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Sample records for special disposal considerations

  1. 46 CFR 114.550 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 114.550 Section 114.550 Shipping... consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to... vessel operates must approve any special consideration granted to the vessel. ...

  2. 15 CFR 2301.5 - Special consideration.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special consideration. 2301.5 Section... PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.5 Special consideration. In accordance with section 392(f) of the Act, the Agency will give special consideration to applications that foster ownership of, operation of...

  3. 46 CFR 169.112 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 169.112 Section 169.112 Shipping... Provisions § 169.112 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this part, the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, may give special consideration to departures from the specific requirements when...

  4. 46 CFR 175.550 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 175.550 Section 175.550 Shipping...) GENERAL PROVISIONS § 175.550 Special consideration. In applying the provisions of this subchapter, the OCMI may give special consideration to authorizing departures from the specific requirements when...

  5. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  6. Political considerations of nuclear waste disposal policy

    Friedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to create a program for the establishment of nuclear waste repositories several conditions must prevail. Perhaps foremost is the need to alter the public perception of risk. In short, there will need to be recognition that cigarette smoking and automobile driving, acts of volition, are potentially more dangerous to one's health than radiation leaks from nuclear power plants or waste repositories. Second, the process of repository site selection will have to include wide public participation in the process in order to obtain legitimacy. Without it Congress and the state legislatures are certain to override any proposal no matter how widely accepted by scientists and engineers. Finally, states and localities selected as sites for repositories will need to be compensated adequately in exchange for accepting the onus of serving as host. Political scientists have not been notably successful forecasters of policy outcomes. However, the evidence of American history does not provide encouragement that maximization of control at the state and local level and oversight by Congress of administrative actions, as meritorious as they might appear in terms of democracy, are harbingers of success for unpleasant policy decisions. States rights and Congressional intervention to block executive action were used to maintain second-class citizenship status for Black Americans until the judicial process was resorted to as a device to alter policy. Most likely, a major policy breakthrough will occur only after a mishap or tragedy, the final product involving either a waste disposal program in the context of continued use of nuclear power or one premised on its abandonment

  7. Explanation of ICRP publication 81 in consideration of geologic disposal

    Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hideaki

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection which has published various recommendations on the radiation protection describes the system of radiation protection on the disposal of radioactive waste in Publication 46, 77 and 81. Especially, Publication 81, Radiation Protection Recommendations as Applied to the Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste, was published in order to supplement, update and clarify the material in Publication 46 published in 1985 in consideration of the recent international progress in the disposal of radioactive waste. At present, the study is in progress to materialize the concept and the safety regulation of geologic disposal in Japan, and it is important to reflect appropriately these international publications. This paper explains each paragraph in Publication 81 in order to understand the system of radiation protection on the geologic disposal fully and concretely, paying attention to the mutual relationship among each paragraph, the development of ICRP recommendations and the relationship to other publications. (author)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal - ethical and environmental considerations - A Canadian perspective

    Roots, F.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with ethical and environmental considerations of radioactive waste disposal in Canada. It begins with the canadian attitudes toward nature and environment. Then are given the canadian institutions which reflect an environmental ethic, the development of a canadian radioactive waste management policy, the establishment of formal assessment and review process for a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, some studies of the ethical and risk dimensions of nuclear waste decisions, the canadian societal response to issues of radioactive wastes, the analysis of risks associated with fuel waste disposal, the influence of other energy related environmental assessments and some common ground and possible accommodation between the different views. (O.L.). 50 refs

  9. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    Maxey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  10. Special Analysis: Revision of Saltstone Vault 4 Disposal Limits (U)

    Cook, J

    2005-05-26

    New disposal limits have been computed for Vault 4 of the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on several revisions to the models in the existing Performance Assessment and the Special Analysis issued in 2002. The most important changes are the use of a more rigorous groundwater flow and transport model, and consideration of radon emanation. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of the vault, a new plutonium chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, use of variable infiltration rates to simulate degradation of the closure system, explicit calculation of gaseous releases and consideration of the effects of settlement and seismic activity on the vault structure. The disposal limits have been compared with the projected total inventory expected to be disposed in Vault 4. The resulting sum-of-fractions of the 1000-year disposal limits is 0.2, which indicates that the performance objectives and requirements of DOE 435.1 will not be exceeded. This SA has not altered the conceptual model (i.e., migration of radionuclides from the Saltstone waste form and Vault 4 to the environment via the processes of diffusion and advection) of the Saltstone PA (MMES 1992) nor has it altered the conclusions of the PA (i.e., disposal of the proposed waste in the SDF will meet DOE performance measures). Thus a PA revision is not required and this SA serves to update the disposal limits for Vault 4. In addition, projected doses have been calculated for comparison with the performance objectives laid out in 10 CFR 61. These doses are 0.05 mrem/year to a member of the public and 21.5 mrem/year to an inadvertent intruder in the resident scenario over a 10,000-year time-frame, which demonstrates that the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives will not be exceeded. This SA supplements the Saltstone PA and supersedes the two previous SAs (Cook et al. 2002; Cook and Kaplan 2003).

  11. Encouraging ethical considerations - One important task for a national co-ordinator for nuclear waste disposal

    Soederberg, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper is a brief description of the role and tasks of the Swedish National Co-ordinator for Nuclear Waste Disposal with special regard to one of his activities encouraging ethical considerations in the nuclear waste management issue. Examples are given of ethical considerations which have emerged during discussions among representatives of municipalities which are affected by the current search for a site for a deep geological repository in Sweden for spent nuclear fuel

  12. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    Kuntscher, H.

    1983-01-01

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  13. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  14. INEEL special case waste storage and disposal alternatives

    Larson, L.A.; Bishop, C.W.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1997-07-01

    Special case waste is historically defined as radioactive waste that does not have a path forward or fit into current Department of Energy management plans for final treatment or disposal. The objectives of this report, relative to special case waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, are to (a) identify its current storage locations, conditions, and configuration; (b) review and verify the currently reported inventory; (c) segregate the inventory into manageable categories; (d) identify the portion that has a path forward or is managed under other major programs/projects; (e) identify options for reconfiguring and separating the disposable portions; (f) determine if the special case waste needs to be consolidated into a single storage location; and (g) identify a preferred facility for storage. This report also provides an inventory of stored sealed sources that are potentially greater than Class C or special case waste based on Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Site-Specific Waste Acceptance Criteria

  15. 46 CFR 92.01-15 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 92.01-15 Section 92.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 92.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be...

  16. 46 CFR 72.01-20 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 72.01-20 Section 72.01-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 72.01-20 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will be given to the...

  17. 46 CFR 190.01-15 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special consideration. 190.01-15 Section 190.01-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 190.01-15 Special consideration. (a) Special consideration will...

  18. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    2003-08-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a high potential risk to workers and to the public. The IAEA has received numerous requests for assistance from Member States faced with the problem of safely managing disused sealed sources. The requests have related to both technical and safety aspects. Particularly urgent requests have involved emergency situations arising from unsafe storage conditions and lost sources. There is therefore an important requirement for the development of safe and cost-effective final disposal solutions. Consequently, a number of activities have been initiated by the IAEA to assist Member States in the management of disused sealed sources. The objective of this report is to address safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited amounts of radioactive waste, in borehole facilities. It is the first in a series of reports aiming to provide an indication of the present issues related to the use of borehole disposal facilities to safely disposal

  19. 49 CFR 604.21 - Special considerations for advisory opinions.

    2010-10-01

    ... Desist Orders § 604.21 Special considerations for advisory opinions. Based on new facts involving significant financial considerations, the Chief Counsel may take appropriate enforcement action contrary to an... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations for advisory opinions. 604...

  20. 44 CFR 331.4 - Special consideration.

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS PRESERVATION OF THE MOBILIZATION BASE THROUGH THE PLACEMENT OF PROCUREMENT... sells a significant proportion of its production to the Government is generally depressed or has a... hearing of interested parties, will give consideration to appropriate measures applicable to the entire...

  1. A consideration of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    Sasaki, Noriaki

    2001-12-01

    Geologic disposal cannot be implemented based only on the consensus of the engaged technical community, and needs the wide social agreement and confidence for it. This is now a common understanding in many countries. Under this kind of recognition, the concept of retrievability in geologic disposal of radioactive wastes has been rapidly interested in recent years and has being discussed in several European countries. For example, EC has cooperated the concerted action on the retrievability of long-lived radioactive waste with the joining of nine countries, and the expert group on disposal concepts for radioactive waste (EKRA) set up by the Swiss government has presented its findings on the new concept of the long-lived radioactive waste management considering the retrievability. The OECD/NEA has also discussed on this issue and published the documents. There are some countries where the legislation requires the retrievability. This paper briefly summarizes the important findings and recommendations on the concept of retrievability, as the results of review of some interesting documents from European countries, for the purpose of reflecting to the research and development of geologic disposal in Japan. (author)

  2. Social and economic aspects of radioactive waste disposal: considerations for institutional management

    Carter, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste disposal has always been recognized as one that is as much political as it is technical. This could explain why the National Academy of Science is just now showing interest in the social and economic aspects of nuclear waste disposal. It has just now issued a report called Social Aspects of Radioactive Waste Disposal: Considerations for Industrial Management. This article is a critical review of the content of this report

  3. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    Beck, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  4. An evaluation of some special techniques for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Mackay, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary examination is reported of several special ways for space disposal of nuclear waste material which utilize the radioactive heat in the waste to assist in the propulsion for deep space trajectories. These include use of the wastes in a thermoelectric generator (RTG) which operates an electric propulsion device and a radioisotope - thermal thruster which uses hydrogen or ammonia as the propellant. These propulsive devices are compared to the space tug and the space tug/solar electric propulsion combination for disposal of waste on a solar system escape trajectory. Such comparisons indicate that the waste-RTG approach has considerable potential provided the combined specific mass of the waste container - RTG system does not exceed approximately 150 kg/kw sub e. Several exploratory numerical calculations have been made for high earth orbit and Earth escape destinations.

  5. Environmental monitoring considerations for low-level waste disposal sites

    Sedlet, J.

    1982-01-01

    All waste disposal sites are required to monitor the environment. The proposed NRC licensing rule, 10 CFR Part 61, requires that such monitoring be conducted before, during, and after a site is operated. An adequate monitoring program consists of measuring concentrations of radionuclides, chemically-toxic substances, and leachate indicators in environmental media and of evaluating specific physical properties of the site. In addition, the composition of the buried waste must be known. Methods for obtaining this information are discussed and monitoring programs are presented for the preoperational, operational, and postclosure phases of a disposal site. Environmental monitoring is considered in a broad context, since it includes monitoring burial trenches onsite, as well as surveillance in the offsite environment. Postclosure monitoring programs will be strongly influenced by the operational monitoring results. In some respects, this phase will be easier since the migration pathways should be well known and the number of radionuclides of concern reduced by radioactive decay. The results of the environmental monitoring program will be vital to successful site operation. These results should be used to determine if operational changes are needed and to predict future environmental impacts

  6. Quivers For Special Fuel Rods-Disposal Of Special Fuel Rods In CASTOR V Casks

    Bannani, Amin; Cebula, Wojciech; Buchmuller, Olga; Huggenberg, Roland; Helmut Kuhl

    2015-01-01

    While GNS casks of the CASTOR family are a suitable means to transfer fuel assemblies (FA) from the NPP to an interim dry storage site, Germanys phase-out of nuclear energy has triggered the demand for an additional solution to dispose of special fuel rods (SFR), normally remaining in the fuel pond until the final shutdown of the NPP. SFR are fuel rods that had to be removed from fuel assemblies mainly due to their special condition, e. g. damages in the cladding of the fuel rods which may have occurred during reactor operations. SFR are usually stored in the spent fuel pond after they are removed from the FA. The quiver for special fuel rods features a robust yet simple design, with a high mechanical stability, a reliable leak-tightness and large safety margins for future requirements on safety analysis. The quiver for special fuel rods can be easily adapted to a large variety of different damaged fuel rods and tailored to the specific need of the customer. The quiver for special fuel rods is adaptable e.g. in length and diameter for use in other types of transport and storage casks and is applicable in other countries as well. The overall concept presented here is a first of its kind solution for the disposal of SFRs via Castor V-casks. This provides an important precondition in achieving the status 'free from nuclear fuel' of the shut down German NPPs

  7. Quivers For Special Fuel Rods-Disposal Of Special Fuel Rods In CASTOR V Casks

    Bannani, Amin; Cebula, Wojciech; Buchmuller, Olga; Huggenberg, Roland [GNS, Essen (Germany); Helmut Kuhl [WTI, Julich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    While GNS casks of the CASTOR family are a suitable means to transfer fuel assemblies (FA) from the NPP to an interim dry storage site, Germanys phase-out of nuclear energy has triggered the demand for an additional solution to dispose of special fuel rods (SFR), normally remaining in the fuel pond until the final shutdown of the NPP. SFR are fuel rods that had to be removed from fuel assemblies mainly due to their special condition, e. g. damages in the cladding of the fuel rods which may have occurred during reactor operations. SFR are usually stored in the spent fuel pond after they are removed from the FA. The quiver for special fuel rods features a robust yet simple design, with a high mechanical stability, a reliable leak-tightness and large safety margins for future requirements on safety analysis. The quiver for special fuel rods can be easily adapted to a large variety of different damaged fuel rods and tailored to the specific need of the customer. The quiver for special fuel rods is adaptable e.g. in length and diameter for use in other types of transport and storage casks and is applicable in other countries as well. The overall concept presented here is a first of its kind solution for the disposal of SFRs via Castor V-casks. This provides an important precondition in achieving the status 'free from nuclear fuel' of the shut down German NPPs.

  8. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  9. Institutional considerations for near-surface land disposal

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter discusses the federal and state responsibilities for low level radioactive waste and the laws and policies that have been enacted to define those responsibilities. Historical perspective is given on the intent by both Congress and the Atomic Energy Commission to keep all nuclear activity other than regulating and licensing in the private sector. The Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the 1985 Amendments are described along with the ramifications for states. Individual state approaches and regional compacts for LLW management are examined and the following general issues common to all endeavors are considered: Public involvement, Management plans, Economic viability, Site selection criteria, Site acceptance incentives, Disposal technology, Selection of site operator, and Site ownership. Finally, licensing and other regulatory responsibilities; site closure, long-term ownership, and fiscal responsibility; unresolved issues; and flaws in the present compact alignments are discussed

  10. Probabilistic safety considerations for the final disposal of radioactive waste

    Berg, H.P.; Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the safety-related balanced concept of the plant design with respect to the operational phase, probabilistic safety considerations were made for the planned German repository for radioactive wastes, the Konrad repository. These considerations are described with respect to the handling and transfer system in the above-ground and underground facility. The operational sequences and the features of a repository are similar to those of conventional transportation and loading facilities and mining techniques. Hence, failure sequences and probability data were derived from these conventional areas. Incidents taken into consideration are e. g. collision of vehicles, fires, drop of waste packages due to failures of lifting equipment. The statistical data used were made available by authorities, insurance companies, and expert organizations. These data have been converted into probability data which were used for the determination of the frequencies for all radiologically relevant incidents. (author)

  11. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  12. Application and research of special waste plasma disposal technology

    Lan Wei

    2007-12-01

    The basic concept of plasma and the principle of waste hot plasma disposal technology are simply introduced. Several sides of application and research of solid waste plasma disposal technology are sumed up. Compared to the common technology, the advantages of waste hot plasma disposal technology manifest further. It becomes one of the most prospective and the most attended high tech disposal technology in particular kind of waste disposal field. The article also simply introduces some experiment results in Southwest Institute of Physics and some work on the side of importation, absorption, digestion, development of foreign plasma torch technology and researching new power sources for plasma torch. (authors)

  13. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  14. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  15. Underground disposal of UK heat-generating wastes: repository design considerations

    Steadman, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The report discusses the likely differences in design between a deep repository for disposal of UK heat-generating radioactive wastes and that of the planned Nirex ILW/LLW repository at Sellafield, based on a review of international published information. The main differences arise from the greater heat and radiation outputs of the waste, and in the case of intact PWR spent fuel elements, the greater length and weight of the disposal packages. Published cost estimates for other OECD countries for disposal of heat-generating wastes are considerably lower than that for the UK, partly because in most cases they are for co-disposal with a larger quantity of ILW. (author)

  16. Economic considerations/comparisons for the disposal of defense high-level waste

    Leclaire, D.B.; Lazur, E.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, in a generic sense, of the economic considerations and comparisons of permanent isolation of defense high-level waste (DHLW) in a licensed geologic repository. Topics considered include underground disposal, economic analysis, comparative evaluations, national defense, radioactive waste facilities, and licensing

  17. Pectus updates and special considerations in Marfan syndrome

    Stephanie Fraser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital chest wall or pectus deformities including pectus excavatum (funnel chest and pectus carinatum (pigeon chest affect a significant proportion of the general population and up to 70% of patients with Marfan syndrome. Patients often experience significant morbidity and psychological distress, which can worsen with age. Here we discuss new techniques for both operative and non-operative treatment of pectus deformity, the importance of a welltimed intervention and special considerations in patients with Marfan syndrome.

  18. Wilderness Preparticipation Evaluation and Considerations for Special Populations.

    Joy, Elizabeth; Van Baak, Karin; Dec, Katherine L; Semakula, Barbara; Cardin, Ashlea D; Lemery, Jay; Wortley, George C; Yaron, Michael; Madden, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Children, older adults, disabled and special needs athletes, and female athletes who participate in outdoor and wilderness sports and activities each face unique risks. For children and adolescents traveling to high altitude, the preparticipation physical evaluation should focus on risk assessment, prevention strategies, early recognition of altitude-related symptoms, management plans, and appropriate follow-up. As the risk and prevalence of chronic disease increases with age, both older patients and providers need to be aware of disease and medication-specific risks relative to wilderness sport and activity participation. Disabled and special needs athletes benefit from careful pre-event planning for the potential medical issues and equipment modifications that may affect their health in wilderness environments. Issues that demand special consideration for female adventurers include pregnancy, contraceptive use, menses, and ferritin levels at altitude. A careful preparticipation evaluation that factors in unique, population- specific risks will help special populations stay healthy and safe on wilderness adventures. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched in 2014 using both MeSH terms and text words and include peer-reviewed English language articles from 1977 to 2014. Additional information was accessed from Web-based sources to produce this narrative review on preparticipation evaluation for special populations undertaking wilderness adventures. Key words include children, adolescent, pediatric, seniors, elderly, disabled, special needs, female, athlete, preparticipiation examination, wilderness medicine, and sports. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. International Legal and Political Considerations Concerning the Seabed Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Eaker, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    From its beginnings in 1973, to the present time, the concept of disposing of high-level nuclear wastes within the seabed has attracted serious investigation by numerous scientists. The scientific work to date has led to the general conclusion that the burial of high-level nuclear waste within the deep-sea clays of the oceanic basins, in conjunction with a perfected multi-barrier containment concept, could prove technically and environmentally feasible. This article discusses the need for further consideration of the international legal and political implications arising from any proposed seabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Further consideration of the international legal issues necessarily involves the analysis of three general areas of international law, namely: the question of coverage under the 1972 London Ocean Dumping Convention; the application and effect of the provisions of the new United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; and the consideration of general principles of international law. (NEA) [fr

  20. Design considerations for sealing the shafts of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    Mortazavi, M.H.S.; Chan, H.T.; Radhakrishna, H.S.

    1985-05-01

    The shafts in an underground disposal system, which constitute potential pathways between the disposal vault and the biosphere, should be effectively sealed if the system is to perform as a hydrodynamic and geochemical barrier for the safe containment of nuclear fuel waste. In the design of the shaft backfill, consideration should be given to ensure that the backfill and the backfill/rock interface remain intact. Design-related problems, including critical pathways for the transport or radionuclides, configuration of shaft backfill and its functional requirements, the state of stress in a backfilled shaft with particular emphasis on the arching and load transfer phenomenon are discussed in this report

  1. SPECIAL ANALYSIS FOR SLIT TRENCH DISPOSAL OF THE REACTOR PROCESS HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Hamm, L.; Collard, L.; Aleman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Butcher, T.

    2012-06-18

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), in response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), conducted a Special Analysis (SA) to evaluate the performance of nineteen heat exchangers that are to be disposed in the E-Area low level waste facility Slit Trench 9 (ST 9). Although these nineteen heat exchangers were never decontaminated, the majority of the radionuclides in the heat exchanger inventory list were determined to be acceptable for burial because they are less than the 'generic' waste form inventory limits given in the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008). However, as generic waste, the H-3 and C-14 inventories resulted in unacceptable sum-of-fractions (SOFs). Initial scoping analyses performed by SRNL indicated that if alterations were made to certain external nozzles to mitigate various potential leak paths, acceptable SOFs could be achieved through the use of a 'Special' waste form. This SA provides the technical basis for this new 'Special' waste form and provides the inventory limits for H-3 and C-14 for these nineteen heat exchangers such that the nineteen heat exchangers can be disposed in ST 9. This 'Special' waste form is limited to these nineteen heat exchangers in ST 9 and applies for H-3 and C-14, which are designated as H-3X and C-14X, respectively. The SA follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA and the 2008 SA except for the modeling enhancements noted below. Infiltration rates above the heat exchangers are identical to those used in the 2008 PA; however, flow through the heat exchangers is unique. Because it is unknown exactly how sealed heat exchanger openings will perform and how surface and embedded contaminants will be released, multiple base cases or scenarios were established to investigate a set of performances. Each scenario consists of flow options (based on the performance of sealed openings) and a near-field release of contaminants (based on corrosion and

  2. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Atomic Energ Agency. Vienna

    2003-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a ...

  3. Radioactive waste and special waste disposal in salt domes - phoney waste management solutions

    Grimmel, E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper tries to make aware of the fact that an indefinite safe disposal of anthropogeneous wastes in underground repositories is impossible. Suspicion is raised that the Gorleben-Rambow salt dome has never been studied for its suitability as a repository, but that it was simply taken for granted. Safety analyses are meant only to conceal uncertainty. It is demanded to immediately opt out of the ultimate disposal technique for radioactive and special wastes in salt caverns. (DG) [de

  4. Nuclear waste disposal: achieving adequate financing - special study

    Quasebarth, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) evaluates whether the current one mill fee now charged to nuclear-electricity consumers will adequately finance the waste disposal program. The CBO found that, if the fee is adjusted annually for inflation, it should provide enough revenues to cover all program costs under all nuclear growth forecasts. If the fee is unchanged, however, the fees will be inadequate if inflation exceeds 3% annually. The report suggests two alternatives for fee revision, but makes no recommendations. The alternatives are to increase the fee only at specific intervals or to automatically adjust the fee through indexation. The report examines the effect of delaying the program, cost overruns, and alternative inflation rate and interest rate assumptions. 3 figures, 12 tables

  5. One consideration about rational design of the multi tunnels in geological disposal facility

    Mizutani, Kazuhiko; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Morita, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In the geological disposal facility of the high-level radioactive waste, a group of galleries is designed in parallel at the depth of more than 300 m below surface. This is an unprecedented structure in the field of conventional engineering, and it is necessary to take this characteristic into consideration in the design of the galleries. In the geological disposal facility, as well as ensuring the dynamic stability of the gallery during construction and operational periods, it is necessary to dynamic characteristic of rock mass for long-term stability after the closure. In this study, analysis of the 'multi tunnels model' which represents the whole gallery group was performed and the results about load to act on a pillar. (author)

  6. Cost Considerations and Financing Mechanisms for the Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    2007-06-01

    The overall objective of this publication is to provide Member States who are currently planning or preparing new near surface repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), guidance on cost considerations and funding mechanisms for the repositories' entire life cycle. The report focuses on both technical and non-technical factors affecting repository costs. It considers the major cost elements that comprise a cost evaluation for a disposal facility for LILW and identifies those factors which may result in major uncertainties in an overall cost estimate. In particular, the report lists the basic disposal options and summarizes the legal basis and infrastructure requirements for establishing an effective financing system. It further includes the cost estimation methodology, considers the major cost categories and discusses factors to be considered when planning the financing mechanism, and describes relevant financing schemes

  7. Characteristics of special-case wastes potentially destined for disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Price, L.L.; Duran, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. It may be possible to dispose of some of the DOE's special-case waste using greater confinement disposal techniques at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE asked Sandia National Laboratories to investigate this possibility by performing system configuration analyses. The first step in performing system configuration analyses is to estimate the characteristics of special-case waste that might be destined for disposal at the NTS. The objective of this report is to characterize this special-case waste based upon information available in the literature. No waste was sampled and analyzed specifically for this report. The waste compositions given are not highly detailed, consisting of grains and curies of specific radionuclides per cubic meter. However, such vague waste characterization is adequate for the purposes of the system configuration task. In some previous work done on this subject, Kudera et al. [1990] identified nine categories of special-case radioactive waste and estimated volumes and activities for these categories. It would have been difficult to develop waste compositions based on the categories proposed by Kudera et al. [1990], so we created five groups of waste on which to base the waste compositions. These groups are (1) transuranic waste, (2) fission product waste, (3) activation product waste, (4) mobile/volatile waste, and (5) sealed sources. The radionuclides within a given group share common characteristics (e.g., alpha-emitters, heat generators), and we believe that these groups adequately represent the DOE's special-case waste potentially destined for greater confinement disposal at the NTS

  8. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    1992-01-01

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  9. Special Analysis: Revised 14C Disposal Limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Saltstone Special Analysis calculated a limit for 14C based on the atmospheric pathway of 52 pCi/mL using some very conservative assumptions. This was compared to the estimated Low Curie Salt concentration of 0.45 pCi/mL and since the limit was two orders of magnitude greater than the estimated concentration, the decision was made that no further analysis was needed. The 14C concentration in Tank 41 has been found to be much greater than the estimated concentration and to exceed the limit derived in the Special Analysis. A rigorous analysis of the release of 14C via the air pathway that considers the chemical effects of the Saltstone system has shown that the flux of 14C is significantly less than that assumed in the Special Analysis. The net result is an inventory limit for 14C that is significantly higher than that derived in the Special Analysis that will also meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1

  10. 40 CFR 2.305 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended.

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. 2.305 Section 2.305 Protection of... § 2.305 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Act means the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as...

  11. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [URS Coporation

    2012-06-26

    been made to utilize the remaining disposal capacity within MDA G to the greatest extent possible. One approach for doing this has been to dispose of low-activity waste from cleanup operations at LANL in the headspace of selected disposal pits. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the material placed in the headspace of pits 15, 37, and 38 have been developed (LANL, 2010) and the impacts of placing waste in the headspace of these units has been evaluated (LANL, 2012a). The efforts to maximize disposal efficiency have taken on renewed importance because of the disposal demands placed on MDA G by the large volumes of waste that are being generated at LANL by cleanup efforts. For example, large quantities of waste were recently generated by the retrieval of waste formerly disposed of at TA-21, MDA B. A portion of this material has been disposed of in the headspace of pit 38 in compliance with the WAC developed for that disposal strategy; a large amount of waste has also been sent to off-site facilities for disposal. Nevertheless, large quantities of MDA B waste remain that require disposal. An extension of pit 38 was proposed to provide the disposal capacity that will be needed to dispose of institutional waste and MDA B waste through 2013. A special analysis was prepared to evaluate the impacts of the pit extension (LANL, 2012b). The analysis concluded that the disposal unit could be extended with modest increases in the exposures projected for the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis, as long as limits were placed on the radionuclide concentrations in the waste that is placed in the headspace of the pit. Based, in part, on the results of the special analysis, the extension of pit 38 was approved and excavation of the additional disposal capacity was started in May 2012. The special analysis presented here uses performance modeling to identify a disposal plan for the placement of waste in pit 38. The modeling uses a refined design of the disposal unit and

  12. Special Analysis: Disposal Plan for Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    French, Sean B.; Shuman, Rob

    2012-01-01

    have been made to utilize the remaining disposal capacity within MDA G to the greatest extent possible. One approach for doing this has been to dispose of low-activity waste from cleanup operations at LANL in the headspace of selected disposal pits. Waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the material placed in the headspace of pits 15, 37, and 38 have been developed (LANL, 2010) and the impacts of placing waste in the headspace of these units has been evaluated (LANL, 2012a). The efforts to maximize disposal efficiency have taken on renewed importance because of the disposal demands placed on MDA G by the large volumes of waste that are being generated at LANL by cleanup efforts. For example, large quantities of waste were recently generated by the retrieval of waste formerly disposed of at TA-21, MDA B. A portion of this material has been disposed of in the headspace of pit 38 in compliance with the WAC developed for that disposal strategy; a large amount of waste has also been sent to off-site facilities for disposal. Nevertheless, large quantities of MDA B waste remain that require disposal. An extension of pit 38 was proposed to provide the disposal capacity that will be needed to dispose of institutional waste and MDA B waste through 2013. A special analysis was prepared to evaluate the impacts of the pit extension (LANL, 2012b). The analysis concluded that the disposal unit could be extended with modest increases in the exposures projected for the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis, as long as limits were placed on the radionuclide concentrations in the waste that is placed in the headspace of the pit. Based, in part, on the results of the special analysis, the extension of pit 38 was approved and excavation of the additional disposal capacity was started in May 2012. The special analysis presented here uses performance modeling to identify a disposal plan for the placement of waste in pit 38. The modeling uses a refined design of the disposal unit

  13. The ethics in qualitative health research: special considerations.

    Peter, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    A sound knowledge of the nature of qualitative research, along with an appreciation of some special ethical considerations, is needed for rigorous reviews to be conducted. The overall character of qualitative research is described with an emphasis on the tendency of qualitative researchers to explore sensitive topics using theoretically informed methods. A number of specific features of qualitative that require additional ethical attention and awareness are also examined including the following: 1) participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2) naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3) the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality. Ultimately, Reseach Ethics Committee members must be knowledgeable about qualitative approaches to be able to assess the potential harms and benefits in a protocol carefully. Without this knowledge gaining ethics approval can be overly difficult for researchers and the best practices for protecting human participants can be overlooked.

