WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatially nonlocal nonlinear

  1. Spiraling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two different models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form

  2. Spiralling solitons and multipole localized modes in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buccoliero, Daniel; Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of rotating multi-soliton localized structures in optical media with spatially nonlocal nonlinearity. We demonstrate that nonlocality stabilizes the azimuthal breakup of rotating dipole as well as multipole localized soliton modes. We compare the results for two differe...... models of nonlocal nonlinearity and suggest that the stabilization mechanism is a generic property of a spatial nonlocal nonlinear response independent of its particular functional form....

  3. Modulational instability in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    We study modulational instability (MI) of plane waves in nonlocal nonlinear Kerr media. For a focusing nonlinearity we show that, although the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, it can never remove it completely, irrespective of the particular profile of the nonlocal response function. For a defoc...

  4. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  5. Ring vortex solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briedis, D.; Petersen, D.E.; Edmundson, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the formation and propagation of two-dimensional vortex solitons, i.e. solitons with a phase singularity, in optical materials with a nonlocal focusing nonlinearity. We show that nonlocality stabilizes the dynamics of an otherwise unstable vortex beam. This occurs for either single...... or higher charge fundamental vortices as well as higher order (multiple ring) vortex solitons. Our results pave the way for experimental observation of stable vortex rings in other nonlocal nonlinear systems including Bose-Einstein condensates with pronounced long-range interparticle interaction....

  6. Collapse arrest and soliton stabilization in nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Wyller, John

    2002-01-01

    that nonlocality of the nonlinearity prevents collapse in, e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates and optical Kerr media in all physical dimensions. The nonlocal nonlinear response must be symmetric and have a positive definite Fourier spectrum, but can otherwise be of completely arbitrary shape and degree of nonlocality...

  7. Gap solitons under competing local and nonlocal nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Kuan-Hsien; Lin Yuanyao; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Malomed, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the existence, bifurcations, and shape transformations of one-dimensional gap solitons (GSs) in the first finite band gap induced by a periodic potential built into materials with local self-focusing and nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearities. Originally stable on-site GS modes become unstable near the upper edge of the band gap with the introduction of the nonlocal self-defocusing nonlinearity with a small nonlocality radius. Unstable off-site GSs bifurcate into a new branch featuring single-humped, double-humped, and flat-top modes due to the competition between local and nonlocal nonlinearities. The mechanism underlying the complex bifurcation pattern and cutoff effects (termination of some bifurcation branches) is illustrated in terms of the shape transformation under the action of the varying degree of the nonlocality. The results of this work suggest a possibility of optical-signal processing by means of the competing nonlocal and local nonlinearities.

  8. Nonlocal nonlinear coupling of kinetic sound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Lyubchyk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We study three-wave resonant interactions among kinetic-scale oblique sound waves in the low-frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived in the framework of a two-fluid plasma model. Because of dispersive modifications at small wavelengths perpendicular to the background magnetic field, these waves become a decay-type mode. We found two decay channels, one into co-propagating product waves (forward decay, and another into counter-propagating product waves (reverse decay. All wavenumbers in the forward decay are similar and hence this decay is local in wavenumber space. On the contrary, the reverse decay generates waves with wavenumbers that are much larger than in the original pump waves and is therefore intrinsically nonlocal. In general, the reverse decay is significantly faster than the forward one, suggesting a nonlocal spectral transport induced by oblique sound waves. Even with low-amplitude sound waves the nonlinear interaction rate is larger than the collisionless dissipation rate. Possible applications regarding acoustic waves observed in the solar corona, solar wind, and topside ionosphere are briefly discussed.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics of Silicon Nanowire Resonator Considering Nonlocal Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value. Furthermore, to characterize the role played by nonlocal effect in exerting influence on nonlinear behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos (typical phenomena in nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale devices), we have calculated the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram with and without nonlocal effect, and results shows the nonlocal effect causes the most significant effect as the device is at resonance. This work advances the development of nanowire resonators that are working beyond linear regime.

  10. Nonlocal description of X waves in quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Bang, Ole

    2006-01-01

    We study localized light bullets and X-waves in quadratic media and show how the notion of nonlocality can provide an alternative simple physical picture of both types of multi-dimensional nonlinear waves. For X-waves we show that a local cascading limit in terms of a nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  11. A nonlocal spatial model for Lyme disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang

    2016-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of a nonlocal and time-delayed reaction-diffusion model for Lyme disease with a spatially heterogeneous structure. In the case of a bounded domain, we first prove the existence of the positive steady state and a threshold type result for the disease-free system, and then establish the global dynamics for the model system in terms of the basic reproduction number. In the case of an unbound domain, we obtain the existence of the disease spreading speed and its coincidence with the minimal wave speed. At last, we use numerical simulations to verify our analytic results and investigate the influence of model parameters and spatial heterogeneity on the disease infection risk.

  12. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey

    2014-07-16

    We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics.

  13. Propagation of hypergeometric Gaussian beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Bian, Lirong; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Optical vortex beams have attracted lots of interest due to its potential application in image processing, optical trapping and optical communications, etc. In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigated the propagation properties of hypergeometric Gaussian (HyGG) beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. Based on the Snyder-Mitchell model, analytical expressions for propagation of the HyGG beams in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media were obtained. The influence of input power and optical parameters on the evolutions of the beam width and radius of curvature is illustrated, respectively. The results show that the beam width and radius of curvature of the HyGG beams remain invariant, like a soliton when the input power is equal to the critical power. Otherwise, it varies periodically like a breather, which is the result of competition between the beam diffraction and nonlinearity of the medium.

