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Sample records for special collections materials

  1. Cataloguing outside the box a practical guide to cataloguing special collections materials

    Falk, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to cataloguing and processing the unique special collections formats in the Browne Popular Culture Library (BPCL) and the Music Library and Sound Recordings Archives (MLSRA) at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) (e.g. fanzines, popular sound recordings, comic books, motion picture scripts and press kits, popular fiction). Cataloguing Outside the Box provides guidance to professionals in library and information science facing the same cataloguing challenges. Additionally, name authority work for these collections is addressed.provides practical guidelines and solutions for

  2. Special Collections in ARL Libraries: A Discussion Report from the ARL Working Group on Special Collections

    Association of Research Libraries, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This discussion report identifies key issues in the management of special collections material in the 21st century. The report uses a broad definition of "special collections," which encompasses distinctive material in all media and attendant library services. The group's main focus was on 19th- and 20th-century materials, including…

  3. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  4. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  5. Smuggling special nuclear materials

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe

    1999-01-01

    Ever since the collapse of the former Soviet Union reports have circulated with increasing frequency concerning attempts to smuggle materials from that country's civil and military nuclear programs. Such an increase obviously raises a number of concerns (outlined in the author's introduction), chief among which is the possibility that these materials might eventually fall into the hands of proliferant states or terrorist groups. The following issues are presented: significance of materials being smuggled; sources and smuggling routes; potential customers; international efforts to reduce nuclear smuggling; long-term disposition of fissile materials. (author)

  6. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-06-01

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  7. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Obreja, Vasile V. N. [National Research and Development Institute for Microtechnologies (IMT-Bucuresti), Bucharest, 126A Erou Iancu Nicolae Street, 077190 (Romania)

    2014-06-16

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  8. Supercapacitors specialities - Materials review

    Obreja, Vasile V. N.

    2014-01-01

    The electrode material is a key component for supercapacitor cell performance. As it is known, performance comparison of commercial available batteries and supercapacitors reveals significantly lower energy storage capability for supercapacitor devices. The energy density of commercial supercapacitor cells is limited to 10 Wh/kg whereas that of common lead acid batteries reaches 35-40 Wh/kg. For lithium ion batteries a value higher than 100 Wh/kg is easily available. Nevertheless, supercapacitors also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors have other advantages in comparison with batteries. As a consequence, many efforts have been made in the last years to increase the storage energy density of electrochemical capacitors. A lot of results from published work (research and review papers, patents and reports) are available at this time. The purpose of this review is a presentation of the progress to date for the use of new materials and approaches for supercapacitor electrodes, with focus on the energy storage capability for practical applications. Many reported results refer to nanostructured carbon based materials and the related composites, used for the manufacture of experimental electrodes. A specific capacitance and a specific energy are seldom revealed as the main result of the performed investigation. Thus for nanoprous (activated) carbon based electrodes a specific capacitance up to 200-220 F/g is mentioned for organic electrolyte, whereas for aqueous electrolyte, the value is limited to 400-500 F/g. Significant contribution to specific capacitance is possible from fast faradaic reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface in addition to the electric double layer effect. The corresponding energy density is limited to 30-50 Wh/kg for organic electrolyte and to 12-17 Wh/kg for aqueous electrolyte. However such performance indicators are given only for the carbon material used in electrodes. For a supercapacitor cell, where two electrodes

  9. Appraisal and acquisition innovative practices for archives and special collections

    Theimer, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Appraisal and Acquisition: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores how archivists and special collections librarians in organizations of different sizes and types have approached the challenges of collection, as well as exploring opportunities to acquire new kinds of materials and conduct thoughtful reappraisal.

  10. Mind the Gap: Integrating Special Collections Teaching

    Samuelson, Todd; Coker, Cait

    2014-01-01

    Instruction is a vital part of the academic librarian's public services mission, but the teaching efforts of special collections librarians can be overlooked due to the culture and particularities of teaching in an archival setting. This article documents the challenges special collections librarians face in integrating their teaching program into…

  11. Special nuclear material simulation device

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  12. Brazing of special metallic materials and material combinations using a special material

    Lison, R.

    1981-01-01

    The special materials include metals of groups IVa, Va and VIa of the periodic tables and their alloys. Their particular properties have won them applications in many highly specialized industries. For these materials to be used, mastery of thermal joining methods appropriate to their characteristics is necessary. High-temperature brazing is one such method for joining special materials. This paper presents variants of this technique suitable for each individual special material. Compatibility tests between various brazing metals and various special materials have been carried out by simulating the temperature/time cycle involved in brazing procedures. Special materials are relatively expensive, and their special properties are not required at every point in a structure: elsewhere they can be replaced by a different special material or by other metals or alloys. This means that joints must be made between two special materials or between a special material and a conventional material. When certain conditions are fulfilled, such joins can be made by high-temperature brazing. This paper also shows the extent to which the geometry of the join determines the choice of process. Example of applications are also given. (orig.)

  13. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  14. Connecting to Special Collections of Children's Literature

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2013-01-01

    The Kent State University School of Library and Information Science serves as the home for two children's literature special collections. The Reinberger Children's Library Center is located on the third floor of Kent State's University Library and includes the Marantz Picturebook Collection for the Study of Picturebook Art. The Reinberger…

  15. Safeguards for special nuclear materials

    Carlson, R.L.

    1979-12-01

    Safeguards, accountability, and nuclear materials are defined. The accuracy of measuring nuclear materials is discussed. The use of computers in nuclear materials accounting is described. Measures taken to physically protect nuclear materials are described

  16. Special Collections, Primary Resources, and Information Literacy Pedagogy

    Melissa A. Hubbard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that teaching Information Literacy (IL as an intellectual framework, rather than a set of computer-based tools, can be challenging for numerous reasons. At the same time, other articles describe the unique value of using hands-on investigations of special collections materials to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills and IL in discipline-specific contexts for upper-level students. This article reports on a collaboration between an IL instructor and a special collections librarian to create a hands-on special collections experience for entry-level IL students. We found that exposing these students to these materials can improve their IL and research skills. We explain our methods for designing and assessing such class sessions, and report on our results with students.

  17. Information Literacy for Archives and Special Collections: Defining Outcomes

    Carini, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article provides the framework for a set of standards and outcomes that would constitute information literacy with primary sources. Based on a working model used at Dartmouth College's Rauner Special Collections Library in Hanover, New Hampshire, these concepts create a framework for teaching with primary source materials intended to produce…

  18. Revisited. Euratom's ownership of special fissile materials

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Among all Treaties on the Foundation of the European Community, seemingly, the Euratom Treaty ist the most unobtrusive one having even nearly been declared dead occasionally. For the opponents of nuclear energy the treaty is a thorn in their side because it aims for the peaceful exploitation of nuclear energy. Actually, the treaty likewise aims for the protection of dangers of nuclear energy and encloses a bundle of collective control instruments. The protective purpose provides the community with a strong position in numerous fields towards nuclear energy users including the right to intervene in the operations of nuclear facilities. The communitie's position is further strengthened by the communitie's ownership on special fissile materials. The EAEC Treaty determines: 'Special fissile materials are owned by the community'. The material content of Euratom's ownership is limited by Article 87 of the EAEC Treaty: Unlimited right of use and consumption is granted to the properly possessors unless obligations of the Euratom Treaty oppose. Inherently, the community does not have these rights. It was asked what would be left to the owner Euratom if the properly possessor is entitled to unlimited right of use and even right of consumption.

  19. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  20. Reference and access innovative practices for archives and special collections

    Theimer, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Reference and Access: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores how archives of different sizes and types are increasing their effectiveness in serving the public and meeting internal needs. The book features twelve case studies that demonstrate new ways to interact with users to answer their questions, provide access to materials, support patrons in the research room, and manage reference and access processes. This volume will be useful to those working in archives and special collections as well as other cultural heritage organizations, and provides ideas ranging fro

  1. Estimation methods for special nuclear materials holdup

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    The potential value of statistical models for the estimation of residual inventories of special nuclear materials was examined using holdup data from processing facilities and through controlled experiments. Although the measurement of hidden inventories of special nuclear materials in large facilities is a challenging task, reliable estimates of these inventories can be developed through a combination of good measurements and the use of statistical models. 7 references, 5 figures

  2. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Dowdall, M.; Mattila, A.; Ramebaeck, H.; Aage, H.K.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  3. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  4. Problems of collection development in special libraries

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses factors affecting collection development, scope, definition and process of collection development, highlights importance of collection development policy manual, presents peculiar circumstances and background of document acquisition transaction in libraries, points out many problems relating to document selection and document procurement processes. Discusses various types of vendor-controlled order plans with their merits and demerits. In conclusion other problems concerned with te...

  5. Area Studies and Special Collections: Shared Challenges, Shared Strength

    Carter, Lisa R.; Whittaker, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Special collections and area studies librarians face similar challenges in the changing academic library environment, including the need to articulate the value of these specialized collections and to mainstream processes and practices into larger discovery, teaching, learning, and research efforts. For some institutions, these similarities have…

  6. Special purpose materials for fusion application

    Scott, J.L.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Originally in 1978 the Special Purpose Materials Task Group was concerned with tritium breeding materials, coolants, tritium barriers, graphite and silicon carbide, ceramics, heat-sink materials, and magnet components. Since then several other task groups have been created, so now the category includes only materials for superconducting magnets and ceramics. For the former application copper-stabilized Nb 3 Sn (Ti) insulated with polyimides will meet the general requirements, so that testing of prototype components is the priority task. Ceramics are required for several critical components of fusion reactors either as dielectrics or as a structural material. Components near the first wall will receive exposures of 5 to 20 MW.year/m"2. Other ceramic applications are well behind the first wall, with lower damage levels. Most insulators operate near room temperature, but ceramic blanket structures may operate up to 1000 0 C. Because of a meager data base, one cannot identify optimum ceramics for structural application; but MgAl 2 O 4 is an attractive dielectric material

  7. 77 FR 31298 - Information Collection; Special Use Administration

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Special Use Administration AGENCY... Administration. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before July 24, 2012 to be assured of.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Special Use Administration. OMB Number: 0596-0082. Expiration Date of Approval...

  8. “What’s So Special about Special Collections?” Or, Assessing the Value Special Collections Bring to Academic Libraries

    Elizabeth Yakel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The objective of this study was to examine and call attention to the current deficiency in standardized performance measures and usage metrics suited to assessing the value and impact of special collections and archives and their contributions to the mission of academic research libraries and to suggest possible approaches to overcoming the deficiency.Methods – The authors reviewed attempts over the past dozen years by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL and the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL to highlight the unique types of value that special collections and archival resources contribute to academic research libraries. They also examined the results of a large survey of special collections and archives conducted by OCLC Research in 2010. In addition, they investigated efforts by the Society of American Archivists (SAA dating back to the 1940s to define standardized metrics for gathering and comparing data about archival operations. Finding that the library and archival communities have thus far failed to develop and adopt common metrics and methods for gathering data about the activities of special collections and archives, the authors explored the potential benefits of borrowing concepts for developing user-centered value propositions and metrics from the business community.Results – This study found that there has been a lack of consensus and precision concerning the definition of “special collections” and the value propositions they offer, and that most attempts have been limited in their usefulness because they were collections-centric. The study likewise reaffirmed a lack of consensus regarding how to define and measure basic operations performed by special collections and archives, such as circulating materials to users in supervised reading rooms. The review of concepts and metrics for assessing value in the business community, however, suggested new approaches to defining metrics that

  9. Special nuclear material inventory sampling plans

    Vaccaro, H.; Goldman, A.

    1987-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1942, sampling inspection procedures have been common quality assurance practice. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports such sampling of special nuclear materials inventories. The DOE Order 5630.7 states, Operations Offices may develop and use statistically valid sampling plans appropriate for their site-specific needs. The benefits for nuclear facilities operations include reduced worker exposure and reduced work load. Improved procedures have been developed for obtaining statistically valid sampling plans that maximize these benefits. The double sampling concept is described and the resulting sample sizes for double sample plans are compared with other plans. An algorithm is given for finding optimal double sampling plans that assist in choosing the appropriate detection and false alarm probabilities for various sampling plans

  10. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  11. The first Polish conference: Special glasses and amorphous materials. Introduction

    1993-01-01

    The present issue brings a collection of papers submitted to the 1. Polish Conference on special glasses and amorphous materials, held on June 1993 at the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow. It was a survey of the research topics and attainments of the research teams working in this referring to the nature of the glassy state of the matter and the relation between glasses and other amorphous materials, properties of these materials as well as modern methods of their synthesis both at low and high temperatures. Some of the results presented at the Conference have already found application in industry. Here belong, among others, the works on optic fibres. Several new materials which have been recently elaborated may also find interesting and new practical application. (author)

  12. 78 FR 61324 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    2013-10-03

    ..., Social Science Research Analyst, Office of Policy Support, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, 3101 Park... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Special Nutrition Program Operations Study (SNPOS) AGENCY: Food and...

  13. Molten salt processes in special materials preparation

    Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    As a class, molten salts are the largest collection of non aqueous inorganic solvents. On account of their stability at high temperature and compatibility to a number of process requirements, molten salts are considered indispensable to realize many of the numerous benefits of high temperature technology. They play a crucial role and form the basis for numerous elegant processes for the preparation of metals and materials. Molten salt are considered versatile heat transfer media and have led to the evolution of many interesting reactor concepts in fission and possibly in fusion. They also have been the basis of thinking for few novel processes for power generation. While focusing principally on the actual utilization of molten salts for a variety of materials preparation efforts in BARC, this lecture also covers a few of the other areas of technological applications together with the scientific basis for considering the molten salts in such situations. (author)

  14. Off-Site Storage and Special Collections: A Study in Use and Impact in ARL Libraries in the United States

    Priddle, Charlotte; McCann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special collections libraries collect and preserve materials of intellectual and cultural heritage, providing access to unique research resources. As their holdings continue to expand, special collections in research libraries confront increased space pressures. Off-site storage facilities, used frequently by research libraries for general…

  15. Description innovative practices for archives and special collections

    Theimer, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Description: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores how archives of different sizes and types can enhance the accessibility of their holdings. The book uses eleven case studies to demonstrate innovative ideas that could be transferred into many other settings. Readers can use these as models, sources of inspiration, or starting points for new discussions. The volume will be useful to those working in archives and special collections as well as other cultural heritage organizations, and provides ideas ranging from those that require long-term planning and coordinatio

  16. 10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material. 74.51 Section 74.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear...

  17. Collection-Level Surveys for Special Collections: Coalescing Descriptors across Standards

    Ascher, James P.; Ferris, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Developing collection-level surveys to expose hidden collections in special collections and archives departments within ARL libraries has received a great deal of scholarly attention in the recent years. Numerous standards have been explored, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. This paper summarizes some of the major initiatives in…

  18. Special Collections of Children's Literature: A Justification for Their Support.

    Whitney, Ellen

    1986-01-01

    Describes the various purposes of special collections of children's literature including their value to historians, sociologists, psychologists, artists and authors, their reference purposes, and their value in preserving regional artistic and literary heritages. A bibliography of journal articles, pamphlets, and brochures listed by state is…

  19. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  20. Alloy-steel bolting materials for special applications

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This specification covers regular and special-quality alloy steel bolting materials which may be used for nuclear and other special applications. Bolting materials as used in the specification cover rolled or forged bars, rotary pierced or extruded seamless tubes, bored bars, or forged hollows from forged or rolled bar segments to be machined into bolts, studs, washers, and nuts. Several grades of steel are covered and supplementary requirements of an optional nature are provided for use when special quality is desired

  1. Public Services and Outreach in Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Libraries.

    Traister, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the new emphasis in special collections, especially in academic libraries, on the promotion of materials. Highlights include the economic basis of promotion; exhibitions; classroom ventures; the Web; seminars and other discussion groups; creative writing courses; one-time events; friends, tourists, and the public; and reference services.…

  2. Special requirements for bolting material for nuclear and other special applications

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A specification that provides special requirements for bolting material for use in nuclear and other special applications is presented. The requirements of the specification are supplemental to the requirements of the basic material specifications and they include tempering, welding, elimination of surface defects, certification and identification, quality assurance and various examination methods

  3. Special metals - materials of modern technology

    Booss, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    This article is anether attempt to give a survey of special metals, their production, processing and application, as has been made in four previous articles. The article confines itself essentially to publications made in 12 German and 12 English journals, focussed on metallurgy, metallography, electrochemistry, and sections of electrical engineering. For the first time, some articles written in Russian have been included. (orig./IHOE) [de

  4. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  5. Report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1977-08-01

    Information concerning accounting for significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in ERDA facilities is reported. Inventory difference data are provided for fiscal year 1976 for ERDA and ERDA contractor facilities that possessed significant quantities of SSNM

  6. General and special engineering materials science. Vol. 1

    Ondracek, G.; Voehringer, O.

    1983-04-01

    The present report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes: Volume I treats general engineering materials science in 4 capital chapters on the structure of materials, the properties of materials, materials technology and materials testing and investigation supplemented by a selected detailed chapter about elasticity plasticity and rupture mechanics. Volume II concerns special engineering materials science with respect to nuclear materials under normal reactor operation conditions including reactor clad and structural materials, nuclear fuels and fuel elements and nuclear waste as a materials viewpoint. Volume III - also concerning special engineering materials science - considers nuclear materials with respect to off-normal (''accident'') reactor operation conditions including nuclear materials in loss-of-coolant accidents and nuclear materials in core melt accidents. (orig.) [de

  7. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy's Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item's exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer's requirements

  8. Special Purpose Materials annual progress report, October 1, 1979

    1980-04-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (> 10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  9. Management innovative practices for archives and special collections

    Theimer, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Management: Innovative Practices for Archives and Special Collections explores the kinds of challenges that managers of archival programs face today and how those challenges can be met to achieve optimal results while working within existing resources. The book features thirteen case studies that demonstrate solutions to both traditional management concerns as well as new issues and opportunities presented by changes in technology and organizational environments. This book will help professionals build stronger archival programs by making effective use of people, technology, and resources whil

  10. Enviromental Development Plan: special nuclear materials production

    1980-07-01

    This Environmental Development Plan includes the process steps and facilities necessary for the production of plutonium and tritium for Government needs and the production of some other radioactive materials that will be used for heat and radiation sources by domestic and international customers. The production reactors and the spent fuel processing plants and their effluents are discussed, but the defense wastes from them are treated in a separate EDP. The scope does not include transportation, decontamination and decommissioning, safeguards and security, or use of the SNM products

  11. Specialized equipment needs for the transportation of radioactive material

    Condrey, D.; Lambert, M.

    1998-01-01

    To ensure the safe and reliable transportation of radioactive materials and components, from both the front and back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, a transport management company needs three key elements: specialized knowledge, training and specialized equipment. These three elements result, in part, from national and international regulations which require specialized handling of all radioactive shipments. While the reasons behind the first two elements are readily apparent, the role of specialized equipment is often not considered until too late shipment process even though it plays an integral part of any radioactive material transport. This paper will describe the specialized equipment needed to transport three of the major commodities comprising the bulk of international nuclear transports: natural uranium (UF6), low enriched uranium (UF6) and fresh nuclear fuel. (authors)

  12. Microchannel plate special nuclear materials sensor

    Feller, W.B.; White, P.L.; White, P.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.; Martin, A.P.; Vallerga, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Scientific Inc., is developing for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO SBIR no. HSHQDC-08-C-00190), a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to 3 He gas tubes, using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing 10 B and/or Gd. This work directly supports DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. Neutron-sensitized MCPs have been shown theoretically and more recently experimentally, to be capable of thermal neutron detection efficiencies equivalent to 3 He gas tubes. Although typical solid-state neutron detectors typically have an intrinsic gamma sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than that of 3 He gas detectors, we dramatically reduce gamma sensitivity by combining a novel electronic coincidence rejection scheme, employing a separate but enveloping gamma scintillator. This has already resulted in a measured gamma rejection ratio equal to a small 3 He tube, without in principle sacrificing neutron detection efficiency. Ongoing improvements to the MCP performance as well as the coincidence counting geometry will be described. Repeated testing and validation with a 252 Cf source has been underway throughout the Phase II SBIR program, with ongoing comparisons to a small commercial 3 He gas tube. Finally, further component improvements and efforts toward integration maturity are underway, with the goal of establishing functional prototypes for SNM field testing.

  13. Special Issue: NextGen Materials for 3D Printing

    Chee Kai Chua

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a handful of materials are well-established in three-dimensional (3D printing and well-accepted in industrial manufacturing applications. However, recent advances in 3D printable materials have shown potential for enabling numerous novel applications in the future. This special issue, consisting of 2 reviews and 10 research articles, intends to explore the possible materials that could define next-generation 3D printing.

  14. Annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1991-01-01

    This report of unclassified Inventory Difference (ID's) covers the twelve months from April 1, 1989 through March 31, 1990 for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear material. Classified information is not included in this report. This classified information includes data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities or facilities under ID investigation. However, classified ID data from such facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses was the included data. The data in this report have been prepared and reviewed by DOE contractors, field offices, and Headquarters. When necessary, special investigations have been performed in addition to these reviews: This ID data, explanations, reviews, and any additional special investigations, together with the absence of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that no theft or diversion of significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material has occurred in DOE facilities during the twelve-month period covered by this report

  15. Olfactory specialization for perfume collection in male orchid bees.

    Mitko, Lukasz; Weber, Marjorie G; Ramirez, Santiago R; Hedenström, Erik; Wcislo, William T; Eltz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Insects rely on the olfactory system to detect a vast diversity of airborne molecules in their environment. Highly sensitive olfactory tuning is expected to evolve when detection of a particular chemical with great precision is required in the context of foraging and/or finding mates. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect odoriferous substances from multiple sources, store them in specialized tibial pouches and later expose them at display sites, presumably as mating signals to females. Previous analysis of tibial compounds among sympatric species revealed substantial chemical disparity in chemical composition among lineages with outstanding divergence between closely related species. Here, we tested whether specific perfume phenotypes coevolve with matching olfactory adaptations in male orchid bees to facilitate the location and harvest of species-specific perfume compounds. We conducted electroantennographic (EAG) measurements on males of 15 sympatric species in the genus Euglossa that were stimulated with 18 compounds present in variable proportions in male hind tibiae. Antennal response profiles were species-specific across all 15 species, but there was no conspicuous differentiation between closely related species. Instead, we found that the observed variation in EAG activity follows a Brownian motion model of trait evolution, where the probability of differentiation increases proportionally with lineage divergence time. However, we identified strong antennal responses for some chemicals that are present as major compounds in the perfume of the same species, thus suggesting that sensory specialization has occurred within multiple lineages. This sensory specialization was particularly apparent for semi-volatile molecules ('base note' compounds), thus supporting the idea that such compounds play an important role in chemical signaling of euglossine bees. Overall, our study found no close correspondence between antennal responses and behavioral

  16. General and special engineering materials science. Vol. 3

    Ondracek, G.; Hofmann, P.

    1983-04-01

    The report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes. The present volume III concerns special engineering materials science and considers nuclear materials with respect to off-normal (''accident'') reactor operation conditions including nuclear materials in loss-of-coolant accident and nuclear materials in core melt accidents. (orig./IHOE) [de

  17. General and special engineering materials science. Vol. 2

    Anderko, K.; Kummerer, K.R.; Ondracek, G.

    1983-04-01

    The present report about general and special engineering materials science is the result of lectures given by the authors in two terms in 1982 at Instituto Balseiro, San Carlos de Bariloche, the graduated college of the Universidad de Cuyo and Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Republica Argentina. These lectures were organised in the frame of the project ''nuclear engineering'' (ARG/78/020) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Some chapters of the report are written in English, others in Spanish. The report is subdivided into three volumes. The present volume II concerns special engineering materials science with respect to nuclear materials under normal reactor operation conditions including 1. reactor clad and structural materials, 2. nuclear fuels and fuel elements, 3. nuclear waste as a materials viewpoint. (orig./IHOE) [de

  18. Microcomputer based shelf system to monitor special nuclear materials in storage

    Nicholson, N.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Diversion of special nuclear material has become a matter of grave concern in recent years. Large quantities of this material are kept in long-term storage and must be inventoried periodically, resulting in a time-consuming activity that exposes personnel to additional radiation. A system that provides continuous surveillance of stored special nuclear materials has been developed. A shelf monitor has been designed using a single component microcomputer to collect data from a Geiger Muller tube that monitors gamma emissions and a scale that monitors the total weight of the special nuclear material and its container. A network of these shelf monitors reports their acquired data to a minicomputer for analysis and storage. Because a large number of these monitors is likely to be needed in most storage facilities, one objective of this program has been to develop a low cost but reliable monitor

  19. Active neutron technique for detecting attempted special nuclear material diversion

    Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.

    1979-01-01

    The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds

  20. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  1. Active and Passive Diagnostic Signatures of Special Nuclear Materials

    Myers, William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-26

    An overview will be given discussing signatures associated with special nuclear materials acquired using both active and passive diagnostic techniques. Examples of how technology advancements have helped improve diagnostic capabilities to meet the challenges of today’s applications will be discussed.

  2. 10 CFR 74.41 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic...

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of moderate strategic significance. 74.41 Section 74.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material...

  3. Considerations for sampling nuclear materials for SNM accounting measurements. Special nuclear material accountability report

    Brouns, R.J.; Roberts, F.P.; Upson, U.L.

    1978-05-01

    This report presents principles and guidelines for sampling nuclear materials to measure chemical and isotopic content of the material. Development of sampling plans and procedures that maintain the random and systematic errors of sampling within acceptable limits for SNM(Special Nuclear Materials) accounting purposes are emphasized

  4. Setting Up a Special Collection on Water Pollution in a University Library

    Friedlander, Janet

    1974-01-01

    The establishment of a special collection within the university library, the complexities of identifying and collecting reports in the environmental area, locating agencies concerned with water pollution, and recording the location of other local collections of data are described. (Author)

  5. Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material

    Stewart, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data

  6. Physical protection of facilities and special nuclear materials in france

    Jeanpierre, G.

    1980-01-01

    Physical protection of nuclear facilities and special nuclear materials is subject in France to a national governmental regulation which provides for the basic principles to be taken into account and the minimal level of protection deemed necessary. But the responsibility of implementation is left to the facility management and the resulting decentralization allows for maximum efficiency. All safeguards measures comply with the commitments taken at the international level by the French government

  7. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  8. Special purpose materials. Annual progress report, October 1, 1979

    1980-04-01

    Fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials are investigated. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, grahite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. Radiation-induced conductivity of three forms of Al 2 O 3 was measured as a function of ionizing dose rate and temperature. Increases observed are large enough to affect performance of insulators under some fusion reactor operating conditions. Single-crystal MgAl 2 O 4 was shown to exhibit zero swelling when irradiated to approx. 2 x 10 26 n/m 2 at 925 and 1100 K. This ceramic is resistant to nucleation and growth of defect aggregates, and is not characterized by those microstructural conditions which lead to void formation and swelling in Al 2 O 3 . Fracture toughness of single-crystal Al 2 O 3 was significantly increased by elevated-temperature irradiation to approx. 2 x 10 26 n/m 2 , while that for MgAl 2 O 4 and Y 3 Al 5 O 12 showed little or no change. These results show that ceramics can retain their original resistance to crack propagation after high-dose neutron irradiation

  9. Detecting special nuclear material using muon-induced neutron emission

    Guardincerri, Elena; Bacon, Jeffrey; Borozdin, Konstantin; Matthew Durham, J.; Fabritius II, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hecht, Adam [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Milner, Edward C. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75205 (United States); Miyadera, Haruo; Morris, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Perry, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Poulson, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The penetrating ability of cosmic ray muons makes them an attractive probe for imaging dense materials. Here, we describe experimental results from a new technique that uses neutrons generated by cosmic-ray muons to identify the presence of special nuclear material (SNM). Neutrons emitted from SNM are used to tag muon-induced fission events in actinides and laminography is used to form images of the stopping material. This technique allows the imaging of SNM-bearing objects tagged using muon tracking detectors located above or to the side of the objects, and may have potential applications in warhead verification scenarios. During the experiment described here we did not attempt to distinguish the type or grade of the SNM.

  10. Reality of dielectric materials in special environment with radiation and others

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the results of investigation by the expert committee on the title problem in the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan from April, 1989 to March, 1992 are summarized. The objectives were to collect the data on the deterioration of dielectric and insulation materials in the special environment including radiation, to investigate the deterioration mechanism, and to grasp the state of development of the materials which can withstand special environment. The actual conditions of temperature, humidity and radiation in nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, spaceships, accelerator facilities and nuclear fusion experiment facilities are reported. As the new materials which can withstand special environment, the properties of aromatic engineering plastics such as polyimide, PEEK and others, no-halogen incombustible materials, thermoplastic polyurethane, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, ceramics, high temperature superconductors, fiber-reinforced composite materials, silica glass and quartz optical fibers are shown. The factors of material deterioration, the method of forecasting lifetime and the examples are explained. The new methods of measuring material properties such as ion microprobe, positron annihilation, scanning tunnel microscopes, optical detection magnetic resonance and so on are explained. (K.I.)

  11. The Transport of Radioactive Materials under special arrangement

    Biaggio, A.L.; Vietri, J.R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Agency's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material rule the international transport of these materials and provide the basis of national and regional regulations. The Regulations establish the technical, operational and administrative requirements which shall be accomplished to carry out the transport of radioactive materials (RAM). They also allow the transport in different conditions of those currently applicable and, in such cases, establish that the transport shall be made under special arrangement. To approve a transport under special arrangement the involved Competent Authority shall be satisfied that the alternative provisions are adequate to ensure that the overall level of safety in transport and in-transit storage is at least equivalent to that which would be provided if all the applicable requirements had been met (para. 2ll of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Series No. 6). This paper explains some difficulties the Argentine Competent. Authority has experienced trying by comparing the equivalence between the level of safety resulting from the compliance with current requirements and the overall level of safety which is provided by the application of alternative provisions. As most of the experience gained come from the transport of RAM by road, only this mode of transport is considered. (J.P.N.)

  12. Special Issue: 14th International Symposium on Novel and Nano Materials

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Choa, Yong-Ho; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-09-01

    This Special Issue of Applied Surface Science is intended to provide a collection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 14th International Symposium on Novel Nano Materials (ISNNM) held in Budapest, Hungary as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe from July 3 to July 8, 2016. All selected papers underwent the regular peer review process as set by the journal of Applied Surface Science and its publisher (Elsevier).

  13. 78 FR 66343 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Special Education-Individual Reporting...

    2013-11-05

    ...; Comment Request; Special Education-Individual Reporting on Regulatory Compliance Related to the Personnel... of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), Department of Education (ED) ACTION: Notice... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Special Education-Individual...

  14. Special nuclear material information, security classification guidance. Instruction

    Flickinger, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Instruction reissues DoD Instruction 5210.67, July 5, 1979, and provides security classification guidance for information concerning significant quantities of special nuclear material, other than that contained in nuclear weapons and that used in the production of energy in the reactor plant of nuclear-powered ships. Security classification guidance for these data in the latter two applications is contained in Joint DoE/DoD Nuclear Weapons Classification Guide and Joint DoE/DoD Classification Guide for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program

  15. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm.

  16. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm

  17. Semiannual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1987-07-01

    This twentieth periodic semiannual report of unclassified Inventory Differences (ID's) covers the second six months of fiscal year 1986 (April 1, 1986, through September 30, 1986) for all key Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor operated facilities possessing strategic special nuclear materials. Data for the Rocky Flats and Y-12 nuclear weapons production facilities are not included in the report in order to protect classified nuclear weapons information; however, classified ID data from these facilities receive the same scrutiny and analyses as the unclassified data

  18. Westinghouse Hanford Company special nuclear material vault storage study

    Borisch, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    Category 1 and 2 Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) require storage in vault or vault type rooms as specified in DOE orders 5633.3A and 6430.1A. All category 1 and 2 SNM in dry storage on the Hanford site that is managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co (WHC) is located in the 200 West Area at Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facilities. This document provides current and projected SNM vault inventories in terms of storage space filled and forecasts available space for possible future storage needs

  19. Planning, Coordinating, and Managing Off-Site Storage is an Area of Increasing, Professional Responsibility for Special Collections Departments

    Melissa Goertzen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To measure the use of off-site storage for special collections materials and to examine how this use impacts core special collections activities. Design – Survey questionnaire containing both structured and open ended questions. Follow-up interviews were also conducted. Setting – Association of Research Libraries (ARL member institutions in the United States of America. Subjects – 108 directors of special collections. Methods – Participants were recruited via email; contact information was compiled through professional directories, web searches, and referrals from professionals at ARL member libraries. The survey was sent out on October 31, 2013, and two reminder emails were distributed before it closed three weeks later. The survey was created and distributed using Qualtrics, a research software that supports online data collection and analysis. All results were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and Qualtrics. Main Results – The final response rate was 58% (63 out of 108. The majority (51 participants, or 81% reported use of off-site storage for library collections. Of this group, 91% (47 out of 51 house a variety of special collections in off-site storage. The criteria most frequently utilized to designate these materials to off-site storage are use (87%, size (66%, format (60%, and value (57%. The authors found that special collections directors are most likely to send materials to off-site storage facilities that are established and in use by other departments at their home institution; access to established workflows, especially those linked to transit and delivery, and space for expanding collections are benefits. In regard to core special collections activities, results indicated that public service was most impacted by off-site storage. The authors discussed challenges related to patron use and satisfaction. In regard to management and processing, directors faced challenges using the same level of staff to maintain

  20. Special issue on "Frontiers in Materials Science: Condensed matters"

    Hoang, Nam-Nhat; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Pham, Duc-Thang

    2018-03-01

    This special issue includes the editor-invited and selected papers from 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2016), held in Hanoi, Vietnam, from the 28th to 30th of September 2016, which coincided with the 65th anniversary of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Education. The FMS2016 is a continuation of a series of meetings starting from 2010. A first event was a bilateral Vietnamese-German meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2010, and the second one was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2011. The idea at that time was to initiate interactions between scientists from both countries and to further develop the field of materials science in Southeast Asia. After these successful bilateral meetings, a next step was taken by advancing the format of the symposium into an international event. In 2013, the 1st International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2013) was successfully organized in Hanoi, which followed 2nd symposium, FMS2015, in Tokyo, in 2015. The FMS2016 continues this idea of providing an international forum for physicists, material scientists and chemists for discussing their latest results and the recent developments in the important field of materials science.

  1. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest...

    2010-04-02

    ... Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning AGENCY: Forest... on the new information collection, Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before June 1, 2010 to be assured of...