  14. The ethics in qualitative health research: special considerations

    Elizabeth Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sound knowledge of the nature of qualitative research, along with an appreciation of some special ethical considerations, is needed for rigorous reviews to be conducted. The overall character of qualitative research is described with an emphasis on the tendency of qualitative researchers to explore sensitive topics using theoretically informed methods. A number of specific features of qualitative that require additional ethical attention and awareness are also examined including the following: 1 participants are frequently quite vulnerable and require protection because the data collection methods, such as in-depth interviews, can delve into personally and politically charged matters; 2 naturalistic observation can raise concerns regarding privacy and consent; 3 the potential for the identifiability of the results of this research may require extra efforts to maintain confidentiality. Ultimately, Reseach Ethics Committee members must be knowledgeable about qualitative approaches to be able to assess the potential harms and benefits in a protocol carefully. Without this knowledge gaining ethics approval can be overly difficult for researchers and the best practices for protecting human participants can be overlooked.

  15. Consideration of timescales in the finnish safety regulations for spent fuel disposal

    Ruokola, E.

    2010-01-01

    has taken upon itself the identification of the impacts on the biosphere from the releases of disposed radionuclides. The Farthest Future: At about 250 000 years, the total radioactivity in spent nuclear fuel becomes very close to that in the natural uranium from which the fuel was fabricated. In this time frame, the hazard posed by a spent fuel repository will be comparable to that of a medium sized natural uranium deposit and the repository might be regarded as being part of the nature. Accordingly, for the time period beyond one million years, the regulations do not require any rigorous quantitative safety assessments but the judgement of safety can be based on more qualitative considerations, such as bounding analyses with simplified methods, comparisons with natural analogues and observations of the geological history of the site

  16. Some considerations in the evaluation of concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal technologies

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Siskind, B.; Bowerman, B.S.; Piciulo, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop information needed to evaluate the long-term performance of concrete and reinforced concrete as a structural material for alternative LLW disposal methods. The capability to carry out such an evaluation is required for licensing a site which employs one of these alternative methods. The basis for achieving the study objective was the review and analysis of the literature on concrete and its properties, particularly its durability. In carrying out this program characteristics of concrete useful in evaluating its performance and factors that can affect its performance were identified. The factors are both intrinsic, i.e., associated with composition of the concrete (and thus controllable), and extrinsic, i.e., due to external environmental forces such as climatic conditions and aggressive chemicals in the soil. The testing of concrete, using both accelerated tests and long-term non-accelerated tests, is discussed with special reference to its application to modeling of long-term performance prediction. On the basis of the study's results, conditions for acceptance are recommended as an aid in the licensing of disposal sites which make use of alternative methods

  17. Results of technical and economical examinations for substantiation of special plant design for reprocessing and radioactive wastes disposal

    Galkin, A.V.; Baldov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of technical and economical examinations for substantiation of special plant design for reprocessing and radioactive wastes disposal are presented. Ground for the examination conducting was Health of Nation Programme ratified by the President and a number of Governmental decisions. The special plant is planned in the Mangystau Region. In the framework of feasibility study the data base by the worldwide known technologies was implemented, on reprocessing and experience of radioactive waste disposal. The technical requirements for the special plant construction are determined. The alternative options by structure content and site location of the special plant and radioactive waste disposal are cited

  18. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  19. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health. In this paper, we identify methodological challenges specific to the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric systematic reviews, and propose a process to address these challenges. One fundamental decision at the outset of a systematic review is whether to focus on a pediatric population only, or to include both adult and pediatric populations. Both from the policy and patient care point of view, the appropriateness of interventions and comparators administered to pre-defined pediatric age subgroup is critical. Decisions need to be based on the biological plausibility of differences in treatment effects across the developmental trajectory in children. Synthesis of evidence from different trials is often impaired by the use of outcomes and measurement instruments that differ between trials and are neither relevant nor validated in the pediatric population. Other issues specific to pediatric systematic reviews include lack of pediatric-sensitive search strategies and inconsistent choices of pediatric age subgroups in meta-analyses. In addition to these methodological issues generic to all pediatric systematic reviews, special considerations are required for reviews of health care interventions' safety and efficacy in neonatology, global health, comparative effectiveness interventions and individual participant data meta-analyses. To date, there is no standard approach available to overcome this problem. We propose to develop a consensus-based checklist of essential items which

  20. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  1. Considerations of human inturison in U.S. programs for deep geologic disposal of radioactive waste.

    Swift, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Regulations in the United States that govern the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories require the explicit consideration of hypothetical future human intrusions that disrupt the waste. Specific regulatory requirements regarding the consideration of human intrusion differ in the two sets of regulations currently in effect in the United States; one defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 197, applied only to the formerly proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the other defined by the Environmental Protection Agencys 40 Code of Federal Regulations part 191, applied to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico and potentially applicable to any repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States other than the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. This report reviews the regulatory requirements relevant to human intrusion and the approaches taken by the Department of Energy to demonstrating compliance with those requirements.

  2. Special Consideration in Post-Secondary Institutions: Trends at a Canadian University

    Zimmermann, Joelle; Kamenetsky, Stuart B.; Pongracic, Syb

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in the practice of granting special consideration for missed tests and late papers in colleges and universities. We analyzed a database of 4,183 special consideration requests at a large Canadian university between 1998 and 2008. Results show a growing rate of requests per enrolment between 2001 and 2007. Although…

  3. 48 CFR 915.404-4-72 - Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... cost-plus-award-fee contracts. 915.404-4-72 Section 915.404-4-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System....404-4-72 Special considerations for cost-plus-award-fee contracts. (a) When a contract is to be awarded on a cost-plus-award-fee basis several special considerations are appropriate. Fee objectives for...

  4. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-9 - Special considerations: Cost-plus-award-fee.

    2010-10-01

    ...: Cost-plus-award-fee. 970.1504-1-9 Section 970.1504-1-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Negotiation 970.1504-1-9 Special considerations: Cost-plus-award-fee. (a) When a management and operating contract is to be awarded on a cost-plus-award-fee basis, several special considerations are appropriate...

  5. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  6. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    2012-12-01

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  7. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Complementary considerations 2012

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Complementary Considerations sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective of enhancing confidence in the outcomes of the safety assessment for a spent nuclear fuel repository to be constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. The main emphasis in this report is on the evidence and understanding that can be gained from observations at the site, including its regional geological environment, and from natural and anthropogenic analogues for the repository, its components and the processes that affect safety. In particular, the report addresses diverse and less quantifiable types of evidence and arguments that are enclosed to enhance confidence in the outcome of the safety assessment. These complementary considerations have been described as evaluations, evidence and qualitative supporting arguments that lie outside the scope of the other reports of the quantitative safety assessment. The experience with natural analogues for the long-term durability of the materials involved and the extent of processes provides high confidence in our understanding of the disposal system and its evolution. For each engineered barrier and key process, there is increasing analogue evidence to support the conceptual models and parameters. Regarding the suitability of the Olkiluoto site to host a spent fuel repository, a number of factors have been identified that indicate the suitability of crystalline host rock in general, and that of the Olkiluoto site in particular. The report also provides radiation background information for the use of complementary indicators, which aid in putting the results of the safety analysis presented in Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment in a broader perspective to show that the radiation originating from a spent nuclear fuel repository remains in most cases much below natural background radiation or that caused by non-nuclear industries. (orig.)

  8. Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

    Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This

  9. Special considerations for electric submersible pump applications in underpressured reservoirs

    Powers, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of electric submersible pump performance tolerances and minor speed variations on the producing rate of wells completed in underpressured reservoirs, and presents ESP design considerations which are unique for this class of wells. These wells require considerable head to initiate flow and have relatively flat well-load curves. Pumps that operate near their maximum recommended rate have steep performance curves. it is shown that this minimizes the effect of an underperforming pump on producing rate. Equations are developed for calculating the effects of pump performance and speed. Application requires evaluating the slopes of the pump performance curve and well-load curve at design rate. Utility of these equations is demonstrated by practical examples. It is also demonstrated that flow-stall can easily occur in underpressured reservoir applications when pumps designed to operate near their minimum recommended rate are installed

  10. Behavioral Emergencies: Special Considerations in the Geriatric Psychiatric Patient.

    Aftab, Awais; Shah, Asim A

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews psychiatric considerations and common psychiatric emergencies in the elderly. The elderly are vulnerable to medication side-effects because of pharmacokinetic changes from aging, and require lower doses and slower titration. They are a high-risk group for suicide, with more serious intent, fewer warning signs, and more lethality. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of delirium in emergency settings is essential, given association with worse outcomes when undiagnosed. Pharmacologic options with demonstrable efficacy for agitation in dementia are limited to antipsychotics, which are, however, associated with an increased risk of mortality; behavioral interventions are universally recommended as first-line measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Criticality safety considerations in the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    Gore, B.F.; McNair, G.W.; Heaberlin, S.W.

    1980-05-01

    Features of geologic disposal which hamper the demonstration that criticality cannot occur therein include possible changes of shape and form, intrusion of water as a neutron moderator, and selective leaching of spent fuel constituents. If the criticality safety of spent fuel disposal depends on burnup, independent measurements verifying the burnup should be performed prior to disposal. The status of nondestructive analysis method which might provide such verification is discussed. Calculations were performed to assess the potential for increasing the allowed size of a spent fuel disposal canister if potential water intrusion were limited by close-packing the enclosed rods. Several factors were identified which severely limited the potential of this application. The theoretical limit of hexagonal close-packing cannot be achieved due to fuel rod bowing. It is concluded that disposal canisters should be sized on the basis of assumed optimum moderation. Several topics for additional research were identified during this limited study

  12. Consideration of post-closure controls for a near surface low level waste disposal site

    Clegg, R.; Pinner, A.; Smith, A.; Quartermaine, J.

    1997-01-01

    There is currently an ongoing programme of disposal of low level radioactive wastes by British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) at Drigg, Cumbria, and this programme is likely to continue through the first few decades of the 21st century. Although control of the site is anticipated for a period of about 100 years post-closure, eventually restrictions on access will lapse. Thereafter, the possibility of human actions leading to exposure to, and/or exhumation of, the wastes exists and has to be addressed in post-closure radiological performance assessments. Potential modes of intrusion into the Drigg site have been studied using a suite of computer codes developed specifically for this purpose. Required inputs to these codes include information on possible future uses of the site and the various human actions associated with those uses. This information was obtained from a group of experts using formal elicitation procedures. Although the most likely site uses, notably those involving agricultural activities, are unlikely to result in intrusion into the wastes, others, such a urban development, do have the potential to result in such intrusion. In these circumstances, it seemed appropriate to give consideration to the degree to which documentary records and markers could protect the Drigg site against intrusive activities. Overall, it is concluded that provided that a variety of documentary records are established, ranging from local council archives to mass produced maps, then memory of the site can realistically be assumed whilst civilization continues to exist. However, if this first line of defence fails, markers constitute a second warning system. Finally, assessment calculations can be used to demonstrate that, even if these two lines of defence fail, risks from intrusion and radiation doses contingent upon intrusive events having occurred would not be unacceptably large. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Human health considerations in the assessment of Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel wastes

    Baweja, A.S.; Tracy, B.L.; Ahier, B.; Bartlett, S.

    1996-01-01

    In 1978, AECL was mandated by the government of Ontario and the federal government to find a permanent disposal solution for spent nuclear fuels. Canada opted for disposal in plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield. The Canadian concept calls for disposal in crystalline rocks at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface. The spent fuel would be contained in a canister, the canister would be emplaced in a vault containing clay-based buffer materials, and the cavity would be backfilled and sealed with natural materials. A Federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel was formed in 1992 to assess the concept for disposal of the spent fuel. In this paper a brief discussion of the human health impacts of the proposed concept is presented. Our assessment is based on the information provided by AECL, namely, the main EIS document, a summary and nine other supporting documents

  14. Consideration of timescales in post-closure safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste

    2006-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of safety cases for geological repositories is associated with the long periods of time over which radioactive wastes that are disposed of in repositories remain hazardous. Over such periods, a wide range of events and processes characterised by many different timescales acts on a repository and its environment. These events and processes, their attendant uncertainties, and their possible impacts on repository evolution and performance must be identified, assessed and communicated in a safety case. The handling of issues related to timescales was discussed at an OECD/NEA workshop held in Paris in 2002 and a short report providing an account of the lessons learnt and issues raised at the workshop, was published in 2004. There is, however, an evolving understanding regarding the nature of the issues related to timescales and how they should be addressed, which provides the motivation for the present report. The report is based on the analysis of the responses to a questionnaire received from twenty-four organisations, representing both implementers and regulators from thirteen OECD member countries, as well as discussions that took place in several later meetings. The report is aimed at interested parties that already have some detailed background knowledge of safety assessment methodologies and safety cases, including safety assessment practitioners and regulators, project managers and scientific specialists in relevant disciplines. Its aims are: - to review the current status and ongoing discussions on the handling of issues related to timescales in the deep geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste; - to highlight areas of consensus and points of difference between national programmes; and - to determine if there is room for further improvement in methodologies to handle these issues in safety assessment and in building and presenting safety cases. The handling of issues related to timescales in safety cases is affected

  15. Consideration of Criteria for a Conceptual Near Surface Radioactive Waste disposal Facility in Kenya

    Nderitu, Stanley Werugia; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures. This study will present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and illustrate some of its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in a conceptual near surface disposal facility in Kenya. The approach will make use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities. The study will mainly focus on post-closure periods. The study will employ some specific inadvertent human intrusion scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. The specific performance assessments will use modified scenarios and data to establish acceptable disposal concentrations for specific disposal sites and conditions. Safety and environmental impacts assessments is required in the post-closure phase to support particular decisions in development, operation, and closure of a near surface repository.

  16. Special considerations for orthodontic treatment in patients with root resorption

    Haru S. Anggani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic treatment needs good consideration especially when there are unfavorable conditions for orthodontic treatment, such as periodontal diseases or tooth with root resorption. Root resorption should not become worse due to orthodontic treatment., All risk factors should be eliminated before orthodontic treatment is started. Otherwise, the goal of orthodontic treatment could be difficult to achieve because of poor dental and or oral health. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to learn more about mechanical factors that could worsen the root resorption that has already been there or even provoke root resorption to develop during orthodontic treatment. Reviews: Resorption of dental root surface is the condition in which cementum is depraved and the damage could also include dentin of dental root. It can occur either physiologically or pathologically due to some causes. The occurrence of the root resorption is suspected because of the biological factor, the tooth condition, the supportive tissue and the mechanical factors. Panoramic x-ray which routinely used to support diagnose in orthodontic cases, can detect root resorption in general, although sometimes periapical x-ray with parallel technique is needed to enhance the diagnosis. Before starting a treatment, the risk factors that suspected as the causes of root resorption should be eliminated, thus the mechanical treatment can be calculated. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment in patient with root resorption should not escalate the root resorption which already occurs. The treatment should be done effectively by using optimal forces. Giving discontinued forces and avoiding intrusion and torque movements could reduce the risk factors of root resorption.Latar belakang: Keadaan gigi dan jaringan pendukung yang kurang menguntungkan bagi perawatan ortodontik hendaknya membutuhkan perhatian ekstra para klinisi. Kondisi tersebut misalnya adanya penyakit periodontal ataupun adanya

  17. 36 CFR 1237.20 - What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records?

    2010-07-01

    ... considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual records? 1237.20 Section 1237.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION RECORDS MANAGEMENT AUDIOVISUAL, CARTOGRAPHIC, AND RELATED RECORDS MANAGEMENT § 1237.20 What are special considerations in the maintenance of audiovisual...

  18. Reduction requirements for actinides with special regard to the isolation time at final disposal

    Philippen, P.W.

    1996-01-01

    The additional knowledge acquired about the metabolism of the actinide elements, and the experience with the development of cancer risk have resulted in several realignments of the ALI limits by the ICRP. This needs a re-evaluation of the toxicity potential inherent in the nuclear fuel cycles of nuclear reactors and a re-evaluation of drawn conclusions. The radiotoxical evaluation of actinides and long-lived fission products are presented and discussed with special regard to Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) issues. Detailed information about balancing the toxicity potential flow and its growth during the nuclear fuel cycle is given in order to determine a reference value for the comparison of natural and man-made toxicity. Calculations for different fuel types are exhibited and the resulting toxicity potentials are compared to these reference values in order to solely quantify in an idealized way the consequences of human action. The long-term toxicity potential of discharged PWR-fuels in case of direct disposal as well as Pu-recycling within MOX elements using U and Th are presented. The inherent drawbacks leads to the conclusion that with respect to a modified goal of final disposal only a full-scale P and T scheme is able to achieve long-term toxicity potentials on the same level as that of fresh fuel decaying naturally. Thus, the storage in a repository can relay more heavily on engineered barriers. (author). 15 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  19. Disposal of high level radioactive waste consideration of some basic criteria

    1993-01-01

    The series of Nordic documents on radiation protection principles present the joint views of the Nordic authorities on radiation protection issues. These views are to be regarded as recommendations to the same Nordic authorities to be considered in their work on national regulations and applications. This document deals with the principles of disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuels, and is therefore intended for authorities in nuclear safety as well as radiation protection. The emphasis is on radiation protection criteria, and the document is primarily directed to the authorities but can also be of interest to the nuclear power industry in its planning of disposal facilities. It can also be used as a source of information on the problems associated with high level waste and on the principles by which these problems would be solved. The main emphasis has been placed on the long-term aspects. The recommendations given by ICRP and the ideas and discussions presented by NEA and IAEA in various publications were the main documents taken into account. The discussions concentrate on the deep geological repository which is the main disposal concept currently being considered in the Nordic countries. The plans in Finland and Sweden include the selection of a disposal site around the year 2000 and a construction period in the early part of the next century. 32 refs, 3 figs

  20. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    McEvoy, F.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Shaw, R.P.; Norris, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  1. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective

    McEvoy, F.M., E-mail: fmcevoy@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Schofield, D.I. [British Geological Survey, Tongwynlais, CF15 7NE (United Kingdom); Shaw, R.P. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Norris, S. [Radioactive Waste Management Limited, B587, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1 million years into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200 ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. - Highlights: • Natural processes are key to developing a safety case for geological disposal. • Key factors include plate tectonic and climate-mediated processes. • Process variability is a challenge to predicting the natural environment. • We highlight the challenges for geological disposal programs using

  2. Operational safety and radioprotection considerations when designing the ILW-LL disposal zone

    Voinis, S.; Roulet, A.; Claudel, D.; Lesavre, A.

    2008-01-01

    As for any other nuclear industrial facility, in a radioactive waste repository the various waste disposal operational activities from construction to closure can present a risk to human (workers and public) and the environment. In accordance with the December 30, 1991 French Waste Act, Andra has conducted feasibility studies regarding the disposal of HLW and ILW-LL waste in a clay host formation. The 'Dossier 2005 - Clay' includes a description of the operational safety analysis that was conducted for ILW-LL waste disposal in underground horizontal drifts. The objective of this paper is to present that safety analysis and its impact on the design at the feasibility stage. The safety analysis covered the operations from the reception of the waste transport casks to the disposal of the waste disposal package in its final emplacement location inside the disposal cell. Since the surface facilities' operations are similar to those of other nuclear ones, this paper focuses on the specificity of the deep repository, i.e. the operational safety and radioprotection aspects applied to the deep disposal drift. Andra has selected an ILW-LL design based on large horizontal drifts (diameters of 10 to 12 m, and lengths of 250 m). The primary waste packages are put inside a specific concrete overpack before their disposal. These overpacks are remotely stacked inside the horizontal drifts. The operational safety analysis aims to ensure that risks are kept under control through provisions in the design of the repository and by operating the facility in compliance with operational requirements and the safety functions. The requirements and the safety functions, developed at this stage of the feasibility studies, will be explained. The operational safety analysis is structured around physical components and real activities (construction, operation, closure) through a dedicated risk analysis. Due to the large variety of different ILW-LL waste, in order to identify the potential

  3. Preliminary consideration for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040

    Xu Guoqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on the overseas practical experiences with combination of domestic realistic conditions a preliminary consideration of a long-range plan is proposed for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China in the period of 2000-2040. An overview of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the overseas and mainland is presented shortly first in this paper. Then the discussion is centered on the preliminary consideration of a long-range plan for research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The partition of stages of research on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the goal, task, research contents and time table for each research stage is stated in this preliminary consideration. The data mentioned above will probably be useful for making plan for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the future in China. (author)

  4. Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste

    Zimmerman, A. V.; Thompson, R. L.; Lubick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study is summarized of extraterrestrial (space) disposal of radioactive waste. The initial work on the evaluation and comparison of possible space destinations and launch vehicles is reported. Only current or planned space transportation systems were considered. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles, by about a factor of two. The space shuttle will require a third stage to perform the disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission this could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur. Of the destinations considered, high earth orbits (between geostationary and lunar orbit altitudes), solar orbits (such as a 0.90 AU circular solar orbit) or a direct injection to solar system escape appear to be the best candidates. Both earth orbits and solar orbits have uncertainties regarding orbit stability and waste package integrity for times on the order of a million years.

  5. Considerations in managing the assessment of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal concept

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in developing a concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste, AECL has faced challenges because the acceptability of the concept must be established before a site is selected, no agency has been made responsible for implementing the concept if it is selected, and many stakeholders in the review must be satisfied if the concept is to be accepted. The challenges have thus far been met by a program that is well-integrated technically and administratively. However, interactions with stakeholders reviewing the concept present a problem in communication. The authors believe the nature of the nuclear fuel waste disposal issue calls for a cooperative rather than an adversarial approach to problem solving to efficiently deal with the requirements of all the stakeholders

  6. Safety considerations of disposal of disused sealed sources in near surface facilities

    Pla, E.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents European commission studies on sealed radioactive sources - Management of Spent Radiation Sources in the European Union: Quantities, Storage, Recycling and Disposal. EUR 16960 EN. EC 1996; Management of sealed radioactive sources produced and sold in the Russian Federation. EUR 18191 EN. EC, 1999; Management and Disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in the European Union. EUR 18186 EN. EC, 2000; Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Central and Eastern Europe. EUR 19842 EN. EC, April 2001; Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. EUR 20654 EN. EC, January 2003. The conclusions and recommendations in them are given. The International catalogue of sealed radioactive sources and devices is described

  7. Safety considerations of disposal of disused sealed sources in Puspokszilagy Repository, Hungary

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the management of radioactive waste in Hungary Puspokszilagy Repository (RWTDF) including waste acceptance criteria, safety assessments, Action Plan for the safety improvement and present projects. The Puspokszilagy Repository is a typical near-surface repository, sink into the ground 6 m depth. The facility is a shallow land disposal type, appropriated for disposal of short and medium lived LILW, acceptable for temporary storage of long lived LILW. It consists of vaults containing cells for solidified drummed waste, wells for spent sealed sources, work building for treatment and interim storage and office building for environmental measurements. Two safety assessments have been performed in 2000 and 2002. The new safety assessment confirms the main statements of SA 2000, according to which several waste types can cause serious problems in the distant future: Until the finish of passive control the safety of the environment is guaranteed. After that time it is possible to arise events leading to exceeding of dose restricts (more then 10 mSv/yr but less then 100 mSv/yr), because of disposal of long lived radionuclides (mainly C-14,Tc-99, Ra-226, Th-232, U-234) and significant activities of Cs-137 sources.There are uncertainties in radionuclide amounts and distributions, as well as in the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes that determine radionuclide mobility and toxicity. The recommendations to improve the safety include: Long lived SSRS in the 'B' and 'D' wells should be removed before the closure of repository. Large Cs-137 sources and long lived sources in the 'A' vaults should be recovered (if its feasible); All vaults should be backfilled to provide chemical conditioning; The waste packaged in plastic bags should be repackaged and compacted into drums or containers; The inventory should be revise. Waste acceptance requirements in the future are: The disposal of long lived radionuclides is no permitted. The long lived waste

  8. Special feature of the facilities for final disposal of radioactive waste and its potential impact on the licensing process

    Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Alvarez, Daniela E.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    During the lifetime of a radioactive waste disposal facility it is possible to identify five stages: design, construction, operation, closure and post-closure. While the design, and pre-operation stages are, to some extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities; construction, operation, closure and post-closure have quite special meanings in the case of radioactive waste disposal systems. For instance, the 'closure' stage of a final disposal facility seems to be equivalent to the commissioning stage of a conventional nuclear or radioactive facility. This paper describes the unique characteristics of these stages of final disposal systems, that lead to concluded that their licensing procedure can not be assimilated to the standard licensing procedures in use for other nuclear or radioactive facilities, making it necessary to develop a tailored license system. (author)

  9. Tectonic and climatic considerations for deep geological disposal of radioactive waste: A UK perspective.

    McEvoy, F M; Schofield, D I; Shaw, R P; Norris, S

    2016-11-15

    Identifying and evaluating the factors that might impact on the long-term integrity of a deep Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and its surrounding geological and surface environment is central to developing a safety case for underground disposal of radioactive waste. The geological environment should be relatively stable and its behaviour adequately predictable so that scientifically sound evaluations of the long-term radiological safety of a GDF can be made. In considering this, it is necessary to take into account natural processes that could affect a GDF or modify its geological environment up to 1millionyears into the future. Key processes considered in this paper include those which result from plate tectonics, such as seismicity and volcanism, as well as climate-related processes, such as erosion, uplift and the effects of glaciation. Understanding the inherent variability of process rates, critical thresholds and likely potential influence of unpredictable perturbations represent significant challenges to predicting the natural environment. From a plate-tectonic perspective, a one million year time frame represents a very short segment of geological time and is largely below the current resolution of observation of past processes. Similarly, predicting climate system evolution on such time-scales, particularly beyond 200ka AP is highly uncertain, relying on estimating the extremes within which climate and related processes may vary with reasonable confidence. The paper highlights some of the challenges facing a deep geological disposal program in the UK to review understanding of the natural changes that may affect siting and design of a GDF. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. USEPA consideration of human intrusion in setting radioactive waste disposal standards

    Egan, D.J.; Hadlock, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) promulgated standards for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191). These standards placed limits, called containment requirements, on the projected releases of radioactivity due to both normal and accidental events for 10,000 years after disposal. The standards also contained qualitative assurance requirements that described the role foreseen for both active and passive institutional controls. They included both requirements for such institutional controls and limitations on the ways that they could be relied upon. This paper describes these assumptions about institutional controls made by the USEPA, and it discusses the types of future societies that would be consistent with such assumptions. The paper also reviews the USEPA's approach towards assessing the long-term performance of mined geologic repositories. In these assessments, the risks caused by inadvertent human intrusion into the area of a repository usually dominate the risks projected from other release scenarios. The assumptions made about inadvertent intrusion are discussed, and they are related to the policies regarding institutional controls. The disposal standards that the USEPA promulgated in 1985 were overturned by a Federal court in 1987, and the Agency is now preparing revised standards for public review and comment. These are expected to by published in 1990. However, the approaches regarding institutional controls and human intrusion are expected to remain the same as those used in 1985. Some paragraphs (selected by the NEA Secretariat) of 40 CFR Part 191, subpart B (as of 1985 version) with particular relevance to human intrusion are cited

  11. Limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations for greater confinement disposal compared to shallow land burial

    Hunter, P.H.; Lester, D.H.; Robertson, L.D.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stoddard, J.A.; Dickman, P.T.

    1984-09-01

    A limited risk assessment and some cost/benefit considerations of greater confinement disposal (GCD) compared to shallow land burial (SLB) are presented. This study is limited to an analysis of the postclosure phase of hypothetical GCD and SLB facilities. Selected release scenarios are used which bound the range of risks to a maximally exposed individual and a hypothetical population. Based on the scenario assessments, GCD had a significant risk advantage over SLB for normal exposure pathways at both humid and arid sites, particularly for the human intrusion scenario. Since GCD costs are somewhat higher than SLB, it is necessary to weigh the higher costs of GCD against the higher risks of SLB. In this regard, GCD should be pursued as an alternative to SLB for certain types of low-level waste, and as an alternative to processing for wastes requiring improved stabilization or higher integrity packaging to be compatible with SLB. There are two reasons for this conclusion. First, GCD might diminish public apprehension regarding the disposal of wastes perceived to be too hazardous for SLB. Second, GCD may be a relatively cost-effective alternative to various stabilization and packaging schemes required to meet 10 CFR 61 near-surface requirements as well as being a cost-effective alternative to deep geologic disposal. Radionuclide transport through the biosphere and resultant dose consequences were determined using the RADTRAN radionuclide transport code. 19 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  12. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ''delay and decay'', ''concentrate and contain'' and ''dilute and disperse''. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case

  13. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  14. Scientific Considerations for the Assessment and Management of Mine Tailings Disposal in the Deep Sea

    Lindsay L. Vare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea tailings disposal (DSTD and its shallow water counterpart, submarine tailings disposal (STD, are practiced in many areas of the world, whereby mining industries discharge processed mud- and rock-waste slurries (tailings directly into the marine environment. Pipeline discharges and other land-based sources of marine pollution fall beyond the regulatory scope of the London Convention and the London Protocols (LC/LP. However, guidelines have been developed in Papua New Guinea (PNG to improve tailings waste management frameworks in which mining companies can operate. DSTD can impact ocean ecosystems in addition to other sources of stress, such as from fishing, pollution, energy extraction, tourism, eutrophication, climate change and, potentially in the future, from deep-seabed mining. Environmental management of DSTD may be most effective when placed in a broader context, drawing expertise, data and lessons from multiple sectors (academia, government, society, industry, and regulators and engaging with international deep-ocean observing programs, databases and stewardship consortia. Here, the challenges associated with DSTD are identified, along with possible solutions, based on the results of a number of robust scientific studies. Also highlighted are the key issues, trends of improved practice and techniques that could be used if considering DSTD (such as increased precaution if considering submarine canyon locations, likely cumulative impacts, and research needed to address current knowledge gaps.

