Brasil utilizam sementes tratadas com o inseticida e nematicida sistêmico carbofuran, associado ao corante vermelho rodamina B. O carbofuran é tóxico e a rodamina B é atrativa às aves silvestres, as quais consomem estas sementes, resultando em notável mortalidade durante o plantio. Um experimento realizado em campo agrícola no sudeste do Brasil mostrou que sementes camufladas foram menos removidas por aves silvestres do que sementes com rodamina B. A camuflagem foi potencializada em presença de irregularidades e serrapilheira no solo. Não houve remoção de sementes de cor azul, mas a formulação granular de cor azul tem causado mortalidade de aves nos USA e Canadá. Como sementes tratadas com agrotóxicos devem, de acordo com a legislação, receber coloração diferenciada para evitar acidentes com humanos, a camuflagem pode ser utilizada, substituindo a rodamina B.

  9. Nuevos registros de aves en el bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevos registros y ampliaciones en el área de distribución de Harpagus bidentatus, Glaucidium sanchezi, Attila spadiceus, Cyanolyca nana, Oreoscoptes montanus y Peucedramus taeniatus. Estas seis especies de aves fueron registradas en el bosque mesófilo de montaña del estado de Hidalgo, México. Dos de estas especies (G. sanchezi y C. nana son especies de distribución restringida, lo que eleva a tres el número de especies de distribución restringida en la zona. Esto enfatiza la importancia de esta región en la conservación de la diversidad de aves. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos nuevos registros en la obtención de inventarios completos de la avifauna de la región y en la conservación de su diversidad de aves.

  10. O potencial do DNA barcode na identificação de espécies de aves neotropicais

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Fernanda Mussi Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi organizado em cinco capítulos. No primeiro é apresentada uma breve revisão da bibliografia relacionada ao DNA barcode, apontando as aplicações e os limites desse marcador. Os resultados obtidos são apresentados nos três capítulos subsequentes. O segundo capítulo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial do método de DNA barcoding na distinção de 783 amostras de 228 espécies diferentes de aves neotropicais de 16 ordens baseado na diferença dos valores de divergências intra...

  11. La diversidad en aves como factor determinante de la interacción entre ecosistemas del departamento del Huila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ramos Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se realizó una descripción y análisis, en primera aproximación, de la oferta en diversidad de aves en el predio La Primavera, vereda Estambul, municipio de Teruel, departamento del Huila. A partir de la información generada, se procedió a comparar los resultados obtenidos con los reportes de aves inventariadas en el estudio GEMA (2006 desarrollado por el Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander Von Humboldt, en el Corredor Biológico entre los PNN Puracé y Cueva de Los Guácharos, con el fin de determinar la relación entre estos espacios naturales a partir del concepto de interacción entre ecosistemas, entendido como las relaciones de suministro, flujo e intercambio de materiales, energía o información, que para el casoque compete al estudio se refiere al movimiento de aves de un ecosistema a otro. El predio La Primavera, ubicado en el municipio de Teruel en el occidentedel departamento del Huila, a una altitud promedio de 900 m. s. n. m., perteneciente a la zona de vida de bosque seco tropical, sirvió de sitio de trabajo para la identificación de 32 especies de aves medianteobservación visual directa y captura con redes de niebla, de las cuales hubo dos familias que resultaron comunes a los dos estudios, pertenecientes a laThraupinae (tángaras y Tyrannidae (atrapamoscas, lo cual indica su capacidad de adaptación a pisos altitudinales diferentes. Caso particular merece la especie Tangara vitriolina (tángara rastrojera, la cual está considerada casi endémica, lo que se traduce en una alta vulnerabilidad y de especial cuidado yvigilancia. Se sugiere la realización de otras valoraciones similares en sitios que permitan establecer esta conexión ecosistémica con el fin de identificar aquellas especies que presenten características comunes para ecosistemas diferentes.

  12. Contribución al conocimiento de los malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera de aves peruanas. Parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se reporta nueve especies de malófagos colectados de aves peruanas. Dos malófagos Amblycera: Heteromenopon laticapitis y Menacanthus pici, así como siete malófagos Ischnocera: Alcedoffula theresae, Brueelia brunneinucha, Chelopistes meleagridis, Columbicola columbae, Paragoniocotes aratingae, Penenirmus jungens y Saemundssonia (Saemundssonia lari, fueron determinados mediante el diagnóstico morfológico. Se realiza una breve descripción de cada malófago, así como la discusión de sus hospederos y distribución.

  13. O papel das aves na dispersão e germinação de sementes do pau-incenso (Pittoporum undulatum Vent. em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica. Bird role in seed dispersion and germination of Pittosporum undulatum Vent., seeds in an Atlantic Forest remnant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lopes CAMPAGNOLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A invasão biológica pela espécie Pittosporum undulatum Vent. pode ocasionar degradação de ecossistemas nativos, perda de espécies e de serviços ecossistêmicos. Além das características biológicas que favorecem seu estabelecimento, seus frutos são fontes alimentares para algumas espécies de aves, que acabam por dispersar suas sementes. O presente estudo foi realizado no Parque Estadual Alberto Löfgren, e visou verificar as espécies de aves potencialmente dispersoras do pau-incenso, comparar os registros de alimentação obtidos para esta árvore e para outras seis espécies arbóreas locais e avaliar a influência da ingestão das sementes pelas aves na sua taxa de germinação. A coleta de dados consistiu em observações focais das aves em atividade de forrageio no pau-incenso e a captura de indivíduos com redes de neblina para coleta de sementes nas fezes. Testes de germinação foram realizados com as sementes coletadas das fezes e diretamente dos frutos maduros. No total, foram encontradas 107 sementes nas fezes de oito sabiás, pertencentes a três espécies: Turdus rufiventris, Turdus amaurochalinus e Turdus albicollis. Não encontramos diferenças significativas nas taxas de germinação entre os tratamentos. Apesar da passagem das sementes pelo trato digestório das aves não ter alterado significativamente as taxas de germinação, os sabiás podem ser importantes dispersores do pau-incenso, permitindo a colonização de novas áreas por esta espécie exótica e intensificando seu processo de invasão biológica na Mata Atlântica.Biological invasion by the species Pittosporum undulatum Vent. could bring degradation to native ecosystems and loss of biodiversity and ecological services. Besides the biological features favoring the establishment of the species in natural environments, some bird species use its fruits as food sources, being responsible for its seed dispersion. The present study was held at Alberto L

  14. Conhecimento de moradores sobre frugivoria por aves em uma região urbanizada e com fragmentos de restinga no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cestari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p221 O conhecimento ecológico é importante para revelar a consciência ambiental de pessoas, refletindo em ações para conservação no meio ambiente onde vivem. No presente estudo foi avaliado o conhecimento de moradores sobre frugivoria por aves em fragmentos da restinga, um ecossistema ameaçado pela crescente ocupação humana. Entrevistas semi-estruturadas foram aplicadas para 73 moradores em dois bairros da cidade de Itanhaém, litoral sul do estado de São Paulo. A maioria das respostas evidenciou pouca observação de frugivoria por aves em plantas nativas. Os moradores demonstraram dificuldades na identificação de aves frugívoras e na discriminação de plantas nativas da região. No entanto, possuíam conhecimento lógico de processos ecológicos envolvendo as interações entre aves e plantas. A ave popularmente conhecida como tiê-sangue (Ramphocelus bresilius e a palmeira jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana foram mais frequentemente citadas. Essas espécies são facilmente encontradas na restinga da região e apresentam características estruturais que atraíram a atenção das pessoas tais como cor vermelho intenso e elevada altura, respectivamente. Dessa forma, as epécies citadas podem ser utilizadas para trabalhos iniciais envolvendo identificação de aves e plantas, e para o aprofundamento da educação ambiental dos moradores locais.

  15. Contenido de metales pesados en hígado y plumas de aves marinas afectadas por el accidente del "Prestige" en la costa de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    M Pérez López; F Cid Galán; D Hernández Moreno; AL Oropesa Jiménez; AM López Beceiro; LE Fidalgo Álvarez; F Soler Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Las aves marinas son organismos situados en la cumbre de las cadenas alimentarias oceánicas, lo que permite su empleo en programas de biomonitorización para evaluar el efecto de los más diversos contaminantes sobre estos sensibles ecosistemas. En el presente trabajo se han analizado las concentraciones de distintos metales pesados (Pb, Zn, Cd y Cu) en hígado y plumas de tres especies de aves marinas (arao, frailecillo y alca) directamente afectadas por el vertido de crudo...

  16. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Apaza; Aída Figari

    2014-01-01

    Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados ...

  17. Doenças de aves selvagens diagnosticadas na Universidade Federal do Paraná (2003-2007 Diseases of wild birds diagnosed at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil (2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizah G.C. Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os 253 atendimentos realizados em aves selvagens entre agosto de 2003 a agosto de 2006 no Ambulatório de Animais Selvagens do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal do Paraná, 45 casos (17,8% referiram-se a consultas à espécie Serinus canarius (canário-belga. Dentre as aves atendidas e suas respectivas ordens obteve-se uma maior ocorrência da ordem Psittaciforme. As enfermidades mais freqüentemente visualizadas foram as afecções traumáticas com 56 casos (22,13%. Destas, 17 animais (30,91% possuíam algum tipo de fratura, sendo a fratura rádio-ulnar a mais comum, com 17,65% de ocorrência. As outras moléstias mais relatadas foram a presença de ectoparasitos (12,50% e endoparasitos (10,68%, doenças respiratórias (10,42%, procedimentos preventivos (7,55%, afecções dermatológicas (6,51%, neoplasias (4,95%, afecções oftálmicas (4,43%, afecções gastrintestinais (3,91%, caquexia (3,39%, afecções neurológicas (2,86%, automutilação (2,86%, obesidade (2,34%, agressão por outros animais (1,56 %, doenças nutricionais (1,30%, retenção de ovo (1,04%, bouba aviária (0,78% e gota úrica (0,52%. Tendo em vista a alta prevalência de traumatismos e presença de ecto e endo parasitas que poderiam ser evitados se estivesse ocorrendo um manejo adequado com a ave, sugere-se a necessidade que o Médico Veterinário assuma um papel mais efetivo na Medicina Veterinária Preventiva buscando informar e debater questões referentes ao modo correto de alimentação, criação e manejo das aves, assim como também o esclarecimento acerca das questões referentes às zoonoses quando da consulta veterinária.From 253 wild birds attended at the Wild Animal Ambulatory of the Veterinary Hospital, Paraná Federal University, between August 2003 and August 2006, 45 cases (17.8% were related to the species Serinus canarius (Belgian Canary. Within these attended birds and its respective orders, most morbid conditions occurred with the

  18. Helmintos gastrointestinales en aves acuáticas de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, México Gastrointestinal helminth in waterfowl of the upper Lerma river sub-basin, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez-Haro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un inventario y se calcularon los parámetros de infección de los helmintos gastrointestinales de 36 ejemplares de aves acuáticas pertenecientes a las familias Anatidae, Rallidae y Threskiornithidae, procedentes de la subcuenca alta del río Lerma, Estado de México, identificándose 20 especies: 9 tremátodos, 8 céstodos, 2 nemátodos y 1 acantocéfalo. De las 8 especies de céstodos, 6 son registros nuevos para el país y Pseudocorynosoma constrictum se registra por primera vez en Anas crecca, Anas discors, Oxyura jamaicensis y Fulica americana. Los helmintos que presentaron las prevalencias más altas fueron los céstodos Hymenolepis megalops y Sobolevicanthus krabbeella en Anas acuta, Anas clypeata, Anas cyanoptera y Anas crecca.A survey of helminth parasites in 36 waterfowl species from the upper Lerma River, in central Mexico was conducted. A total of 20 helminth species were recorded, including 9 trematodes, 8 cestodes, 2 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan. Six of the cestode species are recorded for the fisrt time from Mexican birds; the acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma constrictum is reported for the first time in Anas crecca, A. discors, Oxyura jamaicensis and Fulica americana. The highest prevalences were recorded for the cestodes Hymenolepis megalops and Sobolevicanthus krabbeella in Anas acuta, A. clypeata, A. cyanoptera and A. crecca.

  19. Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino Aspectos de la relación entre Thalurania Furcata Colombica (Aves Trochilidae y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala R. Ana Victoria

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available El mayor nivel de coadaptación ave nectarívora-flor conocido hasta el momento, se ha logrado en los Trochilidae (VAN DER PIJL & DODSON,1969; FEINSINGER et al., 1979 ; tanto, que se ha hablado de flores adaptadas a la polinización por una especie particular de colibrí, y de colibríes que dependen para su alimentación de una sola clase de flor (SNOW & SNOW, 1980.Los factores principales que afectan la selección de alimento por parte de los colibríes están relacionados con: hábitat y estratificación de la vegetación (STILES & VVOLF,1970; FEINSINGER & CoLWELL, 1978, distribución espacial y características de las flores (FEINSINGER & COLYVELL,1978; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, distribución temporal del alimento (WOLF et al., 1976, morfología del pico del ave (FEINSINGER & COLWELL, 1978; STILES, 1978 a; FEINSINGER et al., 1979, tamaño del cuerpo (VVOLF et al., 1976, "disco de sustentación del ala" (wing disc loading y, finalmente, la energía que el colibrí requiere para sustentarse en el aire (EPTING & CASEY, 1973; WOLF et al., 1976. Colombia está incluida en el área central de evolución de los Trochilidae (SNOW & SNOW,- 1980 y posee numerosas especies así como riqueza de hábitats ocupados por ellos. Al igual que trabajos anteriores (SNOW & SNOW, 1980; MURCIA, 1983, el presente aporta al conocimiento de la ecología de los colibríes en este país; especificamente, trata algunos aspectos de la interacción Thalurania furcata colombica-flor proveedora de alimento en un Bosque Subandino. Between April and September 1983 observations were made on the relations between Thalurcnia furcata colombica and flowers in the laguna de Pedro Palo area (Cundinamarca, Colombia. The hummingbird was seen visiting 15 species of plants (beloging to 13 families situated mainly on the edge of forest, among which the following species showed a high degree of ornithophily: Besleria solanoides (Gesneriaceae, Bomarea racemose (Amaryllidaceae

  20. Aspectos estructurales y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata (Aves: Rallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Bulfon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los aspectos morfohistológicos y cuantitativos del ovario de Fulica armillata durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal. Se utilizaron 5 hembras adultas. El análisis morfohistológico reveló la presencia de numerosos folículos en diferentes estadios de desarrollo y regresión. El epitelio simple de células granulosas caracterizó a los ovocitos primordiales y el pseudoestratificado a los folículos previtelogénicos, ambos tipos foliculares exhibieron un notorio cuerpo de Balbiani. En los folículos vitelogénicos blancos y amarillos (> de 1 mm se evidenció una compleja pared folicular formada por la zona radiada, el epitelio folicular estratificado y las envolturas tecales bien delimitadas, mientras que, en los vitelogénicos amarillos (> de 3 mm fue observado un epitelio simple con células cúbicas muy basófilas. Se identificaron dos tipos de atresia folicular: 1 pared folicular intacta o no bursting, la involución se realiza en el interior del folículo, comprende a la atresia lipoidal (Ovocitos primordiales y lipoglandular (folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos pequeños y 2 atresia por ruptura de la pared o bursting con extrusión del contenido ovoplásmico (folículos vitelogénicos > 1 mm. El análisis cuantitativo reveló una diferencia significativa (p <0,05, entre los folículos en desarrollo (< de 2 mm y los folículos mayores e idéntica diferencia entre lo folículos atrésicos pequeños (lipoidales y lipoglandulares y los folículos bursting. Los procesos de crecimiento y diferenciación (foliculogénesis y vitelogénesis y el de atresia folicular se desarrollan normalmente durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal, contribuyendo a la homeostasis del ovario de esta ave.

  1. Grão de girassol e seus subprodutos: potenciais fontes proteicas para alimentação de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Thyciana Vasconcelos Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O setor de avicultura pode ser considerado um dos mais desenvolvidos e tecnificados da agropecuária mundial. Os avanços do melhoramento genético aliado ao desenvolvimento da nutrição, sanidade e técnicas de manejo, resultaram na avicultura atual, de alta eficiência e organização com a finalidade de produzir proteína animal de alto valor biológico para o consumo humano a baixo custo. A cadeia produtiva avícola tem íntima relação com a agricultura, principalmente com milho e soja (principais alimentos utilizados na alimentação de aves, no entanto a utilização destes alimentos para nutrição humana e ou refinarias gera uma competição e consequentemente a valorização dos preços destas commodities, o que aumenta o custo de produção e reduz as margens de comercialização. Desta forma, pesquisadores buscam alternativas alimentares economicamente viáveis numa tentativa de minimizar estes custos e manter os índices de desempenho produtivo.  Neste contexto, o grão de girassol e seus subprodutos são caracterizados como uma fonte proteica de boa qualidade capaz de compor dietas para aves.

  2. Registros nuevos y notables de aves acuáticas en Querétaro y estados adyacentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Como resultado de muestreos mensuales durante un año en embalses de Querétaro y zonas adyacentes de estados vecinos, así como de visitas a la Sierra de Lobos en Guanajuato, presentamos nuevos registros estatales de aves acuáticas para los estados de Querétaro (Bucephala albeola, Fregata magnificens, Numenius americanus, Hidalgo (Charadrius semipalmatus, Leucophaeus atricilla, Hydroprogne caspia y Guanajuato (Pelecanus occidentalis; además de registros notables de especies poco conocidas en zonas alejadas de las costas mexicanas. Estos registros muestran que los embalses de zonas semiáridas altas de México son más utilizados por especies poco frecuentes que lo que se ha pensado, y elevan a 70 las especies observadas en la zona semiárida de Querétaro, lo que confirma la importancia de los cuerpos de agua artificiales de esta región para la conservación de las aves acuáticas.

  3. Ascid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ascidae) from Costa Rican hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae), with description of three new species and a key to the Proctolaelaps belemensis species group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dusbábek, František; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Havlíček, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1484, - (2007), s. 51-67 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Hummingbird flower mites * Ascidae * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2007 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2007f/zt01484p068.pdf

  4. Crescimento e absorção de nutrientes pelo feijoeiro adubado com cama de aves e fertilizantes minerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia Silva Lourenço

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O feijoeiro é tradicionalmente cultivado em pequenas propriedades, onde é comum o uso de dejetos animais para adubação das culturas. Como é uma cultura de ciclo curto, os nutrientes precisam estar disponíveis logo após a germinação, o que nem sempre acontece quando a fertilização ocorre a partir de fertilizantes orgânicos. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de diferentes camas de aves em relação aos fertilizantes minerais na produção de matéria seca e na liberação de nutrientes para o feijoeiro, em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em 2010, com amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico com 16 g kg-1 de matéria orgânica, 1,9 e 84 mg dm-3 de P e K, respectivamente, e pH 6,0. Adotou-se delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com 10 tratamentos e cinco repetições. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por vasos com 14 dm³ de solo e cinco plantas de feijão, do cultivar BRS Requinte, durante 60 dias. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco camas de aves compostas pelos seguintes materiais: palha de milho, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palha de pastagem natural, areia ou acícula de Pinus, formulações de nutrientes (NPK, NP, PK e NK e um testemunha, sem nenhum fertilizante. Os fertilizantes minerais com P proporcionaram maior produção de matéria seca da parte aérea (MSPA e de raízes (MSRA do feijoeiro do que as camas de aves, por causa da maior liberação para o solo de N e P disponíveis. Dentre as camas estudadas, aquela constituída por areia foi a que proporcionou os maiores valores de MSPA e de MSRA. As plantas fertilizadas com as camas de aves acumularam, em média, 58,6 % do N e 59,0 % do P, em relação às fertilizadas com os tratamentos que continham N e P minerais. A taxa de recuperação pelas plantas de N e K foi maior para os nutrientes aplicados na forma mineral do que na orgânica. As camas de aves podem ser utilizadas como fertilizantes para a cultura do

  5. Variação local na composição da comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP e proposta para o monitoramento do impacto do ecoturismo. Local variation in bird communities composition at Carlos Botelho State Park, São Miguel Arcanjo – SP, Southeastern Brazil and proposals for monitoring the impact of ecotourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Gonçalves da SILVA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Como todas as atividades humanas, o ecoturismo apresenta o potencial de impactar negativamente o meio ambiente, necessitando ser monitorado e manejado. As aves podem ser incluídas em protocolos de monitoramento desse impacto, porém devem ser considerados outros fatores que influenciam a composição das comunidades de aves antes de se propor tais protocolos. Dentre estes se destaca a influência da heterogeneidade estrutural da vegetação sobre a distribuição e a abundância das aves. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: verificar como esse fator atua localmente numa área de Mata Atlântica sob uso público e propor um protocolo de monitoramento de impacto dessa atividade que utilize as aves como indicadores. A avifauna foi amostrada ao longo de duas trilhas, uma na qual o turismo é monitorado e outra sob o sistema autoguiado. A heterogeneidade estrutural ao longo dessas trilhas foi avaliada, e as duas comunidades de aves comparadas em relação à riqueza, composição de espécies, abundância relativa, diversidade e estrutura trófica. Foram utilizados os métodos de pontos de escuta e o de pontos quadrantes. As trilhas diferiram significativamente na maioria dos parâmetros de estrutura da vegetação analisados e na composição de espécies de aves, mas não nos demais parâmetros considerados para a avifauna. Dezessete espécies apresentaram abundância relativa significativamente diferente entre as áreas e, destas, seis relacionadas a parâmetros estruturais da vegetação. Propõe-se a avaliação do impacto do uso público sobre a avifauna em cada uma das trilhas através do monitoramento da abundância relativa das espécies considerando possíveis alterações estruturais na vegetação local e o monitoramento de 15 espécies de fácil detecção e que não diferiram significativamente em abundância relativa entre as trilhas.Like all human activities, ecotourism has the potential to negatively impact the environment and need

  6. Phylogeny of the owlet-nightjars (Aves: Aegothelidae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, J.P.; Pratt, T.K.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The avian family Aegothelidae (Owlet-nightjars) comprises nine extant species and one extinct species, all of which are currently classified in a single genus, Aegotheles. Owlet-nightjars are secretive nocturnal birds of the South Pacific. They are relatively poorly studied and some species are known from only a few specimens. Furthermore, their confusing morphological variation has made it difficult to cluster existing specimens unambiguously into hierarchical taxonomic units. Here we sample all extant owlet-nightjar species and all but three currently recognized subspecies. We use DNA extracted primarily from museum specimens to obtain mitochondrial gene sequences and construct a molecular phylogeny. Our phylogeny suggests that most species are reciprocally monophyletic, however A. albertisi appears paraphyletic. Our data also suggest splitting A. bennettii into two species and splitting A. insignis and A. tatei as suggested in another recent paper. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and status of the Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda (Aves: Galbulidae in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Centrón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda is known from few records in Paraguay, all during the last 20 years. The species has been recorded in the northern Chaco and Paraguayan Pantanal, with all confirmed records from Alto Paraguay department. Here we summarise all reports and localities of the species in Paraguay to date. The species is categorized as Data Deficient at the national level, but may be more widely distributed than is currently recognised.

  8. Experimental Salmonella Gallinarum infection in light laying hen lines Infecção experimental por Salmonella Gallinarum de aves leves de postura comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Berchieri Júnior

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the epidemiology of fowl typhoid in chickens supposedly involves a vertical transmission stage, a previous work run by the authors has suggested that this did not happen in a commercial line of laying hens highly susceptible to systemic disease with Salmonella Gallinarum. A new experiment was carried out in two other lines of commercial layers, considerably more resistant than those used in the previous study. Clinical fowl typhoid was not observed, but Salmonella Gallinarum was isolated from the spleen and liver four weeks after infection and, sporadically, from the ovary.Estudo anterior, realizado pelos mesmos autores com aves consideradas susceptíveis ao agente do tifo aviário, sugeriu que a relação entre a bactéria e a aves restringe-se ao período da enfermidade. Neste trabalho avaliou-se a relação hospedeiro-parasita entre Salmonella Gallinarum e aves leves de postura comercial, consideradas mais resistentes ao tifo aviário. As aves não desenvolveram a doença clínica, mas a bactéria foi isolada do baço e do fígado quatro semanas após a infecção e, em algumas ocasiões, também do ovário.

  9. Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Endangered Species Protection Program helps promote recovery of listed species. The ESPP determines if pesticide use in a geographic area may affect any listed species. Find needed limits on pesticide use in Endangered Species Protection Bulletins.

  10. Ecología energética y nutricional en aves herbívoras pequeñas Energetics and nutritional ecology of small herbivorous birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VICTORIA LOPEZ-CALLEJA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available La herbivoría en aves es una estrategia poco común. Solo el 3% de las aves actuales consumen plantas como fuente de energía. Tanto la composición química de las plantas como las restricciones asociadas al vuelo y digestión en aves pueden explicar el reducido número de pequeños endotermos, como las aves, que son herbívoros. Nuestro objetivo es explicar como las aves herbívoras satisfacen sus requerimientos nutricionales y energéticos cuando consumen dietas extremadamente pobres. Para lo cual nos centramos en Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, posiblemente el ave herbívora más pequeña. Phytotoma rara presenta numerosas características, como el rápido tiempo de transito, un efectivo rompimiento de la pared celular, y la alta y constante actividad de las enzimas digestivas, que le permiten disponer de nutrientes y energía celulares, sin los costos energéticos asociados al desarrollo de estructuras anatómicas de fermentación bacteriana o lentos tiempos de transito. Estos son posiblemente adaptaciones cruciales en la evolución de la herbivoría en aves pequeñas.Herbivory is a rare strategy in birds. Only 3% of extant birds exploit plant material as an energy source. Both plant chemical composition and bird constraints associated to flight and digestion may explain why herbivory is so scarce in small endotherms such as birds. Here we tackle the question of how herbivorous birds meet energy/nutrient requirements when feeding on extremely poor diets. We focus on Phytotoma rara (Phytotomidae, possibly the smallest herbivorous bird. From our mini-review we conclude that several features such as the fast passage rates, an effective physical breakdown of cell walls, and constant and high activities of digestive enzymes make available the highly nutritious cell contents to the small herbivore, without the energy costs of anatomical structures for bacterial fermentation or slow passage rates. These are possible crucial adaptations in the

  11. Relação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem num povoado de Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajate Patrícia P.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a associação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem no povoado de Trinidad, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Para coletar triatomíneos foram realizadas quatro amostragens no peridomicílio de seis casas, utilizando-se o método de captura hora/homem (dezembro de 1991 a outubro de 1992. Os anexos foram classificados em antrópicos (onde o homem realiza atividades cotidianas e não-antrópicos. Além disso, determinou-se o perfil alimentar dos barbeiros. De um total de 134 ecótopos investigados, 21% tinham T. infestans; 22% possuíam aves domésticas; e 54% eram antrópicos. Em 25% destes ecótopos foram encontradas aves e T. infestans simultaneamente. As aves foram os únicos animais domésticos associados com o T. infestans, sendo que esta relação só ocorreu nos ecótopos antrópicos. A proporção de ingestas em aves (61/146 foi altamente significativa. Em Trinidad não há galinheiros, utilizando-se, assim, os anexos entrópicos do peridomicílio como local para se construir os ninhos para as aves. tanto pelos elementos usados na preparação dos ninhos como pelo uso posterior dos mesmos, poder-se-ia estabelecer um fluxo periódico de barbeiros do intradomicílio para o peridomicílio, e vice-versa, através do transporte passivo. Esta relação estreita entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem, encontrada nos ecótopos antrópicos, onde também existem outros reservatórios de T. cruzi, como os cães, favorece a manutenção de colônias de barbeiros domiciliares e a transmissão da doença de Chagas ao homem.

  12. Relação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem num povoado de Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Gajate

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a associação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem no povoado de Trinidad, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Para coletar triatomíneos foram realizadas quatro amostragens no peridomicílio de seis casas, utilizando-se o método de captura hora/homem (dezembro de 1991 a outubro de 1992. Os anexos foram classificados em antrópicos (onde o homem realiza atividades cotidianas e não-antrópicos. Além disso, determinou-se o perfil alimentar dos barbeiros. De um total de 134 ecótopos investigados, 21% tinham T. infestans; 22% possuíam aves domésticas; e 54% eram antrópicos. Em 25% destes ecótopos foram encontradas aves e T. infestans simultaneamente. As aves foram os únicos animais domésticos associados com o T. infestans, sendo que esta relação só ocorreu nos ecótopos antrópicos. A proporção de ingestas em aves (61/146 foi altamente significativa. Em Trinidad não há galinheiros, utilizando-se, assim, os anexos entrópicos do peridomicílio como local para se construir os ninhos para as aves. tanto pelos elementos usados na preparação dos ninhos como pelo uso posterior dos mesmos, poder-se-ia estabelecer um fluxo periódico de barbeiros do intradomicílio para o peridomicílio, e vice-versa, através do transporte passivo. Esta relação estreita entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem, encontrada nos ecótopos antrópicos, onde também existem outros reservatórios de T. cruzi, como os cães, favorece a manutenção de colônias de barbeiros domiciliares e a transmissão da doença de Chagas ao homem.

  13. O ambiente virtual como interface na reabilitação pós-AVE: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Leticia Pavão

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O acidente vascular encefálico (AVE é um quadro neurológico agudo de repercussões amplas, que exige de suas vítimas programas de reabilitação desafiadores na promoção da função. Nesse contexto, a Realidade Virtual (RV é uma ferramenta de interface na reabilitação que pode gerar altos índices de motivação do paciente e permitir adaptação da terapia ao seu nível de função. OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da RV por meio de videogame sobre o controle postural de um indivíduo pós-AVE. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Um indivíduo pós-AVE com um ano de lesão foi submetido a um protocolo de reabilitação física com videogame numa frequência de três vezes por semana por um período de 12 semanas. Anteriormente e após o programa foi realizada dinamometria por plataforma de força para análise de variáveis relacionadas ao centro de pressão (COP. RESULTADOS: Na reavaliação, observou-se que a amplitude de deslocamento médio-lateral (x aumentou 67% na condição de olhos abertos (OA e fechados (OF; amplitude anteroposterior (y aumentou 25 e 44% em OA e OF, respectivamente; área aumentou 109 e 141% em OA e OF; velocidade diminuiu 26 e 0,27% em OA e OF. CONCLUSÃO: A RV como interface na reabilitação possivelmente ampliou a exploração da base de suporte para manutenção da estabilidade, constituindo recurso adicional no tratamento desses indivíduos.

  14. NUEVOS PIOJOS (PHTHIRAPTERA: AMBLYCERA, ISCHNOCERA) REGISTRADOS EN AVES MARINAS Y COSTERAS DE URUGUAY

    OpenAIRE

    Venzal, José M; Castro, Oscar; Katz, Helena; Félix, María L; Morgades, Diana; Palma, Ricardo L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, 17 lice species were collected and identified from marine and coastal birds from the Atlantic Ocean coast, rivers and lagoons of Uruguay. Among them, 16 species (one at generic level only) are recorded for the first time for this country.

  15. AVE5026, a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement surgery--TREK: a dose-ranging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, M R; Dahl, O E; Mismetti, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AVE5026 is a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin, with a novel anti-thrombotic profile resulting from high anti-factor (F)Xa activity and residual anti-FIIa activity. AVE5026 is in clinical development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, a frequent complication....... The primary safety outcome was the incidence of major bleeding. RESULTS: The primary efficacy outcome was assessed in 464 patients. There was a significant dose-response across the five AVE5026 groups for VTE prevention (Pincidence of VTE ranging from 5.3% to 44.1% compared with 35...

  16. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMG Las-Casas

    Full Text Available We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812, Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823. Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  17. The community of hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) and the assemblage of flowers in a Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las-Casas, F M G; Azevedo Júnior, S M; Dias Filho, M M

    2012-02-01

    We studied hummingbirds and their food plants in an area of caatinga vegetation. We specifically examined their seasonal use of this habitat, migratory and non-migratory status, their foraging strategies and community roles The study was conducted in an area of arboreal-shrub caatinga, located in the Serra do Pará, municipality of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, state of Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil. Field work was undertaken during 12 expeditions on a monthly basis between June, 2007 and May, 2008. Five species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers in the community studied. Three were considered residents: Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812), Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788), and Heliomaster squamosus (Temminck, 1823). Hummingbirds visited 31 species of plants, of which only five presented attributes related to ornithophily. C. lucidus visited 29 plant species, including all ornithophilous species, and it was the most aggressive, defending territories. Among hummingbirds, C. lucidus may be considered the principal pollinator. Hummingbirds may also be acting as pollen vectors for some of the plant species not identified as ornithophilous. The hummingbird guilds varied among the plant species used as floral resources, as well as in their frequency of visits. Differences in plant species abundance, hummingbird preference, competitive exclusion or flowering seasonality are factors likely to influence those variations.

  18. Registro da pomba-do-orvalho Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae no estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n2p195 Apresentamos o primeiro registro da pomba-do-orvalho Patagioenas maculosa (Aves: Columbidae para Santa Catarina, região sul do Brasil. Um indivíduo foi observado em 10 de setembro de 2006 em uma área aberta (pastagens para gado e vegetação arbustiva no município de Anita Garibaldi (centro-sul do estado. Sugerimos que este encontro pontual é resultado de uma recente expansão da distribuição desta espécie devido a modificações na paisagem nesta região.

  19. On the status of Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura Temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite repeated references to the species in Paraguay, the status of the Dusky-legged Guan Penelope obscura in the country has been the subject of much debate. In an attempt to clarify the available data, a thorough review of literature records is provided and details of new and previously unpublished records that confirm that the nominate subspecies is present in Paraguay are given. With the species limits in the obscura complex poorly defined, we provide a brief discussion of the potential importance of Paraguayan populations for the conservation of the species.