  2. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    DeAnn Long; Michael Murphy

    2008-01-01

    Prior to April 2007, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation department. Calibration and performance testing on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor was performed, but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no performance test program. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability Manager volunteered to take over performance testing of all SNM portal monitors at NTS in order to strengthen the program and meet U.S. Department of Energy Order requirements. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with developing a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, developing and implementing procedures, troubleshooting and repair, validating the process, physical control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and implementing the performance test program

  3. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  4. Internal transfers of special nuclear material - March 1975

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Paragraph 70.51(e) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires, with certain exceptions stated in the rule, that each licensee authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material (SNM) maintain certain procedures. These procedures are to include: (1) records of the quantities of SNM added to or removed from the process; (2) documentation of all transfers of SNM between material-balance areas to show the identity and quantity of SNM transferred; (3) requirements for authorized signatures on each document used to record the transfer of SNM between material-balance areas; and (4) means for control of and accounting for internal transfer documents. Paragraph 70.58(e) requires licensees to establish, maintain, and follow a system for measuring the SNM transferred between material-balance areas and item-control areas. Paragraph 70.58(f) requires that licensees have a program that evaluates and controls the quality of their measurement system. Additionally, all licensees authorized to possess SNM must comply with paragraph 70.51(b) of 10 CFR Part 70. That rule requires licensees to keep records showing, among other things, the inventory of all SNM in their possession and its location. This guide sets forth acceptable methods for controlling and documenting transfers of SNM within a plant site in order to meet the requirements listed above

  5. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Slaughter, Dennis R [Oakland, CA; Pohl, Bertram A [Berkeley, CA; Dougan, Arden D [San Ramon, CA; Bernstein, Adam [Palo Alto, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA; Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  6. Special collection of used mercury batteries in Switzerland

    Schaerer, J

    1979-01-01

    The organization and the performance of the Swiss Mercury Battery Collection Service are described. The amount of mercury batteries returned has increased from 1800 kg (600 kg Hg) in 1975 to 6500 kg (2200 kg Hg) in 1978; the percentage of batteries returned increased from 20 to 55%. (DLC)

  7. Detection of special nuclear materials with the associate particle technique

    Carasco, Cédric; Deyglun, Clément; Pérot, Bertrand; Eléon, Cyrille; Normand, Stéphane; Sannié, Guillaume; Boudergui, Karim; Corre, Gwenolé; Konzdrasovs, Vladimir; Pras, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of the French trans-governmental R and D program against chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosives (CBRN-E) threats, CEA is studying the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation with fast neutrons produced by an associated particle sealed tube neutron generator. The deuterium-tritium fusion reaction produces an alpha particle and a 14 MeV neutron almost back to back, allowing tagging neutron emission both in time and direction with an alpha particle position-sensitive sensor embedded in the generator. Fission prompt neutrons and gamma rays induced by tagged neutrons which are tagged by an alpha particle are detected in coincidence with plastic scintillators. This paper presents numerical simulations performed with the MCNP-PoliMi Monte Carlo computer code and with post processing software developed with the ROOT data analysis package. False coincidences due to neutron and photon scattering between adjacent detectors (cross talk) are filtered out to increase the selectivity between nuclear and benign materials. Accidental coincidences, which are not correlated to an alpha particle, are also taken into account in the numerical model, as well as counting statistics, and the time-energy resolution of the data acquisition system. Such realistic calculations show that relevant quantities of SNM (few kg) can be distinguished from cargo and shielding materials in 10 min acquisitions. First laboratory tests of the system under development in CEA laboratories are also presented.

  8. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980's

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an application guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commerciallly available during the 1980s. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  9. Materialising digital collecting: An extended view of digital materiality

    Mardon, Rebecca; Belk, Russell

    2018-01-01

    If digital objects are abundant and ubiquitous, why should consumers pay for, much less collect them? The qualities of digital code present numerous challenges for collecting, yet digital collecting can and does occur. We explore the role of companies in constructing digital consumption objects that encourage and support collecting behaviours, identifying material configuration techniques that materialise these objects as elusive and authentic. Such techniques, we argue, may facilitate those ...

  10. Special cluster issue on tribocorrosion of dental materials

    Mathew, Mathew T.; Stack, Margaret M.

    2013-10-01

    Tribocorrosion affects all walks of life from oil and gas conversion to biomedical materials. Wear can interact with corrosion to enhance it or impede it; conversely, corrosion can enhance or impede wear. The understanding of the interactions between physical and chemical phenomena has been greatly assisted by electrochemical and microscopic techniques. In dentistry, it is well recognized that erosion due to dissolution (a term physicists use to denote wear) of enamel can result in tooth decay; however, the effects of the oral environment, i.e. pH levels, electrochemical potential and any interactions due to the forces involved in chewing are not well understood. This special cluster issue includes investigations on the fundamentals of wear-corrosion interactions involved in simulated oral environments, including candidate dental implant and veneer materials. The issue commences with a fundamental study of titanium implants and this is followed by an analysis of the behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular devices in a synovial fluid-like environment. The analysis of tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs is addressed and is followed by a paper on fretting wear, on hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with protein (bovine serum albumin). The effects of acid treatments on tooth enamel, and as a surface engineering technique for dental implants, are investigated in two further contributions. An analysis of the physiological parameters of intraoral wear is addressed; this is followed by a study of candidate dental materials in common beverages such as tea and coffee with varying acidity and viscosity and the use of wear maps to identify the safety zones for prediction of material degradation in such conditions. Hence, the special cluster issue consists of a range of tribocorrosion contributions involving many aspects of dental tribocorrosion, from analysis of physiological

  11. Special Nuclear Material Portal Monitoring at the Nevada Test Site

    Mike Murphy

    2008-01-01

    In the past, acceptance and performance testing of the various Special Nuclear Material (SNM) monitoring devices at the Nevada Test Site has been performed by the Radiological Health Instrumentation Department. Calibration and performance tests on the PM-700 personnel portal monitor were performed but there was no test program for the VM-250 vehicle portal monitor because it had never been put into service. The handheld SNM monitors, the TSA model 470B, were being calibrated annually, but there was no program in place to test them quarterly. In April of 2007, the Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) Manager at the time decided that the program needed to be strengthened and MC and A took over performance testing of all SNM portal monitoring equipment. This paper will discuss the following activities associated with creating a performance testing program: changing the culture, learning the systems, writing procedures, troubleshooting/repairing, validating the process, control of equipment, acquisition of new systems, and running the program

  12. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  13. Biomimetic water-collecting materials inspired by nature.

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2016-03-11

    Nowadays, water shortage is a severe issue all over the world, especially in some arid and undeveloped areas. Interestingly, a variety of natural creatures can collect water from fog, which can provide a source of inspiration to develop novel and functional water-collecting materials. Recently, as an increasingly hot research topic, bioinspired materials with the water collection ability have captured vast scientific attention in both practical applications and fundamental research studies. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of water collection in various natural creatures and present the fabrications, functions, applications, and new developments of bioinspired materials in recent years. The theoretical basis related to the phenomenon of water collection containing wetting behaviors and water droplet transportations is described in the beginning, i.e., the Young's equation, Wenzel model, Cassie model, surface energy gradient model and Laplace pressure equation. Then, the water collection mechanisms of three typical and widely researched natural animals and plants are discussed and their corresponding bioinspired materials are simultaneously detailed, which are cactus, spider, and desert beetles, respectively. This is followed by introducing another eight animals and plants (butterfly, shore birds, wheat awns, green bristlegrass, the Cotula fallax plant, Namib grass, green tree frogs and Australian desert lizards) that are rarely reported, exhibiting water collection properties or similar water droplet transportation. Finally, conclusions and outlook concerning the future development of bioinspired fog-collecting materials are presented.

  14. Special Education Teachers' Perceptions and Intentions toward Data Collection

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John H.; Wong, Wing Hang; Missall, Kristen N.

    2018-01-01

    Although data-based decision making is an evidence-based practice, many special educators have difficulty applying the practice within daily routines. We applied the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the influences that promote or hinder early childhood special educators' intentions to collect data. We assessed three influences on…

  15. 77 FR 43276 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and...

    2012-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Needs Assessment, Workplan, and Evaluation Guide for the Technical... Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services within the U.S. Department of Education funded...

  16. 75 FR 6642 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate

    2010-02-10

    ... Information Collection; Naval Special Warfare Recruiting Directorate AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Recruiting Directorate announces the submission... any of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the...

  17. 77 FR 39225 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and...

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Grantee Reporting Form-- Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA.... Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., LBJ, Washington, DC 20202-4537. Copies of the proposed...

  18. 77 FR 36607 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    2012-06-19

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... hazardous materials. 12102-M EQ Industrial 49 CFR 173.56(i); To modify the special Services, Inc. 173.56(b... 4.1. 13102-M Robertshaw Industrial 49 CFR 173.150(b); To modify the special Products dba 173.222(c...

  19. Qualifications of and acceptance criteria for transporting special form radioactive material

    Hovingh, J.

    1991-01-01

    A special form radioactive material is a radioactive material that is in an inert, insoluble, indispersible form such that even in the event of an accident, it will not be dispersed into the environment in a way that could have an adverse impact on public health and safety. Methods of qualifying a special form radioactive material are discussed. Interpretation of acceptance criteria are proposed for the transportation of Type B quantities of a special form radioactive material. 11 refs

  20. Estimation methods for process holdup of special nuclear materials

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Picard, R.R.; Marshall, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsored a research study at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to explore the possibilities of developing statistical estimation methods for materials holdup at highly enriched uranium (HEU)-processing facilities. Attempts at using historical holdup data from processing facilities and selected holdup measurements at two operating facilities confirmed the need for high-quality data and reasonable control over process parameters in developing statistical models for holdup estimations. A major effort was therefore directed at conducting large-scale experiments to demonstrate the value of statistical estimation models from experimentally measured data of good quality. Using data from these experiments, we developed statistical models to estimate residual inventories of uranium in large process equipment and facilities. Some of the important findings of this investigation are the following: prediction models for the residual holdup of special nuclear material (SNM) can be developed from good-quality historical data on holdup; holdup data from several of the equipment used at HEU-processing facilities, such as air filters, ductwork, calciners, dissolvers, pumps, pipes, and pipe fittings, readily lend themselves to statistical modeling of holdup; holdup profiles of process equipment such as glove boxes, precipitators, and rotary drum filters can change with time; therefore, good estimation of residual inventories in these types of equipment requires several measurements at the time of inventory; although measurement of residual holdup of SNM in large facilities is a challenging task, reasonable estimates of the hidden inventories of holdup to meet the regulatory requirements can be accomplished through a combination of good measurements and the use of statistical models. 44 references, 62 figures, 43 tables

  1. Superheated emulsions for the detection of special nuclear material

    D’Errico, Francesco; Di Fulvio, Angela

    2011-01-01

    A novel solution for the detection and smuggling interdiction of special nuclear materials is presented here consisting of large detector modules which contain superheated emulsions and which are readout with an optical approach. The detectors can be produced to be fully sensitive to prompt fission neutrons and totally insensitive to the interrogation beam, whether X-rays or neutrons below a chosen energy threshold. Therefore, the detectors are able to operate while the selected interrogation beam is on and they will only pick up the signal from fission neutrons. A position-sensitive readout mechanism is used in our design, relying on the scattering of light by neutron-induced bubbles. A beam of coherent light crosses the active area of the detector, and local variations in scattered light due to the presence of bubbles are detected in real time by arrays of silicon planar photodiodes affixed along the whole length of the detector. The system may offer a variety of advantages compared to current approaches, such as the possibility of simultaneous irradiation and detection, i.e. a 100% duty cycle, without requiring complex signal analysis, and high signal-to-noise ratio, minimizing costly nuisance alarms, thanks to its inherent insensitivity to photons.

  2. Tamper and radiation resistant instrumentation for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    Parsons, B.B.; Wells, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    A tamper-resistant liquid level/accountability instrumentation system for safeguards use has been developed and tested. The tests demonstrate the accuracy of liquid level measurement using TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) techniques and the accuracy of differential pressure and temperature measurements utilizing a custom designed liquid level sensor probe. The calibrated liquid level, differential pressure, and temperature data provide sufficient information to accurately determine volume, density, and specific gravity. Test solutions used include ordinary tap water, diluted nitric acid in varying concentrations, and diluted uranium trioxide also in varying concentrations. System operations and preliminary test results conducted at the General Electric Midwest Fuel Recovery Plant and the National Bureau of Standards, respectively, suggest that the system will provide the safeguards inspector with an additional tool for real-time independent verification of normal operations and special nuclear materials accountancy data for chemical reprocessing plants. This paper discusses the system design concepts, including a brief description of the tamper and radiation resistant features, the preliminary test results, and the significance of the work

  3. Special Nuclear Material Detection with a Water Cherenkov based Detector

    Sweany, M.; Bernstein, A.; Bowden, N.; Dazeley, S.; Svoboda, R.

    2008-01-01

    Fission events from Special Nuclear Material (SNM), such as highly enriched uranium or plutonium, produce a number of neutrons and high energy gamma-rays. Assuming the neutron multiplicity is approximately Poissonian with an average of 2 to 3, the observation of time correlations between these particles from a cargo container would constitute a robust signature of the presence of SNM inside. However, in order to be sensitive to the multiplicity, one would require a high total efficiency. There are two approaches to maximize the total efficiency; maximizing the detector efficiency or maximizing the detector solid angle coverage. The advanced detector group at LLNL is investigating one way to maximize the detector size. We are designing and building a water Cerenkov based gamma and neutron detector for the purpose of developing an efficient and cost effective way to deploy a large solid angle car wash style detector. We report on our progress in constructing a larger detector and also present preliminary results from our prototype detector that indicates detection of neutrons

  4. Selected Bibliography from the Special Collections Department of The College of The Bahamas Library

    Angela Gottardi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Special Collections Department of The College of The Bahamas Library resides a little treasure trove of resources pertaining to The Bahamas, the West Indies and Africa. These collections hold a variety of printed materials: books, dissertations, research studies, government documents, journals, newspaper clippings and ephemera. The Bahamian Collection is the most extensive. Established in 1984, it serves the purpose of a research depository for The Bahamas, as the National Library is yet to be built. Officially, the National Archives is the depository for the historical records of the country. The Bahamas is fortunate in having a very fine archival institution, located on Mackey Street. Titles included in the Bahamian Collection Selected Bibliography are books chosen for their representational appeal. The intention was to represent a cross-section of publications highlighting all aspects of The Bahamas. That was the primary criterion. The other consideration was motivational value. By this is meant the ability to tantalize the reader into discovering more about who, why and what has been printed to preserve, inform, entertain and contemplate the fascinating evolution of The Bahamas. Owing to the strong oral tradition of the country, the printed record of the people began somewhat later than in many other cultures. This too is of significance to the interested reader. In August 1996 when I came to work at The College of The Bahamas as the Special Collections Librarian, I knew nothing of the colors, textures and vitality of this country. A Fodor's travel guide provided factual information and description and some enticing photographs. The context of Bahamian life was a mystery to me. As the authors of the books selected for this bibliography, I have grown more and more intrigued by this island archipelago. Thanks to the encoded voice of natives and, like myself, windblown curious wanderers who have had the good fortune to arrive, if only

  5. 75 FR 68316 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    2010-11-05

    ...: Special Nutrition Program Operations Study. OMB Number: 0584-NEW. Expiration Date of Approval: Not yet...: General descriptive data on the Child Nutrition (CN) program characteristics to help FNS respond to... (SFAs) and State Agencies responsible for administering the CN programs. The activities to be undertaken...

  6. Origin, quantities produced and ways of conditioning of special wastes in regional collection points

    Neider, R.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive substances to be collected at regional collecting points are mostly related to the radionuclides H-3, Ra-226 and Th-232. These special wastes form a particular group of wastes including such solid wastes which do not contain volatile radionuclides yet cannot, for other reasons, be conditioned in accordance with the old Asse qualifications. (orig./DG) [de

  7. User Impact on Selection, Digitization, and the Development of Digital Special Collections

    Mills, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Libraries and archives digitize their special collections in an effort to increase access to rare and unique items. To ensure that resulting digital collections meet user needs, institutions have made assessment, consultation, and user participation integral to digitization initiatives and the selection process. Institutions must also build…

  8. An Enduring Presence: Special Collections of the Barr Smith Library at the University of Adelaide

    Hoskin, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a practical and personal perspective on the challenges faced by special collections in an increasingly digital environment, and the strategies employed to promote their unique resources to the academic and wider communities, including the value of promoting heritage through reconstructing collections and the place of expertise in the…

  9. [Cracow medical chamber in the special collection of the main medical library].

    Szkudaj, T

    2000-01-01

    The article on Cracow Medical Chamber in the Special Collection of the Main Medical Library concerns the history of establishing medical chambers and covers the period from 1893 to 1950. It presents in detail the territorial extent of Cracow Medical Chamber, its membership and presidents' functions as well as the composition of its various boards and councils. It also talks about the legal acts regulating the functioning of medical chambers and their sphere of activity. The collection of archived records kept in the Special Collection of Main Medical Library constitutes a small percentage of the preserved records; these being mainly personal files of doctors comprising personal questionnaires, registration cards and photographs.

  10. Cloud-supported preservation of digital papers: A solution for special collections?

    Dirk Weisbrod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computers and other digital communication media have replaced paper and pencil from the writer’s desk. This development has confronted special collections with a problem, as digital papers are difficult to process using established digital preservation strategies, because of their individual and unique nature. According to the proposal suggested in this paper, the creators should instead be involved in the preservation process, and special collections should integrate pre-custodial forms of curation within their range of tasks. The article outlines the use of a cloud architecture as a suitable instrument for accomplishing this task. The benefits and the prospects for such a collection cloud are exposed and discussed.

  11. 76 FR 31367 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Sustaining Digitized Special Collections and...

    2011-05-31

    ... electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques, or other forms of information... past decade, libraries, archives, museums, foundations and government agencies, and others have invested millions in the digitization of historical and rare content for research, education, cultural...

  12. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2016-02-23

    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important method of providing water. In nature, through millions of year evolution, some animals and plants in many of the arid regions have developed unique and highly efficient systems with delicate microstructures and composition for the purpose of fog collection to survive the harsh conditions. With the unique ability of fog collection, these creatures could readily cope with insufficient access to fresh water or lack of precipitation. These natural examples have inspired the design and fabrication of artificial fog collection materials and devices. In this chapter, we will first introduce some natural examples for their unique fog collection capability, and then give some examples of the bioinspired materials and devices that are fabricated artificially to mimic these natural creatures for the purpose of fog collection. We believe that the biomimetic strategy is one of the most promising routes for the design and fabrication of functional materials and devices for the solution of the global water crisis.

  13. Fourth annual progress report on special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors

    1982-08-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. The Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  14. 77 FR 15037 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Special Nutrition...

    2012-03-14

    ... Program Analyst, Office of Research and Analysis, Food and Nutrition Service/USDA, 3101 Park Center Drive... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities... may be sent to: John Endahl, Senior Program Analyst, Office of Research and Analysis, Food and...

  15. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2003 ed

    2003-10-01

    This is the fourteenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC). It supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1302 'Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2002 Edition'. Through the database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The PACKTRAM database only contains information that has been provided to the IAEA. The data are not complete nor guaranteed to be accurate. If detailed information is required, the original package approval certificates must be consulted. If information is required about package approval certificates that are not contained in the database, the issuing competent authority must be consulted

  16. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2003 ed

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This is the fourteenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Committee (TRANSSC). It supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1302 'Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2002 Edition'. Through the database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The PACKTRAM database only contains information that has been provided to the IAEA. The data are not complete nor guaranteed to be accurate. If detailed information is required, the original package approval certificates must be consulted. If information is required about package approval certificates that are not contained in the database, the issuing competent authority must be consulted.

  17. Order of 25 March 1981 concerning the approval of special form radioactive materials in sealed sources

    1981-01-01

    This order determines the models of sealed sources which constitute special form radioactive materials within the meaning of the Order of 24 November 1977 concerning the characteristics of such materials. (NEA) [fr

  18. Physical Hypermedia: Organising Collections of Mixed Physical and Digital Material

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Ørbæk, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the notion of physical hypermedia, addressing the problem of organizing material in mixed digital and physical environments. Based on empirical studies, we propose concepts for collectional actions and meta-data actions, and present prototypes combining principles from...... augmented reality and hypermedia to support organization of mixtures of digital and physical materials. Our prototype of a physical hypermedia system is running on an augmented architect's desk and digital walls utilizing Radio Frequency Identifier (RFID) tags as well as visual tags tracked by cameras....... It allows users to tag physical materials, and have these tracked by readers (antennas) that may become pervasive in our work environments. In the physical hypermedia system, we work with three categories of RFID tags: simple object tags, collectional tags, and tooltags invoking operations such as grouping...

  19. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment...

    2010-01-14

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 72-8; NRC-2010-0011] Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment Application for the Calvert Cliffs... Constellation Energy (Constellation) to amend its Special Nuclear Material License No. SNM-2505, under the...

  20. 10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.

    2010-01-01

    ... and maintain a measurement system which assures that all quantities in the material accounting records...) In each inventory period, control total material control and accounting measurement uncertainty so... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special...

  1. Perspectives on...Special Collections at ARL Libraries and K-12 Outreach: Current Trends

    Visser, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the results of a survey sent to Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Special Collections requesting information on outreach to K-12 students. Over half of the respondents work with K-12 and many of those who currently do not are planning to. New pressures and changing philosophies contribute to this trend.

  2. Modern Special Collections: Embracing the Future While Taking Care of the Past

    Evans, Meredith R.

    2015-01-01

    As managers of special collections engage with evolving formats and technologies, it is imperative that these professionals remain well versed in papyrus, paper, and principles that inform archival work. The permanence of this content defines our past, informs our present, and shapes our future. However, a constricting interpretation of archival…

  3. 77 FR 39224 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and...

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; Annual Vocational Rehabilitation Program/Cost Report (Rehabilitation... electronically mailed to [email protected] or mailed to U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW...

  4. Source and special nuclear material sealing and labeling requirements

    Jordan, K.N.

    1978-04-01

    Purpose of this document is to define requirements for the use of tamper-indicating seals and identifying labels on SS Material containers at Rockwell Hanford Operations. The requirements defined in this document are applicable to all Rockwell Hanford Operation employees involved in handling, processing, packaging, transferring, shipping, receiving or storing SS Material

  5. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    Korstad, P.A.

    1980-05-01

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  6. Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79

    Vipulanandan, C.; Elton, D.J. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls; performance of a highway embankment and hydraulic barriers constructed using waste foundry sand, and recycled materials; lagoon-stored lime for embankment; construction and demolition debris for base and subbase applications; fly ash for fill, pavement, earth structures and aggregate; compaction of contaminated soils-reuse as a road base material; and database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products; and more.

  7. Real-Time Characterization of Special Nuclear Materials

    Walston, Sean [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Candy, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chambers, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandrasekaran, Hema [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Snyderman, Neal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-04

    When confronting an item that may contain nuclear material, it is urgently necessary to determine its characteristics. Our goal is to provide accurate information with high-con dence as rapidly as possible.

  8. Strategy of radioactive waste management of special materials

    Bruecher, H.; Merz, E.

    1986-11-01

    Special attention is being paid to the treatment and disposal of the volatile radionuclides tritium, carbon-14, krypton-85, and iodine-129 arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This is shown by a large number of investigations on this subject as well as the 1983 recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission. In the present study, recent investigations on these four nuclides have been analysed, and it has been tried to draw conclusions for the realisation of the management concept for these radionuclides. (orig.) [de

  9. New ceramic material specially designed to optimise the output of the heating systems; Nuevo material ceramico disenado especificamente para optimizar el rendimiento de los sistemas de calefaccion

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This article sets out the main features of Dual Kherr, its development and uses. Dual Kherr(reg.) is a ceramic composite based on porcelain clay. It has been specially designed to work as a storage heater and a radiant heating system. Jointly developed by the R and D departments of both companies, PAMESA and CLIMASTAR, this new material optimises the output of any heating system and it has been specially conceived to save energy. It is a great revolution, mainly due to the following: On the one hand, Dual Kherr incorporates ceramic to the heating business, opening a new and important market. On the other hand, this new material adds the aesthetics proper of the ceramic material to the design of the heating systems. It even allows the development of artistic collections. (Author)

  10. Mandatory special or dedicated trains for radioactive materials shipments evidence shows they're not needed

    Goodman, L.S.; Garrison, R.F.; Harmon, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The rejection of mandatory special or dedicated trains by all responsible Federal agencies for transportation of radioactive materials in shielded casks has a long history. Working with the railroads and the National Academy of Sciences, the ICC adopted standards for transporting radioactive materials in regular freight trains in the mid 1940's. The standards rested primarily on ensuring the integrity of the radioactive materials packaging. AEC, then NRC and DOT, followed the ICC lead, supplementing the licensing rules for casks with a series of performance or stress tests. At no time did these agencies require special trains or special routing for rail casks. Mandatory special trains have too many disadvantages without any proven safety benefit to be worth their high cost to the shipper. The ICC, in a series of litigated cases, found that given the strength of the casks, mandatory special trains were wasteful transportation and an unreasonable railroad practice

  11. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    2010-10-01

    ... (radioactive) materials must maintain on file for at least one year after the latest shipment, and provide to... evidence based on calculative methods to show that the material is able to pass the tests; or other... shipping papers as “Radioactive Material, Special Form, n.o.s.” [Amdt. 173-244, 60 FR 50307, Sept. 28, 1995...

  12. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  13. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials

  14. {sup 3}He detector analysis of some special shielding materials

    Avdic, S; Pesic, M [Boris Kidric, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Beograd (Yugoslavia); Marinkovic, P [ETF Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1990-07-01

    The shielding properties of commercial materials of reactor Experiments, Inc. (R/X) were analyzed at the facility which includes bare heavy water experimental reactor RB with external neutron converter ENC, The fast neutron spectrum measurements in energy range from 1 MeV to 10 MeV was performed using ORTEC semiconductor neutron detector with He{sup 3} in diode coincidence arrangement. The neutron spectra have been evaluated from measured pulse-height distribution using numerical code HE3 for computation of detector efficiency in a collimated neutron beam. The neutron dose rates behind ENC with and without sample R/X material were determined using cubic spline interpolation routine for calculating the corresponding flux-dose rate conversion factors. Satisfactory shielding properties of the examined material in a fast neutron field in measurements and calculations are demonstrated. (author)

  15. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radiological Terrorism Consequence Management

  16. Vulnerability Analysis Considerations for the Transportation of Special Nuclear Material

    Nicholson, Lary G.; Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    The vulnerability analysis methodology developed for fixed nuclear material sites has proven to be extremely effective in assessing associated transportation issues. The basic methods and techniques used are directly applicable to conducting a transportation vulnerability analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that the same physical protection elements (detection, delay, and response) are present, although the response force plays a dominant role in preventing the theft or sabotage of material. Transportation systems are continuously exposed to the general public whereas the fixed site location by its very nature restricts general public access

  17. Development of soft magnetic materials with special properties

    Mager, A.

    1979-01-01

    New steps in the development of soft magnetic alloys are based on a better understanding of the magnetizing processes in close connection with the development of magnetic forms and components for different applications. New result on the influence of crystal grains, inclusions, and mechanical stresses on the soft magnetic properties of Ni-Fe-alloys with ca. 50 to 75% Nickel-contents are given. Special soft magnetic alloys were developed and improved for low temperature applications, for small temperature coefficients, for different shapes of hysteresis loops, or for high wear resistance - and moreover forms, components, and basic designs of chokes for RFI suppression, of transformers for electronic power supplies, of transformers for ground-fault interrupters, and for magnetic shielding equipments. (orig.) 891 GSC/orig. 892 AV [de

  18. Special Issue: 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material

    Arnaud Bertsch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the first paper using SU-8 as a material for microfabrication was published [1], demonstrating the interest of this negative photoresist for the near-UV structuration of thick layers and the manufacturing of high aspect-ratio components.[...

  19. Growing a Primary Science Specialism: Assembling People, Places, Materials and Ideas

    Lynch, Julianne; Frankel, Nadine; McCarthy, Kerry; Sharp, Lindy

    2015-01-01

    This paper derives from the authors' experiences of the development of a successful science specialism implemented in a large primary school in regional Victoria, Australia, since 2012. We discuss how diverse resources--people, spaces, equipment, materials and ideas--were brought together to support a science specialism that focuses on positioning…

  20. 10 CFR 70.20a - General license to possess special nuclear material for transport.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General license to possess special nuclear material for transport. 70.20a Section 70.20a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF... transport. (a) A general license is issued to any person to possess formula quantities of strategic special...

  1. Special from encapsulation for radioactive material shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form

  2. Special purpose materials: an assessment of needs and the role of these materials in the national program

    Gold, R.E.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Davis, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The scope of activities of the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials includes those materials requirements not specifically addressed by the other OFE materials task groups. These materials can be organized according to seven broad materials applications or functions which appear to be generic to all magnetically confined fusion reactor concepts. These are breeding materials, coolants, materials for tritium service, graphite and silicon carbide, electrical insulators and ceramics, heat-sink materials, and magnet materials. The present paper describes the importance of each of these areas of materials technology, outlines major problems or areas of uncertainty, and reviews past and current contributions to our state of understanding as it may relate to fusion power applications

  3. Special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors. Third annual progress report

    1981-11-01

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits

  4. An enhanced search methodology for special nuclear materials

    Carichner, S.

    1996-06-01

    This report is an overview of the first phase of work done to use data fusion to improve the search process for weaponizable radioactive materials. Various methods were examined to provide a system-level optimization to the problem. Data fusion signal- processing techniques using sensor counts and sensor position information with reasonable computation time showed an initial four- fold improvement in the overall search system performance compared to optimal processing without knowledge of sensor position. With the inclusion of data visualization techniques, a centralized search controller has access to information that improves the main search parameters: range, search time, and search confidence. The improvement is significant enough to justify the next phase of work which includes: adding neutron sensor data, investigating the position location system, and further tests and refinements of the system

  5. Criteria for cesium capsules to be shipped as special form radioactive material

    Lundeen, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile all the documentation which defines the criteria for Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) cesium capsules at the IOTECH facility and Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO) to be shipped as special form radioactive material in the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask. The capsules were originally approved as special form in 1975, but in 1988 the integrity of the capsules came into question. WHC developed the Pre-shipment Acceptance Test Criteria for capsules to meet in order to be shipped as special form material. The Department of Energy approved the criteria and directed WHC to ship the capsules at IOTECH and ARECO meeting this criteria to WHC as special form material

  6. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    Many Chinese medicinal materials (CMMs) have changed over centuries of use, particularly in terms of their botanical identity and processing methods. In some cases, these changes have important implications for safety and efficacy in modern clinical practice. As most previous research has focused on clarifying the evolution of CMMs by analyzing traditional Chinese materia medica ("bencao") literature, assessments of historical collections are needed to validate these conclusions with material evidence. Historical collections of Chinese medicines reveal the market materials in circulation at a given moment in time, and represent an underexploited resource for analyzing the evolution of Chinese herbal medicines. This study compares specimens from a rare collection of CMMs from the 1920s with contemporary market materials; by highlighting examples of changes in botanical identity and processing that remain relevant for safe clinical practice in the modern era, this work aims to stimulate further research into previously unexplored historical collections of Chinese medicines. 620 specimens of CMMs that were collected from Chinese pharmacies in the Malay peninsula in the 1920s were examined macroscopically and compared with current pharmacopoeia specifications and authentic contemporary samples. These historical specimens, which are stored in the UK in the Economic Botany Collections (EBC) of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, were morphologically examined, photographed, and compared to authentic CMMs stored at the Bank of China (Hong Kong) Chinese Medicines Center at Hong Kong Baptist University, as well as authentic herbarium-vouchered specimens from the Leon Collection (LC) at the Kew EBC. Case studies were selected to illustrate examples of historical changes in botanical identity, used plant parts, and processing methods. This investigation confirmed that confusion due to shared common names and regional variations in the botanical identity of certain CMMs has been a

  7. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  8. Semi-annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1981-08-01

    This eighth periodic semiannual report of inventory differences covers the second six months of fiscal year 1980 (April 1, 1980, through September 30, 1980), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material. Strategic special nuclear material is plutonium or uranium-233 or uranium-235 in material whose uranium-235 content is 20 percent or greater (known as highly enriched uranium). A significant quantity is either 2 kilograms of plutonium or uranium-233 or 5 kilograms of uranium-235 in highly enriched uranium or the appropriate weighted combination. All Inventory Differences reported here have been analyzed, investigated when necessary, and resolved. These data and explanations, together with the absences of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that during this period no theft or diversion of strategic special nuclear material has occurred

  9. Unusual Suspects: The Case of Insider Theft in Research Libraries and Special Collections

    Samuelson, Todd; Sare, Laura; Coker, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The widespread theft of collection materials, including rare and unique items, continues to be an issue of great concern to libraries of all types. The potential loss of such items threatens not only an institution's operations but, in many cases, global cultural heritage. Despite an increasingly open attitude among institutions regarding sharing…

  10. Editorial for Special Collection on New Relationships from a Comparative Perspective

    Anne-Rigt Poortman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This special collection is the result of a collaboration between a group of family scholars from Europe and the United States. It initially developed from the observation that in many Western countries new types of couple relationships have emerged alongside marriage (i.e., cohabitation and living-apart-together [LAT] relationships. Although the trend seems universal, it is likely that the prevalence of different relationship types, and their outcomes in particular, vary across countries. Countries differ in how they institutionalize and confer meaning on new relationship types. Such differences may have important implications for how couples behave and organize their daily lives, in turn affecting the well-being of family members. The articles in this special collection aim to understand the organization and relationship outcomes ofcohabitation, marriage, and LAT relationships across countries. Contribution: Although there has been an upsurge in cross-national research on new relationship types, most studies focus on cohabitation and less so on LAT relationships. In addition, most studies examine how new relationship types differ from marriage in demographic aspects (e.g., childbearing, union stability or in terms of family members' well-being. Little cross-national evidence exists about differences with regard to how couples negotiate and give form to their relationship in their daily lives, or about dimensions that go beyond the relationship itself, such as people's relationships with their larger family. This special collection contributes to the existing body of knowledge by studying new relationships from a comparative perspective, looking at LAT relationships as well as cohabitation, and examining how couples differ from each other on relationship dimensions that have been relatively understudied.

  11. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  12. Hayabusa2 Sampler: Collection of Asteroidal Surface Material

    Sawada, Hirotaka; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tachibana, Shogo; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Miura, Yayoi; Abe, Masanao; Hasegawa, Sunao; Noguchi, Takaaki

    2017-07-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) launched the asteroid exploration probe "Hayabusa2" in December 3rd, 2014, following the 1st Hayabusa mission. With technological and scientific improvements from the Hayabusa probe, we plan to visit the C-type asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3), and to sample surface materials of the C-type asteroid that is likely to be different from the S-type asteroid Itokawa and contain more pristine materials, including organic matter and/or hydrated minerals, than S-type asteroids. We developed the Hayabusa2 sampler to collect a minimum of 100 mg of surface samples including several mm-sized particles at three surface locations without any severe terrestrial contamination. The basic configuration of the sampler design is mainly as same as the 1st Hayabusa (Yano et al. in Science, 312(5778):1350-1353, 2006), with several minor but important modifications based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa to fulfill the scientific requirements and to raise the scientific value of the returned samples.