  15. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, states are responsible for providing for disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) within their borders. LLW in the US is defined as all radioactive waste that is not classified as spent nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or by-product material resulting from the extraction of uranium from ore. Commercial waste includes LLW generated by hospitals, universities, industry, pharmaceutical companies, and power utilities. LLW generated by the country''s defense operations is the responsibility of the Federal government and its agency, the Department of Energy. The commercial LLRW disposal sites discussed in this report are located near: Sheffield, Illinois (closed); Maxey Flats, Kentucky (closed); Beatty, Nevada (closed); West Valley, New York (closed); Barnwell, South Carolina (operating); Richland, Washington (operating); Ward Valley, California, (proposed); Sierra Blanca, Texas (proposed); Wake County, North Carolina (proposed); and Boyd County, Nebraska (proposed). While some comparisons between the sites described in this report are appropriate, this must be done with caution. In addition to differences in climate and geology between sites, LLW facilities in the past were not designed and operated to today''s standards. This report summarizes each site''s design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The report includes: a description of waste characteristics; design and operational features; post closure measures and plans; cost and duration of site characterization, construction, and operation; recent related R and D activities for LLW treatment and disposal; and the status of the LLW system in the US

  16. Student Application for Special Consideration for Examination Performance Following a Natural Disaster

    Collings, David; Garrill, Ashley; Johnston, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances beyond their control negatively affect performance in assessments. Typically, such situations affect only one student (e.g. medical emergencies) but we consider the impact of a natural disaster that led to all students being eligible for…

  17. 48 CFR 970.1504-1-3 - Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation.

    2010-10-01

    ...: Laboratory management and operation. 970.1504-1-3 Section 970.1504-1-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504-1-3 Special considerations: Laboratory management and operation. (a) For the management...

  18. Greater confinement disposal of high activity and special case wastes at the Nevada Test Site: A unified migration assessment approach

    Davis, P.A.; Olague, N.E.; Johnson, V.L.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neill, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Field Office has disposed of a small quantity of high activity and special case wastes using Greater Confinement Disposal facilities in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. Because some of these wastes are transuranic radioactive wastes, the Environmental Protection Agency standards for their disposal under 40 CFR Part 191 which requires a compliance assessment. In conducting the 40 CFR Part 191 compliance assessment, review of the Greater Confinement Disposal inventory revealed potentially land disposal restricted hazardous wastes. The regulatory options for disposing of land disposal restricted wastes consist of (1) treatment and monitoring, or (2) developing a no-migration petition. Given that the waste is already buried without treatment, a no-migration petition becomes the primary option. Based on a desire to minimize costs associated with site characterization and performance assessment, a single approach has been developed for assessing compliance with 40 CFR Part 191, DOE Order 5820.2A (which regulates low-level radioactive wastes contained in Greater Confinement Disposal facilities) and developing a no-migration petition. The approach consists of common points of compliance, common time frame for analysis, and common treatment of uncertainty. The procedure calls for conservative bias of modeling assumptions, including model input parameter distributions and adverse processes and events that can occur over the regulatory time frame, coupled with a quantitative treatment of data and parameter uncertainty. This approach provides a basis for a defensible regulatory decision. In addition, the process is iterative between modeling and site characterization activities, where the need for site characterization activities is based on a quantitative definition of the most important and uncertain parameters or assumptions

  19. Special Analysis: 2017-001 Disposal of Drums Containing Enriched Uranium in Pit 38 at Technical Area 54, Area G

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Operational waste is generated from a wide variety of research and development activities including nuclear weapons development, energy production, and medical research. Environmental restoration (ER), and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) waste is generated as contaminated sites and facilities at LANL undergo cleanup or remediation. The majority of this waste is low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and is disposed of at the Technical Area 54 (TA-54), Area G disposal facility. This special analysis, SA 2017-001, evaluates the potential impacts of disposing of this waste in Pit 38 at Area G based on the assumptions that form the basis of the Area G PA/CA. Section 2 describes the methods used to conduct the analysis; the results of the evaluation are provided in Section 3; and conclusions and recommendations are provided in Section 4.

  20. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  1. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Rechard, Robert P.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Stockman, Christine T.; Trellue, Holly R.

    2000-01-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low

  2. Consideration of disposal alternatives for tritium-contaminated wastewater streams at Hanford

    Waters, E.D.

    1988-03-01

    Small quantities of tritium are produced as an undesirable by-product of the operation of light-water reactors. At the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in Washington State, some tritium has been discharged to the environment in low-level liquid and gaseous wastes from the N Reactor plant, but more than 97% of the tritium stays typically within the irradiated fuel as it is delivered for reprocessing. During fuel reprocessing, the tritium is distributed in the process streams, and most of the tritium is presently released to the soil column with excess process condensates from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. On an annual basis, approximately 1 g of tritium is discharged in more than 1 x 10 6 L of process condensate water. Principal tritium release points and quantities are presented in section 4.0. The present study is intended to identify and evaluate alternate methods of tritium control and disposal that might merit additional study or development for potential application to Hanford Site effluents. 30 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  4. Appendix Q: siting considerations for submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal red clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. A paleoenvironmental model of Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific has been constructed from sedimentological, geotechnical and stratigraphic data derived from a single giant piston core collected in the central North Pacific (GPC-3: 30 0 N, 157 0 W; 5705 m). This core represents a record of nearly continuous sedimentation for nearly 70 million years. The core was taken from a region of abyssal hill topography located beneath the present-day carbonate compensation depth. It contains 24.5 meters of undisturbed sediment composed of oxidized brown clay with altered ash layers. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the upper 4.5 meters indicates sedimentation rates are 2.5 mm/1000 years for the last 2 m.y. and 1.1 mm/1000 years before that to 2.4 Ma. Ichthyolith stratigraphy shows sedimentation rates of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/1000 years from 65 to 5 Ma. The observed sedimentological variations can be explained in terms of present sedimentation patterns in the central North Pacific and by the NNW motion of the Pacific plate during the Cenozoic

  5. Corrosion considerations of high-nickel alloys and titanium alloys for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers

    Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1991-07-01

    Corrosion resistant materials are being considered for the metallic barrier of the Yucca Mountain Project's high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. High nickel alloys and titanium alloys have good corrosion resistance properties and are considered good candidates for the metallic barrier. The localized corrosion phenomena, pitting and crevice corrosion, are considered as potentially limiting for the barrier lifetime. An understanding of the mechanisms of localized corrosion of how various parameters affect it will be necessary for adequate performance assessments of candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns involving candidate container materials. Examples of some of the concerns of involving localized corrosion are discussed. The effects of various parameters, such as temperature and concentration of halide species, on localized corrosion are given. In addition concerns about aging of the protective oxide layer in the expected service temperature range (50 to 250 degrees C) are presented. Also some mechanistic considerations of localized corrosion are given. 31 refs., 1 tab

  6. Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions. Volume 6. Special Considerations in Explosive Facility Design

    1985-04-01

    addition to their Inherent advantages with respect to fire protection, acoustical and thermal insulation, structural mass and resistance to flying...suspended from a monorail system. The panel is inside the shield and is not rigidly attached to the column members. Special consideration was given to...characteristic pulse emitted by an explosion to prevent actuation by other sources such as lightning, fires , etc., **ich cay occur with flash sensors. ■112

  7. De minimis concepts in radioactive waste disposal. Considerations in defining de minimis quantities of solid radioactive waste for uncontrolled disposal by incineration and landfill

    1983-02-01

    This document deals with recommendations addressed to those national authorities wishing to dispose of low level radioactive waste into the terrestrial environment, on how de minimis levels or quantities can be derived. The only radioactive materials covered here are declared solid radioactive wastes of very low activity which are controlled up to the point where deliberate control is lost, or wastes below a level that requires regulatory control. As regards the disposal sites, these wastes are not intended to be disposed of in fully controlled disposal facilities, such as repositories located in shallow land, rock cavities, etc. On the other hand, it is considered that these materials should not be disposed of in any place, but should be handled like other municipal wastes. Among the different techniques available, only two are considered in this document, namely a sanitary landfill facility, and an urban incineration plant

  8. Geologic siting considerations for the disposal of radioactive waste into submarine geologic formations

    Hollister, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most desirable characteristics of the host medium are: (1) low permeability and high Kd; (2) ability to self heal, i.e., be visco-elastic in response to dynamic stress; (3) stability under predicted thermal loading; (4) a low content of organic matter, i.e., be well oxidized. The submarine geologic formation that appears to best satisfy the above criteria is abyssal red clay. Depending on organic interactions and permeability considerations, light brown deep-sea clays with 20 to 40% CaCO 3 also may be suitable. Increasingly organic-rich, more permeable biogenic oozes appear less suitable, with turbidite sands and silts least desirable of all. Ocean regions excluded at the present time are: (1) areas less than 4000 meters deep; (2) the continental margin including fans, deltas, aprons, cones; (3) proximal portions of abyssal plains; (4) all fracture zone abyssal plains; (5) all submarine canyon-levee systems; (6) areas covered with less than 50 meters of sediment; (7) areas greater than 100 nautical miles from plate boundaries; (8) areas with ice-rafted debris; (9) major shipping lanes, cable routes and defense installations; (10) seafloor regions below areas of high biological productivity; and (11) approximately one third of the world's ocean floor satisfy these criteria

  9. 26 CFR 301.7326-1 - Disposal of forfeited or abandoned property in special cases.

    2010-04-01

    ... narcotic drugs, see 21 CFR 302.56. For the disposal of forfeited marihuana, see 26 CFR (1939) 152.99 and 152.100 (Regulations under the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, as amended). (c) Firearms. For regulations...

  10. The disposal of radioactive wastes in Brazil with special emphasis on rocks

    Enokihara, Cyro Teiti

    1983-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations seems to be the most appropriate solution for the nuclear waste problem. The disposal sites must provide the maximum safety for the radionuclides during its decay period. The study presents a general analysis of three types rocks: salt, granite and basalt. In our analysis we have dealt with the following aspects: geology, tectonics, seismicity, hydrogeology , mineral resources, geomorphology, population and access. The studied regions were: Sergipe-Alagoas and Reconcavo Basins, Northeastern and Southeastern Folded Regions and Parana Basin. Our study contains the macro-analysis needed for the selection of a safe site for radioactive waste disposal. We believe this work will be useful as a first step for further micro-analysis of selected sites. (author)

  11. Hazard characterization and special considerations for environmental and decontamination and decommissioning activities

    Kerr, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has changed from defense production of special nuclear materials to cleanup of production facilities at the Hanford Site. The DOE contractors have formed the Energy Facility Contractors Group to support this change in mission. In addition, the Safety Analysis Working Subgroup for Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) was formed to identify, develop, and share information that supports safety analyses and engineering of ER/D ampersand D activities. Safety analysis is in part the process of identifying and understanding the hazards that could result in exposures to radiological or chemical hazardous substances. The following paragraphs address the special considerations given to hazard characterization for ER/D ampersand D activities

  12. Status of commercial nuclear high-level waste disposal. Special report

    Dau, G.J.; Williams, R.F.

    1976-09-01

    The results of this review, presented in the form of a functional description of high level waste management system, shows that technology is available to dispose of nuclear waste safely by several different processes. The most attractive alternative in terms of available technology and shortness of time to demonstrate it at commercial scale is a system that converts the waste to a solid by immobilizing the radioactive elements in a glass matrix. Brief comments are also given on international efforts in high level waste management and advanced disposal concepts

  13. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  14. Alternate Methods of Effluent Disposal for On-Lot Home Sewage Systems. Special Circular 214.

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Several alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches and oversized absorption areas are discussed. Site characteristics and preparation are outlined. Each alternative is accompanied by a diagram…

  15. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  16. The social and special effects of siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in rural Texas

    Murdock, S.H.; Hamm, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    As part of its assessment of the impacts of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Hudspeth County, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority (TLLRWDA) sponsored an independent study of the social and special impacts of the facility. These impacts include ''standard'' social impacts (such as impacts on social structures and attitudes, values and perceptions and ''special'' social impacts (such as fear, anxiety, concerns related to equity, the health of future generations, etc.). This paper reports the results of this study. Personal interviews with 71 community leaders and 96 randomly selected county residents were conducted during the summer of 1986. The results suggest that the major concern relates to the contamination of ground water, but that suspicion about the equity of the siting process and about the safe management of wastes is extensive, even among the most knowledgeable respondents. Mitigation concerns center on health and safety issues for residents and on potential forms of mitigation for governmental jurisdictions for leaders. Responses were similar for leaders and residents and for persons in different parts of the county

  17. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    2010-10-01

    ... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-5 Special considerations—contracts with... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404...

  18. R and D projects for disposal concepts for special radioactive wastes

    1983-01-01

    Updated requirements for the elaboration of reference methods or back-up methods for the conditioning and ultimate storage of special radioactive wastes are worked out. Subsequently, the present state-of-art and ongoing studies are analyzed. Special radioactive wastes collected in collecting points, or produced in medicine and industry are included in the paper. With special unclear wastes, the emphasis is on wastes from LWR-type reactors and those from the unclear fuel cycle. The PTB data base is to by complemented by the characterization of waste compounds with volatile nuclides. 16 specialist contributions have been included in the data base. (HP) [de

  19. Indirect revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease in children and its special considerations

    Kyu-Chang Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is the most common pediatric cerebrovascular disease in Far Eastern countries. In children, MMD frequently manifests as ischemic symptomatology. Cerebral perfusion gradually decreases as the disease progresses, which often leads to cerebral infarction. The benefits of revascularization surgery, whether direct or indirect, have been well established in MMD patients with ischemic symptoms. In adults, the increase in cerebral blood flow achieved with indirect revascularization is often unsatisfactory, and direct revascularization is usually feasible. In children, however, direct revascularization is frequently technically not feasible, whereas the response to indirect revascularization is excellent, although 1 or 2 weeks are required for stabilization of symptoms. The authors describe surgical procedures and perioperative care in indirect revascularization for MMD. In addition, special considerations with regard to very young patients, patients with recent cerebral infarction, and patients with hyperthyroidism are discussed.

  20. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization

    Heilmann, Hubert; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-01-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  1. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  2. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  3. Special Analysis: Updated Analysis of the Effect of Wood Products on Trench Disposal Limits at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Cook, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This Special Analysis (SA) develops revised radionuclide inventory limits for trench disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the presence of wood products in the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These limits should be used to modify the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) for trench disposal. Because the work on which this SA is based employed data from tests using 100 percent wood products, the 40 percent limitation on wood products for trench (i.e., slit or engineered trench) disposal is not needed in the modified WAC

  4. Presentation of the project Thermal processes with energy recovery for sludge and special or hazardous waste disposal

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.

    2001-01-01

    Main results obtained in the framework of the project Thermal processes with energy recovery for sludge and special waste (also hazardous) disposal granted for 2.16 M Euro by the Italian Ministry of Education through Structural Funds are reported. This project is subdivided into the following four main sub projects: combustion of hazardous sludges on a demonstrative plant; combustion of sludges in fluidized bed reactors on pilot and laboratory scale; set up of a flue gas sampling device at high temperature; fluid dynamic modelling of combustion. Original and interesting results were produced mainly connected with the following aspects: combined incineration of sewage and hazardous sludges appeared to be reliable considering that gaseous emissions did not show any deterioration following the addition of chlorinated hydrocarbons to sewage sludge. Gaseous emissions were found to be not conform with the standards only in very few cases generally not linked with critical conditions: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found to be a reliable parameter for emissions monitoring considering that they are produced in abundance following up set conditions due to a temperature decline or an insufficient oxygen supply; the very stringent limit at the emissions of 0.1 ng/m 3 for dioxins and furans (TE) can be respected in the most of the cases but this monitoring is very complex, time consuming and expensive. Sampling and extraction errors might considerably impact the measured value, which is much more dependent on the conditions inside the recovery boiler rather than on the combustion efficiency; metals are enriched onto the fly ashes produced in the tests carried out by rotating drum furnace more than in the tests by fluidized bed furnace; after burning chamber mode of operation did not display a direct influence on the emissions; incineration tests carried out on reduced pilot scale have shown a total absence of fragmentation during volatilisation while particulate

  5. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Hansen, Francis D.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Sobolik, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  6. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  7. Considerations of the Differences between Bedded and Domal Salt Pertaining to Disposal of Heat-Generating Nuclear Waste

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sobolik, Steven R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. As both nations revisit nuclear waste disposal options, the choice between bedded, domal, or intermediate pillow formations is once again a contemporary issue. For decades, favorable attributes of salt as a disposal medium have been extoled and evaluated, carefully and thoroughly. Yet, a sense of discovery continues as science and engineering interrogate naturally heterogeneous systems. Salt formations are impermeable to fluids. Excavation-induced fractures heal as seal systems are placed or natural closure progresses toward equilibrium. Engineering required for nuclear waste disposal gains from mining and storage industries, as humans have been mining salt for millennia. This great intellectual warehouse has been honed and distilled, but not perfected, for all nuances of nuclear waste disposal. Nonetheless, nations are able and have already produced suitable license applications for radioactive waste disposal in salt. A remaining conundrum is site location. Salt formations provide isolation, and geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Positive attributes for isolation in salt have many commonalities independent of the geologic setting. In some cases, specific details of the environment will affect the disposal concept and thereby define interaction of features, events and processes, while simultaneously influencing scenario development. Here we identify and discuss high-level differences and similarities of bedded and domal salt formations. Positive geologic and engineering attributes for disposal purposes are more common among salt formations than are significant differences

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the Swedish high-level radioactive waste disposal system - examples of likely considerations

    1994-01-01

    Sweden is investigating the feasibility of establishing a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system consisting of three components as follows: (1) Encapsulation facility, (2) system for transporting waste and (3) geologic repository. Swedish law requires that an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) be written for any planned action expected to have a significant impact on the environment. Before embarking on construction and operation of a HLW disposal system, the Swedish government will evaluate the expected environmental impacts to assure that the Swedish people and environmental will not be unduly affected by the disposal system. The EIA process requires that reasonable alternatives to the proposed action, including the 'zero' or 'no action' alternative, be considered so that the final approved plan for disposal will have undergone scrutiny and comparison of alternatives to arrive at a plan which is the best achievable given reasonable physical and monetary constraints. This report has been prepared by the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) for use by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI). The purpose of this report is to establish a document which outlines the types of information which would be in an EIA for a three part disposal system like that envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) for the disposal of Sweden's HLW. Technical information that would normally be included in an EIA is outlined in this document. The SSI's primary interest is in radiological impacts. However, for the sake of completeness and also to evaluate all environmental impacts in a single document, non-radiological impacts are also included. Swedish authorities other than the SSI may have interest in the non-radiological parts of the document. 26 refs

  9. Environmental considerations in the selection of isolation gowns: A life cycle assessment of reusable and disposable alternatives.

    Vozzola, Eric; Overcash, Michael; Griffing, Evan

    2018-04-11

    Isolation gowns serve a critical role in infection control by protecting healthcare workers, visitors, and patients from the transfer of microorganisms and body fluids. The decision of whether to use a reusable or disposable garment system is a selection process based on factors including sustainability, barrier effectiveness, cost, and comfort. Environmental sustainability is increasingly being used in the decision-making process. Life cycle assessment is the most comprehensive and widely used tool used to evaluate environmental performance. The environmental impacts of market-representative reusable and disposable isolation gown systems were compared using standard life cycle assessment procedures. The basis of comparison was 1,000 isolation gown uses in a healthcare setting. The scope included the manufacture, use, and end-of-life stages of the gown systems. At the healthcare facility, compared to the disposable gown system, the reusable gown system showed a 28% reduction in energy consumption, a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, a 41% reduction in blue water consumption, and a 93% reduction in solid waste generation. Selecting reusable garment systems may result in significant environmental benefits compared to selecting disposable garment systems. By selecting reusable isolation gowns, healthcare facilities can add these quantitative benefits directly to their sustainability scorecards. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geologic and hydrologic considerations for various concepts of high-level radioactive waste disposal in conterminous United States

    Ekren, E.B.; Dinwiddie, G.A.; Mytton, J.W.; Thordarson, W.; Weir, J.E. Jr.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Schroder, L.J.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate and identify which geohydrologic environments in conterminous United States are best suited for various concepts or methods of underground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and to establish geologic and hydrologic criteria that are pertinent to high-level waste disposal. The unproven methods of disposal include (1) a very deep drill hole (30,000 to 50,000 ft or 9,140 to 15,240 m), (2) a matrix of (an array of multiple) drill holes (1,000 to 20,000 ft or 305 to 6,100 m), (3) a mined chamber (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), (4) a cavity with separate manmade structures (1,000 to 10,000 ft or 305 to 3,050 m), and (5) an exploded cavity (2,000 to 20,000 ft or 610 to 6,100 m). Areas considered to be unsuitable for waste disposal are those where seismic risk is high, where possible sea-level rise would inundate potential sites, where high topographic relief coincides with high frequency of faults, where there are unfavorable ground-water conditions, and where no suitable rocks are known to be present to depths of 20,000 feet (6,100 m) or more, and where these strata either contain large volumes of ground water or have high oil and gas potential

  11. Geoenvironmental considerations for assessments of the potential of solid waste disposal in rural Lebanon, Metn-Kesserwan

    Nasser, Rima Souheil

    1994-02-01

    This investigation deals with the problem capitalizing on a mountainous area in Lebanon, and allocating potential sanitary landfill sites for solid waste disposal. The current solid waste management scheme is studied through questionnaires distributed to the community, and field investigations on the operation and effects of the final dump sites. The assessment of the potential for solid waste disposal is approached through evaluating the general suitability of that area for sanitary land filling. This is done by studying various socio-economic and technical parameters on both existing dump sites and others that are here proposed. The environmental impacts of existing dump sites are also described; a modified drastic scheme is used to assess potential ground water pollution in these sites. All of the sites ranked high with respect to their potential pollution of ground water. This is mainly due to their being located directly over highly fractured and karstified limestones. Four areas that proved favourable, in suitability analysis, for solid waste disposal are further subjected to geotechnical investigations to arrive at their capability for sanitary land filling. These include permeability, texture, particle density, Atterberg limits, organic content, clay content and type. As a result of capability analysis, the four sites are ranked from most to least capable for sanitary land filling, according to a quantified weighted rating scale. Sanitary land filling is thus proposed. Solid waste disposal, however, must be followed through an integrated management approach which includes, in addition to land filling, composting, incineration and recycling in a comprehensive waste management scheme. These alternatives are discussed in view of their advantages and disadvantages

  12. Ethical Considerations Regarding the Biological Contamination of Climatically Recurrent Special Regions.

    Clifford, S. M.

    2014-04-01

    With the dawn of planetary exploration, the international science community expressed concerns regarding the potential contamination of habitable planetary environments by the introduction of terrestrial organisms on robotic spacecraft. The initial concern was that such contamination would confound our efforts to find unambiguous evidence of life elsewhere in the Solar System, although, more recently, this concern has been expanded to include ethical considerations regarding the need to protect alien biospheres from potentially harmful and irreversible contamination. The international agreements which address this concern include the UN Space Treaty of 1967 and the Planetary Protection Policy of the International Council for Science's Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). In the context of Mars exploration, COSPAR calls a potentially habitable environment a 'Special Region', which it defines as: "A region within which terrestrial organisms are likely to propagate, or a region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant Martian life forms." Specifically included in this definition are regions where liquid water is present or likely to occur and the Martian polar caps. Over the years, scientists have debated the level of cleanliness required for robotic spacecraft to investigate such environments with the goal of defining international standards that are strict enough to ensure the integrity of life-detection efforts during the period of 'biological exploration', which has been somewhat arbitrarily defined as 50 years from the arrival date of any given mission. More recently, NASA and ESA have adopted a definition of Special Regions as any Martian environment where liquid water is likely to exist within the next 500 years. While this appears to be a more conservative interpretation of the original COSPAR definition, it specifically excludes some environments where there is a high probability of liquid water on timescales greater than 500

  13. Disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the unsaturated zone: technical considerations and response to comments. Final report

    Hackbarth, C.J.; Nicholson, T.J.; Evans, D.D.

    1985-10-01

    On July 22, 1985, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated amendments to 10 CFR Part 60 concerning disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in geologic repositories in the unsaturated zone (50 FR 29641). This report contains a discussion of the principal technical issues considered by the NRC staff during the development of these amendments. It expands or revises certain technical discussions originally presented in draft NUREG-1046 (February 1984) based on public comment letters and an increasing understanding of the physical, geochemical, and hydrogeologic processes operative in unsaturated geologic media. The following issues related to disposal of HLW within the unsaturated zone are discussed: hydrogeologic properties and conditions, heat dissipation and temperature, geochemisty, retrievability, potential for exhumation of the radioactive waste by natural causes and by human intrusion, the effects of future climatic changes on the level of the regional water table, and transport of radionuclides in the gaseous state. The changes to 10 CFR Part 60 in definitions, siting criteria, and design criteria for the geologic repository operations area are discussed. Other criteria examined by the NRC staff but which were not changed in rule are the minimum 300-meter depth for waste emplacement, limitations on exploratory boreholes, backfill requirements, waste package design criteria, and provisions for ventilation

  14. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Warner, D.L.; Steindler, M.J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10 -4 mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method

  15. Consideration of Nuclear Criticality When Directly Disposing Highly Enriched Spent Nuclear Fuel in Unsaturated Tuff - II: Geochemical Constraints

    Rechard, Rob P.; Sanchez, Lawrence C.; Trellue, Holly R.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents several reasonable cases in which four mechanisms - dissolution, physical mixing, adsorption, and precipitation (either chemical change or evaporation) - might concentrate fissile material in and around a disposal container for radioactive waste at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The possible masses, concentrations, and volume are then compared to criticality limits. The cases examined evaluate the geologic barrier role in preventing criticality since engineered options for preventing criticality (e.g., boron or gadolinium neutron absorber in the disposal container) are not considered. The solid concentrations able to form in the natural environment are insufficient for criticality to occur because (a) solutions of 235 U and 239 Pu are clearly not critical; (b) physical mixing of fissile material with the entire potential iron oxide (as goethite - FeOOH) in a waste package is not critical; (c) the adsorption of 239 Pu on consolidated iron oxide in a waste package is not critical; (d) the adsorption of 235 U on consolidated iron oxide in a waste package is not critical when accounting for reduced adsorption because of carbonates at high pH; (e) the filtration of iron oxide colloids, containing fissile material, by the thin invert material is not critical; (f) insufficient retention through precipitation of 235 U or 239 Pu occurs in the invert; (g) adsorption of 235 U and 239 Pu on devitrified or clinoptolite-rich tuff below the repository is not critical; (h) the average precipitation/adsorption of 235 U as uranyl silicates in the tuff is not critical by analogy with calcite deposition in lithophysae at Yucca Mountain; and (i) precipitation/adsorption (caused by cyclic drying) as uranyl silicates on fracture surfaces of the tuff is not critical by analogy with the oxidation of UO 2 , migration of U VI , and precipitation in fractures at the Nopal I ore deposit in Mexico

  16. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  17. Some special considerations in evaluating the impacts of long-lived radionuclides in LLW

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Cook, J.R.; King, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive program has been conducted at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to assess environmental impacts of both radioactive and nonradioactive (hazardous) waste at its disposal sites to assure compliance with provisions of the National Environmental Protection Act. The objective of the current study is to characterize issues related to long-lived radionuclides in SRP waste. This work includes defining a reasonably attainable data base on parameters affecting leachability, mobility, dosimetry, and other factors that might affect radiological dose consequences. The long-lived radionuclides to be assessed include: certain transuranics, uranium, technetium-99, iodine-129, and carbon-14. The study is scheduled for completion by the end of this year. Preliminary insights and conclusions focusing primarily on neptunium-237, iodine-129, and uranium are discussed in this paper

  18. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements. Special nuclear material accountability report

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM(Special Nuclear Materials) accounting purposes are emphasized

  19. Bilingual and Special Educational Needs in Inclusive Classrooms: Some Critical and Pedagogical Considerations

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    In the light of educational reforms aimed at promoting greater inclusive policies and practices, it is important to put a more pronounced emphasis on the needs of English language learners (ELLs) with special educational needs and/or disabilities. Simultaneously, a focus should also be placed on understanding and dealing with the disproportional…

  20. Evidence-Based Practices in Special Education: Current Assumptions and Future Considerations

    Russo-Campisi, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Background: The research on evidence-based practices (EBP) in special education has shifted over the last decade from identifying efficacious interventions to exploring issues that impede implementation in the classroom. Common barriers to implementation include absence of training and resources, limited collaboration between researchers and…

  1. Current situation and consideration of training base hospitals for residents of neurosurgical specialization in China

    Feng-zeng JIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Resident training of neurosurgical specialization will be tried and carried out in all over China. From the point of view of training base hospitals, a majority of 3A level hospitals have sufficient patients and good equipments which will ensure the success of training process; however, division of subspecialty, teaching motivation and teaching method still have a great potential to improve. In order to establish and improve training bases for residents of specialization, supervision from national administrative department should be strengthened; professional society also plays an important role in standardizing and controlling the training quality. Considering our nation's situation, integration of postgraduate education and resident training is worth of discussion. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.015

  2. Unused Medications Disposal Practice: The case of Patients Visiting University of Gondar Specialized Teaching Hospital, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Tadele Atinafu; Abayneh Takele; Adeladlew Kassie; Adane Yehualaw; Getu Tesfaw; Tesfanesh Desseno; Tadesse Mekonnen; Mulugeta Fentie

    2014-01-01

    Background: The disposal of unwanted medications has been a concern in many countries, as pharmaceutical waste enters the ecosystem, ultimately having an effect on human health and environment. The main objective of this study was to assess unused medications disposal practice of patients Method: Institution based cross sectional study was used. Patients were systematically selected and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result: Out of...