  20. Birds (Aves, Serrania Sadiri, Parque Nacional Madidi, Depto. La Paz, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennessey, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Serrania Sadiri for birds at elevations between 500-950m for a combined total of 15 days in threedifferent months. The area surveyed was along the Tumupasa/San Jose de Uchupiamones trail at the edge of ParqueNacional Madidi in Depto. La Paz, Bolivia. We report observations of 231 species of birds detected by sight and sound,including many outlying ridge specialists. We report and present photographs of a new species for Depto. La Paz(Caprimulgis nigrescens, the second Bolivian localities for Porphyrolaema prophyrolaema, Zimerius cinereicapillus,and Basileuterus chrysogaster, and five new species records for Parque Nacional Madidi.

  1. Detección de aves exóticas en parques urbanos del centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pineda-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas arboladas urbanas son utilizadas por algunas aves invasoras en su proceso de colonización; la detección temprana de estas especies es una acción necesaria para su vigilancia y control. Utilizamos un muestreo rápido en parques urbanos, que requiere de poco tiempo de planeación y ejecución, como una forma de detección de aves que actualmente aumentan su distribución en México: Streptopelia decaocto (paloma de collar, Myiopsitta monachus (perico monje, Turdus rufopalliatus (mirlo dorso rufo y Sturnus vulgaris (estornino pinto. Realizamos los muestreos en la mayoría de los parques de las ciudades de León de los Aldama, Guanajuato, Aguascalientes y Santiago de Querétaro. Presentamos los primeros registros de M. monachus, T. rufopalliatus y S. vulgaris para la ciudad de León de los Aldama; así como de M. monachus en la de Guanajuato. Además, en Santiago de Querétaro registramos las cuatro especies buscadas; a T. rufopalliatus en Guanajuato, y a S. vulgaris en Aguascalientes. Analizamos las variables asociadas con la presencia de las especies, así como el establecimiento de las especies en cada ciudad en relación con la proporción de parques en que se presentan. Sugerimos que este método es útil para evaluar la distribución actual de estas especies en México y proveer de conocimiento básico para futuros estudios.

  2. Adaptaciones musculares relacionadas a áreas corporales que participan activamente en el vuelo de Anhima cornuta (Aves: Anseriformes, Anhimidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Manzanares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La forma y correspondencia entre la anatomía muscular y ósea revela en gran medida el hábito locomotor de cualquier ave. Las especies pertenecientes a la Familia Anhimidae son relevantes dentro de las Aves, debido a las adaptaciones óseas (y por lo tanto, musculares que presentan, como la pérdida de procesos uncinados, el desarrollo de espolones metarcapales, la extrema neumatización y el notable desarrollo de forámenes. Se analizaron anatómicamente y numéricamente (superficie de origen e inserción, longitud en reposo y masa los componentes musculares relacionados a las zonas de la columna vertebral, tronco, miembros y cinturas de tres ejemplares de Anhima cornutade distintos sexos y se compararon con lo estudiado en 4 ejemplares de especies relacionadas (Dendrocygna bicolory Dendrocygna viduata, Anatidae. El estudio reveló que en Anhima existe un gran desarrollo de los músculos intercostales e intervertebrales (torácicos y lumbares, evidenciando una adaptación a la ausencia de procesos uncinados. En Anhimaexisten fascículos proporcionalmente menos pesados y de menor tamaño que en Dendrocygna, indicando morfológicamente la ocurrencia de un vuelo menos desarrollado en el primero. Algunos tendones y fibras musculares metacarpales cuya inserción ocurre en el primer dígito en Dendrocygna, en Anhimase insertan en la base de los espolones proximal y distal, demostrando el poco control del vuelo en Anhima. La musculatura de los miembros posteriores en Anhimaes mucho más desarrollada, tanto en tamaño, como en masa proporcional, evidenciando una gran actividad en esta zona en la propulsión del vuelo y en hábitos terrestres

  3. Traffic noise affects forest bird species in a protected tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edgardo Arévalo

    2011-06-01

    , these results have conservation as well as management implications. A decrease in bird species richness and bird abundance due to intrusive road noise could negatively affect the use of trails by visitors. Alternatives for noise attenuation in the affected forest area include the enforcement of speed limits and the planting of live barriers. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (2: 969-980. Epub 2011 June 01.Las carreteras cerca de bosques alteran la función del ecosistema por fragmentación del hábitat y tienen otros efectos negativos como contaminación, mortalidad de animales y ruido excesivo; sobre todo en animales como ranas y aves que dependen del sonido para comunicarse. Se espera menos abundancia de aves cerca de la carretera donde el ruido es alto. Este estudio evalúa los efectos del ruido por carretera sobre las aves en un bosque tropical de Costa Rica. También realizamos censos de aves y medimos el ruido del 19 al 23 de abril y del 21 al 28 de noviembre 2008. Además, utilizamos redes de niebla para maximizar la detección de aves en la estimación de riqueza de especies. La abundancia de aves así como la riqueza de especies decrecieron significativamente con el incremento del ruido tanto en la estación seca como en la lluviosa. El ruido disminuyó en forma logarítmica con el aumento en la distancia a la carretera y fue más alto durante la estación seca. Nuestros resultados sugieren que las aves tienden generalmente a evitar el ruido del tráfico y tienen implicaciones en la conservación y manejo del área protegida

  4. Nasal mites (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae in Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes on the southern Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva da Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study aimed to report on occurrences of nasal mites in Sternidae on the southern coast of Brazil. Of the 106 birds analyzed, 8.5% (9 birds were parasitized by nasal mites. This report provides the first record in the Neotropical region for two mite species, Sternostoma boydi and Larinyssus orbicularis parasitizing Thalasseus acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris. No nasal mites were found in Sterna trudeaui or Thalasseus maximus. One host individual (T. acuflavidus was parasitized by two species of nasal mites, S. boydi and L. orbicularis.

  5. DIAGNÓSTICO DA REALIDADE DOS CRIATÓRIOS DE AVES NA COMUNIDADE BASE FÍSICA – IPANGUAÇU/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Bezerra Galvão Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou realizar um diagnóstico de caracterização dos sistemas de criação de aves adotados na Comunidade Rural Base Física, município de Ipanguaçu/RN, com o intuito de produzir subsídios para orientação de ações de suporte técnico à comunidade local. Foram elaborados e aplicados 50 questionários, com questões relacionadas ao perfil socioeconômico dos criadores e aos aspectos zootécnicos relativos à criação de aves. Posteriormente, os dados foram agrupados e analisados graficamente, utilizando-se planilha eletrônica. Na análise dos resultados, a maioria dos entrevistados corresponderam ao gênero feminino (70%, faixa etária de 41 a 60 anos (50%, representados em sua maioria por agricultores (52%, apresentando renda familiar de menos de 1 salário mínimo (16%, até 2 salários (20% e acima de 2 salários mínimos (34%. Na análise das respostas referentes aos aspectos zootécnicos da criação de aves, constatou-se um rebanho efetivo de 1046 aves, onde 81% dos entrevistados mantinham a criação para consumo da família. A avicultura representa grande importância na agricultura familiar da região, tanto na questão de segurança alimentar para a família quanto no aspecto econômico. A alimentação foi considerada o principal fator limitante para o desenvolvimento da criação, seguida da área para criação e presença de doenças nas aves. Programas de capacitação e assistência técnica devem ser implantados, para que possa haver um incremento quantitativo e qualitativo da criação de aves, principalmente, ligados aos aspectos de manejo alimentar e sanitário, bem como, no delineamento de modelos produtivos que expressem competitividade no setor. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: avicultura, sistemas de criação, agricultura familiar.

  6. Implementation and Analysis of the Chromakey Augmented Virtual Environment (ChrAVE) Version 3.0 and Virtual Environment Helicopter (VEHELO) Version 2.0 in Simulated Helicopter Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hahn, M. E

    2005-01-01

    The Chromakey Augmented Virtual Environment (ChrAVE) 3.0 System is a training system created to augment initial, refresher, and proficiency training in helicopter aviation using accurate simulation...

  7. Effects of human disturbance on a burrow nesting seabird Efectos de la presencia de humanos en aves marinas que anidan en madrigueras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Albores-Barajas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During 2004, we followed 72 natural burrows to determine the effects of disturbance on breeding success of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus. We used distance from a human settlement or path in the analysis of disturbance. Birds whose burrows were closer to the path or the village had a higher rate of nest abandonment and lower breeding success compared to birds nesting further away from the path or the village. Also, older and more experienced individuals represented a larger proportion of the breeding population on less disturbed areas than on highly disturbed ones, probably as older individuals tend to arrive earlier at the breeding grounds, and failed breeders may change burrow sites to move away from disturbance. P. aleuticus are adversely affected by human activity at colonies even if birds are not handled and burrows are not opened, and this has implications for conservation, and planning of ecotourism. On the long term, this can have negative consequences for this species and others with similar characteristics.Durante el 2004 seguimos 72 nidos de la alcuela (Ptychoramphus aleuticus para determinar los efectos de disturbio en el éxito reproductivo. Utilizamos la distancia del nido a áreas asentamientos humanos o al camino como medidas de disturbio. Los nidos que estaban más cerca de los asentamientos o del camino tuvieron una tasa de abandono mayor y un éxito reproductivo menor en comparación con los nidos que estaban más alejados de las fuentes de disturbio. También observamos que en las zonas menos expuestas la proporción de adultos, con mayor experiencia, era más alta, posiblemente porque los individuos con mayor experiencia llegan antes a la zona de anidación. Las alcuelas son afectadas negativamente por la presencia de los humanos y sus actividades, aunque las aves no entren en contacto directo con los humanos. A largo plazo, esto puede acarrear consecuencias graves para esta especie y otras con caracter

  8. Ecomorphology of eye shape and retinal topography in waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae) with different foraging modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisney, Thomas J; Stecyk, Karyn; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Schmidt, Brian K; Corfield, Jeremy R; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-05-01

    Despite the large body of literature on ecomorphological adaptations to foraging in waterfowl, little attention has been paid to their sensory systems, especially vision. Here, we compare eye shape and retinal topography across 12 species representing 4 different foraging modes. Eye shape was significantly different among foraging modes, with diving and pursuit-diving species having relatively smaller corneal diameters compared to non-diving species. This may be associated with differences in ambient light intensity while foraging or an ability to tightly constrict the pupil in divers in order to facilitate underwater vision. Retinal topography was similar across all species, consisting of an oblique visual streak, a central area of peak cell density, and no discernible fovea. Because the bill faces downwards when the head is held in the normal posture in waterfowl, the visual streak will be held horizontally, allowing the horizon to be sampled with higher visual acuity. Estimates of spatial resolving power were similar among species with only the Canada goose having a higher spatial resolution. Overall, we found no evidence of ecomorphological adaptations to different foraging modes in the retinal ganglion cell layer in waterfowl. Rather, retinal topography in these birds seems to reflect the 'openness' of their habitats.

  9. Breeding biology of Tyrannus melancholicus (Aves: Tyrannidae in a restinga reserve of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Daros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Existing knowledge of the breeding success and life history characteristics of most Neotropical bird species is scarce. Here, we help fill this gap by analyzing aspects of the breeding biology of the Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus (Vieillot, 1819, which is a good model for this kind of study as it is a common species occurring in various environments, including urban areas, but little is known about its life history. We provide results concerning the breeding period, clutch size, incubation and nestling periods, description of nests, eggs and nestlings, and the plants used for nest sites by this species. Fifty-four nests were monitored over two seasons (2012-2014 in a protected area in southeastern Brazil. Nesting began at the end of the dry season and the beginning of the rainy season. The frequency of active nests varied according to variations in rainfall for each breeding season analyzed. The means and standard deviations of the incubation period (14.2 ± 1.9 days, nestling period (15.1 ± 0.8 days and clutch size (2.5 ± 0.7 eggs were similar to values reported for other Neotropical passerines. Twenty-one plant species used as nest trees and for the construction of the nests were identified. The results show that T. melancholicus is not highly selective when choosing plant species used for nest construction.

  10. Supermatrix phylogeny and biogeography of the Australasian Meliphagides radiation (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marki, Petter Z; Jønsson, Knud A; Irestedt, Martin; Nguyen, Jacqueline M T; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2017-02-01

    With nearly 300 species, the infraorder Meliphagides represents one of the largest and most conspicuous Australasian bird radiations. Although the group has been the focus of a number of recent phylogenetic studies, a comprehensive species-level phylogenetic hypothesis is still lacking. This has impeded the assessment of broad-scale evolutionary, biogeographic and ecological hypotheses. In the present study, we use a supermatrix approach including five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers to infer a time-calibrated phylogeny of the Meliphagides. Our phylogeny, which includes 286 of the 289 (99%) currently recognized species, is largely congruent with previous estimates. However, the addition of 60 newly sequenced species reveals some novel relationships. Our biogeographic analyses suggest an Australian origin for the group in the early Oligocene (31.3Mya, 95% HPD 25.2-38.2Mya). In addition, we find that dispersal events out of Australia have been numerous and frequent, particularly to New Guinea, which has also been the source of multiple back-colonizations to the Australian mainland. The phylogeny provides an important framework for studying a wide variety of macroecological and macroevolutionary themes, including character evolution, origin and timing of diversification, biogeographic patterns and species responses to climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Parásitos metazoos de Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes en Chile central: especificidad, prevalencia y variaciones entre localidades Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of Anas georgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA HINOJOSA-SÁEZ

    2009-01-01

    Digenea y el piojo A. icterodes, todos los demás parásitos constituyen primer registro en Chile. Para los parásitos de ciclo heteroxeno, no se conocen sus ciclos vitales ni las especies que actuarían como hospedadores intermediarios, en Chile.Host specificity, prevalence and between-sites variation in metazoan parasites of 65 Anas geórgica Gmelin, 1789 (Aves: Anseriformes specimens were assessed at six localities sampled between May and July 2004 in the central-south zone of Chile. The correlation between the Statistical Taxonomic Distinctiveness Índex (STD with the prevalence and intensity in each parasite taxon was assessed in those taxa with determination attained at the species level. Furthermore, the statistical significance of between-sites variation in abundance and prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites were assessed as well as those in total abundance and taxonomic richnes of infracommunities. Finally, statistical tests allowed assessing whether host body weight and sex were relevant sources of variation in abundance and richness. Most ducks (81.5 % harbored parasites and from which 1,653 individuáis belonging to 11 taxa were collected. They were, among ectoparasites, the Phthiraptera Anaticola crassicornis (Scopoli, 1763, Anatoecus icterodes (Nitzsch, 1818 and Trinoton querquedulae (Linneus, 1758. Among the helminths we found the Digenea Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923 Dubois, 1968, Notocotylus imbricatus (Loss, 1893, Paramonostomum pseudoalveatum Price, 1931, and an unidentified species oí Echinostoma sp. Rudolphi, 1809, Echinoparyphium Dietz, 1909; the Nematoda Porrocaecum sp. Railliet & Henry, 1912, and the Cestada Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829 Wolfhuegel, 1938 and Fuhrmanacanthus propeteres (Fuhrmann, 1907 Spasskii, 1966. All parasites except for Digenea and A. icterodes are recorded for the first time in Chile. There was a significantly negative correlation between STD Índex and the prevalence while there was no

  12. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil Associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 e aves marinhas no estuário do Lagamar, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCO. Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE (25° 01' S and 47° 55' W from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC (25° 24' S and 48° 24' W from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7% involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2% involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (χ2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi de descrever as características a respeito das associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis, e aves marinhas em duas áreas distintas do estuário do Lagamar, Brasil. Investigações efetuadas a partir de embarcação e direcionadas a estudos de foto-identificação de S. guianensis foram conduzidas no Estuário de Cananéia (EC (25° 01' S e 47° 55' O entre julho de 2004 e março de 2008, bem como no Complexo Estuarino de Paranaguá (CEP (25° 24' S e 48° 24' O entre abril de 2006 e fevereiro de 2008. Em todas as ocasiões em que aves marinhas foram observadas em associações de alimentação multiespecífica com S. guianensis, dados sobre as espécies envolvidas e seus números foram obtidos. Dos 435 grupos de S

  13. Joomɨ fíivo gaaja kaatɨi aame - La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. Cuarta parte: Kɨɨñu “Gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniceto Nejedeka (Numeyɨ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Texto bilingüe muinane-español sobre el ave kɨɨñu, “gallineta” (Crypturellus undulatus, elaborado por Aniceto Nejedeka a partir del conocimiento de los mayores de la etnia muinane. Este texto es la cuarta parte de un libro que hemos venido publicando por fascículos, titulado La ciencia de vida escrita en las aves. El muinane es una lengua de la familia lingüística bora.

  14. P-gp activity is a critical resistance factor against AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in leukaemia cell lines, but not a major mechanism of chemoresistance in cells from acute myeloid leukaemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ruoping; Legrand, Ollivier; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, Simy; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Zuany-Amorim, Claudia; Marjanovic, Zora; Morjani, Hamid; Fava, Fanny; Corre, Elise

    2009-01-01

    AVE9633 is a new immunoconjugate comprising a humanized monoclonal antibody, anti-CD33 antigen, linked through a disulfide bond to the maytansine derivative DM4, a cytotoxic agent and potent tubulin inhibitor. It is undergoing a phase I clinical trial. Chemoresistance to anti-mitotic agents has been shown to be related, in part, to overexpression of ABC proteins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in cytotoxicity in AVE9633-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This study used AML cell lines expressing different levels of P-gp, MRP1 or BCRP proteins and twenty-five samples from AML patients. Expression and functionality of the transporter protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of the drug was evaluated by MTT and apoptosis assays. P-gp activity, but not MRP1 and BCRP, attenuated AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in myeloid cell lines. Zosuquidar, a potent specific P-gp inhibitor, restored the sensitivity of cells expressing P-gp to both AVE9633 and DM4. However, the data from AML patients show that 10/25 samples of AML cells (40%) were resistant to AVE9633 or DM4 (IC 50 > 500 nM), and this was not related to P-gp activity (p-Value: 0.7). Zosuquidar also failed to re-establish drug sensitivity. Furthermore, this resistance was not correlated with CD33 expression (p-Value: 0.6) in those cells. P-gp activity is not a crucial mechanism of chemoresistance to AVE9633. For patients whose resistance to conventional anthracycline AML regimens is related to ABC protein expression, a combination with AVE9633 could be beneficial. Other mechanisms such as microtubule alteration could play an important role in chemoresistance to AVE9633

  15. Actividad reproductiva de Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae en Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008 Reproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Vera

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Isla de Aves, una isla a 650km de La Guaira, Venezuela, protegida como Refugio de Fauna Silvestre, constituye el segundo sitio de mayor anidación de la tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus 1758 en el Caribe. El seguimiento de la población comenzó en 1972 y de manera más continua desde 1978. Los datos históricos indican que la captura de hembras en la isla, afectó severamente la población hasta 1978, cuando fue construida una base científico-naval. Durante las temporadas de anidación entre 2001-2008 con excepción de 2003 y 2004, las hembras fueron marcadas con placas metálicas y medidas. Asimismo, se muestreó durante 458 noches, en donde se observaron 5 154 eventos, con un máximo de 53 por noche. Los posibles eventos no observados fueron calculados ajustando la distribución temporal de eventos observados a una curva normal. El total de eventos estimados varió de =637.1±106.6 en 2001 a =2 853±42.5 en 2008 (ANOVA F(6.5gl=60.37, pReproductive activity of Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae in Isla de Aves, Venezuela (2001-2008. The second major nesting-site for green turtles in the Caribbean is Isla de Aves, an island protected as a wildlife refuge since 1972, located at 650km Northeast from La Guaira, Venezuela. In this island, the nesting population monitoring started in 1972 and in a more continuous way after 1978, when a Scientific-Naval Station was established and scientific observations started. Since historical data show that female captures had severely affected population levels in this island before 1978, this study aim to describe recent reproductive activities. For this, during the nesting seasons of 2001-2002 and 2005-2008, nesting females were measured and tagged using metal flipper tags. A total of 458 nights were sampled observing 5 154 female emergences, with a maximum of 53 in a single night. Non-observed emergences were calculated fitting the temporal distribution of observed emergences to a normal curve

  16. Infecção natural por Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas comercializadas em mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Natural infection by Cryptosporidium sp. in domestic fowls sold at local markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Saucier Gomes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi comparar a dinâmica, a ocorrência, a morfometria de oocistos e os períodos patentes de Cryptosporidium sp. em aves domésticas, patos (Anas platyrhynchos, pintos (Gallus gallus e codornas (Coturnix japonica, naturalmente infectadas, provenientes de dois mercados municipais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ. Houve diferenças quanto à ocorrência da infecção entre os dois locais e entre pintos e patos, mas não entre codornas. Para a morfometria, foram observadas diferenças estatísticas nas medidas dos diâmetros maior e menor e para o índice morfométrico calculado (P0,05. Na comparação do período de eliminação, patos tiveram um maior período com maiores quantidades de oocistos eliminados. Codornas e pintos apresentaram dinâmica de eliminação semelhante e não houve diferença quanto à concentração de oocistos. Pintos foram mais susceptíveis à infecção seguidos por patos e codornas. Pode-se concluir que a infecção natural por Cryptoporidium sp. foi frequente nas aves estudadas. Patos, pintos e codornas podem ser disseminadores do protozoário em mercados municipais do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Assim, podem constituir risco de infecção.The objective of the current study was comparing the dynamic and occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., as well as the morphometry and elimination period of oocysts in naturally infected ducks (Anas platyrhynchos, chickens (Gallus gallus and Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica from two local markets of Rio de Janeiro, RJ. There were significant differences considering the occurrence of infection between the two markets, and also between chickens and ducks, but not among Japanese quails. Also, significant statistical differences were observed in morphometry, considering the major and minor diameters of oocysts and the calculated morphometric index (P0.05. According to the elimination period, ducks eliminated oocysts for a longer period and in a higher number

  17. Variación geográfica y ecológica en los parámetros reproductivos de las aves insectívoras forestales del paleártico occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows variation in some breeding parameters (laying date, clutch size in relation to geographical coordinates (latitude, longitude, habitat, elevation and habitat type in insectivorous and hole-nesting passerine of European woodlands. The Great Tit (Parus major was used as a model species. Laying date, at the population level, was not affected by habitat type, and did not show any relationship with longitude and elevation. Laying date showed a significant quadratic relationship with latitude, with the earliest values in central Europe. On the other hand, clutch size at the population level significantly differed among habitat type (large clutches being laid in deciduous forests, showed a positive and negative relationships with longitude and elevation, respectively. Mean clutch size showed a quadratic relationship with latitude, with the highest values at about 55 to 60ºN. In the present study, the main hypotheses proposed to explain these patterns found on the breeding parameters of passerines in the Western Palaearctic are discussed.

    En este trabajo se pretende mostrar como ciertos parámetros reproductores (fecha de puesta, tamaño de puesta varían geográficamente (latitud, longitud, altitud, tipo de hábitat en las especies de aves nidícolas e insectívoras. Para ello, se utiliza como especie modelo al Carbonero Común (Parus major. La fecha de puesta poblacional no difiere entre hábitats, no muestra relación con la longitud y se incrementa con la altitud. La fecha de puesta poblacional muestra una relación cuadrática con la latitud, con los valores más tempranos en latitudes medias. Por otro lado, el tamaño de puesta poblacional difiere entre los hábitats estudiados, siendo mayor en los bosques caducifolios, muestra una relación positiva con la longitud y una relación negativa con la altitud. Además, el tamaño de puesta poblacional muestra una relación cuadrática con la latitud, con

  18. Biologia reprodutiva do fura-barreira Hylocryptus rectirostris (Aves: Furnariidae Breeding biology of the Henna-capped Foliage-gleaner Hylocryptus rectirostris(Aves: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene C. P. Faria

    2008-06-01

    , eggs, fledglings, pairs and nests. Nest predation and competition for cavities were also observed. Breeding activity is very synchronous for breeding pairs and in the two reproductive seasons. Twenty nests were found in cavities excavated in steep river banks. Incubation lasts 17 days and nestlings remain in the nest another 21-25 days. Both adults build the nest, incubate the eggs and feed the nestlings, but females develop a larger brood patch. In 2004, nesting success (one or more offspring that fledged was 33% (n = 9 and in 2005 was 18% (n = 11. Landslides or flooding caused the most nest failures. This study can contribute to future measures for the conservation of this species.

  19. A defective mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum in cobalamin biosynthesis is avirulent in chickens Mutante de Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum duplo defectivo na biossíntese de cobalamina é avirulento para aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG is a fowl typhoid agent in chickens and is a severe disease with worldwide economic impact as its mortality may reach up to 80%. It is one of a small group of serovars that typically produces typhoid-like infections in a narrow range of host species and which therefore represents a good model for human typhoid. The survival mechanisms are not considered to be virulent mechanisms but are essential for the life of the bacterium. Mutants of Salmonella Gallinarum containing defective genes, related to cobalamin biosynthesis and which Salmonella spp. has to be produced to survive when it is in an anaerobic environment, were produced in this study. Salmonella Gallinarum is an intracellular parasite. Therefore, this study could provide information about whether vitamin B12 biosynthesis might be essential to its survival in the host. The results showed that the singular deletion in cbiA or cobS genes did not interfere in the life of Salmonella Gallinarum in the host, perhaps because single deletion is not enough to impede vitamin B12 biosynthesis. It was noticed that diluted SG mutants with single deletion produced higher mortality than the wild strain of SG. When double mutation was carried out, the Salmonella Gallinarum mutant was unable to provoke mortality in susceptible chickens. This work showed that B12 biosynthesis is a very important step in the metabolism of Salmonella Gallinarum during the infection of the chickens. Further research on bacterium physiology should be carried out to elucidate the events described in this research and to assess the mutant as a vaccine strain.Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG é o agente do tifo aviário, doença severa que provoca mortalidade em até 80% do plantel de aves. SG encontra-se entre os poucos sorotipos de Salmonella que são agentes etiológicos de enfermidade específica, à semelhança de Salmonella Typhi em seres humanos podendo, portanto, servir

  20. The integration of diet, physiology, and ecology of nectar-feeding birds La integración de la dieta, fisiología, y ecología en aves nectarívoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODD J. McWHORTER

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Balance between energy acquisition and expense is critical for the survival and reproductive success of organisms. Energy budgets may be limited by environmental factors as well as by animal design. These restrictions may be especially important for small endotherms such as hummingbirds, which have exceedingly high energy demands. Many nectar-feeding bird species decrease food intake when sugar concentration in food is increased. This feeding response can be explained by two alternative hypotheses: compensatory feeding and physiological constraint. The compensatory feeding hypothesis predicts that if birds vary intake to maintain a constant energy intake to match energy expenditures, then they should increase intake when expenditures are increased. Broad-tailed hummingbirds (Selasphorus platycercus and Green-backed fire crown hummingbirds (Sephanoides sephaniodes were presented with diets varying in energy density and exposed to various environmental temperatures. Birds decreased volumetric food intake in response to sugar concentration. However, when they were exposed to lower environmental temperatures, and hence increased thermoregulatory demands, they did not increase their rate of energy consumption and lost mass. These results support the existence of a physiological constraint to the energy budgets of hummingbirds. Digestive and peripheral organ function limitations may impose severe challenges to the energy budgets of these small endotherms, and therefore play a significant role in determining their distribution, ecology, and natural history.El balance entre la adquisición y el uso de energía es crítico para la reproducción y sobrevivencia. Los presupuestos energéticos de los organismos pueden estar limitados tanto por factores ambientales como por su fisiología. Estas restricciones pueden ser especialmente importantes para pequeños endotérmos como los colibríes (picaflores que tienen costos energéticos altos por unidad de masa

  1. Rapid diversification of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) due to expansion of open habitats in the Late Miocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Johnson, Jeff A; Mindell, David P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how and why lineages diversify is central to understanding the origins of biological diversity. The avian family Falconidae (caracaras, forest-falcons, falcons) has an uneven distribution of species among multiple well-supported clades, and provides a useful system for testing hypotheses about diversification rate and correlation with environmental changes. We analyzed eight independent loci for 1-7 individuals from each of the 64 currently recognized Falconidae species, together with two fossil falconid temporal calibrations, to assess phylogeny, absolute divergence times and potential shifts in diversification rate. Our analyses supported similar diversification ages in the Early to Middle Miocene for the three traditional subfamilies, Herpetotherinae, Polyborinae and Falconinae. We estimated that divergences within the subfamily Falconinae began about 16mya and divergences within the most species-rich genus, Falco, including about 60% of all Falconidae species, began about 7.5mya. We found evidence for a significant increase in diversification rate at the basal phylogenetic node for the genus Falco, and the timing for this rate shift correlates generally with expansion of C4 grasslands beginning around the Miocene/Pliocene transition. Concomitantly, Falco lineages that are distributed primarily in grassland or savannah habitats, as opposed to woodlands, and exhibit migratory, as opposed to sedentary, behavior experienced a higher diversification rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Challenges and prospects of population genetic studies in terns (Charadriiformes, Aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Faria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available about the population structure of communally nesting terns (Sternidae and skimmers (Rynchopidae throughout the world. In order to fill this gap, a survey of molecular markers was carried out for six species of terns (Anous stolidus, Sterna hirundinacea, S. fuscata, S. superciliaris, Thalasseus maximus and Phaetusa simplex and one species of skimmer (Rynchops niger. First, we describe the results of the construction of genomic DNA libraries and document problems encountered during this procedure. Secondly, we tested the cross-amplification of 18 microsatellite loci previously described for related species (the number of polymorphic loci ranged from three to seven. Thirdly, we tested the usefulness of mtDNA (control region, ND2, Cytochrome b and ATPase 6/8 for phylogeographic studies in this group of birds. The occurrence of nuclear copies of the mitochondrial control region is reported. Nucleotide divergence in the mtDNA genes analyzed ranged from 0.0 to 0.006. Despite the difficulties associated with the selection of variable markers in this group of seabirds, we were able to select polymorphic markers for each species tested and we anticipate these results will help the development of genetic studies concerning important biological questions in terns.

  3. Another color morph of Sporophila Seedeater from the capuchinos group (Aves, Emberizidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Repenning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sporophila (Cabanis, 1844 unites about 30 species of small seedeaters that predominantly inhabit open or semi-open areas in the Neotropical region. The taxonomy of this group is based on morphological studies from collected male specimens. The dynamic spatial and temporal variation in the male plumage and lack of knowledge of their vocalizations make it difficult to properly diagnose some species even today, so these two aspects account for the existing taxonomic dilemmas involving Sporophila. During a four-year field study, we investigated the natural history of a breeding population of Sporophila melanogaster (Pelzeln, 1870. This is an endemic species in Brazil, which reproduces in the high-altitude grasslands of the Atlantic Forest biome. We found four male specimens with clearly diagnosable plumage, distinct from the typical form of the species. Here we describe this previously unreported plumage form. Based on the evaluation of habitat use, vocalization, and reproductive behavior, we tested two hypotheses regarding its taxonomic status. We concluded that this is another case of an intra-specific color morph within the seedeaters of the "capuchinos" group.

  4. A redescription of Lithornis vulturinus (Aves, Palaeognathae) from the Early Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, Estelle; Lindow, Bent

    2015-10-20

    The extinct Lithornithidae include several genera and species of flying palaeognathous birds of controversial affinities known from the Early Paleogene of North America and Europe. An almost complete, articulated skeleton from the Early Eocene marine deposits of the Fur Formation (Denmark) was recently assigned to Lithornis vulturinus Owen, 1840. This study provides a detailed redescription and comparison of this three-dimensionally preserved specimen (MGUH 26770), which is one of the best preserved representatives of the Lithornithidae yet known. We suggest that some new features might be diagnostic of Lithornis vulturinus, including a pterygoid fossa shallower than in other species of Lithornis and the presence of a small caudal process on the os palatinum. We propose that Lithornis nasi (Harrison, 1984) is a junior synonym of Lithornis vulturinus and we interpret minor differences in size and shape among the specimens as intraspecific variation. To date, Lithornis vulturinus is known with certainty from the latest Paleocene-earliest Eocene to Early Eocene of the North Sea Basin (Ølst, Fur and London Clay Formations). Among the four species of the genus Lithornis, the possibility that Lithornis plebius Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is conspecific with either Lithornis vulturinus or Lithornis promiscuus Houde, 1988 (Early Eocene of Wyoming) is discussed. The presence of closely related species of Lithornis on either side of the North Atlantic in the Early Eocene reflects the existence of a high-latitude land connection between Europe and North America at that time.

  5. Aves y endemismo en los bosques relictos de la vertiente occidental andina del norte del Perú y sur del Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy N. M. Flanagan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los bosques relictos de las vertientes occidentales de los Andes del norte del Perú y el sur del Ecuador forman parte de dos regiones, una la denominada región de endemismo tumbesina (caracterizada principalmente por bosques secos y otra, en altitudes mayores, la región de endemismo del sur de los Andes centrales (caracterizada por bosques nublados y páramo. La región tumbesina es reconocida por albergar gran cantidad de aves endémicas, muchas de las cuales están amenazadas, y también por el alto grado de deforestación y fragmentación de sus hábitats naturales. Este artículo presenta un resumen del estado de conservación de dichas aves y bosques, con recomendaciones para mejorar la conservación de los últimos bosques de la vertiente occidental.

  6. Reporte de albinismo en Podiceps major, Pelecanus thagus y Cinclodes fuscus y revisión de aves silvestres albinas del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Torres

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos observaciones de individuos albinos en tres especies de aves peruanas, el Zambullidor Grande (Podiceps major, el Pelícano peruano (Pelecanus thagus y el Churrete cordillerano (Cinclodes fuscus. Los individuos eran albinos parciales casi totalmente blancos, aparentemente adultos, que mostraron un comportamiento normal entre sus conespecíficos. La supervivencia después de varios meses pudo ser comprobada para el Pelícano peruano y el Churrete cordillerano. Debido a que la información publicada sobre albinismo en aves peruanas es muy escasa, se realizó una revisión y se recopilaron registros para otras nueve especies que son también presentados.