  13. Archon: A Unified Information Storage and Retrieval System for Lone Archivists, Special Collections Librarians and Curators

    Scott W. Schwartz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The University of Illinois developed an open-source collections management software program and in August 2006 began making it freely available to archivists, curators, and special collections librarians. This program gives those with limited technological resources and knowledge the ability to easily mount a variety of on-line access tools to their historical collections using ISAD(G1 and DACS2-compliant standards for description. Archon was created with robust interoperability using a single web-based platform for the management of collections of documents and artifacts held by archives, museums and libraries. It was developed as a “plug and play” application for easy installation on any web server or on any web hosting service. It uses common web-browser input mechanisms and SQL data storage to produce dynamic data output in the form of searchable collections websites, MARC bibliographic records (Smiraglia 1990, EAD finding aids (Pitti 268-293, and long-term preservation TXT data files. The article discusses the design concepts that lead to the University of Illinois’ creation of Archon, the challenges faced by the archives community when providing descriptive access to large bodies of historical papers and records, and describes Archon’s public and administrative interfaces as well as future plans for additional developments to this software program.

  14. U.S. N.R.C. special safeguards study on nuclear material control and accounting

    Smith, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    In Feb. 1975, NRC directed that an effort be made to determine a safeguards program for Pu recycle. This paper summarizes results of individual contractor evaluations of upgrading material control and accounting concepts as applied to strategically important special nuclear material and describes staff interpretations of these results as applied to future high-throughput fuel-cycle facilities. Real-time material control, design for physical inventory, Pu isotopics control and calorimetry, and material control and accounting for highly enriched uranium fuel materials were the concepts studied. 1 table, 15 references

  15. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    1987-11-01

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive material. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated

  16. A method for assay of special nuclear material in high level liquid waste streams

    Venkata Subramani, C.R.; Swaminathan, K.; Asuvathraman, R.; Kutty, K.V.G.

    2003-01-01

    The assay of special nuclear material in the high level liquid waste streams assumes importance as this is the first stage in the extraction cycle and considerable losses of plutonium could occur here. This stream contains all the fission products as also the minor actinides and hence normal nuclear techniques cannot be used without prior separation of the special nuclear material. This paper presents the preliminary results carried out using wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence as part of the developmental efforts to assay SNM in these streams by instrumental techniques. (author)

  17. What Makes the Digital "Special"? The Research Program in Digital Collections at the National Library of Wales

    Cusworth, Andrew; Hughes, Lorna M.; James, Rhian; Roberts, Owain; Roderick, Gareth Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces some of the digital projects currently in development at the National Library of Wales as part of its Research Program in Digital Collections. These projects include the digital representation of the Library's Kyffin Willams art collection, musical collections, and probate collection, and of materials collected by the…

  18. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    1979-01-01

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards [es

  19. 78 FR 60267 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Special Education-Personnel...

    2013-10-01

    ...; Comment Request; Special Education--Personnel Preparation To Improve Services and Results for Children with Disabilities AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS), Department.... [[Page 60268

  20. The SNM Scanner: A Non-invasive Protocol for Effective Monitoring of Special Nuclear Material Inventories

    Lanier, R G; Dauffy, L S; Hodge, A M

    2004-01-01

    We suggest a system of monitoring special nuclear material inventories which uses simple mathematical techniques to compare the gross features of emitted gamma-ray spectra. In this report we develop the techniques necessary to make such spectral comparisons and describe their application. We also apply these ideas and develop inventory confirmation results using a room-temperature CdTe detector in a real nuclear-material inventory environment

  1. Special conditions for the application of coating materials in nuclear power plants

    Boetius, I.

    1980-01-01

    Proceeding from the special conditions for the application of coating materials in nuclear power plants the following factors influencing the decontamination of surface coatings are discussed from the point of view of radiation protection: abrasion resistance, waterproofness, mechanical and adhesion strength, and permeability. For practical use it is recommended to test the surface tightness of coatings with radiation-exposed specimens

  2. Semi-annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1983-07-01

    This report covers data for the period from April 1, 1982, through September 30, 1982, and includes accounting corrections for data from earlier periods. These data and explanations, together with the absences of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that during this period no theft or diversion of strategic special nuclear material has occurred

  3. 75 FR 27205 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Special Permits Into Regulations

    2010-05-14

    ... specially designed radiation detectors containing a Division 2.2 (non-flammable gas) material under a new.... Radiation Detectors Radiation detectors are used for measuring the intensity of ionizing radiation. The... visual inspection of the rupture disc in a non-reclosing pressure relief device of a rail tank car...

  4. 75 FR 57830 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    2010-09-22

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... special permit Application No. Docket No. Applicant affected thereof 7951-M ConAgra Foods, 49 CFR To... outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14953-M Applied 49 CFR To modify the...

  5. Document collection of the 28th technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning

    Kutsuna, Hideki; Iwai, Hiroki; Mizui, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Haruhiko; Nakamura, Yasuyuki

    2014-02-01

    Fugen Decommissioning Engineering Center, in planning and carrying out our decommissioning technical development, has been establishing “Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning” which consists of the members well-informed, aiming to make good use of Fugen as a place for technological development which is opened inside and outside the country, as the central point in the energy research and development base making project of Fukui prefecture, and to utilize the outcome in our decommissioning to the technical development effectively. This report compiles presentation materials “The Current Situation of Fugen Decommissioning”, “The Current Status of the Cutting Test toward the Practical Use of Laser Cutting Technology and the Future Plan”, “Study on Radioactive Substance Osmosis for Basis Concrete of Equipment”, “Verification Tests of the Room-Temperature Vacuum Drying and the Evaluation Method of Residual Amount of Heavy Water in the Tritium Removal” and “Report on the FUGEN Efforts of R and D for Decommissioning of the Fukushima Daiichi NPS - Applicability Test of Thermal and Mechanical Cutting Technology for the Dismantlement of the Internal Core of Fukushima Daiichi NPS -”, presented in the 28th Technical special committee on Fugen decommissioning which was held on September 24, 2013. (author)

  6. Reference materials for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material. Volume 1. Uranium oxide plus graphite powder

    Sprinkle, J.K.; Likes, R.N.; Parker, J.L.; Smith, H.A.

    1983-10-01

    This manual describes the fabrication of reference materials for use in gamma-ray-based nondestructive assay of low-density uranium-bearing samples. The sample containers are 2-l bottles. The reference materials consist of small amounts of UO 2 spread throughout a graphite matrix. The 235 U content ranges from 0 to 100 g. The manual also describes the far-field assay procedure used with low-resolution detectors

  7. RETIMAC: a real-time material control concept for strategic special nuclear material

    Shea, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    As one possible means to upgrade licensee safeguards systems, the NRC is exploring a real-time material control concept. The concept incorporates process controls, material containment provisions, and extensive instrumentation. Plants incorporating this concept would be better able to prevent, deter, and detect diversion, and to assure that diversion has not gone undetected. A substantial methods development, evaluation, and preliminary standards development program is under way to develop the basis for future policy decisions

  8. Formation of tourist specialization students’ creative personality through individual and collective teaching

    Олександр Донцов

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article states that due to the active development of tourism in Ukraine training in this area by European standards, principles and criteria becomes particularly relevant. The reform of Higher Education defines training of qualitatively new specialists, highly qualified professionals with a creative type of thinking, culture and citizenship as a priority. The author focuses on reviewing and analyzing aspects of methodological support regarding the combination of individual and collective forms of organization and training sessions, as well as balance of theory and practice. It is noted that at the initial stages of mastering new material is dominated by individual forms of work. This is explained by the need to make psychological and mental effort, to focus the students on study. Using a technique based on independent creative search activity, logical thinking, the construction of certain associations, identifying causal relationships develops the best cognitive activity of students. At the later stage collective learning is more effective for the active search of new knowledge after we consolidate the learned material. At this stage the knowledge of primary factual material of a given subject is not so important as the development of thinking, the ability to formulate and suggest a hypothesis to seek evidence for its solution and thus acquire new knowledge. The necessity to develop teaching methods for the course curriculum is based on innovations in organizing training sessions and is conducted in interactive forms. It has been found out that combination of individual and collective learning promotes the development of students’ personality, creative abilities, skills, readiness for active life position. A number of priority measures that influence the efficiency of educational process, quality training of future specialists for tourism industry have been analyzed.

  9. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    1986-09-01

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive materials. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated. Future updates of the complete data will be distributed annually in a TECDOC form and, in addition, summary listings of the certificates will be issued every six months thereafter

  10. 76 FR 51324 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporating Rail Special Permits Into the Hazardous Materials Regulations

    2011-08-18

    ... through use of electronic data interchange (EDI). The IVOHMA states ``differences in hazard communication... and on the possible effects EDI may have on distributing hazardous materials shipping paper... consider the use of EDI in other modes of transport in a future rulemaking. Petition No. P-1567 PHMSA...

  11. The Materiality of Digital Collections: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives

    Manoff, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Digital and textual objects are coming under a new kind of scrutiny as scholars are becoming more interested in physical artifacts and their relation to their social and cultural environment. This study of material culture suggests a need to explore the nature of digital materiality, as well as the broader historical context in which electronic…

  12. Semi-annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1984-07-01

    This fourteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1983 (April 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. ID's outside safeguards control limits or involving a missing SSNM discrete item are investigated. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved

  13. Project Birdseye Aerial Photograph Collection: Digital and Analog Materials

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of both analog and digital aerial photographs from Arctic areas in and around Baffin Bay, the Labrador Sea, the Arctic Ocean, the Beaufort...

  14. Rattling nucleons: New developments in active interrogation of special nuclear material

    Runkle, Robert C.; Chichester, David L.; Thompson, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  15. 10 CFR 73.25 - Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit.

    2010-01-01

    ... strategic special nuclear material in transit. 73.25 Section 73.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... Transit § 73.25 Performance capabilities for physical protection of strategic special nuclear material in transit. (a) To meet the general performance objective and requirements of § 73.20 an in-transit physical...

  16. 10 CFR 70.11 - Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory...

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracts. 70.11 Section 70.11 Energy NUCLEAR... using special nuclear material under certain Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  17. Technical criteria for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards on low-grade special nuclear material

    Crawford, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    A graded table for terminating or reducing domestic safeguards has been developed for use by programs and facilities within the Department of Energy in decisions regarding the need for or levels of protection of low-grade nuclear materials. Contained in this table are technical criteria which can allow for complete removal of safeguards over many special nuclear material forms and concentrations of typical low-grade materials either currently located at generating or processing sites and materials which may arise from processing operations related to stabilization and disposition activities. In addition, these criteria include higher concentration levels which may warrant maintaining some level of (albeit reduced) security on low-grade materials while allowing reductions in materials control and accountability requirements. These reductions can range from complete removal of these materials from materials control and accountability requirements such as measurements, physical inventories and recordkeeping, to deferring these measurements and physical inventories until a time that either the material is removed from the site or resubmitted for processing. It is important to note that other conditions contained in current Departmental safeguards and security policy be met prior to safeguards termination or reduction

  18. Survey of special nuclear material vehicle monitors for domestic and international safeguards

    Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Caldwell, J.T.; Shunk, E.R.

    1979-01-01

    Special nuclear materials vehicle monitors, including gateside vehicle monitors, hand-held personnel-vehicle monitors, and a new tunnel monitor concept for very large vehicles, are discussed. The results of a comparison of effectiveness of monitors for domestic application are presented. The results of calculations and small scale prototype measurements are given for a tunnel-like neutron monitor for monitoring at the perimeter of an enrichment plant subjected to International Safeguards

  19. Intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for special nuclear material assay data analysis

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Detection, Surveillance, Verification, and Recovery Group of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Energy Division/Nuclear Safeguards Programs is now utilizing intelligent data-acquisition instrumentation for assay data analysis of special nuclear material. The data acquisition and analysis are enabled by the incorporation of a number-crunching microprocessor sequenced by a single component microcomputer. Microcomputer firmware establishes the capability for processing the computation of several selected functions and also the ability of instrumentation self-diagnostics

  20. Quality assurance in production and use of special form radioactive material - focal points in BAM approvals

    Rolle, A.; Buhlemann, L.

    2004-01-01

    BAM as the competent authority for approval of special form radioactive material attaches great importance to a detailed audit of the required quality assurance programs for design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection. Applicants have to submit, together with application documentation information on general arrangements for quality assurance, as well as on quality assurance in production and in operation. Fields where BAM has often found deficiencies are leak test methods, weld seam quality and the safety level after use

  1. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  2. Semi-annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1979-01-01

    This report provides and explains the generally small differences between the amounts of nuclear materials charged to DOE facilities and the amounts that could be physically inventoried. This report covers data for the period from October 1, 1977, through March 31, 1978, and includes accounting corrections for data from earlier periods. The data and explanations, together with the absence of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that during this period no theft or diversion of a significant amount of strategic special nuclear material has occurred

  3. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  4. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant; TOPICAL

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617,Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  5. Project plan remove special nuclear material from PFP project plutonium finishing plant

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process

  6. CHAPTER 6. Biomimetic Materials for Efficient Atmospheric Water Collection

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a severe problem in semi-arid desert regions, land-scarce countries and in countries with high levels of economic activity. In these regions, the collection of atmospheric water - for example, fog - is recognized as an important

  7. Strategic special nuclear material Inventory Differences. Semiannual report, April 1-September 30, 1984

    1985-07-01

    This sixteenth periodic semiannual report of Inventory Differences (ID) covers the last six months of fiscal year 1984 (April 1, 1984, through September 30, 1984), for the Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor facilities possessing significant quantities of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM). Inventory Differences are simply the differences between the amount of material shown in the accounting records and the amount of material reported in the physical inventory. These differences are generally due to errors in estimating material in unmeasurable form at the time of an inventory, unmeasurable holdup in equipment, measurement imprecisions, inaccuracies in initial determinations of SSNM produced or used in nuclear reactors, and inventory or bookkeeping errors. Both DOE and contractors operating DOE facilities carefully maintain, analyze, and investigate ID data. Inventory Differences are expected in nuclear material processing and are not, in and of themselves, evidence of lost or stolen material. On the other hand, ID analysis provides valuable information on the effectiveness of the safeguards system's physical protection and material control measures as well as a check on the process controls and material management procedures. ID's outside safeguards control limits or involving a missing SSNM discrete item are investigated. If necessary, an operation may be shut down until an ID is resolved

  8. 2015 Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives Unconference and Symposium: Innovation, Collaboration, and Models. Proceedings of the CLIR Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives Symposium (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 12-13, 2015)

    Oestreicher, Cheryl, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 CLIR Unconference & Symposium was the capstone event to seven years of grant funding through CLIR's Cataloging Hidden Special Collections and Archives program. These proceedings group presentations by theme. Collaborations provides examples of multi-institutional projects, including one international collaboration; Student and Faculty…

  9. "It Makes History Alive for Them": The Role of Archivists and Special Collections Librarians in Instructing Undergraduates

    Krause, Magia G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the educational role of archivists and special collections librarians in providing instructional services aimed at undergraduate students. Twelve leading thinkers in teaching with primary sources are interviewed to provide insight on pedagogical strategies for undergraduates, assessment of instruction, and how archivists…

  10. Introduction to the special issue on the technical status of materials for a fusion reactor

    Stork, D.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Materials determine in a fundamental way the performance and environmental attractiveness of a fusion reactor: through the size (power fluxes to the divertor, neutron fluxes to the first wall); economics (replacement lifetime of critical in-vessel components, thermodynamic efficiency through operating temperature etc); plasma performance (erosion by plasma fluxes to the divertor surfaces); robustness against off-normal accidents (safety); and the effects of post-operation radioactivity on waste disposal and maintenance. The major philosophies and methodologies used to formulate programmes for the development of fusion materials are outlined, as the basis for other articles in this special issue, which deal with the fundamental understanding of the issues regarding these materials and their technical status and prospects for development.

  11. Evaluating safeguards effectiveness against protracted theft of special nuclear material by insiders

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Sicherman, A.

    1991-01-01

    The new draft DOE Material Control and Accountability Order 5633.3 requires that facilities handling special nuclear material (SNM) evaluate their effectiveness against protracted theft of SNM. Protracted theft means repeated thefts of small quantities of material to accumulate a goal quantity. In this paper the authors discuss issues regarding the evaluation of safeguards and describe how we are augmenting the Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security (ASSESS) to provide the user with a tool for evaluating effectiveness against protracted theft. Currently, the Insider module of ASSESS focuses on evaluating the timely detection of abrupt theft attempts by various types of single nonviolent insiders. In this paper we describe the approach we're implementing to augment ASSESS to handle various cases of protracted theft attempts

  12. Evaluating safeguards effectiveness against protracted theft of special nuclear material by insiders

    Al-Ayat, R.; Sicherman, A.

    1991-01-01

    The new draft DOE Material Control and Accountability Order 5633.3 requires that facilities handling special nuclear material (SNM) evaluate their effectiveness against provided theft of SNMProtracted theft means repeated thefts of small quantities of material to accumulate a goal quanfity. To evaluate the safeguards effectiveness against pro thefts, one must addresses several issues: (1) defining relevant time frames for various threat scenarios and delayed detection safeguards: (2) identifying which safeguards come into play more than once because of repeated adversary actions or because of periodic occurrence during the theft time frame (e.g., daily administrative check on presence of material): (3) considering whether the second and subsequent applications of safeguards are different in effectiveness from the first; (4)synthesizing how physical security, material control, and material accountability safeguards combine to provide protection against protracted theft scenarios. In this paper we discuss these issues and describe how we are augmenting the Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security (ASSESS) to provide the user with a tool for evaluating effectiveness against protracted theft. Currently, the Insider module of ASSESS focuses on evaluating the ''timely'' detection of abrupt theft attempts by various types of single nonviolent insiders. In this paper we describe the approach we're implementing to augment ASSESS to handle various cases of protracted theft attempts

  13. A data communications systems for tamper-protected special nuclear materials (SNM) inventory management

    Hurkamp, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (D.O.E.) is responsible for the long term storage and protection of large quantities of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). This material is stored within individual containers located in vaults. Security measures are required to ensure that the SNM remains within the canisters where it is stored and that it is not disturbed in any manner. Conventional security and inventory techniques are manpower intensive and often require exposure to radiation hazards. The Purpose of this D.O.E sponsored project is to develop a cost effective system to monitor Special Nuclear Materials that, when fielded, would result in an extension of manual inventory cycles at a wide variety of SNM storage locations. The system consists of a computer, radio frequency interrogator, and individual miniaturized radio frequency transponders (tags) that are co-located with individual SNM containers. Each tag can perform SNM inventory, tamper alarm, and multiple sensor data transmission to the interrogator under the control of software designed by the user. SNM custodians can customize the system by their choice of packaging, software, and sensors. When implemented in accordance with current department of energy (D.O.E.) Policy on SNM inventory extension, the system has the potential to qualify for maximum extension times thus saving considerable resources through reduction of radiation exposure

  14. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    Mueller, J.M., E-mail: mueller@tunl.duke.edu [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Ahmed, M.W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707 (United States); Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of {sup 232}Th, {sup 233,235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239,240}Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed.

  15. A novel method to assay special nuclear materials by measuring prompt neutrons from polarized photofission

    Mueller, J.M.; Ahmed, M.W.; Weller, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    A novel method of measuring the enrichment of special nuclear material is presented. Recent photofission measurements using a linearly polarized γ-ray beam were performed on samples of 232 Th, 233,235,238 U, 237 Np, and 239,240 Pu. Prompt neutron polarization asymmetries, defined to be the difference in the prompt neutron yields parallel and perpendicular to the plane of beam polarization divided by their sum, were measured. It was discovered that the prompt neutron polarization asymmetries differed significantly depending on the sample. Prompt neutrons from photofission of even–even (non-fissile) targets had significant polarization asymmetries (∼0.2 to 0.5), while those from odd-A (generally fissile) targets had polarization asymmetries close to zero. This difference in the polarization asymmetries could be exploited to measure the fissile versus non-fissile content of special nuclear materials, and potentially to detect the presence of fissile material during active interrogation. The proposed technique, its expected performance, and its potential applicability are discussed

  16. Detecting special nuclear materials in suspect containers using high-energy gamma rays emitted by fission products

    Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA

    2009-01-27

    A method and a system for detecting the presence of special nuclear materials in a suspect container. The system and its method include irradiating the suspect container with a beam of neutrons, so as to induce a thermal fission in a portion of the special nuclear materials, detecting the gamma rays that are emitted from the fission products formed by the thermal fission, to produce a detector signal, comparing the detector signal with a threshold value to form a comparison, and detecting the presence of the special nuclear materials using the comparison.

  17. Special training for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in Germany

    Ridder, K.

    1993-01-01

    In Germany drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials have to undergo special training since midyear 1991. Training is organized in a modular system, which means that the driver can customize his dangerous goods training programme by combining several modules. The contents of the training programme, its organization and supervision as well as the means for checking the successful completion of the programme can be seen from the slides. This paper will close with an outlook on the European development, considering the framework set by the regulations of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) and the European Community (EC). (J.P.N.)

  18. Computer-based accountability system (Phase I) for special nuclear materials at Argonne-West

    Ingermanson, R.S.; Proctor, A.E.

    1982-05-01

    An automated accountability system for special nuclear materials (SNM) is under development at Argonne National Laboratory-West. Phase I of the development effort has established the following basic features of the system: a unique file organization allows rapid updating or retrieval of the status of various SNM, based on batch numbers, storage location, serial number, or other attributes. Access to the program is controlled by an interactive user interface that can be easily understood by operators who have had no prior background in electronic data processing. Extensive use of structured programming techniques make the software package easy to understand and to modify for specific applications. All routines are written in FORTRAN

  19. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1993 ed

    1993-10-01

    This is the fourth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose memberships consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  20. Directory of national competent authorities` approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1995 edition

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This is the sixth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA`s transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ``Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material`` highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs.

  1. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1999 Edition

    1999-08-01

    This is the tenth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC), formerly known as the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM and endorsed by TRANSSAC, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  2. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1994 ed

    1994-08-01

    This is the fifth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  3. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1996 edition

    1996-09-01

    This is the seventh annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificated (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the then Standing Advisory Group on the Sate Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The functions of SAGSTRAM were taken over in 1996 by the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'', highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  4. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1995 edition

    1995-09-01

    This is the sixth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  5. Glass fiber sensors for detecting special nuclear materials at portal and monitor stations

    Hull, C.D.; Seymour, R.; Crawford, T.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Safeguards and Security Systems LLC (NucSafe) participated in the Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program (ITRAP) recently conducted by the Austrian Research Center, Seibersdorf (ARCS) for IAEA, INTERPOL, and the World Customs Organization (IAEA, in press). This presentation reviews ITRAP test results of NucSafe instrumentation. NucSafe produces stationary, mobile, and hand-held systems that use neutron and gamma ray sensors to detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Neutron sensors are comprised of scintillating glass fibers (trade name 'PUMA' for Pu Materials Analysis), which provide several advantages over 3 He and 10 BF 3 tubes. PUMA 6 Li glass fiber sensors offer greater neutron sensitivity and dynamic counting range with significantly less microphonic susceptibility than tubes, while eliminating transport and operational hazards. PUMA sensors also cost less per active area than gas tubes, which is important since rapid neutron detection at passenger, freight, and vehicle portals require large sensor areas to provide the required sensitivity

  6. Commissioning of calorimeter in radiochemical laboratory for non-destructive assay of special nuclear materials

    Patra, S.; Mhatre, A.M.; Agarwal, C.; Chaudhury, S.; Pujari, P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Accounting of special nuclear materials (SNM) in every stages of nuclear fuel cycle is a necessity where one needs the quantitative estimation of SNM in variety of samples like sealed containers or finished products without altering its physical and chemical form. Non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques are capable of assaying such samples by the way of measuring passive/active neutrons/gamma rays or by the measurement of decay heat. Radiochemistry Division has been actively involved in the development and deployment of various NDA methodologies for meeting the demand of nuclear material accounting as and when required. Recently a radiometric calorimeter, developed by Reactor Control Division, E and I Group, BARC, has been installed in Lab C-33, Radiochemistry Division

  7. Physical protection of special nuclear materials in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Measures to protect special nuclear materials in West Germany are based on a relatively likely average threat and not on the less-likely but maximum credible threat. The reason is to avoid the costs of maintaining a very high level of security that is seldom needed. The concept of delayed action, which divides the responsibility for security between private protection forces and local police forces, would be insufficient in the event of the maximum credible threat. In principle, sufficient security is possible only when the facilities and transports are constantly protected by a police force large enough to deal with the maximum credible threat without assistance from outside. They must also be adequately armed to avert all possible attackers, and they must be paid by the licensees. The threat of an insider(s) diverting special nuclear material can be addressed only by strengthening the scope and depth of the checks on applicants and employees and the permanent work controls. It is recognized, however, that such security measures may not be compatible with constitutional civil liberties

  8. Nickel-based materials and high-alloy, special stainless steels. 2. new rev. and enl. ed.

    Heubner, U.; Brill, U.; Hoffmann, T.; Jasner, M.; Kirchheiner, R.; Koecher, R.; Richter, H.; Rockel, M.; White, F.

    1993-01-01

    The book is intended as a source of information on nickel-based materials and special stainless steels and apart from the up-to-date materials data presents information on recent developments and knowledge gained, so that it may be a valuable aid to materials engineers looking for cost-effective resolutions of their materials problems in the chemical process industry, power plant operation, and high-temperature applications. The book presents eight individual contributions entitled as follows: (1) Nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels. - Materials survey and data sheets (Ulrich Heubner). (2) Corrosion of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels (Manfred Rockel). (3) Welding of nickel-base alloys and high-alloy, special stainless steels (Theo Hoffmann). (4) High-temperature resistant materials (Ulrich Brill). (5) Application and processing of nickel-base materials in the chemical process industry and in pollution abatement equipment (Reiner Koecher). (6) Selected examples of applications of nickel-base materials in chemical plant (Manfred Jasner, Frederick White). (7) Applications of nickel-base alloys and special stainless steels in power plant. (8) The use of nickel-base alloys and stainless steels in pollution abatement processes (R. Kirchheiner). (orig./MM). 151 figs., 226 refs [de

  9. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2000 edition

    2000-08-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped, rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required on the package. The grater the radiological risk posed by the material being moved, the more stringent become the performance for the packaging that can be authorised to contain it. These principles have been expanded since 1061 into a set of regulations that are responsible for safety moving the ever-growing number and complexity of radioactive material shipments throughout the world. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material are incorporated into UN regulations, as well as the requirements of other international transport organizations. This is the eleventh report published by the IAEA since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). Through the PACKTRAM database, the IAEA collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates

  10. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1997 Edition

    1997-08-01

    This is the eighth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the then Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The functions of SAGSTRAM were taken over in 1996 by the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consisted of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who showed a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. TRANSSAC underscores the importance of data collecting activities and recommends the continued publication of this annual report. The 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'', highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. The issuance of package approval certificates is an important aspects of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  11. Investigation of special capsule technologies for material in-pile irradiation test and development plan in HANARO

    Cho, M. S.; Son, J. M.; Kim, D. S.; Park, S. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Seo, C. K.; Kang, Y. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In-pile test for several materials such as Zr alloy, stainless steel, Cr-Ni steel etc. which are used as structural material of the advanced reactor and KNGR(Korea Next Generation Reactor) like SMART, is necessary to produce the design data for developing new reactor materials. Advanced countries like USA, Europe and Japan etc. are not only performing the simple irradiation test for materials, but developing many kinds of special capsule to perform in-pile test having special purpose. For the special test items of fuel rod, fission products, total heat generation, swelling, deformation, sweep gas, temperature ramping and BOCA etc. are being actively concerned. There are capsules measuring creep, fatigue, crack growth, and controlling fluence etc. for special irradiation test of materials. In addition, the advanced countries are developing several instrument technologies suitable for the special capsules. In HANARO, non-instrumented, instrumented material capsules and non-instrumented fuel capsule have been developed and they have been utilized in the irradiation test for users, and creep capsule loading single specimen was made and is planned to test in the reactor soon. For some forthcoming years, special capsules not only measuring creep deformation with multi-specimens, fatigue, controlling fluence but crack propagation and gas sweep considering the requirements of users will be developed in HANARO.

  12. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  13. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1992 ed

    1992-08-01

    Being in a unique position to facilitate information exchange, the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency was requested by its Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) to collate package approval data and publish periodical reports thereon. A database was implemented on the mainframe computer in the mid-1980s but this was soon adapted for use on a personal computer. A fully menu-driven system programme was designed that allows both contributing Member States and the Secretariat more flexibility in data processing and reporting. Complete documentation is available in the form of a user guide. The cut-off date used for this report is 31 August 1992. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-617 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 1991 Edition''. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. The certificate number is identical with the competent authority identification mark. It is composed of the issuing Member State's international vehicle registration identification (VRI) code, followed by a slash, then a unique number specific to a particular design or shipment that is assigned by the competent authority, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6

  14. 75 FR 73119 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0102; Applications for Special Use...

    2010-11-29

    ... possible on some refuges. Group visits and other one-time events. (2) FWS Form 3-XXXX (Commercial Special... number or Social Security Number (FWS Form 3-XXXX). Whether or not an applicant or subpermittee has been... provide details and court action taken (FWS Form 3-XXXX). Trip schedule(s). Curriculum Vitae or resume of...

  15. Study of the collecting electrode material of an extrapolation chamber by Monte Carlo simulation

    Vedovato, Uly Pita; Santos, William S.; Perini, Ana Paula; Belinato, Walmir

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different materials of the collecting electrode on the response of an extrapolation ionization chamber, was evaluated. This ionization chamber was simulated with the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code and the spectrum of a standard diagnostic radiology beam (RQR5) was utilized. The different results are due to interactions of photons with different materials of the collecting electrode contributing with different values of energy deposited in the sensitive volume of the ionization chamber, which depends on the atomic number of the evaluated materials. The material that presented the least influence was graphite, the original constituent of the ionization chamber. (author)

  16. 78 FR 22512 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Priorities Assistance

    2013-04-16

    ... written comments to Jennifer Jessup, Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, Department of Commerce...) 482-4895, Lawrence[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract The information collected...

  17. Decree of 4 November 1982 on conditions for notification of possession of special fissile materials and source materials and for keeping accounts thereof

    1982-01-01

    This Decree lays down a detailed procedure for notification of the possession and accounting of special fissile materials and source materials. The Decree was made in pursuance of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 of the President of the Republic concerning radiation protection and licensing procedures. (NEA) [fr

  18. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  19. Should You? May You? Can You? Factors in Selecting Rare Books and Special Collections for Digitization

    Gertz, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Selection for digitization is about more than which items to scan. Selection is what shapes the online collections that are built by libraries, archives, historical societies, and other cultural heritage institutions. By selecting well, institutions can concentrate on the parts of their collections that are best suited to digitization, that make…

  20. On screening for Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) with X-ray diffraction

    Harding, G.

    2010-01-01

    A novel detection technique employing X-ray diffraction (XRD) to screen for Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs), in particular for uranium, has been recently proposed. It is based on the interesting fact that uranium (and incidentally, plutonium) has a non-cubic lattice structure, in contrast to all other non-SNM, high-density elements of the Periodic Table. The principle of this screening technique is briefly elucidated by comparing the XRD lines of uranium with those of lead, a material of high atomic number (Z) commonly found in container traffic. Several physical conditions that must be satisfied to enable XRD for SNM screening are considered. To achieve adequate penetration, both of suspicious high-Z materials and their containers, photon energies of 1 MeV and above must be employed. Implications from partial coherence theory for the XRD measurement geometry at such photon energies are presented. The question of multiple scatter degradation of the coherent scatter signal is addressed. Technological considerations relevant to performing XRD at 1 MeV, particularly regarding the radiation source and detector, are discussed. A novel secondary aperture scheme permitting high energy XRD is presented. It is concluded that the importance of the application and the prospect of its feasibility are sufficient to warrant experimental verification.

  1. Special relativity and quantum theory: a collection of papers on the Poincari Group

    Noz, M.E.; Kim, Y.S.

    1988-01-01

    When the present form of quantum mechanics was formulated in 1927, the most pressing problem was how to make it consistent with special relativity. This still remains a most important and urgent theoretical problem in physics. The underlying language for both disciplines is group theory, and E.P. Wigner's 1939 paper on the Poincari group laid the foundation for unifying the concepts and algorithms of quantum mechanics and special relativity. This volume comprises forty-five papers, including those by P.A.M. Dirac, R.P. Feynman, S. Weinberg, E.P. Wigner and H. Yukawa, covering representations of the Poincari group, time-energy uncertainty relation, covariant pictures of quantum bound states, Lorentz-Dirac deformation in high-enery physics, gauge degrees of freedom for massless particles, group contractions applied to the large-momentum/zero-mass limit, localization problems, and physical applications of the Lorentz group

  2. An activated barrier for protection of special nuclear materials in vital areas

    Timm, R.E.; Miranda, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory have recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System (ADS) for the upgrade of safeguards of special nuclear materials. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The installation was the first for the Department of Energy. Subsequently, two additional installations have been completed. The Access Denial System, combined with physical restraints, provide the system delay. The principal advantages of the activated barrier are: (1) it provides an order of magnitude improvement in delay over that of a fixed barrier, (2) it can be added to existing vital areas with a minimum of renovations, (3) existing operations are minimally impacted, and (4) health and safety risks are virtually nonexistent. Hardening of the vital areas using the ADS was accomplished in a costeffective manner

  3. Activated barrier for protection of special nuclear materials in vital areas

    Timm, R.E.; Miranda, J.E.; Reigle, D.L.; Valente, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory have recently installed an activated barrier, the Access Denial System (ADS) for the upgrade of safeguards of special nuclear materials. The technology of this system was developed in the late 70's by Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque. The installation was the first for the Department of Energy. Subsequently, two additional installations have been completed. The Access Denial System, combined with physical restraints, provide the system delay. The principal advantages of the activated barrier are: (1) it provides an order of magnitude improvement in delay over that of a fixed barrier, (2) it can be added to existing vital areas with a minimum of renovations, (3) existing operations are minimally impacted, and (4) health and safety risks are virtually nonexistent. Hardening of the vital areas using the ADS was accomplished in a cost-effective manner. 3 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  4. 10 CFR 73.73 - Requirement for advance notice and protection of export shipments of special nuclear material of...