  3. PTSD in the military: special considerations for understanding prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment following deployment

    Yehuda, Rachel; Vermetten, Eric; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Lehrner, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Given the unique context of warzone engagement, which may include chronic threat, multiple and lengthy deployments, and loss, there is a need to understand whether and to what extent knowledge about PTSD derived from studies of civilian trauma exposure is generalizeable to the military. This special issue on PTSD in the military addresses a range of issues and debates related to mental health in military personnel and combat veterans. This article provides an overview of the issues covered in selected contributions that have been assembled for a special volume to consider issues unique to the military. Several leading scholars and military experts have contributed papers regarding: 1) prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems in different NATO countries, 2) the search for biomarkers of PTSD and the potential applications of such findings, and 3) prevention and intervention approaches for service members and veterans. The volume includes studies that highlight the divergence in prevalence rates of PTSD and other post-deployment mental health problems across nations and that discuss potential causes and implications. Included studies also provide an overview of research conducted in military or Veteran's Affairs settings, and overarching reviews of military-wide approaches to research, promotion of resilience, and mental health interventions in the Unites States and across NATO and allied ISAF partners. PMID:25206950

  4. Comparison of high-speed transportation systems in special consideration of investment costs

    R. Schach

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a substantial comparison of different high-speed transportation systems and an approach to stochastic cost estimations are provided. Starting from the developments in Europe, the high-speed traffic technical characteristics of high-speed railways and Maglev systems are compared. But for a comprehensive comparison more criterions must be included and led to a wider consideration and the development of a multi-criteria comparison of high-speed transportation systems. In the second part a stochastic approach to cost estimations of infrastructure projects is encouraged. Its advantages in comparison with the traditional proceeding are presented and exemplify the practical implementation.

  5. Dasatinib for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: patient selection and special considerations.

    Keskin, Dilek; Sadri, Sevil; Eskazan, Ahmet Emre

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib is one of the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in imatinib resistance and/or intolerance, as well as in the frontline setting in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia-chronic phase, and also in patients with advanced disease. It is also utilized in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia. While choosing the appropriate tyrosine kinase inhibitor (ie, dasatinib) for each individual patient, comorbidities and BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations should always be taken into consideration, among other things. This review mainly focuses on patient selection prior to dasatinib administration in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.

  6. Design considerations for a dental health care for patients with special needs.

    Krishnan Lakshmi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Out of 121 million population, 2.86 crore accounts for disabled people which 1.21% of total population. It has been reported that oral health care status of disabled people are poor than normal population. The main reason for this situation is barrier to access health care centres. This article throws light on definition and types of disability listed by Indian government. It also highlights the prevalence of disability and their oral health status. Article focuses on barrier in accessing dental care and guidelines required to build a disable friendly dental health care deliver center to make the treatment acceptable for such pupils. It is utmost important to provide dental care to such patients by overcoming the barrier to accessibility. Before motivating the patients and caregivers, it is the dentist who has to be motivated first in fulfilling special health care needs of patients resulting in improvement of quality of life.

  7. High power spatial filter considerations, with special emphasis on the cyclops geometry

    Simmons, W.W.; Guch, S.

    1974-01-01

    This document presents considerations leading to location and first-cut design of a lens-pinhole-lens spatial filter for Cyclops laser chain. Small scale beam break-up is the driving phenomenon for spatial filtering, and design is predicated upon estimates of this effect's magnitude. The departure of the beam from diffraction limited performance (due to astigmatism and to whole beam self-focusing) is presented in terms of pinhole size limitations. All calculations are presented in terms of parameters associated with Cyclops, through the B stages, assuming that the spatial filter is located at this point in the chain, and that the focal length of the input spatial filter lens is 100 cm. The geometrical ray diagram is shown

  8. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  9. Preparing for the unexpected: special considerations and complications after sugammadex administration.

    Iwasaki, Hajime; Renew, J Ross; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Brull, Sorin J

    2017-10-17

    Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, has changed clinical practice of neuromuscular reversal dramatically. With the introduction of this selective relaxant binding agent, rapid and reliable neuromuscular reversal from any depth of block became possible. Sugammadex can reverse neuromuscular blockade without the muscarinic side effects typically associated with the administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. However, what remained unchanged is the incidence of residual neuromuscular blockade. It is known that sugammadex cannot always prevent its occurrence, if appropriate dosing is not chosen based on the level of neuromuscular paralysis prior to administration determined by objective neuromuscular monitoring. Alternatively, excessive doses of sugammadex administered in an attempt to ensure full and sustained reversal may affect the effectiveness of rocuronium in case of immediate reoperation or reintubation. In such emergent scenarios that require onset of rapid and reliable neuromuscular blockade, the summary of product characteristics (package insert) recommends using benzylisoquinolinium neuromuscular blocking agents or a depolarizing agent. However, if rapid intubation is required, succinylcholine has a significant number of side effects, and benzylisoquinolinium agents may not have the rapid onset required. Therefore, prior administration of sugammadex introduces a new set of potential problems that require new solutions. This novel reversal agent thus presents new challenges and anesthesiologists must familiarize themselves with specific issues with its use (e.g., bleeding risk, hypermagnesemia, hypothermia). This review will address sugammadex administration in such special clinical situations.

  10. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations worldwide, with special reference to organic compounds in leachates and gases

    Rushbrook, P.E.; McGahan, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are defined and ground disposal practices worldwide are discussed. The organic content of low-level wastes is tabulated and the organic composition of leachates and gaseous emissions from low-level wastes in the U.K. and U.S.A. are discussed. The radionuclide content of these leachates is tabulated. (U.K.)

  11. Cartilage grafting in facial reconstruction with special consideration of irradiated grafts

    Donald, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The search for the perfect facial implant for reconstruction of the face continues. Cartilage, once thought to be an undesirable graft material because of its propensity for absorption, has regained popularity in the past decade. Various preparation techniques have been employed to ensure graft sterility and diminished absorption. An improved understanding of cartilage structure and physiology has shed considerable light on the host-graft relationship. Gamma irradiation is a time-honored method of preservation. An experiment was undertaken to investigate the physiology of irradiated cartilage grafts following prolonged implantation on the facial skeleton of sheep and dog. Merthiolate preserved grafts were used as controls. Direct observation, histochemical techniques, autoradiography, and transmission electron micrography were used to determine chondrocyte viability and matrix composition. It was surprising to note that following implantation of 16 to 72 months, complete resorption was seen in 87.7% of the irradiated grafts and in 43.8% of the Merthiolate stored controls. Many of the grafts acquired chondrocytes from the host and produced new proteoglycan matrix as well as undergoing some degree of ossification. A comparison to the clinical situation in humans is made. 98 references

  12. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  13. Sedation/general anesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging in paediatrics patients - special considerations and safety

    Tzoneva, D.; Hinev, S.; Guergueltcheva, V.; Chamova, T.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study requires the patient to remain motionless for extended periods of time, which can not be achieved in children without special care or drug-induced sleep. There are various methods for sedation / general anaesthesia (GA) in children with their different advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study was to report our experience with sedation/GA in children who require MRI/computed-tomography (CT) studies. We performed a retrospective review of the sedation/GA records in 34 children aged from 6 months to 12 years; class ASA I-III, undergoing diagnostic MR/CT study. Demographic data, information regarding diagnosis, type of sedation/GA, use of premedication, time to readiness for the procedure after premedication administration, duration of procedure, and the recovery time were obtained. Any adverse events were noted. Imaging study in most of the patients (61.8%) was performed for neurological diseases (delayed neuropsychological development, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy). Sedation/GA with Propofol was administered in 50% (n=17) of patients, in 26.5% (n=9) - Ketamine plus Midazolam; in 20.6% (n=7) - Midazolam alone, and in 9% (n=1) - Thiopental. The time to readiness for the procedure and the recovery time were statistically significantly shorter for patients receiving Propofol, and the observed adverse respiratory events were mild in severity, when compared with patients receiving sedation/GA with another hypnotic agent (p<0.05).The evaluation of the respiratory system before sedation/GA should be carefully performed, as the respiratory diseases could increase the patients' risk of adverse events occurrence. Sedation/GA with Propofol is a method of choice in children with neurological disorders with seizures, increased intracranial pressure and myopathies, undergoing MR/CT study. Crucial for patients' safety and good clinical results is the medical professionals, delivering sedation/GA, to have the knowledge and practical

  14. Accuracy of internal dose calculations with special consideration of radiopharmaceutical biokinetics

    Roedler, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The individual steps of internal dose calculation, including the models and data used, as well as error considerations, are analysed following a short synopsis on the formalism of absorbed dose calculation. The mean dose in a target tissue depends on the administered activity, the residence time of the activity in the source tissues and the mean absorbed dose in the target tissue per transformation in a source tissue. Usually, a standard dosage is applied in radionuclide studies except in children. Actually administered and nomial activities generally differ by less than 10%. For the purpose of internal dose calculation, the biokinetics of a radiopharmaceutical are reflected in the residence times for the individual source tissues. The methods and the evaluation of measurements of biodistribution and retention data are discussed. The extrapolation of animal data to man is treated in some detail, including a survey of the methods used, as well as an attempt for validating these methods. None of these seem to yield more convincing results than the direct transfer of the residence times from animal to man, at least for the two radiopharmaceuticals discussed. The minimum period of measurement to derive residence times for the purpose of dose calculation has been determined as about one physical half-time. Some problems of the dose per transformation to a phantom are presented, including the age- or size-dependence of the internal dose. Organ doses to the phantom, calculated from different apparently reliable sets of biokinetic data, are generally compatible within a factor of 2 to 3, and somatically effective doses are generally compatible within a factor of less than 2

  15. Special Considerations for Qualifying Thin Films for Supper Pressure Pumpkin Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    Said, M.

    service. In this work, a special emphasis will be given to the creep and dynamic characteristics of selected coextruded films and their dependence on the loading level and temperature. Preliminary testing has suggested t at the creep behavior of theh coextruded linear low density resin films is highly dependent on temperature and that the dynamic response depends on the make up of the composite film. In addition, the paper will, in general, highlight the process of qualify ing thin films for the pumpkin class of super pressure balloons.

  16. Greater-confinement disposal

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  17. Special Analysis: Atmospheric Dose Resulting from the Release of C14 from Reactor Moderator Deionizers in a Disposal Environment

    Hiergesell, Robert A.; Swingle, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The proposed action of disposing of 52 moderator deionizer vessels within the ILV was evaluated in this SA. In particular, a detailed analysis of the release of 14 C via the atmospheric pathway was conducted for these vessels since the major concern has been the nearly 20 Ci of 14 C that is associated with each vessel. The more rigorous evaluation of the atmospheric pathway for 14 C included incorporation of new information about the chemical availability of 14 C when disposed in a grout/cement encapsulation environment, as will be the case in the ILV. This information was utilized to establish the source term for a 1-D numerical model to simulate the diffusion of 14 CO 2 from the ILV Waste Zone to the land surface. The results indicate a peak surface emanation rate from the entire ILV of 1.42E-08 Ci/yr with an associated dose of only 3.83E-05 mrem/yr to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at 100m. The fact that the atmospheric pathway exposure for 14 C is controlled by chemical solubility limits for 14 C between the solid waste, pore water and pore vapor within the disposal environment rather than the absolute inventory suggests that the establishment of specific facility limits is inappropriate. With the relaxation of the atmospheric pathway restriction, the groundwater pathway becomes the more restrictive in terms of disposing 14 C or 14 C KB within the ILV. Since the resin-based 14 C of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels is highly similar to the 14 C KB waste form, the inventory from the 52 deionizer vessels is compared against the groundwater limits for that waste form. The small groundwater pathway fraction (1.14E-05) calculated for the proposed inventory of the 52 moderator deionizer vessels indicates that the proposed action will have an insignificant impact with respect to possible exposures via the groundwater pathway. This investigation recommends that there be no ILV Atmospheric pathway limit for 14 C and 14 C KB . Further, in the absence of an

  18. Special issue on Ecology, evolution, and conservation of plants in China: Introduction and some considerations

    Liu, J. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has one of the world’s richest floras with around 33,000 vascular plants, of which up to 17,000 are endemic. Besides these astonishing figures, the Chinese flora is very interesting from the point of view of evolution, as it shows a strong relictual character with some truly “living fossils” such as Ginkgo biloba or Metasequoia glyptostroboides. At the same time, China probably harbours the most important ‘‘evolutionary front’’ of the world’s temperate flora, the Hengduan Mountains. Unfortunately, the flora of China also includes a high number of threatened species (with nearly 4000, mostly due to the destruction of natural habitats and the over-exploitation of natural resources. This special issue, which corresponds to volume 34 of Collectanea Botanica, is aimed to contribute to the knowledge of Chinese flora through a series of contributions (seven full-length articles and one short note spanning several topics such as biogeography, conservation, demography, ecology, evolution, and plant-animal interactions.China tiene una de las floras más ricas del mundo con alrededor 33.000 plantas vasculares, de las cuales hasta 17.000 son endémicas. Además de estas cifras asombrosas, la flora china es muy interesante desde el punto de vista de la evolución, ya que muestra un fuerte carácter relictual con algunos auténticos «fósiles vivientes» como Ginkgo biloba o Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Al mismo tiempo, China probablemente alberga el «frente evolutivo» más importante de las floras templadas del mundo, las montañas Hengduan. Por desgracia, la flora de China también destaca por el elevado número de especies amenazadas (casi 4000, sobre todo debido a la destrucción de los hábitats y la sobreexplotación de los recursos naturales. Este número especial, que corresponde al volumen 34 de Collectanea Botanica, tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento de la flora de China a través de una serie de contribuciones

  19. Potential co-disposal of greater-than-class C low-level radioactive waste with Department of Energy special case waste - greater-than-class C low-level waste management program

    Allred, W.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates the feasibility of co-disposing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) special case waste (SCW). This document: (1) Discusses and evaluates key issues concerning co-disposal of GTCC LLW with SCW. This includes examining these issues in terms of regulatory concerns, technical feasibility, and economics; (2) Examines advantages and disadvantages of such co-disposal; and (3) Makes recommendations. Research and analysis of the issues presented in this report indicate that it would be technically and economically feasible to co-dispose of GTCC LLW with DOE SCW. However, a dilemma will likely arise in the current division of regulatory responsibilities between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and DOE (i.e., current requirement for disposal of GTCC LLW in a facility licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). DOE SCW is currently not subject to this licensing requirement

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  1. On the disposal of solid radioactive wastes at hospitals

    Rogge, B.; Lewe, P.

    1987-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive materials in hospitals represents a considerable problem from the point of view of economics and organisation as well as from the point of view of radiological safety. On the one-hand, groups of people (nursing personal and clean-up crews) are involved in the handling of contaminated materials who can be instructed in special handling procedures only to a limited degree with the result that simple and clear procedures must be developed; on the other hand, such simply structured routes of disposal result in enormous volumes of radioactive waste, which represent a considerable cost factor. At the Offenbach City Hospital a concept has been created which takes these problems into account. It consists of nuclide-specific collection in groups, reduction of volume by breaking up of materials, interim storage, and government approved disposal as special hospital waste materials. (orig.) [de

  2. Finite-element model evaluation of barrier configurations to reduce infiltration into waste-disposal structures: preliminary results and design considerations

    Lu, A.H.; Phillips, S.J.; Adams, M.R.

    1982-09-01

    Barriers to reduce infiltration into waste burial disposal structures (trenches, pits, etc.) may be required to provide adequate waste confinement. The preliminary engineering design of these barriers should consider interrelated barrier performance factors. This paper summarizes preliminary computer simulation activities to further engineering barrier design efforts. Several barrier configurations were conceived and evaluated. Models were simulated for each barrier configuration using a finite element computer code. Results of this preliminary evaluation indicate that barrier configurations, depending on their morphology and materials, may significantly influence infiltration, flux, drainage, and storage of water through and within waste disposal structures. 9 figures

  3. S. 705: A Bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, April 5, 1989

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    S. 705 is a bill to assure fair consideration of the interests of states likely to be affected by the establishment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Notification of adjacent states is proposed when waste disposal operations are contemplated at border sites

  4. Food and feed supply and waste disposal in the industrialising city of Vienna (1830-1913): a special focus on urban nitrogen flows.

    Gierlinger, Sylvia

    Taking an urban metabolism perspective, this article investigates food and feed consumption as well as flows of nitrogen in the city of Vienna during the industrial transformation. It addresses the question of the amount of agricultural products consumed in the city and their nitrogen content, their origin and their fate after consumption. Changes in dietary nitrogen flows in nineteenth century Vienna are embedded in the context of a socio-ecological transition from an agrarian to an industrial socio-metabolic regime. Similarities and differences in the size and dynamics of urban nitrogen flows in Vienna and Paris are discussed. Critical reading of historical sources and historical material flow accounting are the methodological backbone of this study. Between 1830 and 1913, inflows of dietary nitrogen into the city increased fivefold. Throughout the time period under observation, the urban waterscape was the most important sink for human and animal excreta. The amount of nitrogen disposed of in the urban waterscape via urban excreta increased sevenfold. The average daily consumption of nitrogen per capita was very similar to that in Paris, but the composition of foodstuff differed. In Vienna, the share of meat in food consumption was considerably higher. Both cities had to face the challenge of increasing output flows. However, urban authorities in Vienna and Paris came to different solutions of how to deal with this challenge. Besides institutional settings, the specific geomorphology of the cities as well as biogeographic factors such as the absorption capacity of the Danube in Vienna and the Seine in Paris mattered.

  5. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Haase, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic-fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  6. Geological and petrological considerations relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing: an example at the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Haase, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory the Pumpkin Valley Shale is used as a host formation for hydraulic fracturing waste disposal. Determination of the relationships between the distribution of different lithologies and porosity-permeability trends within this host formation allows these properties, important to hydraulic fracturing operations, to be related to measurable and mappable geological and petrological parameters. It also permits extrapolation of such patterns to little-studied portions of the Pumpkin Valley Shale. Such knowledge better allows for the satisfactory operation and assessment of the hydraulic fracturing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  7. Pre-specialization - Considerations for more focused and personalized educational modules in the twenty-first century.

    Han, Jason J; Vapiwala, Neha

    2018-04-14

    This essay provides a multidisciplinary discussion of the current medical education curriculum and the increasing need to adapt it to our rapidly evolving and expanding healthcare environment. Thorough literature search on the topic of medical school curriculum, ranging from its historical origins to contemporary practice as well as statistics, was conducted. The authors give a brief historical overview of and rationale behind the current structure of the medical education system in America. The recent trends towards information overload and rapid evolution of the evidence-base are discussed. Specialization, as a means of responding to the burgeoning abundance of information in medicine, is described. The authors further provide current as well as foreseeable limitations of today's medical training paradigm as the trend towards specialization continues. The potential negative influences of a specialist-focused training paradigm on the overall length of training and the degree of autonomy exercised by generalists are described. A proposal toward pre-specialization at the level of medical school is introduced and elaborated upon. The authors incorporate social psychology principles and analyze trends toward career specialization, highlighting potential benefits to a different-size-for-all approach. The importance of optionality and flexibility of such a curriculum is emphasized. The authors describe the inevitable trend toward specialization, and the need to fundamentally re-configure American medical education system to behoove trainees' experiences and quality of training during the 21st century.

  8. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised.

  9. Shielding design of disposal container for disused sealed radioactive source

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl

    2017-01-01

    Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRSs), which are stored temporally in the centralized storage facility of Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), will be disposed of in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Wolsong. Accordingly, the future plan on DSRS disposal should be established as soon as possible in connection with the construction and operation plan of disposal facility. In this study, as part of developing the systematic management plan, the radiation shielding analysis for three types of disposal container was performed for all kinds of radionuclides (excluding mixed sources) contained in DSRSs generated from domestic area using MicroShield and MCNP5 codes in consideration of the preliminary post-closure safety assessment result for disposal options, source-specific characteristics, and etc. In accordance with the analysis result, thickness of inner container for general disposal container and dimensions (i.e. diameter and height) of inner capsule for two types of special disposal container were determined as 3 mm, OD40×H120 mm (for type 1), and OD100× H240 mm (for type 2), respectively. These values were reflected in the conceptual design of DSRS disposal container, and the structural integrity of each container was confrmed through the structural analysis carried out separately from this study. Given the shielding and structural analysis results, the conceptual design derived from this study sufficiently fulfills the technical standards in force and the design performance level. And consequently, it is judged that the safe management for DSRSs to be disposed of is achieved by utilizing the disposal container with the conceptual design devised

  10. 34 CFR 403.172 - What special considerations must the State board give in approving projects, services, and...

    2010-07-01

    ... years of age in order to assist their entry into, or advancement in, high-technology occupations or to... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the Secretary Assist Under the Special Programs? Business-Labor-Education Partnership for Training Program § 403...

  11. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  12. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    None, None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  13. Disposal of Iodine-129

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  14. Incorporating Social Support in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa: Special Considerations for Older Adolescents and Young Adults

    Pisetsky, Emily M.; Utzinger, Linsey M.; Peterson, Carol B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research support is strongest for family-based treatment (FBT) for the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents. However, a strong evidence base for treatments for older adolescents and young adults with AN is lacking. Emphasizing social support in the treatment of AN may be beneficial for older adolescents and young adults with AN. This paper provides a brief review of the literature on FBT for adolescent AN and provides a case example of adolescent AN treated with FBT. We then discuss novel treatments that have incorporated social support for older adolescents and young adults with AN, such as modified FBT and couples-based interventions. We provide case studies of each of these novel treatment approaches as well. Additionally, this paper highlights and discusses developmental considerations and challenges in working with older adolescents and young adults with AN. PMID:27429544

  15. Disposal safety

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  16. Waste disposal

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  17. Mathematical modelling of sewage sludge incineration in a bubbling fluidised bed with special consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles.

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Fluidised bed combustor (FBC) is one of the key technologies for sewage sludge incineration. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the simulation of a large-scale sewage sludge incineration plant. The model assumes the bed consisting of a fast-gas phase, an emulsion phase and a fuel particle phase with specific consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles. The model further improves over previous works by taking into account throughflow inside the bubbles as well as the floating and random movement of the fuel particles inside the bed. Validation against both previous lab-scale experiments and operational data of a large-scale industrial plant was made. Calculation results indicate that combustion split between the bed and the freeboard can range from 60/40 to 90/10 depending on the fuel particle distribution across the bed height under the specific conditions. The bed performance is heavily affected by the variation in sludge moisture level. The response time to variation in feeding rate is different for different parameters, from 6 min for outlet H2O, 10 min for O2, to 34 min for bed temperature.

  18. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of alternatively fueled buses with special considerations for V2G technology

    Shirazi, Yosef; Carr, Edward; Knapp, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by climate, health and economic considerations, alternatively-fueled bus fleets have emerged worldwide. Two popular alternatives are compressed natural gas (CNG) and electric vehicles. The latter provides the opportunity to generate revenue through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services if properly equipped. This analysis conducts a robust accounting of the costs of diesel, CNG and battery-electric powertrains for school buses. Both marginal and fleet-wide scenarios are explored. Results indicate that the marginal addition of neither a small CNG nor a small V2G-enabled electric bus is cost effective at current prices. Contrary to previous findings, a small V2G-enabled electric bus increases net present costs by $7,200/seat relative to diesel for a Philadelphia, PA school district. A small CNG bus increases costs by $1,200/seat relative to diesel. This analysis is the first to quantify and include the economic implications of cold temperature extremes on electric vehicle battery operations, and the lower V2G revenues that result. Additional costs and limitations imposed by electric vehicles performing V2G are frequently overlooked in the literature and are explored here. If a variety of technical, legal, and economic challenges are overcome, a future eBus may be economical. - Highlights: • We present a robust cost-benefit analysis of various bus technologies. • Diesel is a low-cost technology at current prices. • CNG represents slightly higher costs on a marginal bus basis. • V2G-enabled electric buses are not cost-effective at current prices. • We identify frequently overlooked costs and challenges to V2G implementation.

  20. Use of enzymes for the evaluation of treated straw under special consideration of the influence of gamma irradiation

    Nehring, K.; Friedel, K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to utilise the nutrients in straw as much as possible a large variety of methods has been developed in the last few years. The following methods of straw treatment were considered: (1) use of chemicals with an alkaline effect, (2) defibration with alkaline prehydrolysis, (3) steam-pressure-extraction method, (4) γ irradiation, and (5) treatment with whit rot fungi. After straw treatment with alkalis there is practically no change in the composition of the straw. Enzymatic methods of investigation particulary the cellulase method, showed distinct relations between in vivo digestibility and 'digestibility' in the cellulase method. With the help of regression analysis equations were developed with which the in vivo values can be calculated. The defibration method primarily changed the structure of the material, which resulted in better accessibility to the influence of enzymes. Up to DOM values of 70 % the activity of cellulase decomposed the majority of carbohydrates. With the steam-pressure-extraction method the disintegration of the morphologic structure was achieved at a temperature of approximately 180 0 C and subsequent rapid relaxation ('explosion process') so that solubility values of approximately 70 % could be achieved with the cellulase method, too. The effect of γ-rays depended to a high degree on the intensity of the treatment. In various materials such as wood, straw or green forage the treatment effect starts at the same intensity of radiation of more than 0.1 MGy and then increases proportionally to the applied radiation energy. Above all, the highly polymeric carbohydrates are split, partly down to their monomeric components which can be further decomposed with cellulase. The treatment with fungi resulted in a considerable decrease of the lignin content and in the increase of the DOM values. The various methods of treatment must be valued differently as to their processes; the cellulase method seems to reveal a new possibility of relative

  1. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  2. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization; Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Rapsanbau unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Stickstoffduengung

    Heilmann, Hubert [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenproduktion und Betriebswirtschaft; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-08-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  3. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  4. Percutaneous tracheostomy--special considerations.

    Ernst, Armin; Critchlow, Jonathan

    2003-09-01

    Percutaneous tracheostomy is safe and highly effective in well-trained hands in establishing a long-term artificial airway. Most alleged contraindications and some suggestions on how the procedures should be performed likely stem from early trials when only "perfect candidates" were chosen. Most of those contraindications should not be viewed as prohibitions, but as suggestions related to the skill level and training of the operator. We have used this technique in many situations where the small incision and tamponading effect of the tracheostomy tube has been quite beneficial, in selected patients with coagulapathies and severe venous congestion from superior cava syndromes as well as thyroid cancers, and in whom operative approaches would have been difficult. Knowing one's level of expertise and comfort in choosing and rejecting patients and procedures accordingly is the key to keeping PT a procedure with an excellent safety record. As the experience with PT grows, more and more perceived contraindications will disappear. Studies will address the role of PT in children and as a means of establishing emergent airway access. Also, the exact coagulation limits will need to be established. Few contraindications will most likely remain absolute, such as active infections over the proposed entry site, uncontrollable bleeding disorders and excessive ventilatory and oxygenation requirements. In our institution, taking into account these absolute contraindications, fewer than 5% of patients in need of a tracheostomy in the intensive care unit will undergo a primary open procedure.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  6. Waste disposal

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  7. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  9. Geohydrological considerations in land disposal of LLW

    Yeh, G.T.; Tamura, T.