  7. Water depth selection during foraging and efficiency in prey capture by the egrets Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae in an urban lagoon in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Seleção de profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e eficiência na captura de presas por Casmerodius albus e Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae em uma lagoa urbana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. Moreno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water depth selection during foraging, the efficiency in prey capture, and the food items captured by Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. The work was conducted at an urban lagoon, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Four transects were made each month (two in the morning and two in the afternoon for six months. When the birds were detected foraging, the water depth and the types of prey captured were recorded. There was no significant relationship between the foraging efficiencies of the two species. However, they differed in relation to the water depth when foraging, and also in the food items captured. Casmerodius albus captured mainly fishes while Egretta thula captured mainly invertebrates. The results suggest that the differences in water depth when foraging and the food items captured allow a differential use of the food resources available by C. albus and E. thula at Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas.Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a seleção de profundidade durante o forrageamento, a eficiência na captura de presas e os itens alimentares capturados por Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. O trabalho foi realizado em uma lagoa urbana, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas. Durante seis meses foram realizadas quatro transecções (duas de manhã e duas à tarde. Quando as aves foram avistadas forrageando, foram registradas a profundidade da água e o tipo de presa capturada. Não foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significativa entre a eficiência de forrageamento para as duas espécies de aves. Entretanto, as espécies diferiram significativamente em relação à profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e também em relação aos itens alimentares capturados. Casmerodius albus capturou principalmente peixes, enquanto E. thula capturou principalmente invertebrados. Os resultados sugerem que diferenças na profundidade da água durante o

  8. Temporal variation in the reproductive success of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae in an Atlantic Forest reserve in Southeast Brazil Variação temporal no sucesso reprodutivo de Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Duca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For colonial bird species, egg hatching synchrony has been considered an important factor in their reproductive success. The Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a Passeriformes species (Icterinae that reproduces in colonies in which groups of females lay their eggs at different periods during the reproductive season. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there was a variation in the reproductive success among C. haemorrhous females groups that lay eggs in different periods along the reproductive season. A total of 192 nests from four colonies were monitored at Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and used to calculate the nest survival probability in different periods (early and late of the 2001 reproductive season. The results showed that females that reproduced at the beginning of the reproductive period had higher reproductive success than those that reproduced later. Predation was the main cause of nests loss (48,4%, and an increase in predation rate was observed as the reproductive period advanced.Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva

  9. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. Parasites of the Southern silvery grebe Podiceps occipitalis (Aves, Podicipedidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 97 southern silvery grebes (Podiceps occipitalis, which died as the result of an oil spill on the coast of central Chile, were examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Two lice species including Aquanirmus rollandii (Philopteridae and Pseudomenopon dolium (Menoponidae were found from 6.2% (6/97 of birds. In 91.7% (89/97 of cases, grebes were infected with some kind of helminths. Three species of gastrointestinal helminths were detected: Eucoleus contortus (Nematoda, Profilicollis bullocki (Acanthocephala, and Confluaria sp. (Cestoda. In addition, Pelecitus fulicaeatrae (Nematoda was removed from the tibiotarsal-tarsometatarsal articulation in 13.4% (13/97 of the specimens examined. To our knowledge, these are the first records of A. rollandii, E. contortus, and Confluaria sp. as parasites of P. occipitalis. In addition, these findings expand the distributional range of A. rollandii, E. contortus, P. fulicaeatrae, and Confluaria sp. to Chile.

  11. A suite of microsatellite markers for genetic management of captive cracids (Aves, Galliformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M C; Camargo, C; Laganaro, N M; Oliveira, P R R; Davanço, P V; Azeredo, R M A; Simpson, J G P; Silveira, L F; Francisco, M R

    2014-11-27

    Cracids are medium to large frugivorous birds that are endemic to the Neotropics. Because of deforestation and overhunting, many species are threatened. The conservation of several species has relied on captive breeding and reintroduction in the wild, but captive populations may be inbred. Microsatellite tools can permit the construction of genetic pedigrees to reduce inbreeding, but only a few loci are available for this group of birds. Here, we present 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the cross-amplification of these and of 10 additional loci available in the literature in a panel of 5 cracid species, including 3 species with high conservation concern. We provide the first polymorphic loci for the jacutinga, Aburria jacutinga (N = 8), and red-billed curassow, Crax blumenbachii (N = 9), and additional loci for bare-faced curassow, C. fasciolata (N = 8), Alagoas curassow, Pauxi mitu (N = 5), and razor-billed curassow, P. tuberosa (N = 5). The average number of alleles was 2.9 for A. jacutinga, 2.7 for C. blumenbachii, 3.5 for C. fasciolata, 2.6 for P. mitu, and 5.7 for P. tuberosa. The mean expected heterozygosities were 0.42, 0.40, 0.48, 0.37, and 0.59, respectively. The average probabilities that the set of loci would not exclude a pair of parents of an arbitrary offspring were 2.9% in A. jacutinga, 1% in C. blumenbachii, 0.5% in C. fasciolata, 0.4% in P. mitu, and 0.002% in P. tuberosa suggesting that these loci may be adequate for parentage analysis and to implement ex situ genetic management plans.

  12. Feather mites of the subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4297, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-105 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Proctophyllodidae * systematics * new species * fauna * host associations * Passeriformes * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  13. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  14. Complete leucism in the Fawn-breasted Tanager Pipraeidea melanonota (Aves: Thraupidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucism is the partial or total lack of melanin in the feathers of birds, but it can be expressed in different forms. Currently, little information on leucistic wild tanagers is available. In this short communication we report an individual of the Fawn-breasted Tanager with complete leucism foraging in a mixed-species flock in an important Atlantic forest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

  15. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF A SINGULAR PENGUIN SCAPULA (AVES, SPHENISCIFORMES FROM THE EOCENE OF ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA ACOSTA HOSPITALECHE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Penguins have peculiar modifications in their skeletal anatomy as a consequence of their extremely specialized diving habit. Morphological specialization is particularly evident in the forelimb. However, the kinematics of the pectoral girdle appears to be key to the locomotion of penguins. Penguin scapulae have an unusual morphology among birds. Modern penguins have a very large (especially broad scapula, whereas this bone is long but narrower in basal fossil species. The recent finding of an incomplete scapula with a singular acromion in the Upper Eocene Submeseta Allomember of the La Meseta Formation in the Antarctic Peninsula reveals a scapula proportionally narrower than those of modern penguins but similar to that of Waimanu and possibly other Eocene species. Osteological comparisons and muscular dissections of modern penguins show that the most striking feature is the curvature of the acromion, and the consequent enlargement of the facies articularis clavicularis. The configuration of the acromion and the corpus scapula reflects a lack of functional optimization in terms of the resistance to forces transverse to the body axis. The scapula´s general morphology suggests it belonged to a medium to large-sized penguin species with no so specialized diving skills. 

  16. Evolution in Australasian mangrove forests: multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the Gerygone warblers (Aves: Acanthizidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád S Nyári

    Full Text Available The mangrove forests of Australasia have many endemic bird species but their evolution and radiation in those habitats has been little studied. One genus with several mangrove specialist species is Gerygone (Passeriformes: Acanthizidae. The phylogeny of the Acanthizidae is reasonably well understood but limited taxon sampling for Gerygone has constrained understanding of its evolution and historical biogeography in mangroves. Here we report on a phylogenetic analysis of Gerygone based on comprehensive taxon sampling and a multilocus dataset of thirteen loci spread across the avian genome (eleven nuclear and two mitochondrial loci. Since Gerygone includes three species restricted to Australia's coastal mangrove forests, we particularly sought to understand the biogeography of their evolution in that ecosystem. Analyses of individual loci, as well as of a concatenated dataset drawn from previous molecular studies indicates that the genus as currently defined is not monophyletic, and that the Grey Gerygone (G. cinerea from New Guinea should be transferred to the genus Acanthiza. The multilocus approach has permitted the nuanced view of the group's evolution into mangrove ecosystems having occurred on multiple occasions, in three non-overlapping time frames, most likely first by the G. magnirostris lineage, and subsequently followed by those of G. tenebrosa and G. levigaster.

  17. Evidence of taxon cycles in an Indo-Pacific passerine bird radiation (Aves: Pachycephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Clegg, Sonya M.; Holt, Ben G.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Many insular taxa possess extraordinary abilities to disperse but may differ in their abilities to diversify and compete. While some taxa are widespread across archipelagos, others have disjunct (relictual) populations. These types of taxa, exemplified in the literature by selections of unrelated taxa, have been interpreted as representing a continuum of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). Here, we use molecular data of 35 out of 40 species of the avian genus Pachycephala (including 54 out of 66 taxa in Pachycephala pectoralis (sensu lato), to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the group. We also include data on species distributions, morphology, habitat and elevational ranges to test a number of predictions associated with the taxon-cycle hypothesis. We demonstrate that relictual species persist on the largest and highest islands across the Indo-Pacific, whereas recent archipelago expansions resulted in colonization of all islands in a region. For co-occurring island taxa, the earliest colonists generally inhabit the interior and highest parts of an island, with little spatial overlap with later colonists. Collectively, our data support the idea that taxa continuously pass through phases of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). PMID:24403319

  18. Foraging behavioral of Phylloscartes ventralis (Aves, Tyrannidae in native and planted forests of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Mendonça-Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have related the effects of silviculture practices to the behavior of bird species in the Neotropics. The present study examined the foraging behavior of Phylloscartes ventralis (Temminck, 1824 in a native forest and in silviculture areas of Pinus elliotti and Araucaria angustifolia with different structures and ages. We tested two general hypotheses: (1 areas of commercial forest plantation change the foraging behavior of P. ventralis in relation to native forest, and (2 the foraging behavior of P. ventralis in silviculture areas with understories (complex structures is different from its behavior in areas without understory. The results showed that P. ventralis changed its foraging behavior depending on the type of forest, and on the presence of an understory in silviculture areas. Main changes involved the height and angle of substrate where the prey was captured. Phylloscartes ventralis showed the same set of attack maneuvers, with more maneuvers type in young Pinus planted without understory. The frequency of use of attack maneuvers was more similar in areas of silviculture with understory and in the native forest. The results highlight the importance of an understory structure and the utilization of native plant species in silviculture practices, to the foraging behavior of native bird species.

  19. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the antbirds, ovenbirds, woodcreepers, and allies (Aves: Passeriformes: Infraorder Furnariides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.G.; Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.; Tello, J.G.; Marchese, D.J.; Cracraft, J.

    2009-01-01

    The infraorder Furnariides is a diverse group of suboscine passerine birds comprising a substantial component of the Neotropical avifauna. The included species encompass a broad array of morphologies and behaviours, making them appealing for evolutionary studies, but the size of the group (ca. 600 species) has limited well-sampled higher-level phylogenetic studies. Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear RAG-1 and RAG-2 exons, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the Furnariides sampling 124 (more than 88%) of the genera. Basal relationships among family-level taxa differed depending on phylogenetic method, but all topologies had little nodal support, mirroring the results from earlier studies in which discerning relationships at the base of the radiation was also difficult. In contrast, branch support for family-rank taxa and for many relationships within those clades was generally high. Our results support the Melanopareidae and Grallariidae as distinct from the Rhinocryptidae and Formicariidae, respectively. Within the Furnariides our data contradict some recent phylogenetic hypotheses and suggest that further study is needed to resolve these discrepancies. Of the few genera represented by multiple species, several were not monophyletic, indicating that additional systematic work remains within furnariine families and must include dense taxon sampling. We use this study as a basis for proposing a new phylogenetic classification for the group and in the process erect new family-group names for clades having high branch support across methods. ?? 2009 The Willi Hennig Society.

  20. Hunting pressure on cracids (Cracidae: Aves in forest concessions in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Barrio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of timber exploitation on biodiversity is usually increased by hunting in the exploited area. Proper forest management practices on areas under commercial exploitation minimize hunting and damage to the forest. Large species of Cracidae, the most endangered family of birds in the Neotropics, are among the first to be affected in a Neotropical forest damaged by timber-extraction activities, and where at least moderate hunting occurs. Herein an assessment of cracids is carried out in three areas with selective logging in Peru in 2004 and 2005, is used to evaluate hunting pressure. Tree inventory trails were used as transects, and density was calculated using the line transect methodology. Four species of cracids were evaluated, and density was calculated for three of them. The area with lower hunting pressure, Maderyja, showed higher cracid diversity and was the only with the presence of razor-billed curassows (Mitu tuberosum and blue-throated pining-guans (Pipile cumanensis, two sought-after prey species. Areas where hunting intensity is higher had lower cracid diversity. The density of the M. tuberosum was high in Maderyja: 11.3 ind/km2 (95% CI: 7.4 – 17.3 ind/km2. In contrast, Spix’s guan (Penelope jacquacu did not show a marked difference among areas, unless compared to heavily hunted sites. The higher diversity of cracids and the density found for razor-billed curassows suggests Maderyja had low hunting pressure in the past and is properly managed towards wildlife. Currently, the Peruvian Amazon is being opened for forestry concessions and hydrocarbons exploitation and proper management towards wildlife is necessary to guarantee the conservation of susceptible taxa such as cracids.

  1. Fossil Suidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Aves Cave I and nearby sites in Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickford, M.; Gommery, D.

    2016-07-01

    Excavations carried out since 2011 at Bolt’s Farm Palaeokarst System, South Africa, have led to the recovery of interesting remains of suids, notably from Aves Cave I. The taxa present are Potamochoeroides hypsodon and Notochoerus capensis, the same as those that occur at Makapansgat. The new Notochoerus material, which includes an upper third molar and a lower fourth premolar, strengthens the conclusion that this genus is a suine and not a tetraconodont as thought for the past half century. Potamochoeroides has thickened mandibular rami indicating that it descended from the genus Dasychoerus that dispersed into Africa from Eurasia about 5 million years ago. Other karst deposits at Bolt’s Farm have yielded a younger suid fauna comprising Metridiochoerus andrewsi and Phacochoerus modestus, indicating that the Bolt’s Farm Karst System was active for a considerable period of time (ca 4.5 Ma - 1.8 Ma). The fact that all the suid taxa from Bolt’s Farm are hypsodont indicates that the palaeoenvironment contained abundant grass. (Author)

  2. Revising the phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin (Linnaeus 1771) (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gamauf, Anita; Töpfer, Till

    2017-02-01

    The phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin from La Réunion has been unresolved for centuries. A recent molecular study unexpectedly placed M. mascarin within the clade of phenotypically very different Vasa parrots Coracopsis. Based on DNA extracted from the only other preserved Mascarinus specimen, we show that the previously obtained cytb sequence is probably an artificial composite of partial sequences from two other parrot species and that M. mascarin is indeed a part of the Psittacula diversification, placed close to P. eupatria and P. wardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender-related diet composition and morphometry of the Restinga Antwren, Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. Chaves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Formicivora littoralis (Gonzaga and Pacheco, 1990, the Restinga Antwren, considered the only endemic bird species of the Restinga ecosystem (sandy plain coastal vegetation, is threatened with extinction. The scientific literature provides little information on the biology of this bird, which was discovered in 1990. We evaluate gender-related differences in the composition of the diet and morphometric measurements of this species. We tested the hypothesis that the sexes differ in what they eat and in morphometric characters. Our results revealed that the diet of the Restinga Antwren includes mainly arthropods, which is consistent with the diets of other Thamnophilidae. The lack of differences in the composition of the diet between the sexes does not support the hypothesis that habitat partitioning to avoid intraspecific competition is taking place. We found significant differences in six morphometric measurements, two in the beak and four in body size. It is possible that intraspecific differences between the sexes are a result of sexual selection, a hypothesis that needs to be tested.

  4. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of Enicognathus ferrugineus and Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Aves, Psittacidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Osvaldo Valdebenito

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6% analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%, five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9% and two E. leptorhynchus (40%, the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%, and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%. The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations.

  6. Taxonomic status of Paraguay's only endemic bird, the Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis (Aves: Tinamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Floyd E; RodrÍguez, Oscar; Thalman, Erika R; Castellanos, Emily A; Sterling, John

    2018-03-08

    The Chaco Nothura Nothura chacoensis Conover is endemic to the Chaco of western Paraguay. Originally described as a subspecies of the Spotted Nothura N. maculosa (Temminck), it has been regarded by many authorities as a distinct species based on alleged sympatry with N. maculosa. However, an earlier study revealed no differences in cytochrome b sequences between the two taxa. We reanalyzed the geographic distribution and morphological variation of N. chacoensis and N. maculosa in western Paraguay based on museum specimens. There is no locality where specimens of both taxa were collected, thus there is no evidence for sympatry. Morphologically the two taxa did not differ in any size or shape variable. Plumage characters overlapped in a few specimens. We recorded vocalizations from at least four individuals of N. chacoensis within its known range. Its typical territorial song was a very rapid, relatively monotone trill that was virtually identical with the most frequent territorial song of N. maculosa in length, number of notes, rate of notes, and emphasized frequency, and differed substantially from the songs of other species of Nothura. Based on distributional, morphological, biochemical, and especially vocalization data, we conclude that N. chacoensis should be regarded as a subspecies of N. maculosa.

  7. Modelación matemática del consumo de presas y el flujo de energía asociado a la reproducción de Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves, Falconiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis, D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical model of prey consumption and energy flow associated with breeding in Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves, Falconiformes The snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis is a bird of prey that has permanent populations and is fairly common in Cuba. It is classified as High Concern in the North American Water Bird Conservation Plan, partially due to a highly specialized diet, preying only on water snail of the genus i>Pomacea. In the current paper we developed a mathematical model in Stella software to analyze consumption and mobilization of energy during reproduction of this species. The model was calibrated with reproductive parameters determined in a nesting colony of the Great Wetland of North Ciego de Ávila, Cuba. Variables included in the basic model were adults, eggs and nestling morphometry, behavioral aspects, trophic elements and other reproductive parameters; some were measured in the field and the rest were taken from literature sources. The main outcomes of the model were: energy consumption per individual, daily and total season consumption, and the number of prey it represented. To test the model we simulated the behaviour of a 100–nest colony that resulted in the production of an average of 158 ± 7.1 eggs and between 106 and 125 nestlings. Daily adult energy consumption was estimated between 110.32 and 118.47 kcal, which can be achieved by consuming around 28 snails each day. A colony of this size has an estimated requirement of 1,893,103 kcal of total energy per season, driven by 5,933 ± 59 kg of snail biomass, equivalent to between 419 and 552 thousand snails in three and half months. Sensitivity analysis of the model showed that the variables that most influenced energy consumption were those related to reproductive success, adult body size and flying behavior. The resulting model will allow to simulate and assess the potential impact of future habitat modifications on the species breeding.

  8. Parámetros reproductivos y distribución geográfica potencial de las áreas de anidación de Grus canadensis nesiotes (Aves, Gruidae en Cuba: implicaciones para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer–Sánchez, Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive parameters and potential geographical distribution of nesting areas of Grus canadensis nesiotes (Aves, Gruidae in Cuba: conservation implications Grus canadensis nesiotes (Cuban sandhill crane is an endemic and endangered subspecies from Cuba. Protection of wetland habitats is essential for survival of this species, but studies that could contribute to its management and conservation are lacking. In this study we recorded the reproductive parameters of Grus canadensis nesiotes in eight breeding seasons between 2005 and 2015 in a wetland of Cuba. We modeled and characterized the potential geographical distribution of the nesting areas, analyzing its representation within protected areas. Maximum entropy algorithm and habitat variables were used for modeling (100 m of pixel size. To characterize the potential distribution we calculated each land–use–vegetation within the potential distribution. We used the same procedure to determine the extent of the protected area. A hundred and fifty–one nests were located in marsh grasslands. These nests were simple platforms built on wet soil/water; the largest nests were observed in 2006. Seventy percent of nests had two eggs (1.7 eggs/nest and 63.5% were successful with 1.6 chicks per successful nest. The potential nesting habitat is a narrow stretch (242 km2 located in the center of the wetland. The area with high probability of presence makes up 13.8% of the predicted distribution. Sixty percent of marsh grassland of the study area was included in the potential distribution, while the proportion of crops (1.2% and pastures (2.1% was low. Managed protected areas cover only 39.1% of the potential distribution of the nesting sites and 12% of the high probability areas. We propose three priority sites to study and monitor nesting of the subspecies. Species conservation actions should consider the potential geographical distribution of nesting sites both inside and outside the protected

  9. History, distribution, and seasonal abundance of the Least Tern Sternula antillarum (Aves: Charadriiformes: Sternidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio J. Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We review existing data on the distribution of the Least Tern, Sternula antillarum along the Brazilian coast, based on the literature and museum specimens, and present results of a year-long study (October 2008 to September 2009 on the seasonal abundance of this species on a large tidal flat area, Cajuais Bank, in the State of Ceará, north-eastern Brazil. We evaluate whether the observed variation in the abundance of terns is due to the occurrence of an undocumented breeding colony, or alternatively, whether it results from an influx of migrants from the Northern Hemisphere. The recovery of historical data revealed that all literature references on the distribution of birds in the Americas, published up to the late 1990s include Brazil in the non-breeding range of the Least Tern. This inclusion is based on a few, old (late 19th and early 20th centuries museum specimens, all of which have been collected on the northern and north-eastern coasts of this country'. From the late 1980s, birds continued to be occasionally recorded along the coastline, running from the State of Amapá (01°N up to the State of Bahia (10°S, with records of single individuals in south-eastern and southern Brazil. An alleged record from Rocas Atoll, 260 km off the Brazilian mainland, might tentatively refer to the Old World Little Tern S. albifrons. At Cajuais Bank, Least Terns occurred from October 2008 to April 2009, and in September 2009. The highest numbers (> 800 individuals were recorded in January-February (Southern Hemisphere's summer. The species was observed in rather small numbers (< 30 in March-April (early-mid Southern Hemisphere fall and in September (early Southern Hemisphere spring, being absent from the area in May-August (Southern Hemisphere's fall and winter. In October-December 2008 (Southern Hemisphere's spring, and September 2009 (early Southern Hemisphere's summer, no birds were in breeding plumage. In January, about 32% of the birds were in

  10. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  11. Diet of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos (Aves: Accipitridae in Sarnena Sredna Gora Mountains (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The material of pellets and food remains (as bone and shell fragments, hair, and feathers was collected after the breeding season from below and within one nest of Golden Eagles on rocks at Sarnena Sredna Gora Mts., north-east of Stara Zagora town. Our study was carried out during a three year period (1999, 2000 and 2002. Total 65 specimens from minimum 10 species of preys were identified among the food remains from which the reptiles dominated. Mostly preyed by the Golden Eagles couple were the tortoises (Testudo sp. with 55.4% from all registered individual preys. The most common prey from mammals was the hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus with 13.8%. Interesting fact was and the relatively high percentage of the cats with 7.7% (possibly most of them domestic ones.

  12. Winter diet of the Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus (Aves, Accipitriformes in the Evros Delta (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIRTSAS Periklis

    Full Text Available The diet of the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus was studied with the analysis of pellets collected in the Evros Delta. In total, 141 prey items were identified in 86 pellets. In terms of numbers, the diet consisted of 66.7% mammals, 27.7% birds and 5.7% insects. Considering biomass, birds were the most important prey, while mammals made up 36.6% of the diet. The most important species, in terms of biomass, were Sibling Vole (Microtus levis -31.1%-,Teal (Anas crecca -17.7%-, Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus and Black-headed Gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus -11.8% each-. The mean estimated prey weight was 36 g., ranging from 1 to 300 g.

  13. Ácaros de penas e carrapatos (Acari associados a Turdus albicollis Vieillot (Aves, Muscicapidae em uma área de Mata Atlântica da Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Feather mites and ticks (Acari associated to Turdus albicollis Vieillot (Aves, Muscicapidae in an area of Atlantic Forest at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alline Storni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O parasitismo é um importante mecanismo que afeta populações e comunidades. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a fauna de ectoparasitos que habita o corpo do sabiá-de-coleira, Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818 e avaliar se a massa corporal do hospedeiro é afetada por estes parasitos. Os indivíduos de T. albicollis foram mensalmente capturados na Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, no período de julho de 1999 a junho de 2000, em uma área de Floresta Atlântica. As aves foram individualmente marcadas, pesadas e examinadas para registrar e quantificar a presença de ectoparasitos. A abundância e a localização dos parasitos no corpo do hospedeiro foram registradas. Em 54 indivíduos de T. albicollis amostrados, foram encontrados duas espécies de ectoparasitos. A prevalência de ácaros de penas, Pterodectes turdinus Berla, 1959, foi de 72,2% enquanto que a de carrapatos, Amblyomma longirostre Koch, 1844, foi de 27,8%. A abundância mensal de P. turdinus foi significativamente relacionada com os meses do ano, sendo maior nos meses com menor freqüência de chuva. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre a massa corporal do hospedeiro (g e a abundância total de ácaros de penas e carrapatos.Parasitism is an important mechanism affecting populations and communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ectoparasites fauna living on the body of the white-necked trush, Turdus albicollis Vieillot, 1818, and to evaluate if the host body mass is affected by these parasites. Turdus albicollis were monthly captured at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, from July 1999 to June 2000 in an area of Atlantic Forest. The birds were individualy marked, weighed and carefully checked to record and quantify the presence of ectoparasites. Parasite abundance and location on the bird's body were recorded. In 54 individuals of T. albicollis sampled, two ectoparasite species were found. The prevalence of the feather mite Pterodectes turdinus

  14. Functional morphology of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestoni, Sofía; Degrange, Federico Javier; Tambussi, Claudia Patricia; Demmel Ferreira, María Manuela; Tirao, Germán Alfredo

    2018-06-01

    The cranio-mandibular complex is an important structure involved in food capture and processing. Its morphology is related to the nature of the food item. Jaw muscles enable the motion of this complex and their study is essential for functional and evolutionary analysis. The present study compares available behavioral and dietary data obtained from the literature with novel results from functional morphological analyses of the cranio-mandibular complex of the Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) to understand its relationship with the zoophagous trophic habit of this species. The bite force was estimated based on muscle dissections, measurements of the physiological cross-sectional area, and biomechanical modeling of the skull. The results were compared with the available functional morphological data for other birds. The standardized bite force of G. guira is higher than predicted for exclusively zoophagous birds, but lower than for granivorous and/or omnivorous birds. Guira guira possesses the generalized jaw muscular system of neognathous birds, but some features can be related to its trophic habit. The external adductor muscles act mainly during food item processing and multiple aspects of this muscle group are interpreted to increase bite force, that is, their high values of muscle mass, their mechanical advantage (MA), and their perpendicular orientation when the beak is closed. The m. depressor mandibulae and the m. pterygoideus dorsalis et ventralis are interpreted to prioritize speed of action (low MA values), being most important during prey capture. The supposed ecological significance of these traits is the potential to widen the range of prey size that can be processed and the possibility of rapidly capturing agile prey through changes in the leverage of the muscles involved in opening and closing of the bill. This contributes to the trophic versatility of the species and its ability to thrive in different habitats, including urban areas. © 2018 Wiley

  15. Riqueza, composição e distribuição espacial da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal urbano em Maringá, Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Richness, composition and spatial distribution of bird community on an urban forest fragment at Maringá, Northern Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beal Galina

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a riqueza, composição e distribuição espacial de aves em um fragmento florestal urbano de 47,3 ha em Maringá, Sul do Brasil (23°25’S e 51°25W. Quatro hábitats foram categorizados neste fragmento: interior de floresta, borda de floresta, áreas abertas e lago. A borda e interior de floresta foram divididos em três estratos: inferior (abaixo de 3 m, médio (3-6 m e superior (acima de 6 m. Uma transecção abrangendo todos os hábitats foi percorrida quatro vezes por mês de janeiro a dezembro de 2003, totalizando 48 dias de amostragens. Foram registradas 86 espécies de aves no fragmento florestal, sendo os insetívoros e onívoros, respectivamente, as guildas com maior número de espécies. A maioriadas espécies foi registrada no máximo em 25% das amostragens. O interior da floresta foi o hábitat que teve a maior riqueza de espécies e a maior porcentagem de espécies com freqüência de ocorrência superior a 75%. O estrato médio apresentou a maior riqueza e o superior a maior porcentagem de espécies com freqüência de ocorrência superior a 75%. Ressalta-se a importância de se manter os vários fragmentos florestais urbanos e a cobertura arbórea nacidade de Maringá, a fim de se minimizar os efeitos do isolamento e tentar suprir as necessidades de uma parte da comunidade de aves que possivelmente não se manteria caso não houvesse outras áreas florestais próximas ao local estudado.Richness, composition and spatial distribution of birds were analyzed on an urban forest fragment of 47.3 ha at Maringá, Southern Brazil (23°25'S and 51°25W. Four habitats were categorized on this fragment: forest, forest edge, open areas and lagoon. The forest and forest edge were divided into three levels: understory (bellow 3 m, mid-levels (3-6 m and canopy (above 6 m. A standard transect was ran throughout all pre-established habitats four times each month of January to December 2003, totaling 48 sampling days. A total of 86

  16. Shifts in composition of avian communities related to temperate-grassland afforestation in southeastern South America Alterações na composição de comunidades de aves relacionadas ao florestamento de campos temperados no sudeste da América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation of temperate grasslands with fast-growing trees for industrial pulpwood production is spreading in South America. Despite high afforestation rates resulting from governmental policies that stimulate pulpwood production in grasslands of southern Brazil and Uruguay, the impact of this activity on biodiversity remains to be properly assessed. We used an Impact-Reference study design to evaluate how grassland afforestation affects the composition of grassland bird assemblages. We sampled eucalyptus plantations and neighboring natural grasslands in southern Brazil from 2006-2009, and relied on nested sampling and analysis to separate the effects of afforestation from the natural variability of grasslands. We recorded a significant difference in composition between assemblages from grasslands and tree plantations. Species adapted to open, treeless areas tended to be negatively affected in relation to edge or forest birds in eucalyptus plantations. Afforestation is systematically replacing the bird assemblage of hilltop grasslands by a collection of common edge and forest species that occur in nearby riverine and hillside forests. Although most grassland birds negatively affected by tree plantations are common and widespread, observed and predicted afforestation rates in southeastern South America may result in regional population reductions in the near future.O florestamento de campos temperados com árvores de crescimento rápido para a produção industrial de celulose está aumentando na América do Sul. Apesar das elevadas taxas de florestamento resultantes de políticas governamentais que estimulam o plantio de árvores para celulose em campos do sul do Brasil e Uruguai, o impacto dessa atividade sobre a biodiversidade ainda carece de avaliação adequada. Utilizamos um delineamento experimental do tipo impacto-referência para avaliar como o florestamento dos campos afeta a composição da assembleia de aves campestres. Amostramos

  17. Nests, Eggs, and Nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA G. CHAVES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis, an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m. Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8. We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching.

  18. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching.

  19. Communication value of displays and postures in Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Aves: Pycnonotidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I investigated visual signals mediated through displays and postures and their importance in communication in Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer. Observations revealed that this species used five types (namely mate acquisition display, greeting display, alarm display, crest position and begging display of visual signals for communication and showed three types of sleeping postures and broken-wing display. Mate acquisition display was performed to maintain pair bond and when two individuals met, one of them would use greeting display along with low amplitude complex vocalisations. The position of the crest seemed to vary with different behavioural contexts; it was raised erect in alarm and recumbent during greeting. Nestlings/ fledglings used specific begging displays that included gaping with or without vocal signals. The presence of a predator in close vicinity of bird/nesting site, elicited alarm displays along with alarm calls. The present study revealed that the displays and postures are important means of communication under various social contexts and were often accompanied with vocalisations thus making them multi-component. It is believed that the multi-component signals provide more reliable information for receivers and increase the efficacy of communication.

  20. Reproduction of the Atlantic Forest endemic star-throated antwren, Rhopias gularis (Aves: Thamnophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. Perrella

    Full Text Available Abstract The Thamnophilidae are one of the most speciose Neotropical bird families, yet aspects of their natural history remain poorly documented. Here we provide information on breeding phenology, the length of incubation and nestling periods, parental care, and nesting success of the Star-throated Antwren, Rhopias gularis, an Atlantic Forest endemic. The data are discussed in light of life history theories. We found 27 active nests during two breeding seasons (2013/2014 and 2014/2015 at Carlos Botelho State Park in southeastern Brazil. Nesting activities were observed from September to January. Incubation and nestling periods lasted 16.8 ± 0.6 and 11.0 ± 0.86 days, respectively, as with most other antbirds. Males and females shared equally in incubation and nestling provisioning. The small clutch size of two eggs is that most commonly found in tropical birds and is hypothesized to have evolved due to increased nest predation rates. However, our data was not consistent with this hypothesis as the nest survival probability was high (57%. This is one of only a handful of studies that provide comprehensive information on the breeding biology of a Thamnophilid species in undisturbed habitat.