    2010-01-01

    ... shipments of special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 73.73 Section 73.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.73... Incident Response, using any appropriate method listed in § 73.4; (2) Assure that the notification will be...

  5. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2002 ed

    2002-08-01

    The current edition of the transport Regulations was published in 1996 and is more commonly referred to as 'ST-1'. Earlier Editions were known as Safety Series No. 6. The latest English reprint (2000) is now identified as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). The transport Regulations elaborate requirements for the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging as well as those for preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt of the packages at final destination. Approval issued in the form of certificates is required for the design or shipment of packages. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1237 Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2001 Edition. It is distributed worldwide to the IAEA Member States' competent authorities for transport, and other entities who have requested copies. Electronic copies of the main data file are provided to registered users of the PACKTRAM database. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of the IAEA Transport Safety Regulations on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the Secretariat by each participating Member State

  6. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2001 edition

    2001-08-01

    The current edition of the transport Regulations was published in 1996 and is more commonly referred to as 'ST-1'. Earlier Editions were known as Safety Series No. 6. The latest English reprint (2000) is now identified as TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised). The transport Regulations elaborate requirements for the design, fabrication and maintenance of packaging as well as those for preparation, consigning, handling, carriage, storage in transit and receipt of the packages at final destination. Approval issued in the form of certificates is required for the design or shipment of packages. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-1171 D irectory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 2000 Edition . It is distributed worldwide to the IAEA Member States' competent authorities for transport, and other entities who have requested copies. Electronic copies of the main data file are provided to registered users of the PACKTRAM database. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of the IAEA Transport Safety Regulations on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the Secretariat by each participating Member State

  7. Current Condition of Michigan Curriculum Materials Centers and Collections in Academic Institutions

    Kohrman, Rita

    2015-01-01

    A 2005 sabbatical study revealed 24 unique curriculum materials centers or collections (CMCs) in Michigan colleges or universities. The focus of the study was to investigate the number, characteristics, and quality of these centers and collections supporting education faculty and students. A follow up 2014 study asked how or if the Michigan…

  8. 78 FR 77204 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Veterans Sports Programs and Special Event Surveys...

    2013-12-20

    ... AGENCY: Office of Public & Intergovernmental Affairs, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Public Affairs (OPA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-NEW] Proposed Information Collection (VA...

  9. 77 FR 20886 - Proposed Information Collection (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate...

    2012-04-06

    ... (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor... information technology. Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks, 38 CFR...

  10. Development of special radiation shielding concretes using natural local materials and evaluation of their shielding characteristics

    Kharita, M. H.; Takeyeddin, M.; Al-Nassri, M.; Yousef, S.

    2008-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most important materials used for radiation shielding in facilities containing radioactive sources and radiation generating machines. The concrete shielding properties may vary depending on the composite of the concrete. Aggregates is the largest constituent (about 70-80% of the total weight of normal concrete). The aim of this work is to develop special concrete with good shielding properties for gamma and neutrons, using natural local materials. For this reason two types of typical concrete widely used in Syria (in Damascus and Aleppo) and four other types of concrete, using aggregates from different regions, have been prepared. The shielding properties of these six types were studied for gamma ray (from Cs-137 and Co-60 sources)and for neutrons (from am-Be source). A reduction of about 10% in the HVL was obtained for the concrete from Damascus in comparison with that from Aleppo, for both neutrons and gammas. One of the other four types of concrete (from Rajo site, mostly Hematite), was found to further reduce the HVL by about 10% for both neutrons and gamma rays.(author)

  11. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials

    Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Gadolinia doped ceria in its doped or strained form is considered to be an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The simulation of the defect processes in these materials is complicated by the random distribution of the constituent atoms. We propose the use of the special quasirandom structure (SQS) approach as a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature of the local cation environment and the distribution of the oxygen vacancies. We have generated two 96-atom SQS cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory to investigate the influence of the local environment around a Y dopant in Y-codoped gadolinia doped ceria. It is energetically favourable if Y is not close to Gd or an oxygen vacancy. Moreover, Y-O bonds are found to be weaker than Gd-O bonds so that the conductivity of O ions is improved. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  12. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 1: Summary of exercise

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    In a September 1993 address to the United Nations General Assembly, President Clinton announced a new nonproliferation and export control policy that established a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The new policy proposed that the US undertake a comprehensive approach to the growing accumulation of fissile material. One of the key elements was for the US to support a special nuclear materials (SNM) multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards. This policy is often referred to as the President's Cutoff Initiative or the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). Because both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and foreign reprocessing facilities similar to PUREX will likely to be inspected under a FMCT, the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Negotiations and Analysis Division (DOE/NN-41) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to perform an information gathering exercise, the PUREX Exercise, using the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant located on the Hanford Site in Washington State. PUREX is a former production reactor fuel reprocessing plant currently undergoing a transition to a ''decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) ready'' mode. The PUREX Exercise was conducted March 29--30, 1994, to examine aspects of the imposition of several possible cutoff regimes and to study verification of non-production of SNM for nuclear weapons purposes or outside of safeguards. A follow-up activity to further examine various additional verification regimes was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on May 10, 1994

  13. Mobile Pit verification system design based on passive special nuclear material verification in weapons storage facilities

    Paul, J. N.; Chin, M. R.; Sjoden, G. E. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 770 State St, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A mobile 'drive by' passive radiation detection system to be applied in special nuclear materials (SNM) storage facilities for validation and compliance purposes has been designed through the use of computational modeling and new radiation detection methods. This project was the result of work over a 1 year period to create optimal design specifications to include creation of 3D models using both Monte Carlo and deterministic codes to characterize the gamma and neutron leakage out each surface of SNM-bearing canisters. Results were compared and agreement was demonstrated between both models. Container leakages were then used to determine the expected reaction rates using transport theory in the detectors when placed at varying distances from the can. A 'typical' background signature was incorporated to determine the minimum signatures versus the probability of detection to evaluate moving source protocols with collimation. This established the criteria for verification of source presence and time gating at a given vehicle speed. New methods for the passive detection of SNM were employed and shown to give reliable identification of age and material for highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapons grade plutonium (WGPu). The finalized 'Mobile Pit Verification System' (MPVS) design demonstrated that a 'drive-by' detection system, collimated and operating at nominally 2 mph, is capable of rapidly verifying each and every weapon pit stored in regularly spaced, shelved storage containers, using completely passive gamma and neutron signatures for HEU and WGPu. This system is ready for real evaluation to demonstrate passive total material accountability in storage facilities. (authors)

  14. 78 FR 68085 - Proposed Information Collection; National Wildlife Refuge Special Use Permit Applications and...

    2013-11-13

    ... June 30, 2014. We may not conduct or sponsor and a person is not required to respond to a collection of... public recreation when it is not inconsistent or does not interfere with the primary purpose(s) of the... forms serve as both the application and permit. You may view the currently approved forms at http://www...

  15. 75 FR 25321 - Agency Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration...

    2010-05-07

    ... Winter Sports Clinic Application, VA Form 0924a series. b. National Veterans Wheelchair Games Application.... National Veterans TEE Tournament Application, VA Form 0927a series. e. National Veterans Summer Sports... Form 0929a series. Type of Review: Existing collection in use without an OMB control number. Abstract...

  16. 75 FR 9277 - Proposed Information Collection (VA National Rehabilitation Special Events, Event Registration...

    2010-03-01

    ... Sports Clinic Application, VA Form 0924--233 hours. b. National Veterans Wheelchair Games Application, VA.... National Veterans TEE Tournament Application, VA Form 0927--133 hours. e. National Veterans Summer Sports... Form 0929--67 hours. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA Form 0924). Type of Review: Existing collection...

  17. 1975 Legislative Activity Progress Report on Postsecondary Collective Negotiations Bills. Special Report No. 21.

    Emmet, Thomas A.; Ross, Doris

    The extent of legislative activity in the area of postsecondary collective bargaining throughout the states is outlined. Specific legislative document numbers needed to request copies from the various legislative houses are included. The states are grouped in three categories: (1) those not having educational employee public sector collective…

  18. 78 FR 7803 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Permit-Special License Unlading-Lading...

    2013-02-04

    ... request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the... collection to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. Comments... supplies, ship's stores, sea stores, or equipment not to be reladen. CBP Form 3171 is authorized by 19 U.S...

  19. Terminating Safeguards on Excess Special Nuclear Material: Defense TRU Waste Clean-up and Nonproliferation - 12426

    Hayes, Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Operations Group (United States); Nelson, Roger [Department Of Energy, Carlsbad Operations Office (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) manages defense nuclear material that has been determined to be excess to programmatic needs and declared waste. When these wastes contain plutonium, they almost always meet the definition of defense transuranic (TRU) waste and are thus eligible for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The DOE operates the WIPP in a manner that physical protections for attractiveness level D or higher special nuclear material (SNM) are not the normal operating condition. Therefore, there is currently a requirement to terminate safeguards before disposal of these wastes at the WIPP. Presented are the processes used to terminate safeguards, lessons learned during the termination process, and how these approaches might be useful for future defense TRU waste needing safeguards termination prior to shipment and disposal at the WIPP. Also described is a new criticality control container, which will increase the amount of fissile material that can be loaded per container, and how it will save significant taxpayer dollars. Retrieval, compliant packaging and shipment of retrievably stored legacy TRU waste has dominated disposal operations at WIPP since it began operations 12 years ago. But because most of this legacy waste has successfully been emplaced in WIPP, the TRU waste clean-up focus is turning to newly-generated TRU materials. A major component will be transuranic SNM, currently managed in safeguards-protected vaults around the weapons complex. As DOE and NNSA continue to consolidate and shrink the weapons complex footprint, it is expected that significant quantities of transuranic SNM will be declared surplus to the nation's needs. Safeguards termination of SNM varies due to the wide range of attractiveness level of the potential material that may be directly discarded as waste. To enhance the efficiency of shipping waste with high TRU fissile content to WIPP, DOE designed an

  20. 76 FR 454 - Hazardous Materials Transportation: Revisions of Special Permits Procedures

    2011-01-05

    ... special permits. The HMR generally are performance-oriented regulations that provide the regulated... forbidden for transportation by aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table...

  1. Introducing LIR (Lithotheque Ireland, a reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland

    Killian Driscoll

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The LIR (Lithotheque Ireland reference collection of flaked stone tool raw materials from Ireland began in 2013, and is based on the geological prospection from two projects. The first (2013-2015 focused attention primarily on Carboniferous cherts from the northwest of Ireland, collecting 405 samples. The second (2015-2017 is currently collecting samples of the Cretaceous flint primarily from in situ contexts in the northeast of Ireland, but also includes beach surveys of Cretaceous flint from around the island; the first phase of geological prospection in Autumn 2015 collected 239 samples, with the geological prospection continuing in 2016. Therefore, to date the collection contains over 600 hand samples of chert and flint, along with a small number of other materials (siliceous limestone, tuff, mudstone. The physical reference collection is housed at the UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin and contains the geological hand samples along with the various thin sections of the samples that are used for petrographic analysis. The physical collection is complemented by an online database that is to be used alongside the physical collection, or can be used as a stand-alone resource. This paper provides an overview of the database’s metadata and the processes of data entry and editing, to serve as a reference point for the database and the fieldwork undertaken to date, and to serve as a template for other researchers undertaking similar work on lithic reference collections.

  2. Guide for the preparation of applications for special nuclear material licenses of less than critical mass quantities - July 1976

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This guide describes the type of information needed to evaluate an application for a specific license for receipt, possession, use, and transfer of special nuclear material. It is intended for applicants requesting authorization to possess and use up to 2000 grams of plutonium, total, in the form of sealed plutonium-beryllium neutron sources, and any special nuclear material in quantities and forms not sufficient to form a critical mass. The latter quantities are considered to be 350 grams of contained uranium-235, 200 grams of uranium-233, 200 grams of plutonium (in any form other than plutonium-beryllium neutron sources) or any combination of them

  3. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    Full Text Available Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico, we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae, to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order

  4. Hidden biodiversity in entomological collections: The overlooked co-occurrence of dipteran and hymenopteran ant parasitoids in stored biological material.

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Biological collections around the world are the repository of biodiversity on Earth; they also hold a large quantity of unsorted, unidentified, or misidentified material and can house behavioral information on species that are difficult to access or no longer available to science. Among the unsorted, alcohol-preserved material stored in the Formicidae Collection of the 'El Colegio de la Frontera Sur' Research Center (Chetumal, Mexico), we found nine colonies of the ponerine ant Neoponera villosa, that had been collected in bromeliads at Calakmul (Campeche, Mexico) in 1999. Ants and their brood were revised for the presence of any sign of parasitism. Cocoons were dissected and their content examined under a stereomicroscope. Six N. villosa prepupae had been attacked by the ectoparasitoid syrphid fly Hypselosyrphus trigonus Hull (Syrphidae: Microdontinae), to date the only known dipteran species of the Microdontinae with a parasitoid lifestyle. In addition, six male pupae from three colonies contained gregarious endoparasitoid wasps. These were specialized in parasitizing this specific host caste as no gyne or worker pupae displayed signs of having been attacked. Only immature stages (larvae and pupae) of the wasp could be obtained. Due to the long storage period, DNA amplification failed; however, based on biological and morphological data, pupae were placed in the Encyrtidae family. This is the first record of an encyrtid wasp parasitizing N. villosa, and the second example of an encyrtid as a primary parasitoid of ants. Furthermore, it is also the first record of co-occurrence of a dipteran ectoparasitoid and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid living in sympatry within the same population of host ants. Our findings highlight the importance of biological collections as reservoirs of hidden biodiversity, not only at the taxonomic level, but also at the behavioral level, revealing complex living networks. They also highlight the need for funding in order to carry out

  5. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  6. Development of a re-brazeable containment system for special nuclear material storage and transport

    Pierce, J.D.; Stephens, J.J.; Walker, C.A.; Hosking, F.M.; Curlee, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a novel means of closing and sealing small type B radioactive material transport packages for surface or air transport as governed by 10CFR71 or NUREG-0360 has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This method is a controlled brazing process that may be used to attach and seal a closure lid to a containment vessel and then remove it at a later time. The process may be performed multiple times without the need for special preparations of the braze joint. A number of advantages for utilization of this technique have been determined. A brazed seal has integrity at high temperatures for better protection in accident or abnormal environments. A properly designed joint has essentially the same strength as the parent metal. A closure that is brazed, therefore, will no longer be the anticipated point of failure for a broad range of accident environments. This technique will allow the containment vessel design to be optimized with a lighter, more uniform wall thickness throughout. Finally, with a well defined process for sealing, mechanical inspection, leak testing, and then reopening at a later time, automation of the process is relatively straightforward and the overall system should be as easy to use as one that utilizes elastomeric seals for containment

  7. Investigation of Active Interrogation Techniques to Detect Special Nuclear Material in Maritime Environments

    Miller, Thomas Martin; Patton, Bruce W.

    2010-01-01

    The detection and interdiction of special nuclear material (SNM) is still a high-priority focus area for many organizations around the world. One method that is commonly considered a leading candidate in the detection of SNM is active interrogation (AI). AI is different from its close relative, passive interrogation, in that an active source is used to enhance or create a detectable signal (usually fission) from SNM, particularly in shielded scenarios or scenarios where the SNM has a low activity. The use of AI thus makes the detection of SNM easier or, in some scenarios, even enables previously impossible detection. In this work the signal from prompt neutrons and photons as well as delayed neutrons and photons will be combined, as is typically done in AI. In previous work AI has been evaluated experimentally and computationally. However, for the purposes of this work, past scenarios are considered lightly shielded and tightly coupled spatially. At most, the previous work interrogated the contents of one standard cargo container (2.44 x 2.60 x 6.10 m) and the source and detector were both within a few meters of the object being interrogated. A few examples of this type of previous work can be found in references 1 and 2. Obviously, more heavily shielded AI scenarios will require larger source intensities, larger detector surface areas (larger detectors or more detectors), greater detector efficiencies, longer count times, or some combination of these.

  8. Development of "material-specific" hemispheric specialization from beginning to end.

    Gingras, Benjamin; Braun, Claude M J

    2018-07-01

    Disparity of verbal and performance intelligence (VIQ, PIQ) on the Wechsler scales of intelligence is a conceptually cluttered and empirically weak measure of hemispheric specialization (HS). However, in the context of life span research, it is the only measure that can be exploited meta-analytically with the lesion method from prenatal life to late senescence. We assembled 1917 cases with a unilateral cortical focal brain lesion occurring at all ages and a post-lesion VIQ and PIQ. Lesion locus, volume and side were documented for each case, as well as age at lesion onset, age at first symptoms and age at the IQ test, presence/absence of epilepsy, lesion aetiology, gender, date of publication or of transfer of medical file. With and without covariate adjustment, HS was significant across the life span though its pattern changed. HS increased linearly and highly significantly until late senescence. Only in early adulthood did VIQ appear to vacate the right temporal lobe and occupy the left and PIQ vacate the left parietal lobe and occupy the right until late senescence. Biomaturational factors are more important in the ontogeny of material-specific HS over the whole life span than previously established.

  9. Technique for detecting a small magnitude loss of special nuclear material

    Pike, D.H.; Chernick, M.R.; Downing, D.J.

    The detection of losses of special nuclear materials has been the subject of much research in recent years. The standard industry practice using ID/LEID will detect large magnitude losses. Time series techniques such as the Kalman Filter or CUSUM methods will detect small magnitude losses if they occur regularly over a sustained period of time. To date no technique has been proposed which adequately addresses the problem of detecting a small magnitude loss occurring in a single period. This paper proposes a method for detecting a small magnitude loss. The approach makes use of the influence function of Hempel. The influence function measures the effect of a single inventory difference on a group of statistics. An inventory difference for a period in which a loss occurs can be expected to produce an abnormality in the calculated statistics. This abnormality is measurable by the influence function. It is shown that a one period loss smaller in magnitude than the LEID can be detected using this approach

  10. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  11. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    Peter Thorley

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975). Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visual...

  12. Plans of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex and provision of military program by special nuclear materials

    Semenovskaya, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Consideration is given to plans and implementation of the program of reorganization of USA nuclear military complex, related with conducted reduction of nuclear arsenal after concluding the Strategic Nuclear Armament Reduction Treaty. Particular attention is paid to problems of satisfying short-term and long-term requirements in special nuclear materials and in tritium in particular

  13. Design of special purpose products made of nanomodified collagen-containing materials with radio-frequency discharge

    Makhotkina, L. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    Research results shows that RF-plasma treatment increases the adhesion of the coating film to the leather uppers and resistance to abrasion and repeated bending of uppers, which define the ability of material to preserve its consumer properties and characterize longer safety of special purpose footwear form during its wearing.

  14. 77 FR 30540 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cognitive Testing of Instrumentation and Materials for the...

    2012-05-23

    ..., materials to support data collection (e.g., advance mailings, reminder letters, etc.), consent forms, and methods of administration (e.g., computer assisted personal interviews [CAPI], audio computer assisted... Assent Forms Youth 98 1 2 196 Consent Forms Adult 98 1 2 196 PATH Study Questionnaires Youth 40 1 2 80...

  15. 77 FR 58173 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units...

    2012-09-19

    ... information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. This program helps to assure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Explosive Materials and Blasting Units (Pertains to Metal and...

  16. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center

    Tatiana Forti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC. For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061.

  17. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Collection of preputial material by scraping and aspiration for the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls

    P.C. Irons

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Two trials were carried out to assess the diagnostic sensitivity and practicability of preputial scraping as a method of collecting preputial material from bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. In the 1st trial, preputial material was collected by simultaneous scraping and aspiration from 3 infected and 1 uninfected bull 10 times over a 5-week period. In the 2nd trial, samples from 5 infected bulls were collected by both sheath washing and scraping on 6 occasions, while 8 uninfected animals were sampled 3 times. Samples were cultured using a modified Trichomonas culture medium (Oxoid. In the first trial, 29 of 30 samples from infected bulls were found to be positive. In the second trial, 83 % of samples collected by both methods tested positive. In neither trial were any samples from the control bulls found to be positive. Scraping was found to be quick and safe, and offered advantages over preputial washing in that urine contamination was easily avoided, samples were smaller and more concentrated and contamination was reduced. It may, however, be subject to greater operator variability than sheath washing. It is concluded that preputial scraping is as effective as washing and represents a suitable alternative for the collection of material for direct examination and culture of Tritrichomonas foetus.

  19. 77 FR 9298 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Actions on Special Permit Applications

    2012-02-16

    ... Lake 173.302(f). special permit Charles, LA. issued on an emergency basis to a permanent special permit... and Space authorize the Administration transportation in (NASA) commerce of certain Washington, DC... Aeronautics & transportation in Space commerce of certain Administration hydrazine fuels on (NASA) the same...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.404 - Special requirements for the sale of hazardous materials.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... special storage and handling. It is the responsibility of the holding agency to properly store hazardous...

  1. 77 FR 23803 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Actions on Special Permit Applications

    2012-04-20

    ...-M......... Conference of 49 CFR To modify the Radiation 172.203(d); special permit add Control Part............ Conference of 49 CFR Part To modify the Radiation 172, Subparts, special permit add Control C, D, E, F, G, 49...; additional mode of Berlin 173.345; transportation Packaging 173.346; (cargo vessel). (Former 173.359; Grantee...

  2. 75 FR 43898 - Hazardous Materials Transportation: Revisions of Special Permits Procedures

    2010-07-27

    .... The HMR generally are performance-oriented regulations that provide the regulated community with a... aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table in 49 CFR 172.101), an applicant... forbidden for transportation by aircraft except under a special permit (see Columns 9A and 9B in the table...

  3. STUDY ON THE USAGE OF SPECIAL MATERIALS FOR HIGH-STRENGTH PARTS USED IN THE MACHINES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    BIBU Marius

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Whereas formerly metallic materials were used extensively and for various purposes in the machines manufacturing industry, nowadays new materials are sought that can replace the "conventional" machines manufacturing materials with new ones. This is especially challenging in areas where parts need to be able to withstand very tough conditions, such as high temperatures or large forces applied to them. The current paper intends to analyze some of the most widely used materials for high-strength applications. A special focus in this regard is on the one hand in fiber-reinforced composite materials with the polymer matrix and on the other hand on basalt. The most important properties, processing technologies and applications of these materials are analyzed and discussed and conclusions are drawn regarding their compatibility with the intended purpose.

  4. Production of a diffuse very high reflectivity material for light collection in nuclear detectors

    Pichler, B J; Mirzoyan, R; Weiss, L; Ziegler, S I

    2000-01-01

    A diffuse very high reflectivity material, based on polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) for optimization of light-collection efficiency has been developed. PTFE powder was used to produce reflector block material. The powder was pressed with 525 kPa in a form and sintered at 375 deg. C. The reflectivity was above 98% within the spectral range from 350 to 1000 nm. The blocks of this material are machinable with saws, drilling and milling machines. The reflector is used as a housing for scintillating crystals in a nuclear medicine application (small animal positron emission tomograph). It is also used as a light collector in very high-energy gamma-ray astrophysicas experiments, HEGRA and MAGIC. The application of this inexpensive, easy to make diffuse reflector may allow the optimization of light collection in a wide range of low-level light-detector configurations.

  5. [Care and specialized clinical follow-up of nursing professionals who have been victims of accidents with biological material].

    Pimenta, Flaviana Regina; Ferreira, Milene Dias; Gir, Elucir; Hayashida, Miyeko; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the conduct of nursing professionals who had been victims of accidents with biological material in a teaching hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding their care and specialized clinical follow-up. The study population consisted of 1,215 nursing professionals, who were interviewed individually between 2010 and 2011. Of the 1,215 nursing professionals interviewed, 636 (52.3%) reported having experienced accidents with biological material; of this population, 182 (28.6%) didn't sought specialized care. The most frequent reason reported for not seeking care was believing that it was a low-risk accident. The reasons professionals do not seek care and do not complete treatment and the clinical follow-up can contribute to strategies to increase professionals' adherence to prophylaxis measures after occupational exposure to biological material.

  6. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  7. Actions of radiation protection in the collection of discarded radioactive material

    Neri, E.P.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has approximately 2000 radiative facilities that use radiation sources in their processes and are controlled by The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN through standards, authorizations and inspections. These radioactive materials, whether in the form of waste or radioactive source, used in medical, industrial, research, etc. are sometimes discarded and found in inappropriate places, such as garbage dumps, industrial waste, streets, squares, etc. found by urban cleaning professionals without the proper knowledge of them. The work presents the radiation protection actions required for the safe collection of radioactive material to be performed by these professionals. According to the type of radioactive material the main actions of radiation protection are, among others: recognition of a radioactive material; correct use of personal protective equipment to contain possible radiation contamination; implementation of an area control etc. In order for the actions of recognition and collection of discarded radioactive material to be effective, there is a need to implement a training program in radiation protection for urban cleaning professionals

  8. A Stochastic Imaging Technique for Spatio-Spectral Characterization of Special Nuclear Material

    Hamel, Michael C.

    Radiation imaging is advantageous for detecting, locating and characterizing special nuclear material (SNM) in complex environments. A dual-particle imager (DPI) has been designed that is capable of detecting gamma-ray and neutron signatures from shielded SNM. The system combines liquid organic and NaI(Tl) scintillators to form a combined Compton and neutron scatter camera. Effective image reconstruction of detected particles is a crucial component for maximizing the performance of the system; however, a key deficiency exists in the widely used list-mode maximum-likelihood estimation-maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction technique. The steady-state solution produced by this iterative method will have poor quality compared to solutions produced with fewer iterations. A stopping condition is required to achieve a better solution but these conditions fail to achieve maximum image quality. Stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) imaging is a good candidate to address this problem as it uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to reach a stochastic steady-state solution that has image quality comparable to the best MLEM solution. The application of SOE to the DPI is presented in this work. SOE was originally applied in medical imaging applications with no mechanism to isolate spectral information based on location. This capability is critical for non-proliferation applications as complex radiation environments with multiple sources are often encountered. This dissertation extends the SOE algorithm to produce spatially dependent spectra and presents experimental result showing that the technique was effective for isolating a 4.1-kg mass of weapons grade plutonium (WGPu) when other neutron and gamma-ray sources were present. This work also demonstrates the DPI as an effective tool for localizing and characterizing highly enriched uranium (HEU). A series of experiments were performed with the DPI using a deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator, as well as

  9. Collection of radiation resistant characteristics reports for instruments and materials in high dose rate environment

    Kusano, Joichi

    2008-03-01

    This document presents the collected official reports of radiation irradiation study for the candidate materials to be used in high dose rate environment as J-PARC facility. The effect of radiation damage by loss-beam or secondary particle beam of the accelerators influences the performance and the reliability of various instruments. The knowledge on the radiation resistivity of the materials is important to estimate the life of the equipments, the maintenance interval and dose evaluation for the personnel at the maintenance period. The radiation damage consists with mechanical property, electrical property and gas-evolution property. (author)

  10. A Special Collection Renaissance

    Holck, Jakob Povl

    Forskellige projekter relateret til Herlufsholm-samlingen på SDUB giver i dag anledning til at søge at tænke digitaliserede materialer ind i en moderne markedsføringskontekst. Forudsætningen er Herlufsholm-samlingens mange skatte!...

  11. Nuclear power plant containment metallic pressure boundary materials and plans for collecting and presenting their properties

    Oland, C.B.

    1995-04-01

    A program is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)) in their assessment of the effects of degradation (primarily corrosion) on the structural capacity and leaktight integrity of metal containments and steel liners of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to characterize and quantify manifestations of corrosion on the properties of steels used to construct containment pressure boundary components. This report describes a plan for use in collecting and presenting data and information on ferrous alloys permitted for use in construction of pressure retaining components in concrete and metal containments. Discussions about various degradation mechanisms that could potentially affect the mechanical properties of these materials are also included. Conclusions and recommendations presented in this report will be used to guide the collection of data and information that will be used to prepare a material properties data base for containment steels

  12. The PACKTRAM database on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. User's guide for compiled system program

    1995-01-01

    The PACKTRAM system program enables Member States to prepare data diskettes on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material, for submission to the IAEA, and facilitates data manipulation and report preparation for the IAEA. The system program is provided as a 424 kbyte executable file, for which this document is the User Guide. The system is fully menu-driven and requires an IBM-compatible personal computer with a minimum of 640 kbyte random access memory, a hard drive and one 3-1/2 inch diskette drive. 3 refs, 6 tabs

  13. Performance evaluation of a commercially available heat flow calorimeter and applicability assessment for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Rudy, C.

    1998-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a commercially available heat-flow calorimeter will be presented. The heat-flow sensors within the calorimeter are based on thermopile technology with a vendor-quoted sensitivity of 150 microV/mW. The calorimeter is a full-twin design to compensate for ambient temperature fluctuations. The efficacy of temperature fluctuation compensations will also be detailed. Finally, an assessment of design applicability to special nuclear materials control and accountability and safeguarding will be presented

  14. Environmental-impact appraisal related to special nuclear materials. License No. SNM-696; Docket No. 70-734

    1983-06-01

    This Environmental Impact Appraisal is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to an application by GA Technologies, Inc., (GA) for renewal of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) License No. SNM-696 covering plant operations at San Diego, California. The proposed action provides for continuing research, development, and production activities involving SNM, uranium enriched in the U-235 and U-233 isotopes, and plutonium

  15. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    Peter Thorley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975. Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visually spectacular productions which bore little resemblance to reality. The taste for escapist fiction in the theatre took place against a backdrop of museum collecting which aimed to reproduce authentic Asian and Other cultures. In this paper, I draw on French philosopher Merleau-Ponty’s observations on the relationship between thought and the body’s interaction with space to interpret the influence of Browne’s theatricality on collecting choices. From this perspective, objects materialize particular understandings of the world which originate in the body and the body’s performative engagement with space.

  16. Improved explosive collection and detection with rationally assembled surface sampling materials

    Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Bays, J. Timothy; Gerasimenko, Aleksandr A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Addleman, R. Shane

    2016-01-01

    Sampling and detection of trace explosives is a key analytical process in modern transportation safety. In this work we have explored some of the fundamental analytical processes for collection and detection of trace level explosive on surfaces with the most widely utilized system, thermal desorption IMS. The performance of the standard muslin swipe material was compared with chemically modified fiberglass cloth. The fiberglass surface was modified to include phenyl functional groups. When compared to standard muslin, the phenyl functionalized fiberglass sampling material showed better analyte release from the sampling material as well as improved response and repeatability from multiple uses of the same swipe. The improved sample release of the functionalized fiberglass swipes resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity. Various physical and chemical properties were systematically explored to determine optimal performance. The results herein have relevance to improving the detection of other explosive compounds and potentially to a wide range of other chemical sampling and field detection challenges.

  17. Special purpose materials for the fusion reactor environment: a technical assessment

    None

    1978-02-01

    This technology assessment considers the following areas: (1) breeding materials, (2) coolants, (3) tritium barriers, (4) graphite and silicon carbide, (5) ceramics, (6) heat-sink materials, and (7) magnet materials. Some questions and analyses forming the assessment are described. (MOW)

  18. A real-time material control concept for safeguarding special nuclear material in United States licensed processing facilities

    Shea, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes general safeguards research being undertaken by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Efforts to improve the ability of United States licensed plants to contend with the perceived threat of covert material theft are emphasized. The framework for this improvement is to break down the internal control and accounting system into subsystems to achieve material isolation, inventory control, inventory characterization, and inventory containment analysis. A general programme is outlined to develop and evaluate appropriate mechanisms, integrate selected mechanisms into subsystems, and evaluate the subsystems in the context of policy requirements. (author)

  19. 77 FR 64450 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Special Permits and Competent Authorities Into...

    2012-10-22

    ... posted without change to the Federal Docket Management System (FDMS), including any personal information.... Transportation of solid coal tar pitch compounds. Transportation of certain ammonia solutions in UN1H1 and UN6HA1... production and the transportation stream. Thus, special permits provide a mechanism for testing new...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.304 - Special requirements for donation of certain hazardous materials.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Special requirements for... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION... is the responsibility of the Federal holding agency or State agency to properly store hazardous...

  1. Physical protection of special nuclear material in the commercial fuel cycle. Volume I. Executive summary

    1976-04-01

    This is the summary of the work and recommendations resulting from Sandia's participation in the Special Safeguards Study, which covered three areas: protection of SNM at fixed facilities, protection of SNM while in transit, and relocation and recovery of lost SNM. The results are published in full in five other volumes. 6 tables, 4 fig

  2. 77 FR 71031 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Actions on Special Permit Applications

    2012-11-28

    ...-Mart Stores, Inc. 49 CFR part 172, part To authorize the one-time, Bentonville, AR. 173 and part 177...- impaired retail stores impacted by Hurricane Sandy to a temporary warehousing facility for approximately 10... Request by EQ Industrial Services, Inc. Ypsilanti, MI October 4, 2012. To modify the special permit to...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  4. Instructional Modules for Training Special Education Teachers: A Final Report on the Development and Field Testing of the CUNY-CBTEP Special Education Modules. Case 30-76. Toward Competence Instructional Materials for Teacher Education.

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.

    The City University of New York Competency Based Teacher Education Project (CUNY-CBTEP) in Special Education studied Modularization, focusing on the variables in the instructional setting that facilitate learning from modular materials for a wide range of students. Four of the five modules for the training of special education teachers developed…

  5. Some new high energy materials and their formulations for specialized applications

    Agrawal, Jai Prakash [Directorate of Materials, DRDO HQrs, ' B' Wing, Sena Bhavan, New Delhi - 110 011 (India)

    2005-10-01

    Energetic materials form an integral part of most weapon systems and a large number of new high-energy materials: thermally stable explosives, high-performance explosives, melt-castable explosives, insensitive high explosives and energetic binders have been reported in the literature in recent years. Some explosive formulations based on these new energetic materials are also vaguely reported. This paper examines these materials and their formulations from the point of view of stability, reliability, safety and specific applications. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  7. An Efficient approach for selective collection made by scavengers for transportation logistics of recyclable materials

    Adelino Carlos Maccarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advance of technology, associated to the increase in the production of recyclable waste due to the increase of consumption and population, has been led to a search for alternatives of management and minimization of this waste. A part of this recyclable material is collected by scavengers, who do it to guarantee their livelihood. Many of them face logistical difficulties in transportation, mainly when they have to walk long distances and the streets have high slopes. Therefore, to minimize these efforts, the purpose of this paper is to settle mobile warehouses to receive recyclable items, with trucks that receive in bulk all materials collected by the collectors, who will deliver them to someone who will be in the truck for weighing and subsequent payment to the collector. With the help of the Analysis of Variance – ANOVA, studies were made so that this receipt is a quick operation, with the historical record of each sampling in a spreadsheet and value calculations based on this description, thus minimizing errors in weighing in bulk and improving, in every collection, the system reliability.