    1981-01-01

    The geohydrological and geochemical factors that affect the transport, transfer, and transformation of the waste in the aquifer system as a result of shallow land burial practices are discussed. They include surface topography and its character, the extent of the aquifer, nearby surface water bodies, groundwater basin divide, watershed boundaries, rainfall rate, infiltration from surface water bodies, potential evapotranspiration, hydraulic conductivity, water capacity, porosity, compressibility of the matrix, dispersivity, hydrolysis, photolysis, oxidation, volatilization, biolysis, precipitation, mineral comosition, and flow dynamics. Depending on the availability of data and the detail of information desired, three levels of analyses may be undertaken. Two examples are used to illustrate these three levels of analyses using hypothetical parameters. The examples are constructed to represent the leaching from wet water body and shallow burials, respectively. The former typifies a class of problems of groundwater contamination from coal-catching basins and uranium mill tailings. The latter represents classical examples of shallow land burials such as coal solid wastes, chemical dumping and sanitary landfill

  10. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  11. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  12. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    the characterization of the disposal facility . In the frame of the performance assessment, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for the Saligny disposal facility have been conducted, consulting associate activity for the three phases corresponding to the disposal: (i) operational period; (ii) institutionalized control; (iii) post-operative control. In source term evaluating study and of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, we took into consideration radionuclide 60 Co, 137 Cs, 3 H and 14 C, these representing the most relevant radionuclide generated by the operation of the nuclear power plant. The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis applies to Saligny disposal facility, correlated with special parameters that are influencing the release of radionuclide from repository, was conducted by using a computer code which yielded results allowing the characterization of the disposal facility at the end of the operational period and to eliminate the uncertainties. (author)

  13. Waste Disposal

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  14. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    None

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  15. Operation of controlled-air incinerators and design considerations for controlled-air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes

    McRee, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic theory and design philosophies of the so-called controlled-air incinerator and examines the features of this equipment that make it ideally suited to the application of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Special equipment design considerations for controlled air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes are presented. 9 figures

  16. Waste disposal

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  17. Waste disposal

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  18. Regional disposal, a feasible solution for Romania

    Radu, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Almost every country that exploits or builds nuclear power plants is engaged in its own research or international cooperation programs aiming at identification of optimal solutions of closing the fuel cycle and finding feasible technologies for final disposal of spent fuel and high-level wastes resulting from reprocessing. The general trend that manifests in these countries is to manage on their own territories the final disposal while considering the possibility of regional arrangements for common disposal. But this latter alternative has not been definitively analyzed and decided upon. Hence, European Union and IAEA look for solutions of long term (of the order of hundreds years) for the final disposal, particularly within regional facilities. Multinational repositories where disposal of high-level wastes or spent fuel should appear as a paid specialized servicing, where the operation technical conditions would be well established, as secure from nuclear safety and physical point of view, under the provisions of safeguards agreements, are still under consideration. No matter of the option which will be chosen, closing the nuclear cycle and ensuring a final disposal facility for radioactive wastes are compulsory tasks and issues with many aspects in common (establishing a site hosted by stable deep geological formations, protection by engineered barriers to prevent dispersion of radioactive products into the environment, long term analyses, etc). In this circumstances, having in mind that no other variant appears to be achievable before 2020-2050, intermediate term storage appears as compulsory a solution in developing the fuel cycle both world wide and in Romania, As early as in the first half of 2003 at Cernavoda, the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel (DICA) was commissioned. This is a facility founded for the first time in Romania aiming at closing the fuel cycle. The paper presents the current issues and the results obtained so far within the frame of

  19. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  20. Medical management of chronic liver diseases (CLD) in children (part II): focus on the complications of CLD, and CLD that require special considerations.

    El-Shabrawi, Mortada H F; Kamal, Naglaa M

    2011-12-01

    with antibiotics, use of vasopressin analogs (terlipressin), and renal replacement therapy if needed. Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension are best managed by liver transplantation. Provision of an adequate caloric supply, nutrition, and vitamin/mineral supplements for the management of growth failure, required vaccinations, and special care for ensuring psychologic well-being should be ensured. Anticoagulation might be attempted in acute portal vein thrombosis. Some CLDs, such as extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), Crigler-Najjar syndrome, and Indian childhood cirrhosis, require special considerations. For EHBA, Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy is the current standard surgical approach in combination with nutritional therapy and supplemental fat and water soluble vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. In type 1 Crigler-Najjar syndrome, extensive phototherapy is the mainstay of treatment, in association with adjuvant therapy to bind photobilirubin such as calcium phosphate, cholestyramine, or agar, until liver transplantation can be carried out. Treating Indian childhood cirrhosis with penicillamine early in the course of the disease and at doses similar to those used to treat Wilson disease decreases the mortality rate by half. New hopes for the future include extracorporeal liver support devices (the molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS®] and Prometheus®), hepatocyte transplantation, liver-directed gene therapy, genetically engineered enzymes, and therapeutic modalities targeting fibrogenesis. Hepapoietin, a naturally occurring cytokine that promotes hepatocyte growth, is under extensive research.

  1. Studies on the optimal disposal of radioactive wastes with special attention to the thermal influence on the surrounding salt bed and to economic aspects

    Kunstman, A.S.; Urbanczyk, K.M.; Wierzchon, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the method commonly applied in Poland of forecasting the thermal character of an underground high-level radioactive waste repository. It is used for optimizing the mine excavation configuration as well as the order of storage. This method is shown with an example of the research results for the central radioactive waste repository. A short description of the designed repository as well as a comparison of expenditure for underground and surface repositories is given. The method shown in this paper of forecasting the temperature rise in the repository is based on the superposition of the analytical integral solutions of the heat conductivity equation for a single canister - the heat source. The detailed computer tabulation of these solutions enables forecasting the possibility of fast temperature increase at any repository point and at any time, taking into consideration localization and storage time for each of the thousands of stored canisters individually. In the repository design phase this allows the speedy investigation of various variants in the configuration of the placement and transportation corridors as well as the choice of a variant ensuring the best utilization of the repository area and also suitable working conditions for both mining and placement crews. (author)

  2. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  3. Principles of developing a well-rounded program of physical rehabilitation for female students in the special medical group with consideration of physical activity impairment

    N. R. Golod

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to highlight the main provisions of a comprehensive physical rehabilitation program for students of special medical group based on violations of the motor capacity. Material : testing 24 students of special medical group and the same number of their healthy peers on standardized tests of physical qualities. To reflect the movement disorders applied functional movement screen. Results : a program of rehabilitation of the students included: lifestyle modification; morning hygienic gymnastics; kinesitherapy (using yoga fitness, functional training; aerobic exercise (swimming, Nordic Walking, jogging, aerobics wellness; massage. First presented a unified approach to working with students of special medical groups - selection based on load capacity motor disorders according to the results of tests of functional movement screen. The complexity of the impact of the program involves the impact on the physical, social and mental health components. Conclusions : the author's program of physical rehabilitation of students of special medical group is complex.

  4. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  5. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  6. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Estimating waste disposal quantities from raw waste samples

    Negin, C.A.; Urland, C.S.; Hitz, C.G.; GPU Nuclear Corp., Middletown, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Estimating the disposal quantity of waste resulting from stabilization of radioactive sludge is complex because of the many factors relating to sample analysis results, radioactive decay, allowable disposal concentrations, and options for disposal containers. To facilitate this estimation, a microcomputer spread sheet template was created. The spread sheet has saved considerable engineering hours. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  8. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements

    2011-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to all types of radioactive waste disposal facility. It is linked to the fundamental safety principles for each disposal option and establishes a set of strategic requirements that must be in place before facilities are developed. Consideration is also given to the safety of existing facilities developed prior to the establishment of present day standards. The requirements will be complemented by Safety Guides that will provide guidance on good practice for meeting the requirements for different types of waste disposal facility. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Safety requirements for planning for the disposal of radioactive waste; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of a disposal facility; 5. Assurance of safety; 6. Existing disposal facilities; Appendices.

  9. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    Simmons, G.R.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  10. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  11. High activity waste disposal

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  12. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  13. Removal of Legacy Low-Level Waste Reactor Moderator De-ionizer Resins Highly Contaminated with Carbon-14 from the 'Waste with no Path to Disposal List' Through Innovative Technical Analysis and Performance Assessment Techniques

    Goldston, W.T.; Hiergesell, R.A.; Kaplan, D.I.; Pope, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), nuclear production reactors used de-ionizers to control the chemistry of the reactor moderator during their operation to produce nuclear materials primarily for the weapons program. These de-ionizers were removed from the reactors and stored as a legacy waste and due to the relatively high carbon-14 (C-14) contamination (i.e., on the order of 740 giga becquerel (GBq) (20 curies) per de-ionizer) were considered a legacy 'waste with no path to disposal'. Considerable progress has been made in consideration of a disposal path for the legacy reactor de-ionizers. Presently, 48 - 50 de-ionizers being stored at SRS have 'no path to disposal' because the disposal limit for C-14 in the SRS's low-level waste disposal facility's Intermediate Level Vault (ILV) is only 160 GBq (4.2 curies) per vault. The current C-14 ILV disposal limit is based on a very conservative analysis of the air pathway. The paper will describe the alternatives that were investigated that resulted in the selection of a route to pursue. This paper will then describe SRS's efforts to reduce the conservatism in the analysis, which resulted in a significantly larger C-14 disposal limit. The work consisted of refining the gas-phase analysis to simulate the migration of C-14 from the waste to the ground surface and evaluated the efficacy of carbonate chemistry in cementitious environment of the ILV for suppressing the volatilization of C-14. During the past year, a Special Analysis was prepared for Department of Energy approval to incorporate the results of these activities that increased the C-14 disposal limits for the ILV, thus allowing for disposal of the Reactor Moderator De-ionizers. Once the Special Analysis is approved by DOE, the actual disposal would be dependent on priority and funding, but the de-ionizers will be removed from the 'waste with no path to disposal list'. (authors)

  14. Radioactive waste disposal

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  15. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  16. Disposal options for disused radioactive sources

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a review of relevant information on the various technical factors and issues, as well as approaches and relevant technologies, leading to the identification of potential disposal options for disused radioactive sources. The report attempts to provide a logical 'road map' for the disposal of disused radioactive sources, taking into consideration the high degree of variability in the radiological properties of such types of radioactive waste. The use of borehole or shaft type repositories is highlighted as a potential disposal option, particularly for those countries that have limited resources and are looking for a simple, safe and cost effective solution for the disposal of their radioactive source inventories. It offers information about usage and characteristics of radioactive sources, disposal considerations, identification and screening of disposal options as well as waste packaging and acceptance criteria for disposal. The information provided in the report could be adapted or adopted to identify and develop specific disposal options suitable for the type and inventory of radioactive sources kept in storage in a given Member State

  17. Methods of characterization of salt formations in view of spent fuel final disposal

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Deep disposal in geological formations of salt, granite and clay seems to be at present the most proper and commonly adopted solution for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Disposing such wastes represents the top-priority issue of the European research community in the field of nuclear power. Although seemingly premature for Romanian power system, the interest for final disposal of spent fuel is justified by the long duration implied by the studies targeting this objective. At the same time these studies represent the Romanian nuclear research contribution in the frame of the efforts of integration within the European research field. Although Romania has not made so far a decision favoring a given geological formation for the final disposal of spent fuel resulting from Cernavoda NPP, the most generally taken into consideration appears the salt formation. The final decision will be made following the evaluation of its performances to spent fuel disposal based on the values of the specific parameters of the geological formation. In order to supply the data required as input parameters in the codes of evaluation of the geological formation performances, the INR Pitesti initiated a package of modern and complex methodologies for such determinations. The studies developed so far followed up the special phenomenon of salt convergence, a phenomenon characteristic for only this kind of rock, as well as the radionuclide migration. These studies allow a better understanding of these processes of upmost importance for disposal's safety. The methods and the experimental installation designed and realized at INR Pitesti aimed at determination of thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat, which are all parameters of high specific interest for high level radioactive waste or spent fuel disposal. The paper presents the results of these studies as well as the methodologies, the experimental installations and the findings

  18. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  19. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  20. Environmental considerations associated with siting, constructing, and operating a special isotope separation plant at INEL: Volume 1, Proceedings: Report of public hearings

    1987-03-01

    This report documents the two public hearings conducted for the purpose of determining the scope of issues to be addressed in relation to the siting, constructing, and operating of a special isotope separation plant at INEL. The report includes transcripts of the public hearings held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, February 24, 1987, and in Boise, Idaho, February 26, 1987, and includes the exhibits of records relating to those hearings. The review and hearing process meets pertinent National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidelines

  1. Environmental considerations associated with siting, constructing, and operating a special isotope separation plant at INEL: Volume 2, Proceedings: Report of public hearings

    1987-03-01

    This report documents the two public hearings conducted for the purpose of determining the scope of issues to be addressed in relation to the siting, constructing, and operating of a special isotope separation plant at INEL. The report includes transcripts of the public hearings held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, February 24, 1987, and in Boise, Idaho, February 26, 1987, and includes the exhibits of record relating to those hearings. The review and hearing process meets pertinent National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidelines

  2. The Spanish Society of Neurology's official clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy. Special considerations in epilepsy: comorbidities, women of childbearing age, and elderly patients.

    Mauri Llerda, J A; Suller Marti, A; de la Peña Mayor, P; Martínez Ferri, M; Poza Aldea, J J; Gomez Alonso, J; Mercadé Cerdá, J M

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of some population groups (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly) may limit epilepsy management. Antiepileptic treatment in these patients may require adjustments. We searched articles in Pubmed, clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy, and recommendations by the most relevant medical societies regarding epilepsy in special situations (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly). Evidence and recommendations are classified according to the prognostic criteria of Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (2001) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (2004) for therapeutic interventions. Epilepsy treatment in special cases of comorbidities must be selected properly to improve efficacy with the fewest side effects. Adjusting antiepileptic medication and/or hormone therapy is necessary for proper seizure management in catamenial epilepsy. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects and may affect fetal growth and/or cognitive development. Postpartum breastfeeding is recommended, with monitoring for adverse effects if sedative AEDs are used. Finally, the elderly are prone to epilepsy, and diagnostic and treatment characteristics in this group differ from those of other age groups. Although therapeutic limitations may be more frequent in older patients due to comorbidities, they usually respond better to lower doses of AEDs than do other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Present state on research and development of underground disposal

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    In September, 1996, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) arranged her old research and development (R and D) results to issue as a shape of `Technical report on R and D of high level radioactive waste underground disposal`. On the other hand, Radioactive waste special party in Committee of Atomic Energy at that time evaluated that technical possibility for safety establishment of underground disposal in Japan was elucidated and showed future problems in the technical development. Therefore, PNC proceeded further R and D for the second arrangement under consideration of such comments. As a result, in investigation of geological environment condition, main points were laid at study on rear-field feature and its long-term stability. In development of disposal technique, main points were laid at elucidation of design requirements confirmable to the near-field evaluation, main points were laid at upgrading validity of evaluation model to analytically evaluate the near-field feature using data with high reliability. (G.K.)

  4. Present state on research and development of underground disposal

    1996-12-01

    In September, 1996, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) arranged her old research and development (R and D) results to issue as a shape of 'Technical report on R and D of high level radioactive waste underground disposal'. On the other hand, Radioactive waste special party in Committee of Atomic Energy at that time evaluated that technical possibility for safety establishment of underground disposal in Japan was elucidated and showed future problems in the technical development. Therefore, PNC proceeded further R and D for the second arrangement under consideration of such comments. As a result, in investigation of geological environment condition, main points were laid at study on rear-field feature and its long-term stability. In development of disposal technique, main points were laid at elucidation of design requirements confirmable to the near-field evaluation, main points were laid at upgrading validity of evaluation model to analytically evaluate the near-field feature using data with high reliability. (G.K.)

  5. Low level waste disposal

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  6. Feasibility of co-disposing low-level radioactive waste with uranium mill tailings and/or FUSRAP waste

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the two most critical factors affecting a co-facility, economics and technical feasibility, indicates that neither should pose significant problems and in fact many aspects, particularly in economics, favor a co-facility over specialized disposal facilities. In consideration of costs, the symbiotic nature of co-facility economics should be recognized by the different parties the co-facility would serve. By minimizing the cost burdens of the LLW/UMTRAP disposal site users, a co-facility offers a unique opportunity for the cooperative subsidization of commercial and governmental operations. Likewise, a LLW/active tailings disposal co-facility affords two different sets of commercial users the opportunity to maximize the economic efficiency of each other's disposal operations. The technical requirements for siting a LLW or uranium mill tailings disposal facility are so similar as to appear tailor-made for a co-facility. Where differences are necessary, such as to distinguish between pollution sources in environmental monitoring, LLW and mill tailings are different. Where similarities are useful, such as in siting criteria and disposal operations, LLW and mill tailings are nearly identical. Institutional factors are split in their adaptability to a co-facility. Although public perceptions will range to both extremes, the fact that a significant percentage of the local populace may favor a co-facility serves as added incentive for such an operation. The institutional aspects which could serve as considerable impediments to co-facility development would be concern about liability in the event of site failure and licensing and legal obstacles associated with UMTRAP disposal that did not meet active tailings disposal licensing requirements

  7. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  8. Siting of nuclear power stations and the scope of preoperational investigations with special considerations of demographic aspects and the economic utilization of the neighbouring areas

    Bijak, J.

    1976-01-01

    The studies are presented on the location of atomic power stations in Poland made so far. The methods used in the studies are described which were done in two stages: preliminary location studies on the macroregional scale, and location studies on one or more of the chosen locations. Part one deals with general conditions which have to be met for location of atomic power stations and with preliminary assumptions accepted by GBS i PE ''Energoprojekt'' for location studies. Regulations and recommendations for establishing sites for atomic power stations are also given. Special location conditions are dealt with more extensively, the enviromental hazards and the need for their studies being particularly emphasized. Part two describes the scope of studies made prior to and after the time location investigations. Demographic studies and the economic utilization of the neighbouring areas are presented in more detail. (author)

  9. Siting of nuclear power stations and the scope of preoperational investigations with special considerations of demographic aspects and the economic utilization of the neighbouring areas. [Poland

    Bijak, J [Biuro Studiow i Projektow ' Energoprojekt' , Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    Studies are presented on the location of atomic power stations in Poland. The methods used in the studies are described which were done in two stages: preliminary location studies on the macroregional scale, and location studies on one or more of the chosen locations. Part one deals with general conditions which have to be met for location of atomic power stations and with preliminary assumptions accepted by GBS i PE ''Energoprojekt'' for location studies. Regulations and recommendations for establishing sites for atomic power stations are also given. Special location conditions are dealt with more extensively, the enviromental hazards and the need for their studies being particularly emphasized. Part two describes the scope of studies made prior to and after the time location investigations. Demographic studies and the economic utilization of the neighbouring areas are presented in more detail.

  10. Management of infections in critically ill returning travellers in the intensive care unit—II: clinical syndromes and special considerations in immunocompromised patients

    Jordi Rello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This position paper is the second ESCMID Consensus Document on this subject and aims to provide intensivists, infectious disease specialists, and emergency physicians with a standardized approach to the management of serious travel-related infections in the intensive care unit (ICU or the emergency department. This document is a cooperative effort between members of two European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID study groups and was coordinated by Hakan Leblebicioglu and Jordi Rello for ESGITM (ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Travellers and Migrants and ESGCIP (ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Critically Ill Patients, respectively. A relevant expert on the subject of each section prepared the first draft which was then edited and approved by additional members from both ESCMID study groups. This article summarizes considerations regarding clinical syndromes requiring ICU admission in travellers, covering immunocompromised patients.

  11. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    Maekawa, Keisuke; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  12. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  13. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the USA - Use of mill tailings impoundments as a new policy option

    Farrell, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States is facing severe and immediate capacity limitations. Seemingly intractable regulatory and jurisdictional conflicts make establishment of new LLW disposal sites effectively impossible. Uranium mill tailings impoundments constructed at conventional uranium open-cast and underground mines could offer approximately 40 to 80+ million tons of disposal capacity for low activity radioactive waste. Such impoundments would provide an enhanced, high level of environmental and health and safety protection for the direct disposal of depleted uranium, special nuclear material, technologically-enhanced, naturally-occurring radioactive material (TENORM) and mixed waste. Many waste streams, such as TENORM and decommissioning rubble, will be high-volume, low activity materials and ideally suited for disposal in such structures. Materials in a given decay chain with a total activity from all radionuclides present of ∼820 Bq/g (2.22 x 10 -08 Ci/g) with no single radionuclide present in an activity greater than ∼104 Bq/g (2,800 pCi/g) should be acceptable for disposal. Materials of this type could be accepted without any site-specific dose modelling, so long as the total activity of the tailings impoundment not exceed its design capacity (generally 82 x 10 07 Bq/metric tonne) (0.020 Ci/short ton) and the cover design requirements to limit radon releases are satisfied. This paper provides background on US LLW disposal regulations, examines LLW disposal options under active consideration by the US Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy, develops generic waste acceptance criteria and identifies policy needs for federal and state governments to facilitate use of uranium mill tailings impoundments for LLW disposal. (author)

  14. Analysis Fukushima 11032011 -- Extended analysis of the Fukushima accident on 11 March 2011 under special consideration of human and organisational factors

    2011-08-01

    After the reactor accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi on 11 March 2011, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) launched an extended analysis of the accident with the following goals: a) a comprehensive understanding of the accident unrolling and of the contributing factors; b) the identification of resulting short-, mean- and long-term requirements for the operators of Swiss nuclear power plants; c) considerations on the own surveillance activity; d) the verification of the reports delivered by the Swiss plant operators, who have to check their own plant after each incident declared as of INES 2 level or higher, whichever the location in the whole world. Undoubtedly, the design of the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi was inappropriate in what regards the tsunami induced by the earthquake, and that this was a key factor that led to the accident. The questions here are rather how it came to this clear design insufficiency and why the accident developed in the way it did. According to ENSI, answers to these questions require both technical as well as human and organisational considerations. ENSI had no direct access to information sources and, therefore, had to check the reliability of information obtained from public sources, especially from authorities, plant operators, expert organisations and, last but not least, media reports. The understanding gained in this way should enable a better evaluation of the situation in Switzerland and lead to the definition of the most urgent measures to be implemented. Since the principal cause of the Fukushima accident is a failure in the plant design, it is necessary to critically reconsider the design of the Swiss reactors to make sure that no such mistake has been done here. Another question is why this evident design failure was not identified earlier in the course of the decades of operation, and why no improvement has been made. In this context, human and organisational factors seem to play an important

  15. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  16. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  17. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  18. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    1985-12-01

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  19. German concept and status of the disposal of spent fuel elements from German research reactors

    Komorowski, K.; Storch, S.; Thamm, G.

    1995-01-01

    Eight research reactors with a power ≥ 100 kW are currently being operated in the Federal Republic of Germany. These comprise three TRIGA-type reactors (power 100 kW to 250 kW), four swimming-pool reactors (power 1 MW to 10 MW) and one DIDO type reactor (power 23 MW). The German research reactors are used for neutron scattering for basic research in the field of solid state research, neutron metrology, for the fabrication of isotopes and for neutron activation analysis for medicine and biology, for investigating the influence of radiation on materials and for nuclear fuel behavior. It will be vital to continue current investigations in the future. Further operation of the German research reactors is therefore indispensable. Safe, regular disposal of the irradiated fuel elements arising now and in future operation is of primary importance. Furthermore, there are several plants with considerable quantities of spent fuel, the safe disposal of which is a matter of urgency. These include above all the VKTA facilities in Rossendorf and also the TRIGA reactors, where disposal will only be necessary upon decommissioning. The present paper report is concerned with the disposal of fuel from the German research reactors. It briefly deals with the situation in the USA since the end of 1988, describes interim solutions for current disposal requirements and then mainly concentrates on the German disposal concept currently being prepared. This concept initially envisages the long-term (25--50 years) dry interim storage of fuel elements in special containers in a central German interim store with subsequent direct final disposal without reprocessing of the irradiated fuel

  20. Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: A multi-faceted approach.

    Budy, Phaedra; Luecke, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40–96 %; SGR range 0.03–1.5 %) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28–34 %) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23–34 %). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (Ro) and decrease in generation time (Go). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a “resource pulse,” allowing a sub-set of small char to “break through,” thus setting the cycle in population structure.

  1. Understanding how lake populations of arctic char are structured and function with special consideration of the potential effects of climate change: a multi-faceted approach.

    Budy, Phaedra; Luecke, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Size dimorphism in fish populations, both its causes and consequences, has been an area of considerable focus; however, uncertainty remains whether size dimorphism is dynamic or stabilizing and about the role of exogenous factors. Here, we explored patterns among empirical vital rates, population structure, abundance and trend, and predicted the effects of climate change on populations of arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) in two lakes. Both populations cycle dramatically between dominance by small (≤300 mm) and large (>300 mm) char. Apparent survival (Φ) and specific growth rates (SGR) were relatively high (40-96%; SGR range 0.03-1.5%) and comparable to those of conspecifics at lower latitudes. Climate change scenarios mimicked observed patterns of warming and resulted in temperatures closer to optimal for char growth (15.15 °C) and a longer growing season. An increase in consumption rates (28-34%) under climate change scenarios led to much greater growth rates (23-34%). Higher growth rates predicted under climate change resulted in an even greater predicted amplitude of cycles in population structure as well as an increase in reproductive output (Ro) and decrease in generation time (Go). Collectively, these results indicate arctic char populations (not just individuals) are extremely sensitive to small changes in the number of ice-free days. We hypothesize years with a longer growing season, predicted to occur more often under climate change, produce elevated growth rates of small char and act in a manner similar to a "resource pulse," allowing a sub-set of small char to "break through," thus setting the cycle in population structure.

  2. Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira

    Kanteres Fotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethyl carbamate (EC is a multi-site carcinogen in experimental animals and probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A. Traces of EC below health-relevant ranges naturally occur in several fermented foods and beverages, while higher concentrations above 1 mg/l are regularly detected in only certain spirits derived from cyanogenic plants. In Brazil this concerns the sugarcane spirit cachaça and the manioc (cassava spirit tiquira, which both regularly exceed the national EC limit of 0.15 mg/l. This study aims to estimate human exposure in Brazil and provide a quantitative risk assessment. Methods The human dietary intake of EC via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data in combination with own surveys and literature data. This data comprises the EC contents of the different beverage groups cachaça, tiquira, other spirits, beer, wine, and unrecorded alcohol (as defined by the WHO; including alcohol which is not captured in routine government statistics nor taxed. The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. Results Considering differences between pot-still and column-still cachaça, its average EC content would be 0.38 mg/l. Tiquira contained a considerably higher average EC content of 2.34 mg/l. The whole population exposure from all alcoholic beverages was calculated to be around 100 to 200 ng/kg bw/day, with cachaça and unrecorded alcohol as the major contributing factors. The MOE was calculated to range between 400 and 2,466, with the lifetime cancer risk at approximately 3 cases in 10,000. An even higher risk may exist for binge-drinkers of cachaça and tiquira with MOEs of up to 80 and 15, respectively. Conclusions According to our risk assessment, EC poses a significant cancer risk for the alcohol

  3. Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira.

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Lima, Maria C P; Nóbrega, Ian C C; Pereira, José A P; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-06-08

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a multi-site carcinogen in experimental animals and probably carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2A). Traces of EC below health-relevant ranges naturally occur in several fermented foods and beverages, while higher concentrations above 1 mg/l are regularly detected in only certain spirits derived from cyanogenic plants. In Brazil this concerns the sugarcane spirit cachaça and the manioc (cassava) spirit tiquira, which both regularly exceed the national EC limit of 0.15 mg/l. This study aims to estimate human exposure in Brazil and provide a quantitative risk assessment. The human dietary intake of EC via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data in combination with own surveys and literature data. This data comprises the EC contents of the different beverage groups cachaça, tiquira, other spirits, beer, wine, and unrecorded alcohol (as defined by the WHO; including alcohol which is not captured in routine government statistics nor taxed). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Lifetime cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. Considering differences between pot-still and column-still cachaça, its average EC content would be 0.38 mg/l. Tiquira contained a considerably higher average EC content of 2.34 mg/l. The whole population exposure from all alcoholic beverages was calculated to be around 100 to 200 ng/kg bw/day, with cachaça and unrecorded alcohol as the major contributing factors. The MOE was calculated to range between 400 and 2,466, with the lifetime cancer risk at approximately 3 cases in 10,000. An even higher risk may exist for binge-drinkers of cachaça and tiquira with MOEs of up to 80 and 15, respectively. According to our risk assessment, EC poses a significant cancer risk for the alcohol-drinking population in Brazil, in addition to that of alcohol alone

  4. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  5. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  6. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  7. Deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes: Near field effects

    1985-01-01

    This report reviews the important near-field effects of the disposal of wastes in deep rock formations. The basic characteristics of waste form, container and package, buffer and backfill materials and potential host-rock types are discussed from the perspective of the performance requirements of the total repository system. Effects of waste emplacement on the separate system components and on the system as a whole are discussed. The effects include interactions between groundwater and brines and the other system components, thermal and thermo-mechanical effects, and chemical and geochemical reactions. Special consideration is given to the radiation field that exists in proximity to the waste containers and also to the coupled effects of different phenomena

  8. SCAI Expert consensus statement: Evaluation, management, and special considerations of cardio-oncology patients in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (endorsed by the cardiological society of india, and sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologıa intervencionista).