  1. Perda de diversidade taxonômica e funcional de aves em área urbana no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. Sacco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A urbanização é um processo globalmente estudado e considerado um dos distúrbios mais drásticos sobre a biodiversidade. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar como diferentes intensidades de urbanização atuam na estruturação da avifauna em uma cidade de tamanho médio e inserida em região de área úmida. Além das métricas tradicionais de riqueza, abundância e composição taxonômica, verificou-se como a diversidade e redundâncias funcionais das aves são influenciadas pelo gradiente urbano. A área urbana estudada foi a cidade de Pelotas (31°46'S, 52°20'W, extremo sul do Brasil, que está inserida em uma área úmida do bioma Pampa. A amostragem das aves e a medida das variáveis urbanas (número de árvores, número de construções de até dois andares ou de mais de dois andares, presença de ambiente aquático e presença de ambiente aberto foram realizadas em 216 pontos fixos de observação que foram marcados em diferentes intensidades de urbanização. Os atributos funcionais utilizados para caracterizar as espécies foram os relacionados à massa, dieta, substrato de forrageamento e substrato de nidificação. O aumento da intensidade de urbanização diminuiu a riqueza, a abundância e a diversidade funcional, sendo que a redundância, diferente do esperado, não aumentou com a urbanização. Foi possível observar que os atributos relacionados a áreas com urbanização mais intensa (com contruções de até dois andares e de mais de dois andares foram: preferência por forrageamento no ar, onivoria e ninhos em cavidades. Os atributos relacionados a áreas com menor intensidade de urbanização e com áreas úmidas foram: preferência de forrageamento na água e de ninhos sobre a água; e aquele relacionados a menores intensidades de urbanização (com maior número de árvores e maior presença de ambientes abertos foram: preferência por ninhos em vegetação, em locais baixos e no solo e carnivoria. O estudo

  2. Using the Spanish Online Resource Aula Virtual de Español (AVE to Promote a Blended Teaching Approach in High School Spanish Language Classrooms / Utilisation de la ressource en ligne espagnole AVE pour favoriser l’approche de l’enseignement hybride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Pellerin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the effectiveness of the implementation of blended teaching (BT by combining the Spanish online resource Aula Virtual de Español (AVE with the face-to-face (F2F delivery approach in second language Spanish programs in two high schools in Alberta, Canada. Findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining the online resource AVE to the F2F teaching approach to promote BT in the Spanish language classroom. The use of BT approach in the language classroom had a positive impact on the students’ attitudes towards the study of the language, the students’ motivation and their participation levels in class, as well as their use of the target language in the classroom. Moreover, the multimodal experiences provided by the use of the online AVE resource combined with the F2F delivery approach responded more to the different learners learning styles and specific needs. Finally, the use of online AVE in conjunction with F2F teaching was also perceived as an effective tool in the preparation for the International Spanish Diplomas (DELE taken by the students in the more advanced Spanish classes. La présente étude explore l’efficacité de l’enseignement hybride combinant l’utilisation de la ressource espagnole en ligne Aula Virtual de Español (AVE et l’interaction face à face dans les programmes d’enseignement de l’espagnol, langue seconde, dans deux écoles secondaires de l’Alberta (Canada. Les résultats démontrent l’efficacité de la combinaison de la ressource en ligne AVE à la prestation face à face pour favoriser l’approche de l’enseignement hybride dans les cours d’espagnol. L’utilisation de l’approche de l’enseignement hybride dans le cours de langue a eu une incidence positive sur l’attitude des élèves relativement à l’apprentissage de la langue, la motivation des élèves et leur taux de participation en classe, ainsi que leur utilisation de la langue d’apprentissage dans la classe

  3. Pesquisa de Mycoplasma em aves da família Psittacidae mantidas em diferentes cativeiros no Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa M. Carvalho

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a presença de Mycoplasma gallisepticum e M. synoviae em diferentes espécies de psitacídeos cativos no Brasil Central. Um total de 300 amostras foram coletadas e corresponderam a 41 espécies de psitacídeos da fauna brasileira, provenientes do CETAS, criadouro comercial e criadouro conservacionista. Quatorze espécies apresentaram amostras positivas para M. gallisepticum destacando a maracanã-verdadeira (Primolius maracana (01/02, 50%, a arara-canindé (Ara ararauna (15/48, 33,3% e a jandaia-verdadeira (Aratinga jandaia (03/10, 30%. Amostras do CETAS obtiveram total de 21,62% (16/74 de amostras positivas, do criadouro comercial 15,7% (19/121 e do criadouro conservacionista 6,66% (7/105. Apenas três espécies foram positivas para M. synoviae sendo essas, a maracanã-pequena (Primolius maracana (1/10 - 10%, arara-macao (Ara macao (1/12, 8,3% e arara-canindé (Ara ararauna (2/48, 4,1%. O CETAS obteve 2,7% (2/74 de amostras positivas totais, enquanto o criadouro conservacionista obteve total de 1,9% (2/105 de amostras. Não ocorreram amostras positivas para M. synoviae no criadouro comercial. Os resultados mostraram um considerável número de amostras positivas para M. gallisepticum em espécies da família Psittacidae, indicando que estes animais podem ser uma fonte de infecção silenciosa para outras aves, uma vez que não apresentaram sintomatologia clínica.

  4. Distribución espacio-temporal de aves acuáticas invernantes en la Ciénega de Tláhuac, planicie lacustre de Chalco, México Spatio-temporal distribution of wintering aquatic birds in the Ciénega de Tláhuac, Chalco lacustrine plain, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Ayala-Pérez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La avifauna acuática invernal de la ciénaga de Tláhuac fue estudiada de noviembre de 2006 a febrero de 2007; se identificaron 40 especies, 3 de las cuales corresponden a nuevos registros. El área fue utilizada por, al menos, 25 000 aves acuáticas; 5 fueron las especies dominantes: 3 anátidos (Anas clypeata, A. platyrhynchos diazi y Oxyura jamaicensis, 1 ave playera (Limnodromus scolopaceus y 1 gallareta (Fulica americana. Sobresalió por su abundancia A. platyrhynchos diazi, subespecie endémica y amenazada, ya que los 2 200 individuos observados representan el 4% de la población total estimada. Las especies mejor representadas mostraron una utilización espacial diferencial, con 3 patrones: 1 especies con distribución uniforme (A. clypeata y F. americana, 2 las agrupadas en una sola porción del humedal (A.p. diazi y O. jamaicensis y 3 aquella con afinidad por 2 porciones del humedal (L. scolopaceus. La ciénega de Tláhuac es un humedal importante para la avifauna de la región; en ella ocurren, durante el invierno, 6 especies protegidas por el gobierno mexicano; sin embargo, existen factores antrópicos que ponen en riesgo su integridad y que hacen necesarias acciones de protección y conservación.The winter waterbirds of the Ciénega de Tláhuac were studied from November 2006 to February 2007; a total of 40 species were observed, with 3 new records. The area was usedby al least 25 000 birds; 5 species were the dominant: 3 anatids (Anas clypeata, A. platyrhynchos diazi y Oxyura jamaicensis, 1 shorebird (Limnodromus scolopaceus and 1 coot (Fulica americana. The abundance of A. platyrhynchos diazi, a threatened endemic subspecies, was remarkable because the 2 200 individuals observed represent 4% of its population.The best represented species showed a differential spatial use, with 3 patterns: 1 species with homogeneous use (A. clypeata y F. americana, 2 with affinity to a single portion of the wetland (A. p. diazi y O. jamaicensis

  5. Valores de energia metabolizável de alguns alimentos obtidos com aves de diferentes idades Metabolizable energy values of feedstuffs obtained from poultry at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena de Carvalho Mello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados quatro ensaios de metabolismo com a finalidade de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn de dez alimentos em aves em diversas idades. Os alimentos testados foram: milho, farelo de soja, sorgo, farelo de trigo, farelo de arroz integral, duas farinhas de penas, duas farinhas de vísceras e plasma sangüíneo. Utilizou-se o método de coleta total de excretas, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 11 tratamentos (dez alimentos e uma ração-referência e seis repetições. No primeiro ensaio, foram utilizados 528 pintos de corte machos de 10 a 17 dias de idade, totalizando oito aves por repetição; no segundo ensaio, 396 frangos de corte machos de 26 a 33 dias de idade, com seis aves por repetição; no terceiro ensaio, 264 frangos de corte machos de 40 a 47 dias de idade, com quatro aves por repetição; e, no quarto ensaio, 132 galos, com duas aves por repetição. A idade das aves influenciou os valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja, do sorgo, do farelo de arroz integral, das farinhas de penas e do plasma sangüíneo, enquanto, para o farelo de trigo, teve efeito apenas sobre a EMAn.Four assays were carried out to determine the apparent metabolizable energy (AME and the corrected apparent nitrogen metabolizable energy (AMEn of ten feeds for poultry at different poultry ages. The feeds studied were: corn grain, soybean meal, ground sorghum, wheat bran, integral rice bran, two kinds of feather meal, two kinds of poultry viscera meal and spray-dried plasma. The method of total excreta collection was used to determine the AME and AMEn values. The broiler chicks were distributed on a completely randomized experimental design, with 11 treatments, six replications, with different number of animals by replication according to the assay. In the first assay, 528 male broiler chicks in the period from 10 to 17 days of age were used, with eight animals

  6. Anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical study of testicular development in Columba livia (Aves: Columbiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, G B; Aguirre, M V; Lombardo, D M

    2018-07-01

    In this work, testicular ontogeny is analyzed at the anatomical, histological and immunohistochemical levels; the latter through the detection of GnRHR and PCNA in the testicles of embryos, neonates and juveniles of Columba livia. We analyzed 150 embryos, 25 neonates and 5 juveniles by means of observations under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining techniques and the PAS reaction. For the immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of GnRHR and PCNA in embryos corresponding to stages 41, 43 and in neonates of 2, 5, 7 and 75 days post-hatch was revealed in testicular histological preparations. That gonadal outline is evident in stage 18. In stage 29, the testes are constituted of a medulla in which the PGCs are surrounded by the Sertoli cells, constituting the seminiferous tubules. From stage 37 a greater organization of the tubules is visualized and at the time of hatching the testicle is constituted of the closed seminiferous tubules, formed of the PGCs and Sertoli cells. The Leydig cells are evident outside the tubules. In the juvenile stages, the differentiation of germline cells and the organization of small vessels that irrigate the developing testicle begin to be visible. In the analyzed stages, the immunodetection of the GnRHR receptor and PCNA revealed specific marking in the plasma membrane and in the perinuclear zone for GnRHR and in the nucleus of the germline cells in juvenile testicles for PCNA. These results can be used as a basis for further study of endocrine regulation events during testicular ontogeny in avian species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The phylogeography of red and yellow coppersmith barbets (Aves: Megalaima haemacephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert-Jan eDen Tex

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the evolution of color in birds is important because it is used for both inter- and intra-specific communication and is often linked to other important traits including life history, behavior, immunology and mate choice. The coppersmith barbet (Megalaima haemacephala is widely distributed across southern Asia and many islands of the Sunda shelf and the Philippines. It occurs in two well-differentiated and completely allopatric color morphs, a red- and a yellow-headed form. We constructed a phylogeny of coppersmith barbets from both color morphs and from across their range using sequences from two mitochondrial and one nuclear loci. Strong geographical patterns were found, in which India and Sri Lanka, the Philippines and mainland tropical east Asia (TE Asia, and the islands on the Sunda shelf (Sundaland each formed a divergent group. The red birds formed two clades within the diversity of yellow animals. Major clades were dated using a molecular clock calibrated on a larger phylogeny. The phylogeographic patterns suggest that the species likely originated in TE Asia/ Sundaland and then colonized the Philippines from the south in the mid-Pleistocene, via a now extinct population on Borneo. More recently, coppersmith barbets colonized India and Sri Lanka, also from TE Asia/ Sundaland. Coppersmith barbets were also likely distributed in the past on the Malay Peninsula, but went extinct there too. The population that now inhabits this region derives from a natural recolonization of yellow morph birds about 80 years ago. The red morph evolved at least twice independently from the yellow morph in the late Pleistocene, suggesting that this change does not require very many mutational steps, and thus can arise repeatedly.

  8. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oppenheimer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  9. Frugivoria por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e reflorestamento misto em Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil Frugivory by birds in a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Athiê

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando subsidiar futuros projetos de recuperação florestal com base nas interações animal-planta, foram avaliadas as espécies ornitocóricas e o consumo de frutos por aves em um mosaico de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e um reflorestamento misto, em Rio Claro, São Paulo. Através do monitoramento da frutificação e avaliação dos eventos de frugivoria em sessões focais e ad libitum, foram registradas 31 espécies ornitocóricas fornecendo frutos para 38 espécies de aves consumidoras. No reflorestamento misto foram observadas 90,3% (n=28 das espécies ornitocóricas frutificando ao longo de todo ano, enquanto no fragmento florestal, somente 51,6% (n=16 delas foram registradas, com maiores variações temporais na oferta de frutos; 65,2% (n=1027 dos frutos foram consumidos no reflorestamento misto e 34,8% (n=547 no fragmento florestal. Tais resultados podem estar relacionados ao menor tamanho do fragmento de vegetação nativa, o que, proporcionalmente, poderia determinar uma menor riqueza de espécies vegetais no mesmo e/ou ao fato de a dispersão abiótica tender a predominar nos locais fragmentados e perturbados. O reflorestamento misto, embora apresente algumas espécies vegetais exóticas, está sendo ecologicamente mais funcional para a avifauna e, devido à proximidade com o fragmento, parece estar contribuindo para a manutenção das comunidades de aves residentes e visitantes deste último através dos recursos alimentares oferecidos.To support future forest recovery projects based on plant-animal interactions, this work aimed to evaluate the ornithochoric species and fruit consumption by birds in both a mosaic of seasonal semideciduous forest and a mixed reforested area in Rio Claro, Sao Paulo, Brazil. By monitoring and evaluating fruiting and frugivory events in focal and ad libitum sessions, 31 ornithochoric species were found that provide fruits to 38 species of frugivorous birds. In the mixed reforested area, 90.3% (n

  10. Presencia y abundancia de aves que se reproducen en islas de la bahía de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Piña-Ortiz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Registramos la presencia y abundancia de aves, así como el hábitat y temporalidad de la reproducción de especies en las islas Pájaros, Venados, Lobos, Hermano Norte y Hermano Sur, ubicadas en la bahía de Mazatlán. Realizamos siete recorridos entre noviembre de 2014 y mayo de 2015; además contábamos con información colectada en mayo de 2004. Observamos un total de 59 especies de aves, de las cuales 15 fueron reproductoras: Dendrocygna autumnalis (pijije ala blanca, Phaethon aethereus (rabijunco pico rojo, Sula leucogaster (bobo café, Pelecanus occidentalis (pelícano café, Ardea herodias (garza morena, Ardea alba (garza blanca, Egretta thula (garza pie dorado, Bubulcus ibis (garza ganadera, Nycticorax nycticorax (pedrete corona negra, Nyctanassa violacea (pedrete corona clara, Eudocimus albus (ibis blanco, Coragyps atratus (zopilote común, Haematopus palliatus (ostrero americano, Larus heermanni (gaviota ploma y Falco peregrinus (halcón peregrino. Para P. aethereus y S. leucogaster no había reportes previos de reproducción en estas islas; además, confirmamos la anidación de L. hermanni. La isla Pájaros fue la que albergó el mayor número de especies reproductoras (10 especies. Pelecanus occidentalis fue la especie más abundante con un total de 1 559 individuos, seguido de Fregata magnificens (fragata magnífica y Sula nebouxii (bobo pata azul con 1 526 y 1 100 individuos, respectivamente; aunque para estas dos últimas especies no hubo registros de reproducción. Las islas se encuentran bajo protección, pero se requiere realizar monitoreos para establecer el estado y tendencias de las poblaciones de aves, así como los efectos de las perturbaciones por actividades humanas y por las especies introducidas.

  11. Características técnico-sanitarias de expendios de carnes, pescados, aves y huevos de la ciudad de Tunja 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una caracterización epidemiológica de los expendios de carnes, pescado y aves de Tunja en el año 2003, resultado del diagnóstico sanitario del municipio y las visitas adelantadas por la unidad de saneamiento. Al partir del compromiso que el sector salud tiene en el componente de ambiente, surge la necesidad de crear un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica ambiental, cuya metodología y estrategia esté orientada hacia el conocimiento de los factores de riesgo ambientales a que están expuestos los grupos humanos, con el fin de determinar prioridades y orientar los recursos de salud disponibles en el desarrollo de intervenciones; es por eso que se implantó en Tunja la vigilancia de factores de riesgo del consumo en esta estrategia, la cual, incluye la de expendios decarnes y derivados, aves huevos y pescado; entonces, se usaron las actas de inspección sanitaria y se tabuló en EPIINFO 2002 para su análisis con SPSS 11,5. Así se realizó un análisis descriptivo a 173 establecimientos y se encontró que existen condiciones diversas de sanidad respecto de la estructura física, los procesos productivos y el producto para la venta; también hay un incumplimiento de normas técnico-sanitarias, en diferentes sectores de la ciudad, que se priorizan para el control por parte de la autoridad sanitaria. Al 75% de los establecimientos no cumplen con las condiciones higiénico sanitarias en cárnicos; el 66,6% no cuenta con las condiciones en establecimiento de venta de pescados ý el 52,5% delos establecimientos de venta de aves y huevos, no cumplen con las condiciones higiénico sanitarias para tal fin.

  12. Medidas de vigilancia y contención de la influenza aviar en aves. Implicaciones para la salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arteaga Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La Influenza Aviar es una enfermedad infecciosa que afecta principalmente a las aves, producida por virus de la gripe A, en la mayoría de los casos de baja patogenicidad. Debido a la rápida mutación de estos virus a formas altamente patógenas, el nivel de riesgo para la sanidad animal y la salud pública puede ser alto. Desde el año 2003, está teniendo lugar un brote de Influenza Aviar en aves producido por el subtipo H5N1 de alta patogenicidad, con transmisión y afectación humana y que presenta un riesgo potencial de producir una nueva pandemia de gripe. Ante estos brotes, es fundamental la colaboración entre los sectores implicados de la Sanidad Animal y Salud Pública que permita localizar con precisión las zonas de actividad de la enfermedad en los animales e intensificar en ellas la vigilancia de los casos en humanos. Las medidas de control de la enfermedad en animales deben ser compatibles con la reducción del riesgo de exposición humana. El objetivo de este artículo es hacer una revisión de las medidas generales desarrolladas contra la Influenza Aviar en aves, destacando los aspectos de coordinación y comunicación entre las autoridades de Sanidad Animal y Salud Pública, teniendo en cuenta que la legislación está sujeta a una renovación rápida y constante en consonancia con la dinámica de esta enfermedad.

  13. Nuevos registros de aves con anormalidad pigmentaria en México y propuesta de clave dicotómica para la identificación de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick R. Rodríguez-Ruíz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las anormalidades pigmentarias en aves han adquirido mayor importancia e interés entre la comunidad ornitológica; sin em- bargo, resulta necesario contar con una herramienta de diagnóstico apropiada que brinde los criterios para lograr un sistema de identificación entre los distintos tipos de anormalidades. Para ello, proponemos una clave dicotómica para su identificación en campo con base en terminología obtenida de literatura especializada y una asociación de caracteres fenotípicos de aves. También, reportamos la presencia de anormalidades pigmentarias en la coloración corporal y de plumaje de cinco especies de aves que han sido observadas de forma ocasional en áreas perturbadas por impacto antropogénico en Tamaulipas, México: melanismo en la tortolita mexicana (Columbina inca, aberración ino en la paloma turca (Streptopelia decaocto, aberración ino en el correcaminos norteño (Geococcyx californianus, leucismo parcial en el pijuy (Crotophaga sulcirostris y leucismo parcial en el tordo de ojo rojo (Molothrus aeneus. Las evidencias de casos actuales sugieren un aparente aumento de especies en vida libre con variación en la pigmentación. Las causas que lo provocan aún son discutibles, por lo cual, relacionar qué factores naturales o artificiales están involucrados en estos padecimientos podrá contribuir a determinar su origen y detectar problemas a nivel de poblaciones. La clave dicotómica propuesta en la identificación de anormalidades pigmentarias puede ser una herramienta continua en contextos modernos, si se unifica la terminología empleada.

  14. Valor nutricional de Lemna valdiviana Phil (Araceae submetida a diferentes concentrações de fertilização com excremento de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Maria de Oliveira França

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p19 As lemnaceas são plantas aquáticas com grande potencial de uso como matéria prima para ração de peixes devido ao alto valor nutricional. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição química e a qualidade nutricional de Lemna valdiviana submetida a diferentes concentrações de adubação com excremento de aves. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram: Controle (sem adubação; T1 – 150g.m-3, T2 – 300g.m-3 e T3 – 450 g.m-3 de excremento de aves fresco, distribuídos em dose única para fertilizar o cultivo de L. valdiviana. A dose que proporcionou a melhor qualidade nutricional de L. valdiviana foi 450g.m-3 de excremento de aves, com teor de proteína bruta de 19,66% na matéria seca, percentual de fibras de 13,06% e teor de 0,26% de P, 1, 63% de N, 0,37% de Na e 1,22% de Ca na massa seca. Os teores alcançados nesse estudo indicam a possibilidade da L. valdiviana ser considerada uma matéria prima de boa qualidade nutricional para ser utilizada em outros experimentos como complemento na ração para peixes.

  15. Patrones biogeográficos de las aves de la península de Yucatán Biogeographical patterns of the Yucatán Peninsula birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gala Cortés-Ramírez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de actualizar el conocimiento de la avifauna (residente, migratoria y endémica de la Península de Yucatán, se analizaron datos de distribución puntual y distribuciones potenciales obtenidas mediante modelos de nicho ecológico a partir de la información obtenida de colecciones científicas. Para examinar la similitud entre la avifauna, se utilizó un índice de distancia fenética y se estimó el número probable de especies que se distribuye en la región. El número de registros en la base de datos quedó conformado por la presencia de 436 especies de aves (de 440 estimadas, 5 de las cuales son endémicas de México y se distribuyen en isla Cozumel y en la parte norte de la península, donde se encuentran las zonas de mayor aridez, el bosque tropical seco y 17 especies cuasiendémicas que se distribuyen en el resto de la península. Se reconocieron 4 principales agrupamientos de similitud faunística; uno al norte, otro en el área central, uno más al sur de la península y el cuarto en isla Cozumel.We analyzed geographical distribution patterns for the resident, migratory and endemic birds of the Yucatán Peninsula, using data obtained in scientific collections and predicted distributional areas obtained by ecological niche models with the purpose of updating the knowledge about the birds of the area. We examined the similarity between the bird components using a phenetic distance index, and estimated the possible number of species distributed in the peninsula. We recorded the presence of 436 species (of 440 estimated with the information of database. Five species are endemic to Mexico and 17 quasiendemic. Mexican endemics are distributed in Cozumel Island and in the northwestern portion of the peninsula, in dryer areas with tropical dry forest. Quasiendemic species are distributed in the southeastern portion of the peninsula, mainly in areas with high humidity. Similarity analysis lead to the recognition of 4 major

  16. USO DA TERAPIA ESPELHO NA AMPLITUDE DE MOVIMENTO E FUNÇÃO DO MEMBRO INFERIOR EM PACIENTES HEMIPARÉTICOS PÓS-AVE

    OpenAIRE

    Livia Danyelle Viana Lima; Bruno Vieira Cortez; Janaína de Moraes Silva

    2017-01-01

    Resumo: O exercício associado a terapia espelho potencializa a retenção de habilidades, melhorando o desempenho de atividades motoras de indivíduos hemiparéticos pós-AVE. Este estudo objetivou a análise do efeito da terapia espelho na amplitude de movimento e funcionalidade do membro inferior. Amostra composta de 11 participantes, com hemiparesia em membro inferior, submetidas a fisioterapia convencional. A intervenção constituiu de 10 atendimentos, 30 minutos diários e três vezes por semana....

  17. Características técnico-sanitarias de expendios de carnes, pescados, aves y huevos de la ciudad de Tunja 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Gustavo Manrique-Abril; Diego Alexander Manrique-Abril; Pablo Fernandez; Elena Patricia Castro-Montaña

    2011-01-01

    Se presenta una caracterización epidemiológica de los expendios de carnes, pescado y aves de Tunja en el año 2003, resultado del diagnóstico sanitario del municipio y las visitas adelantadas por la unidad de saneamiento. Al partir del compromiso que el sector salud tiene en el componente de ambiente, surge la necesidad de crear un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica ambiental, cuya metodología y estrategia esté orientada hacia el conocimiento de los factores de riesgo ambientales a que están...

  18. Estudio de los riesgos ergonómicos presentes durante la construcción de los túneles urbanos de Gerona para el AVE

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Cardona, Anahí

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es determinar el riesgo ergonómico presente en algunas de las tareas llevadas a cabo durante la construcción de los túneles urbanos de Gerona para el AVE. Primero se realizaron entrevistas con los responsables de seguridad y salud de la obra a los que se les solicitaron los datos de siniestralidad des del inicio de los trabajos. De esta manera se puede conocer el número de bajas médicas por sobreesfuerzos o posturas forzadas. Después se les acompañó durante s...

  19. Patrones de diversidad de aves a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal de bosques ribereños del río Paraná medio, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Berduc, Alfredo; Lorenzón, Rodrigo Ezequiel; Beltzer, Adolfo Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Se estudió la variación de la riqueza de especies (diversidad alfa), la diversidad beta, la abundancia y la equidad de ensambles de aves a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal de 500 km de bosques ribereños. Se muestrearon 5 localidades ubicadas en dirección norte-sur mediante una técnica mixta: transectos y puntos de conteo. La riqueza de especies decreció con el incremento de la latitud, reproduciendo el patrón de la riqueza regional informado en estudios previos. Los resultados apoyaron la...

  20. Factors that can influence the economic feasibility of stand-alone and grid-connected photovoltaic systems: case studies using the software AVES-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of economic feasibility of solar photovoltaic systems using the software AVES-F (Analysis of Economic Feasibility of Photovoltaic Systems), developed by the authors, considering cases of stand-alone and grid-connected systems. The software takes into account several factors that can influence the economic feasibility of these kind of systems, like load to be supplied, distance to the grid, the use regime of the system, applied subsidies and others. The main goal of this paper is to analyze some of these factors and to observe how they can affect the economics of PV systems for electricity generation. (authors)

  1. Avaliação do potencial de valorização dos ecossistemas fluviais : aplicação ao caso de estudo do rio Ave

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Francisco da Silva; Alonso, Joaquim Mamede; Fernandes, Susana Raquel

    2012-01-01

    A qualidade de vida depende da forma como o espaço se encontra organizado e articulado com as acessibilidades, os equipamentos e as atividades primárias, assumindo, cada vez maior importância, as intervenções territoriais integradas, que minimizem os impactes do abandono e das alterações no uso do solo. O presente trabalho de investigação tem como objetivos aferir o potencial de valorização de espaços ribeirinhos do rio Ave, para diferentes tipologias de usos/funções e desenvol...

  2. A apropriação e transformação de As Aves, de Aristófanes, por Paul Muldoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munira H Mutran

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Um texto como As Aves, de Aristófanes, produzido em Dionísia em 414 a.C., é passível de diferentes leituras e interpretações. Este artigo examina as relações intertextuais entre o original grego e sua recente tradução pelo poeta irlandês Paul Muldoon; investiga, também, como os motivos predominantes de guerra, política, corrupção e utopia tornaram-se significativos na tradução de 1999.

  3. Biologia reprodutiva de Synallaxis albilora (aves: Furnariidae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Colombo Rubio

    2008-01-01

    dezembro.Synallaxis albilora (White-lored Spinetail is a Neotropical ovenbird restricted to flooded areas in the Pantanal wetlands, central portion of South America. The aim of this work is to present a detailed description of its breeding biology (nests, eggs and nestlings in the locality of Pirizal, Municipality of Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Pantanal of Poconé, at Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Several other aspects of its natural history are also described such as brood size, incubation period, parental care, nest further use by other species, agonistic interactions and nest-site. In order to study nest site, hemispherical photographs of vegetation above and north of each nest were taken. The photos were analyzed to estimate the canopy openness. The use of this method is considered unpublished in ornithological studies. Sixty nests were found and monitored during the years 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2006. The nest of S. albilora is similar to a retort, being built with pieces of kindling and lined with leaves. Its exterior consists of larger pieces of kindling and thorns. Both sexes were observed engaged in nest construction. The eggs are pyriform, whitish and present opaque surface (average of 20.5 x 16.4 mm, 2.8 g. Brood size was 3.35 ± 0.4 eggs (n = 20. The youngs are similar to the adults. A single individual was recorded engaged in incubation. Incubation time was 15.3 ± 0.7 days and the fledging time was of 13.6 ± 1.1 days. Canopy openness above nests was less than at five meters north of nests (16.4 and 20.3%, respectively; p = 0.036, n = 18. These data suggest that S. albilora might exhibit a preference for more open canopy cover sites. Several groups were observed using old nests. Agonistic interactions were registered during the reproductive station. The reproductive period of this species extends from August to December.

  4. A New Species of Pengornithidae (Aves: Enantiornithes) from the Lower Cretaceous of China Suggests a Specialized Scansorial Habitat Previously Unknown in Early Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Han; O’Connor, Jingmai K.; Zhou, Zhonghe

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new enantiornithine bird, Parapengornis eurycaudatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Although morphologically similar to previously described pengornithids Pengornis houi, Pengornis IVPP V18632, and Eopengornis martini, morphological differences indicate it represents a new taxon of the Pengornithidae. Based on new information from this specimen we reassign IVPP V18632 to Parapengornis sp. The well preserved pygostyle of the new specimen elucidates the morphology of this element for the clade, which is unique in pengornithids among Mesozoic birds. Similarities with modern scansores such as woodpeckers may indicate a specialized vertical climbing and clinging behavior that has not previously been inferred for early birds. The new specimen preserves a pair of fully pennaceous rachis-dominated feathers like those in the holotype of Eopengornis martini; together with the unique morphology of the pygostyle, this discovery lends evidence to early hypotheses that rachis-dominated feathers may have had a functional significance. This discovery adds to the diversity of ecological niches occupied by enantiornithines and if correct reveals are remarkable amount of locomotive differentiation among Enantiornithes. PMID:26039693

  5. A new mite species of the genus Lasioseius (Acarina: Gamasina,Blattisociidae) associated with the flowers of Englerina lecardii and Chalcomitra senegalensis (Aves: Nectariniidae) in Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalúz, S.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2011), s. 511-524 ISSN 0164-7954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Gamasina * Lasioseius * Senegal * sunbird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2011

  6. A new species of Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae)/nin North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, O.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pulis, E.E.; Tkach, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2015), s. 221-230 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : neotropical cormorant * birds * trematodes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015

  7. A new species of pengornithidae (aves: enantiornithes from the lower cretaceous of China suggests a specialized scansorial habitat previously unknown in early birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hu

    Full Text Available We describe a new enantiornithine bird, Parapengornis eurycaudatus gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Although morphologically similar to previously described pengornithids Pengornis houi, Pengornis IVPP V18632, and Eopengornis martini, morphological differences indicate it represents a new taxon of the Pengornithidae. Based on new information from this specimen we reassign IVPP V18632 to Parapengornis sp. The well preserved pygostyle of the new specimen elucidates the morphology of this element for the clade, which is unique in pengornithids among Mesozoic birds. Similarities with modern scansores such as woodpeckers may indicate a specialized vertical climbing and clinging behavior that has not previously been inferred for early birds. The new specimen preserves a pair of fully pennaceous rachis-dominated feathers like those in the holotype of Eopengornis martini; together with the unique morphology of the pygostyle, this discovery lends evidence to early hypotheses that rachis-dominated feathers may have had a functional significance. This discovery adds to the diversity of ecological niches occupied by enantiornithines and if correct reveals are remarkable amount of locomotive differentiation among Enantiornithes.

  8. Los Anhingidae (Aves: Suliformes) del Neógeno de América del Sur: sistemática, filogenia y paleobiología

    OpenAIRE

    Diederle, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Los Anhingidae están integrados por aves acuáticas conocidas vulgarmente como anhingas o biguá-víboras (darters o snakebirds en inglés), incluidas en el orden Suliformes. Estas aves llegan a pesar de 1,05-1,81 kg y no tienen dimorfismo sexual en tamaño. Son buenas voladoras y se caracterizan por alternar planeos prolongados y utilizar corrientes termales de aire ascendentes para elevarse. En tierra caminan torpemente, mientras que en el agua pueden nadar y bucear hábilmente propulsadas por su...

  9. Patrón de actividad y abundancia de aves en un relleno sanitario de Chile central Abundance and activity-pattern of birds at a landfill in central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIEL LOBOS; PATRICIO BOBADILLA; ALEJANDRA ALZAMORA; ROBERTO F THOMSON

    2011-01-01

    Los rellenos sanitarios constituyen un foco de atracción para la avifauna, aunque las implicancias de esta relación no han sido exploradas en el país. Nosotros monitoreamos la actividad de aves en un relleno sanitario ubicado en las proximidades de la ciudad de Santiago, capital administrativa de Chile. Las principales aves en el área fueron la gaviota dominicana (Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein), el tiuque (Milvago chimango Vieillot), la garza boyera {Buculbus ibis Linnaeus) y el águila (Gera...

  10. Modelación matemática del consumo de presas y el flujo de energía asociado a la reproducción de Rostrhamus sociabilis (Aves, Falconiformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, D.; Rodríguez–Ochoa, A.

    2017-01-01

    El gavilán caracolero (Rostrhamus sociabilis) es un ave rapaz, residente permanente y común en Cuba, clasificada como de alto interés conservacionista en el Plan de Conservación de las Aves Acuáticas de Norteamérica, en parte debido a su dieta altamente especializada en caracoles acuáticos del género Pomacea. En el presente estudio se elabora un modelo matemático en el programa Stella para analizar el consumo y la movilización de energía durante la reproducción del gavilán caracolero, ...

  11. Nuevos registros de piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) en aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile New records of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from domestic and ornamental birds from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D González-Acuña; J Lara; A Cicchino

    2009-01-01

    Por medio del examen del plumaje de aves domésticas y ornamentales en Chile se reconfirma la presencia de los phthiraptera Menopon gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae y Menacanthus stramineus en la gallina doméstica, Gallus gallus domesticus y se registra además por primera vez en el país la especie Menacanthus pallidulus. En aves ornamentales se registran en pavo, Meleagris gallipavo, la especie M. stramineus, en pavo real, Pavo cristatus las especies Goniodes pavonis y Amrysidea m...

  12. Ensambles de aves en agroecosistemas de la provincia de Buenos Aires: su relación con los patrones de uso de la tierra y las características del paisaje

    OpenAIRE

    Codesido, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Entre enero de 2006 y enero de 2008 se estudió estacionalmente la estructura de los ensambles de aves en los agroecosistemas de las diferentes unidades ecológicas de la Región Pampeana comprendidas dentro de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Pampa Ondulada, Pampa Interior Plana, Pampa Interior Arenosa, Pampa Deprimida y Pampa Austral). Los objetivos generales de la tesis son: a) describir la estructura de los ensambles de aves terrestres de los agroecosistemas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, b) ...