  8. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2004 ed

    2004-10-01

    The PACKTRAM database contains administrative and technical information provided annually by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. This is the fifteenth PACKTRAM annual report to being published by the IAEA. It is distributed worldwide mainly to designated competent authorities, as well as to registered interested parties. The database itself is maintained at www.packtram.org and can be accessed by the general public

  9. Statues of the study on the irradiated materials by a special capsule in HANARO

    Kang, Y.-H.; Kim, B.-G.; Cho, M.-S.; Choi, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A special capsule installed with multi-specimens for HANARO has been designed and its parts were fabricated based on the design criteria of sustaining it at the working conditions of 20 n/cm 2 of a fast neutron fluence with energies above 1 MeV and a maximum load of 200 MPa. The special capsule consists of four modules which work independently. Two of them are located in the upper part of the machine and the others are located in the lower part with a 90 degree rotation. Each module has three separate chambers, each of which contains a loading system, various measuring and controlling units. Each module was evaluated by determining the load-displacement curve of four zirconium specimens. Reliable load-displacement curves of the four specimens were obtained by a simultaneous loading at a controlled temperature. (authors)

  10. A Characterization of the Ship-Effect in a Maritime Environment and Special Nuclear Material Detection

    2015-05-18

    physics where cosmic radiation interacts preferentially with high atomic number materials to produce additional background radiation. This research...physics where cosmic radiation interacts preferentially with high atomic number materials to produce additional background radiation. A classic...LTC Michael Shannon, Director, J9-NSERC, Defense Threat Reduction Agency IV Table of Contents Abstract

  11. A survey of infrared technology for special nuclear materials control and accounting

    Stanbro, W.D.; Leonard, R.S.; Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1992-03-01

    This report reviews some aspects of current infrared measurement technology and suggests two applications in which it may be used in nuclear safeguards. These applications include both materials control and materials accounting. In each case, the measurements rely on passive detection of infrared radiation generated from the heat produced by the radioactive decay of plutonium. Both imaging and non-imaging techniques are discussed

  12. Technical appendix for the special safeguards study on material control and accounting systems. Final report

    1975-01-01

    The appendixes contain information on alarm levels for detection of theft, computer simulation of theft detection capabilities, benefits and liabilities related to real-time material control, cost analysis, and impact of collocated facilities on the real-time material control concept

  13. Project Plan For Remove Special Nuclear Material (SNM) from Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Project

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Remove SNM Materials. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP), HNF-3617. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP Remove SNM Materials project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baseline to manage the execution of the Remove SNM Materials project. Any deviation to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process. The Remove SNM Materials project provides the necessary support and controls required for DOE-HQ, DOE-RL, BWHC, and other DOE Complex Contractors the path forward to negotiate shipped/receiver agreements, schedule shipments, and transfer material out of PFP to enable final deactivation

  14. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  15. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    Saeger, Kevin J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  16. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  17. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms

  18. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  19. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  20. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments

    Cano Linares, H.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  1. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1991 edition

    1991-08-01

    The format of this report is a result of recommendations made by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) at its 6th meeting in November 1987. The database was at that time maintained on the main frame and it was felt that adapting it for use on a personal computer would allow more flexibility in data processing and reporting. This document supersedes TECDOC-552 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design and Shipment of Radioactive Material 1990 Edition''. Since publication of TECDOC-552, some modifications affecting the structure of the database and reporting formats were undertaken. These are fully described in ''Working Material: The PACKTRAM Database National Competent Authority Package Approval Certificates, User Guide Rev. 1'', which was released in early 1991. The present report is contained in five tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. This is composed of the issuing Member State's VRI code, followed by a slash, then a three- or four-digit number, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expire, dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table. 5

  2. On-site transportation and handling of uranium-233 special nuclear material: Preliminary hazards and accident analysis. Final

    Solack, T.; West, D.; Ullman, D.; Coppock, G.; Cox, C.

    1995-01-01

    U-233 Special Nuclear Material (SNM) currently stored at the T-Building Storage Areas A and B must be transported to the SW/R Tritium Complex for repackaging. This SNM is in the form of oxide powder contained in glass jars which in turn are contained in heat sealed double polyethylene bags. These doubled-bagged glass jars have been primarily stored in structural steel casks and birdcages for approximately 20 years. The three casks, eight birdcages, and one pail/pressure vessel will be loaded onto a transport truck and moved over an eight day period. The Preliminary Hazards and Accident Analysis for the on-site transportation and handling of Uranium-233 Special Nuclear Material, documented herein, was performed in accordance with the format and content guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, dated July 1994, specifically Chapter Three, Hazard and Accident Analysis. The Preliminary Hazards Analysis involved detailed walkdowns of all areas of the U-233 SNM movement route, including the T-Building Storage Area A and B, T-Building truck tunnel, and the roadway route. Extensive discussions were held with operations personnel from the Nuclear Material Control Group, Nuclear Materials Accountability Group, EG and G Mound Security and the Material Handling Systems Transportation Group. Existing documentation related to the on-site transportation of hazardous materials, T-Building and SW/R Tritium Complex SARs, and emergency preparedness/response documentation were also reviewed and analyzed to identify and develop the complete spectrum of energy source hazards

  3. Matt waste from glass separated collection: an eco-sustainable addition for new building materials.

    Bignozzi, M C; Saccani, A; Sandrolini, F

    2009-01-01

    Matt waste (MW), a by-product of purification processes of cullet derived from separated glass waste collection, has been studied as filler for self-compacting concrete and as an addition for newly blended cement. Properties of self-compacting concrete compared to reference samples are reported. They include characteristics at the fresh and hardened states, and the compressive strength and porosity of mortar samples that were formulated with increasing amounts of MW to be used as cement replacement (up to 50wt.%). The effects of matt waste are discussed with respect to the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the resulting new materials.

  4. Frontiers of ferroelectricity a special issue of the journal of materials science

    Lang, Sidney B

    2007-01-01

    The book presents theory, fundamentals and some applications of ferroelectricy. The 24 chapters comprise reviews and research reports covering the spectrum of ferroelectricity. It is intended to describe the current levels of understanding of various aspects of ferroelectricity as presented by authorities in the field. Topics include relaxors, piezoelectrics, microscale and nanoscale studies, polymers and composites, unusual properties, and techniques and devices. The information in this book is intended for physicists, engineers and materials scientists working with ferroelectric materials including ceramics, single crystals, polymers, composites and even some biological materials.

  5. Savannah River Site's H-Canyon Facility: Impacts of Foreign Obligations on Special Nuclear Material Disposition

    Magoulas, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The US has a non-proliferation policy to receive foreign and domestic research reactor returns of spent fuel materials of US origin. These spent fuel materials are returned to the Department of Energy (DOE) and placed in storage in the L-area spent fuel basin at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The foreign research reactor returns fall subject to the 123 agreements for peaceful cooperation. These ''123 agreements'' are named after section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and govern the conditions of nuclear cooperation with foreign partners. The SRS management of these foreign obligations while planning material disposition paths can be a challenge.

  6. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  7. Special quasirandom structures for gadolinia-doped ceria and related materials

    Wang, Hao; Chroneos, Alexander I.; Jiang, Chao; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    cells describing 9% and 12% gadolinia doped ceria. These SQS cells are transferable and can be used to model related materials such as yttria stabilized zirconia. To demonstrate the applicability of the method we use density functional theory

  8. 76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...

    2011-06-13

    ... Nuclear Material, TVA applied for an SNM license by application dated November 12, 2009 (ML100120487). The..., including site geography, demographics, meteorology, hydrology, and geology. The proposed activity is...

  9. Assessing Worker Exposures during Composite Material and Fiberglass Repair: A Special

    2015-01-01

    OEEL, without regard to the use of respirators, shall have shower facilities or other suitable decontamination available [32]. 6.4.2 Dust Removal...use mechanically fastened aluminum or stainless steel patches to repair composite material damage, or repair the composite material damage using...world CBRN environment. If the vacuum mechanism of ventilated tools becomes contaminated with radioactive particulates or chemical/biological agents

  10. Data quality objectives for moisture measurement in stabilized special nuclear material

    Weier, D.R.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Silvers, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Data Quality Objectives methodology is applied to Loss-on-Ignition (LOI) moisture content testing for stabilized nuclear materials. This work was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)/Fluor Hanford, Inc. Historical results on LOI test results for two material types, oxide and sludge, are used to estimate within container variability. This variability estimate is then used in formulating the two recommended acceptance criteria for containers of material. The criteria which follow are proposed to replace the current criterion, which requires recycle if either of two container LOI measurements exceed 0.5 wt%, the DOE Standard 3013-99 threshold value. (1) The 95% upper confidence limit (UCL) for the true mean underlying moisture content in the container material should be less than 0.5 wt%. (2) The difference between the two LOI measurements per container should not exceed their expected 95th percentile relative to the estimated variability. Containers not meeting the first criterion, or those that generate in any negative LOI result, require material recycle. Containers not meeting the second criteria require review of the measurement results, potentially leading to resampling and retesting. Data from Los Alamos National Laboratory studies on moisture testing are obtained and analyzed. The performance of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), which will soon be implemented at the PFP, is described for several material types. This information will be used to establish initial acceptance criteria when SFE comes on line

  11. Catalog of NBS standard reference materials, 1975--76 edition. Special pub

    Seward, R.W.

    1975-06-01

    This Catalog lists and describes the Standard Reference Materials (SRM's), Research Materials (RM's), and General Materials (GM's) currently distributed by the National Bureau of Standards, as well as many of the materials currently in preparation. SRM's are used to calibrate measurement systems and to provide a central basis for uniformity and accuracy of measurement. The unit and quantity, the type, and the certified characterization are listed for each SRM, as well as directions for ordering. The RM's are not certified, but are issued to meet the needs of scientists engaged in materials research. RM's are issued with a 'Report of Investigation', the sole authority of which is the author of the report. The GM's are standardized by some agency other than NBS. NBS acts only as a distribution point and does not participate in the standardization of these materials. Announcements of new and renewal SRM's, RM's and GM's are made in the semi-annual supplements of this Catalog, SRM Price List, and in scientific and trade journals

  12. A comparison of results for samples collected with bailers constructed of different materials

    Thomey, N.; Ogle, R.; Jackson, J.

    1992-01-01

    A bailer is one of the most common sampling devices used to collect ground water samples. Bailers constructed from various materials are available; teflon, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene, and stainless steel are all commonly used. It is widely recognized that sample results can be affected by the material from which the bailer is constructed. Teflon and stainless steel are usually recommended based upon their inert properties. The cost of these bailers is significantly higher than other types. For the purposes of petroleum storage tank investigations, sampling devices that would not compromise sample quality but be more economical than teflon or stainless steel would be especially desirable. Water samples were collected using the different types of bailers; teflon, stainless steel, PVC, and polyethylene. Split samples were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes, and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The analytical results were compared to determine if differences were due to normal analytical variances or due to interaction of the sample with the sampling device. No difference was noted in the results which were obtained

  13. 77 FR 5481 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Special Need Requests...

    2012-02-03

    ... Plant Protection Act AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of...: For information on special need requests under the Plant Protection Act, contact Ms. Lynn Evans...: Special Need Request Under the Plant Protection Act. OMB Number: 0579-0291. Type of Request: Extension of...

  14. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage.

  15. Finding of no significant impact. Consolidation and interim storage of special nuclear material at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA -- 1060, for the consolidation, processing, and interim storage of Category I and II special nuclear material (SNM) in Building 371 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (hereinafter referred to as Rocky Flats or Site), Golden, Colorado. The scope of the EA included alternatives for interim storage including the no action alternative, the construction of a new facility for interim storage at Rocky Flats, and shipment to other DOE facilities for interim storage

  16. Nondestructive assay of special nuclear material for uranium fuel-fabrication facilities

    Smith, H.A. Jr.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    1997-01-01

    A high-quality materials accounting system and effective international inspections in uranium fuel-fabrication facilities depend heavily upon accurate nondestructive assay measurements of the facility's nuclear materials. While item accounting can monitor a large portion of the facility inventory (fuel rods, assemblies, storage items), the contents of all such items and mass values for all bulk materials must be based on quantitative measurements. Weight measurements, combined with destructive analysis of process samples, can provide highly accurate quantitative information on well-characterized and uniform product materials. However, to cover the full range of process materials and to provide timely accountancy data on hard-to-measure items and rapid verification of previous measurements, radiation-based nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques play an important role. NDA for uranium fuel fabrication facilities relies on passive gamma spectroscopy for enrichment and U isotope mass values of medium-to-low-density samples and holdup deposits; it relies on active neutron techniques for U-235 mass values of high-density and heterogeneous samples. This paper will describe the basic radiation-based nondestructive assay techniques used to perform these measurements. The authors will also discuss the NDA measurement applications for international inspections of European fuel-fabrication facilities

  17. Special Features of Using Secondary Materials in the Interior Design of Public Dining Establishments

    Kuznetsova, Irina; Hapchuk, Olena; Lukinov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    This article analyses the latest publications studying the use and practical application of secondary resources as raw materials in design. This analysis is based on the list of secondary resources and their applications in interior decoration. In particular, the interiors of public catering enterprises were analysed. Restaurants with different functional purposes that were classified into several categories with specific peculiarities of interior design were identified. This article presents and describes different types of public catering enterprises based on those categories. The interior design of a public catering enterprise is regarded as a considerably complex system. Different types of secondary materials were reviewed to identify the most frequently used materials for interior space design. This article describes the main peculiarities of the use of secondary materials and presents examples of their practical application. The function of secondary materials in the interior design of public catering enterprises were detected and reviewed. On the basis of the analysis, several directions for the practical application of our results in the field of public catering enterprise design were suggested.

  18. Use of 15N in nitrification inhibitor studies with special reference to indigenous materials

    Sahrawat, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Non-edible oil seed cakes and their constituents have been advantageously used for increasing the efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen (N) for crop production. The beneficial effects of these materials have been attributed to retardation of nitrification, which lessen the loss of N associated with nitrification by leaching and denitrification in situations where these losses are high. However, it is possible that some of the effects of these materials could be due to immobilization-remineralization of N particularly when the carbonaceous materials are added with fertilizers at high rates. A methodology involving the use of 15 N-labelled fertilizers is advanced to sort out whether the beneficial effects of non-edible oil seed cakes and other materials are due to retardation of nitrification and or immobilization-remineralization of fertilizer N. Using the proposed technique it would be possible to make realistic evaluation of the wealth of indigenous products as nitrification inhibitors. Following the proposed approach it would also be possible to widen the scope and depth of research in this area for ultimately better exploitation of indigenous materials as nitrification inhibitors. (author). 18 refs

  19. The transport of radioactive materials, paying special attention to nuclear fuels

    Blechschmidt, M.

    1977-06-01

    The transport of radioactive materials, particularly within the nuclear fuel cycle, is of increasing importance, and is more than ever a matter of public debate. This report provides information concerning the necessary physical, technical and administrative precautions which must be taken to ensure protection of the environment. The international standard of requirements for the packing of the materials is emphasized, as in many cases, transports cross national borders. The relatively comprehensive list of references can be used for the study of details. (orig.) [de

  20. Selfwelding, friction and wear behaviour of special materials in sodium under corroding conditions

    Borgstedt, H.U.; Mattes, K.; Wild, E.

    1975-11-01

    Control rod guides and fuel element duct load pads have to be fabricated from materials exhibiting optimum slide behaviour. Galling or self-welding under static conditions should not be tolerated. Given bearing clearances have to be maintained constant and loop contamination, caused by wear particles, have to be prevented. Since high friction between contacting pads may impose severe limitations on core compaction, for the duct load pads a maximum friction coefficient of 0.5 is acceptable. The effect of sodium corrosion should not impair the friction and wear behaviour of the materials applied. This report covers the work performed to optain appropriate mechanical design data. (orig.) [de

  1. Single access laparoscopic cholecystectomy: technique without the need for special materials and with better ergonomics

    Marco Aurélio Lameirão Pinto

    Full Text Available The authors describe a surgical technique which allows, without increasing costs, to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a single incision, without using specific materials and with better surgical ergonomics. The technique consists of a longitudinal umbilical incision, navel detachment, use of a permanent 10mm trocar and two clamps directly and bilaterally through the aponeurosis without the use of 5mm trocars, transcutaneous gallbladder repair with straight needle cotton suture, ligation with unabsorbable suture and umbilical incision for the specimen extraction. The presented technique enables the procedure with conventional and permanent materials, improving surgical ergonomics, with safety and aesthetic advantages.

  2. Semi-annual report on strategic special nuclear material inventory differences

    1981-01-01

    This report provides and explains the differences between the amounts of nuclear materials charged to DOE facilities and the amounts that could be physically inventoried. This report covers data for the period from October 1, 1979, through March 31, 1980, and includes accounting corrections for data from earlier periods. It is the seventh such semiannual report. These data and explanations, together with the absences of physical indications of any theft attempt, support a finding that during this period no theft or diversion of strategic spcial nuclear material has occurred

  3. Culture, Materiality, Memory: Collective Ownership and Action In Romanian Mutual Funds

    Narcis TULBURE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tensions between collectivist and corporatist forms of ownership for Romanian mutual funds. Drawing on my research among retail investors of funds that ended up in bankruptcy throughout the postsocialist period, I document the material practices and graphic artefacts they deploy in litigation as ways to make claims and produce evidence regarding their ongoing financial involvement and the rights to compensations. I focus specifically on the files documenting their personal histories (providing moral reasons for pursuing “speculative” investments as well as those materializing the memory of their involvement with the capital market. I conclude that material practices are constitutive of vernacular forms of financial and legal knowledge. Furthermore, they engender specific types of property that serve as premises for the defense of investor rights and as grounds for emerging forms of collective action. Methodologically, the conclusion of the paper is that qualitative methods constitute alternative approaches and a valuable complement of quantitate research methods for the behaviors of mutual fund investors illustrating some of the cultural components giving specific dynamics to the popular participation to the capital market that can be subsequently quantified.

  4. Special training for drivers of vehicles carrying radioactive materials in Germany

    Ridder, K.

    1992-01-01

    No rule, not even the best, serves its purpose if it is not complied with just because it is not known. In Europe, and in Germany particularly, this has been accepted wisdom for 12 years. With respect to the greater risk emanating form tank-vehicles, and in the aftermath of a tank-vehicle accident due to the driver's error in Spain 1987 (Los Alfaques) that killed more than 200 persons, tank-vehicle drivers had to undergo special training since midyear 1991. Training is organised in a modular system, which means that the driver can customise his dangerous goods training programme by combining several modules. The contents of the training programme, its organisation and supervision as well as the means for checking the successful completion of the programme are shown. (Author)

  5. Executive summary of the special safeguards study on material control and accounting systems. Final report

    1975-01-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of real-time systems applied to mixed-oxide fuel rod fabrication. Their interaction with other material control and accounting measures are considered. Economics, effectiveness, and acceptance factors are discussed. A cost-benefit evaluation is made and recommendations given for safeguards improvements

  6. 75 FR 45195 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    2010-08-02

    ... permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes, additional mode of... compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other means of transportation exist. 14860-M Alaska... authorizing the transportation in commerce of compressed oxygen without rigid outer packaging when no other...

  7. 75 FR 42364 - Hazardous Materials: Incorporation of Certain Cargo Tank Special Permits Into Regulations

    2010-07-21

    .... Moveable fuel storage tenders are used to supply LPG fuel to farmers for crop drying, crop irrigation... vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals. Control of soil- borne pests increases plant aesthetics, plant quality... liquid lacquer base. Paint related material including paint 3 UN1263 II thinning drying, removing, or...

  8. On the source material of magmas - with special reference to Nd isotopic ratios of igneous rocks

    Shuto, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    In 1973, the Sm-Nd method was first used for the measurement of the absolute age of igneous rocks and meteorites. Subsequently in the following years, the research works by means of the Nd isotopic ratio in igneous rocks have been made strenuously in order to reveal the chemistry of the source materials of magma giving rise to the igneous rocks and further the evolution process of mantle and earth's crust. The fundamental items for the Sm-Nd method are explained. Then, the research results more important in the above connection are given. Finally, the ideas by the author concerning the source materials of magma are presented from the data available on the Nd isotopes in meteorites and igneous rocks. The following matters are described: the fundamentals of Sm-Nd method, the Nd content in seawater, the negative correlation between Nd and Sr isotopic ratios in igneous rocks, magma source materials and Nd isotopes, and considerations on magma source materials. (J.P.N.)

  9. 77 FR 22362 - Exemption Requests for Special Nuclear Material License SNM-362, Department of Commerce...

    2012-04-13

    ... Nuclear Material License SNM-362, Department of Commerce, Gaithersburg, MD AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Commerce, National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. NIST requested... within the Department of Commerce. The SNM license was renewed in 1979, 1985, 1991, and 1997. The current...

  10. [Children, Collect Bones! : Teaching Aids and Propaganda Material on Bone-Collections and Bone-Utilisation Used in German Schools During the "Third Reich"].

    Vaupel, Elisabeth; Preiß, Florian

    2018-06-05

    In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries bones were an essential raw material for the German chemical industry, vital to the production of fertilizer, glue, gelatine, soap and other products. As most of this material was imported, the German school system during the "Third Reich" took the utilisation of bones as an example to illustrate the relevance of the four-year plan of 1936 and its policy of economic self-sufficiency. The school children were encouraged to collect bones from domestic sources and bring them to the collecting points in the schools. Several NS-institutions developed a variety of teaching aids and materials to support school education on this economically and politically important topic. Focussing on the example of bone-utilisation, this paper examines the messages and intentions of these educational materials. It also demonstrates how even apparently ideologically unbiased school subjects, such as chemistry, were instrumentalised for the political indoctrination of the pupils.

  11. Department of Energy (DOE) system for the transportation of strategic quantities of special nuclear material (SQ SNM)

    Dickason, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1947 DOE and its predecessor agencies, AEC and ERDA, have moved nuclear materials by a variety of commercial and government transportation modes. In the late 1960's world-wide terrorism and other dissident activities prompted the then-AEC to review its procedures for safeguarding SNM. These reviews resulted in immediate and long-range programs for improvement of overall safeguards. Domestic transportation of completed nuclear weapons and SNM used in the weapons program was selected for special consideration. In the early 1970's AEC started the development of a Safe Secure Trailer (SST) to transport nuclear weapons and nuclear components and the development and installation of a high frequency (HF) communications system to assure continuous radio contact between selected highway and rail shipments and Headquarters, Albuquerque Operations (ALO). Late 1974 AEC directed ALO to develop a transportation system to extend weapons-level protection to all AEC SQ SNM shipments and to consolidate, manage, and operate this system. As of September 1976 all SQ SNM was being transported in the Safe Secure DOE (then ERDA) transportation safeguards system, composed of the following principal elements: (1) Transport equipment consisting of Safe Secure Trailers and specially modified towing tractors; Safe Secure Railcars and specially modified escort coaches; and specially designed highway escort vehicles. (2) An automated high-frequency digital radio system that enables continuous communications between the transporting equipment and central control. (3) A courier force that operates all transport equipment (except aircraft and rail power units) and mobile communications equipment; provides armed protection for shipments; and assures proper safety en route. (4) A central Headquarters staff that plans, executes, and controls shipments and directs, manages, and operates the system

  12. Special Issue: Adaptive/Smart Structures and Multifunctional Materials with Application to Morphing Aircraft

    Rafic Ajaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in smart structures and multifunctional materials have facilitated many novel aerospace technologies such as morphing aircraft. A morphing aircraft, bio-inspired by natural fliers, has gained a lot of interest as a potential technology to meet the ambitious goals of the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE Vision 2020 and the FlightPath 2050 documents. A morphing aircraft continuously adjusts its wing geometry to enhance flight performance, control authority, and multi-mission capability.[...

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis in caterpillars and associated materials collected from protected tropical forests in northwestern Costa Rica.

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, César; Sittenfeld, Ana; Janzen, Daniel H; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-06-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) synthesizes crystalline inclusions that are toxic to caterpillars (Lepidoptera) and other orders of invertebrates. Materials associated with 37 caterpillars from 16 species, collected while feeding on 15 different species of host plants in dry, cloud and rain forests located in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica, were examined for the presence of Bt. From a total of 101 derived samples, 25 Bt isolates were cultured: 56% from host plant leaves, 8% from caterpillar guts and 36% from caterpillar fecal pellets. Bt was isolated from at least one sample in 38% of the systems constituted by the food plant, gut and fecal pellets corresponding to a single caterpillar. Four different morphologies of crystalline inclusions were observed, with bipyramidal and irregular crystal morphologies being the most prevalent.

  14. Strong coupling of collection of emitters on hyperbolic meta-material

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Xu, Chenran; Agarwal, Girish S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of a strong coupling regime of the radiation matter interaction in the context of an emitter at a meta surface. The strong interaction is well realized in cavity quantum electrodynamics, which also show that strong coupling is much easier to realize using a collection of emitters. Keeping this in mind, we study if emitters on a hyperbolic meta materials can yield a strong coupling regime. We show that strong coupling can be realized for densities of emitters exceeding a critical value. A way to detect strong coupling between emitters and hyperbolic metamaterials is to use the Kretschman-Raether configuration. The strong coupling appears as the splitting of the reflectivity dip. In the weak coupling regime, the dip position shifts. The shift and splitting can be used to sense active molecules at surfaces.

  15. Reuse of materials from recyclable-waste collection for road building

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.; Ticali, D.

    2006-01-01

    A right policy of waste management should look to nature: in fact in nature nothing of produced is lost; everything could be considered food to energy resource for another subject. A diffusion of right policy of waste reuse is the leit motive of this study. Heavy problem of pollution and the protection of the natural environment, is the one of the most important problem of this society, and so to think waste to reuse for civil engineering research has a double aim: a) to reduce quantity to send to dump; b) to reuse good materials for civil engineering building, as substitute of natural aggregate. It look very innovative and actual to think to possibility of reuse glass from recyclable-waste collection for road building, and so we could consider road as a valid substitute to dump. The aim is to consider waste as an element with high energetic power and value added [it

  16. Astrophysical implications of extraterrestrial materials: A special issue for Ernst K. Zinner

    Nittler, Larry R.

    2018-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Ernst K. Zinner (Fig. 1). Dr. Zinner (1937-2015) was a pioneer in the use of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in geo- and cosmochemistry. His contributions to science were vast, but in addition to his foundational SIMS development work, he is best known for the discovery and detailed characterization of presolar stardust grains in meteorites. This discovery opened up important new connections between astrophysics and meteoritical research and this is the overarching theme of this issue. Throughout his career, Ernst was a teacher, mentor, friend, and generous collaborator to legions of scientists. This issue presents research by many who were taught by, inspired by, and/or collaborated with this innovative cosmochemist and astrophysicist. In addition to the author, Ernst's former students and collaborators Drs. Christine Floss (Washington University) Peter Hoppe (MPI for chemistry, Mainz, Germany), and Kevin McKeegan (University of California, Los Angeles) served as Guest Editors for this issue.

  17. ONE YEAR'S EXPERIENCE IN REGULATING BYPRODUCT, SOURCE, AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL IN THE COMMONWEALTH OF KENTUCKY

    Weaver, C L

    1963-06-15

    On March 26, 1962, Kentucky assumed regulatory control for the licensing of subcritical nuclear materials within its boundaries. The administration of the state radiological health program is described, and the manpower, fiscal, and equipment requirements are outlined. The licensing activity of the state is also described. Results are reported of preliminary studies of state-owned land for low-level radioactive waste disposal. The procedures for inspection of licensees are described. Proposed changes in the Radiological Health regulations of Kentucky in order to bring about compatibility with AEC's code of Federal Regulations are outlined. (D.L.C.)

  18. VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials. Collection of materials

    Tsvetkov, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The materials of the VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials, held 8-11 November 2010 in Moscow, are presented. Structure and properties of high-strength nanostructured metal and composite materials, development of research methods and simulation of the structure and properties of materials and nanomaterials, functional ceramic and composite nanomaterials - in sight of the participants. The problems of physicochemical principles and processes for new technologies and forming powder materials and nanomaterials, physicochemical bases of production and processing of advanced inorganic materials, physical chemistry and technology of energy-, resource-saving and environmentally friendly processes for ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals are under consideration. Promising composite coatings and nanostructured films of functional purposes, physicochemical bases of new processes of shaping and forming of materials and nanomaterials are discussed [ru

  19. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  20. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 ± 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 ± 0.0006 wt. % 234 U, 19.8336 ± 0.0059 wt. % 235 U, 0.1337 ± 0.0006 wt. % 236 U, and 79.9171 ± 0.0057 wt. % 238 U

  1. Standard practice for sampling special nuclear materials in multi-container lots

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides an aid in designing a sampling and analysis plan for the purpose of minimizing random error in the measurement of the amount of nuclear material in a lot consisting of several containers. The problem addressed is the selection of the number of containers to be sampled, the number of samples to be taken from each sampled container, and the number of aliquot analyses to be performed on each sample. 1.2 This practice provides examples for application as well as the necessary development for understanding the statistics involved. The uniqueness of most situations does not allow presentation of step-by-step procedures for designing sampling plans. It is recommended that a statistician experienced in materials sampling be consulted when developing such plans. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standar...

  2. A Special Material or a New State of Matter: A Review and Reconsideration of the Aerogel

    Jun Shen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ultrahighly nanoporous aerogel is recognized as a state of matter rather than as a functional material, because of its qualitative differences in bulk properties, transitional density and enthalpy between liquid and gas, and diverse chemical compositions. In this review, the characteristics, classification, history and preparation of the aerogel were introduced. More attention was paid to the sol-gel method for preparing different kinds of aerogels, given its important role on bridging the synthetic parameters with the properties. At last, preparation of a novel single-component aerogel, design of a composite aerogel and industrial application of the aerogel were regarded as the research tendency of the aerogel state in the near future.

  3. The ''nuclear car wash'': a scanner to detect illicit special nuclear material in cargo containers

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Dougan, A. D.; Hall, J. M.; Loshak, A.; Manatt, D. R.; Pohl, B. A.; Prussin, S. G.; Walling, R. S.; Weirup, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    There is an urgent need to improve the reliability of screening cargo containers for illicit nuclear material that may be hidden there for terrorist purposes. A screening system is described for detection of fissionable material hidden in maritime cargo containers. The system makes use of a low intensity neutron beam for producing fission; and the detection of the abundant high-energy γ rays emitted in the β-decay of short-lived fission products and β-delayed neutrons. The abundance of the delayed γ rays is almost an order of magnitude larger than that of the delayed neutrons normally used to detect fission and they are emitted on about the same time scale as the delayed neutrons, i.e., ∼1 min. The energy and temporal distributions of the delayed γ rays provide a unique signature of fission. Because of their high energy, these delayed γ rays penetrate loW--Z cargoes much more readily than the delayed neutrons. Coupled with their higher abundance, the signal from the delayed γ rays escaping from the container is predicted to be as much as six decades more intense than the delayed neutron signal, depending upon the type and thickness of the intervening cargo. The γ rays are detected in a large array of scintillators located along the sides of the container as it is moved through them. Measurements have confirmed the signal strength in somewhat idealized experiments and have also identified one interference when 14.5 MeV neutrons from the D, T reaction are used for the interrogation. The interference can be removed easily by the appropriate choice of the neutron source

  4. The Study on the analysis of the revised regulation on the special nuclear materials

    Ahn, Seung Ho; Koh, Byung Marn; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with successful implementation of the IS in the ROK, the IAEA request the enhanced partnership between the ROK and the IAEA to increase the role of the SSAC(State System of Accounting for and Control of nuclear material) in the ROK. For this reason, the ROK and the IAEA signed the EC(Enhanced Cooperation) arrangement to expand the cooperation area beyond existing LWR enhanced cooperation. The IAEA set up it the one of the EC's objectives to increase the practical use and enhancement of the SSAC. In 2013, the NSSC(Nuclear Safety and Security Committee) formed task force team which included the TSO(Technical Support Organization) staffs and operators to establish scope, object and role of the SSAC for improving it. The improvement of the state safeguards system envisioned in the amendment to the notification is intended to ensure the integrity of the state safeguards with the agreement reached with the IAEA to enhance cooperation, enable facility operators to ensure compliance with their obligatory requirements without assuming unnecessarily duplicate administrative workload, and eliminate unreasonableness of the state accounting and control inspection

  5. Using natural local materials for developing special radiation shielding concretes, and deduction of its shielding characteristics

    Kharita, M. H.; Takeyeddin, M.; Al-Nassar, M.; Yousef, S.

    2006-06-01

    Concrete is considered as the most important material to be used for radiation shielding in facilities contain radioactive sources and radiation generating machines. The concrete shielding properties may vary depending on the construction of the concrete, which is highly relative to the composing aggregates i.e. aggregates consist about 70 - 80% of the total weight of normal concrete. In this project tow types of concrete used in Syria (in Damascus and Aleppo) had been studied and their shielding properties were defined for gamma ray from Cs-137 and Co-60 sources, and for neutrons from Am-Be source. About 10% reduction in HVL was found in the comparison between the tow concrete types for both neutrons and gammas. Some other types of concrete were studied using aggregates from different regions in Syria, to improve the shielding properties of concrete, and another 10% of reduction was achieved in comparison with Damascene concrete (20% in comparison with the concrete from Aleppo) for both neutrons and gamma rays. (author)

  6. The Study on the analysis of the revised regulation on the special nuclear materials

    Ahn, Seung Ho; Koh, Byung Marn; Kim, Ki Hyun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In accordance with successful implementation of the IS in the ROK, the IAEA request the enhanced partnership between the ROK and the IAEA to increase the role of the SSAC(State System of Accounting for and Control of nuclear material) in the ROK. For this reason, the ROK and the IAEA signed the EC(Enhanced Cooperation) arrangement to expand the cooperation area beyond existing LWR enhanced cooperation. The IAEA set up it the one of the EC's objectives to increase the practical use and enhancement of the SSAC. In 2013, the NSSC(Nuclear Safety and Security Committee) formed task force team which included the TSO(Technical Support Organization) staffs and operators to establish scope, object and role of the SSAC for improving it. The improvement of the state safeguards system envisioned in the amendment to the notification is intended to ensure the integrity of the state safeguards with the agreement reached with the IAEA to enhance cooperation, enable facility operators to ensure compliance with their obligatory requirements without assuming unnecessarily duplicate administrative workload, and eliminate unreasonableness of the state accounting and control inspection.

  7. Availability of special local rock materials for using in radiation shielding concrete

    Rammah, S.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.; Yousef, S.