    Iliescu, Cezar A; Grines, Cindy L; Herrmann, Joerg; Yang, Eric H; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Charitakis, Konstantinos; Hakeem, Abdul; Toutouzas, Konstantinos P; Leesar, Massoud A; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    In the United States alone, there are currently approximately 14.5 million cancer survivors, and this number is expected to increase to 20 million by 2020. Cancer therapies can cause significant injury to the vasculature, resulting in angina, acute coronary syndromes (ACS), stroke, critical limb ischemia, arrhythmias, and heart failure, independently from the direct myocardial or pericardial damage from the malignancy itself. Consequently, the need for invasive evaluation and management in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) for such patients has been increasing. In recognition of the need for a document on special considerations for cancer patients in the CCL, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) commissioned a consensus group to provide recommendations based on the published medical literature and on the expertise of operators with accumulated experience in the cardiac catheterization of cancer patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Radiological Operational Safety Verification for LILW Disposal Facility

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    component (chemistry). They can be measured using proven equipment and methods such as wireless and non-intrusive monitoring techniques. Directly accessing the waste packages for the purpose of monitoring could negatively affect the long-term performance of engineered barriers. One way to solve this problem is to build a pilot facility (demonstration facility) at another site set apart from the actual disposal site and implement monitoring there. The pilot facility proposed by the 'Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste' of Switzerland is a small-scale facility which is different from test facility (in-situ rock laboratory) in terms of representative amount of real waste. The pilot facility provides information to confirm the performance of the repository system, and also allows the early detection of any deviations from the expected evolution. National low-level waste management program of the United States published a report containing 16 key radionuclides that are judged by the NRC to most likely contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a proposed commercial LLW disposal facility. They are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm. They are almost consistent with concentration limits of radionuclides for disposal of No. of Notices of the MOST: 2009-37 except gross alpha radioactivity (TRU) and {sup 238}U. Four radionuclides, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, are identified as special considerations by the NRC in terms of ensuring that performance objectives for long-term environmental protection are met for disposal of commercial LLW. They are very mobile in groundwater, and their main route to enter the human body is by either ingestion or inhalation

  10. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  11. Optimization of uranium mill tailings disposal practices

    Richardson, Allan C.B.; Rowe, William D.

    1984-01-01

    So far as we have been to discern, no uranium mill tailings pile has yet been properly stabilized for long-term disposal. And although considerable effort is now being directed at developing practical solutions and at establishing standards for permanent disposal, the difficulties in application are diverse. They arise from the variety of environments in which milling is conducted, the significant costs associated with disposing of the large volumes of materials involved, the diverse nature of the hazards to be protected against, and uncertainties in both performance of controls and in how to determine societal responsibilities for management of the long term hazards to human populations from uranium tailings. There are 24 uranium tailings piles in the United States which no longer have responsible owners, and must now be disposed of by the U.S. Government in order to protect public health

  12. Seabed Disposal Program. Annual report, January--December 1975

    Talbert, D.M.

    1976-05-01

    This document is the report of the activities in the Seabed Disposal Program for CY 1975. A summary is given of the progress made to determine the feasibility of disposal of high-level solidified and encapsulated radioactive wastes into the deep seafloor. While a considerable amount of work remains to be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technological reasons have been presented that would preclude the possibility of successful disposal into submarine geologic media

  13. Engineering, environmental and economic planning for tailings disposal

    Poellot, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    There are two principal points made in this paper. First, mining waste materials, or tailings, are geotechnical materials. Their behavior follows the principles of soil mechanics and is predictable by these principles. Second, proper disposal, meaning safe, environmentally sound and economical disposal, requires planning and recognizing waste disposal as part of the total mining system and process. In the development of these two principles, planning, design, and economic considerations of mine tailings are discussed

  14. The choice of sites considered with respect to problems of radioactive waste disposal; Le choix des sites considere dans ses rapports avec les problemes de rejets d'effluents radioactifs

    Duhamel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The author of this article shows clearly that a knowledge of the behaviour of wastes together with an analysis of the risks of accidents makes it possible to define the general characteristics of a site as a function of, on the one hand the geological and meteorological factors, and on the other, the proposed installations. Consideration of the biological environment makes it possible to clarify the sitological study and to make a choice between the several sites possible. The author shows the real necessity for radio-protection specialists to share their knowledge, to establish regulations, and to cooperate with the authors responsible for the installations, from the moment of the choice of the site and of the planning of the apparatus up to the final reject of the waste. (author) [French] L'auteur de ce rapport montre clairement que la connaissance du comportement des effluents jointe a l'analyse des risques d'accident permettent de degager les caracteristiques generales d'un site en fonction d'une part, des donnees geologiques et meteorologiques, d'autre part des installations projetees. La consideration du milieu biologique permet de preciser l'etude sitologique et d'effectuer un choix entre plusieurs sites donnes. L'auteur met en evidence la necessite absolue pour les specialistes de la radioprotection d'echanger leurs connaissances, d'etablir des reglements et de cooperer avec les autorites responsables des installations depuis le choix des sites et le projet des appareillages jusqu'au rejet ultime des residus. (auteur)

  15. Bio fuels in the framework of law of the World Trade Organization under special consideration of their ecologically relevant properties; Biokraftstoffe im Rechtsregime der WTO unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung ihrer umweltrelevanten Eigenschaften

    Kahl, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    The increasing world market for bio fuels urgently needs a framework of law which regulates the conflict potentials of the cultivation of energy plant. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the trade with bio fuels in the World Trade Organization and discusses the legal negotiability of sustainability criteria for the production of bio fuel. Apart from the creation of a specific duty nomenclature for the new product line, straight in the agrarian sector the regulations of the world trade law for national subsidies are to be considered. With bio fuels from non-ecologic production, the contract texts permit import-controlling and marketing-adjusting measures to the World Trade Organization while the extraterritorial employment of the genetic engineering only is limited controllable by according to commercial law instruments. The mutual obligations of some members of the World Trade Organization also can play a role in the public procurement department if bio fuels become the criterion with the national placing of orders. For developing countries, the World Trade Organization law plans some special arrangements which facilitate their participation in the bio fuel trade. The contribution under consideration is addressed to lawyers, decision makers and advisors in politics and authority practice.

  16. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  17. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  18. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  19. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  20. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  1. 32 CFR 169a.15 - Special considerations.

    2010-07-01

    ... labor organization accorded exclusive recognition under 5 U.S.C. 7111, consultation with representatives... supported by current, accurate, complete information and be readily available for the independent reviewing... purchased services. (H) Overhead costs shall be computed only when such costs will not continue in the event...

  2. 40 CFR 133.103 - Special considerations.

    2010-07-01

    ... loading of such pollutants introduced by the industrial category exceeds 10 percent of the design flow or... treatment works receive flows from combined sewers (i.e., sewers which are designed to transport both storm... should be. (b) Industrial wastes. For certain industrial categories, the discharge to navigable waters of...

  3. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  4. Whipple procedure: patient selection and special considerations

    Tan-Tam C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clara Tan-Tam,1 Maja Segedi,2 Stephen W Chung2 1Department of Surgery, Bassett Healthcare, Columbia University, Cooperstown, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplant, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: At the inception of pancreatic surgery by Dr Whipple in 1930s, the mortality and morbidity risk was more than 20%. With further understanding of disease processes and improvements in pancreas resection techniques, the mortality risk has decreased to less than 5%. Age and chronic illnesses are no longer a contraindication to surgical treatment. Life expectancy and quality of life at a later age have improved, making older patients more likely to receive pancreatic surgery , thereby also putting emphasis on operative patient selection to minimize complications. This review summarizes the benign and malignant illnesses that are treated with pancreas operations, and innovations and improvements in pancreatic surgery and perioperative care, and describes the careful selection process for patients who would benefit from an operation. These indications are not reserved only to Whipple operation, but to pancreatectomies as well.Keywords: pancreaticoduodenectomy, mortality, morbidity, cancer, trauma, pancreatitis

  5. Pregnancy in the obese woman: special considerations

    Pacheco-Romero, José

    2017-01-01

    Obesity would be the most common health problem for women of reproductive age. Pregnancies complicated with obesity are associated with gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, preterm birth, instrumental delivery and cesarean section, infections and postpartum hemorrhage. And the baby is at higher risk of congenital malformations, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, and fetal death. The implications related to the management of obesity in pregnancy are not well understood due to lack of evidence-based...

  6. [Awake craniotomy. Considerations in special situations].

    Solera Ruiz, I; Uña Orejón, R; Valero, I; Laroche, F

    2013-01-01

    Awake craniotomy was the earliest surgical procedure known, and it has become fashionable again. In the past it was used for the surgical management of intractable epilepsy, but nowadays, its indications are increasing, and it is a widely recognized technique for the resection of mass lesions involving the eloquent cortex, and for deep brain stimulation. The procedure is safe, provides excellent results, and saves money and resources. The anesthesiologist should know the principles underlying neuroanesthesia, the technique of scalp blockade, and the sedation protocols, as well as feeling comfortable with advanced airway management. The main anesthetic aim is to keep patients cooperating when required (analgesia-based anesthesia). This review attempts to summarize the most recent evidence from the clinical literature, a long as the number of patients undergoing craniotomies in the awake state are increasing, specifically in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Special considerations for hiring an office manager.

    Sachs Hills, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Medical practice office managers come in many varieties. They can be hired from the outside or promoted from within. They can have a great deal of experience working in medical practices or practically none. Which type of office manager is the best choice for your practice? This article will help you decide. It describes three types of office managers and considers the pros and cons of each. It explores the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of lay administrators hired from the outside, office managers promoted from the ranks, and "super-aides" who are asked to manage while doing their old jobs. This article also offers a list of 10 characteristics to look for in office manager candidates, as well as six areas of overall responsibility for your office manager. Finally, it includes a quick checklist of 20 required duties of typical medical practice office managers that can help you shape your office manager's job description.

  8. Special Considerations in Neonatal Mechanical Ventilation.

    Dalgleish, Stacey; Kostecky, Linda; Charania, Irina

    2016-12-01

    Care of infants supported with mechanical ventilation is complex, time intensive, and requires constant vigilance by an expertly prepared health care team. Current evidence must guide nursing practice regarding ventilated neonates. This article highlights the importance of common language to establish a shared mental model and enhance clear communication among the interprofessional team. Knowledge regarding the underpinnings of an open lung strategy and the interplay between the pathophysiology and individual infant's response to a specific ventilator strategy is most likely to result in a positive clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Special Considerations in Children with Vitiligo.

    Taïeb, Alain; Seneschal, Julien; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette

    2017-04-01

    Childhood vitiligo differs from adult-onset vitiligo for several features including increased incidence of the segmental variant, higher prevalence of halo nevi, and more common family history for autoimmune diseases and atopic diathesis. The major differential diagnoses are the postinflammatory hypomelanoses for nonsegmental vitiligo and nevus depigmentosus for segmental vitiligo. From a therapeutic standpoint, early awareness of the diagnosis seems to correlate with a good treatment outcome in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  11. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  12. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  13. Principles and guidelines for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    1988-06-01

    Four basic principles relevant to radioactive waste disposal identified. These principles cover the justification of the activity giving rise to the waste, the consideration of risk to present and future generations, the minimization of the need for intervention in the future, and the financial obligations of the licensee. The use of risk limits as opposed to dose limits associated with disposal is discussed, as are the concepts of critical group, de minimis, and ALARA, in the context of a waste disposal facility. Guidance is given on the selection of the preferred waste disposal concept from among several alternatives, and for judging proposed design improvements to the chosen concept

  14. Climate considerations

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conditions under which rainfall and snowmelt result in infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation, and to develop guidelines for incorporating these processes into the mine waste disposal regulations. This is important because in mine waste, and under certain circumstances, these processes can result in conditions which pose a threat to surface and ground water quality. This paper provides a general overview of infiltration, percolation, and leachate formation. It incorporates a discussion of the methods that can be used to quantify infiltration and the climatic and physical site and waste conditions under which percolation and leachate formation occur. Reference is made to case histories on infiltration, ground water recharge, and analytical procedures for calculating infiltration. An approach to infiltration prediction is outlined, and the paper concludes with a discussion on how climatic factors and prediction of infiltration could be incorporated into the regulations

  15. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  16. TYPE AF CERTIFICATE FOR TRANSPORTATION OF LOW ENRICHED URANIUM OXIDE (LEUO) FOR DISPOSAL

    Opperman, E; Kenneth Yates, K

    2007-01-01

    Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). SRS had the need to ship 227 drums of low enriched uranium oxide (LEUO) to a disposal site. The LEUO had been packaged nearly 25 years ago in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 17C 55-gallon drums and stored in a warehouse. Since the 235U enrichment was just above 1 percent by weight (wt%) the material did not qualify for the fissile material exceptions in 49 CFR 173.453, and therefore was categorized as 'fissile material' for shipping purposes. WSRC evaluated all existing Type AF packages and did not identify any feasible packaging. Applying for a new Type AF certificate of compliance was considered too costly for a one-time/one-way shipment for disposal. Down-blending the material with depleted uranium (to reduce enrichment below 1 wt% and enable shipment as low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material) was considered, but appropriate blending facilities do not exist at SRS. After reviewing all options, WSRC concluded that seeking a DOT Special Permit was the best option to enable shipment of the material for permanent disposal. WSRC submitted the Special Permit application to the DOT, and after one request-for-additional-information (RAI) the permit was considered acceptable. However, in an interesting development that resulted from the DOT Special Permit application process, it was determined that it was more appropriate for the DOE to issue a Type AF certificate [Ref. 1] for this shipping campaign. This paper will outline the DOT Special Permit application and Type AF considerations, and will discuss the issuance of the new DOE Type AF certificate of compliance

  17. Co-disposal of mixed waste materials

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; Crane, P.J.; England, J.L.; Kemp, C.J.; Stewart, W.E.

    1993-08-01

    Co-disposal of process waste streams with hazardous and radioactive materials in landfills results in large, use-efficiencies waste minimization and considerable cost savings. Wasterock, produced from nuclear and chemical process waste streams, is segregated, treated, tested to ensure regulatory compliance, and then is placed in mixed waste landfills, burial trenches, or existing environmental restoration sites. Large geotechnical unit operations are used to pretreat, stabilize, transport, and emplace wasterock into landfill or equivalent subsurface structures. Prototype system components currently are being developed for demonstration of co-disposal

  18. Disposal of radioactive waste

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  20. Subseabed disposal safety analysis

    Koplick, C.M.; Kabele, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of work performed by Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) in FY'81 on subseabed disposal safety analysis. Safety analysis for subseabed disposal is divided into two phases: pre-emplacement which includes all transportation, handling, and emplacement activities; and long-term (post-emplacement), which is concerned with the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. Details of TASC work in these two areas are provided in two technical reports. The work to date, while preliminary, supports the technical and environmental feasibility of subseabed disposal of HLW

  1. Roles of bentonite in radioactive waste disposal

    Suzuki, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    Bentonite is used in radioactive waste disposal from the following points; (1) properties (2) now utilization fields (3) how to use in radioactive waste disposal (4) how much consumption and deposits as source at the present time. Bentonite is produced as alteration products from pyroclastic rocks such as volcanic ash and ryolite, and is clay composed mainly smectite (montmorillonite in general). Therefore, special properties of bentonite such as swelling potential, rheological property, bonding ability, cation exchange capacity and absorption come mainly from properties of montmorillonite. Bentonite has numerous uses such as iron ore pelleizing, civil engineering, green sand molding, cat litter, agricultural chemicals and drilling mud. Consumption of bentonite is about 600-700 x 10 3 tons in Japan and about 10 x 10 6 tons in the world. Roles of bentonite to be expected in radioactive waste disposal are hydraulic conductivity, swelling potential, absorption, mechanical strength, ion diffusion capacity and long-term durability. These properties come from montmorillonite. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the 1996 international conference on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 September International Conference on Deep Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste was held in Winnipeg, Canada. Speakers from many countries that have or are developing geological disposal technologies presented the current research and implementation strategies for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Special sessions focused on International Trends in Geological Disposal and Views on Confidence Building in Radioactive Waste Management; Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) Workshop; Educator's Program and Workshop and a Roundtable on Social Issues in Siting

  3. Radwaste characteristics and Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Sung, Suk Hyun; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ki Hong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of Radioactive Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) is to verify a radioactive waste compliance with radioactive disposal facility requirements in order to maintain a disposal facility's performance objectives and to ensure its safety. To develop WAC which is conformable with domestic disposal site conditions, we furthermore analysed the WAC of foreign disposal sites similar to the Kyung-Ju disposal site and the characteristics of various wastes which are being generated from Korea nuclear facilities. Radioactive WAC was developed in the technical cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in consideration of characteristics of the wastes which are being generated from various facilities, waste generators' opinions and other conditions. The established criteria was also discussed and verified at an advisory committee which was comprised of some experts from universities, institutes and the industry. So radioactive WAC was developed to accept all wastes which are being generated from various nuclear facilities as much as possible, ensuring the safety of a disposal facility. But this developed waste acceptance criteria is not a criteria to accept all the present wastes generated from various nuclear facilities, so waste generators must seek an alternative treatment method for wastes which were not worth disposing of, and then they must treat the wastes more to be acceptable at a disposal site. The radioactive disposal facility WAC will continuously complement certain criteria related to a disposal concentration limit for individual radionuclide in order to ensure a long-term safety.

  4. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  5. Disposal leachates treatment

    Coulomb, I.; Renaud, P. (SITA, 75 - Paris (France)); Courant, P. (FD Conseil, 78 - Gargenville (France)); Manem, J.; Mandra, V.; Trouve, E. (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez, 78 - Le Pecq (France))

    1993-12-01

    Disposal leachates are complex and variable effluents. The use of a bioreactor with membranes, coupled with a reverse osmosis unit, gives a new solution to the technical burying centers. Two examples are explained here.

  6. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  8. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  9. Shallow land disposal technology

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Shallow land disposal technology

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  11. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  12. Disposal of drilling fluids and solids generated from water-based systems in Alberta

    Parenteau, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    The different disposal options for drilling wastes as outlined in Guide 50 of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) are discussed. Guide 50 provides for the cost effective and environmentally sound disposal of drilling waste generated in Alberta. Each disposal option of the guide is reviewed and common methods of operation are outlined. Relative costs, environmental suitability and liability issues associated with each option are described. Issues regarding overall disposal considerations, on-site and off-site disposal options, hydrocarbon contamination, salt contaminated waste, toxic waste, and documentation of waste disposal outlined. Some recent programs which have been in the trial phase for a few years are also addressed

  13. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies. (UK)

  14. Radioactive waste disposal - policy and perspectives

    Roberts, L E.J. [UKAEA, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1979-04-01

    Methods are discussed that have been developed and could be used for management and disposal of highly active wastes. The characteristics of such waste are, described and the concept of toxic potential is explained. General principles of waste disposal and the various options which have been considered are discussed. Studies on the incorporation of waste into glass, and on container materials are described. Consideration is also given to the requirements of stores and repositories from the aspect of heat dissipation, design, siting, etc. The advantages and disadvantages of the various types of geological formation ie salt, argillaceous deposits, hardrocks, suitable for containment of highly active wastes are examined. Studies carried out on the safety of repositories and an ocean disposal of the waste are summarised. The review ends with a brief account of the status of the vitrification process in the UK and abroad and of future programmes involving geological and related studies.

  15. The disposal of orphan wastes using the greater confinement disposal concept

    Bonano, E.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Price, L.L.; Conrad, S.H.; Dickman, P.T.

    1991-01-01

    In the United States, radioactive wastes are conventionally classified as high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, or low-level wastes. Each of these types of wastes, by law, has a ''home'' for their final disposal; i.e., high-level wastes are destined for disposal at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, transuranic waste for the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, and low-level waste for shallow-land disposal sites. However, there are some radioactive wastes within the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of either high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. The former are called ''special-case'' or ''orphan'' wastes. This paper describes an ongoing project sponsored by the DOE's Nevada Operations Office for the disposal of orphan wastes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site using the greater confinement disposal (GCD) concept. The objectives of the GCD project are to evaluate the safety of the site for disposal of orphan wastes by assessing compliance with pertinent regulations through performance assessment, and to examine the feasibility of this disposal concept as a cost-effective, safe alternative for management of orphan wastes within the DOE complex. Decisions on the use of GCD or other alternate disposal concepts for orphan wastes be expected to be addressed in a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement being prepared by DOE. The ultimate decision to use GCD will require a Record of Decision through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. DOE's planning process for mixed low-level waste disposal

    Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A disposal planning process was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) Disposal Workgroup. The process, jointly developed with the States, includes three steps: site-screening, site-evaluation, and configuration study. As a result of the screening process, 28 sites have been eliminated from further consideration for MLLW disposal and 4 sites have been assigned a lower priority for evaluation. Currently 16 sites are being evaluated by the DOE for their potential strengths and weaknesses as MLLW disposal sites. The results of the evaluation will provide a general idea of the technical capability of the 16 disposal sites; the results can also be used to identify which treated MLLW streams can be disposed on-site and which should be disposed of off-site. The information will then serve as the basis for a disposal configuration study, which includes analysis of both technical as well as non-technical issues, that will lead to the ultimate decision on MLLW disposal site locations

  17. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    Gelin, R.

    1984-05-01

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  18. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  19. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  20. Reversible deep disposal

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  1. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  2. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  3. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    Lewis, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation

  4. 2005 dossier: granite. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal; Dossier 2005: granite. Tome architecture et gestion du stockage geologique

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in granite formations. Content: 1 - Approach of the study: main steps since the December 30, 1991 law, ANDRA's research program on disposal in granitic formations; 2 - high-level and long-lived (HLLL) wastes: production scenarios, waste categories, inventory model; 3 - disposal facility design in granitic environment: definition of the geologic disposal functions, the granitic material, general facility design options; 4 - general architecture of a disposal facility in granitic environment: surface facilities, underground facilities, disposal process, operational safety; 5 - B-type wastes disposal area: primary containers of B-type wastes, safety options, concrete containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the B-type wastes disposal area, disposal process and feasibility aspects, functions of disposal components with time; 6 - C-type wastes disposal area: C-type wastes primary containers, safety options, super-containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the C-type wastes disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 7 - spent fuels disposal area: spent fuel assemblies, safety options, spent fuel containers, disposal alveoles, architecture of the spent fuel disposal area, disposal process in a reversibility logics, functions of disposal components with time; 8 - conclusions: suitability of the architecture with various types of French granites, strong design, reversibility taken into consideration. (J.S.)

  5. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  6. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  7. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  8. Nuclear waste disposal

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  9. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  11. Geological disposal concept hearings

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  12. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  13. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  14. Waste disposal package

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  15. State-of-the-art report on radioactive waste disposal

    Larsson, A.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the considerable work required to develop repositories for radioactive waste, an extensive international co-operation has evolved within the area. The work has also engaged the IAEA to a great extent. The Agency has published a number of reports, covering different aspects of waste disposal. Following a recommendation by its Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (TRCUD) the Agency will publish a ''state-of-the-art'' report on radioactive waste disposal. The report is still in the preparation stage. In this article the principal subjects of the future report are discussed

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.370 - What must we do to dispose of military FSCAP or life-limited parts?

    2010-07-01

    ... before you exchange or sell the aircraft or engine (see rules for disposing of uninstalled life-limited... dispose of military FSCAP or life-limited parts? 102-33.370 Section 102-33.370 Public Contracts and... Aircraft Parts Special Requirements for Disposing of Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (fscap) and Life...

  17. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  18. Integrating ethical and technical considerations in the energy debate

    Pickering, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    A study being carried out by the author on analyzing and integrating ethical and technical considerations in formulating an energy policy for the United States, with special emphasis on nuclear issues, is reviewed. Beginning with an overview of the historical development of the American nuclear program and the emergence of an organized politcal opposition to that program, seven outstanding issues are identified: institutional adequacy, radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, economics and reliability, international consequences, and alternative energy sources, and an attempt is made to identify the range of dispute in relation to each. A framework is proposed for analyzing these issues by introducing guidelines for defining a social justice problem. Suggestions are made about how to get morally serious about such issues, and this framework is applied to four issues: radiation, reactor safety, waste disposal, and institutional adequacy. Ultimately it is a political choice whether or not to include nuclear power in a nations's energy policy. It is important, however, that such choices be made using the best technical and ethical assessments of the consequences. (LL)

  19. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Dormuth, K.W.; Nuttall, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  20. Identification and characterization of Department of Energy special-case radioactive waste

    Williams, R.E.; Kudera, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies and characterizes Department of Energy (DOE) special-case radioactive wastes. Included in this paper are descriptions of the special-case waste categories and their volumes and curie contents, as well as discussions of potential methods for management of these special-case wastes. Work on extensive inventories of DOE-titled special-case waste are still in progress. All radioactive waste is characterized to determine its waste category. Some wastes may have characteristics of more than one of the major waste types. These characteristics may prevent such wastes from being managed as typical high-level, low-level, or transuranic waste. DOE has termed these wastes special-case wastes. Special-case wastes may require special management and disposal schemes. Because of these special considerations, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) required the identification of all existing and potential DOE-owned special case waste to determine future management planning and funding requirements. The inventory effort includes all commercially held, DOE-owned radioactive materials

  1. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices

  2. Derivation methods for clearance levels and safety assessments for very low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2001-01-01

    The clearance level was evaluated by the dose of concrete and metal when they would be recycled and reused from shallow land burial of radioactive facilities. The state of waste after clearance is not specified, so that we studied large scale of exposure pathways. The parameter values used for safety assessment were determined as the average values under the consideration of natural and social environment in Japan. Propriety of these values was confirmed by a probability analysis. On the safety assessment of very low-level waste disposal facility, the disposer pathway and parameters were determined under the consideration of special site conditions (natural and social environment) and properties of waste. However, the same exposure pathway of them used the same model for external (exposure by sky shine' s ray) and internal exposure. The calculation results of estimated pathway showed 1.2x10 -5 mSv/y the largest dose for the external exposure pathway by sky shine's ray. (S.Y.)

  3. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A guidebook

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices.

  4. HLW disposal dilemma

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The radioactive waste is an inevitable residue from the use of radioactive materials in industry, research and medicine, and from the operation of generating electricity nuclear power stations. The management and disposal of such waste is therefore an issue relevant to almost all countries. Undoubtedly the biggest issue concerning radioactive waste management is that of high level waste. The long-lived nature of some types of radioactive wastes and the associated safety implications of disposal plans have raised concern amongst those who may be affected by such facilities. For these reasons the subject of radioactive waste management has taken on a high profile in many countries. Not one Member State in the European Union can say that their high level waste will be disposed of at a specific site. Nobody can say 'that is where it is going to go'. Now, there is a very broad consensus on the concept of geological disposal. The experts have little, if any doubt that we could safely dispose of the high level wastes. Large sectors of the public continue to oppose to most proposals concerning the siting of repositories. Given this, it is increasingly difficult to get political support, or even political decisions, on such sites. The failure to advance to the next step in the waste management process reinforces the public's initial suspicion and resistance. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. In turn, this makes the political decisions even harder. The management of spent fuel from nuclear power plant became a crucial issue, as the cooling pond of the Romanian NPP is reaching saturation. During the autumn of 2000, the plant owner proceeded with an international tendering process for the supply of a dry storage system to be implemented at the Cernavoda station to store the spent fuel from Unit 1 and eventually from Unit 2 for a minimum period of 50 years. The facility is now in operation. As concern the disposal of the spent fuel, the 'wait and see

  5. Nuclear waste disposal: two social criteria

    Rochlin, G.I.

    1977-01-01

    Two criteria--technical irreversibility and site multiplicity--have been suggested for use in establishing standards for the disposal of nuclear wastes. They have been constructed specifically to address the reduction of future risk in the face of inherent uncertainty concerning the social and political developments that might occur over the required periods of waste isolation, to provide for safe disposal without the requirement of a guaranteed future ability to recognize, detect, or repair errors and failures. Decisions as to how to apply or weigh these criteria in conjunction with other waste management goals must be made by societies and their governments. The purpose of this paper was not to preempt this process, but to construct a framework that facilitates consideration of the ethical and normative components of the problem of nuclear waste disposal. The minimum ethical obligation of a waste disposal plan is to examine most thoroughly the potential consequences of present actions, to acknowledge them openly, and to minimize the potential for irremediable harm. An ethically sound waste management policy must reflect not only our knowledge and skills, but our limitations as well

  6. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal in Engineered Trenches 3 and 4

    Butcher, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-12

    Revision 0 of this UDQE addressed the proposal to place Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) in the footprint designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12) and operate using ST#12 disposal limits. Similarly, Revision 1 evaluates whether ET#4 can be located in and operated to Slit Trench #13 (ST#13) disposal limits. Both evaluations conclude that the proposed operations result in an acceptably small risk of exceeding a SOF of 1.0 and approve these actions from a performance assessment (PA) perspective. Because ET#3 will be placed in the location previously designated for ST#12, Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore, new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  7. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  8. Safety assessment of HLW geological disposal system

    Naito, Morimasa

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the Japanese nuclear program, the liquid waste with a high level of radioactivity arising from reprocessing is solidified in a stable glass matrix (vitrification) in stainless steel fabrication containers. The vitrified waste is referred to as high-level radioactive waste (HLW), and is characterized by very high initial radioactivity which, even though it decreases with time, presents a potential long-term risk. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly manage HLW from human and his environment. After vitrification, HLW is stored for a period of 30 to 50 years to allow cooling, and finally disposed of in a stable geological environment at depths greater than 300 m below surface. The deep underground environment, in general, is considered to be stable over geological timescales compared with surface environment. By selecting an appropriate disposal site, therefore, it is considered to be feasible to isolate the waste in the repository from man and his environment until such time as radioactivity levels have decayed to insignificance. The concept of geological disposal in Japan is similar to that in other countries, being based on a multibarrier system which combines the natural geological environment with engineered barriers. It should be noted that geological disposal concept is based on a passive safety system that does not require any institutional control for assuring long term environmental safety. To demonstrate feasibility of safe HLW repository concept in Japan, following technical steps are essential. Selection of a geological environment which is sufficiently stable for disposal (site selection). Design and installation of the engineered barrier system in a stable geological environment (engineering measures). Confirmation of the safety of the constructed geological disposal system (safety assessment). For site selection, particular consideration is given to the long-term stability of the geological environment taking into account the fact

  9. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  10. Disposal of fly ash

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  11. Nuclear waste disposal

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  12. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  14. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  15. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  16. Radium bearing waste disposal

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  17. Disposing of fluid wastes

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  18. Rock disposal problems identified

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  19. Disposal of spent fuel

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  20. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  1. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  2. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    Hillier, J A.R.; Dixon, R S [AECL (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    Hillier, J.A.R.; Dixon, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  4. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  5. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    Tamura, T.; Weeren, H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  6. Low-level radioactive waste disposal. Study of a conceptual nuclear energy center at Green River, Utah

    Card, D.H.; Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.; de Souza, F.; Felthauser, K.; Winkler, V.; White, R.