  13. SALMONELLA SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ... of Salmonella species serotypes in relation to age and sex among children, ..... However, most antimicrobials show sufficient selective toxicity to be of value in ... salmonellosis should be given good attention (Barrow et al., 2007). To reduce ...

  14. Prevention of Salmonella infection by contact using intestinal flora of adult birds and/or a mixture of organic acids Controle da transmissão de Salmonella por contato entre aves de exploração comercial pelo uso de flora intestinal de aves adultas e/ou uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Helaine de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the ability of competitive exclusion and a mixture of organic acids to prevent Salmonella infection by contact between newly hatched chicks. A bird infected with Salmonella was placed in a box containing non-infected birds, previously treated with a broth culture of faeces of adult birds (CE and/or a mixture of organic acids. The number of Salmonella organisms in the caeca of the contact birds was estimated at 4 and 8 days post-challenge. The birds were infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis (both repeated 5 times, Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Infantis (3 repetitions. The same approach was used to test the mixture of organic acids alone. In this case the birds received feed containing 0.8% of a mixture of formic acid (70% and propionic acid (30%. Also, a third trial was carried out with birds inoculated with the broth culture of faeces and fed with feed containing the mixture of organic acids. Appropriate controls were included. Whereas the birds from the control groups and the groups treated with the mixture of organic acids were heavily infected with Salmonella, those pre-treated with CE or CE plus the mixture of organic acids had no viable cells per gram of caecal contents.O presente trabalho avaliou a prevenção da disseminação de quatro sorotipos de Salmonella, de interesse em avicultura e saúde pública (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Infantis e Salmonella Enteritidis, entre aves recém-nascidas, com o intuito de diminuir a disseminação de salmonelas em rebanhos avícolas por aves que contraíram a infecção pela via vertical. Analisou-se experimentalmente a administração de microbiota intestinal de aves adultas em aves recém-nascidas, a incorporação de uma mistura de ácidos orgânicos na ração e a associação desses dois tratamentos, em grupos onde colocou-se uma ave infectada, para provocar a transmissão por contato. A microbiota

  15. Aves do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó: o Vale do Rio Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil The birds of "Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó": the Rio Cipó valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rodrigues

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um levantamento de espécies de aves do Vale do alto Rio Cipó durante o período de maio de 1998 a novembro de 2002. A região está totalmente inserida em uma das unidades de conservação mais importantes do sudeste do Brasil, o Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, em Minas Gerais. O método utilizado foi o de observação direta ao longo de 'transectos', captura com redes e identificação a partir do uso de vocalizações. A riqueza de espécies foi estimada usando-se o método de 'jackknife'. Foram registradas 226 espécies de aves pertencentes a 43 famílias. Isso corresponde cerca de 27% das 837 espécies já registradas para o bioma do Cerrado. Foram capturados 2.249 indivíduos num total de 4.486,82 horas-rede, onde foram amostradas 119 espécies pertencentes a 23 famílias. A riqueza foi estimada em 239 ± 5 espécies. Constam nesta lista seis espécies endêmicas do Cerrado: Augastes scutatus (Temminck, 1824 (Trochilidae, Hylocryptus rectirostris (Wied-NeuWied, 1821 (Furnariidae, Antilophia galeata (Lichtenstein, 1832 (Pipridae, Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823 (Corvidae, Charitospiza eucosma (Oberholser, 1905, Saltator atricollis (Vieillot, 1817, e Porphyrospiza caerulescens (Wied-Neuwied, 1830 (Emberizidae. Ocorrem também três espécies quase-ameaçadas de extinção: Sarcoramphus papa (Linnaeus, 1758 (Cathartidae, Cypsnagra hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 e Charitospiza eucosma (Emberizidae. O Vale do Rio Cipó abriga uma porção significativa da avifauna do Cerrado. Alguns dos habitat encontrados no Vale estão se tornando cada vez mais raros na região do Cerrado de todo o Brasil, como as matas ciliares e o sistema de lagoas temporárias ao longo dos rios. Mesmo as cachoeiras, habitat importante para várias espécies, vêm desaparecendo em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, a região do Vale do Rio Cipó dentro Parque consolida um dos seus objetivos que é a conservação da biodiversidade.It is

  16. USO DA TERAPIA ESPELHO NA AMPLITUDE DE MOVIMENTO E FUNÇÃO DO MEMBRO INFERIOR EM PACIENTES HEMIPARÉTICOS PÓS-AVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Danyelle Viana Lima

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O exercício associado a terapia espelho potencializa a retenção de habilidades, melhorando o desempenho de atividades motoras de indivíduos hemiparéticos pós-AVE. Este estudo objetivou a análise do efeito da terapia espelho na amplitude de movimento e funcionalidade do membro inferior. Amostra composta de 11 participantes, com hemiparesia em membro inferior, submetidas a fisioterapia convencional. A intervenção constituiu de 10 atendimentos, 30 minutos diários e três vezes por semana. Para avaliação foram usados: Goniometria; Escala Modificada de Ashworth (EMA; Escala de Força de Oxford; Cadência de Subida e Descida de Escada; Time Up And Go Test. Os dados foram coletados antes e após a intervenção da Terapia Espelho e comparados. Segundo resultados do estudo a Terapia Espelho proporcionou ganhos na ADM e função do membro inferior parético pós-AVE, porém não interferiu na espasticidade. Palavras-chave: Acidente Vascular Encefálico, Hemiparesia, Retroalimentação Visual.

  17. Suspension-firing of wood with coal ash addition: Probe measurements of ash deposit build-up at Avedøre Power Plant (AVV2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood-firing. Investigat...... to the gas phase as HCl(g). Effect of boiler operational parameters on gas emissions has also been investigated.......This report is about full-scale probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal conducted at the Avedøreværket Unit 2, a 800 MWth suspension boiler, firing wood and natural gas with the addition of coal ash. Coal ash was used as an additive to capture potassium (K) from wood...... and boiler load on ash deposition propensity was investigated. Results of ash deposition propensity showed increasing trend with increasing flue gas temperature. Video monitoring revealed that the deposits formed were not sticky and could be easily removed, and even at very high flue gas temperatures (> 1350...

  18. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  19. Avaliação dos comportamentos de aves poedeiras utilizando seqüência de imagens Behavior evaluation of laying hens using image sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. D. Barbosa Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A grande preocupação com o uso de gaiolas dá-se quanto ao espaço oferecido às aves poedeiras, o qual, certamente, afeta seu bem-estar. Sendo assim, este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar aspectos relacionados ao comportamento e bem-estar animal, comparando o sistema de criação alternativo (com cama e ninho com o sistema convencional em gaiolas. Para isso, dois grupos de 20 aves (10 Hy-Line W36 e 10 Hy-Line Brown em início de produção foram divididos em dois sistemas de criação (cama+ninho e gaiolas e colocadas em câmara climática: um grupo a 26 °C e 60% UR (condição de conforto térmico, e outro a 35 °C e 70% UR (condição de estresse térmico, onde eram constantemente monitoradas por câmeras de vídeo. Com base na análise dos comportamentos, verificou-se que o sistema de criação em cama propiciou a expressão de todos os comportamentos naturais relacionados ao conforto das aves, evidenciando o estado de bem-estar das mesmas. Para o sistema em gaiolas, pôde ser constatado que as aves tentavam expressar seus comportamentos naturais, mesmo não tendo condições para isso. Essa impossibilidade de expressão dos comportamentos agravou as condições de estresse provocadas por esse sistema de criação e pela condição ambiental a que as aves foram submetidas.The concern about the use of cages is related to barren environment and the minimal space offered to the laying hens, which negatively affects bird welfare. The present study focused on the aspect evaluation related to the behavior and welfare of birds, making a comparison between the alternative housing system (with litter and nests and the conventional cage system. Two groups of 20 laying hens (10 Hy-Line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown at the beginning of the production were divided in two breeding systems (litter+nest and cages. Both of them were kept in climatic controlled chambers: one group with an ambient temperature of 26 °C and 60% RH (Thermal Comfort Condition

  20. Depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens, en el río Yaqui, Sonora, México Aquatic bird predation by neotropical river otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens, at Rio Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registra la depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (L. longicaudis annectens en el río Yaqui, Sonora. Se colectaron e identificaron 25 cráneos, porciones de esqueleto postcraneal y plumas de aves encontrados en los comederos de las nutrias; las especies identificadas fueron el cormorán neotropical (Phalacrocorax brasilianus con 16 individuos, el pato de collar (Anas platyrhynchos diazi, 4 individuos; la garza blanca (Ardea alba, 3 individuos; el huaco de corona amarilla (Nyctanassa violacea y el pelícano café (Pelecanus occidentalis, ambos con 1 individuo. En los peces se encontró la tilapia del género Oreochromis. Probablemente los hábitos alimenticios de esta especie responden a la estacionalidad y al consumo de presas más disponibles en el hábitat. Estos registros confirman que las nutrias de río son depredadores oportunistas cuya dieta tiene una amplio rango de uso de especies de los ambientes riparios, además dichos registros son una razón más para considerar la nutria neotropical como especie sombrilla para la conservación de ecosistemas completos, ya que su presencia es un indicador de alta disponibilidad energética y de alta biodiversidad.We report the predation of aquatic birds by neotropical river otters (L. longicaudis annectens at Río Yaqui, Sonora. As many as 25 skulls, post-cranial skeletons and feathers were found at river otter feeding sites. The neotropical cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus was the most predated bird with 16 individuals, followed by Mexican mallard (Anas platyrhynchos diazi with 4 individuals, great egret (Ardea alba with 3 individuals, yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea, and brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis, both with 1 individual. With respect to fish, the tilapia Oreochromis, was the only species found in scats. Neotropical river otter feeding habits were associated with food availability at different seasons of the year. These records show that

  1. Description of two new species of Rissoella Gray, 1847 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia from Venezuela, with a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Caballer Gutierrez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Rissoella Gray, 1847 are described from Venezuela, one from the National Park Morrocoy, Rissoella morrocoyensis sp. n. and the other from the Wildlife Refuge Isla de Aves, Rissoella venezolanicola sp. n. R. morrocoyensis sp. n. has a deep umbilicus (partly closed, preumbilical cord, black head, hypobranchial gland marked by a pale yellow boomerang-shaped ribbon and it lives on the leaves of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum Banks & König, 1805. R. venezolanicola sp. n. has an angled preumbilical cord which extends to the columella delimiting a trapezoid, a hypobranchial gland marked by a yellow quaver-shaped ribbon and protoconch with fuchsia highlights. It lives on the brown alga Dictyota spp. The records of Rissoella in the Caribbean are revised and illustrations, a comparative table and a key to the Caribbean species known for the genus are provided.

  2. Análisis toxicológico y estudio histopatológico de las aves muertas por la catástrofe del petrolero “Prestige”

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ledesma, Percy Arturo

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación es un estudio multidisciplinar que intenta explicar las posibles causas de muerte de las aves marinas afectadas por el derrame del petrolero Prestige en noviembre de 2002, frente a las costas de Galicia.

  3. New records of chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera from Brazilian birds (Aves collected by Helmut Sick (1910-1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila M.D. Kuabara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We list the genera and species of chewing lice collected from birds by Helmut Sick, mainly from central Brazil, and particularly during the Roncador-Xingu Expedition, between 1943 and 1949. From the 123 samples studied, a wide variety of chewing louse genera and species were found, including 34 species as new records for Brazil, 37 species recorded from new Brazilian localities and 23 new host records. All material is deposited in the ectoparasite collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo.

  4. Plaadid / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Deep", Frank Sinatra, Tommy Dorsey Orchestra "The Essential Sinatra With The Tommy Dorsey Orchestra", Michael Buble "Caught In The Act", shakira "Oral Fixation", Queen "A Night At The Opera", Millionaire "Paradisiac", Simon Webbe "Sanctuary"

  5. Kontserdikaja / Ave Sopp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sopp, Ave

    2003-01-01

    Kontserdist "Tuletrummi tempel" Pärnu kontserdimajas 30. juulil Peeter Vähi kujundatud festivali "Klaaspärlimäng" raames, esitlusel Terry Rile' teos "Pärsia dervishid" (löökpillidele ja orelile) ning Peeter Vähi kantaat "Roheline Tara"

  6. Plaadid / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Mogwai "Zidane. A 21st century portrait", Diskreetse Mango Trio "Prigadi-pragadi", Mummer "Soulorganismstate", Janet Jackson "20 Y.O.", Gruppo Jazz Marca "Mitteleuropa", Konsorten TM "Wir und die Anderen", Josh Groban "Awake"

  7. Plaadid / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Flaming Lips "At War With The Mystics", "Hed Kandi: Twisted Disco", The Streets "The Hardest Way To Make An Easy Living", Psychoterror "Anarhia ja dekadents", Slide-Fifty "Reach Out", LL Cool J "Todd Smith", Jewel "Goodbye Alice in Wonderland"

  8. Keelatud ained / Ave Oit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oit, Ave

    2012-01-01

    Öko- ja looduskosmeetikas keelatud või piirangutega lubatud koostisainetest: silikoonid, etoksüleeritud emulgaatorained (PEG-ühendid), toorõli baasil valmistatud rasvained ja emulgaatorid s.h mineraalõlid ja -vahad

  9. Estudo da eficácia de espuma para a depopulação de aves para situações de emergência sanitária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaio Mizuno Ishizuka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available São inúmeras as dificuldades observadas na depopulação de elevado número de aves e é importante proceder-se à depopulação no interior do próprio aviário por questões de biossegurança do homem em casos de emergência sanitária causada por doenças de aves de elevada transmissibilidade, como a influenza aviária e a doença de Newcastle. Construiu-se o equipamento gerador de espuma para provocar a anóxia física em aves. Verificou-se a eficácia da espuma gerada através do uso de líquido detergente de alta expansão sobre o sacrifício de galinhas, avaliando-se os sinais sensoriais, tempo de morte, letalidade e lesões macro e microscópicas. Duzentas galinhas de postura com 78 semanas de idade foram divididas em dez grupos experimentais e submetidas a diferentes períodos de exposição à espuma, variando de 5min30s minutos a 8min15s minutos. A partir de seis minutos de exposição à espuma 100% das aves foram mortas. A presença de bolhas de espuma na cavidade oral e traqueia foram constatadas em todos os períodos de exposição à espuma, indicando a ocorrência de asfixia física. Congestão nas mucosas da cavidade oral e traqueia foram também observadas em todos os períodos de exposição. No exame histopatológico dos pulmões de todas as aves, observou-se a presença de congestão e hemorragia difusa de moderada intensidade. Nenhuma alteração foi observada na traqueia das aves. A eficácia da espuma como método de depopulação de aves foi constatada neste trabalho, podendo ser recomendada diante da necessidade de atendimento a emergências sanitárias.

  10. Fisonomía vegetal y abundancia de aves en un bosque templado con dos niveles de perturbación en el Eje Neovolcánico Transversal Vegetation physiognomy and abundance of birds in a temperate forest with two disturbance levels in the Eje Neovolcanico Transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Ugalde-Lezama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante noviembre 2003 y junio 2004 se estudió la abundancia de especies de aves y su relación con la fisonomía vegetal en un bosque templado bajo 2 condiciones: bosque de pino no perturbado (ZOQ1 y bosque de pino perturbado (ZOQ2 de la Estación Forestal Experimental Zoquiapan (EFEZ, Estado de México. Para el conteo de aves se empleó el método de puntos de conteo con radio fijo (25 m. Los principales gradientes de las variables descriptoras de la vegetación se determinaron con análisis de componentes principales (ACP y la relación fisonomía-abundancia por especie y grupos de aves mediante análisis de regresión Poisson (ARP. Los ejes principales del ACP explicaron el 84.3, 83.4 y 81.7% de la variabilidad presente en la vegetación de ZOQ1, ZOQ2 y ZOQ1-ZOQ2. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de árboles fueron las variables que explicaron el 41.5, 43.7 y 41.8% de la varianza para el componente 1. La cobertura, diámetro y altura de arbustivas explicaron el 28.4, 25.0 y 25.3% para el 2; por último, la cobertura de herbáceas y arbustivas el 14.4, 14.6 y 14.5% para el componente 3. Los ARP indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa (pFrom November 2003 to June 2004, we studied the abundance of bird species and their relationship with vegetation physiognomy (structure in a temperate forest under 2 conditions: undisturbed forest (ZOQ1 and disturbed forest (ZOQ2 of the Zoquiapan Forest Experimental Station (EFEZ, acronym in Spanish in central Mexico. Birds were recorded using the method of fixed radius point counts (25 m. We identified the major gradients of variation of descriptive variables of vegetation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and the relationship between vegetation physiognomy and bird abundance through Poisson regression analyses (ARP. The three main axes of PCA explained the 84.3, 83.4 and 81.7% of the variability present in the vegetation of ZOQ1, ZOQ2 and ZOQ1-ZOQ2, respectively. Tree cover, diameter

  11. Evaluación del efecto del grano de soya crudo (C.S.C. suministrado por 42-28 o 14 semanas a aves en postura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López G. Arnobio

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 144 middle weight Dekalb-Warren laying hens (28 to 70 weeks age, to evaluate the effects on feed consumption, % egg production, egg weight feed conversion per dozen and kilogram of egg produced, weight change, and pancreas size and weight due to the feeding of who le raw soybean (WRSB replacing soybean bean (SBM as a protein source in the diet in three feeding periods (42,28 and 14 weeks. There were no differences (P<0.05 due to protein sources used on egg weight, feed conversion per dozen and kilogram of egg produced and pancreas size. However, there were differences on egg production, weight change, feed consumption by hen per day and pancreas weight. Also there on differences (P < 0.05 due to feeding period on egg weight, feed conversion by dozen and kilograms of egg produced and pancreas weight, but there were differences (P<0.05 on egg production and pancreas size. In a similar way, there where no differences (P<0.05 to the interaction of protein sources feeding periods for any of the variables considerated.Un experimento se llevó a cabo con 144 gallinas Dekalb-Warren semipesadas en postura (28 a 70 semanas para evaluar los efectos de reemplazar la torta de soya por el grano de soya crudo (G.S.C suministrada por tres períodos de tiempo diferentes(42, 28 y 14 semanas. No hubo diferencias (P <0.05 por efecto de la fuente de proteína para las variables peso de huevo, eficiencia de conversión por docena y kilogramo de huevo producido y tamaño de pancreas. Sin embargo si hubo diferencias (P < 0.05 para el porcentaje de producción, cambio de peso en las aves, consumo de alimento por ave día y peso del páncreas. Tampoco se encontraron diferencias (P<0.05 por efecto del período de tiempo de suministro para las variables cambio de peso en las aves, peso de huevo, eficiencia de conversión por docena y kilogramo de huevo producido y peso del páncreas. Pero si hubo diferencias (P< Q05 para las variables

  12. THE ADVERTISING-VALUE-EQUIVALENT (AVE METHOD IN QUANTIFYING ECONOMIC VALUES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES: EXPERIENCE OF A PUBLIC-LISTED COMPANY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Abu Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Why should public relations (PR not be evaluated for its economic value? Despite the point of its social or intangible values, the argument goes on and on in most management meetings where PR practitioners always face the challenges of justifying their worth – often in monetary terms. In an open dialogue with Grunig during his visit to Malaysia in 2004, this renowned PR guru also expressed the difficulty of quantifying the actual PR worth. It is best to qualify PR values by assessing its priceless relationships with the company’s stakeholders. However, in our routine business life, especially at the middle management level, the above question seems unavoidable. In enhancing excellence for PR and communication management, Ehling (1992 placed the logic underlying the economic values of PR on the relationship between benefits and costs associated with the implementation of a PR programme. The above question and problem serve as the main objective of this article. In exploring the solutions for the quantification of PR values in Malaysia, economic education is taken as a remedy for the absence of knowledge and skills in making intelligent decisions in the marketplace (Baskin et al., 1997; Lattimor et al., 2004. In this research context, the researchers (a combination of a practitioner and an academician respectively confined the scope to the experience of a selected public-listed company for its PR campaign implemented in 2004. Quantification was attempted by evaluating the assessment in print media exposures. All earned media coverage for that particular PR campaign was measured for the media type, space, position, and the corresponding advertising rate. Monetary value was assigned to every single piece of PR news in the way disbursements are made to paid media for advertising activities. The explication of this advertising-value-equivalent (AVE method in quantifying economic values for PR news with regard to the selected campaign was made

  13. Aves de Quindicocha - Valle de Sibundoy, Putumayo - Colombia: Potencial área de conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando A. Acevedo-Charry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the existing biodiversity is the basis of conservation. To establish Area of Important Bird Area (IBA in the valley of Sibundoy (department of Putumayo, Quindicocha territory, in the southwest of Colombia. I conducted 21 days of birding in 11 areas between May and June 2013. I recorded 164 bird species; nine of these species correspond to distribution amplitudes or confirmations in the region. The results support the request to designate this region as an IBA, independent to IBA Laguna de la Cocha. It meets the BirdLife International criteria regarding the presence of endangered species - A1 (Hapalopsittaca amazonina; Grallaria rufocinerea; Doliornis remseni; Sericossypha albocristata; Buthraupis wetmorei; Hypopyrrhus pyrohypogaster, the presence of seven birds restricted to five Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs - A2, and the presence of 27 species of birds restricted to the North Andesbiome - A3. Some of the species not included for IBA Laguna de la Cocha.

  14. Una escuela de Cármenes: El patrimonio arquitectónico de las Escuelas del Ave María de Granada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mª Moreno Fernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES En el presente artículo se analiza el proceso de creación y ampliación de las Escuelas del Ave María-Casa Madre por medio de la compra de diversos cármenes. Se seguirá un orden cronológico para mostrar de una manera más clara, el proceso de crecimiento que siguió la Institución, exponiendo las circunstancias que envolvieron cada una de las compras, personajes involucrados, intenciones de Andrés Manjón, funcionalidad de los espacios,.... El aspecto arquitectónico será el que centre el artículo, aunque sin olvidar la interrelación de todos los bienes que en este espacio confluyen, de cuya unión nace el valor patrimonial de estas Escuelas.

  15. Linguagem, participação e funcionalidade de adultos pós AVE em atendimento ambulatorial : avaliação baseada na CIF

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Tereza Maynard Santana

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: INTRODUÇÃO: Dentre as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), o AVE (Acidente Vascular Encefálico) trata de um importante problema de Saúde Pública, dado os altos índices de mortalidade e suas sequelas, tais como as alterações de linguagem e suas implicações na participação. Ao longo do tempo, diversas mudanças de paradigmas na saúde levam a ressignificação da clínica, incorporando-se em suas práticas aspectos funcionais e sociais tal como propõe a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OM...

  16. Análise espectral de flores utilizadas por aves nectarívoras em uma área urbana no Sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, MCB.; Donatelli, RJ.

    2010-01-01

    Análise espectral de flores utilizada por aves nectarívoras em áreas urbanas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer a característica espectral das flores produtoras de néctar visitadas por nectarívoros em áreas urbanas. Este estudo foi desenvolvido na região central do município de Taubaté, no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. As áreas amostradas incluíram espaços verdes, tais como praças e parques e a vegetação das ruas e avenidas. Foram registradas 12 espécies de plantas utilizadas por c...

  17. Distribuição de espécies de columbídeos (Aves: Coliumbiformes), na zona urbana de Uberlândia, MG

    OpenAIRE

    Cândido, Claudiney Rocha

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as aves que vivem no ambiente urbano, podemos destacar os columbídeos (pombas e rolinhas). Em função da sua capacidade de adaptação, várias espécies desse grupo se tornaram tolerantes à presença e transformações humanas. Os objetivos desse estudo foram: determinar a distribuição de espécies de columbídeos na zona urbana de Uberlândia, MG e correlacionar a ocorrência dessas espécies com fatores ambientais (cobertura vegetal, tipos de edificações e distância em relação ao ...

  18. Ilustración de aves, comunicación científica y su difusión en la zona cafetera de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Córdoba Córdoba

    2016-12-01

    Existe una estrecha relación entre la ciencia y el arte de la comunicación gráfica. La posibilidad de transmitir a aquellos que se encuentran a grandes distancias información sobre especies, paisajes y el entorno de regiones a los cuales solo unos pocos han tenido la fortuna de conocer, ha hecho posible que se amplíe el conocimiento de las regiones, la fauna y la flora del planeta. También, permite imaginar cómo fueron esos seres que ya no nos acompañan, especies de organismos extintos como los dinosaurios, aves y mamíferos, entre otros, y su medioambiente.

  19. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  20. Riqueza, composição e distribuição espacial da comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal urbano em Maringá, Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i4.172 Richness, composition and spatial distribution of bird community on an urban forest fragment at Maringá, Northern Paraná State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.172

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Rodrigo Gimenes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a riqueza, composição e distribuição espacial de aves em um fragmento florestal urbano de 47,3 ha em Maringá, Sul do Brasil (23°25’S e 51°25W. Quatro hábitats foram categorizados neste fragmento: interior de floresta, borda de floresta, áreas abertas e lago. A borda e interior de floresta foram divididos em três estratos: inferior (abaixo de 3 m, médio (3-6 m e superior (acima de 6 m. Uma transecção abrangendo todos os hábitats foi percorrida quatro vezes por mês de janeiro a dezembro de 2003, totalizando 48 dias de amostragens. Foram registradas 86 espécies de aves no fragmento florestal, sendo os insetívoros e onívoros, respectivamente, as guildas com maior número de espécies. A maioria das espécies foi registrada no máximo em 25% das amostragens. O interior da floresta foi o hábitat que teve a maior riqueza de espécies e a maior porcentagem de espécies com freqüência de ocorrência superior a 75%. O estrato médio apresentou a maior riqueza e o superior a maior porcentagem de espécies com freqüência de ocorrência superior a 75%. Ressalta-se a importância de se manter os vários fragmentos florestais urbanos e a cobertura arbórea na cidade de Maringá, a fim de se minimizar os efeitos do isolamento e tentar suprir as necessidades de uma parte da comunidade de aves que possivelmente não se manteria caso não houvesse outras áreas florestais próximas ao local estudado.Richness, composition and spatial distribution of birds were analyzed on an urban forest fragment of 47.3 ha at Maringá, Southern Brazil (23°25'S and 51°25W. Four habitats were categorized on this fragment: forest, forest edge, open areas and lagoon. The forest and forest edge were divided into three levels: understory (bellow 3 m, mid-levels (3-6 m and canopy (above 6 m. A standard transect was ran throughout all pre-established habitats four times each month of January to December 2003, totaling 48 sampling days. A total of

  1. Uso de hábitat y estado de conservación de las aves en el humedal El Paraíso, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Quiñonez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Las aves son el grupo taxonómico más representativo de los humedales. En la costa central peruana muchos de estos ecosistemas se encuentran seriamente afectados por actividades antropogénicas. Con el objetivo de brindar información que contribuya a la implementación de planes de manejo y conservación de la avifauna del humedal El Paraíso se evaluó las preferencias y usos de los dos hábitats acuáticos presentes en el humedal, la laguna salobre y la zona cenagosa. Se llevaron a cabo evaluaciones mensuales desde mayo del 2009 a marzo del 2010 utilizando el método de puntos de conteo. Se observaron 68 especies que hicieron uso directo de los hábitats de estudio. Las familias más abundantes fueron Anatidae (19.2%, Laridae (18.0%, Phalacrocoracidae (16.8% y Rallidae (16.1%. La especie más abundante fue Phalacrocorax brasilianus (16.7%, seguida de la Fulica ardesiaca (13.0%. Se encontró marcada diferencias en la composición de aves entre los dos hábitats evaluados debido, principalmente, a la  presencia de especies migratorias boreales quienes prefieren el hábitat cenagoso. Por otro lado, fueron identificados los sitios de anidamiento de especies representativas del humedal tales como Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tachuris rubrigastra, Phleocryptes melanops, Charadrius nivosus. La actividad frecuentemente registrada fue el descanso (73.9%, seguido de la alimentación (23.4% y la reproducción (2.73%. Constituyen las principales amenazas para el humedal; la caza deportiva, quema de totorales y juncales, tránsito de vehículos por la orilla marina y desechos de residuos sólidos dejados por los bañistas.

  2. Ácaros nasais (Mesostigmata, Rhinonyssidae) em Sternidae (Aves: Charadriiformes) na Costa do Extremo Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Diego Silva da; Scheer, Simone; Muller, Gertrud

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Six species of birds of the family Sternidae are often found on the southern coast of South America. Sterna trudeaui, S. hirundinacea, Thalasseus maximus, T. acuflavidus and Sternula superciliaris are South American residents and Sterna hirundo, a Nearctic migrant. At least 500 species of nasal mites have been described around the world, and Rhinonyssidae is the most diverse family. These mites are bloodsucking endoparasites that inhabit the respiratory system of birds. This study ai...

  3. Catálogo de las aves de la Región de Murcia (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Calvo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna component is one of most important and of greatest conservation concern as regards the biodiversity of the province of Murcia. The present catalogue consists of a total of 339 species belonging to 69 families and 24 orders, of which 78 are principally considered winter visitors, 51 passage migrants, 41 summer visitors, 85 resident, 82 occasional visitors and 2 are naturalised exotic. For each species, we briefly describe its status, abundance and distribution in the study area. We also provide an additional list of 31 non-naturalised exotic species. Compared with the previous catalogue of birds of the province of Murcia, which was compiled 30 years ago, the present list includes 71 new species, excluding exotic species. We discuss the plausible causes of this increase in the context of global change, together with the most significant changes in the avifauna of the region. We also comment on the numerous changes regarding taxonomic aspects and the systematic ordering of species.

  4. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fabio S Raposo do; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-02-07

    The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved at least twice in the group. Furthermore

  5. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae: multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bermingham Eldredge

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotropical forest hawk genus Leucopternis and most of the allied genera of Neotropical buteonines. Our goals were to infer the evolutionary relationships among species of Leucopternis, estimate their relationships to other buteonine genera, evaluate the phylogenetic significance of the white and black plumage patterns common to most Leucopternis species, and assess general patterns of diversification of the group with respect to species' affiliations with Neotropical regions and habitats. Results Our molecular phylogeny for the genus Leucopternis and its allies disagrees sharply with traditional taxonomic arrangements for the group, and we present new hypotheses of relationships for a number of species. The mtDNA phylogenetic trees derived from analysis of the combined data posit a polyphyletic relationship among species of Leucopternis, Buteogallus and Buteo. Three highly supported clades containing Leucopternis species were recovered in our phylogenetic reconstructions. The first clade consisted of the sister pairs L. lacernulatus and Buteogallus meridionalis, and Buteogallus urubitinga and Harpyhaliaetus coronatus, in addition to L. schistaceus and L. plumbeus. The second clade included the sister pair Leucopternis albicollis and L. occidentalis as well as L. polionotus. The third lineage comprised the sister pair L. melanops and L. kuhli, in addition to L. semiplumbeus and Buteo buteo. According to our results, the white and black plumage patterns have evolved

  6. Epidemiological survey on Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by multiplex PCR in commercial poultry Investigação epidemiológica de Mycoplasma gallisepticum e M. synoviae por PCR Multiplex em estabelecimentos comerciais de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Buim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are important avian pathogens, which cause respiratory and joint diseases that result in large economic losses in Brazilian and world-wide poultry industry. This investigation regarding the main species of mycoplasmas, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG and M. synoviae (MS, responsible for the above mentioned conditions, was carried out through PCR Multiplex analysis. One thousand and forty-six (1,046 samples of tracheal swabs and piped embryos were collected from 33 farms with laying hens, breeders, broilers or hatchery, located in the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Pernambuco, where respiratory problems or drops in egg production had occurred. The MG and MS prevalence on the farms was 72.7%. These results indicated (1 high dissemination of mycoplasmas in the evaluated farms, with predominance of MS, either as single infectious agent or associated with other mycoplasmas in 20 farms (60.6%, and (2 an increase of MS and decrease of MG infection in Brazilian commercial poultry.Os Micoplasmas são importantes patógenos aviários que causam doenças respiratórias e de articulações que resultam em grandes perdas econômicas para a indústria avícola brasileira e mundial. O estudo das principais espécies de Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG e M. synoviae (MS, responsáveis pelas doenças mencionadas acima, foram analisadas pela técnica de PCR Multiplex. Foram colhidas 1046 amostras de suabe traqueal e embriões bicados de 33 estabelecimentos de aves de postura, matrizes, frangos de corte e um incubatório, localizados nos Estados brasileiros de São Paulo, Paraná e Pernambuco, as quais apresentavam problemas respiratórios ou queda na produção de ovos. A prevalência de MS e MG nas granjas foi de 72,7%. Os resultados indicaram uma alta disseminação de Mycoplasma nas granjas avaliadas, com predominância de MS, como um único agente infeccioso ou associado com outros micoplasmas em 20 granjas (60,6%. Assim, este

  7. Feeding behavior by hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae in artificial food patches in an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas L. Lanna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During flight, hummingbirds achieve the maximum aerobic metabolism rates within vertebrates. To meet such demands, these birds have to take in as much energy as possible, using strategies such as selecting the best food resources and adopting behaviors that allow the greatest energy gains. We tested whether hummingbirds choose sources that have higher sugar concentrations, and investigated their behaviors near and at food resources. The study was conducted at Atlantic forest remnant in Brazil, between June and December 2012. Four patches were provided with artificial feeders, containing sucrose solutions at concentrations of 5%, 15%, 25% and 35% weight/volume. Hummingbird behaviors were recorded using the ad libitum method with continuous recording of behaviors. The following species were observed: the Brazilian ruby Clytolaema rubricauda (Boddaert, 1783, Violet-capped woodnymph Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788, Scale-throated hermit Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832, White-throated hummingbird Leucochloris albicollis (Vieillot, 1818, Versicoloured emerald Amazilia versicolor (Vieillot, 1818, Glittering-bellied emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus (Shaw, 1812 and other Phaethornis spp. C. rubricauda, P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. visited the 35%-sucrose feeders more often, while the T. glaucopis visited the 25%-sucrose feeders more often. L. albicollis and A. versicolor visited more often solutions with sugar concentration of 15%. C. lucidus visited all patches equally. Three behavioral strategies were observed: 1 C. rubricauda and T. glaucopis exhibited interspecific and intraspecific dominance; 2 the remaining species exhibited subordinance to the dominant hummingbirds, and 3 P. eurynome and Phaethornis spp. adopted a hide-and-wait strategy to the dominant hummingbird species. The frequency of aggressive behaviors was correlated with the time the hummingbird spent feeding, and bird size. Our results showed that hummingbirds can adopt

  8. Characterization of Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula eques) microsatellite loci and their cross-utility in other parrots (Psittacidae, Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisin, Claire; Dawson, Deborah A; Greenwood, Andrew G; Jones, Carl G; Groombridge, Jim J

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endangered Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula eques). Loci were isolated from a Mauritius parakeet genomic library that had been enriched separately for eight different repeat motifs. Loci were characterized in up to 43 putatively unrelated Mauritius parakeets from a single population inhabiting the Black River Gorges National Park, Mauritius. Each locus displayed between three and nine alleles, with the observed heterozygosity ranging between 0.39 and 0.96. All loci were tested in 10 other parrot species. Despite testing few individuals, between seven and 21 loci were polymorphic in each of seven species tested. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Endangered Species Day | Endangered Species Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual Top 10 Report Protecting the Endangered Species Act Wildlife Voices Stand for Wolves Endangered Campaigns Wildlife Voices Protecting the Endangered Species Act Annual Top 10 Report Endangered Species Day Stand for Wolves Vanishing BOOK: A Wild Success The Endangered Species Act at 40 Endangered Species The

  10. Aplicação de pintura cromossômica em espécies da família Accipitridae (Aves, Falconiformes): considerações filogenéticas e evolutivas

    OpenAIRE

    TAGLIARINI, Marcella Mergulhão

    2013-01-01

    As análises citogenéticas de diversos Falconiformes mostraram que os acipitrídeos têm uma organização cromossômica atípica na classe Aves, com um número diplóide relativamente baixo (média de 2n= 66) e poucos pares de microcromossomos (4 a 6 pares). Propostas baseadas em citogenética clássica sugeriram que esse fato devia-se à fusão de microcromossomos presentes no cariótipo ancestral das Aves. No intuito de contribuir para o esclarecimento das questões referentes à evolução cromossô...