    2003-11-01

    Concrete is an excellent and versatile material for using in radiation shielding of nuclear power plants, hot cells and medical facilities that deal with ionizing radiations, Because it is easy controlled with composition and density by using aggregates with high specific gravity such as Barite, Hematite, Magnetite, or minerals with high hydrogen content such as Serpentine. This research offered the essential information about local resources rocks and minerals can be used in this inclination, as aggregates for heavy/high hydrion concrete. The present work indicates that iron ores, which located in RAJO-EFREEN is better than other locations like ANTI-LEBANON or AL-KADMOUS. While the heavy beach sands in AL-BASSIT are the best compared with other locations on the Syrian seaside, because it has acceptable percentage of heavy mineral. Barite concretions were found in KALAMON, HOMS and other sites, which its percentages approach 50%, but however in small quantities. Finally, high hydrion concrete can be used by Serpentinite were found with high Serpentine percentage in BAYER and BASSIT blocks. (author)

  8. Technological physics and special materials: wood-plastic composites obtained by radiation polymerization

    Peteu, Gh.; Iliescu, V.

    1995-01-01

    General estimates and references are made in connection with the role of technological physics in obtaining materials with specific features. The first part of the paper presents the modification of weak wood essences as well as technological processes at bench-scale and semi industrial scale of wood-plastic composites, under various irradiation conditions. Two technological installations for the fabrication of wood-plastic composites on both scales with technical and practical specifications of their performances are presented. Experimental data for different wood-plastic composite systems using some local wood essences in combination with several polymer and copolymer systems are given. Impregnation and polymerization levels are mentioned for every specific system. The radiation dose rate and integrated dose are given for every experimental polymerization system. The features of the wood-plastic composites are compared with the initial wood essences. Finally, a few technical and economic assessments of wood-plastic composites and their implications in the domestic economy are presented. (author)

  9. Standard format and content of a licensee physical protection plan for strategic special nuclear material in transit - April 1980

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A predetermined plan to respond to safeguards contingency events is required to be prepared, based on personnel and other physical protection resources described in the Physical Protection Plan for strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) in transit. Specific requirements for the contingency plan are provided in Appendix C. Licensee Safeguards Contingency Plans, to 10 CFR Part 73. Regulatory Guide 5.56, Standard Format and Content of Safeguards Contingency Plans for Transportation, provides guidance for the preparation of transportation contingency plans. Licensee is reminded that all three submissions - the Physical Protection Plan, the Physical Protection Arrangements for Specific Shipments, and the Safeguards Contingency Plan - together describe the system for physical protection of each particular shipment. They should be developed and maintained to be completely consistent with each other for each shipment

  10. Investigations and characterization of the microstructure of special ceramic materials using the high-resolution electron microscope

    Kirn, M.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities to characterize phases and microstructures by direct lattice imaging are indicated in the following work. Ceramic materials are particularly suitable for this as these exhibit a high mechanical stability in the investigation in the transmission electron microscope. First of all the fundamentals of the high-resolution electron microscopy are introduced and the various resulting possibilities to characterize microstructures are presented. A report then follows on experimental observations on undisturbed crystals of special ceramics on a Si 3 N 4 basis. Furthermore, it is shown that the high-resolution electron microscope provides valuable contributions to the determination of structure, in particular of twin variants. Finally, revealing information on the structure of the interfaces was obtained with the help of high-resolution electron microscopy. (orig./IHOE) [de

  11. Research of Acoustic Properties of Materials with the Purpose of Their Use at Design of Special Noise Protective Clothes for Oil and Gas Industry

    Drofa, E. A.; Lipilina, E. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the substantiation of the choice of a rational package of materials, which has the greatest noise-protective properties when designing special clothes with reference to the oil and gas industry. Studies were conducted to assess the factors that have the most significant effect on the noise-protective properties of clothing. Conclusions are made about the possibility of using the developed technique for studying the noise-protective properties of materials in selecting rational packages of materials for the production of special clothes with high noise-protective properties.

  12. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection

    Qureshi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC) 4 (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 μs shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 x 10 14 cm -2 . Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of ∼4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of ∼10 13 cm -2

  13. Detection of special nuclear material from delayed neutron emission induced by a dual-particle monoenergetic source

    Mayer, M. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I., E-mail: ijov@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the {sup 11}B(d,n γ){sup 12}C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass–polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time-dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from {sup 238}U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  14. Development and application of special instrumentation for materials accountancy and process control in spent fuel recycle plants

    Clark, P.A.; Gardner, N.; Merrill, N.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    Safe and optimum operations of spent fuel recycle plants rely on the availability of real time measurement systems at key points in the process. More than thirty types of special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned on the THORP reprocessing plant at Sellafield. These systems are compiled together with the associated information on measurement purpose, measurement technique and plant performance. A number of these measurement systems are of interest to support Safeguards arrangements on the plant. A more detailed overview of two such instrument systems respectively within the Head End and Product Finishing Stages of THORP is provided. The first of these is the Hulls Monitor, based on high resolution gamma spectrometry, as well as active and passive neutron measurements, of the basket of leached fuel cladding. This provides vital data for criticality assurance, nuclear material accountancy and inventory determination for ultimate disposal of the cladding waste. The second system is the Plutonium Inventory Monitoring System (PIMS) which employs passive neutron counting from a distributed array of neutron detectors within the Pu Finishing Line. This provides a near real time estimate of Pu inventories both during operations and at clean out of the Finishing Line. Both the Hulls Monitor and PIMS technologies are applicable to MOX Fuel recycle. Both systems enhance the control of fissile material in key areas of the recycle process which are of interest to the Safeguards authorities. (author)

  15. High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material

    Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240 Pu . On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources . Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials . In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers . Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1x10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2x10 4 n/cm 2 s.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis in caterpillars and associated materials collected from protected tropical forests in northwestern Costa Rica

    César Rodríguez-Sánchez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt synthesizes crystalline inclusions that are toxic to caterpillars (Lepidoptera and other orders of invertebrates. Materials associated with 37 caterpillars from 16 species, collected while feeding on 15 different species of host plants in dry, cloud and rain forests located in the Área de Conservación Guanacaste in northwestern Costa Rica, were examined for the presence of Bt. From a total of 101 derived samples, 25 Bt isolates were cultured: 56% from host plant leaves, 8% from caterpillar guts and 36% from caterpillar fecal pellets. Bt was isolated from at least one sample in 38% of the systems constituted by the food plant, gut and fecal pellets corresponding to a single caterpillar. Four different morphologies of crystalline inclusions were observed, with bipyramidal and irregular crystal morphologies being the most prevalent. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 265-271. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sintetiza inclusiones cristalinas que resultan tóxicas para algunas larvas de lepidópteros y otros órdenes de invertebrados. Su presencia fue examinada en materiales asociados a 37 orugas de mariposas de 16 especies, las cuales fueron colectadas mientras se alimentaban en 15 especies diferentes de plantas hospederas en bosques secos, nubosos y húmedos localizados dentro del Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG en el noroeste de Costa Rica. A partir de un total de 101 muestras se obtuvo 25 aislamientos de Bt: 56% a partir de material foliar de las plantas hospederas, 8% a partir del contenido intestinal de las larvas y 36% a partir de sus excrementos. Esta bacteria fue cultivada a partir de al menos uno de los 3 diferentes tipos de muestra asociados a una oruga particular (planta hospedera, intestino, excremento en 38% de los casos posibles. En la colección de aislamientos obtenida se observaron cuatro morfologías de inclusiones cristalinas, siendo aquellas bipiramidales e irregulares las más prevalentes.

  17. New Directions for Academic Video Game Collections: Strategies for Acquiring, Supporting, and Managing Online Materials

    Robson, Diane; Durkee, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The work of collection development in academic video game collections is at a crucial point of transformation--gaming librarians are ready to expand beyond console games collected in disc and cartridge format to the world of Internet games. At the same time, forms and genres of video games such as serious and independent games are increasingly…

  18. Conceptual design of the special nuclear material nondestructive assay and accountability system for the HTGR fuel refabrication pilot plant

    Jenkins, J.D.; McNeany, S.R.; Rushton, J.E.

    1975-07-01

    The conceptual design of the fissile material assay and accountability system for the HTGR refabrication pilot plant has been established. The primary feature affecting the design is the high, time varying, gamma activity of the process material due to the unavoidable presence of uranium-232. This imposes stringent requirements for remote operation and remote maintainability of system components. At the same time, the remote operation lends itself to implementation of an automated data collection and processing system for real-time accountability. The high time-varying gamma activity of the material also precludes application of a number of techniques presently employed for light-water reactor fuel assay. The techniques selected for application in the refabrication facility are (1) active thermal neutron interrogation with fast-fission or delayed-neutron counting for fuel-rod and small-sample assay, (2) calorimetry for high-level waste assay, and (3) passive gamma scanning for low-level waste assay, and rapid on-line relative rod-loading measurements. The principal nondestructive assay subsystems are identified as (1) on-line devices for 100 percent product fuel rod assay and quality control, (2) a multipurpose device in the sample inspection laboratory for small- sample assay and secondary standards calibration, and (3) equipment for assay of high- and low-uranium content scrap and waste materials. A data processing system, which coordinates data from these subsystems with information from other process control sensors, is included to provide real-time material balance information. (U.S.)

  19. The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

    Siegel, Dustin S; Sever, David M; Aldridge, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. The basal plasma membrane is modified into intertwining microvillus lamellae. The epithelium of the distal tubule varies little along its length and is demarcated by columns of mitochondria with their long axes oriented perpendicular to the basal lamina. The distal tubule possesses highly interdigitating microvillus lamellae from the lateral membranes and pronounced foot processes of the basal membrane that are not intertwined, but perpendicular to the basal lamina. The collecting tubule is lined by an epithelium with dark and light cells. Light cells are similar to those observed in the distal tuble except with less mitochondria and microvillus lamellae of the lateral and basal plasma membrane. Dark cells possess dark euchromatic nuclei and are filled with numerous small mitochondria. The epithelium of the neck segment, pleuroperitoneal funnel, and intermediate segment is composed entirely of ciliated cells with cilia protruding from only the central portion of the apical plasma membrane. The collecting duct is lined by a highly secretory epithelium that produces numerous membrane bound granules that stain positively for neutral carbohydrates and proteins. Apically positioned ciliated cells are intercalated between secretory cells. The collecting ducts anastomose caudally and unite with the Wolffian duct via a common collecting duct. The Wolffian duct is secretory, but not to the extent of the collecting duct

  20. GAINS IN PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF COLLECTING ENTOMOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FAUNAL STUDIES ON COLEOPTERA

    B. N. Saypulaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study the effectiveness of methods of collecting entomological materials for further ecological and faunal studies as well as to gain the main evidence in ecological and faunal studies carried out in the field. Collection of the evidence in the field is necessary for the identification of species composition and to study such aspects as the distribution of species, confinement of species to certain habitats, relations with the food objects (trophism, climate, soil and orographic environmental factors.Methodology. We have used the traditional methods of collection (hand picking, pitfall traps, pitfall traps with increased light, light traps, processing and determination of materials. In recent years, the method of collection of soil invertebrates has introduced an innovation. In expeditionary studies in the island of Tyuleny new ways have been tested of using pitfall traps equipped with an incandescent light source. They provide a higher collection efficiency of Entomological materials. List of species composition of the discussed fauna has been composed by modern taxonomy with the use of directories.Results. We have made a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of different methods of collecting entomological materials on Coleoptera (Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Elateridae, Tenebrionidae for environmental and faunal studies in the area of Irganayskaya arid basin of intramontane Dagestan. Not all species, registered in the studied habitat, have been identified by methods of soil sampling and pitfall traps. The greatest number of species has been identified by manual collection, and the least by soil sampling. The paper shows the effectiveness of different methods of collecting entomofauna against individual families and species of the groups studied.

  1. Targets and special materials

    Blanc, R.; Bouriant, M.; Richaud, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The target preparation group supplied a large number of samples to nuclear physicists for experiments using SARA and also other accelerators throughout the world. Particular preparation and projects include: 208 Pb, 116 Cd, 6 LiF, 123 Sb, In and Ta targets, strippers for SARA and GANIL, optical silicone disks for POLDER and GRAAL experiments, active participations for the AMS project and finally filament preparation for the GENEPI project. (authors)

  2. 75 FR 52351 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Request; OMB No. 0925-0177 “Special Volunteer and Guest...

    2010-08-25

    ... Resources, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed... proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3...

  3. Introduction to the Special Collection on Finding Work-Life Balance: History, Determinants, and Consequences of New Bread-Winning Models in the Industrialized World

    Trude Lappegård

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A wide range of new models for breadwinning and caregiving is emerging in the industrialized world. The massive increase in women's labor force participation is bringing many women into the public sphere of men and many men into greater engagement with the private sphere. These are the two halves of the gender revolution, which have challenged the foundations of the concept of the separate spheres, although it is still a powerful model for couples in the 21st century. Conclusions: Substantively, the papers in this special collection variously illustrate the tight linkage between the two halves of the gender revolution, with the second half reacting to the changes underway in the first half. The second half is progressing more slowly than the first half, and there is a gap between equal sharing of economic and domestic responsibilities in most countries. Theoretically, the cross-national analyses in particular demonstrate that structural differences - arising from public policies and economic forces that shape couples' choices - are of greater importance than ideological differences. And methodologically, the special collection shows the importance of employing a wide range of lenses through which to study such a massive phenomenon, including detailed case studies and multi-level comparative studies. Contribution: This special collection brings together new knowledge about this ongoing gender revolution, focusing on new models of finding work‒life balance. We illuminate the history and determinants of these changes in gendered labor force participation as well as their consequences for how couples organize their economic and family lives. In addition, we relate these changes to the ongoing gender revolution in the public and private spheres, which is transforming the relationships between men and women.

  4. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  5. Study of the prompt gamma ray signal from fissions in special nuclear materials induced using an associated particle neutron generator

    Koltick, D. S.; Kane, S. Z.

    2009-01-01

    More than 42 million cargo containers entered the United States in 2005. To search for a few kilograms of special nuclear material (SNM) within this vast stream of cargo, an inspection system based on neutron-induced fission followed by the coincident detection of multiple prompt fission gamma rays is investigated using MCNP-Polimi code. The system utilizes two deuterium-tritium (DT) associated particle neutron generators, each capable of 10 9 neutrons/s at 14.1 MeV, with sub-nanosecond timing resolution ZnO:Ga alpha detectors internal to the generator. Because prompt fission signals are approximately 100 times stronger than the delayed signals, the neutron flux is greatly reduced compared to 10 11-12 neutrons/s required for systems based on delayed signals such as the 'nuclear car wash' [4]. In addition the system utilizes 30 cm deep liquid krypton (LKr) noble gas detectors having 94% detection efficiency for 1 MeV gamma rays, high solid angle coverage (∼ 50% of the total solid angle), and sub-nanosecond timing resolution (∼ 600 ps). An algorithm for distinguishing U-235 from U-238 is presented. (authors)

  6. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  8. Juan Cristóbal Gundlach’s collections of Puerto Rican birds with special regard to types

    Sylke Frahnert

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The German naturalist Juan Cristóbal Gundlach (1810–1896 conducted, while a resident of Cuba, two expeditions to Puerto Rico in 1873 and 1875–6, where he explored the southwestern, western, and northeastern regions of this island. Gundlach made representative collections of the island’s fauna, which formed the nucleus of the first natural history museums in Puerto Rico. When the natural history museums closed, only a few specimens were passed to other institutions, including foreign museums. None of Gundlach’s and few of his contemporaries’ specimens have survived in Puerto Rico. We located 191 bird specimens (43 species collected there by Gundlach, all of which are in foreign institutions, especially Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Here we list all located specimens and include data associated with them. Six new species were described out of the Gundlach collections from Puerto Rico, three of which are still taxonomically recognized today. Information about the types of those taxa is given.

  9. 77 FR 38395 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and...

    2012-06-27

    ... Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks) Under OMB Review AGENCY... correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR A COPY OF THE SUBMISSION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and Candidate Handbooks, 38 CFR...

  10. Sapphire: a better material for atomization and in situ collection of silver volatile species for atomic absorption spectrometry

    Musil, Stanislav, E-mail: stanomusil@biomed.cas.cz; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Sapphire is presented as a high temperature and corrosion resistant material of an optical tube of an atomizer for volatile species of Ag generated by the reaction with NaBH{sub 4}. The modular atomizer design was employed which allowed to carry out the measurements in two modes: (i) on-line atomization and (ii) in situ collection (directly in the optical tube) by means of excess of O{sub 2} over H{sub 2} in the carrier gas during the trapping step and vice versa in the volatilization step. In comparison with quartz atomizers, the sapphire tube atomizer provides a significantly increased atomizer lifetime as well as substantially improved repeatability of the Ag in situ collection signals shapes. In situ collection of Ag in the sapphire tube atomizer was highly efficient (> 90%). Limit of detection in the on-line atomization mode and in situ collection mode, respectively, was 1.2 ng ml{sup −1} and 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Sapphire was tested as a new material of an atomizer tube for Ag volatile species. • Two measurement modes were investigated: on-line atomization and in situ collection. • In situ collection of Ag was highly efficient (> 90%) with LOD of 0.15 ng ml{sup −1}. • No devitrification of the sapphire tube observed in the course of several months.

  11. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  12. Material Assessment for ITER’s Collective Thomson Scattering first mirror

    Santos, R.; Policarpo, H.; Gonçalves, B.

    2015-01-01

    Element Analysis (FEA) of the mirror over a 400s discharge (reasonable number for computational tests, since an ITER discharge will be between 200 s and 1000 s) , with and without mirror cooling, is performed. The results obtained in this preliminary analysis show that of the tested materials Mo and W....... In this work, three different materials (molybdenum (Mo), stainless steel 316L (SS-316L) and tungsten (W)) are considered for the first mirror of the CTS. The objective is to assess the suitability of these materials for this mirror and to provide a first ranking, considering the neutron radiation loads...... are the most suitable materials for this application, being able to reliably sustain the thermal and structural stresses imposed by the neutron loads....

  13. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications

  14. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  15. CSER-98-002: Criticality analysis for the storage of special nuclear material sources and standards in the WRAP Facility

    Goldberg, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will store uranium and transuranic (TRU) sources and standards for certification that WRAP meets the requirements of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In addition, WRAP must meet internal requirements for testing and validation of measuring instruments for nondestructive assay (NDA). In order to be certified for WIPP, WRAP will participate in the NDA Performance Demonstration Program (PDP). This program is a blind test of the NDA capabilities for TRU waste. It is intended to ensure that the NDA capabilities of this facility satisfy the requirements of the quality assurance program plan for the WIPP. The PDP standards have been provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for this program. These standards will be used in the WRAP facility. To internally check the accuracy and sensitivity of the NDA instruments, a further set of sources and standards will also be used by the facility. Each sealed source or standard will be referred to herein as a unit. Various combinations of these units will be placed in test drums and/or boxes which will be subject to their own limits until unloaded. There will be two sealed test drums with five grams of weapons grade plutonium loaded in them. These drums will be appropriately marked and will be subject to the unit limits rather than the drum limits. This analysis shows that the storage and use of special nuclear material sources and standards within the limited control facility of WRAP (Rooms 101 and 104) is safe from a criticality standpoint. With the form, geometry, and masses involved with this evaluation, a criticality is not possible. The limits given in Section 2 should be imposed on facility operations

  16. A survey of collection development for United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation material.

    Hendrix, Dean; Hasman, Linda

    2008-07-01

    The research sought to ascertain medical and dental libraries' collection development policies, evaluation methods, purchase decisions, and issues that relate to print and electronic United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) preparation materials. The investigators surveyed librarians supporting American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC)-accredited medical schools (n = 58/125) on the USMLE and librarians supporting American Dental Association (ADA)-accredited dental schools (n = 23/56) on the NBDE. The investigators analyzed the data by cross-tabulating and filtering the results using EFM Continuum web survey software. Investigators also surveyed print and electronic USMLE and NBDE preparation materials from 2004-2007 to determine the number of publications and existence of reviews. A majority of responding AAMC libraries (62%, n = 58) provide at least 1 electronic or online USMLE preparation resource and buy an average of 11.6 print USMLE titles annually. Due to a paucity of NBDE print and electronic resources, ADA libraries bought significantly fewer print resources, and only 1 subscribed to an electronic resource. The most often reported evaluation methods for both populations were feedback from medical or dental students, feedback from medical or dental faculty, and online trials. Some AAMC (10%, n = 58) and ADA libraries (39%, n = 23) libraries reported that no evaluation of these materials occured at their libraries. From 2004-2007, publishers produced 45 USMLE preparation resources (total n = 546) to every 1 NBDE preparation resource (total n = 12). Users' needs, institutional missions and goals, financial status, and official collection policies most often underlie decisions to collect or not collect examination preparation materials. Evaluating the quality of examination preparation materials can be problematic due to lack of published reviews, lack of usability testing by libraries, and

  17. Analysis of material collected on swipes using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Chinni, Rosemarie; Cremers, David A.; Multari, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was evaluated to determine elements collected on swipes as surface contamination. A series of long laser plasmas formed along the swipe surface (Post-it paper) interrogated the collected contamination. LIBS detection limits, determined for the elements Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn on swipes (2 cm 2 area), ranged from 0.002 μg (Be) to 1.46 μg (Pb). The elements were introduced as constituents of synthetic silicate particles serving as a contaminant dust stimulant. The average predicted mass was within 16% of the actual mass on the swipe. The efficiency of collecting particles from surfaces including plastic, Formica, and Al metal was also evaluated. The ability to detect and differentiate two amino acids on a swipe from each other and from the swipe using chemometric modeling techniques was also demonstrated.

  18. Hybrid engineered materials with high water-collecting efficiency inspired by Namib Desert beetles.

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-05-21

    Inspired by Namib Desert beetles, a hybrid superhydrophobic surface was fabricated, showing highly efficient fog harvesting with a water collection rate (WCR) of 1309.9 mg h(-1) cm(-2). And, the surface possessed an excellent robustness and self-cleaning property.

  19. An analysis of bones and other materials collected by Cape Vultures ...

    We compared bones and non-faunal items collected by Cape Vultures at the Blouberg and Kransberg colonies. Bones from the base of the nesting cliffs were on average longer than those from the crops and stomachs of birds. Bones from the Blouberg cliff base were on average shorter than those from the Kransberg.

  20. Randomised controlled trial of whether erotic material is required for semen collection: impact of informed consent on outcome.

    Handelsman, D J; Sivananathan, T; Andres, L; Bathur, F; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J

    2013-11-01

    Semen is collected to evaluate male fertility or cryostore sperm preferentially in laboratories but such collection facilities have no standard fit-out. It is widely believed but untested whether providing erotic material (EM) is required to collect semen by masturbation in the unfamiliar environment. To test this assumption, 1520 men (1046 undergoing fertility evaluation, 474 sperm cryostorage, providing 1932 semen collection episodes) consecutively attending the semen laboratory of a major metropolitan teaching hospital for semen analysis were eligible for randomization to be provided or not with printed erotic material EM (X-rated, soft-core magazines) during semen collection. Randomization was performed by providing magazines in the collection rooms (as a variation on non-standard fit-out) on alternate weeks using a schedule concealed from participants. In the pilot study, men were randomized without seeking consent. In the second part of the study, which continued on from the first without interruption, an approved informed consent procedure was added. The primary outcome, the time to collect semen defined as the time from receiving to returning the sample receptacle, was significantly longer (by ~6%, 14.9 ± 0.3 [mean ± standard error of mean] vs. 14.0 ± 0.2 minutes, p = 0.02) among men provided with EM than those randomized to not being provided. There was no significant increase in the failure to collect semen samples (2.6% overall) nor any difference in age, semen volume or sperm concentration, output or motility according to whether EM was provided or not. The significantly longer time to collect was evident in the pilot study and the study overall, but not in the main study where the informed consent procedure was used. This study provides evidence that refutes the assumption that EM needs to be provided for semen collection in a laboratory. It also provides an example of a usually unobservable participation bias influencing study outcome of a

  1. Toponymic Lexicography and Methods of Fieldwork Material Collection (1900-1920s

    Nadezhda M. Ivashova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the early stage of the history of toponymic lexicography and field studies in Russia. More particularly the article focuses on the discussion provoked by I. P. Filevitch’s report “On elaboration of geographic nomenclature” at the Archeological Congress in Odessa (1896, as well as on some publications of 1920s containing results of toponymic research, revealing the importance of collecting toponyms, considering different aspects of toponymic studies, elaborating methods of fieldwork.

  2. Shoichi Sakata: His Life and Physics ---Collections of Materials in Sakata Memorial Archival Library---

    Tanabashi, M.

    Shoichi Sakata and his Nagoya School made a lot of important achievements at the predawn of the particle physics revolution. The ``two-meson'' theory (introduction of the second generation leptons), the ``C-meson theory'' (a theory which inspired Tomonaga's renormalization theory), the ``Sakata model'' (a precursor to the quark model), and the ``Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata'' theory on the neutrino mixings are among them. These outputs are now regarded as essential ingredients in modern particle physics. Sakata also took his leadership in setting up democratic administration system in his theoretical particle physics group (E-ken). It was this democratic atmosphere in which many excellent physicists were brought up as Sakata's diciples. In this talk, I introduce Sakata and his achievements in physics, showing various materials archived in the Sakata Memorial Archival Library (SMAL), an archival repository of primary material showing Sakata's activities. These SMAL documents vividly show Sakata's way of thinking in his approach to the new physics.

  3. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  4. Sensing and collecting radioactive materials as a project to teach engineering design

    Drake, D.; Majdi, T.; Strack, J.

    2015-01-01

    The remote detection and isolation of radioactive materials is both a challenging engineering design project and a relevant issue given modern nuclear circumstances. This project is used in the undergraduate capstone class of the Engineering Physics Department at McMaster University to teach students engineering design. This paper discusses the course outline and learning outcomes of the students who took the course over the 2014-2015 academic year. (author)

  5. Critical Defense Materials: Government Collected Data Are Sufficiently Reliable to Assess Tantalum Availability

    2016-03-01

    conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or an adjoining country. Pub. L. No. 111- 203 §1502( e )(4). Columbite-tantalite (coltan), cassiterite, and...departments—the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Department of State, and the Department of Commerce —to take certain actions to implement the...USGS and Department of Commerce , and performing analyses to determine if shortfalls for materials will occur during potential conflict scenarios

  6. Sensing and collecting radioactive materials as a project to teach engineering design

    Drake, D.; Majdi, T.; Strack, J., E-mail: draked2@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Hamiltion, ON (Canada); and others

    2015-07-01

    The remote detection and isolation of radioactive materials is both a challenging engineering design project and a relevant issue given modern nuclear circumstances. This project is used in the undergraduate capstone class of the Engineering Physics Department at McMaster University to teach students engineering design. This paper discusses the course outline and learning outcomes of the students who took the course over the 2014-2015 academic year. (author)

  7. Materials of the Annual Scientific Conference at the Institute for Nuclear Research. (Collected reports)

    Vishnevs'kij, Yi.M.; Ostashko, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The proceeding contain contributed papers submitted to the annual Scientific conference of the Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine (kiev, January 1996). The proceedings include reports have been presented on the following sections: Nuclear physics, Solid State physics, Plasma physics, Radio ecology, Reactor safety, Radiation and reactor materials Study. The book is a direct reproduction of the print-ready manuscripts presented by the authors. No corrections have been made in the texts

  8. Bibliography of documents and related materials collected for the Hawaii Geothermal Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Glenn, F.M.; Boston, C.R.; Burns, J.C.; Hagan, C.W. Jr.; Saulsbury, J.W.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive information developed during preparation of the Environmental Impact Statement for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. On May 17, 1994, the USDOE published a notice in the Federal Register withdrawing its Notice of Intent of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report provides a bibliography of documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were obtained or used. The report provides citations for approximately 642 documents, published papers, and other reference materials that were gathered to describe the potentially affected environment on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. The listing also does not include all the reference materials developed by support subcontractors and cooperating agencies who participated in the project. This listing does not include correspondence or other types of personal communications. The documents listed in this report can be obtained from original sources or libraries.

  9. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  10. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J.; Bryman, D.; Bueno, J.; Charles, E.; Cousins, T.; Didsbury, R.; Erhardt, L.; Erlandson, A.; Gallant, G.; Jason, A.; Jonkmans, G.; Liu, Z.; McCall, M.; Noel, S.; Oakham, F.G.; Ong, D.; Stocki, T.; Thompson, M.; Waller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  11. Simulations and imaging algorithm development for a cosmic ray muon tomography system for the detection of special nuclear material in transport containers

    Jewett, C.; Anghel, V.N.P. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Armitage, J.; Boudjemline, K.; Botte, J. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Bryman, D. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bueno, J. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Charles, E. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Cousins, T. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Didsbury, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Erhardt, L. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Erlandson, A. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Gallant, G. [Canada Border Services Agency, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jason, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States); Jonkmans, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Liu, Z. [Advanced Applied Physics Solutions, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); McCall, M.; Noel, S. [International Safety Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Oakham, F.G. [Carleton Univ., Dept. of Physics, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia, (Canada); Ong, D.; Stocki, T. [Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thompson, M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Waller, D. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Inspection and Passive Tomography (CRIPT) collaboration is developing a cosmic ray muon tomography system to identify Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in cargo containers. In order to gauge the viability of the technique, and to determine the best detector type, GEANT4 was used to simulate the passage of cosmic ray muons through a cargo container. The scattering density estimation (SDE) algorithm was developed and tested with data from these simulations to determine how well it could reconstruct the interior of a container. The simulation results revealed the ability of cosmic ray muon tomography techniques to image spheres of lead-shielded Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), such as uranium or plutonium, in a cargo container, containing a cargo of granite slabs. (author)

  12. Data collection for the methods of in-pile materials testing

    Markina, N.V.; Rudkevich, A.V.; Lebedeva, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    Problems, relating to the creation of automated data banks intended for accumulatioon and systematization of data according to the methods of in-pile materials testing, taking into account their specific nature are discussed. The architecture of the bank, realized on the BESM-6 computer is described. The bank contains data on about 300 methods. The library of requests, which may be used by a user comprises about 20 descriptions. A new request description preparation and input take 5-20 min. The system answering time is from 30 sec to 3-4 min

  13. Chemical pollutants in field-collected canvasback tissues, eggs, and food materials

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.; Stendell, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 studies began on the levels of environmental pollutants in canvasback tissues, eggs, and food items. The purpose of the studies were to determine if the levels of toxic chemicals found in canvasbacks were of the magnitude to cause problems affecting reproduction and survival. Overall, levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCB's were low in canvasbacks and their eggs. Some individual birds, however, laid eggs with elevated residues of DDE (12.1 ppm) or PCB's (28.6 ppm). There was no significant difference between eggshell thicknesses of 1972-73 and pre-1946 collections. About 12% of the canvasbacks analyzed had elevated levels of blood lead with reduced ALAD enzyme activity. Adult canvasbacks collected from the Chesapeake Bay in 1975 had moderate to high levels of cadmium in their kidneys. Cadmium, in excessive amounts is very toxic and can curtail spermatogenesis in male birds. Although no single toxic chemical found in wild canvasbacks appears to be a major factor in population declines, the cumulative effects of sublethal levels of all the pollutants may render birds susceptible to disease, hunting pressure or predation.

  14. Identity and equipment in biosocial collectives: a material-semiotic reading

    Jorge Castillo-Sepúlveda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biosociality refers to modes of personal and collective identification that are defined from a biological trait. Diverse investigations that have addressed social formations of this type, have exalted how through interaction processes with socio-technical entities, the identity of involved actors is redefined. In this paper are analysed the implications of participation in biosocial collectives to the humans involved, from the actor-network theory. In that sense, it is described how in these spaces the identity behaves as a composition, involving the association of heterogeneous elements which articulate a human to a number of entities that can transform the definition of the self. Also, are acquired meanings that amplify the spectrum of possible actions to face the uncertainty of the disease itself. By using the term of equipment, described by Foucault and rescued by Rabinow, it is considered that participation in biosocial weaves affects the acquisition of new skills to deal with scenarios of uncertainty. An equipment consists in a continuum of actions aimed to a practical purpose involving the preparation to deal with different contexts, from the association to heterogeneous entities.

  15. Proposed real-time data processing system to control source and special nuclear material (SS) at Mound Laboratory

    DeVer, E.A.; Baston, M.; Bishop, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    The SS Acountability System was designed to provide accountability of all SS materials by unit identification and grams. The existing system is a gram-accountable system. The new system was designed to incorporate unit identification into an ADP (Automated Data Processing) System. It also records all transactions performed against a particular unit of accountable material. The high volume of data is input via CRT terminals. Input data will consist of the following: source of the material (its unit identification), amount of material being moved, isotopic content, type of material, Health Physics number of the person moving the material, account number from which the material is being moved, unit identification of the material being moved (if all material is not moved), Health Physics number of the person receiving the material, account number to which material is being moved, and acceptance of the material by the receiver. A running inventory of all material is kept. At the end of the month the physical inventory will be compared to the data base and all discrepancies reported. Since a complete history of transactions has been kept, the source and cause for any discrepancies should be easily located. Discrepancies are held to a minimum since errors are detected before entrance into the data base. The system will also furnish all reports necessary to control SS Accountability. These reports may be requested at any time via an accountability master terminal

  16. Shoichi Sakata: His life and physics. Collections of materials in Sakata Memorial Archival Library

    Tanabashi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Shoichi Sakata and his Nagoya School made a lot of important achievements at the predawn of the particle physics revolution. The “two-meson” theory (introduction of the second generation leptons), the “C-meson theory” (a theory which inspired Tomonaga's renormalization theory), the “Sakata model” (a precursor to the quark model), and the “Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata” theory on the neutrino mixings are among them. These outputs are now regarded as essential ingredients in modern particle physics. Sakata also took his leadership in setting up democratic administration system in his theoretical particle physics group (E-ken). It was this democratic atmosphere in which many excellent physicists were brought up as Sakata's diciples. In this talk, I introduce Sakata and his achievements in physics, showing various materials archived in the Sakata Memorial Archival Library (SMAL), an archival repository of primary material showing Sakata's activities. These SMAL documents vividly show Sakata's way of thinking in his approach to the new physics. (author)

  17. 10 CFR 74.11 - Reports of loss or theft or attempted theft or unauthorized production of special nuclear material.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports of loss or theft or attempted theft or... Requirements § 74.11 Reports of loss or theft or attempted theft or unauthorized production of special nuclear... plutonium shall notify the NRC Operations Center within 1 hour of discovery of any loss or theft or other...