    1982-02-01

    This document constitutes a segment of a feasibility study investigating the ramifications of constructing a nuclear energy center in an arid western region. In this phase of the study, the alternatives for disposing of the low-level waste on the site are compared with the alternative of transporting the waste to the nearest commercial waste disposal site for permanent disposal. Both radiological and nonradiological impacts on the local socioeconomic infrastructure and the environment are considered. Disposal on the site was found to cost considerably less than off-site disposal with only negligible impacts associated with the disposal option on either mankind or the environment

  7. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  8. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    2011-01-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  9. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Disposal facilities for very-low-level (VLL) waste have been designed to accommodate both residues originating from the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and used components. Those residues have very low specific-activity levels that lie below a few hundreds of becquerels per gram (Bq/g). As for the average activity found in any disposal facility, it never exceeds more than a few tens of becquerels per gram. In that case, waste disposal involves no special processing or conditioning, except for handling requirements or volume-gain purposes. The main barrier against radionuclide dispersion is provided by the geological formation being used for waste disposal. Basic disposal concept The design and construction provisions allow for the optimal operation of the disposal facility without any risk of altering the required safety level. They also ensure a satisfactory containment level for several centuries at the end of the operating lifetime. Hence, the natural materials in their original context constitute a particular advantage for the safety demonstration over the long term. With due account of the nature of VLL waste, their containment envelope (drums, big bags, etc.) has no role in confining radioactivity, but rather in facilitating handling and disposal operations, while protecting operators. Approximately 30% of all waste received at the CSTFA undergo a specific treatment before disposal. Low-density residues (plastics, thermal-insulation materials, etc.) are first compacted by a baling press, then strapped and wrapped in clear plastic-sheet. Another bundle press is used to reduce the volume of scrap metal. Some waste, such as the polluted waters generated on site or the sludges sent by producers, are processed in the solidification and stabilisation unit. Disposal cells are excavated progressively, as needed, directly in the clay formation down to a depth of 8 m and are operated in sequence. Cell design has evolved to maximize the disposal volume, and now

  10. Computer-aided evaluation of waste disposal cavern construction methods. ISBN 3-9801713-0-2.

    Knissel, W.; Fahlbusch, M.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous radioactive and toxic wastes in deep geological formations is considered the safest solution in many countries. The Federal Republic of Germany prefers salt formations for underground disposal on account of the special advantages of the rock salt. Calculation methods are presented for the mathematical description of mining techniques for the construction of waste disposal salt caverns. The developed calculation model allows one to evaluate different construction methods with regard to expenses and time. (orig./DG) [de

  11. Organisation of the disposal of radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals

    Corrigall, R S; Martin, C J; Watson, I

    2004-01-01

    An amnesty for disposal of sealed radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals has been funded by the Scottish Executive to address problems arising from accumulation of sources. The contract was awarded to a company involved in radioactive source recycling. Coordination of uplifts from several hospitals allowed considerable financial savings to be made, so source amnesties could offer monetary advantages to Health and Education Departments elsewhere in the UK, as well as alleviating the problem from security and storage of sources that are no longer required. The sources originated in 14 hospitals, but were uplifted from five pick-up points. There were a total of 246 sources with 167 of these being caesium-137. The total activity was 16.2 TBq with one large 16.1 TBq blood irradiator source and the activities of all the other sources adding up to 167 GBq. This paper describes organisation of the collection. Options for achieving compliance with the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 are discussed, although in the event, special authorisations were obtained for each hospital. Arrangements for transport of the sources and source security were drawn up including emergency procedures for dealing with foreseeable incidents. The police provided secure overnight storage for the loaded truck and assistance in directing and monitoring progress of the load

  12. Report on decision-making of geological disposal. Discussion based on case study

    Hiruzawa, Shigenobu

    2004-01-01

    History of geological disposal from 1950 to 2000 in the world and some examples of change of policy in France, Sweden and Canada are explained. On the case study of three countries, investigations of background of the change, site decision process, communication, flexible concept of disposal are stated. Japan decided the high level radioactive waste is disposed in underground (300m deeper) under the Law Concerning the Final Disposal of Special Radioactive Waste in June, 2000. NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) was established to manage disposal of radioactive waste in October, 2000. NUMO started to accept application for the site of disposal in the country in December, 2002. The above case study is a good guide to promote geological disposal of radioactive waste. (S.Y.)

  13. Nuclear waste disposal site

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  14. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  15. Advice on the disposal of radioactive by-products arising in the use of nuclear energy

    Beyermann, M.; Goergner, D.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the current legislation in the GDR advice is given on the classification and disposal of radioactive by-products from the utilization of nuclear energy with special emphasis on the different procedures for products which require a disposal licence by the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection and those which do not need such an authorization. (author)

  16. The choice of locations for disposal of dangerous (radioactive) waste

    Hisschemoller, M.; Midden, C.J.H.; Stallen, P.J.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden; Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, The Hague)

    1985-11-01

    In this report a managerial and psychological analysis, based on literature study and case analysis, is presented of various policy strategies which are or can be followed by governments in decisions about disposal of dangerous waste. Special attention is given to radioactive waste. (Auth.)

  17. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  18. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  19. Disposal - practical problems

    Hycnar, J.; Pinko, L.

    1995-01-01

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  1. Waste disposal experts meet

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  2. HLW Disposal System Development

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  3. Validation and application of help code used for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities

    Fan Zhiwen; Gu Cunli; Zhang Jinsheng; Liu Xiuzhen

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes validation and application of HELP code used by the United States Environmental Protective Agency for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities. The HELP code was validated using data of field aerated moisture movement test by China Institute for Radiation Protection. The results show that simulation of HELP code is reasonable. Effects of surface layer thickness and surface treatment on moisture distribution in a cover was simulated with HELP code in the conditions of south-west China. The simulation results demonstrated that surface plantation of a cover plays very important role in moisture distribution in the cover. Special attention should be paid in cover design. In humid area, radioactive waste disposal safety should take full consideration with functions of chemical barrier. It was recommended that engineering economy should be added in future cover research so as to achieve optimization of cover design

  4. From fundamentals to waste disposal

    Barbalat, O.

    1991-01-01

    Today the particle accelerator is widely used in nearly every field of physics and is also essential to study structures in chemistry and biology or to perform sensitive trace element analysis. Its application range is being extended considerably by the capability to generate synchrotron radiation. Progress in nuclear and particle physics that originated from studies with accelerators is now playing a determining role in astrophysics and cosmology. Important industrial applications include ion implantation in the semiconductor industry and the modification of surface properties of materials. Microlithography using synchrotron radiation is used to produce high-density integrated electronic circuits. Radiation is being used in a variety of processes to preserve food, sterilise toxic waste or polymerise plastics. Activation methods using neutrons from compact accelerators can be applied in geophysics and are also being developed to detect explosives. It is probably in medicine that accelerators have found their widest field of application: isotope production for diagnostic/treatment purposes or for radiation therapy. Accelerators may also play a key role in power engineering. Studies of inertial confinement fusion by heavy ions are actively under way in several countries. Accelerators are essential for providing the additional heating needed for plasma ignition in a tokamak. Research is also being carried out on the use of accelerators to incinerate long-life nuclear waste which could perhaps lead to an acceptable long-term disposal solution. (author)

  5. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  6. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    1999-11-01

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  7. Draft Geologic Disposal Requirements Basis for STAD Specification

    Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-25

    This document provides the basis for requirements in the current version of Performance Specification for Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal Canister Systems, (FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579) that are driven by storage and geologic disposal considerations. Performance requirements for the Standardized Transportation, Aging, and Disposal (STAD) canister are given in Section 3.1 of that report. Here, the requirements are reviewed and the rationale for each provided. Note that, while FCRD-NFST-2014-0000579 provides performance specifications for other components of the STAD storage system (e.g. storage overpack, transfer and transportation casks, and others), these have no impact on the canister performance during disposal, and are not discussed here.

  8. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  9. Storage and Disposal of Solid Radioactive Waste

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Monitoring and Protection Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    This paper deals with solutions for the problem of final disposal of solid radioactive waste. I. It is first essential to organize a proper system of temporary storage. II. Final Storage In order to organize final storage, it is necessary to fix, according to the activity and form of the waste, the site and the modes of transport to be used within and outside the nuclear centre. The choice of solutions follows from the foregoing essentials. The paper then considers, in turn, final storage, on the ground, in the sub-soil and in the sea. Economic considerations are an important factor in determining the choice of solution. (author)

  10. Borehole disposal design concept

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  11. Research on geological disposal

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  12. Mine tailings disposal

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  13. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  14. Status of disposal techniques for spent fuel in Germany: Results of demonstration tests for direct disposal

    Engelmann, H.J.; Filbert, W.

    1993-01-01

    According to the Atomic Energy Act (1985) the Federal Government is responsible for establishing facilities to indemnify and dispose radioactive waste. According to Art. 9b of the Atomic Energy Act (1986) the construction and operation of such a repository requires approval of a plan. According to safety criteria applicable for disposing radioactive waste in mines, construction and operation of repository mines require application of acknowledged rules of technology, laws, ordinances and other regulations to protect operating staff and population from radiation damages. Shaft hoisting equipment for the transportation of radioactive waste in a repository mine must satisfy normal operational tasks and meet special safety-requirements. Its failure may result in danger for persons, release of radioactive substances into the plant and environment. That means, shaft hoisting equipment must be designed to satisfy the necessary safety requirements and be state of the art of science and technology. The aim of these demonstration tests is verification of technical feasibility of a shaft hoisting equipment with a payload of 85 t, underground for drift disposal of POLLUX-casks, and essential machine and mine-technical systems and components. The demonstration also includes safe radiation protection during transport and disposal operations. Investigations assume that radioactive waste is transported in containers that satisfy transport requirements for dangerous goods and have a type-B-certificate

  15. Final disposal of radioactive wastes. Site selection criteria. Technical and economical factors

    Granero, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations, geological and socioeconomical criteria for final disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations are treated. More attention is given to the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes and different solutions searched abroad which seems of interest for Spain. (author)

  16. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  17. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  18. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  19. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  20. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  1. Study of physical resistance of the disposal facility for accidental artificial event in LLW disposal facility

    Ogawa, Suihei; Irie, Masaaki; Uchida, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    This report refer to results of examine what follows for structural stability evaluation for the LLW disposal facility in depth over general human activity in underground. Study of physically resistance on the facility for accidental artificial event, namely tunneling an operation facing the disposal facility in future. Physically resistance to excavation of tunneling etc. in disposal facility is studied based on supposing of Tunnel Boring Machine as an excavator, paying attention to reinforcement bar in concrete and steel plate of waste package, as feature of strength in these material differs from rock strength. And it is examined not only resistibility on excavation but also about hard situations of excavation in tunneling works, and namely give thorough consideration to critical quantity of cutting to reinforcement bar and steel plate that could keep resistibility on excavation based on tunneling velocity and limits time furthermore. It requests necessity of evaluation in consider with metal corrosion that status alteration on disposal facility is considered with on timescale. Period of keep on the physically resistance is estimated by velocity of metal corrosion consequently. The physically resistance is kept until metal corrosion reach remaining its material, giving a limits of the physically resistance on inside of facility. Main point of physically resistance in the report will be made the good use of a practice to physically resistance evaluation of in safety assessment. (author)

  2. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste: Status report

    Calmet, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the seas have been used as a place to dispose of wastes resulting from human activities and although no high level radioactive waste (HLW) has been disposed of into the sea, variable amounts of packaged low level radioactive waste (LLW) have been dumped at more than 50 sites in the northern part of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. So far, samples of sea water, sediments and deep sea organisms collected on the various sites have not shown any excess in the levels of radionuclides above those due to nuclear weapons fallout except on certain occasions where caesium and plutonium were detected at higher levels in samples taken close to packages at the dumping site. Since 1957, the date of its first meeting to design methodologies to assess the safety of ''radioactive waste disposal into the sea'', the IAEA has provided guidance and recommendations for ensuring that disposal of radioactive wastes into the sea will not result in unacceptable hazards to human health and marine organisms, damage to amenities or interference with other legitimate uses of the sea. Since the Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (referred to as the London Dumping Convention) came into force in 1975, the dumping of waste has been regulated on a global scale. The London Dumping Convention entrusted IAEA with specific responsibilities for the definition of high level radioactive wastes unsuitable for dumping at sea, and for making recommendations to national authorities for issuing special permits for ocean dumping of low level radioactive wastes. This paper presents a status report of immersion operations of low-level radioactive waste and the current studies the IAEA is undertaking on behalf of the LDC

  3. Evaluation of Island and Nearshore Confined Disposal Facility Alternatives, Pascagoula River Harbor Dredged Material Management Plan

    Bunch, Barry

    2003-01-01

    ...) for the Federal navigation project at Pascagoula, MS. The studies focused on evaluating an option under consideration for the placement of dredged material in an island confined disposal facility (CDF...

  4. Radioactive waste disposal

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  5. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  7. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, C. H.; Lee, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Park, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  8. Numerical investigations of the fuel cycle for a 10 GW(TH)-OTTO-pebble-bed reactor with regard to high conversion ratio under special consideration of U-236 disconnexion through isotope-separation

    Werner, H.

    1976-12-01

    A conversion ratio of near 1.0 can be achieved in a pebble-bed reactor using the OTTO (once through then out) loading scheme, having an economic burn-up of the fuel, an economic power density and a moderation ratio, which is considered realistically for the future. The flexibility of the reactor concept and of the fuel element design allows to recycle the fuel during full-power operation. In the present report first the criteria are shown, which are necessary to reach a high conversion ratio. Further it is presented that the conversion ratio increases considerably by closing the fuel cycle in consequence of the building-up of U-233. In this way the fuel inventory and the fuel consumption can considerably be diminished. It is demonstrated that the building-up and the accumulation of U-236 effects an important deterioration of the neutron economy. By taking the reprocessed uranium through an isotope separation (for example: ultra-gas-centrifugation) and by separation of U-236 from the other uranium isotopes it is possible to reduce the fuel consumption considerably. The expenditure and the cost which are necessary for the isotope separation are presented. (orig.) [de

  9. Main approaches to solving the problems of radioactive waste processing and disposal

    Tarasov, V.M.; Syrkus, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    papers devoted to the problems of processing and disposal of radioactive wastes, formed during nuclear facility operation and after decommissioning are reviewed. Techniques for gaseous and liquid waste solidification, as well as solid waste processing by mechanical fragmentation and combustion are considered. Possibilities of radioactive waste disposal in cosmic space, their burial at the bed of seas ansd oceans, in geological storages are discussed. Special attention disposal. The conclusion is made that today there are no any uniform way for radiactive waste disposal and standard technical means for its realization. Solution of the problems considered should be of a complex character and it is carried out within international research programs

  10. Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations

    Gera, F.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear energy controversy, now raging in several countries, is based on two main issues: the safety of nuclear plants and the possibility to dispose safely of the long-lived radioactive wastes. Consideration of the evolution of the hazard potential of waste in function of decay time leads to a somewhat conservative reference containment time in the order of one hundred thousand years. Several concepts have been proposed for the disposal of long-lived wastes. At the present time, emplacement into suitable geological formations under land areas can be considered the most promising disposal option. It is practically impossible to define detailed criteria to be followed in selecting suitable sites for disposal of long-lived wastes. Basically there is a single criterion, namely; that the geological environment must be able to contain the wastes for at least a hundred thousand years. However, due to the extreme variability of geological settings, it is conceivable that this basic capability could be provided by a great variety of different conditions. The predominant natural mechanism by which waste radionuclides could be moved from a sealed repository in a deep geological formation into the biosphere is leaching and transfer by ground water. Hence the greatest challenge is to give a satisfactory demonstration that isolation from ground water will persist over the required containment time. Since geological predictions are necessarily affected by fairly high levels of uncertainty, the only practical approach is not a straight-forward forecast of future geological events, but a careful assessment of the upper limits of geologic changes that could take place in the repository area over the next hundred thousand years. If waste containment were to survive these extreme geological changes the disposal site could be considered acceptable. If some release of activity were to take place in consequence of the hypothetical events the disposal solution might still be

  11. Evaluation of a disposable plastic Neubauer counting chamber for semen analysis.

    Kirkman-Brown, Jackson; Björndahl, Lars

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate whether disposable plastic counting chambers effectively could replace nondisposable, time-consuming, and potentially dangerous glass hemocytometers. Evaluation of equipment in modern laboratory andrology. Comparison of results obtained with plastic chambers with results obtained with "gold-standard" glass hemocytometer counts. Diagnostic laboratory for andrology. Twenty-one patients undergoing investigation for infertility problems. No interventions with patients; sperm in diluted semen samples were used when patients had allowed the use for research and training. Sperm concentration, difference from results obtained with standard equipment. In the first three experimental series, with use of standard routine phase-contrast microscopy, significantly lower count results were obtained consistently from the plastic chambers than from standard chambers. In the fourth series, with use of specialized equipment, equivalent results were obtained but with a considerably greater time commitment because of difficulties in distinguishing sperm adjacent to the gridlines in the plastic chambers. The plastic disposable chamber type was not suitable for routine semen analysis because results are variable depending on the microscope used, and increased time is necessary to do the assessment accurately.

  12. Application of geographical information system in disposal site selection for hazardous wastes.

    Rezaeimahmoudi, Mehdi; Esmaeli, Abdolreza; Gharegozlu, Alireza; Shabanian, Hassan; Rokni, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a scientific method based on Geographical Information System (GIS) regarding all sustainable development measures to locate a proper landfill for disposal of hazardous wastes, especially industrial (radioactive) wastes. Seven effective factors for determining hazardous waste landfill were applied in Qom Province, central Iran. These criteria included water, slope, population centers, roads, fault, protected areas and geology. The Analysis Hierarchical Process (AHP) model based on pair comparison was used. First, the weight of each factor was determined by experts; afterwards each layer of maps entered to ARC GIS and with special weight multiplied together, finally the best suitable site was introduced. The most suitable sites for burial were in northwest and west of Qom Province and eventually five zones were introduced as the sample sites. GIs and AHP model is introduced as the technical, useful and accelerator tool for disposal site selection. Furthermore it is determined that geological factor is the most effective layer for site selection. It is suggested that geological conditions should be considered primarily then other factors are taken into consideration.

  13. The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    2011-01-01

    implementation of the management system at each phase of the repository life cycle will contribute towards meeting current repository project requirements and objectives and enhance flexible implementation of changes in the future. As mentioned in both the General Safety Requirements and the Safety Guide on waste disposal, a management system should support the development, implementation and continued enhancement of a pragmatic and strong safety culture, and should promote the adoption of best practices for all waste disposal activities. The design and development of a repository is truly an interdisciplinary activity, involving a range of technical and management issues. The life cycle of a repository extends from hundreds of years for a near surface facility to hundreds of thousands of years for a geological repository. Unlike other nuclear facilities, there are many issues that are unique to disposal facilities and which require special consideration in the development and application of an effective management system that is applicable to a repository development project. The design and development process starts with the compilation of design inputs and culminates with the production of design outputs, which are then transferred and used in subsequent stages of the repository development process. Both design input and output have to be verified, validated and approved before they can be used in subsequent stages of the design process. A project on construction/upgrading of a repository may be divided into interrelated and interdependent processes as a way of planning and managing the project. It is necessary to clearly define and link the project processes, and to integrate them and manage them as a system. The same principles and practices of a management system can be applied as they are relevant to a project's management system. Project management processes include planning, organizing, controlling, reporting and corrective actions.

  14. Cost effective disposal of whey

    Zall, R R

    1980-01-01

    Means of reducing the problem of whey disposal are dealt with, covering inter alia the pre-treatment of cheese milk e.g., by ultrafiltration to lower the whey output, utilization of whey constituents, use of liquid whey for feeding, fermenting whey to produce methane and alcohol, and disposal of whey by irrigation of land or by purification in sewage treatment plants.

  15. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  16. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  17. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  18. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  19. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  20. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  1. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Health physics aspects in disposal of self powered neutron detectors

    Deokar, D.V.; Tibrewala, S.K.; Singh, K.K.; Purohit, R.G.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Self Powered Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are being used in reactor core for neutron flux measurement at Nuclear Power Plants. After their useful life, SPNDs are replaced and are disposed off in Tile holes. The Cobalt SPNDs having activity in the range of 35 to 160 TBq were encompassed in carbon steel canister. The canister having dose 25 to 50 Sv/h at 1 meter were transported in shielded flask for disposal in specially designed Tile hole at Solid Waste Management Facility (SWMF) at Tarapur. To keep personal exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) the disposal operation was carried out remotely from a shielded cabin placed at a distance of 50 meter from the disposal site. During the disposal radiation measurements were carried out remotely by installing radiations monitors at a distance of 10 m, 25 m, and 50 m from the Tile hole. Estimations of radiation levels were carried out before jobs were taken up. Disposal of 70 numbers of Cobalt SPNDs was carried out by implementing ALARA. The decrease in collective dose is achieved due to improved operational practices, mock-up trials, effective monitoring program and safety compliance at various stages of operation

  3. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  4. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  5. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed

  6. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  7. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  8. A review of the justification for exemption orders, and for other low-level radioactive waste disposal practices

    Sumerling, T.J.; Sweeney, B.J.

    1987-04-01

    The historical background and philosophy underlying the Radioactive Substances Act (RSA) and the system of Authorisation and Exemption is examined and the radiological protection criteria contemporary with the introduction of the RSA and those now current are reviewed. The potential radiological impact (maximum individual doses and collective doses to disposal workers and to members of the public) from ''dustbin limit'' disposals, special precautions burial, disposal of demolition wastes, incineration of H-3 and C-14 and from disposals under each of the current Exemption Orders with waste disposal implications are calculated. (author)

  9. A benefit-cost methodology for developing environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal

    Leiter, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a method for using benefit-cost analysis in developing generally applicable environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal. Several disposal alternatives were selected which consist of different combinations of control measures. The resulting cost and benefit estimations allow the calculation of the incremental cost of obtaining incremental benefits of radiation protection. The overall benefit of a disposal alternative is expressed in terms of an index which is based on weighting factors assigned to individual benefits. The results show that some disposal alternatives have higher costs while providing no additional benefit than other alternatives. These alternatives should be eliminated from consideration in developing standards

  10. Focusing on clay formation as host media of HLW geological disposal in China

    Zheng Hualing; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2007-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety for HLW geological disposal. Chinese HLW disposal effort in the past decades were mainly focused on granite formation. However, the granite formation has fatal disadvantage for HLW geological disposal. This paper reviews experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community and analyzes key factors affecting the site selection. It is recommended that clay formation should be taken into consideration and additional effort should be made before decision making of host media of HLW disposal in China. (authors)

  11. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  12. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: Technological Implications for Retrievability

    2009-01-01

    , paying special attention to the buffer, backfill and/or closure of these openings. In a number of countries, it is becoming increasingly important to include provisions for waste retrieval, and retrievability is a legal and/or regulatory requirement in certain cases. Accordingly, the potential benefits and detriments that retrievability may provide are discussed, possible retrievability strategies are outlined and a summary of some of the non-technical considerations and implications is provided, which also includes discussions on IAEA safeguards and safety implications, the cost factors involved and the management of repository information and expertise. The requirement to be able to retrieve waste from a geological repository has technological implications in terms of the design of the disposal system and the associated repository infrastructure. Certain common repository design features (e.g. the use of long lived waste containers) are inherently beneficial in terms of the ability to retrieve waste. However, certain provisions are required to facilitate waste retrieval and the effort involved in any retrieval operations will depend on several factors, which have been outlined by reference to example repository design concepts. In the context of retrievability, the environmental conditions within the repository have potential implications in terms of the timescales of waste container integrity and the operational safety of personnel. During a potentially long period of repository implementation and operation, some critical decisions need to be made about how, when and whether various implementation steps should be taken. This may include decisions as to whether the emplaced waste has to be retrieved. Monitoring information can assist the repository operator (and society) in taking these decisions. More detailed information supporting the analysis (programme, waste inventory, repository design and retrieval concept) is provided in the country annexes. The main

  13. Application of Bayesian network to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Lee, Kun Jai

    2006-01-01

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If we take various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering specific systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, we believe that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this paper proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. We developed and verified an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, we could connect the results of probabilistic inference from the Bayesian network with the consequence

  14. Radiological protection objectives for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    1983-10-01

    Guidance is given on the standards to be used in the UK in decisions on the radiological acceptability of disposal methods for solid radioactive wastes. The radiological protection objectives given in the report are intended to be applied to all types of solid radioactive waste, and to all the disposal methods which are in use or under consideration. This guidance complements and extends previous Board advice on radiological protection objectives which apply to the control of routine discharges of gaseous and liquid effluents. (author)

  15. INERT-MATRIX FUEL: ACTINIDE ''BURNING'' AND DIRECT DISPOSAL

    Rodney C. Ewing; Lumin Wang

    2002-01-01

    Excess actinides result from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons (Pu) and the reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (mainly 241 Am, 244 Cm and 237 Np). In Europe, Canada and Japan studies have determined much improved efficiencies for burnup of actinides using inert-matrix fuels. This innovative approach also considers the properties of the inert-matrix fuel as a nuclear waste form for direct disposal after one-cycle of burn-up. Direct disposal can considerably reduce cost, processing requirements, and radiation exposure to workers

  16. Organizing and managing radioactive waste disposal as an experiment

    Cook, B.J.; Emel, J.L.; Kasperson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines organization and management issues engendered by the national program for permanent disposal of commercial radioactive wastes. The description of current organizational and managerial responses to the waste disposal problem serves as a springboard for consideration of the technical, political, and organizational constraints that impinge upon the waste-management effort. Taking these constraints into account, the authors apply ideas that have emerged from previous radioactive waste-management studies and research on organizations, concluding that a change of course is needed. As an alternative, they propose an experimental approach predicated on the waste-management organization's acknowledging uncertainty and constructing responses that seek to reduce uncertainty systematically and without distortion

  17. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  18. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  19. Geological disposal system development

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  20. Research on geological disposal

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  1. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  2. Geological disposal system development

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  3. Radioactive waste disposal

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  4. Radwaste disposal drum centrifuge

    Rubin, L.S.; Deltete, C.P.; Crook, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The drum or processing bowl of the DDC becomes the disposal container when the filling operation is completed. Rehandling of the processed resin is eliminated. By allowing the centrifugally compacted resin to remain in the processing container, extremely efficient waste packaging can be achieved. The dewatering results and volume reductions reported during 1986 were based upon laboratory scale testing sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Since the publication of these preliminary results, additional testing using a full-scale prototype DDC has been completed, again under the auspices of the DOE. Full-scale testing has substantiated the results of earlier testing and has formed the basis for preliminary discussions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DDC licensing for radioactive applications. A comprehensive Topical Report and Process Control Program is currently being prepared for submittal to the NRC for review under a utility licensing action. Detailed cost-benefit analyses for actual plant operations have been prepared to substantiate the attractiveness of the DDC. Several methods to physically integrate a DDC into a nuclear power plant have also been developed

  5. [Differential diagnostic considerations using ICD-10 in chronic back pain with special regard to persistent somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41)].

    Wolff, D

    2016-06-01

    It is often difficult to pass an expert opinion in cases of chronic back pain. This article analyses the differential diagnostic considerations related to coding various causes in line with ICD-10. It emphasises the I importance of making a careful distinction between orthopoedic and psychiatric conditions and disorders. Simultaneous coding of orthopoedic and psychiatric illnesses and disorders based on a distinct cluster of symptoms necessitates an interdisciplinary approach that consistently applies the ICD-10 definitions of mental an behavioural disorders in order to clearly identify the main reason for a functional impairment in the insurance and sociomedical context. Persistant somatoform pain disorder with somatic and psychological factors (ICD-10 F45.41) should be regarded as related to the underlying disease and be used primarily as an additional and descriptive diagnosis.