  11. Molecular methods to evaluate effects of feed additives and nutrients in poultry gut microflora Metodologias moleculares para avaliar efeitos de aditivos e nutrientes na microflora intestinal das aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines of each animal are the niche of a complex and dynamic ecosystem with important effects to the host. The members or final products of this ecosystem influence nutrient digestion, absorption, mucosa metabolism, general physiology, and local and systemic immunological responses of avian hosts. Better understanding of the avian gut microbial ecosystem may lead to improvements on poultry productivity, health, welfare, and reduction of food borne pathogens and the environmental impact of poultry production for a more sustainable industry. Molecular methods of microbial ecology are key tools to gain this knowledge. The objective of this presentation is to outline the basic concepts, applications, advantages, limitations, and evolution of these molecular methods used to study intestinal microbial ecology. The final goal is to stimulate their application in poultry applied research and development of new feed additives. Some practical examples in poultry research will be described to illustrate their relevance to advance in control methods for pathogens, avoid or manage disbiosis or subclinical intestinal diseases, reduce environmental impact, elucidate effects of nutrients in gut mucosa, microflora, and in general to improve poultry performance.O intestino de cada animal é o nicho de um ecossistema complexo e dinâmico com efeitos importantes para o hospedeiro. As comunidades microbianas componentes deste ecossistema e/ou os produtos finais do metabolismo influenciam a digestão e absorção de nutrientes, o metabolismo das mucosas, a fisiologia geral e as respostas imunitárias locais e gerais da ave hospedeira. A melhor compreensão do ecossistema microbiano do intestino das aves pode levar a melhorias na produtividade, saúde, bem estar, e redução de agente patogênicos dos alimentos e do impacto ambiental da produção avícola para uma indústria mais sustentável. Os métodos moleculares da ecologia microbiana são ferramentas chaves

  12. OSTEOLOGY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD FREGATA MAGNIFICENS AND BROWN BOOBY SULA LEUCOGASTER (AVES: SULIFORMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIO JOSÉ CARLOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper, we describe the skulls of Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens (Fregatidae and Brown Booby (Sulidae Sula leucogaster, with focus on the structures associated with the Musculi mandibulae. We discuss the results in the context of the feeding biology of the two species, which feed mainly on flying fish and squids. Frigatebirds capture prey from just above, or just below, the water surface in flight. The hook-shaped Apex maxillae in F. magnificens can be viewed as an adaptation for grasping prey from near the water surface. Boobies catch prey by plunging; thus, the dorsoventrally flattened skull and conical bill of S. leucogaster may reduce water resistance when it dives, or swims underwater. The bill is long in both species, such that it is on average 70% of the whole skull length in F. magnificens and 60% in S. leucogaster. Consequently, the Mm. mandibulae in the two species are more posteriorly positioned relative to the Apex rostri. This results in low mechanical advantage for the mandible opening-closing lever, indicating adaptations for a fast, rather than a strong, bite. Fast-moving mandibles would be advantageous for ‘mandibulating’ prey while swallowing. The Fossa musculorum temporalium and the Palatum osseum in both species provide a broad area for origins of the Musculus adductor mandibulae externus (all parts and the Musculus pterygoideus. The Processus orbitalis quadrati is longer and thicker in F. magnificens than in S. leucogaster, and so is the Musculus pseudotemporalis profundus. We suggest that Mm. adductores mandibulae are relatively well developed in the two species; therefore, their mandibulae are still probably capable of a powerful adduction. In both species there is a mechanisms that contribute to protect the jaws from disarticulation and damage. Such mechanism involves the incorporation of a ‘flange-like’ Crista intercotylare on the Margo medialis cotylae medialis fossae articularis

  13. DETECCIÓN Y DIFERENCIACIÓN DE Mycoplasma gallisepticum Y Mycoplasma synoviae MEDIANTE LA TÉCNICA DE PCR A PARTIR DE HISOPOS TRAQUEALES DE AVES CON SÍNTOMAS RESPIRATORIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CESAR VENTURA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los micoplasmas son importantes patógenos en las aves por ser responsables de cuadros respiratorios que ocasionan grandes pérdidas económicas a la industria avícola a nivel mundial. Existen principalmente dos especies de micoplasmas como causantes de enfermedad en aves comerciales, el Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG y el Mycoplasma synoviae (MS. Teniendo en cuenta su importancia y la necesidad de conocer y diferenciar la presencia de las diferentes especies de micoplasmas presentes en las explotaciones avícolas, se tomaron 91 muestras de hisopos traqueales de aves con síntomas respiratorios, provenientes de igual número de granjas de pollo de engorde, ponedoras comerciales y reproductoras pesadas ubicadas en los departamentos de Cundinamarca y Boyacá y se determinó la presencia de MG y MS por la técnica de PCR. La prevalencia determinada fue de 39,6% para MG y 47,3% para MS, encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas cuando se comparó la positividad a MG y MS y el tipo de explotación (p

  14. Nuevo examen de los grabados paleolíticos de El Pendo (Cantabria, España. Consideraciones sobre las aves del arte paleolítico de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Díez, Marcos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds are very scarce in Palaeolithic rock art. Since 1907 figures of razorbill and raptors (probably vulture have been described at the end of the Pendo cave, both attributed to an Upper Palaeolithic origin (from Aurignacian to Lower Magdalenian, depending on the authors. The new revision of the group of engravings shows the presence of an unambiguous bird, but the morphology of the figure did not permit its precise taxonomic identification. The work also presents a revision of the birds known in Iberian Palaeolithic rock art.

    La presencia de aves en el repertorio iconográfico del arte rupestre paleolítico es muy escasa. Desde 1907 se vienen describiendo unas figuras de alca y de rapaz (probablemente buitre en la parte final de la cueva de El Pendo. Los autores las asignan a un momento antiguo, desde el Auriñaciense hasta el Magdaleniense inferior. Una nueva lectura del conjunto de grabados permite apuntar la presencia inequívoca de una imagen de ave, sin características que permitan su identificación taxonómica precisa. El trabajo revisa, además, las imágenes de aves conocidas en el arte rupestre paleolítico de la Península Ibérica.

  15. Artrópodes em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin, 1789 (Aves, Columbidae em área urbana de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Foi realizado um estudo sobre artrópodes que vivem em ninhos de Columba livia Gmelin 1789, ave conhecida como pombo urbano e que nidifica em construções humanas, com o intuito de inventariar as espécies de artrópodes associadas. Foram coletados 14 ninhos de C. livia em nove bairros da área urbana de Manaus os quais foram levados ao laboratótio e colocados em um extrator do tipo Berlese-Tulgren por 12 dias, para a captura dos artrópodes. Foram encontrados 10.323 artrópodes, pertencentes a 3 subfilos, 3 classes, 14 ordens e 33famílias. Acari foi mais abundante com 7.879 indivíduos, sendo o gênero Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, o mais representativo (75%. A maioria das espécies encontradas é detritívora. A diversidade de artrópodes foi menor em Manaus se comparada à registrada em trabalhos da região Paleártica, provavelmente por C. livia ser uma espécie exótica na fauna Neotropical. Arthropods in the nests of Columba livia Gmelin 1789 (Aves, Columbidae in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Abstract. The objective of this study was identify the arthropod fauna in nests of the urban pigeon, Columba livia Gmelin 1789 who build their nests in man-made buildings. Fourteen nests were collected in nine districts of the built up area of the city of Manaus. For twelve days, arthropods were extracted in a Berlese-Tulgren funnel. A total of 10.323 arthropods representing 3 subphyla, 3 classes, 14 orders and 33 families were detected. Acari was the most abundant group with 7879 individuals. Mites of the genus Caloglyphus Berlese, 1923, made up over 75 % of all arthropods collected. Most of the arthropods extracted are detrivorous and apterous. The diversity found in Manaus was lower than that reported for samples collected in the Palearctic Region, probably because C. livia is exotic in the Neotropical fauna. The introduction of this pigeon can be responsible for a major contact between some arthropods and humans.

  16. Aplicación de las funciones elípticas de Fourier para la descripción de la forma de los huevos de las aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Denis Ávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La forma de los huevos es difícil de cuantificar por la ausencia de fórmulas exactas que describan su geometría. Se describe un algoritmo para la caracterización y comparación de estas formas, basado en la aplicación de las funciones de Fourier. Estas permiten delinear cualquier tipo de contorno cerrado y han sido aplicadas efectivamente al análisis de varias formas biológicas. Se describen los pasos para la toma de datos, su procesamiento y el empleo del programa SHAPE para la obtención de los descriptores, a partir de un estudio de caso. En este se comparan las formas de los huevos de tres especies de aves que representan tres estrategias reproductivas bien diferentes: el Catey (Aratinga euops, la Gaviota Real (Thalasseus maximus y el Totí (Dives atroviolaceus. A partir de 73 fotografías digitales a huevos depositados en colecciones, se calcularon los coeficientes de las funciones para 4, 6, 8, 16 y 20 armónicos, y se redujeron por medio de un Análisis de Componentes Principales. Los puntajes de los componentes que describen hasta el 90 % de la variabilidad fueron empleados en un Análisis de Función Discriminante Lineal para analizar la posibilidad de separar los huevos según sus formas. Con solo cuatro armónicos los primeros cinco componentes explicaron 97% de la varianza en formas. Más armónicos disminuyen la varianza explicada, requiriéndose hasta ocho componentes para explicar la misma cantidad. Los polígonos convexos en el espacio discriminante muestran una clara distinción entre especies sugiriendo la posible discriminación (errores de clasificación entre 7-15%. Los errores en las clasificaciones estuvieron relacionados a diferencias específicas en la forma entre especies. En el estudio de caso, los huevos de A. euops fueron perfectamente clasificados pero en las otras especies los errores fueron entre 5 y 29%, con este número de armónicos y componentes empleados. El algoritmo propuesto a pesar de su

  17. Helminths of Milvago chimango temucoensis (Aves: Falconiformes from Los Ríos Region, Chile: New Records for Neotropical Raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyarzún-Ruiz P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present survey was to improve the scarce knowledge regard the endoparasites of raptors in Chile and South America. Thus, necropsy was performed on 14 chimango caracara Milvago chimango temucoensis from Los Ríos Region, Chile. From all examined birds, 78.6% were positive to helminths. The species identified were Capillaria tenuissima, Pterothominx sp., Baruscapillaria falconis, Cosmocephalus obvelatus, Skrjabinoclava sp., Synhimantus (Dispharynx nasuta, Synhimantus (D. sp., Synhimantus (Synhimantus sp., Paracuaria adunca, Procyrnea spinosa, Porrocaecum depressum, Contracaecum rudolphii sensu lato, Stephanoprora sp. and Polymorphus mutabilis. All species listed, with the exception of C. tenuissima, P. spinosa and P. depressum, are new records for the chimango caracara. Furthermore C. obvelatus, Skrjabinoclava sp., S. (D. nasuta, S. (D. sp., P. adunca, C. rudolphii s. l., Stephanoprora sp. and P. mutabilis all are new records for Neotropical raptors.

  18. Polyphyly of the hawk genera Leucopternis and Buteogallus (Aves, Accipitridae): multiple habitat shifts during the Neotropical buteonine diversification

    OpenAIRE

    do Amaral, Fabio S Raposo; Miller, Matthew J; Silveira, Luís Fábio; Bermingham, Eldredge; Wajntal, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The family Accipitridae (hawks, eagles and Old World vultures) represents a large radiation of predatory birds with an almost global distribution, although most species of this family occur in the Neotropics. Despite great morphological and ecological diversity, the evolutionary relationships in the family have been poorly explored at all taxonomic levels. Using sequences from four mitochondrial genes (12S, ATP8, ATP6, and ND6), we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Neotro...

  19. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  20. Lineage diversification and morphological evolution in a large-scale continental radiation: The neotropical ovenbirds and woodcreepers (Aves: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth P.; Claramunt, Santiago; Derryberry, Graham; Chesser, R. Terry; Cracraft, Joel; Aleixo, Alexandre; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of diversification in species-rich clades provide insight into the processes that generate biological diversity. We tested different models of lineage and phenotypic diversification in an exceptional continental radiation, the ovenbird family Furnariidae, using the most complete species-level phylogenetic hypothesis produced to date for a major avian clade (97% of 293 species). We found that the Furnariidae exhibit nearly constant rates of lineage accumulation but show evidence of constrained morphological evolution. This pattern of sustained high rates of speciation despite limitations on phenotypic evolution contrasts with the results of most previous studies of evolutionary radiations, which have found a pattern of decelerating diversity-dependent lineage accumulation coupled with decelerating or constrained phenotypic evolution. Our results suggest that lineage accumulation in tropical continental radiations may not be as limited by ecological opportunities as in temperate or island radiations. More studies examining patterns of both lineage and phenotypic diversification are needed to understand the often complex tempo and mode of evolutionary radiations on continents.

  1. Does the colonization of new biogeographic regions influence the diversification and accumulation of clade richness among the Corvides (Aves: Passeriformes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan D; Borregaard, Michael K; Jønsson, Knud A; Holt, Ben; Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Regional variation in clade richness can be vast, reflecting differences in the dynamics of historical dispersal and diversification among lineages. Although it has been proposed that dispersal into new biogeographic regions may facilitate diversification, to date there has been limited assessment of the importance of this process in the generation, and maintenance, of broad-scale biodiversity gradients. To address this issue, we analytically derive biogeographic regions for a global radiation of passerine birds (the Corvides, c. 790 species) that are highly variable in the geographic and taxonomic distribution of species. Subsequently, we determine rates of historical dispersal between regions, the dynamics of diversification following regional colonization, and spatial variation in the distribution of species that differ in their rates of lineage diversification. The results of these analyses reveal spatiotemporal differences in the build-up of lineages across regions. The number of regions occupied and the rate of transition between regions both predict family richness well, indicating that the accumulation of high clade richness is associated with repeated expansion into new geographic areas. However, only the largest family (the Corvidae) had significantly heightened rates of both speciation and regional transition, implying that repeated regional colonization is not a general mechanism promoting lineage diversification among the Corvides. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Evolution of bill size in relation to body size in toucans and hornbills (Aves: Piciformes and Bucerotiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin L. Hughes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that the bill of the Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776, has a specialized role in heat dissipation suggests a new function for the large and light-weight bill of the toucan family (Piciformes: Ramphastidae. A prediction of this hypothesis is that bill length in toucans will increase with body mass at a rate greater than the isometric expectation. This hypothesis was tested in a phylogenetic context with measurements of skeletal elements in adult males of 21 toucan species. In these species, 64.3% of variance in relative skeletal measurements was accounted for by the contrast between bill and body size. Maxilla length and depth increased with body mass at a greater than isometric rate relative to both body mass and other linear skeletal measures. By contrast, no such trend was seen in a parallel analysis of 24 hornbill species (Bucerotiformes, sometimes considered ecological equivalents of toucans. The unique relationship between bill size and body mass in toucans supports the hypothesis that the evolution of a heat dissipation function has been a persistent theme of bill evolution in toucans.

  3. Population status, habitat selection and people's perception on Pavo cristatus (Aves: Phasianidae in Sigur Plateau, the Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockianathan Samson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to estimate the population status, habitat utilisation and threats to the Indian peafowl in Sigur Plateau, Tamil Nadu from November 2016 to March 2017. A total of 1091 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 487 sightings in 1080 km (2.28 ± 0.05 with the encounter rate of 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Deciduous Forest a total of 570 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 224 sightings in 460 km (2.28 ± 0.05, ER = 1.01 individuals / km. In Dry Thorn Forest a total of 521 individuals of peafowls were recorded in 254 sightings in 620 km (2.05 ± 0.06 ER = 0.84 individuals / km. A total of 19 roosting trees species were identified, all recorded in thorn forest; similarly nine species were recorded in dry deciduous forest. The highest number of roosts were recorded in Tectona grandis (n = 27; the average height of the tree species was 14.46 m and the average Indian peafowl roost height was 11.25. The Indian peafowl has decreased; the reason for invading the human habitation was the loss of food (n = 60. Crop damage by peafowl shows that beans (50% were highly damaged followed by chilly (37%, tomato (5% and ragi (4% and corn (1%. Drivers (n = 25 noted that under some circumstances Pavo cristatus could be killed due to its sudden appearance on the roads.

  4. Breeding biology and conservation of hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. (Aves, Accipitridae in southern Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Zilio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Neotropical hawk-eagles (Spizaetus spp. are large forest raptors, having low population densities and high sensitivity to human disturbance. The three species of Brazil’s Atlantic forest (S. ornatus, S. melanoleucus, S. tyrannus are threatened and little is known of many aspects of their biology, such habitat requirements, nesting behavior, and food habitats. Here I present data about the breeding biology, diet and behavior of the Ornate Hawk-Eagle (S. ornatus; OHE and the Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle (S. melanoleucus; BWHW, and estimations of distribution - extent of occurrence (EOO - and population sizes for the three hawk-eagles of the southern Atlantic Forest. I compiled data from nine years of field studies done in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina combined with data from the literature (n = 191 records. I calculated the total amount of forest available for each species by GIS analyses and estimated population sizes based on species density data from the literature. The EOO was 123,551 km² for BWHE, 92,512 km² for OHE, and 67,824 km² for Black Hawk-Eagle (S. tyrannus; BHE. All species experienced more than 30% shrinkage in their historical distribution (before the year 2000. Forest remnants comprise 32% of BHE’s EOO and around 20% for other hawk-eagle species. Population sizes estimated for the southern region were 869 pairs for BHE (1,684 individuals, 1,532 pairs for BWHE (2,849 individuals, and 2,020 pairs for OHE (1,192 individuals. Population size estimates based only on forest patches larger than 10 km² were 542 pairs for BHE (RS = 48 pairs; SC = 494 pairs, 818 pairs for BWHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 751 pairs, and 1,178 pairs for OHE (RS = 67 pairs; SC = 1,111 pairs. I recorded displays and copulation of BWHE in July; the nest was built in an inaccessible, emergent tree in the hillside of a valley. Two nests of OHE were found in emergent trees (20 m and 30 m height measured 138 x 115 x 45 cm and 132 x 100 x 100 cm; one

  5. Marshes as "Mountain Tops": Genetic Analyses of the Critically Endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Crisley; Gibbs, H Lisle; Costa, Mariellen C; Del-Rio, Glaucia; Silveira, Luís F; Wasko, Adriane P; Francisco, Mercival R

    2015-01-01

    Small populations of endangered species can be impacted by genetic processes such as drift and inbreeding that reduce population viability. As such, conservation genetic analyses that assess population levels of genetic variation and levels of gene flow can provide important information for managing threatened species. The São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a recently-described and critically endangered bird from São Paulo State (Brazil) whose total estimated population is around 250-300 individuals, distributed in only 15 isolated marshes around São Paulo metropolitan region. We used microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the population genetic characteristics of the three largest remaining populations of this species all within 60 km of each other. We detected a high and significant genetic structure between all populations (overall FST = 0.103) which is comparable to the highest levels of differentiation ever documented for birds, (e.g., endangered birds found in isolated populations on the tops of African mountains), but also evidence for first-generation immigrants, likely from small local unsampled populations. Effective population sizes were small (between 28.8-99.9 individuals) yet there are high levels of genetic variability within populations and no evidence for inbreeding. Conservation implications of this work are that the high levels of genetic structure suggests that translocations between populations need to be carefully considered in light of possible local adaptation and that remaining populations of these birds should be managed as conservation units that contain both main populations studied here but also small outlying populations which may be a source of immigrants.

  6. Patterns and processes of diversification in a widespread and ecologically diverse avian group, the buteonine hawks (Aves, Accipitridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Fábio Raposo; Sheldon, Frederick H; Gamauf, Anita; Haring, Elisabeth; Riesing, Martin; Silveira, Luís F; Wajntal, Anita

    2009-12-01

    Buteonine hawks represent one of the most diverse groups in the Accipitridae, with 58 species distributed in a variety of habitats on almost all continents. Variations in migratory behavior, remarkable dispersal capability, and unusual diversity in Central and South America make buteonine hawks an excellent model for studies in avian evolution. To evaluate the history of their global radiation, we used an integrative approach that coupled estimation of the phylogeny using a large sequence database (based on 6411 bp of mitochondrial markers and one nuclear intron from 54 species), divergence time estimates, and ancestral state reconstructions. Our findings suggest that Neotropical buteonines resulted from a long evolutionary process that began in the Miocene and extended to the Pleistocene. Colonization of the Nearctic, and eventually the Old World, occurred from South America, promoted by the evolution of seasonal movements and development of land bridges. Migratory behavior evolved several times and may have contributed not only to colonization of the Holarctic, but also derivation of insular species. In the Neotropics, diversification of the buteonines included four disjunction events across the Andes. Adaptation of monophyletic taxa to wet environments occurred more than once, and some relationships indicate an evolutionary connection among mangroves, coastal and várzea environments. On the other hand, groups occupying the same biome, forest, or open vegetation habitats are not monophyletic. Refuges or sea-level changes or a combination of both was responsible for recent speciation in Amazonian taxa. In view of the lack of concordance between phylogeny and classification, we propose numerous taxonomic changes.

  7. Aspects of the ecology of Penelope superciliaris temminck, 1815 (Aves: Cracidae in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Thel

    Full Text Available Abstract Guans are large frugivorous birds that inhabit Neotropical forests and play a fundamental role in seed dispersal and forest regeneration. Despite their ecological importance, the natural populations of these birds are increasingly threatened by deforestation and hunting pressure. The present study was conducted in the Araripe National Forest, Ceará (Brazil, with the objective of estimating population parameters (density and total population size in the Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris and the White-browed Guan (Penelope jacucaca, as well as providing data on their feeding ecology, including seasonal variation and fruit morphology. The study was based on the monthly collection of data between November, 2011, and October, 2012. Population parameters were estimated using line transect surveys, while feeding ecology was studied by direct observation, and the collection of plant and fecal samples. The estimated population density of P. superciliaris was 19.17 individuals/km2 (CV=13.98%, with a mean of 0.13 sightings per 10 km walked. Penelope jacucaca was not encountered during the surveys. A total of 14 plant species were recorded in the diet of P. superciliaris, 12 by direct observation, and two from fecal samples. Fruit diameter varied from 6.3±1.35 mm (Miconia albicans to 29.9±1.7 mm (Psidium sp.. Yellow was the most frequent fruit color (41.6%, n=5, with two species each (16.6% providing black, green, and red fruits. Fleshy fruits of the baccate (50.0%, n=6 and drupe (33.3%, n=4 types were the most consumed. The data on population parameters and feeding ecology collected in the present study provide an important database for the development of effective management strategies by environmental agencies for the conservation of the populations of the two guan species.

  8. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... with a high flue gas temperature of 1250-1300 oC, although the addition of coal fly ash increased the differential deposit formation rate (DDF-rate) and the ash deposition propensity, the deposit removal frequency were considerably increased and the major shedding mechanism was changed from soot...... corrosion. At the location with a low flue gas temperature of 750-800 oC, the addition of coal fly ash reduced the ash deposition propensity and caused the formed deposits being easily removable. Moreover, the KCl and KOH/K2CO3 found in the low-temperature deposits without coal ash addition disappeared when...

  9. Prevalência de Transtorno Mental e Comportamental em Trabalhadores de Indústrias de Abate de Suínos e Aves no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Guilland

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, no Paraná, a produção de alimentos de origem animal é uma das atividades econômicas que mais contrata força de trabalho, mas, também, é uma das que mais contribui para a ocorrência de adoecimentos, porém ainda se tem pouco conhecimento sobre os transtornos mentais. Trata-se de uma pesquisa epidemiológica de caráter descritivo acerca de transtornos mentais e comportamentais em trabalhadores de indústrias de abate de suínos, aves e outros pequenos animais do estado do Paraná. Foram utilizados dados secundários da Previdência Social brasileira, de 2008 a 2014. Os resultados apontaram que a maioria dos trabalhadores incapacitados têm entre 28 e 38 anos, são mulheres e apresentam prevalência de depressão. Houve prevalência do benefício auxílio-doença previdenciário em detrimento do auxílio-doença por acidente de trabalho, que possui nexo com o trabalho. Além disso, redução anual dos benefícios acidentários concedidos. Conclui-se que há dificuldade dos trabalhadores em obter o reconhecimento da doença como decorrente do trabalho, especialmente quando caracterizadas como transtornos mentais.

  10. Comportamiento social y de forrajeo en aves de la familia laridae y fregatidae en las playas de Anconcito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Acosta Campoverde

    2016-12-01

    The observation was performed in situ about social conduct and foraging of the following families: Laridae and Fregatidae in three areas defined in The Artisanal Fishing Port Anconcito between May and July 2016. Identifying the species Fregata Magnificens and Chroicocephaluscirrocephalus. The qualitative analysis concerning to observed characteristics morphophysiological contrasted with the references; Stipulating that the innate and acquired conduct have protagonism in their fixed pattern and/or variable social conduct. Otherwise, the quantitative analysis of the variations quantity of birds and registered physical parameters determined anthropogenic influence on the foraging´s technique like "the Kleptoparasitism" and "opportunism".

  11. Relação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem num povoado de Santiago del Estero, Argentina The relationship between Triatoma infestans, poultry, and humans in a rural settlement in Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia P. Gajate

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a associação entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem no povoado de Trinidad, Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Para coletar triatomíneos foram realizadas quatro amostragens no peridomicílio de seis casas, utilizando-se o método de captura hora/homem (dezembro de 1991 a outubro de 1992. Os anexos foram classificados em antrópicos (onde o homem realiza atividades cotidianas e não-antrópicos. Além disso, determinou-se o perfil alimentar dos barbeiros. De um total de 134 ecótopos investigados, 21% tinham T. infestans; 22% possuíam aves domésticas; e 54% eram antrópicos. Em 25% destes ecótopos foram encontradas aves e T. infestans simultaneamente. As aves foram os únicos animais domésticos associados com o T. infestans, sendo que esta relação só ocorreu nos ecótopos antrópicos. A proporção de ingestas em aves (61/146 foi altamente significativa. Em Trinidad não há galinheiros, utilizando-se, assim, os anexos entrópicos do peridomicílio como local para se construir os ninhos para as aves. tanto pelos elementos usados na preparação dos ninhos como pelo uso posterior dos mesmos, poder-se-ia estabelecer um fluxo periódico de barbeiros do intradomicílio para o peridomicílio, e vice-versa, através do transporte passivo. Esta relação estreita entre Triatoma infestans, aves domésticas e o homem, encontrada nos ecótopos antrópicos, onde também existem outros reservatórios de T. cruzi, como os cães, favorece a manutenção de colônias de barbeiros domiciliares e a transmissão da doença de Chagas ao homem.An association was determined between Triatona infestans, poultry, and humans in Trinidad, in the Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina. To collect triatomines, four samples were taken at the area immediately surrounding six houses by the one hour/man capture method (December 1991 - October 1992. Peridomiciliary ecotopes were classified as arthropic (where humans carry out daily

  12. Myiasis by Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae in Panama Miasis ocasionada por Philornis spp. (Diptera: Muscidae in Dendroica castanea (Aves: Parulidae en Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Herrera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the parasitism of an unidentified species of Philornis, extracted from a juvenile Dendroica castanea that was collected from Pipeline Road of the Soberania National Park of Panama. This finding is unusual since Philornis spp. parasitizes nested chicks. On the other hand, this is the first time that this parasite is reported in D. castanea.Registramos el parasitismo de una especie no identificada de Philornis extraída de un juvenil de Dendroica castanea, capturada en el Sendero del Oleoducto del Parque Nacional Soberanía. Este hallazgo es inusual ya que Philornis spp. parasita principalmente polluelos en nidos. Del mismo modo, el presente constituye el primer registro del parásito en D. castanea.

  13. A distinctive avian assemblage (Aves: Passeriformes in Western Darién, Panama is uncovered through a disease surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Basic knowledge about the distribution of flora and fauna is lacking for most tropical areas. Improving our knowledge of the tropical biota will help address contemporary global problems, including emerging tropical diseases. Less appreciated is the role that applied studies can have in improving our understanding of basic biological patterns and processes in the tropics. Here, I describe a novel avifauna assemblage uncovered in Western Darién province in the Republic of Panama that was uncovered during a vector-borne disease surveillance program. I compared the passerine bird species composition at 16 sites using records from recent ornithological expeditions sponsored by the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Central and Eastern Panama. Based on the results of a Mantel test, geographic distance did not correlate with pairwise distinctiveness of sites. Instead, based on an index of distinctiveness modified from the Chao-Jaccard index, most sites were more or less similarly distinctive, with one site, Aruza Abajo, significantly more distinctive than the rest. I found that the distinctiveness of this site was due not only to the presence of several rare and range-restricted taxa, but also to the absence of taxa that are common elsewhere. This finding provides more evidence of high species composition turnover (beta-diversity in the Panamanian biota, which appears to be driven by a combination of soil and climate differences over narrow distances. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 711-717. Epub 2014 June 01.

  14. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Kulp, Felicia B; Grande, Lance

    2013-06-22

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation.

  15. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, I.J.; Perez-Eman, J. L.; Sullivan, J.P.; Banks, R.C.; Fiorentino, I.; Cordoba-Cordoba, S.; Echeverry-Galvis, M.; Barker, F.K.; Burns, K.J.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, Scott M.; Bermingham, E.

    2010-01-01

    The birds in the family Parulidae-commonly termed the New World warblers or wood-warblers-are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological and behavioral differentiation. Although the monophyly of a 'core' wood-warbler clade is well established, no phylogenetic hypothesis for this group has included a full sampling of wood-warbler species diversity. We used parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods to reconstruct relationships among all genera and nearly all wood-warbler species, based on a matrix of mitochondrial DNA (5840 nucleotides) and nuclear DNA (6 loci, 4602 nucleotides) characters. The resulting phylogenetic hypotheses provide a highly congruent picture of wood-warbler relationships, and indicate that the traditional generic classification of these birds recognizes many non-monophyletic groups. We recommend a revised taxonomy in which each of 14 genera (Seiurus, Helmitheros, Mniotilta, Limnothlypis, Protonotaria, Parkesia, Vermivora, Oreothlypis, Geothlypis, Setophaga, Myioborus, Cardellina, Basileuterus, Myiothlypis) corresponds to a well-supported clade; these nomenclatural changes also involve subsuming a number of well-known, traditional wood-warbler genera (Catharopeza, Dendroica, Ergaticus, Euthlypis, Leucopeza, Oporornis, Parula, Phaeothlypis, Wilsonia). We provide a summary phylogenetic hypothesis that will be broadly applicable to investigations of the historical biogeography, processes of diversification, and evolution of trait variation in this well studied avian group. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  16. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae, from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira S.M. Gallo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae.

  17. The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves: Icteridae), at 2,800 m asl in Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Pinto, C Miguel; Carrión, Juan Manuel; Jarrín-E, Rubén D; Poveda, Cristian; de Vries, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin, 1789, is a brood parasite of hundreds of small-bodied birds that is native to South American lowlands. Within the last 100 years this species has been expanding its range throughout the Caribbean, towards North America, but has rarely been seen above 2,000 m asl. Here, we present records of Shiny Cowbirds in Quito, a city located 2,800 m above sea level that harbors a bird community typical of the Andean valleys. We found two juvenile individuals parasitizing two different pairs of Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776). This report constitutes an altitudinal range expansion of reproductive populations of ca. 500m, which may have beenprompted by anthropogenic disturbance.