  18. Determination of yield related traits of sesame genotypes selected from world collection and mutant material

    Silme, R. S.; Cagirgan, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important plant of Turkey that secondary gen center and very used of food industry's a lot of area. Mutation breeding of sesame research continued coordinately with IAEA since 1993. it is aimed in these breeding programmes to improve lines that have dehiscent capsule, determinate growth and resistance to wilting traits. This study was conducted in Antalya City, at Akdeniz University Agricultural Faculty experiment fields under second crop conditions in 2007. At this study, 19 genotypes selected from world sesame collection, 4 mutant genotypes and 2 local cultivars were sown. The experiments were conducted according to Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. It was found that first flowering date varied between 35 to 45 days, 50% flowering date from 39 to 54 days, last flowering date from 63 to 88 days, first capsule date from 42 to 51 days, first capsule height from 44 to 116 cm, plant height from 102 to 177 cm, number of branch per plant from 0.1 to 2.7, number of pod per plant from 28 to 63, number of seeds in capsule 2.3-4.3 g, 1000 seed weight ranged from 2.3 to 4.3 g, seed yield per da from 18 to 77 kg. The highest yield per da (77 kg/da) was obtained from mutant genotype, wt-5.

  19. Impact of collection container material and holding times on sample integrity for mercury and methylmercury in water

    Riscassi, Ami L [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in streamwater can vary on short timescales (hourly or less) during storm flow and on a diel cycle; the frequency and timing of sampling required to accurately characterize these dynamics may be difficult to accomplish manually. Automated sampling can assist in sample collection; however use has been limited for Hg and MeHg analysis due to stability concerns of trace concentrations during extended storage times. We examined the viability of using automated samplers with disposable low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample bags to collect industrially contaminated streamwater for unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg analysis. Specifically we investigated the effect of holding times ranging from hours to days on streamwater collected during baseflow and storm flow. Unfiltered and filtered Hg and MeHg concentrations decreased with increases in time prior to sample processing; holding times of 24 hours or less resulted in concentration changes (mean 11 7% different) similar to variability in duplicates collected manually during analogous field conditions (mean 7 10% different). Comparisons of samples collected with manual and automated techniques throughout a year for a wide range of stream conditions were also found to be similar to differences observed between duplicate grab samples. These results demonstrate automated sampling into LDPE bags with holding times of 24 hours or less can be effectively used to collect streamwater for Hg and MeHg analysis, and encourage the testing of these materials and methods for implementation in other aqueous systems where high-frequency sampling is warranted.

  20. Simulation of the electron collection efficiency of a PMT based on the MCP coated with high secondary yield material

    Chen, Lin, E-mail: chenlin@opt.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Tian, Jinshou [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Zhao, Tianchi [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Chunliang [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu, Hulin; Wei, Yonglin; Sai, Xiaofeng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Chen, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Xing; Lu, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Hui, Dandan [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics (XIOPM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Xi' an 710119 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Owning to the serious loss of photoelectrons striking at the input electrode of traditional microchannel plate (MCP), photoelectron collection efficiency (CE) of photomultiplier tubes based on MCP (MCP-PMTs) fluctuates around the MCP open area fraction and cannot make a breakthrough. Depositing a thin film of high secondary electron yield material on the MCP is proposed as an effective approach to improve the CE. The available simulation and experimental data to validate it, however, is sparse. In our work, a three-dimensional small area MCP model is developed in CST Studio Suite to evaluate the collection efficiencies of PMTs based on the traditional MCP and the coated one, respectively. Results predict that CE of the PMT based on the coated MCP has a significant increase and a better uniformity, which is expected to reach 100%.

  1. Geomembrane special study

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Homicides with corpse dismemberment in the material collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Krakow, Poland.

    Konopka, Tomasz; Bolechała, Filip; Strona, Marcin; Kopacz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study: To determine the circumstances which can be useful for offenders profiling in homicide cases with victim's body dismemberment. Material and methods: Study of all homicide cases with victim's corpse dismemberment examined in Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine over the last 50 years. Results: Within the past 50 years, a total number of 30 cases of homicides with dismembered bodies were examined in Krakow. 22 cases represent defensive mutilations performed by offender, 3 cases can be classified as offensive muti-lations and 3 cases represent aggressive mutilations - decapitation as a method of committing homicide. In this period the only 1 case of necrophilic mutilations was examined, when the body was dismembered without murder. In most cases the background of homicide was the family conflict, 6 was cause of mental illness of perpetrator and in 3 was sexual motive. Only in 3 cases (from 25 when the offender was known) perpetrator kill a stranger. In the other the offender belonged to the family or friends of the victim. In all cases where the perpetrator was determined, homicide and dismemberment was performed in his place of residence. The findings of the Police investigations indicate that in most cases homicides were not planned, occurred under the influence of emotion, only two have been previously scheduled. Conclusions: Homicides with corpses dismemberment usually are committed by offenders who is in close relationship with victim (family or friend). Dismemberment is almost always performed in the same place as murder - home of perpetrator. This type of homicide usually is not planned.

  3. Homicides with corpse dismemberment in the material collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Krakow, Poland

    Tomasz Konopka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To determine the circumstances which can be useful for offenders profiling in homicide cases with victim’s body dismemberment. Material and methods: Study of all homicide cases with victim’s corpse dismemberment examined in Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine over the last 50 years. Results : Within the past 50 years, a total number of 30 cases of homicides with dismembered bodies were examined in Krakow. 22 cases represent defensive mutilations performed by offender, 3 cases can be classified as offensive muti­lations and 3 cases represent aggressive mutilations – decapitation as a method of committing homicide. In this period the only 1 case of necrophilic mutilations was examined, when the body was dismembered without murder. In most cases the background of homicide was the family conflict, 6 was cause of mental illness of perpetrator and in 3 was sexual motive. Only in 3 cases (from 25 when the offender was known perpetrator kill a stranger. In the other the offender belonged to the family or friends of the victim. In all cases where the perpetrator was determined, homicide and dismemberment was performed in his place of residence. The findings of the Police investigations indicate that in most cases homicides were not planned, occurred under the influence of emotion, only two have been previously scheduled. Conclusions : Homicides with corpses dismemberment usually are committed by offenders who is in close relationship with victim (family or friend. Dismemberment is almost always performed in the same place as murder – home of perpetrator. This type of homicide usually is not planned.

  4. Acute inflammatory reaction in rats after intratracheal instillation of material collected from a nylon flocking plant.

    Porter, D W; Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Hubbs, A F; Mercer, R R; Scabilloni, J; Goldsmith, T; Schwegler-Berry, D; Battelli, L; Washko, R; Burkhart, J; Piacitelli, C; Whitmer, M; Jones, W

    1999-05-14

    Several cases of interstitial lung disease have been diagnosed among workers at a nylon flock plant, but the etiologic agent for the disease outbreak was unknown. The results of a medical survey and industrial hygiene study indicated that the dust present in the plant may be responsible. Thus, airborne dust collected at the plant was examined for its inflammatory potential in rat lungs. The endpoints measured were: (1) breathing rates, (2) differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage cells, (3) alveolar macrophage (AM) chemiluminescence, (4) albumin concentration and matrix metalloprotease activities in the acellular fluid from the initial bronchoalveolar lavage, and (5) pulmonary histopathology. In the first study, rats received a single dose of the airborne dust sample (10 mg/kg body weight) by intratracheal (IT) instillation. At 1 d post-IT, all inflammatory endpoints were significantly increased versus controls, but by 29 d post-IT they did not differ significantly from controls. Histopathology demonstrated mild to moderate, multifocal, suppurative pneumonia, usually centered around bronchioles, at 1 d post-IT. At 29 d post-IT, pulmonary inflammation was minimal to mild and characterized by alveolar histocytosis usually restricted to the immediate area of retained bire-fringent fibers. In subsequent experiments, airborne dust was extracted with water and the dust (washed airborne dust) and water extract (soluble fraction) were separated by centrifugation for further study. Nylon tow dust was prepared in the laboratory by milling uncut nylon strands (called tow) that had not been treated with the finish or dyes that are commonly used in the flock plants. Rats were administered a single dose of a dust sample (10 mg/kg body weight) or the soluble fraction (1.3 ml/kg body weight) by IT administration and the same endpoints were measured at 1 d post-IT. The dust samples caused significant increases in all of the inflammatory endpoints; however, the soluble

  5. Determination of Characteristic Peroids of Suppression of Thermal Decomposition Reaction of Forest Fuel Material by Specialized Software

    Gumerov Vladislav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies determining periods of suppression of thermal decomposition reaction of forest combustible materials was carried out by high-speed, cross-correlation cameras and panoramic techniques PIV and IPI under influence of water steam. Conditions and characteristics of reaction termination of thermal decomposition of forest combustible materials under reaction with steam cloud were defined.

  6. Introduction to the special collection of papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability.

    Heberling, Matthew T; Hopton, Matthew E

    2012-11-30

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, description of the region, overview of the methods, and summary of the results. Although there are a multitude of scientifically based sustainability metrics, many are data intensive, difficult to calculate, and fail to capture all aspects of a system. We wanted to see if we could develop an approach that decision-makers could use to understand if their system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The goal was to produce a scientifically defensible, but straightforward and inexpensive methodology to measure and monitor environmental quality within a regional system. We initiated an interdisciplinary pilot project in the San Luis Basin, south-central Colorado, to test the methodology. The objectives were: 1) determine the applicability of using existing datasets to estimate metrics of sustainability at a regional scale; 2) calculate metrics through time from 1980 to 2005; and 3) compare and contrast the results to determine if the system was moving toward or away from sustainability. The sustainability metrics, chosen to represent major components of the system, were: 1) Ecological Footprint to capture the impact and human burden on the system; 2) Green Net Regional Product to represent economic welfare; 3) Emergy to capture the quality-normalized flow of energy through the system; and 4) Fisher information to capture the overall dynamic order and to look for possible regime changes. The methodology, data, and results of each metric are presented in the remaining four papers of the special collection. Based on the results of each metric and our criteria for understanding the sustainability trends, we find that the San Luis Basin is moving away from sustainability. Although we understand

  7. Strategic Materials

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  8. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Materials and Energy Corporation Sealed Sources at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Materials and Energy Corporation (M&EC) Sealed Source waste stream (PERM000000036, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the M&EC Sealed Source waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The M&EC Sealed Source waste stream is recommended for acceptance without conditions.

  9. Collection and identification of human remains volatiles by non-contact, dynamic airflow sampling and SPME-GC/MS using various sorbent materials.

    DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Furton, Kenneth G

    2011-09-01

    Human remains detection canines are used in locating deceased humans in diverse scenarios and environments based on odor produced during the decay process of the human body. It has been established that human remains detection canines are capable of locating human remains specifically, as opposed to living humans or animal remains, thus suggesting a difference in odor between the different sources. This work explores the collection and determination of such odors using a dynamic headspace concentration device. The airflow rate and three sorbent materials-Dukal cotton gauze, Johnson & Johnson cotton-blend gauze, and polyester material-used for odor collection were evaluated using standard compounds. It was determined that higher airflow rates and openly woven material, e.g., Dukal cotton gauze, yielded significantly less total volatile compounds due to compound breakthrough through the sorbent material. Collection from polymer- and cellulose-based materials demonstrated that the molecular backbone of the material is a factor in compound collection as well. Volatiles, including cyclic and straight-chain hydrocarbons, organic acids, sulfides, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols, were collected from a population of 27 deceased bodies from two collection locations. The common compounds between the subjects were compared and the odor profiles were determined. These odor profiles were compared with those of animal remains and living human subjects collected in the same manner. Principal component analysis showed that the odor profiles of the three sample types were distinct.

  10. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

  11. Determination of several trace metals in biological materials by PIXE analysis after solvent extraction and polystyrene-film collection

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Korenaga, Tatsumi; Suzuki, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    Traces of vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were quantitatively extracted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in benzene from a digested solution of biological materials and the metal-DDTC complexes were collected into a small amount of polystyrene foam produced by lyophilization of the benzene extract after addition of polystyrene. The polystyrene foam was dissolved in benzene and spread on Mylar film. After drying, a polystyrene film containing metal-DDTC complexes was produced on Mylar film, and then the polystyrene film was peeled from the Mylar film. This film was subjected to PIXE analysis. This method was applied to NBS SRM 1572 citrus leaves and a marine macroalgal sample, and 6 trace metals were simultaneously and accurately determined. (author)

  12. Toward a comprehensive approach to the collection and analysis of pica substances, with emphasis on geophagic materials.

    Sera L Young

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pica, the craving and subsequent consumption of non-food substances such as earth, charcoal, and raw starch, has been an enigma for more than 2000 years. Currently, there are little available data for testing major hypotheses about pica because of methodological limitations and lack of attention to the problem.In this paper we critically review procedures and guidelines for interviews and sample collection that are appropriate for a wide variety of pica substances. In addition, we outline methodologies for the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characterization of these substances, with particular focus on geophagic soils and clays. Many of these methods are standard procedures in anthropological, soil, or nutritional sciences, but have rarely or never been applied to the study of pica.Physical properties of geophagic materials including color, particle size distribution, consistency and dispersion/flocculation (coagulation should be assessed by appropriate methods. Quantitative mineralogical analyses by X-ray diffraction should be made on bulk material as well as on separated clay fractions, and the various clay minerals should be characterized by a variety of supplementary tests. Concentrations of minerals should be determined using X-ray fluorescence for non-food substances and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy for food-like substances. pH, salt content, cation exchange capacity, organic carbon content and labile forms of iron oxide should also be determined. Finally, analyses relating to biological interactions are recommended, including determination of the bioavailability of nutrients and other bioactive components from pica substances, as well as their detoxification capacities and parasitological profiles.This is the first review of appropriate methodologies for the study of human pica. The comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach to the collection and analysis of pica substances detailed here is a necessary

  13. Longer-term domestic supply problems for nonrenewable materials with special emphasis on energy-related applications

    Goeller, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made on how materials are used in present and future energy production and use. Problem areas which are discussed include by-products production, import limitations, substitution and recycle, accelerated use, synthesis, and the adequacy of the data bases availability

  14. k0-INAA for APM samples collected in period of June 2004 - March 2005 and some marine certified reference materials

    Dung, Ho Manh; Vu, Cao Dong; Y, Truong; Sy, Nguyen Thi

    2006-01-01

    The airborne particulate matter (APM) samples have been collected in 2004 using two types of polycarbonate membrane filter PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 at two sites of industrial (Ho Chi Mihn City) and rural (Dateh) regions in south of Vietnam. Three marine certified reference materials have been selected to establish a k0-NAA procedure for marine samples. The concentration of trace multi-element in the samples has been determined by the k 0 -INAA procedure using K o -DALAT software developed in Dalat NRI. About 28 elements in 224 APM samples collected at two areas of Dateh and HCMC of Vietnam in period from June, 2004 to March, 2005 were presented in report. The statistical analysis was applied to the data set to investigate the pollution source at sampling sites. The results proved that the k 0 -NAA on the Dalat research reactor is a reliable and effective analytical technique for characterization of trace multi-element in APM and marine samples for air and marine environmental pollution study in Vietnam. (author)

  15. Feasibility study of passive gamma spectrometry of molten core material from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy - low-volatile FP and special nuclear material inventory analysis and fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris

    Sagara, Hiroshi; Tomikawa, Hirofumi; Watahiki, Masaru; Kuno, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    The technologies applied to the analysis of the Three Mile Island accident were examined in a feasibility study of gamma spectrometry of molten core material from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 1, 2, and 3 cores for special nuclear material accountancy. The focus is on low-volatile fission products and heavy metal inventory analysis, and the fundamental characteristics of gamma-rays from fuel debris with respect to passive measurements. The inventory ratios of the low-volatile lanthanides, "1"5"4Eu and "1"4"4Ce, to special nuclear materials were evaluated by the entire core inventories in units 1, 2, and 3 with an estimated uncertainty of 9%-13% at the 1σ level for homogenized molten fuel material. The uncertainty is expected to be larger locally owing to the use of the irradiation cycle averaging approach. The ratios were also evaluated as a function of burnup for specific fuel debris with an estimated uncertainty of 13%-25% at the 1σ level for units 1 and 2, and most of the fuels in unit 3, although the uncertainty regarding the separated mixed oxide fuel in unit 3 would be significantly higher owing to the burnup dependence approach. Source photon spectra were also examined and cooling-time-dependent data sets were prepared. The fundamental characteristics of high-energy gamma-rays from fuel debris were investigated by a bare-sphere model transport calculation. Mass attenuation coefficients of fuel debris were evaluated to be insensitive to its possible composition in a high-energy region. The leakage photon ratio was evaluated using a variety of parameters, and a significant impact was confirmed for a certain size of fuel debris. Its correlation was summarized with respect to the leakage photopeak ratio of source "1"5"4Eu. Finally, a preliminary study using a hypothetical canister model of fuel debris based on the experience at Three Mile Island was presented, and future plans were introduced. (author)

  16. Summary of Blast Shield and Material Testing for Development of Solid Debris Collection at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Shaughnessy, D.A.; Gostic, J.M.; Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.; Lewis, L.A.; Hutcheon, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to collect solid debris from the target chamber following a NIF shot has application for both capsule diagnostics, particularly for fuel-ablator mix, and measuring cross sections relevant to the Stockpile Stewardship program and nuclear astrophysics. Simulations have shown that doping the capsule with up to 10 15 atoms of an impurity not otherwise found in the capsule does not affect its performance. The dopant is an element that will undergo nuclear activations during the NIF implosion, forming radioactive species that can be collected and measured after extraction from the target chamber. For diagnostics, deuteron or alpha induced reactions can be used to probe the fuel-ablator mix. For measuring neutron cross sections, the dopant should be something that is sensitive to the 14 MeV neutrons produced through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Developing the collector is a challenge due to the extreme environment of the NIF chamber. The collector surface is exposed to a large photon flux from x-rays and unconverted laser light before it is exposed to a debris wind that is formed from vaporized material from the target chamber center. The photons will ablate the collector surface to some extent, possibly impeding the debris from reaching the collector and sticking. In addition, the collector itself must be mechanically strong enough to withstand the large amount of energy it will be exposed to, and it should be something that will be easy to count and chemically process. In order to select the best material for the collector, a variety of different metals have been tested in the NIF chamber. They were exposed to high-energy laser shots in order to evaluate their postshot surface characterization, morphology, degree of melt, and their ability to retain debris from the chamber center. The first set of samples consisted of 1 mm thick pieces of aluminum that had been fielded in the chamber as blast shields protecting the neutron activation diagnostic. Ten

  17. 76 FR 39907 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    2011-07-07

    ... NRC action to submit an information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and solicitation of public comment. SUMMARY: The NRC invites public comment about our intention to.... The title of the information collection: 10 CFR Part 74-- Material Control and Accounting of Special...

  18. Environmental assessment for renewal of special nuclear material, License No. SUB-1010 (Docket No. 40-8027)

    1985-08-01

    The proposed action is the renewal of the license necessary for continued operation of the SFC production plant at Gore, Oklahoma. The plant has been in operation with authority to use source material for the production of UF 6 since February 1970. In addition to facilities for production of UF 6 the site also includes: (1) a storage area for drums of uranium ore concentrates received from uranium mills, (2) a uranium sampling facility, (3) bulk storage of hazardous chemicals such as hydrofluoric (HF), nitric (HNO 3 ), and sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) acids and tributyl phosphate-hexane solvent, (4) a facility for electrolytic production of fluorine from HF, (5) separate treatment systems and storage ponds for radiological and nonradiological liquid wastes, and (6) a program for disposal of raffinate from a solvent extraction system in the UF 6 production as fertilizer on land owned by SFC. 13 figs., 30 tabs

  19. Trace element determination in plant material by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with special reference to molybdenum

    Schnier, C.; Schnug, E.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) permits a non-destructive multielement determination of minute trace element concentrations in organic material. No sample preparation except drying is required. Especially for the determination of molybdenum the INAA offers great advantages compared to the methods used in agricultural chemistry where complicated enrichment and extraction steps are needed. Contamination by reagents or loss of elements are not potential sources of errors. The principle, the advantages and disadvantages of INAA are described. The method is demonstrated with the example of celery samples from an experiment with five different nitrogen fertilizers on contaminated soil and of cabbage samples from an uncontaminated region. Besides molybdenum, 19 other elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, W, Au, Th) are determined. (orig.) [de

  20. Materialism.

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  2. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    Miller, Thomas M., E-mail: millertm@ornl.gov; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  3. Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea

    Juhee Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans. Deoxynivalenol (DON, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the Fusarium mycotoxins that is known to cause vomiting in livestock. This study shows the occurrence of deoxynivalenol in feedstuffs (compound feed and feed ingredients between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea. A total of 653 domestic samples were collected at five time points, including 494 compound feed samples and 159 feed ingredient samples. DON contamination levels were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with pretreatment using an immunoaffinity column (IAC. The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ were estimated at 1–10 µg/kg and 3–35 µg/kg, respectively. Two compound feeds (two gestating sow feed samples out of 160 pig feed samples exceeded the European Commission (EC guidance value, while no feed ingredient samples exceeded the EC or South Korean guidance values. There were statistically significant differences in the mean contamination levels of compound feed and feed ingredients that indicated a decreasing trend over time.

  4. Technical Division quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1977. [Fuel cycle research and development; special materials production

    Slansky, C.M. (ed.)

    1978-02-01

    Results are presented on the fluidized-bed calcination of simulated radioactive waste from the reprocessing of spent commercial nuclear fuel and on the removal of actinide elements from the waste prior to calcination. Other programs include the development of storage technology for /sup 85/Kr waste; and the behavior of volatile radionuclides during the combustion of HTGR graphite-based fuel. The long-term management of defense waste from the ICPP covers post-calcination treatment of ICPP calcined waste; the removal of actinide elements from first-cycle raffinate; the retrieval and handling of calcined waste from ICPP storage vaults; and the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement on ICPP waste. Process improvements are reported on the Fluorinel headend process for Zircaloy-clad fuels and on uranium accountability measurements. Other development results cover the process for recovering spent Rover fuel, buried pipeline transfer systems, support to the Waste Management Program, Waste Calcining Facility support, New Waste Calcining Facility support, and effluent monitoring methods evaluation and development. In this category are studies on nuclear materials security, application of a liquid-solid fluidized-bed heat exchanger to the recovery of geothermal heat, inplant reactor source term measurements, burnup methods for fast breeder reactor fuels, absolute thermal fission yield measurements, analytical support to light water breeder reactor development, research on analytical methods, and the behavior of environmental species of iodine.

  5. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  6. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  7. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance - January 1980

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport special nuclear material (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standards format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical protection plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CRF Part 73

  8. Standard format and content for a licensee physical security plan for the protection of special nuclear material of moderate or low strategic significance (Revision 1, Feb. 1983)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This regulatory guide describes the information required in the physical security plan submitted as part of an application for a license to possess, use, or transport Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) of moderate strategic significance or 10 kg or more of SNM of low strategic significance and recommends a standard format for presenting the information in an orderly arrangement. This standard format will thus serve as an aid to uniformity and completeness in the preparation and review of the physical security plan of the license application. This document can also be used as guidance by licensees possessing or transporting less than 10 kg of SNM of low strategic significance in understanding the intent and implementing the requirements of paragraphs 73.67(a), 73.67(f), and 73.67(g) of 10 CFR Part 73

  9. Environmental Impact Appraisal for renewal of special nuclear material license No. SNM-42 (Docket No. 70-27)

    1984-03-01

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) facility near Lynchburg, Virginia, produces fuel assemblies and complete fuel modules for reactors used in the US Navy nuclear propulsion program and fuel components for university and other research reactors; and processes scrap material to recover the enriched uranium content. No significant modifications of the production procedures for the US Navy nuclear fuel fabrication have been made since the previous environmental assessment, and none are anticipated during the five-year license renewal period being considered. In 1982 the fabrication of fuel assemblies for university and other research reactors was begun. This environmental assessment provides a review of the past five years of operation and an analysis of future impacts, including the effect of plant changes. The proposed action is the renewal of the license necessary for B and W to continue the existing fuel fabrication operations. Principal operations in the fabrication facility include the processing of highly enriched uranium (> 90% 235 U) into fuel elements and assembling the elements into complete reactor cores for shipment and eventual installation in US Navy facilities. The principal environmental impacts of current operation of the NNFD result from release of radioactive gases to the atmosphere and of radioactively contaminated liquids to the adjacent James River. The actual gaseous and liquid pollutants released during normal operation of the plant have been monitored and documented. The principal subjects addressed in this environmental assessment include water use, pollutant controls, environmental monitoring, and environmental impact of operation and accidents. Other site factors and plant operations necessary for this assessment are described, and aspects of insignificant impacts are identified. 10 figures, 36 tables

  10. Materials

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  11. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  12. Some factors in the calculation of the neutron intensity from (α,n) reactions with reference to the assay of special nuclear materials

    West, D.

    1985-07-01

    The application of neutron coincidence counting to the assay of special nuclear material involves a major correction for neutron multiplication. The correction commonly used at present requires an accurate knowledge of the intensity ratio of neutrons from (α,n) reactions to those from spontaneous fission. This paper covers various factors, which need to be evaluated in order to assess their importance, in the calculation of (α,n) neutron production using measured thick target yields. They include: accuracy of (α,n) thick target yield measurements; errors introduced by deriving yields in compounds from the measured yields in the constituents and vice-versa; the likely effect of neglecting the difference of α-particle stopping power between Pu and U on the calculated neutron yield from mixed oxide fuel pellets; the intensity of neutrons produced from 1 to 2% of Al used to alloy plutonium metal; the intensity of neutrons produced in Al, used as canning material, from α-particles escaping from the surface layers of oxide or metal fuel; and neutron production from oxygen in the air spaces of powdered PuO 2 prior to sintering. (author)

  13. Type material of Platyhelminthes housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016 (Rhabditophora, Trematoda and Cestoda

    Daniela A. Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the catalogue of type material deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC, between 1979 and 2016, is presented, to complement the first list of all types that was published in 1979. This part includes Platyhelminthes other than monogenoids, which were covered in the first part published in September 2016. The present catalogue comprises type material for 104 species, distributed across three classes, 40 families and 75 genera. Species names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality and specimens with their collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated.

  14. Program specialization

    Marlet, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the principles and techniques of program specialization - a general method to make programs faster (and possibly smaller) when some inputs can be known in advance. As an illustration, it describes the architecture of Tempo, an offline program specializer for C that can also specialize code at runtime, and provides figures for concrete applications in various domains. Technical details address issues related to program analysis precision, value reification, incomplete program specialization, strategies to exploit specialized program, incremental specialization, and data speci

  15. A catalog of bird specimens associated with Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied and potential type material in the natural history collection in Wiesbaden

    Dorothee Hoffmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bird specimens collected by 19th century explorer and ornithologist Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied form one of the foundation collections of the American Museum of Natural History in New York. However, parts of his collection remained in Germany and came to the Museum Wiesbaden. Since Wied described numerous new species without designating types, some of these specimens might be type material. Here we present a catalog of the 30 Wiesbaden specimens associated with him and discuss their potential type status. We conclude that 17 individuals in 11 species are potential type specimens that should be considered in future taxonomic work.

  16. Lessons learned from a rigorous peer-review process for building the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness (CLEAN) collection of high-quality digital teaching materials

    Gold, A. U.; Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Buhr, S. M.; Manduca, C. A.; Niepold, F.; Fox, S.; Howell, C. D.; Lynds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The topic of climate change permeates all aspects of our society: the news, household debates, scientific conferences, etc. To provide students with accurate information about climate science and energy awareness, educators require scientifically and pedagogically robust teaching materials. To address this need, the NSF-funded Climate Literacy & Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway has assembled a new peer-reviewed digital collection as part of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) featuring teaching materials centered on climate and energy science for grades 6 through 16. The scope and framework of the collection is defined by the Essential Principles of Climate Science (CCSP 2009) and a set of energy awareness principles developed in the project. The collection provides trustworthy teaching materials on these socially relevant topics and prepares students to become responsible decision-makers. While a peer-review process is desirable for curriculum developer as well as collection builder to ensure quality, its implementation is non-trivial. We have designed a rigorous and transparent peer-review process for the CLEAN collection, and our experiences provide general guidelines that can be used to judge the quality of digital teaching materials across disciplines. Our multi-stage review process ensures that only resources with teaching goals relevant to developing climate literacy and energy awareness are considered. Each relevant resource is reviewed by two individuals to assess the i) scientific accuracy, ii) pedagogic effectiveness, and iii) usability/technical quality. A science review by an expert ensures the scientific quality and accuracy. Resources that pass all review steps are forwarded to a review panel of educators and scientists who make a final decision regarding inclusion of the materials in the CLEAN collection. Results from the first panel review show that about 20% (~100) of the resources that were initially considered for inclusion

  17. Introduction to the Special Collection of Papers on the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project: A Methodology for Evaluating Regional Sustainability

    This paper introduces a collection of four articles describing the San Luis Basin Sustainability Metrics Project. The Project developed a methodology for evaluating regional sustainability. This introduction provides the necessary background information for the project, descripti...

  18. Collections XVII (The Malone Society)

    Keenan, Siobhan; Giddens, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Collections XVII is the latest volume in the Malone Society's pioneering series of editions of miscellaneous documents relating to English theatre and drama before 1642. It is likely to be of special interest not only to early theatre historians but to those working on Tudor and Stuart court and civic culture, manuscript writing, household drama and early modern women's writing, as it publishes new material in each of these fields. The book includes items such as Revels Office accounts, a pla...

  19. Radiation portal monitor with {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector performance for the detection of special nuclear materials

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Ibanez F, S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, ETSI Industriales, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Gonzalez, J. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C. Prof. Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mendez, R., E-mail: ingkarenguzman@gmail.com [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    In homeland security, neutron detection is used to prevent the smuggling of special nuclear materials. Thermal neutrons are normally detected with {sup 3}He proportional counters, in the radiation portal monitors, Rpms, however due to the {sup 3}He shortage new procedures are being studied. In this work Monte Carlo methods, using the MCNP6 code, have been used to study the neutron detection features of a {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) under real conditions inside of a Rpm. The performance for neutron detection was carried out for {sup 252}Cf, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu under different conditions. In order to mimic an actual situation occurring at border areas, a sample of SNM sited inside a vehicle was simulated and the Rpm with {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) response was calculated. At 200 cm the {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) on Rpm response is close to 2.5 cps-ng {sup 252}Cf, when the {sup 252}Cf neutron source is shielded with 0.5 cm-thick lead and 2.5 cm-thick polyethylene fulfilling the ANSI recommendations. Three different geometries of neutron detectors of {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) in a neutron detection system in Rpm were modeled. Therefore, the {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) detectors are an innovative and viable replacement for the {sup 3}He detectors in the Rpm. (Author)

  20. Radiation portal monitor with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector performance for the detection of special nuclear materials

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Vega C, H. R.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Mendez, R.

    2016-10-01

    In homeland security, neutron detection is used to prevent the smuggling of special nuclear materials. Thermal neutrons are normally detected with "3He proportional counters, in the radiation portal monitors, Rpms, however due to the "3He shortage new procedures are being studied. In this work Monte Carlo methods, using the MCNP6 code, have been used to study the neutron detection features of a "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) under real conditions inside of a Rpm. The performance for neutron detection was carried out for "2"5"2Cf, "2"3"8U and "2"3"9Pu under different conditions. In order to mimic an actual situation occurring at border areas, a sample of SNM sited inside a vehicle was simulated and the Rpm with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) response was calculated. At 200 cm the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) on Rpm response is close to 2.5 cps-ng "2"5"2Cf, when the "2"5"2Cf neutron source is shielded with 0.5 cm-thick lead and 2.5 cm-thick polyethylene fulfilling the ANSI recommendations. Three different geometries of neutron detectors of "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) in a neutron detection system in Rpm were modeled. Therefore, the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) detectors are an innovative and viable replacement for the "3He detectors in the Rpm. (Author)

  1. Proceedings of the international workshop on aged and decommissioned material collection and testing for structural integrity purposes

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This workshop was sponsored by the CEC DG XI and XII/JRC Petten/AMES and by the Principal Working Group 3 (PWG-3) on reactor component integrity of the NEA CSNI, and it was hosted by the CEN Mol, Belgium. The activities of PWG-3 fall into three main areas: non-destructive examination (NDE), fracture analysis, and ageing/materials degradation. The topic of the workshop falls into the third area of ageing and materials degradation. The titles of the papers are: AMES and other European networks in Integrity of Ageing Structures; Over View of Proving Test on the Reliability of Material of Nuclear Power Plant Components; Activities on Ageing Degradation Phenomena of NPP in Korea; Capability of Investigation on Decommissioned Parts from NPPs at the MPA Stuttgart; How Accurately can Surveillance Specimens Reflect the True State of RPV Materials?; Applicability of Design Codes to Aged Materials; Microstructural Investigations of as-Fabricated, Long-Term Thermally Aged and Neutron Irradiated RPV Materials: An Atom Probe Study; Proposed Post-Service Investigations on Decommissioned Greifswald Units; Tools and Experience in Post Irradiation Examination of Structural Core Components at PSI Hot laboratory; Testing of Beznau NPP Unit 1 Steam Generator Cast Stainless Steel Elbows; Mechanical Properties Characterisation of Irradiated Materials From Operating or Decommissioned Nuclear Power Plants; Long Term Ageing of Cast Ti-Stabilised Stainless Steel; Enhanced Surveillance of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessels. Discussions and conclusions are also presented

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Building Collection Infrastructure for Composting: Success in the Greater Worcester, Massachusetts Area

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  3. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Design patterns offer many advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the final program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose that these concepts...... are complementary. Program specialization can optimize programs written using design patterns, and design patterns provide information about the program structure that can guide specialization. Concretely, we propose specialization patterns, which describe how to apply program specialization to optimize uses...... of design patterns. In this paper, we analyze the specialization opportunities provided by specific uses of design patterns. Based on the analysis of each design pattern, we define the associated specialization pattern. These specialization opportunities can be declared using the specialization classes...

  4. Estimation of collective effective dose equivalent from environmental radiation and radioactive materials in Japan. A preliminary study

    Maruyama, Takashi; Noda, Yutaka; Takeshita, Mitsue; Iwai, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    The peaceful uses of nuclear power and radiations have been developed into a stage of practical applications for human life. Radiation causes harmful effects to human beings, although human beings receives a number of invaluable benefits from the nuclear energy and the uses of radiation. In order to examine the optimization of radiation protection in these practices, collective effective dose equivalent from environmental exposures due to natural and artificial radiations have been preliminarily evaluated using most recent data. The resultant collective doses were compared with those from medical and occupational exposures. It is noted that, in Japan, the collective effective dose from environmental radiation sources can be approximately same to that from medical exposure. (author)

  5. Petrographic description of calcite/opal samples collected on field trip of December 5-9, 1992. Special report No. 7

    Hill, C.A.; Schluter, C.M.