  6. Development of knowledge building program concerning about high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takase, Hiroyasu

    2005-01-01

    Acquirement of knowledge about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is one of the important factors for public to determine the social acceptance of HLW disposal. However in Japan, public do not have knowledge about HLW and its disposal sufficiently. In this work, we developed the knowledge building program concerning about HLW disposal based on Nonaka, and Takeuchi's SECI spiral model in knowledge management, and carried to the experiment on this program. In the results, we found that the participants' knowledge about the HLW disposal increased and changed from misunderstanding' or 'assuming' to 'facts' or 'consideration' through this experimental program. These results said that the experimental program leads participants to have higher quality of knowledge about the HLW disposal. In consequence, this knowledge building program may be effective in the acquirement of high quality knowledge. (author)

  7. Characteristics of low-level radioactive waste disposed during 1987--1989

    Roles, G.W.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the volume, activity, and radionuclide distributions in low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposed during 1987 through 1989 at the commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. The report has been entirely assembled from descriptions of waste provided in LLW shipment manifests. Individual radionuclide distributions are listed as a function of waste class, of general industry, and of waste stream. In addition, information is presented about disposal of wastes containing chelating agents, about use of solidification media, about the distribution of radiation levels at the surfaces of waste containers, and about the distribution of waste container sizes. Considerably more information is presented about waste disposed at the Richland and Beatty disposal facilities than at the Barnwell disposal facility

  8. Experience of NS disposal at the Enterprise ''Zvezdochka'', in Severodvinsk. Problems of ecological safety

    Kozlov, Yuri

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, decommissioning and disposal of nuclear submarines is a problem of great concern in Russia. So far more than 150 nuclear submarines have been removed from the Fleet and will be disposed of. Future disposals were not taken into consideration when the shipyards were constructed. Nuclear vessels with loaded cores stay afloat waiting for their turn to be disposed of, often with damaged safety assurance systems and a potential for causing major ecological catastrophes. The presentation deals briefly with some international programmes in progress at Nerpa in Murmansk, Zvezda in Primorye and Zvezdochka in Arkhangelsk and then discusses in more detail the experience of disposal at the Zvezdochka, which under the Start-2 agreement is defined as one of the enterprises dealing with the disposal of strategic nuclear submarines. There they have the qualified staff and the equipment needed. Spent nuclear fuel unloading and removal is the most acute problem

  9. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  10. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  11. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  12. Disposal of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants - 16028

    Graf, Reinhold; Brammer, Klaus-Juergen; Filbert, Wolfgang; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The 'direct disposal of spent fuel' as a part of the current German reference concept was developed as an alternative to spent fuel reprocessing and vitrified HLW disposal. The technical facilities necessary for the implementation of this part of the reference concept, the so called POLLUX R concept, i.e. interim storage buildings for casks containing spent fuel, a pilot conditioning facility, and a special cask 'POLLUX' for final disposal have been built. With view to a geological salt formation all handling procedures for the direct disposal of spent fuel were tested aboveground in full-scale test facilities. To optimise the reference concept, all operational steps have been reviewed for possible improvements. The two additional concepts for the direct disposal of SF are the BSK 3 concept and the DIREGT concept. Both concepts rely on borehole emplacement technology, vertical boreholes for the BSK 3 concept und horizontal boreholes for the DIREGT concept. Supported by the EU and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), DBE TECHNOLOGY built an aboveground full-scale test facility to simulate all relevant handling procedures for the BSK 3 disposal concept. GNS (Company for Nuclear Service), representing the German utilities, provided the main components and its know-how concerning cask design and manufacturing. The test program was concluded recently after more than 1.000 emplacement operations had been performed successfully. The BSK 3 emplacement system in total comprises an emplacement device, a borehole lock, a transport cart, a transfer cask which will shuttle between the aboveground conditioning facility and the underground repository, and the BSK 3 canister itself, designed to contain the fuel rods of three PWR-fuel assemblies with a total of about 1.6 tHM. The BSK 3 concept simplifies the operation of the repository because the handling procedures and techniques can also be applied for the disposal of reprocessing residues. In addition

  13. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  14. Analyses of the deep borehole drilling status for a deep borehole disposal system

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Min Soo; Kim, Geon Young; Kim, Kyung Su [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of disposal for radioactive wastes is not only to isolate them from humans, but also to inhibit leakage of any radioactive materials into the accessible environment. Because of the extremely high level and long-time scale radioactivity of HLW(High-level radioactive waste), a mined deep geological disposal concept, the disposal depth is about 500 m below ground, is considered as the safest method to isolate the spent fuels or high-level radioactive waste from the human environment with the best available technology at present time. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general status of deep drilling technologies was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal analyzed. In this paper, as one of key technologies of deep borehole disposal system, the general status of deep drilling technologies in oil industry, geothermal industry and geo scientific field was reviewed for deep borehole disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Based on the results of these review, the very preliminary applicability of deep drilling technology for deep borehole disposal such as relation between depth and diameter, drilling time and feasibility classification was analyzed.

  15. Emplacement and retrieval equipment design considerations for a repository in salt

    Nair, B.R.; Bahorich, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The current design concept for the disposal of nuclear high level waste packages in a repository in salt is based on the emplacement of individual packages in vertical boreholes in the underground mine floor. A key requirement is that the waste packages be capable of being retrieved during the last 26 years of the 76-year repository operating period. The unique design considerations relating to the retrieval of waste packages emplaced in bedded salt are presented in this paper. The information is based on the experience developed during the design of vertical emplacement and retrieval equipment in support of the Sandia Defense High Level Waste experiments at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Also included are the impact of retrievability on the design of the equipment, the special salt cutting technology that was developed for this application, and a description of the equipment

  16. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  17. Unreviewed Disposal Question: A Discipline Process to Manage Change in LLW Disposal

    Goldston, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Unreviewed Safety Question process examines changes in nuclear facility operations. The process, which ensures that proposed or discovered changes receive the appropriate level of review, is now being used whenever changes such as new waste streams or changes in the design of a waste disposal unit are proposed at SRS. The process involves going through a series of questions to ensure that the change is within the existing performance envelope. Two series of questions are used. The first is a simple screening process. If the change is obviously within the performance envelope, it will be screened from further evaluation. If it cannot be screened, technical personnel involved in the performance assessment, composite analysis, and DAS processes, perform a more detailed evaluation using the second set of questions. If the evaluation shows that the change is within the performance envelope, it can be approved within the contractor's organization. If the evaluation does not clearly conclude t hat the change is within the performance envelope, then a Special Analysis or other more extensive study is triggered. This is a disciplined way to be sure that one knows which changes are significant and which are not, so that the proper attention can be given to the changes that are significant

  18. Disposal Site Information Management System

    Larson, R.A.; Jouse, C.A.; Esparza, V.

    1986-01-01

    An information management system for low-level waste shipped for disposal has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Disposal Site Information Management System (DSIMS) was developed to provide a user friendly computerized system, accessible through NRC on a nationwide network, for persons needing information to facilitate management decisions. This system has been developed on NOMAD VP/CSS, and the data obtained from the operators of commercial disposal sites are transferred to DSIMS semiannually. Capabilities are provided in DSIMS to allow the user to select and sort data for use in analysis and reporting low-level waste. The system also provides means for describing sources and quantities of low-level waste exceeding the limits of NRC 10 CFR Part 61 Class C. Information contained in DSIMS is intended to aid in future waste projections and economic analysis for new disposal sites

  19. Disposal of old printed journals

    2018-02-21

    Feb 21, 2018 ... Notice inviting Tender for Disposal of Old Printed Journals & Old News Papers. Indian Academy of ... The competent authority also reserves the right to reject any or all the tenders without assigning any reason thereof. 19.

  20. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  1. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  2. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes

  3. Americium product solidification and disposal

    Mailen, J.C.; Campbell, D.O.; Bell, J.T.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  4. Waste disposal into the sea

    Ehlers, P.; Kunig, P.

    1987-01-01

    The waste disposal at sea is regulated for the most part by national administrative law, which mainly is based on international law rules supplemented by EC-law. The dumping of low-level radioactive waste into the sea is more and more called into question. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the subsoil of the sea does not correspond to the London Convention. (WG) [de

  5. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  6. Status report on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Culler, F.L. Jr.; McLain, S. (comps.)

    1957-06-25

    A comprehensive survey of waste disposal techniques, requirements, costs, hazards, and long-range considerations is presented. The nature of high level wastes from reactors and chemical processes, in the form of fission product gases, waste solutions, solid wastes, and particulate solids in gas phase, is described. Growth predictions for nuclear reactor capacity and the associated fission product and transplutonic waste problem are made and discussed on the basis of present knowledge. Biological hazards from accumulated wastes and potential hazards from reactor accidents, ore and feed material processing, chemical reprocessing plants, and handling of fissionable and fertile material after irradiation and decontamination are surveyed. The waste transportation problem is considered from the standpoints of magnitude of the problem, present regulations, costs, and cooling periods. The possibilities for ultimate waste management and/or disposal are reviewed and discussed. The costs of disposal, evaporation, storage tanks, and drum-drying are considered.

  7. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  8. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Near-surface land disposal

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  10. The disposal of radioactive waste

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  11. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  12. Ethical aspects in connection with the disposal of radioactive wastes

    Boetsch, W.

    2003-01-01

    The progress of modern natural and technological science and their far-reaching consequences affecting the distant future require increasingly practice-oriented ethical concepts. In the discussions about responseable acting, the question of the ethical tenability of nuclear energy nowadays takes a special position. Above all the problem of the disposal of radioactive wastes - the effects of which on the distant future have to be prognosticated - is controversially discussed in society. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) commissioned Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) in the context of the project ''Disposal of radioactive wastes in the context of ethical objectives'' to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects in connection with the disposal of radioactive wastes. One aim of this report is to derive criteria to form the basis of a comprehensive discussion of the ethical aspects of the disposal of radioactive wastes. These criteria are to describe, as far as possible, all content-related aspects that result from radioactive waste disposal. The issues in this report resulting from the opinions, comments and publications presented are to serve as a basis for an experts' meeting at which the important ethical criteria concerning the responsible management of radioactive waste disposal are to be discussed at an interdisciplinary level with all those involved. The results of this report are based on an investigation which gathered the available national and international statements, principles, and criteria relating to the ethical aspects of the disposal of radioactive wastes and to sustainable development in the context of the technological impact assessment up to beginning of 2000. In the meantime, the debate in Germany has become somewhat more pragmatic, i. a. due to the work of the research group ''Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd)'' and

  13. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. Salt dome investigations. v.5

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with safety evaluation as part of the investigations regarding a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 5 of five volumes that together constitute the final report on the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. Two characteristics of the waste are of special importance for the safety evaluation: the encasing of the waste in steel casks with 15 cm thick walls affording protection against corrosion, protecting the surroundings against radiation, and protecting the glass cylinders from mechanical damage resulting from the pressure at the bottom of the disposal hole, and the modest generation of heat in the waste at the time of disposal resulting in a maximum temperature increase in the salt close to the waste of approx. 40 deg. C. These characteristics proved to considerably improve the safety margin with respect to unforeseen circumstances. The character of the salt dome and of the salt in the proposed disposal area offers in itself good protection against contact with the ground water outside the dome. The relatively large depth of 1200 and 2500 m of the salt surface also means that neither dome nor disposal facility will be appreciably influenced by glaciations or earthquakes. The chalk above the proposed disposal area is very tight and to retain radioactive matter effectively even in the precence of high concentrations of NaCL. The safety investigations included a number of natural processes and probable events such as the segregation of crystal water from overlooked salt minerals, faulty sealings of disposal holes, permeable fault zones in the chalk overlying the dome, the risk in connection with human penetration into the dome. These conditions will neither lead to the destruction of the waste casks or to the release of waste from the dome. Leaching of a cavern is the only situation which proved to result in a release of radioactive material to the biosphere, but the resulting doses was found to be small

  14. Geomembrane special study

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Alternative disposal options for transuranic waste

    Loomis, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Three alternative concepts are proposed for the final disposal of stored and retrieved buried transuranic waste. These proposed options answer criticisms of the existing U.S. Department of Energy strategy of directly disposing of stored transuranic waste in deep, geological salt formations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The first option involves enhanced stabilization of stored waste by thermal treatment followed by convoy transportation and internment in the existing WIPP facility. This concept could also be extended to retrieved buried waste with proper permitting. The second option involves in-state, in situ internment using an encapsulating lens around the waste. This concept applies only to previously buried transuranic waste. The third option involves sending stored and retrieved waste to the Nevada Test Site and configuring the waste around a thermonuclear device from the U.S. or Russian arsenal in a specially designed underground chamber. The thermonuclear explosion would transmute plutonium and disassociate hazardous materials while entombing the waste in a national sacrifice area

  16. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE wastes

    Grazis, B.M.; Schulz, W.W.

    1991-04-01

    This document was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research. It identifies and describes 87 basic research needs in support of advanced technology for management and disposal of Department of Energy radioactive, hazardous chemical, and mixed wastes. A team of scientists and engineers from several DOE laboratories and sites, from academia, and from industry identified and described the basic research needs called out in this report. Special efforts were made to ensure that basic research needs related to management and disposal of any hazardous chemical wastes generated at nonnuclear DOE sites and facilities were properly identified. It is hoped that scientists in both DOE and nongovernment laboratories and institutions will find this document useful when formulating research efforts relevant to waste management and disposal. For management and disposal of DOE radioactive and mixed wastes, basic research needs are identified in nine separate action areas. Basic research needs for management and disposal of DOE hazardous chemical wastes are identified in five action areas. Sufficient description and background information are provided in the report for each particular research need to enable qualified and imaginative scientists to conceive research efforts and programs that will meet the need. 28 refs., 7 tabs

  17. Specialized science.

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  18. Disposal/storage container development experience

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  19. Special geometry

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  20. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  1. Determining criteria for the disposal of iodine-129

    Burger, L.L.

    1980-10-01

    The basic consideration in the disposal of the 129 I produced by the nuclear power industry is that humans must be protected from unacceptable radiation risks. Existing standards prescribe maximum concentrations in air and water and, more recently, a maximum release per unit of electrical power production. The global quantity, distribution, and rate of movement of 127 I (natural iodine), naturally produced 129 I, and anthropogenic 129 I are examined. The 129 I released earlier as a result of nuclear activities over the past few decades is not uniformly dispersed. But the possibility of much greater dispersion exists and, therefore, of much greater dilution than was previously attempted. The potential for dilution with respect to either the 129 I concentration or the 129 I/ 127 I ratio far exceeds the minimum required for acceptable exposure to mankind. For utilizing the dilution principle, it is preferable to package and dispose of 129 I separately from other fission products. The deep ocean is seen to be the logical location for ultimate disposal. A set of 14 basic items is described that can be used to set criteria for storage and disposal of 129 I. It is suggested that preliminary standards be developed on these and perhaps other items to apply to (1) temporary storage and transportation, (2) disposal to a dry environment with a time limitation on calculated behavior, and (3) disposal to the deep ocean with complete release permitted in 10 3 yr. Early quantification of some of these items will permit better decisions on further research and development needed for iodine removal or control, fixation, and disposal

  2. Institutional storage and disposal of radioactive materials

    St Germain, J.

    1986-01-01

    Storage and disposal of radioactive materials from nuclear medicine operations must be considered in the overall program design. The storage of materials from daily operation, materials in transit, and long-term storage represent sources of exposure. The design of storage facilities must include consideration of available space, choice of material, occupancy of surrounding areas, and amount of radioactivity anticipated. Neglect of any of these factors will lead to exposure problems. The ultimate product of any manipulation of radioactive material will be some form of radioactive waste. This waste may be discharged into the environment or placed within a storage area for packaging and transfer to a broker for ultimate disposal. Personnel must be keenly aware of packaging regulations of the burial site as well as applicable federal and local codes. Fire codes should be reviewed if there is to be storage of flammable materials in any area. Radiation protection personnel should be aware of community attitudes when considering the design of the waste program

  3. Progress report on disposal concept for TRU waste in Japan

    2000-03-01

    The object of this report is to contribute towards establishing a national TRU waste disposal program by integrating the results of research and development work carried out by JNC and the electricity utilities and summarizing the findings concerning safe methods for TRU waste disposal. The report consists of 5 chapters: the first describes the boundary conditions for the review of the TRU waste disposal concept (including geological conditions) and the basic concept adopted; the second describes the generation and characteristics of TRU waste and the third outlines the disposal technology; the fourth gives the key of the safety assessment and the fifth presents the conclusions of the report and lists issues for future consideration. The geological environment of Japan is simply classified into crystalline and sedimentary rock types (in terms of groundwater flow properties and rock strength) and a set of target conditions/properties for each rock type is then established. Based on this, a case which represents the basis for performance assessment (the reference case) will be defined. Alternatives to the reference case are studied to investigate the flexibility of the disposal concept. Under the conditions assumed in this study, the perturbing events considered showed no significant effects on the dose at the 100 meter evaluation point, owing to the relatively high efficiency of the natural barrier. However, the significant effect of these events on nuclide from the EBS shows that, in the case of a less efficient natural barrier, their effects could influence resulting dose. (S.Y.)

  4. Low level waste disposal regulatory issues in the US - 59311

    James, David; Kalinowski, Thomas; Edwards, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The United States led the international efforts to define disposal requirements for low level radioactive wastes with the publication of US Regulations governing the disposal of such wastes. The requirements were based on a system of waste classification based on the concentrations of certain radionuclides considered problematic for the protection of future generations from radiation exposure. The regulation, itself, was based on a process for the development of new disposal sites defined by the US congress to provide an equitable distribution of burden to various regions of the US. This process has met with little success in the almost 30 years since its initiation leaving only an incomplete patchwork of disposal options which are primarily dependant on the same options that existed before the act and regulations were initiated. There is currently a new focus on the basis for some of the regulatory requirements derived from advances in the understanding of dose impacts from certain radionuclides, improvements in performance assessment methodologies, the increased use of engineered barriers, the reality of current disposal economies, along with the failure of the act to conform to expectations. This paper will provide an update on the discussion taking place with a focus on the technical considerations. (authors)

  5. Report to the Radioactive Waste Management Committee on the first international workshop on seabed disposal of high-level wastes

    Anderson, D.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Talbert, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The basic conclusion of the workshop is that, while a very considerable amount of work must be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical reasons are apparent at this moment that would preclude disposal of radioactive wastes underneath the seafloor. Subsidiary conclusions reached by subgroups dealing with undersea geology, biology, the water column, and disposal canister research are given. General conclusions reached by the workshop are detailed, together with proposals for an international program furthering an undersea disposal scheme

  6. Dynamic testing of solar collectors under special consideration of the correction of the inclination angle and reduction of the test duration; Dynamische Pruefung von Sonnenkollektoren unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Einfallswinkelkorrektur und der Reduzierung der Pruefdauer

    Fischer, Stephan

    2011-07-01

    Solar thermal systems are gaining more and more market shares. At the beginning of the last decade only systems for swimming pool heating and domestic hot water heating were available on the market. Today the system variety includes additionally solar thermal systems for space heating, solar thermal cooling, process heat and solar thermal power plants. Independent of the purpose of the solar thermal system, it is always the collector that converts the solar irradiance into heat and is thus the most important component within a solar thermal system. The high number of applications results also in a large variety of different collector concepts. The differences between flat plate collectors, evacuated tubular collectors (with or without heat pipes). CPC collectors, parabolic trough collectors. Fresnel collectors and others is not limited to geometry and working principles but include as well the thermal performance, especially when the thermal behaviour under different angles of incidence and fractions of diffuse irradiance is taking into account. For the test of solar thermal collectors and for the optimisation of solar thermal systems a mathematical model is necessary to describe the thermal performance of the solar collector. Thus this thesis is dealing with the mathematic modelling and the experimental testing of solar thermal collectors. Based on already existing procedures a numerical model and a new procedure for the test of thermal collectors is introduced. The numerical model enables the description of the thermal behaviour for most collectors available on the market. The numerical model and the test procedure were developed paying special attention to the incidence angle modifier and the reduction of testing time. As basis for the general numerical model and the test procedure part one of the thesis describes and discusses the parameters needed to characterise the thermal performance of solar thermal collectors. It is shown that some of the influencing

  7. Radiation protection aspects of waste disposal

    Beninson, D.

    1992-01-01

    Waste disposal, particularly of high level waste and some alpha-waste, involves very long times of isolation from the biosphere. The basic radiation protection requirements of 'optimisation of protection' and 'limitation of individual risk' must be complemented with policy decisions regarding the level of ambition of protection for future individuals and populations. Decisions are also necessary for the risk assessments applicable to different time periods. These assessments include considerable uncertainty and determinations of compliance with regulatory requirements must contemplate a policy for taking account of such uncertainties. The paper deals with 'normal' scenarios and with disruptive events as mechanisms for the return of nuclides to the biosphere, in the framework of the Recommendations of the ICRP. (author)

  8. Disposal of 'De Minimis' level radioactive waste

    Shukri bin Othman

    1991-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that any increase in radiation dose will enhance the danger risk of radiation effect, there is no safety limit that can be used in the context of waste disposal. However, ICRP document No. 46(1985) recommended for there to be a dose or risk limit that can be considered as negligible thereby doing away with the necessarily to have a legal procedure for radiation protection. Various radiation level terminology such as negligible level, threshold level and exemption level have been introduced. But the one receiving most attention is de Minimis level since it has a legal connection. Several countries have allowed the exemption of radioactive materials in Malaysia are only involved with small quantities, consideration should be given to the use of de Minimis level

  9. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  10. Siting of near surface disposal facilities

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The Safety Standards are supplemented by a number of Safety Guides and Safety Practices. This Safety Guide defines the site selection process and criteria for identifying suitable near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid wastes. Management of the siting process and data needed to apply the criteria are also specified. 4 refs

  11. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  12. The disposal of radioactive solvent waste

    Dean, B.; Baker, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    As the use of radioisotope techniques increases, laboratories are faced with the problem of disposing of considerable quantities of organic solvent and aqueous liquid wastes. Incineration or collection by a waste contractor both raise problems. Since most of the radiochemicals are preferentially water soluble, an apparatus for washing the radiochemicals out into water and discharging into the normal drainage system in a high diluted form is described. Despite the disadvantages (low efficiency, high water usuage, loss of solvent in presence of surface active agents, precipitation of phosphors from dioxan based liquids) it is felt that the method has some merit if a suitably improved apparatus can be designed at reasonable cost. (U.K.)

  13. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  14. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    Waite, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  15. Offsite source recovery project - ten years of sealed source recovery and disposal

    Whitworth, Julia Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pearson, Mike [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Witkowski, Ioana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wald - Hopkins, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuthbertson, A [NNSA

    2010-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's (GTRI) Offsite Source Recovery Project (OSRP) has been recovering excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources for ten years. In January 2009, GTRI announced that the project had recovered 20,000 sealed radioactive sources (this number has since increased to more than 23,000). This project grew out of early efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to recover and disposition excess Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) sealed sources that were distributed in the 1960s and 1970s under the Atoms for Peace Program. Decades later, these sources began to exceed their special form certifications or fall out of regular use. As OSRP has collected and stored sealed sources, initially using 'No Path Forward' waste exemptions for storage within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, it has consistently worked to create disposal pathways for the material it has recovered. The project was initially restricted to recovering sealed sources that would meet the definition of Greater-than-Class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste, assisting DOE in meeting its obligations under the Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act Amendments (PL 99-240) to provide disposal for this type of waste. After being transferred from DOE-Environmental Management (EM) to the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to be part of GTRI, OSRP's mission was expanded to include not only material that would be classified as GTCC when it became waste, but also any other materials that might constitute a 'national security consideration.' It was recognized at the time that the GTCC category was a waste designation having to do with environmental consequence, rather than the threat posed by deliberate or accidental misuse. The project faces barriers to recovery in many areas, but disposal continues to be one of the more difficult to overcome. This paper discusses OSRP's disposal efforts over its 10-year history. For sources

  16. 40 CFR 503.11 - Special definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... land with indigenous vegetation. (n) Reclamation site is drastically disturbed land that is reclaimed... FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Land Application § 503.11 Special definitions. (a) Agricultural land is land on which a food crop, a feed crop, or a fiber crop is grown. This includes range land...

  17. Application of Bayesian network methodology to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal facility

    Lee, Chang Ju

    2006-02-01

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If one takes various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering some stochastic passive systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, it is believed that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this study proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. In this study an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network developed and verified using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a Monte-Carlo model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters, were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, this study could connect the results of probabilistic

  18. Legal aspects of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive waste

    Reyners, P.

    1981-10-01

    In connection with methods for disposal of highly radioactive waste, that consisting of burying such waste in the sub-seabed arouses an increasingly marked interest among specialists. Apart from the technical difficulties still to be overcome and current safety assessments, this method gives rise to quite considerable legal and political problems. Their solution will undoubtedly have a bearing on its chances of being implemented. (NEA) [fr

  19. Basic factors for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes

    1967-01-01

    This manual discusses factors such as type of waste, legislation, climate, location and availability of materials, equipment and services, etc., which must be taken into account before the preliminary evaluation can be made to decide which treatment and disposal methods should be further investigated. As an aid in selecting the most suitable type of waste management system, a questionnaire has been prepared drawing attention to those factors which should be taken into consideration.

  20. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system

  1. Key Factors to Determine the Borehole Spacing in a Deep Borehole Disposal for HLW

    Lee, Jongyoul; Choi, Heuijoo; Lee, Minsoo; Kim, Geonyoung; Kim, Kyeongsoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified and reducing conditions will sharply limit solubility of most dose critical radionuclides at the depth. Finally, high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept, i.e., deep borehole disposal technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes which has been developed by some countries according to the rapid advance in the development of drilling technology, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, was reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. In this paper, the general concept for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW wastes, as an alternative method to the deep geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on key factors for the determining the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. These results can be used for the development of the HLW deep borehole disposal system.

  2. Specialized languages

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  3. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  4. Waste disposal into the ground

    Mawson, C A

    1955-07-01

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  5. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  6. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  8. Concept and programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes

    Khrushchov, D.P.; Umanets, M.P.; Yakovlev, Eu.A.

    1994-01-01

    The concept and the programme open-quotes Radioactive waste disposal in geological formations of Ukraineclose quotes have been compiled. On the base of specialized criterions the evaluation of the territory of Ukraine was carried out, three geological regions and three types of geological formations favourable for RAW disposal have been selected. The programme of R ampersand D investigations includes three stages: preparatory (1993-1995), preparatory - experimental (1995-2004) and preparation of construction (2005-2010)

  9. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  11. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  12. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  13. Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.

  14. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  15. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  16. An investigation of storage and treatment options for radioactive wastes prepared for sea disposal

    Wakerley, M.W.; Woodfine, B.C.

    1986-07-01

    A sea disposal of 3500 t of packaged waste using a specially converted ship was planned for 1983, but did not take place. The major part of this waste is currently stored at two UKAEA sites. The waste packages were made with the intention that they would be disposed of within about 18 months of packaging. It was not intended that they would be stored for long periods. All wastes are packaged in mild steel drums and the wastes are temporarily stored within buildings. The conditions under which the packages are stored and their present condition are described and possible storage and treatment options are investigated having regard to available disposal routes. (author)

  17. Handling and disposal of radioactive scrap

    Witte, K.

    1975-01-01

    The 9th special course for journalists was in this year on the highly topical subject 'handling and disposal of radioactive scrap'. It was held on the 26th and 27th May 1975 at the Nuclear Research Centre at Karlsruhe. These courses have been held for several years by the Nuclear Research Association (GfK) in the School for Nuclear Engineering and are intended mainly to contribute to journalists of the daily papers, radio and television who are 'not previously technically trained' an introduction into the difficult subject matter of nuclear engineering with its ancillary areas. In view of the many discussions carried on in public the course is further intended to achieve that the problems discussed are treated by means of publicity which is free from emotion. In the journalists' course this year specially selected experts gave technical information prepared for general information as to how radioactive waste can be safely worked up and then finally stored without adverse effects on the environment. Since the interesting collection of questions was put forward in a compressed form and at the same time clearly presented, the author reports on the different separate subjects on which lectures were given. (orig.) [de

  18. Non-technical issues in safety assessments for nuclear disposal facilities

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Brohmann, Bettina

    2010-09-01

    The paper highlights that a comprehensive approach to safety affords the consideration of technology, organisation, personnel and social environment. In several safety relevant contexts of nuclear waste disposal these fields are closely interrelated. The approach for the consideration of socio-scientific aspects which is sketched in this paper supports the systematic treatment of safety relevant non-technical issues in the safety case or in safety assessments for a disposal project. Furthermore it may foster the dialogue among specialists from the technical, the natural- and the socio-scientific field on questions of disposal safety. In this way it may contribute to a better understanding among the affected scientific disciplines in nuclear waste disposal.

  19. International conference on the safety of radioactive waste disposal. Contributed papers

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Conference is to foster information exchange on the safety of radioactive waste disposal covering; the choice of appropriate waste disposal options, safety standards, safety cases for presenting safety arguments and demonstrating compliance with standards, safety assessment methodologies and their application, dealing with uncertainty, regulatory review and decision making, the derivation of limits, controls and conditions to be applied to the development and operation of disposal facilities to ensure safety and the communication of safety issues to all interested stakeholders and confidence development. The conference will consider all possible disposal options available, drawing from experience in Member States with near surface and geological disposal facilities and those at intermediate depths and giving consideration to any multilateral approach that may be adopted. Each of the contributed papers is indexed separately

  20. International conference on the safety of radioactive waste disposal. Contributed papers

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the Conference is to foster information exchange on the safety of radioactive waste disposal covering; the choice of appropriate waste disposal options, safety standards, safety cases for presenting safety arguments and demonstrating compliance with standards, safety assessment methodologies and their application, dealing with uncertainty, regulatory review and decision making, the derivation of limits, controls and conditions to be applied to the development and operation of disposal facilities to ensure safety and the communication of safety issues to all interested stakeholders and confidence development. The conference will consider all possible disposal options available, drawing from experience in Member States with near surface and geological disposal facilities and those at intermediate depths and giving consideration to any multilateral approach that may be adopted. Each of the contributed papers is indexed separately.