  18. Surface topography of two trematodes parasites infecting grey heron Ardea cinerea Jouyi (Aves, Ciconiiformes) in Qena, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-04-01

    Apharyngostrigea ardeolina and Echinoparyphium recurvatum are two important digenean parasites that were recovered from small intestine of grey heron with an infection rate (16.2%) and (8.8%) respectively. The surface topography of two species was redescribed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Using SEM studies showed that the body surface of two trematodes were covered by contact receptors, several types of sensory tegumental papillae which may have useful function in orientation and feeding through increasing the surface area of absorption, could also play a role in sensation or in selection of the materials for ingestion by the fluke. The head collar of E. recurvatum is reniform in shape, bearing uninterrupted double row of 41 collar finger-like spines, a total including 4 end group ones on both ventral corners., tegumental spines were tongue-shaped without a terminal tip.

  19. PANTHER Data from SOLVE-II Through CR-AVE: A Contrast Between Long and Short Lived Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F. L.; Dutton, G. S.; Elkins, J. W.; Hall, B. D.; Hurst, D. F.; Nance, J. D.; Thompson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    PANTHER (PAN and other Trace Hydrohalocarbons ExpeRiment) is an airborne 6-channel gas chromatograph that measures approximately 20 important atmospheric trace gases whose changing burdens impact air quality, climate change and both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. In this presentation we will contrast measurements of the long-lived compounds against the short-lived compounds. The long-lived compounds tend to have well-defined troposphere boundary conditions and develop spatial gradients due to stratospheric processing. These measurements have played a major role in quantifying stratospheric transport, stratosphere- troposphere exchange, and ozone loss. In contrast the short-lived species develop spatial and temporal gradients in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), due to variations in the surface boundary layer concentrations and the coupling of this surface boundary layer to the TTL via convective processes. Deep convection acts like a "conveyor belt" between the source region in the boundary layer and the relatively stable TTL region, often bypassing the free troposphere where scavenging of these short lived species takes place. Loss rates due to reaction with OH and thermal decomposition are reduced in the cold, dry air of the TTL, resulting in longer survival times. Isolation of the TTL region from the free troposphere can last from days to over a month. Significant amounts of these short-lived compound and their byproducts can therefore be transported into the lower stratosphere (LS). Of particular interest are compounds that contain bromine, iodine, and sulfur, not only because of their intrinsic harmful effects in the atmosphere, but also because they have unique source and sink regions that can help to de- convolve transport.

  20. Species concept and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application. Keywords: Species concept, Species limitation, Species, Taxonomy, Classification

  1. Surveillance of arbovirus infections in the atlantic forest region, State of São Paulo, Brazil: I. detection of hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in wild birds between 1978 and 1990 Vigilância de infecções por arbovírus na Região da Mata Atlântica, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.: I. Detecção de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação em aves silvestres entre 1978 e 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani B. Ferreira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We report data related to arbovirus antibodies detected in wild birds periodically captured from January 1978 to December 1990 in the counties of Salesópolis (Casa Grande Station, Itapetininga and Ribeira Valley, considering the different capture environments. Plasmas were examined using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI tests. Only monotypic reactions were considered, except for two heterotypic reactions in which a significant difference in titer was observed for a determined virus of the same antigenic group. Among a total of 39,911 birds, 269 birds (0.7% belonging to 66 species and 22 families were found to have a monotypic reaction for Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE, Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE, Western equine encephalitis (WEE, Ilheus (ILH, Rocio (ROC, St. Louis encephalitis (SLE, SP An 71686, or Caraparu (CAR viruses. Analysis of the data provided information of epidemiologic interest with respect to these agents. Birds with positive serology were distributed among different habitats, with a predominance of unforested habitats. The greatest diversity of positive reactions was observed among species which concentrate in culture fields.Apresentam-se os resultados referentes a anticorpos para arbovírus em aves silvestres capturadas, periodicamente, de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 1990, nos municípios de Salesópolis (Estação de Casa Grande; Itapetininga e municípios do Vale do Ribeira, considerando-se os diferentes ambientes de captura. Plasmas foram examinados, por testes de Inibição de Hemaglutinação (IH. Considerou-se apenas as reações monotípicas, com exceção de duas reações heterotípicas, onde ocorreu uma diferença de título significativa para um determinado vírus de um mesmo grupo antigênico. Em um total de 39.911 aves, foram encontradas 269 aves pertencentes a 66 espécies e 22 famílias, com reação monotípica para os vírus Encefalite Equina do Leste (EEE, Encefalite Equina Venezuelana (VEE

  2. New information on the anatomy of the Chinese Early Cretaceous Bohaiornithidae (Aves: Enantiornithes from a subadult specimen of Zhouornis hani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Enantiornithines are the most diverse avian clade in the Cretaceous. However, morphological specializations indicative of specific ecological roles are not well known for this clade. Here we report on an exquisitely well-preserved specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of northeastern China, which pedal morphology is suggestive of a unique ecological specialization within Enantiornithes. The morphology of the new specimen is largely indistinguishable from that of the holotype of the bohaiornithid enantiornithine Zhouornis hani, albeit the latter is somewhat larger. The new specimen provides important and previously unknown details of the skull of Zhouornis hani, which add to the limited knowledge about the cranial anatomy and evolution of enantiornithines. The information offered by the new specimen also augments our understanding of the postcranial morphology of bohaiornithid enantiornithines, a clade that has been only recently recognized. With the description of this specimen, Zhouornis hani becomes one of the most anatomically complete known enantiornithine species, which will facilitate future morphological studies.

  3. Youngest reported radiocarbon age of a moa (Aves : Dinornithiformes) dated from a natural site in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlence, N.J.; Cooper, A.

    2013-01-01

    The extinction date of the giant flightless New Zealand ratite bird, the crested moa (Pachyornis australis), is of considerable interest because the youngest verified remains are dated to the Pleistocene–Holocene transition c. 10,000 yr BP, which was characterised by severe climatic and habitat change, and are considerably earlier than the late Holocene extinctions of the other eight moa species. Analysis of a partial crested moa skeleton (NMNZ S23569) from Castle Keep Entrance, Bulmer Cave System, Mount Owen, South Island, generated a radiocarbon date of 564±26 yr BP (544-508 cal yr BP; 95.4% AD 1396-1442). As a result the Bulmer Cave specimen represents the youngest moa yet found from a natural site in New Zealand. Combined with additional crested moa remains dated to the late Holocene from Cheops Cave (Mount Arthur) and Magnesite Quarry (Cobb Valley), this indicates that crested moa did not go extinct during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition but survived until after Polynesian colonisation in c. AD 1280. The new radiocarbon dates reported here have important implications for the timing of moa extinction and the late survival of moa in alpine areas of New Zealand. (author). 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Valores energéticos de subprodutos de origem animal para aves Energy values of animal by-products for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vianna Nunes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn e os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade aparente (CMA e aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (CMAn de cinco alimentos. Cento e vinte pintos de corte com 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos (uma ração-referência e cinco rações-teste e quatro repetições de cinco aves. Os alimentos avaliados foram: resíduo de incubatório (RI, farinha de penas (FP, farinha de vísceras de aves (FVA e duas farinhas de carne e ossos (FCO 1 e FCO 2. Os alimentos substituíram em 20% a ração-referência. Para determinação dos valores de EMA e EMAn, foi utilizado o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas. Os valores de EMA, expressos em kcal/kg de matéria natural (MN, para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, foram de 1.495, 2.774, 2.676, 2.537 e 1.652 e os de EMAn, de 1.301, 2.758, 2.384, 2.307 e 1.488, respectivamente. De acordo com os valores de EMA, EMAn e energia bruta (EB, foram calculados os CMA e o CMAn para os alimentos RI, FP, FVA, FCO 1 e FCO 2, que foram, respectivamente, de 60,09; 55,49; 69,31; 67,71 e 51,14, para o CMA, e de 52,26; 55,18; 61,75; 60,85 e 46,07, para o CMAn.The apparent metabolizable energy (AME, nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable (AMEn, apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMC and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizability coefficient (AMCn of five feedstuffs were determined. The feedstuffs investigated were: hatchery by-product meal (HM, feather meal (FM, poultry viscera meal (PVM and two meat and bone meal (MBM 1 and MBM 2 of different origin. The values of AME and AMEn were determined by the total excreta collection method. One hundred and twenty broiler chicks at 21 days old were randomly allotted to six treatments (one basal reference diet and five test diets, with four replications with five birds per

  5. Histología del ovario y ciclo reproductivo de Columbina picui (Temminck, 1813 (Aves: Columbidae en Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Inés Altamirano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de caracterizar el ciclo reproductivo anual de Columbina picui se realizó el análisis estructural y cuantitativo de los ovarios de ejemplares adultos recolectados entre los años 2005—2006 en la Sierra de Macha (Totoral, Córdoba, Argentina. Durante la fase de recrudescencia gonadal (junio a marzo, se determinaron tres valores máximos; el primero en junio, resultado de la ovipostura de las hembras subadultas (plumaje de adultos y vestigios de la Bursa de Fabricius; los restantes valores se registraron uno en septiembre y el otro en enero correspondiendo al de las hembras adultas. La regresión ovárica se inició a partir de la incubación de los huevos y el reposo gonadal de la mayoría de las aves entre abril y mayo. Se identificaron dos tipos atresia folicular: a no bursting, la pared folicular se mantiene intacta, comprende a la lipoidal (ovocitos primordiales y a la lipoglandular (folículos previtelogénicos y vitelogénicos pequeños, ambos procesos se visualizaron durante todo el ciclo reproductivo y b bursting las paredes foliculares se rompen, afecta a los folículos vitelo- génicos menores de 800 μm y sólo fue detectada posterior a la ovipostura. El ciclo reproductivo de C. picui se caracterizo por alta frecuencia de hembras con capacidad de reproducirse durante la mayor parte del año y la prolongada fase de recrudescencia gonadal.

  6. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  7. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  8. Efeito da microbiota cecal e do Lactobacillus salivarius inoculados in ovo em aves desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis Effect of cecal microflora and Lactobacillus salivarius in ovo administration used on chicken previously challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Andreatti Filho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovos embrionados provenientes de matrizes pesadas foram inoculados na câmara de ar com microbiota cecal total, microbiota cecal diluída e cultura de Lactobacillus salivarius, no 18º dia de incubação. Dois dias após o nascimento, as aves foram desafiadas com Salmonella enterica sorovar Enteritidis (SE e, cinco dias após o desafio, avaliou-se a presença da bactéria no fígado e ceco. O efeito de exclusão competitiva, após o desafio com SE, somente foi observado pela ausência da bactéria no fígado das aves tratadas in ovo com L. salivarius. A inoculação in ovo de microbiota cecal indefinida ou diluída não reduziu a colonização de SE no fígado e no ceco das aves, incluindo, neste último, também o tratamento com L. salivarius. Nenhum dos tratamentos in ovo determinou índice de eclodibilidade superior a 65%.Commercial 18-day-old incubating chicken embryos were inoculated with total or diluted cecal microbiota and Lactobacillus salivarius cultures directly into the inner air sac. Two days after hatching, the chicks were challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE, and five days later the presence of bacteria in cecum and liver was evaluated. The competitive exclusion effect was determined by the search for SE in the liver of chicks treated in ovo with L. salivarius and challenged with SE. The in ovo inoculation of total or diluted cecal microbiota, in addition to the L. salivarius treatment did not significantly decrease the colonization of SE in liver and cecum. All treatments resulted in hatchability of 65% or less.

  9. COEXISTENCIA TRÓFICA DE AVES CARPINTERAS (Picidae EN UN BOSQUE DE Pinus cembroides (Zucc. DEL ÁREA NATURAL PROTEGIDA PEÑA ALTA, SAN DIEGO DE LA UNIÓN, GUANAJUATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Ugalde-Lezama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudiar la coexistencia trófica en aves es relevante para su manejo y conservación. Para ello, de enero a octubre de 2008 se identificaron técnicas de cacería y componentes entomológicos de las dietas de aves piciformes. Para la observación de las aves se usó la técnica de búsqueda intensiva en puntos de radio fijo, y para su captura, redes de niebla. Melanerpes formicivorous y Picoides scalaris prefirieron las técnicas de cacería Perforar y Colectar. Dichas técnicas se explicaronpor cinco y cuatro variables (P<0.05, respectivamente. Los estratos más utilizados fueron Pinus cembroides y Quercus spp. Los órdenes de insectos más consumidos fueron Coleóptera y Hemíptera. Las principales familias registradas corresponden a Scolytidae, Curculionidae, Pentatomidae, Cicadellidae, Cleridae y Melyridae. Los insectos más consumidos fueron los tipo Plaga (P, No Plaga (NP y Predadores (PR. Se registró una proporción significativa de individuos (X2=9.19, X2 0.001(5=20.5 de insectos en las dietas. Sin embargo, no fue posible registrar todos los fragmentos (X2=56.33, X2 0.001(5=20.5. El número de individuos (a=0.05, P-value=0.2317 y fragmentos (a=0.05, P-value=0.2606 entre especies fue similar. Siete variables (P<0.05 determinaron la ocurrencia de grasa y el consumo de presas. Los Picidos bajo estudio, a pesar de poseer anatomías, fisiologías y etologías similares, coexistieron tróficamente segregados durante la procuración alimenticia, minimizando de esta manera la competencia interespecífica.

  10. Identificación de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en reservorios animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos

    OpenAIRE

    Zerpa, Rito; Alarcón, Jorge; Lezama, Percy; Patiño, Lilian; Reyes, Alberto; Valencia, Augusto; Velásquez, Jorge; Alarcón, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la prevalencia de Arcobacter en niños y adultos con/sin diarrea y en animales: aves, ganado vacuno y porcino, peces y mariscos. Diseño: Estudio transversal descriptivo. Institución: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Daniel A. Carrión, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Instituto Materno Infantil de San Bartolomé y Hospital Arzobispo Loayza. Material biológico: Aislamientos bacterianos de humanos y animales. Intervenciones: Búsqueda activa de Arc...

  11. Avaliação nutricional de farinhas de vísceras de aves e a utilização em rações de frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Os experimentos foram realizados com os objetivos de determinar os valores energéticos e nutricionais de farinhas de vísceras de aves (FVA) para frangos de corte.Inicialmente, analisou-se a composição de três FVAs e dois ensaios foram realizados; um para determinar a taxa de passagem e outro para determinar a energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira corrigida (EMAn e EMVn). As FVAs apresentaram uma média de: 93,34% de matéria seca, 62,73% para proteína bruta (PB), 15,42% de extrato etér...

  12. Composición y riqueza de las comunidades de aves, muciélagos y escarabajos coprófagos asociados a agro-paisajes y áreas protegidas de un bosqeu tropical seco (Norte de Costa Rica)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal Sánchez, José Pablo

    2014-01-01

    [ES] La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo general analizar y comparar la composición y riqueza de las comunidades aves, murciélagos y escarabajos coprófagos presentes en seis tipos de cobertura vegetal: bosque ribereño, bosque secundario, charral, cercas vivas, pastizales (potreros), con alta y baja cobertura arbórea. La investigación se realiza en un área protegida del bosque seco tropical ¿Parque Nacional Palo Verde¿ y otra de agrocenósis, Cañas (N de Costa Rica). Los resultado...

  13. Guía de campo de las especies de aves y mamíferos marinos del sur de Chile: especies comunes de avistar en las regiones de Los Lagos y Aysén.

    OpenAIRE

    Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Ruiz Troemel, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Dentro de la macrofauna marina están las aves y los mamíferos en donde en Chile hay una gran diversidad.En este libro se describen aspectos generales sobre el área en la cual se focaliza el estudio, una descripción general de los grupos animales incluidos (con figuras ilustradas de cada animal), algunos aspectos clave sobre los códigos de conducta para la observación responsable de fauna marina silvestre, así como descripciones detalladas de las características más relevantes para la identifi...

  14. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  15. Análise comparativa da assembléia de aves em dois remanescentes florestais no interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Comparative analysis of birds community in two forested fragments in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo J. Donatelli

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o levantamento quantitativo e qualitativo da comunidade de aves de dois fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua no interior do estado de São Paulo de julho de 2004 a julho de 2005. Para o estudo quantitativo utilizou-se da metodologia de Pontos de Escuta. Foram analisados os índices de diversidade e de freqüência de ocorrência dessa comunidade. O levantamento qualitativo registrou 181 espécies na Fazenda Rio das Pedras - FRP (Itapetininga, 350 ha e 126 espécies na Fazenda Santa Maria II - FSM (Buri, 480 ha, enquanto que o levantamento quantitativo registrou a presença de 73 espécies em 988 contatos e 64 espécies em 1019 contatos para FRP e FSM, respectivamente. O índice pontual de abundância (IPA variou de 0,01 (1 contato a 1,32 (132 contatos, para FRP e na FSM variou entre 0,01 (1 contato a 0,97 (97 contatos. A diversidade do fragmento da FRP foi de H’ = 3,04 e na FSM de H’ = 2,85 onde a eqüitatividade em ambas áreas foi de 0,91. A comunidade de aves nos fragmentos estudados mostrou o mesmo padrão encontrado em outros fragmentos de floresta estacional semidecídua de tamanhos relativos. As categorias alimentares mais representativas nos dois remanescentes foram insetívoras (53% na FSM e 50% na FRP e frugívoras (23% na FSM e 26% na FRP. Dentre os insetívoros, destacaram-se as famílias Tyrannidae na FSM e Thamnophilidae na FRP. Tanto na FSM como na FRP os insetívoros de sub-bosque foram mais representativos (53% e 51,4% respectivamente, seguidos pelos frugívoros de sub-bosque (50% na FSM e frugívoros de copa (52,6% na FRP. A importância do estudo de comunidade de aves esta ligada à elaboração do plano de manejo e conservação das áreas naturais.Qualitative and quantitative survey of bird community were performed in two distinct semideciduous forest in the interior of the State of São Paulo from July 2004 to July 2005. Point Counts were used for the quantitative survey followed by diversity and

  16. Potential role of frugivorous birds (Passeriformes on seed dispersal of six plant species in a restinga habitat, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Restingas are considered stressful habitats associated with the Brazilian Atlantic forest, and their ecological interactions are poorly known. The goal of the present study was to determine the potential role of frugivorous birds as seed dispersers in a restinga habitat. Data were collected in Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, southeastern Brazil, where the main physiognomy (Open Clusia Formation is characterized by the presence of patches of vegetation covering 20 to 48 % of the sandy soil and reaching a height of 5 m. Birds were captured with mist nets (12 x 2.5 m; 36 mm mesh; 1 680 net-hrs and had their fecal and regurgitate samples inspected for seeds. Six plant species found in these bird samples were studied. The germination of seeds obtained from plants was compared to those from the birds. Both groups of seeds were set on Petri dishes at room temperature and washed when infected with fungi. In general, there was no effect on germination rate, and the effect on germination speed was negative. Germination of seeds from Pilosocereus arrabidae treated by the birds seemed to be influenced by storage of defecated seeds, while few Miconia cinnamomifolia seeds both from plants and from birds germinated. Ocotea notata presented a great variation in time to the onset of germination, perhaps an advantage against dissecation. Aechmea nudicaulis, Clusia hilariana and Erythroxylum subsessile probably take advantage of the arrival to favorable microhabitats, not by the gut effect on the seeds. All plant species studied are numerically important for the community and some of them are main actors in the succession of vegetation patches. Among the birds, Mimus gilvus is an important resident species, endemic to restingas in Brazil, while Turdus amaurochalinus is a visitor and may be important for plants that fructify during its passage by the study site. Although the effect of pulp removal was only tested for one species (Achmea nudicaulis in the

  17. Ponovno odkritje dvoma o ikoni: študija izmišljenega primera iz prestolnice nekdanje sovjetske države

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaros E. Mavromatidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cilj članka so opredelitev in obravnava radikalnih družbeno-kulturnih pristopov oblikovanja pokrajine v današnjih megamestih znotraj strogega kapitalističnega konteksta ter razpravljanje o njih. V ta namen je v članku teoretično in na primeru preučen prostorski izraz znotraj vsiljenega sodobnega foucaultovskega »stanja znanosti«. V okviru raziskovalne metodologije sta tako sočasno uporabljeni različni hipotezi, ki naj bi premostili vrzel med teoretičnim preučevanjem in stvarnim vidikom arhitekturnega ustvarjanja. Glavna hipoteza temelji na lacanovskem konceptu dvoma. V članku je dvom upoštevan kot chomskyjanska primitivna sila, ki oblikuje vsakršno zamisel ali koncept in lahko pokvari »radikalno imaginacijo« vsake družbe, kot jo v svojih delih opredeljuje Castoriadis. Druga glavna hipoteza temelji na analitični študiji ustvarjanja prostora znotraj strogih političnih in gospodarskih kontekstov, v okviru katere so na primeru nekdanje Sovjetske zveze preučene vrednote kulturne pokrajine v komunističnem in kapitalističnem režimu. Največ pozornosti se posveča Armeniji in zlasti preobrazbi pokrajine v prestolnici Erevan med prehodom iz komunizma v kapitalizem. V članku so najprej podrobno teoretično obravnavani neekonomski dejavniki, na podlagi katerih bi morale kapitalistične države upoštevati potrebe socialno šibkejših družbenih skupin, ki nimajo prostora v današnjih megamestih, nato pa je podrobno predstavljena izvirna zasnova pokrajine v okviru novejšega arhitekturnega natečaja, ki ga tu razumemo kot sodobno foucaultovsko »stanje znanosti«. Glavni cilj predstavljene arhitekturne zasnove je izpolnitev razpisnih pogojev in pri tem združitev vsiljene podobe globalnega kapitalizma z lokalnimi prvinami. Pri tem naj bi se oblikovala foucaultovska heterotopija, in sicer tako, da se različnim družbeno-kulturnim identitetam omogoči, da razpravljajo o predlagani ikonični prostorski podobi, jo izpodbijajo ali

  18. Estudio del cambio climático y su efecto en las aves en México: enfoques actuales y perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Patricia Feria Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático está impactando la biodiversidad en el planeta. En México diferentes líneas de investigación se han desarrollado para estudiar los efectos del cambio climático en la distribución de su avifauna. Entender qué enfoques se usan en el país para estudiar este fenómeno puede ayudar a planear mejor los esfuerzos de conservación, determinar qué especies y sitios serían los más afectados, ubicar qué lugares y qué proyectos deberían recibir más atención para asignar los pocos recursos económicos existentes de manera más eficiente. En este documento describimos los enfoques usados por ocho grupos de investigación que estudian los efectos del cambio climático en la avifauna mexicana. El 87.5% usó tres escenarios de cambio climático: A1B, A2 y B2. Todos los gupos, salvo uno, usaron las variables de WorldClim. El 62.5% usó los modelos de circulación general canadiense (CCCMA y australiano (CSIRO y el 87.5% usó GARP o MaxEnt para modelar la distribución de especies. Se requiere avanzar en cuatro áreas: (1 elaborar mapas climáticos con mayor resolución, (2 incrementar la colaboración entre grupos de investigación, (3 realizar estudios de identificación de especies y áreas en mayor riesgo, y (4 aplicar los conocimientos que se tienen a la fecha. Proponemos 17 recomendaciones que, de seguirse, podrían determinar que el desarrollo futuro de estas cuatro áreas influya en la conservación de las aves habitando en México. Los resultados de este trabajo podrían ayudar a los científicos, tomadores de decisiones y manejadores de recursos naturales a planear estrategias de conservación apropiadas para el futuro.

  19. Impacto de Leishmania amazonensis y la Sangre de Ave en el Potencial Biológico y Fecundidad de Lutzomyia migonei y Lutzomyia ovallesi (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Nieves

    2011-03-01

    Resumo. Nos flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae o hábito pela hematofagia é responsável pela indução de vários processos fisiológicos também na transmissão de Leishmania Ross. O presente estudo compara o sangue de ave, de mamífero e com infecção por Leishmania amazonensis Lainson & Shaw sobre o potencial biológico de Lutzomyia migonei (França e de Lutzomyia ovallesi Ortiz. Foram utilizadas fêmeas das duas espécies alimentadas artificialmente com sangue de hamster (Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse e frango (Gallus gallus Linnaeus, infectados com L. amazonensis. Os grupos controle foram alimentados somente com sangue, sem parasitas. Foram determinados o grau de repasto sanguíneo, o tempo de digestão, o padrão de diurese, o tempo de oviposição, a sobrevivencia a oviposição e a fecundidade. A espécie L. migonei quando alimentada com sangue de hamster e frango apresentaram maior fecundidade do que as fêmeas de L. ovallesi, a maior fecundidade foi com sangue de frango. A presença de Leishmania no sangue de frango ou sangue de hamster diminuiu significativamente o seu consumo, o que resultou na diminuição da sobrevida das fêmeas após a oviposição em L. migonei alimentados com sangue de frango e não com sangue de hamsters. Entretanto, não afetar a quantidade de sangue e a sobrevivência de oviposição de L. ovallesi. A infecção com L. amazonensis causo um aumento no número de ovos retidos e diminuiu o número de ovos postos por L. migonei e L. ovallesi, especialmente com sangue de frango e também reduz o tempo de digestão do sangue em ambas as espécies com sangue de frango, mas não com sangue de hamster. Embora o sangue de frango foi menos eficaz do que o sangue de hamster sobre o potencial biológico de L. migonei e L. ovallesi, não exclui o sangue de frango como uma fonte de sangue para a manutenção das populações de ambas as espécies nas casas.

  20. Efectos del área, edad y cobertura de la vegetación sobre la riqueza de especies de aves reproductoras en los parques urbanos de Vitoria-Gasteiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Hera, I., Unanue, A., Aguirre, I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La rápida expansión urbana y el incremento de la población humana que vive en las ciudades dificultan el acceso de los ciudadanos a la naturaleza. Entre los múltiples beneficios de las áreas verdes urbanas, se encuentra su contribución a paliar este alejamiento. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del área total del parque, de su edad y de la cobertura de diversos estratos vegetales (cobertura de césped, arbustos y árboles sobre la riqueza total de especies de aves en 20 parques urbanos de la ciudad de Vitoria-Gasteiz. El área total del parque y la cobertura arborea, que se correlacionó positivamente con la edad del parque, explicaron gran parte de la variación en la riqueza de especies en estos parques. Conocer como afectan las características de los parques a la riqueza de especies de aves en la áreas verdes de las ciudades, puede ser especialmente útil para los gestores urbanos a la hora de diseñar parques en los que se potencien, no sólo sus servicios sociales de esparcimiento, sino tambien sus valores naturales.

  1. Comportamentos interespecíficos entre Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae e algumas aves de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco, Brasil Interspecific behaviour between Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Callitrichidae, Primates and some birds of the Atlantic forest, Pernanbuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As observações ocorreram no período de dois anos, monitorando grupos marcados de sagüis durante oito horas por dia. Foram registrados seis tipos de eventos: predação de sagüis; predação de aves, disputa de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; compartilhamento de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; perseguição branda e utilização de ninho de ave como local de pernoite dos sagüis. Os eventos agrupados obtiveram diferenças significativas entre as estações do ano e os estratos ocupados.The observations cover a period of two years, monitoring groups of marked common marmosets in eight hour/day periods. Six types of events were recorded: marmoset predation; bird predation; foraging competition; food sharing; use of avian nest for nocturnal marmoset rest and mutual pursuit. All pooled events showed highly significant differences between season and vegetation strata.

  2. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  3. Terrestrial birds living on marine environments: does dietary composition of Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae predict their osmotic load? Aves terrestres viviendo en ambientes marinos: ¿es la composición dietaria de Cinclodes nigrofumosus (Passeriformes: Furnariidae un buen predictor de su carga osmótica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding on saline marine foods may be especially challenging for passerine birds that lack functional salt glands and have a limited ability to concentrate urine. To reduce the salt load imposed by consumption of marine food these birds may select food with low salt contents and/or increase their intake of freshwater. The genus Cinclodes is particular among passerines because it includes species that inhabit both inland and maritime shores. We analyzed the diet of Cinclodes nigrofumosus and explored the possible relationships between dietary composition and salt load at mesic and arid coastal sites of Chile. From a biogeographical perspective, we hypothesized that freshwater availability is critical to the relationship between diet composition and osmotic load of C. nigrofumosus. Our analysis of prey abundance and distribution indicated that the diet of C. nigrofumosus is composed mainly by marine prey, in spite of the availability of terrestrial insects at both sites. Stomach content osmolality was higher in the arid site, but it was not correlated with prey type, which suggests that Cinclodes nigrofumosus avoid a high osmotic load, drinking fresh water when available. Thus physiological constraints are modulating niche breath of CinclodesAlimentarse de presas marinas representa un desafío para aves paseriformes que no poseen glándula de la sal y tienen una habilidad limitada para concentrar orina. Para reducir la carga osmótica asociada al consumo de presas marinas estas aves podrían optar por incluir presas con bajas concentraciones salinas en su dieta y/o aumentar la ingestión de agua dulce. El género Cinclodes es particular entre los paseriformes debido a que incluye especies que habitan riberas de lagos, ríos y costas marinas. Analizamos la dieta de Cinclodes nigrofumosus y exploramos la posible relación entre la composición de ésta y la carga salina en dos sitios costeros de Chile, uno mésico y otro árido. En este estudio

  4. Variação sazonal na abundância de Larus dominicanus (Aves, Laridae no Saco da Fazenda, Itajaí, Santa Catarina Seasonal variation in the abundance of Larus dominicanus in the Saco da Fazenda, Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Ebert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A gaivota Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 é uma das aves marinhas costeiras mais comuns do litoral brasileiro, sendo capaz de utilizar vários hábitats e explorar diferentes fontes alimentares. O estuário do Saco da Fazenda é uma importante área de forrageamento e descanso para a espécie. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar a estrutura populacional de L. dominicanus no estuário. Durante o período de fevereiro/2004 a janeiro/2005, as gaivotas foram monitoradas mensalmente, com intervalos de duas horas entre os censos, das 6 h às 20 h. As oscilações observadas na população ao longo do ano foram significativas, sendo as maiores contagens registradas em março (181,6 ± 35,1 e as menores em outubro (21,0 ± 4,9. A ocupação do estuário foi gradativa a partir das primeiras horas do dia, culminando com as maiores abundâncias às 14 h (72,4 ± 14,2. Ao final do dia, o número de aves reduziu-se significativamente, com as menores abundâncias às 20 h (3,8 ± 3,0. Através da Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP, foi possível estabelecer correlação positiva entre a abundância de gaivotas e a temperatura do ar. As oscilações encontradas na abundância de L. dominicanus durante o estudo podem ser atribuídas a eventos do ciclo de vida da espécie e as diferenças observadas no número de gaivotas ao longo do dia ao período de atividade da frota pesqueira.The gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 is one of the most common coastal seabirds of the Brazilian coast, exploring several habitats and food types. The estuary known as Saco da Fazenda is an important feeding and resting area for the species. In this paper, we evaluate the population structure of L. dominicanus in this area. From February/2004 to January/2005, gulls were monitored in monthly census in Saco da Fazenda at intervals of two hours from 6:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. The fluctuations observed in the abundance of L. dominicanus along the year were

  5. Uso estructural del hábitat por una comunidad de aves en bosques de rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica, Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo, Jesús M.

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence on the bird community of 9 structural zones in two plots of Iberian oak-woodland (Quercus pyrenaica with differences in vegetation structure was studied. Bird utilization of vegetation was measured by taking samples of each observed individual every 30 seconds, specifying the zone used as a food resource. Existence of a preferential selection in tree top and shrub was verified in the "Monte" plot, whereas tree top and ground in "Dehesa" plot were the preferential zones. The incidence of the seasons in the utilization of some zones (tree top, shrub and air was proven, while others zones (ground and trunks maintained an uniform level of utilization all year round. Shrub is used more in Iberian-oak forest than in other evergreen Quercus woods, while the opposite happens for the ground. The hardest period for birds in the study forest in the winter, while in other evergreen Mediterranean woods It is the summer.

    Depto. de Biología Animal, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Salamanca, 37071- Salamanca, España [es] Se estudia la influencia que ejercen sobre la comunidad de aves, las 9 zonas estructurales definidas dentro de dos parcelas de rebollar que presentan diferente estructura de su vegetación. La utilización del medio se midió observando cada individuo a intervalos de 30 segundos, anotando la zona sobre la que se encontraba buscando alimento. Se comprueba la selección preferencial de la copa de los árboles y del matorral en la parcela "Monte" y de la copa y el suelo en la parcela "Dehesa". Se pone de manifiesto la incidencia de la estacionalidad sobre la selección de algunos sustratos (copa de árboles, matorral y aire, mientras que otros mantienen una utilización más uniforme durante todo el año (suelo y troncos. El matorral es más ampliamente empleado en el rebollar que en bosques de Quercus perennes ibéricos, mientras que sucede lo contrario respecto al empleo del suelo. El invierno

  6. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  7. Endangered Species Protection Bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endangered Species Protection Bulletins set forth geographically specific pesticide use limitations for the protection of threatened and endangered (listed) species and their designated critical habitat. Find out how to get and use Bulletins.

  8. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Boscolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.A técnica de play-back é muito útil para a detecção de aves, mas este método geralmente não é padronizado. Sua eficiência em atestar a ocorrência de cinco espécies de aves da Mata Atlântica (Pula-pula-assobiador Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Batará Batara cinerea, Tangará Chiroxiphia caudata, Olho-de-fogo Pyriglena leucoptera e Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha Trogon surrucura foi analisada de acordo com o horário do dia, estação do ano e abundância das espécies na Reserva Florestal do Morro Grande (São Paulo, Brasil e em treze fragmentos florestais de uma paisagem adjacente

  9. Partilha de néctar de Eucalyptus spp., territorialidade e hierarquia de dominância em beija-flores (Aves: Trochilidae) no sudeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Alexsander Z. [UNESP

    2003-01-01

    Territorial behavior in hummingbirds minimizes competition through aggressive interactions, resulting in a dominance hierarchy among species and individuals. Interactions among seven hummingbird species visiting flowering eucalyptus in the Floresta Estadual near Rio Claro, São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, were studied. Dominance was determined by weight and size with the largest species being the most dominant. Time spent in defense and the number of aggressive interactions were greater tha...