    1993-06-01

    This study is part of the research program of the Yucca Mountain Project intended to provide the State of Nevada with a detailed analysis and assessment of the water-deposited minerals of Yucca Mountain and adjacent regions. Forty-three separate stops were made and 203 samples were collected during the five days of the field trip. This report describes petrographic observations made on the calcite/opal samples

  6. Actions of radiation protection in the collection of discarded radioactive material; Ações de proteção radiológica no recolhimento de material radioativo descartado

    Neri, E.P.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: dasilva@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazil has approximately 2000 radiative facilities that use radiation sources in their processes and are controlled by The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN through standards, authorizations and inspections. These radioactive materials, whether in the form of waste or radioactive source, used in medical, industrial, research, etc. are sometimes discarded and found in inappropriate places, such as garbage dumps, industrial waste, streets, squares, etc. found by urban cleaning professionals without the proper knowledge of them. The work presents the radiation protection actions required for the safe collection of radioactive material to be performed by these professionals. According to the type of radioactive material the main actions of radiation protection are, among others: recognition of a radioactive material; correct use of personal protective equipment to contain possible radiation contamination; implementation of an area control etc. In order for the actions of recognition and collection of discarded radioactive material to be effective, there is a need to implement a training program in radiation protection for urban cleaning professionals.

  7. Collection of presentations of the Enviro-i-Forum 2005. Special forum about accessibility of environmental information and using of information technologies at their processing

    2005-01-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems in environmental sciences and application of environmental information and using of information technologies. The conference proceeded in five sections: (I) Legal frame of information about the environment; (II) Information systems in the environment; (III) GIS and Earth remote sensing; (IV) Information about the environment on the Internet; (V) Training and education. One hundred sixty participants took part in conference. Seventy lectures and posters as well as seventy-nine presentations were presented. Collection of presentations contain sixty presentations deals with the scope of INIS. Totally, forty-six presentations deal with the scope of INIS

  8. Recycling of plastic materials collected by `Duales System Deutschland (DSD)`; Werkstoffliches Recycling von Kunststoffen aus DSD-Sammlungen

    Baumgaertner, D. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Heinz, H. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Hiller, W. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    The article deals with the importance, problems and technology of plastics recycling. It gives an overview of the specific demands of plastics recyclates, the necessary process technology, and the characteristic values of materials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird die Bedeutung, die Problematik und Technik des werkstofflichen Recyclings von Kunststoffen dargestellt. Dabei sind sowohl die spezifischen Anforderungen des Einsatzstoffes als Recyclingmaterial, die notwendige Verfahrenstechnik als auch die werkstofflichen Kennwerte in einer Uebersicht dargestellt. (orig.)

  9. New cranial material of the earliest filter feeding flamingo Harrisonavis croizeti (Aves, Phoenicopteridae) informs the evolution of the highly specialized filter feeding apparatus

    Torres, Chris R.; De Pietri, Vanesa L.; Louchart, Antoine; van Tuinen, Marcel

    The Oligo-Miocene flamingo Harrisonavis croizeti represents an intermediate form between the highly specialized extant flamingo cranial morphology and the more generalized ancestral phoenicopteriform one, characterized by the extinct taxon Palaelodus. However, the original description of H. croizeti

  10. The separate and collective effects of personalization, personification, and gender on learning with multimedia chemistry instructional materials

    Halkyard, Shannon

    Chemistry is a difficult subject to learn and teach for students in general. Additionally, female students are under-represented in chemistry and the physical sciences. Within chemistry, atomic and electronic structure is a key concept and several recommendations in the literature describe how this topic can be taught better. These recommendations can be employed in multimedia instructional materials designed following principles understood through the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Additionally, these materials can expand the known use of principles like personalization (addressing the learner as "you") and test prospective design principles like personification (referring to abstract objects like atoms as "she" or "he"). The purpose of this study was to use the recommendations on teaching atomic and electronic structure along with known multimedia design principles to create multimedia chemistry learning materials that can be used to test the use of personalization and personification both separately and together. The study also investigated how learning with these materials might be different for male and female students. A sample of 329 students from private northern California high schools were given an atomic structure pre-test, watched a multimedia chemistry instructional video, and took a post-test on atomic structure. Students were randomly assigned to watch one of six versions of the instructional video. Students in the six groups were compared using ANOVA procedures and no significant differences were found. Males were compared to females for the six different treatment conditions and the most significant difference was for the treatment that combined personalization (you) and female personification (she), with a medium effect size (Cohen's d=0.65). Males and females were then compared separately across the six groups using ANOVA procedures and t-tests. A significant difference was found for female students using the treatment that combined

  11. Developing institutional repository at National Institute for Materials Science : Researchers directory service “SAMURAI” and Research Collection Library

    Takaku, Masao; Tanifuji, Mikiko

    National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) has developed an institutional repository “NIMS eSciDoc” since 2008. eSciDoc is an open source repository software made in Germany, and provides E-Science infrastructures through its flexible data model and rich Web APIs. NIMS eScidoc makes use of eSciDoc functions to benefit for NIMS situations. This article also focuses on researchers directory service “SAMURAI” in addition to NIMS eSciDoc. Successfully launched in October 2010, SAMURAI provides approximately 500 researchers' profile and publication information.

  12. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow

  13. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Oka, T., E-mail: okat@eng.niigata-u.ac.jp [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M. [Niigata University, 8050 Ikarashi-Ninocho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tsujimura, M. [Aichi Giken Co., 50-1 Takeshita, Hitotugi-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-0003 (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Ohmae-cho, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: ► The magnetic separation for Ni compounds was conducted by HTS bulk magnet. ► The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed from the Ni-phosphite precipitates. ► Ni-sulfate crystals was separated from the mixture of Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds. -- Abstract: The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  14. Collection of Ni-bearing material from electroless plating waste by magnetic separation with HTS bulk magnet

    Oka, T.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Tsujimura, M.; Yokoyama, K.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment to collect the Ni compounds from the waste liquid of electroless plating processes was conducted in the open-gradient magnetic separation process with the high temperature superconducting bulk magnet system. The magnetic pole containing Gd-based bulk superconductors was activated to 3.45 T at 35 K in the static magnetic field of 5 T with use of a superconducting solenoid magnet. The coarse Ni-sulfate crystals were formed by adding the concentrated sulfuric acid to the Ni-phosphite precipitates which yielded from the plating waste liquid by controlling the temperature and the pH value. The open-gradient magnetic separation technique was employed to separate the Ni-sulfate crystals from the mixture of the Ni-sulfate and Ni-phosphite compounds by the difference between their magnetic properties. And we succeeded in collecting Ni-sulfate crystals preferentially to the Ni-phosphite by attracting them to the magnetic pole soon after the Ni-sulfate crystals began to grow.

  15. Special Issue to publish

    Kllogjeri, Pellumb

    2015-01-01

    SciencePG has offered an email poster to help collect papers for our Special Issue and I have uploaded it for you. Please visit http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/specialissue/149002  to see our Special Issue announcement. Now, you can do the followings to personally contribute and promote our Special Issue:1. Submit your paper related to the topics of interest 2. Upload it to your personal websites.3. Upload it to the public websites of some universities and academic institutions...

  16. Specialization Patterns

    Schultz , Ulrik Pagh; Lawall , Julia ,; Consel , Charles

    1999-01-01

    Design patterns offer numerous advantages for software development, but can introduce inefficiency into the finished program. Program specialization can eliminate such overheads, but is most effective when targeted by the user to specific bottlenecks. Consequently, we propose to consider program specialization and design patterns as complementary concepts. On the one hand, program specialization can optimize object-oriented programs written using design patterns. On the other hand, design pat...

  17. Special Weapons

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Supporting Navy special weapons, the division provides an array of engineering services, technical publication support services, logistics support services, safety...

  18. Microparticles and human health: particulate materials, trace metals elements and black carbon in aerosols collected at Andravoahangy-Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Harinoely, M.; Ravoson, H. N.; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Ramaherison, H.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is to determine the concentrations of microparticles having diameter inferior to 10 μm (PM 10 ), the metal trace elements and the black carbon in the aerosols sampled in Andravoahangy-Antananarivo, Madagascar in 2008. The air sampler GENT is used to collect aerosol samples. The total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of simultaneous way all metallic trace elements contained in the aerosols. The M43D reflectometer permits to measure the reflectances in order to determine the black carbon concentrations. The results show that the average concentrations of the particulate matters PM 2,5-10 are higher than those of PM 2,5 . The average concentrations of PM 10 in the aerosols are exceeding the World Health Organisation (WHO) and European Union guidelines, set at 50 μg.m -3 and those of PM 2,5 are higher than the 2005 WHO (25 μg.m-3) and the United States Environment Protection Agency (35 μg.m -3 ) guidelines. Consequently, air quality in Andravoahangy does not respect these daily guidelines. The identified metallic trace elements in the aerosols are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The concentrations of black carbon are higher in the fine particles. The maximum value is 9.12 μg.m -3 . [fr

  19. 2nd IAEA research coordination meeting on collection and evaluation of reference data for thermo-mechanical properties of fusion reactor plasma facing materials. Summary report

    Langley, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The proceedings and results of the 2nd IAEA Research Coordination Meeting on ''Collection and Evaluation of Reference Data for Thermo-mechanical Properties of Fusion Reactor Plasma Facing Materials'' held on March 25, 26 and 27, 1996 at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna are briefly described. This report includes a summary of presentations made by the meeting participants, the results of discussions amongst the participants regarding the status of data, publication of a multi-author review paper and recommendations regarding future work. (author). 1 tab

  20. Specialized science.

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  1. International Conference (4th) on Nanostructured Materials Held in Stockholm, Sweden on 14-19 June 1998. Special Volume - Part A. Volume 12, Numbers 1-4, 1999

    Tsakalakos, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    ... or phases at the nanoscale level (less than 100 nm). Capabilities for synthesizing such nanostructured materials are becoming available, so that it is possible to produce the quantities of materials needed for prototype development and testing...

  2. Special geometry

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  3. Portrait pictures of actors in Ukrainian cinema posters of 1920s - early 1990s (based on the materials of Ukrainian cinema posters collection from the fonds of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

    Hutnyk L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines cinema posters as a source of visual information. Based on the materials of Ukrainian cinema posters collection of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, the article analyzes posters, the compositions of which contain portrait pictures of Ukrainian and world cinema actors. It characterizes approaches which were used by the artists during their work of posters creaton in order to present the cinema activity of the actors through the creation of cinema images in graphics or collage technique. The author traces main stylistic peculiarities of the posters with portrait pictures and creative style of certain poster artists. It is worth acknowledging that nowadays unique posters to some films of 1920-1930s which have not been preserved up to the present are of special value as important artistic documents in the history of cinema. Despite the fact that the period of the first third of the twentieth century was an age of silent black-and-white films in the history of cinema, all the posters that accompanied the films release were colored, and together they became a bright and unique page in the history of Ukrainian graphic art and cinema advertising

  4. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  5. The Study about the Influence of the Pop Culture for the Japanese Fashion : The Historical Materials Collection about the Connection of Japanese Fashion and Pop Cultures after World War II

    田中, 里尚; 中村, 仁; 梅原, 宏司; 齋木, 吉隆; 古賀, 令子

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research collect and arrange documents and historical materials to determine how pop culture influenced the fashion in Japan after World War II. In 2010, we firstly collected previous fashion and popular culture studies done in foreign countries. We found many intriguing studies, but we came upon one which was particularly noteworthy. As a means of clarifying the relationship between fashion and pop culture, we collected books written by Angela McRobbie. Second, we collect...

  6. Charge collection efficiency in SI GaAs grown from melts with variable composition as a material for solar neutrino detection

    Verbitskaya, E; Ivanov, A; Strokan, N; Vasilev, V; Markov, A; Polyakov, A; Gavrin, V; Kozlova, Y; Veretenkin, E; Bowles, T J

    2000-01-01

    The results on electrical characteristics and charge collection efficiency in the detectors from bulk SI GaAs developed as a material for solar neutrino spectroscopy are presented. SI GaAs crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The changes in the stoichiometric components are permanently controlled. It is shown that the performance of GaAs p sup + -i-n sup + structures provided the range of operational reverse voltage up to 1 kV. Measurement of deep level spectra and their analysis reveal the dominant deep levels - hole traps E sub v +0.51 and +0.075 eV in GaAs grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts, respectively. Investigation of carrier transport properties and bulk homogeneity evinced in charge collection efficiency has shown advantageous results for SI GaAs grown from stoichiometric melt. The reduction of carrier transport parameters and charge collection efficiency in GaAs grown from nonstoichiometric melt is analyzed taking into consideration formation of the hole trap E sub v +0....

  7. Charge collection efficiency in SI GaAs grown from melts with variable composition as a material for solar neutrino detection

    Verbitskaya, E.; Eremin, V.; Ivanov, A.; Strokan, N.; Vasilev, V.; Markov, A.; Polyakov, A.; Gavrin, V.; Kozlova, Yu.; Veretenkin, E.; Bowles, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    The results on electrical characteristics and charge collection efficiency in the detectors from bulk SI GaAs developed as a material for solar neutrino spectroscopy are presented. SI GaAs crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. The changes in the stoichiometric components are permanently controlled. It is shown that the performance of GaAs p + -i-n + structures provided the range of operational reverse voltage up to 1 kV. Measurement of deep level spectra and their analysis reveal the dominant deep levels - hole traps E v +0.51 and +0.075 eV in GaAs grown from stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric melts, respectively. Investigation of carrier transport properties and bulk homogeneity evinced in charge collection efficiency has shown advantageous results for SI GaAs grown from stoichiometric melt. The reduction of carrier transport parameters and charge collection efficiency in GaAs grown from nonstoichiometric melt is analyzed taking into consideration formation of the hole trap E v +0.075 eV, presumably assigned to Ga antisite and its influence on the concentration of the ionized deep donor level EL2 +

  8. Enhancement of photoluminescence from GaInNAsSb quantum wells upon annealing: improvement of material quality and carrier collection by the quantum well

    Baranowski, M; Kudrawiec, R; Latkowska, M; Syperek, M; Misiewicz, J; Sarmiento, T; Harris, J S

    2013-01-01

    In this study we apply time resolved photoluminescence and contactless electroreflectance to study the carrier collection efficiency of a GaInNAsSb/GaAs quantum well (QW). We show that the enhancement of photoluminescence from GaInNAsSb quantum wells annealed at different temperatures originates not only from (i) the improvement of the optical quality of the GaInNAsSb material (i.e., removal of point defects, which are the source of nonradiative recombination) but it is also affected by (ii) the improvement of carrier collection by the QW region. The total PL efficiency is the product of these two factors, for which the optimal annealing temperatures are found to be ∼700 °C and ∼760 °C, respectively, whereas the optimal annealing temperature for the integrated PL intensity is found to be between the two temperatures and equals ∼720 °C. We connect the variation of the carrier collection efficiency with the modification of the band bending conditions in the investigated structure due to the Fermi level shift in the GaInNAsSb layer after annealing.

  9. Specialized languages

    Mousten, Birthe; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2016-01-01

    Across different fields of research, one feature is often overlooked: the use of language for specialized purposes (LSP) as a cross-discipline. Mastering cross-disciplinarity is the precondition for communicating detailed results within any field. Researchers in specialized languages work cross...... science fields communicate their findings. With this article, we want to create awareness of the work in this special area of language studies and of the inherent cross-disciplinarity that makes LSP special compared to common-core language. An acknowledgement of the importance of this field both in terms...... of more empirical studies and in terms of a greater application of the results would give language specialists in trade and industry a solid and updated basis for communication and language use....

  10. Special irradiation techniques

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  11. International Conference (4th) on Nanostructured Materials Held in Stockholm, Sweden on 14-19 June 1998. Special Volume - Part B. Volume 12, Numbers 5-8, 1999

    1998-06-19

    MmoSTRUCTURED MATERIALS Companion journal to Acta MATERIALLY and Scripta MATERIALIA Principal Editors Thomas Tsakalakos* Rutgers University Bernard H...Fisica de Sistemas Pequeiios y Nanotecnologfa, CSIC, Calle Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid, Spain. Abstract — In this paper, we present experimental

  12. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures; Criteres a Suivre Pour Proceder a l'Inventaire des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales et aux Mesures de Controle; Kriterii dlya inventarizatsii spetsial'nykh yadernykh materialov i metody ucheta; Criterios a Que Deben Ajustarse los Procedimientos de Inventario y Control de los Materiales Nucleares Especiales

    Kinderman, E. M.; Tarrice, R. R. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    One of tile most significant problems that will face investors, managers and operators in nuclear activities and especially in the field of commercial nuclear power, will be the proper control of a nuclear materials inventory that will exceed US $5000 million in value by 1980. Special nuclear materials are expensive when compared to most materials of commerce, e.g. US prices for 90% enriched uranium and 3% enriched uranium as hexafluoride, and for heavy water are $10 808, $254 and $61.60 per kg, respectively. Moreover, in many cases these materials are subjected because of health and safety requirements to special governmental controls not directly related to their monetary value. Despite the high monetary values assigned to these materials, they are destined to be used in large quantity, e.g. some 50- 75 t of 3% enriched material will be used in 500-MW light-water-moderated reactor, and perhaps the equivalent of 200 to 300 reactors of such size will be in operation throughout the world by 1980. Past experience has resulted in the development of special procedures and practice for the commercial control of the large quantity, lower-value materials such as coal or iron ore and for the small quantity, higher value materials such as the precious metals. While they have like prices, special nuclear materials are different in kind and will be handled in quantities much greater than the precious metals. However, while special techniques or special adaptations of old techniques may be necessary, proper use of various established inventory control practices should be sufficient in most cases to protect adequately the investment of nations and individuals in these expensive materials. This paper establishes criteria for materials control. It specifically considers the appropriateness of various techniques of inventory control ranging from annual balancing of book records of receipts and shipments through detailed daily physical inventory in the light of the specific value

  13. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments; Experiencias de utilizacion de materiales marginales y especiales en terraplenes viarios en Espana

    Cano Linares, H.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  14. Collection development issues in the online environment

    Su, Di

    2006-01-01

    Expand your knowledge of problems and possibilities with e-material acquisitions around the world to aid in making your own decisions The demand for electronic material in academic libraries is growing and shows no sign of abating. Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment addresses key issues in electronic materials development and presents cutting-edge practices from academic libraries around the world. Leading authorities reveal insights on both common and special concerns that every library administrator can use in making decisions about their own collections. The text also presents real-life case studies illustrating approaches that can be modified for effective planning of your own library acquisitions. The strategies are practical, the information clear and helpful, all of it contained in a single useful volume that every information science professional or academic can use. Collection Development Issues in the Online Environment is separated into three sections. The first section tackles...

  15. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part II specializations; Radijaciono ostecenje konstrukcionih materijala, - I-II, I faza, II deo - specijalizacije

    Lazarevic, Dj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-03-15

    This document contains three reports about the visits and training of the experts involved in VISA-2 project to Saclay. All the documents include technical description about methods for fabrication and testing the materials under different irradiation conditions.

  16. Lambda as a factor for saving energy. When are special high-performance insulating materials worthwhile?; Einsparfaktor Lambda. Wann rechnen sich besonders leistungsfaehige Daemmstoffe?

    Tornow, Sven-Erik [Arbeitskreis Baufachpresse e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The probably most important criterion of an insulating material is its specific thermal conductivity. The so-called lambda value describes the amount of heat which flows in one second at a temperature difference of one Kelvin through one square meters of a one meter thick layer of a material. The lower the lambda-value, the much better. While usual insulating materials exist in the heat conductance stages 035 to 045, in the meantime the manufactures overestimate oneself with super-insulating materials whose thermal conductivity reach a value of 0.019. VIP panels have a heat conductivity to approximately 0.006 W/(m{sup 2} K). This is a high damming performance,which has its price.

  17. Castles Made of Sand: Building Sustainable Digitized Collections Using XML.

    Ragon, Bart

    2003-01-01

    Describes work at the University of Virginia library to digitize special collections. Discusses the use of XML (Extensible Markup Language); providing access to original source materials; DTD (Document Type Definition); TEI (Text Encoding Initiative); metadata; XSL (Extensible Style Language); and future possibilities. (LRW)

  18. Estimation of the individual and collective doses received by workers and the public during the transport of radioactive materials in france between 1981 and 1990

    Hamard, J.; Ringot, C.; Bernard, H.; Connat, R.; Lecoq, P.; Morin, P.

    1993-01-01

    The monitoring of the exposure of workers and the public during the transport of radioactive materials is complicated by the mobile nature of the sources and by the fact that, up to now, a large proportion of workers have not been considered to be at risk and their exposure has therefore not been the subject of surveillance. Likewise, in the case of the public, the mobile nature of the sources makes it difficult to define a critical group which could be the subject of dose evaluation. For this reason, the IAEA transport regulations recommend periodic evaluations of exposure to verify that it remains below an acceptable level, in accordance with the principle of optimization and to ensure that dose limits are complied with. In France, an inquiry covering the workers of the main companies engaged in the transport of radioactive materials has been conducted on a two-yearly basis since 1980, and the results have been published at each PATRAM meeting. This inquiry now spans a period of ten years (1980 to 1990) and it is possible to see how exposure has evolved as a function of the development of the French nuclear power programme and the consequent increase in a number of transport operations. As concerns the public, a comparison is made between the exposure levels estimated in the study and the exposure levels calculated by application of the RADTRAN model developed for the purpose by the IAEA. The results show the evolution of the maximum annual doses, the average doses and the collective doses received by workers during the transport of different radio-pharmaceutical and fuel cycle products, as well as the collective dose for the public during the period covered. (author)

  19. Aerosolization of fungi, (1→3)-β-D glucan, and endotoxin from flood-affected materials collected in New Orleans homes

    Adhikari, Atin; Jung, Jaehee; Reponen, Tiina; Lewis, Jocelyn Suzanne; DeGrasse, Enjoli C.; Grimsley, L. Faye; Chew, Ginger L.; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Standing water and sediments remaining on flood-affected materials were the breeding ground for many microorganisms in flooded homes following Hurricane Katrina. The purpose of this laboratory study was to examine the aerosolization of culturable and total fungi, (1→3)-β-D glucan, and endotoxin from eight flood-affected floor and bedding materials collected in New Orleans homes, following Hurricane Katrina. Aerosolization was examined using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) connected to a BioSampler. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming. A two-stage cyclone sampler was used for size-selective analysis of aerosolized glucan and endotoxin. On average, levels of culturable fungi ranged from undetectable (lower limit = 8.3×104) to 2.6×105 CFU/m2; total fungi ranged from 2.07×105 to 1.6×106 spores/m2; (1→3)-β-D glucan and endotoxin were 2.0×103 – 2.9×104 ng/m2 and 7.0×102 – 9.3×104 EU/m2, respectively. The results showed that 5–15 min sampling is sufficient for detecting aerosolizable biocontaminants with the FSSST. Smaller particle size fractions (1.8 μm) fractions, which raises additional exposure concerns. Vacuuming was found to overestimate inhalation exposure risks by a factor of approximately 102 for (1→3)-β-D glucan and by 103 to 104 for endotoxin as detected by the FSSST. The information generated from this study is important with respect to restoration and rejuvenation of the flood-affected areas in New Orleans. We believe the findings will be significant during similar disasters in other regions of the world including major coastal floods from tsunamis. PMID:19201399

  20. Special relativity

    Taylor, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    It is stated that the early chapters review special relativity from an elementary mathematical viewpoint, and include discussion of recent experiments which set out to test Einstein's predictions. The theory of relativity is then reformulated in more sophisticated mathematical language to show its relation to electro-magnetism, and to lay the foundation for more general viewpoints. The final chapter discusses in simple terms where activity in the field is currently centred, and where future interest lies. Chapter headings include: the constant speed of light; measuring time and distance; the Lorentz transformation (relativity of simultaneity, space-time and causality); relativistic kinematics (including - the Dopper effect); relativistic dynamics (including - nuclear binding energy, particle creation, electrodynamics); the structure of special relativity (including - the Lorentz group, the rotation group, elementary particle scattering); extensions of special relativity. (U.K.)

  1. Melanin-Based Functional Materials

    Marco d’Ischia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanin biopolymers are currently the focus of growing interest for a broad range of applications at the cutting edge of biomedical research and technology. This Special Issue presents a collection of papers dealing with melanin-type materials, e.g., polydopamine, for classic and innovative applications, offering a stimulating perspective of current trends in the field. Besides basic scientists, the Special Issue is directed to researchers from industries and companies that are willing to invest in melanin research for innovative and inspiring solutions.

  2. Thermal performance of solar air collection-storage system with phase change material based on flat micro-heat pipe arrays

    Wang, Teng-yue; Diao, Yan-hua; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhao, Yao-hua; Liu, Jing; Wei, Xiang-qian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of solar air collection-storage thermal system with PCM is proposed. • Flat micro-heat pipe array is used as the core heat transfer element. • Air volume flow rate influence charging and discharging time obviously. • Air-side thermal resistance dominates during charging and discharging. - Abstract: In this study, a new type of solar air collection-storage thermal system (ACSTS) with phase change material (PCM) is designed using flat micro-heat pipe arrays (FMHPA) as the heat transfer core element. The solar air collector comprises FMHPA and vacuum tubes. The latent thermal storage device (LTSD) utilizes lauric acid, which is a type of fatty acid, as PCM. The experiments test the performance of collector efficiency and charging and discharging time of thermal storage device through different air volume flow rates. After a range of tests, high air volume flow rate is concluded to contribute to high collector efficiency and short charging and discharging time and enhance instantaneous heat transfer, whereas an air volume flow rate of 60 m"3/h during discharging provides a steady outlet temperature. The cumulative heat transfer during discharging is between 4210 and 4300 kJ.

  3. A special issue on solar cells

    Yi-Bing CHENG

    2011-01-01

    @@ The increasing demand for renewable energy has made the solar cell technology as one of the most significantresearch and development areas of today.Silicon based solar cells are the dominant photovoltaic products at the present time, but the relatively high costs are barriers for their broad applications.Research has been active worldwide in developing other photovoltaic technologies that use cheap materials and can be easily manufactured.Organic solar cells have attracted a lot of interests recently due to their potential to be low cost photovoltaic technologies.This special issue of the Frontiers of Optoelectronics in China has collected research articles by a number of Chinese and international experts.It is aimed to broaden the readers' view about some of the recent developments and challenges in this important R&D field.Thirteen excellent papers are in this special issue including 4 review articles and 9 research articles.

  4. Special theory on chemical engineering

    1987-06-01

    This book give a special description about chemical engineering. The contents of this book are special technique for isolation on introduction and separation by membrane, biochemistry engineering, process system engineering, energy engineering, environment engineering, a high molecular new material, election material and research on surface property of catalyst. It has appendixes on history of transition on Korean chemical engineering text contents and history of the activity of Korea chemical engineering institute.

  5. Atendimento e seguimento clínico especializado de profissionais de enfermagem acidentados com material biológico Atención y seguimiento clínico especializado de profesionales de enfermería accidentados con material biológico Care and specialized clinical follow-up of nursing professionals who have been victims of accidents with biological material

    Flaviana Regina Pimenta

    2013-02-01

    ógicos.This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the conduct of nursing professionals who had been victims of accidents with biological material in a teaching hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, regarding their care and specialized clinical follow-up. The study population consisted of 1,215 nursing professionals, who were interviewed individually between 2010 and 2011. Of the 1,215 nursing professionals interviewed, 636 (52.3% reported having experienced accidents with biological material; of this population, 182 (28.6% didn't sought specialized care. The most frequent reason reported for not seeking care was believing that it was a low-risk accident. The reasons professionals do not seek care and do not complete treatment and the clinical follow-up can contribute to strategies to increase professionals' adherence to prophylaxis measures after occupational exposure to biological material.

  6. Methods of assessment of individual and collective doses to transport workers and members of the public during the transport of radioactive materials. Part of a coordinated programme on safe transport of radioactive material

    Vohra, K.G.

    1983-12-01

    A study in India, partially supported by an IAEA research contract, provided measurements of exposure to transport workers associated with the transport of radioisotopes for medical, industry and research purposes. A survey showed this to be the single most significant source of transport worker exposure in India. The largest exposures were found with transport workers at the Bombay airport through which these packages are ''funnelled''. The maximum occupational doses were found to be between 1.8 and 2.0 mSv/y assuming only four men handle all of the packages throughout the year. Furthermore, it was found that the surface transport of these materials in the Bombay area results in an estimated maximum annual collective dose to the public of only 0.1 man Sv/y. It was further noted that this collective dose results not from high radiation levels but from the high population density involved in the Bombay area. The model provides reasonable correlation with the measured data, but it was indicated that additional testing of the model needed to be performed. The data indicate a correlation between persons preparing the packages and persons handling the packages in transport. It was not possible to derive a simple empirical model based solely on Transport Index

  7. Secondary Special Education. Part I: The "Stepping Stone Model" Designed for Secondary Learning Disabled Students. Part II: Adapting Materials and Curriculum.

    Fox, Barbara

    The paper describes the Stepping Stone Model, a model for the remediation and mainstreaming of secondary learning disabled students and the adaptation of curriculum and materials for the model. The Stepping Stone Model is designed to establish the independence of students in the mainstream through content reading. Five areas of concern common to…

  8. Composite Materials

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...

  9. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  10. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  11. International Specialization

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  12. Preface to Special Edition

    Renee Nathanson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that reading comprehension is at the forefront of global literacy discourse, this special edition of Per Linguam, the first number that is also published online, features a collection of articles that cover different aspects of reading comprehension and instruction, such as, strategies for comprehending texts, metacognitive awareness, the reciprocity of assessment and comprehension instruction and socio-affective factors that influence comprehension.

  13. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Special offer for members of the Staff Association and their families 10% reduction on all products in the SEPHORA shop (sells perfume, beauty products etc.) in Val Thoiry ALL YEAR ROUND. Plus 20% reduction during their “vente privée”* three or four times a year. Simply present your Staff Association membership card when you make your purchase. * next “vente privée” from 24th to 29th May 2010  

  14. Special lecture

    Yoshikawa, H.

    1998-01-01

    In his special lecture, given at the Artsimovich-Kadomtsev Memorial Session of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, October 1998, Prof. H. Yoshikawa stated that the fusion program had come to a crossroads. He was wondering whether the future would lead to cooperation between nations, striving to overcome the difficulties the world is confronted with, or if it would lead to despair

  15. Special offer

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    SPECIAL OFFER FOR OUR MEMBERS Tarif unique Adulte/Enfant Entrée Zone terrestre 19 euros instead of 23 euros Entrée “Zone terrestre + aquatique” 24 euros instead of 31 euros Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Walibi Rhône-Alpes is open daily from 22 June to 31 August, and every week end from 3 September until 31 October. Closing of the “zone aquatique” 11 September.

  16. Special effects.

    Davis, Carol

    The nursing team on the day case ward at Alder Hey Hospital has introduced changes to the environment to help children with special needs, who often attend the ward repeatedly. Small changes, such as keeping colours on the ward neutral, can help children relax. Nurses contact parents a week before admission to find out about their child's likes and dislikes. Parents are encouraged to bring a child's favourite items with them. Operating sessions are scheduled to meet these children's needs.

  17. Acoustic Analysis Method for Flat Panel Speaker Driven by Giant Magnetostrictive-Material-Based Exciter(<Special Issue>Linear Motor concerning Daily Life)

    兪, 炳振; 平田, 勝弘; 大西, 敦郎; Byungjin, YOO; Katsuhiro, HIRATA; Atsurou, OONISHI; 大阪大学; 大阪大学; 大阪大学

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled analysis method of electromagnetic-structural-acoustic fields for flat panel speaker driven by giant magnetostrictive material (GMM) based exciter designed by using the finite element method (FEM). The acoustic field creation of the flat panel speaker driven by GMM exciter relies on the vibration of flat panel caused by magnetostrictive phenomenon of GMM when a magnetic field is applied. In this case, to predict the sound pressure level (SPL) at audio frequency r...

  18. Special protective concretes

    Bouniol, P.

    2001-01-01

    Concrete is the most convenient material when large-scale radiation protection is needed. Thus, special concretes for nuclear purposes are used in various facilities like reactors, reprocessing centers, storage sites, accelerators, hospitals with nuclear medicine equipment, food ionization centers etc.. The recent advances made in civil engineering for the improvement of concrete durability and compactness are for a large part transposable to protection concretes. This article presents the basic knowledge about protection concretes with the associated typological and technological aspects. A large part is devoted to the intrinsic properties of concretes and to their behaviour in irradiation and temperature conditions: 1 - definition and field of application of special protective concretes; 2 - evolution of concepts and technologies (durability of structures, techniques of formulation, new additives, market evolution); 3 - design of protective structures (preliminary study, radiation characteristics, thermal constraints, damping and dimensioning, mechanical criteria); 4 - formulation of special concretes (general principles, granulates, hydraulic binders, pulverulent additives, water/cement ratio, reference composition of some special concretes); 5 - properties of special concretes (damping and thermo-mechanical properties); 6 - induced-irradiation and temperature phenomena (activation, radiolysis, mineralogical transformations, drying, shrinking, creep, corrosion of reinforcement). (J.S.)

  19. Special zone territory decontamination

    Samojlenko, Yu.N.; Golubev, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Special zone is the Chernobyl' NPP operating site (OS). OS decontamination is described including reactor ruins from the accident moment. The process was begun from reactor bombardment with absorbing and filtering materials (sand, clay, lead, boron compounds). Then were produced soil shovelling, territory filling by dry concrete and laying concrete layer with thickness up to 300 mm. NPP room and equipment decontamination is described. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Methods of assessment of individual and collective doses to transport workers and members of the public during the transport of radioactive material

    Vohra, K.G.; Subrahmanian, G.; Nandakumar, A.N.; Kher, R.K.; Iyer, S.R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Transport workers handling radioactive cargoes are generally exposed to the highest dose rates of any population group. Methods of assessment of dose received by transport workers are studied to arrive at a useful method. An empirical model based on a detailed work study of individuals handling radioactive cargoes and the exposure rates at various distances from specific individual packages is developed. The personnel doses thus calculated compared reasonably well with the doses recorded on personnel monitoring badges. The personnel doses were also evaluated with reference to the total transport index handled by the workers, yielding results consistent with those reported elsewhere by earlier researchers. For assessing the collective dose to the public due to urban transport of radioactive material, the space around the vehicle transporting cargo was divided into a number of cells of dimensions 1mx1m. The radiation level in each cell was measured and the pedestrian density along the route was obtained. Using the pedestrian occupancy in the cells and the measured radiation levels, the total dose to the public was assessed. A similar assessment was made with respect to the passengers in the neighbouring vehicles. The suggested method of calculation may aid determination of the route and time of transport and the preferable traffic configuration for the vehicle carrying the radioactive consignments for optimizing the dose to the urban public