  10. Species diversity modulates predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Anholt, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator–prey interactions.Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity

  11. Loovmajanduse kriitika / interv. Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Kiasma nüüdiskunstimuuseumis toimunud seminarist "Critique of Creative Industries". Kiasma direktor Tuula Karjalainen ning professorid Esther Leslie ja Angela McRobbie vastavad küsimustele, mis on seotud loomemajanduse ja selle kriitikaga

  12. 6 projekti impeeriumile / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2002-01-01

    Raoul Kurvitza näitusest "Impeerium. 6 projekti" Rakvere muuseumis. Eksponeeritud New Yorgi linnaruumi ja galeriidesse kavandatud projektide maketid. Time Square'ile kavandatud "Fundamentali" jaoks Ariel Lagle komponeerinud helitööst

  13. Sonidos de Aves de Calilegua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Lydbånd med fuglestemmeoptagelser fra Parque Nacional Calilegua i det nordvestlige Argentina. Hæfte med optagelsesdata og en oversigt over nationalparkens fuglearter. Fysisk medie: Kassettebånd og hæfte......Lydbånd med fuglestemmeoptagelser fra Parque Nacional Calilegua i det nordvestlige Argentina. Hæfte med optagelsesdata og en oversigt over nationalparkens fuglearter. Fysisk medie: Kassettebånd og hæfte...

  14. Naised valikute ees / Ave Paavo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paavo, Ave

    2006-01-01

    Mõedaku spordibaasi juhataja Anu Kilk, äritarkvarafirma Oracle Eesti, Läti, Leedu finantsjuht Anne Oja-Aru, restoranide Balthasar, Karl Friedrich, Paat ja trahteri Postipoiss üldjuht Ritta Roosaar oma tööalastest valikutest

  15. 14. Pisces, Reptilia and Aves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, de L.F.

    1931-01-01

    In the following list of fishes and reptiles, known to occur as fossils in the Indoaustralian Archipelago, I have chiefly followed Smith Woodward (Bibl. 18) for the taxonomy. The teleosts, however, have been arranged according to Boulenger (The Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VII, 1904), with some

  16. Eesti kunst ristlainetuses / Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randviir, Ave, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Noorte kunstnike näitused "Uus laine. 21. sajandi eesti kunstnikud" Tallinna Kunstihoones (28.04.-28.05.2007) ja selle galeriis (28.04.-20.05.2007), "POMO SAPIENS : see on tõesti midagi" Vaal galeriis (2.05.-19.05.2007) ja "Uus laine. 21 sajandi Eesti kunst" Kultuuritehase Polymer III korruse alternatiivgaleriis Nongrata Kunstikonteineris (alates 11.05.2007) Tallinnas

  17. Passerine morphology: external measurements of approximately one-quarter of passerine bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-05-01

    Studies of community organization and clade diversification that include functional traits have become an important component of the analysis of ecological and evolved systems. Such studies frequently are limited by availability of consistently collected data. Here, I present a data set including eight measurements of the external morphology of 1642 species, roughly one-quarter of all passerine birds (Aves: Order Passeriformes), from all parts of the world, characterizing the relative proportions of the wing, tail, legs, and beak. Specimens were measured opportunistically over the past 40 years in museums in the United States and Europe. Numbers of individuals measured per species vary from one to dozens in some cases. Measurements for males and females of sexually size-dimorphic species are presented separately. The measurements include total length, the lengths of the wing, tail, tarsus, and middle toe, and the length, breadth, and depth of the beak. Particular attention was paid to obtaining a broad representation of passerine higher taxa, with special interest in small families and subfamilies of passerines, as well as species produced by evolutionary radiations of birds in archipelagoes, including the Galapagos, Hawaii, and the Lesser Antilles. Taxonomy follows the Taxonomy in Flux (TIF) checklist as well as the World Bird List of the International Ornithological Council. Geographic distributions are summarized from Edwards's Coded List of Birds of the World. Coverage of taxa and geographic regions varies and reflects the changing interests of the author over the past four decades. North American and South American species are particularly well represented in the sample, as well as species belonging to the families Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae, Mimidae, Sturnidae, Fringillidae, Parulidae, Icteridae, Cardinalidae, and Thraupidae. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. The role of historical and local factors in determining species composition of the highland avifauna of Costa Rica and Western Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Barrantes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the mountain ranges of Costa Rica and western Panamá, as well as the cold climatic conditions that prevailed during the upper Pleistocene, played a crucial role in determining the bird species composition of the highlands in this region. Glacial conditions favored dispersal movements of bird species from the Andes, and from the Neartic region. Subsequent inter-glacial conditions reduced the connectivity between neotropical highlands (e.g., Talamanca-Andes, and between neotropical highlands and Neartic temperate region, isolating recently established populations from the ancestral populations, and promoting speciation. Within Costa Rica, the highland vegetation and the birds that occupied this vegetation possibly had a continuous distribution throughout all mountain ranges during glacial periods. This vegetation retreated to the summit of the mountains during inter-glacial periods, fragmenting the original continuous bird populations and forming "sky islands", which decrease in size from Talamanca mountains towards the northwestern ranges. The sizes of such islands of available habitat determine the number of highland birds present in each mountain range. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 333-349. Epub 2009 November 30.La formación de las cordilleras en Costa Rica y oeste de Panamá, así como las frías condiciones climáticas que prevalecieron durante la última parte del Pleistoceno, jugaron un papel muy importante en determinar la composición de las especies de aves en las tierras altas de esta región. Las condiciones glaciales favorecieron la dispersión de aves desde los Andes y desde la región Neártica. Las subsecuentes condiciones inter-glaciales redujeron la conectividad entre las zonas altas neotropicales (e.g., Talamanca-Andes y entre las zonas altas neotropicales y la región templada Neártica, aislando así las poblaciones recientemente establecidas, de las poblaciones ancestrales, fomentando la especiaci

  19. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M A

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  20. La dieta de la lechuza (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes en hábitats naturales y antropogénicos de la región central de Cuba Diet of Barn Owl (Tyto alba (Aves: Strigiformes in natural and anthropogenic habitat in central Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Hernández-Muñoz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar los hábitos tróficos de la lechuza, Tyto alba, se analizaron 1232 egagrópilas recolectadas entre 1994 y 2001 en 24 localidades de la región central de Cuba. Se encontraron 3943 presas; los roedores exóticos (Mus musculus y Rattus spp. fueron las presas dominantes y representaron 80% del total. Otros tipos de presas fueron de menor frecuencia; por ejemplo, insectos (6.1%, murciélagos (5%, anfibios (4.8%, aves (3.6% y reptiles (0.2%. Se agruparon las localidades de recolecta de egagrópilas en 2 categorías de hábitat: antropogénicos y naturales, para explorar el efecto de los disturbios antrópicos en la dieta de la lechuza. Contrario a lo esperado, no se encontró variación significativa en el índice de amplitud trófica de Levins (Bantropogénicos= 1.32 ± 0.3 vs Bnaturales = 1.38 ± 0.4. La composición de la dieta en ambos hábitats no difiere, al menos en la proporción de las diferentes clases, aunque existe la tendencia a depredar más aves en hábitats naturales que en sitios perturbados donde los insectos son más frecuentes. Los resultados sugieren que tanto en hábitats antropogénicos como naturales, las lechuzas se comportan como depredadores efectivos de las poblaciones de roedores múridos introducidos.To determine food habits of Barn Owl, Tyto alba, we analyzed 1232 pellets collected from 24 localities in central Cuba from 1994 to 2001. The pellets yielded 3943 prey items, with introduced rodents (Mus musculus and Rattus spp. being the primary prey, accounting for 80% of items in the diet. Other prey classes were of minor frequency; e.g., insects (6.1%, bats (5%, amphibians (4.8%, birds (3.6%, and reptiles (0.2%.We grouped pellet collection localities into 2 habitat categories: "anthropogenic" and "natural," to explore the effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the diet Barn Owl. Contrary to our expectation, we found no significant difference in the Levin's niche-breadth index (B, calculated for the

  1. Separation of chemical species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentzepis, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    Isotopic separation is accomplished by (1) a second photon irradiation step for selective ionization of a first isotopic species and (2) selective precipitation of a generally immiscible liquid from the saturating vapor phase on the ionized species. The first photon corresponds with a sharply defined spectral portion of the irradiation which exclusively excites the first species to a vibrational level. The second photon further excites this species to its ionization level. Selective precipitation is by coulombic attraction between the ionized species and the vapor. The procedure is applicable to any vapor phase ionizable material

  2. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase I sequences for discriminating 17 species of Columbidae by decision tree algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Kuo-Chuan; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2017-07-01

    DNA barcodes are widely used in taxonomy, systematics, species identification, food safety, and forensic science. Most of the conventional DNA barcode sequences contain the whole information of a given barcoding gene. Most of the sequence information does not vary and is uninformative for a given group of taxa within a monophylum. We suggest here a method that reduces the amount of noninformative nucleotides in a given barcoding sequence of a major taxon, like the prokaryotes, or eukaryotic animals, plants, or fungi. The actual differences in genetic sequences, called single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping, provide a tool for developing a rapid, reliable, and high-throughput assay for the discrimination between known species. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for identifying different pigeon species based on available cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) data. We propose here a decision tree-based SNP barcoding (DTSB) algorithm where SNP patterns are selected from the DNA barcoding sequence of several evolutionarily related species in order to identify a single species with pigeons as an example. This approach can make use of any established barcoding system. We here firstly used as an example the mitochondrial gene COI information of 17 pigeon species (Columbidae, Aves) using DTSB after sequence trimming and alignment. SNPs were chosen which followed the rule of decision tree and species-specific SNP barcodes. The shortest barcode of about 11 bp was then generated for discriminating 17 pigeon species using the DTSB method. This method provides a sequence alignment and tree decision approach to parsimoniously assign a unique and shortest SNP barcode for any known species of a chosen monophyletic taxon where a barcoding sequence is available.

  4. Efeitos da exploração madeireira de baixo impacto sobre uma comunidade de aves de sub-bosque na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil Effects of low impact selective logging on an understory bird community in the Tapajós National Forest, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Magalli Pinto Henriques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo compara a resposta de uma comunidade aves à exploração madeireira de baixo impacto através da distribuição das espécies em floresta controle e manejada ao longo de cinco anos com amostragem pré e pós-exploração. O procedimento de ordenação mostrou que a similaridade da comunidade de aves após a exploração madeireira foi menor que a similaridade entre as amostras do período de pré-exploração. Além disso, a ordem das abundâncias das 43 espécies mais comuns foi alterada entre o período anterior à exploração e 3 a 4 anos após a exploração na floresta manejada. A exploração afetou as taxas de captura de 20 espécies, diretamente ou através de uma interação com o tempo. Os insetívoros terrícolas e os insetívoros que seguem bandos mistos foram as guildas mais afetadas pela exploração madeireira. Ambas as guildas mostraram declínio, correlacionado com o tempo, em suas abundâncias em floresta manejada. Insetívoros seguidores de formigas e insetívoros arborícolas não apresentaram diferenças entre a floresta manejada e controle, apesar de algumas espécies dessas guildas terem apresentado efeitos relacionados ao manejo florestal, diretamente ou através de uma interação entre o tempo e o manejo. Frugívoros também não apresentaram efeitos significativos relacionados ao manejo florestal. Nectarívoros aumentaram tanto na floresta explorada como na floresta controle. Efeitos temporais de aumento ou declínio observados em guildas e em 12 espécies ocorreram tanto na floresta controle como na floresta explorada. Este resultado sugere que mudanças temporais na área explorada podem estar relacionadas à sucessão enquanto que mudanças temporais na floresta controle podem estar relacionados à exploração com intensidade de 40m³/ha de parcelas adjacentes.This study compares the avian response to low impact selective logging by comparing bird species distribution in control and cut forest during

  5. Aves hormigueras en bosque seco del Pacífico de Nicaragua: uso de hábitat y comportamiento parasítico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin A. Tórrez; Wayne Arendt; Pomares Salmeron

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen species of ant-following birds belonging to eight taxonomic families were observed parasitizing army ants (Formicidae: Ecitoninae) in dry forest on the Pacifi c slope of Nicaragua. The birds used all three habitats previously selected as part of a broader biodiversity study: secondary forest, forest fallow, and coffee plantation. Species known to follow army...

  6. Ocorrência e tratamento de sarna knemidocóptica (Knemidokoptes sp. em aves de companhia atendidas na Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ, Brasil Occurrence and treatment of knemidocoptic mange (Knemidokoptes sp. in pet birds company cared at the Veterinary Medicine College - Universidade Federal Fluminense, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sávio Freire Bruno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A sarna knemidocóptica ocasionada pelo ácaro Knemidokoptes sp. pode ser considerada uma enfermidade de caráter relevante na rotina clínica aviária. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar a ocorrência da sarna knemidocóptica em aves de companhia atendidas no Setor de Animais Selvagens da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF, ressaltando as principais espécies acometidas e a eficácia do tratamento clínico estabelecido. No período entre janeiro de 2000 e junho de 2006, 374 aves foram atendidas no Setor; 25 delas eram portadoras de ectoparasitos, das quais 68% (n=17 com diagnóstico de sarna knemidocóptica. As lesões associadas à presença do Knemidokoptes sp. ocorreram principalmente na região dos pés em 14 aves (82,4%, sendo os Passeriformes (Serinus canarius os mais acometidos com 14 casos (82,4%, seguidos de três casos (17,7% em Psitaciformes (Melopsittacus undulatus. Os sinais clínicos constituíram-se de lesões hiperqueratosas e deformidade de dígitos. A confirmação do diagnóstico foi realizada por meio, da identificação microscópica do ácaro a partir de raspado cutâneo da área infestada. Em 15 pacientes portadores da sarna knemidocóptica, entre Passeriformes e Psitaciformes, administrou-se pomada composta por sulfureto de potássio 3g 100g-1 e carbonato de potássio 3g 100g-1 associados uma vez ao dia, em dias alternados, por quatorze dias. Apenas dois pacientes (11,8% foram tratados com aplicação tópica de solução à base de benzoato de benzila 25%, na mesma freqüência e duração do tratamento anterior. Foi intercalado o uso de óleo mineral puro 100%, aplicado topicamente duas vezes ao dia, em ambos os tratamentos. Nos casos mais graves (três pacientes, associou-se ao tratamento 0,06ml de ivermectina 1% pour on em dose única. Os pacientes submetidos a esses tratamentos obtiveram em sua totalidade a cura clínica.Knemidocoptic mange caused by Knemidokoptes sp. can be

  7. VALORES ENERGÉTICOS DE INGREDIENTES CONVENCIONAIS PARA AVES DE POSTURA COMERCIAL ENERGETIC VALUES OF SOME CONVENTIONAL FEEDS FOR LAYING HENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Moreira Dutra Júnior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a composição bromatológica e os valores energéticos do milho, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo e óleo bruto de soja para galinhas poedeiras comerciais. Primeiramente realizaram-se as análises laboratoriais dos referidos ingredientes e um ensaio de metabolismo utilizando oitenta poedeiras, linhagem Lohmann LSL, com 41 semanas de idade, distribuídas num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições com quatro aves por parcela. Os tratamentos foram: uma dieta-referência e quatro dietas-testes (40% de milho + 60% de dieta-referência; 40% de farelo de soja + 60% de dieta-referência; 30% de farelo de trigo + 70% de dieta-referência e 10% de óleo bruto de soja + 90% de dieta-referência. As composições bromatológicas do milho, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo e óleo bruto de soja foram de 87,83%; 88,36%; 87,15% e 99,98% para matéria seca, 9,77%; 44,47%; 14,48% e 0,74% de proteína bruta, 3,98%; 2,61%; 3,42% e 99,24% de extrato etéreo, 2,34%; 7,33% e 10,81% de fibra bruta, 1,23%; 5,77% e 5,44% de matéria mineral e 3.873; 4.172; 3.878 e 9.851 kcal/kg para energia bruta, respectivamente. Os valores determinados para energia metabolizável aparente corrigida (EMAn foram de 3.384; 2.433; 1.919 e 8.313 kcal/kg do milho, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo e óleo bruto de soja, respectivamente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Energia metabolizável, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo, milho, óleo bruto de soja, poedeiras comerciais. The objective of this work was to determine the chemistry composition and energy metabolizable of the corn, soybean meal, wheat bean meal and crude oil of soy with laying hens. First was to determine chemistry composition in the ingredients and one assay metabolism with 80 laying hens, Lohmann LSL white lineage, with 41 weeks of age, distributed in the completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of four laying hens. The

  8. Impacto ambiental de uma agroindústria de abate de aves no município de Pombal, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanduel Oliveira Andrade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As ações antrópicas têm gerados sérios impactos negativos na qualidade da água. Este fato é agravado no Semiárido nordestino, sendo a disponibilidade de água é bastante limitada em virtude de suas condições climáticas. Boa parte da economia da Região Nordeste está voltada ao setor rural, onde estão inseridas as agroindústrias, que geram uma quantidade considerável de efluentes que são eventualmente lixiviados até atingir um corpo hídrico receptor, causando detrimento da qualidade de suas águas. Diante do exposto, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial poluidor de uma agroindústria de abate de aves sobre o rio Piancó, município de Pombal, Paraíba. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de maio de 2014 a dezembro de 2015 com coletas de amostras do efluente bruto e rio Piancó, adjacentes a agroindústria para avaliação dos parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos. A agroindústria, apesar de ser de pequeno porte, possui um elevado potencial poluidor pela acentuada carga orgânica presente, bem como no lançamento diretamente no meio ambiente sem qualquer tratamento prévio, podendo contaminar corpos hídricos subterrâneos. O efluente gerado não atingiu diretamente o rio Piancó, possivelmente, ocasionado pela forte estiagem que atinge a região. Entretanto, nos períodos chuvosos, eleva-se as chances deste poluente ser lixiviado para o rio. Environment impact of an agro-industry of slaughter of poultry in the city of Pombal, Paraíba state Abstract: Anthropogenic actions have generated serious negative impacts on water quality. This fact is aggravated in the northeastern semi-arid region, and the availability of water is quite limited due to its climatic conditions. Much of the economy of the Northeast Region is focused on the rural sector, where agroindustry’s are inserted, which generate a considerable amount of effluents that are eventually leached until reaching a receiving water body, causing detriment of

  9. Valores de aminoácidos digestíveis de alimentos para aves Values of digestible amino acids in feedstuffs for broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Gomes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos utilizando-se o método de alimentação forçada com galos adultos cecectomizados. Os alimentos estudados foram: quirera de arroz; farelo de arroz integral; milho; sorgo; farelo de trigo; farelo de soja; farelo de algodão 28% e farelo de algodão 38%; levedura 43%; levedura 40%. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais foram, respectivamente: 77,53 e 67,21% para a quirera de arroz; 73,33 e 52,54% para o farelo de arroz integral; 73,33 e 52,54% para o milho; 84,48 e 67,21% para o sorgo; 70,75 e 48,55% para o farelo de trigo; 89,37 e 85,22% para o farelo de soja; 74,85 e 74,13 para o farelo de algodão 28%; 77,50 e 72,46% para o farelo de algodão 38%; 49,16 e 48,63% para a levedura 43%; e 46,03 e 38,88% para a levedura 40%. Os valores obtidos dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira de aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais dos alimentos estudados permitem elaborar rações mais eficientes para aves.This experiment was carried out to determine the values of the real digestibility coefficients of amino acids by using the method of "forced feed" with cecectomized roosters. The studied food were the following: rice bran, whole rice meal, corn, sorghum, wheat bran, soybean meal, cotton meal 28%, cotton meal 38%, yeast sugar cane 43% and yeast sugar cane 40%. The mean values of real digestibility coefficients of essential and non-essential amino acids were, in percentage, the following: for rice bran, 77.53 and 67.21; for rice meal, 73.33 and 52.54; for corn, 84.65 and 74.42; for sorghum, 84.48 and 67.29; for wheat bran, 70.75 and 48.55; for soybean meal, 89.37 and 85.22; for cotton meal 28%, 74.85 and 74.13; for cotton meal 38%, 77.50 and 72.46; for yeast sugar cane 43%, 49.16 and 48.63; and yeast sugar cane 40%, 46.03 and 38.88. The values of the coefficients of

  10. Avaliação nutricional e energética do farelo de girassol para aves Nutritional and energetic evaluation of sunflower meal in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Tavernari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo a fim de determinar a energia metabolizável aparente (EMA, por meio do método de coleta total de excretas com frangos, e a energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV e a digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos do farelo de girassol, por meio do método de alimentação forçada com galos cecectomizados. No primeiro ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 80 frangos Cobb, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, ração referência (RR e RR mais 20% de inclusão de farelo de girassol e oito repetições e cinco aves por unidade experimental. No segundo ensaio, foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso com 14 galos Leghorn, distribuídos em dois tratamentos, farelo de girassol e jejum, sete repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. O farelo de girassol apresentou 90,0% de matéria seca, 28,1% de proteína bruta, 4.42kcal/kg de energia bruta, 22,4% de fibra bruta, 2,9% de extrato etéreo, 0,8% de fósforo e 0,3% de cálcio. A EMV, a EMV corrigida, a EMA e a EMA corrigida determinadas foram 3.013; 2.200; 2.141 e 1.983kcal/kg, respectivamente. A lisina foi o aminoácido essencial que apresentou a menor digestibilidade e a arginina, a maior.Two experiments were carried out to determine apparent metabolizable energy (AME, by the method of total excreta collection using broilers; and true metabolizable energy (TME and true amino acid digestibility of sunflower meal (SFM, by the method of forced feeding using cecectomized roosters. In the first experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (reference diet (RD and RD plus 20% SFM inclusion with eight replicates of five birds each, was applied. In the second experiment, a completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (SFM vs. fasting with seven replicates of one rooster each, was used. Sunflower meal presented 90,0% dry matter, 28.1% crude protein, 4

  11. Secondary metabolites of vertebrate-dispersed fruits: evidence for adaptive functions Metabolitos secundarios de frutos dispersados por aves: evidencia de funciones adaptativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN L. CIPOLLINI

    2000-09-01

    patternsEn este articulo discuto evidencia reciente acerca del significado adaptativo de los metabolitos secundarios en la fruta madura y sus implicaciones para la dispersión de semillas por aves y otros vertebrados. Específicamente, reviso las hipótesis adaptativas originalmente presentadas y discutidas por Cipollini & Levey en 1997. Estas incluyen: atracción/asociación, efectos sobre la germinación, toxicidad general y dirigida, y compromisos en defensa. Además, presento y discuto una nueva hipótesis adaptativa: efectos nutricionales directos. Esta hipótesis es postulada para reflejar los descubrimientos recientes sobre los efectos positivos resultantes del consumo de metabolitos secundarios. Concluyo que se requieren estudios con un foco estrecho para examinar estas hipótesis de un modo directo. La evidencia en favor o en contra de cada hipótesis es observacional o indirecta, y obtenida de estudios no diseñados específicamente para probar estas hipótesis. A pesar de esto, la mayor parte de las hipótesis encuentran cierto nivel de apoyo - en ocasiones, incluso cuando el mismo metabolito es considerado (e.g., antocianinas y carotenoides que funcionan como pigmentos además de antioxidantes nutricionales. Finalmente, discuto la naturaleza de los blancos moleculares de los compuestos secundarios encontrados en plantas. Al hacerlo, refuerzo las nociones que sugieren que la existencia de interacciones sinérgicas y que la acción multifuncional en estos compuestos pueden proveer de soluciones económicas a plantas que se enfrentan a selección temporalmente variable, y a veces multidireccional, sobre frutos y semillas. Puede no resultar sorprendente el que los compuestos secundarios en plantas cumplen funciones múltiples; siendo probable el apoyo a muchas hipótesis no mutuamente exclusivas. Estudios comparados que permitan examinar estas hipótesis deben ser diseñados considerando cuidadosamente los efectos potenciales de las relaciones filogenéticas y las

  12. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  13. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, A.F.; Jensen, T.; Seawright, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  14. Detection of cryptic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, A F; Jensen, T; Seawright, J A [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Lab., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Strategic marker selection to detect quantitative trait loci in chicken Seleção estratégica de marcadores para detecção locos para características quantitativas em aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Clea Ruy

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective genotyping for a certain trait in individuals with extreme phenotypes contributes sufficient information to determine linkage between molecular markers and quantitative trait loci (QTL. In this experiment an F2 population, developed by crossing males from a broiler line with females from a layer line, was employed to detect QTL on chromosomes 3 and 5. Twenty-eight performance and carcass traits were measured in F2 offspring, and phenotypic correlations between traits were calculated. Body weight at 42 days (BW42 presented the greatest positive correlations with most other traits, with correlation between body weights at 35 and 41 days, weight gain between birth and 35, 41 and 42 days, as well as weights of carcass and some body parts superior to 0.8. One hundred-and-seventy F2 offspring, representing the top (4.5% and the bottom (4.5% of a normal distribution curve of BW42, were selected with equal proportions of males and females, and within dam family. Samples were genotyped for 19 informative markers on chromosome 3, and 11 markers on chromosome 5. Marker allelic frequencies of phenotypic groups with high and low BW42 were compared with a chi-square test. Four regions on chromosome 3 and three regions on chromosome 5 had markers that were suggestively associated with BW42 (P A genotipagem seletiva de indivíduos com fenótipos extremos para uma determinada característica contribui com informação suficiente para determinar a ligação entre marcadores moleculares e locos para características quantitativas (QTL. Neste estudo uma população F2, formada a partir do cruzamento de uma linha parental de aves para corte com uma linha de postura foi empregada para obtenção de medidas fenotípicas e genotipagem por marcadores microssatélites, posicionados nos cromossomos 3 e 5. Foram medidas 28 características de desempenho e carcaça e determinada a correlação fenotípica entre elas. A característica peso vivo aos 42 dias (BW42

  16. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  17. Qualidade e satisfação na administração local: avaliação da satisfação dos munícipes da Amave NUTIII/AVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Cardoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente os cidadãos exigem e esperam mais e melhores serviços prestados pelo setor público, daí que a resposta deva ser rápida e eficiente, de modo a agilizar processos, facilitar seu acesso e proporcionar elevados padrões de qualidade. O presente estudo se centra na seguinte questão: Será que existem diferenças significativas ao nível dos antecedentes (imagem, expectativas, valor apercebido e, com destaque particular, a qualidade apercebida, e consequentes da satisfação (lealdade e reclamações dos munícipes? Para o efeito, concebemos uma estrutura de investigação alicerçada no modelo e nas variáveis latentes do ECSI, à qual adicionamos itens dos modelos SERVQUAL, CMT e CAF. O método utilizado foi uma pesquisa quantitativa, de caráter descritivo, sendo alvo de estudo os munícipes que utilizam os serviços prestados pelas câmaras municipais que integram a circunscrição geográfica da Associação de Municípios do Vale do Ave, NUTIII/Ave (Vieira do Minho, Póvoa de Lanhoso, Fafe, Guimarães, Vizela, Vila Nova de Famalicão, Cabeceiras de Basto e Mondim de Basto. Os resultados evidenciam que todos estes fatores têm um efeito positivo e significativo na satisfação global do munícipe e que há diferenças significativas entre as oito câmaras municipais.

  18. La conservación de las aves más allá de las áreas naturales protegidas: el caso de la avifauna del Rancho Santa Elena, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad dentro de las áreas naturales protegidas (ANP no siempre es eficiente y suficiente, no obstante sus logros como uno de los instrumentos más consolidados de conservación. En este trabajo discutimos la pertinencia de considerar la información generada más allá de un ANP para elaborar e implementar su programa de manejo con una perspectiva de conservación regional; esto, a través de un ejercicio de comparación de la información generada sobre la avifauna dentro y fuera del ANP. En este marco, presentamos los avances en el conocimiento de la diversidad de aves en el bosque templado del Rancho Santa Elena (RSE, un conjunto predial ubicado en la Sierra de las Navajas, próximo al Parque Nacional El Chico (PNEC, en el estado de Hidalgo, México. Desde 2005 a la fecha hemos registrado 90 especies de aves a partir de muestreos con redes de niebla, del recorrido no sistemático de senderos y de observaciones incidentales. Estimamos que esta riqueza de especies representa aproximadamente el 70% de la riqueza esperada en el sitio. En contraste, en el PNEC se han registrado 74 especies desde 1974, de las cuales al menos ocho representan registros incorrectos o probablemente incorrectos. Asimismo, en el RSE hemos registrado una mayor diversidad de gremios trófico-conductuales y de especies endémicas a México que las registradas en el PNEC. Los inventarios y la generación de conocimiento más allá de las ANP pueden ser insumos importantes en la definición e implementación de sus estrategias de manejo, las cuales deben tener una perspectiva de conservación regional.

  19. APROXIMACIÓN A LA CONSERVACIÓN DE LOS BOSQUES AMAZÓNICOS A PARTIR DE LAS CONCEPCIONES DE LAS AVES EN LOS ESTUDIANTES DE GRADO TERCERO DE LA ESCUELA NORMAL SUPERIOR MONSEÑOR MARELINO EDUARDO CAYNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    July Milena Trujillo Duarte

    2013-07-01

    las concepciones de las aves en los estudiantes del grado tercero (3.1 J.T de la Escuela Normal Superior sede C, permiten fomentar la conservación de los bosques tropicales en un contexto intercultural, por medio de la investigación acción, en donde se pretende generar un nuevo conocimiento significativo y acorde con las características del contexto, para ello se utilizaron instrumentos como recolecta de información, grabaciones, fotografías, entre otros, que posibilitaron, teniendo en cuenta la riqueza de concepciones, proponer por parte de los estudiantes distintas alternativas que contribuyeron a la conservación: la realización de una campaña informativa sobre las problemáticas presentes en el colegio; la recolección de basuras tanto al interior como al exterior de la institución; además del desarrollo de una obra de teatro, en la cual se logró mostrar las causas de las diferentes acciones socioeconómicas que acaban con la selva amazónica, y perjudi can a la comunidad. Este estudio mostro la importancia de tener en cuenta el contexto en la realización de actividades, permitió además observar las concepciones tanto biológicas y culturales que tiene los estudiantes sobre las aves, al igual que reconocer conocimientos, creencias y prácticas que giran alrededor de estas, las cuales se perderían, sí los bosques tropicales desaparecieran, pues surgen a partir de las relaciones que se han establecido durante generaciones, debido a esto se pudo fomentar su conservación, evidenciándosela relevancia del diálogo entre conocimientos, ya que puede contribuir a transformar la realidad.

  20. Towards completion of the early Eocene aviary: A new bird group from the Messel oil shale (Aves, Eopachypterygidae, fam. nov.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2015-09-08

    A new avian species is described from the early Eocene Messel fossil site in Germany. Eopachypteryx praeterita, gen. et sp. nov. is a small bird and exhibits a characteristic morphology with a short and robust beak, a distinctively shaped coracoid, stout humerus, robust pectoral girdle skeleton, and short hindlimbs. Although similarities to the Paleogene Eocuculus as well as to some extant telluravian and strisorine taxa are noted, the phylogenetic affinities of the new species are unresolved. To account for the fact that the new species is clearly distinguished from any of the known fossil or extant avian taxa, it is here assigned to the new taxon Eopachypterygidae, fam. nov.. Eopachypteryx praeterita is represented by three partial skeletons. A further partial skeleton from Messel belongs to a second, unnamed species, which is tentatively referred to Eopachypteryx.

  1. Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G.

    2006-01-01

    A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758), na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD), região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mat...

  2. Chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from estrildid finches (Aves: Passeriformes: Estrildidae) and louse-flies (Insecta: Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from birds in Senegal, with descriptions of three new species of the genus Brueelia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sychra, O.; Literák, I.; Najer, T.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr; Procházka, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2714, - (2010), s. 59-68 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404; GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chewing lice * louse-flies * Passeriformes * Senegal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2010/f/zt02714p068.pdf

  3. Aspectos de la relación entre thalurania furcata colombica (aves trochilidae) y las flores en que liba, en un bosque subandino

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala R., Ana Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Between April and September 1983 observations were made on the relations between Thalurcnia furcata colombica and flowers in the laguna de Pedro Palo area (Cundinamarca, Colombia). The hummingbird was seen visiting 15 species of plants (beloging to 13 families) situated mainly on the edge of forest, among which the following species showed a high degree of ornithophily: Besleria solanoides (Gesneriaceae), Bomarea racemose (Amaryllidaceae), Cornutia odorata (Verbenaceae), Erythrina edulis (Fab...

  4. New insights on the rarity of the vulnerable Cinereous Warbling-finch (Aves, Emberizidae based on density, home range, and habitat selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Marques-Santos

    Full Text Available The Cinereous Warbling-finch Poospiza cinerea (Emberizidae is a Neotropical grassland bird considered rare, with population declining due to habitat loss and classified as vulnerable. However, the species conspicuously remains in several degraded areas, suggesting that it may be favored by these environments. Studies which focus on this species were inexistent until 2012, making questionable any statement about its threaten status. Here we analyzed population density, home range, and habitat selection of two groups of P. cinerea at independent sites that differ in human impact levels. Density was estimated by counting and mapping birds. Kernel density and minimum convex polygon were used to estimate home ranges. Habitat selection was inferred from use and availability of every habitat identified within the home range boundaries. One group positively selected urban tree vegetation, despite the availability of natural habitats in its home range. Based on a review on the literature and our findings, we assume that it is unlikely that P. cinerea is rare owing to habitat degradation, as previously thought. Nevertheless, this species was always recorded around native Cerrado vegetation and thus habitat modification may still threaten this species at some level. It is suggested that this species might be a woodland edge species, but future studies are necessary to confirm this assumption.

  5. Chapter 16: Species Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zargaran

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... rarefaction method was recorded in Pardanan, with 28 oak gall wasps species. Furthermore, the highest amount of Gini-Simpson and Shannon entropy index were recorded in Sardasht, while the highest evenness was recorded in Shalmash. Differences in the local distribution of oak species, especially.