  14. Nonlocal symmetries of a class of scalar and coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations of any order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, R Gladwin; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we devise a systematic procedure to obtain nonlocal symmetries of a class of scalar nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) of arbitrary order related to linear ODEs through nonlocal relations. The procedure makes use of the Lie point symmetries of the linear ODEs and the nonlocal connection to deduce the nonlocal symmetries of the corresponding nonlinear ODEs. Using these nonlocal symmetries, we obtain reduction transformations and reduced equations to specific examples. We find that the reduced equations can be explicitly integrated to deduce the general solutions for these cases. We also extend this procedure to coupled higher order nonlinear ODEs with specific reference to second-order nonlinear ODEs. (paper)

  15. Nonlinear degenerate cross-diffusion systems with nonlocal interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Di Francesco, M.; Esposito, A.; Fagioli, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate a class of systems of partial differential equations with nonlinear cross-diffusion and nonlocal interactions, which are of interest in several contexts in social sciences, finance, biology, and real world applications. Assuming a uniform "coerciveness" assumption on the diffusion part, which allows to consider a large class of systems with degenerate cross-diffusion (i.e. of porous medium type) and relaxes sets of assumptions previously considered in the literature, we prove g...

  16. Imperfection Sensitivity of Nonlinear Vibration of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Eshraghi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities of von Kármán type and nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen are employed to derive governing equations of motion. Spatial discretization of governing equations and associated boundary conditions is performed using differential quadrature (DQ method and the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem is iteratively solved. Effects of amplitude and location of the geometric imperfection, and the nonlocal small-scale parameter on the nonlinear frequency for various boundary conditions are investigated. The results show that the geometric imperfection and non-locality play a significant role in the nonlinear vibration characteristics of curved SWCNTs.

  17. The Havriliak-Negami susceptibility as a nonlinear and nonlocal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, Paulius

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical substantiation of the Cole-Cole, Cole-Davidson and Havriliak-Negami types of susceptibilities is presented. These types of susceptibility are shown to be a manifestation of weak nonlocality and nonlinearity. The Debye susceptibility corresponds to linear and local relaxation, the Cole-Cole susceptibility being linear and nonlocal; the Cole-Davidson susceptibility is nonlinear and local and the Havriliak-Negami susceptibility corresponds to nonlinear and nonlocal relaxation.

  18. Nonlocal Free Energy of a Spatially Inhomogeneous Superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorishin, K.V.; Lev, B.I.

    2012-01-01

    The microscopic approach is developed for obtaining of the free energy of a superconductor based on direct calculation of the vacuum amplitude. The free energy functional of the spatially inhomogeneous superconductor in a magnetic field is obtained with help of the developed approach. The obtained functional is generalization of Ginzburg-Landau functionals for any temperature, for arbitrary spatial variations of the order parameter and for the nonlocality of a magnetic response and the order parameter. Moreover, the nonlocality of the magnetic response is the consequence of order parameter's nonlocality. The extremals of this functional are considered in the explicit form in the low- and high-temperature limit at the condition of slowness of spatial variations of the order parameter. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Conformal symmetry and nonlinear extensions of nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    We study two nonlinear extensions of the nonlocal $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ gravity theory. We extend this theory in two different ways suggested by conformal symmetry, either replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with $(-\\Box + R/6)^{-2}$, which is the operator that enters the action for a conformally-coupled scalar field, or replacing $\\Box^{-2}$ with the inverse of the Paneitz operator, which is a four-derivative operator that enters in the effective action induced by the conformal anomaly. We show that the former modification gives an interesting and viable cosmological model, with a dark energy equation of state today $w_{\\rm DE}\\simeq -1.01$, which very closely mimics $\\Lambda$CDM and evolves asymptotically into a de Sitter solution. The model based on the Paneitz operator seems instead excluded by the comparison with observations. We also review some issues about the causality of nonlocal theories, and we point out that these nonlocal models can be modified so to nicely interpolate between Starobinski inflation in the primordia...

  20. Nonlocal and nonlinear dispersion in a nonlinear Schrodinger-type equation: exotic solitons and short-wavelength instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster, Michael; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    We study the continuum limit of a nonlinear Schrodinger lattice model with both on-site and inter-site nonlinearities, describing weakly coupled optical waveguides or Bose-Einstein condensates. The resulting continuum nonlinear Schrodinger-type equation includes both nonlocal and nonlinear...

  1. Positive solutions for nonlocal dispersal equation with spatial degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Wen

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the positive solutions of the nonlocal dispersal equation \\int \\limits _{Ω }J(x,y)[u(y)-u(x)]dy=-λ m(x)u(x)+[c(x)+ɛ ]u^p(x) \\quad { in }\\bar{Ω }, where Ω \\subset R^N is a bounded domain, λ ,ɛ and p>1 are positive constants. The dispersal kernel J and the coefficient c( x) are nonnegative, but c( x) has a degeneracy in some subdomain of Ω . In order to study the influence of heterogeneous environment on the nonlocal system, we study the sharp spatial patterns of positive solutions as ɛ → 0. We obtain that the positive solutions always have blow-up asymptotic profiles in \\bar{Ω }. Meanwhile, we find that the profiles in degeneracy domain are different from the domain without degeneracy.

  2. Existence of Solutions of Abstract Nonlinear Mixed Functional Integrodifferential equation with nonlocal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhakne Machindra B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the existence of mild and strong solutions of abstract nonlinear mixed functional integrodifferential equation with nonlocal condition by using Sadovskii’s fixed point theorem and theory of fractional power of operators.

  3. Multipole surface solitons supported by the interface between linear media and nonlocal nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang; Guo, Qi

    2012-01-01

    We address multipole surface solitons occurring at the interface between a linear medium and a nonlocal nonlinear medium. We show the impact of nonlocality, the propagation constant, and the linear index difference of two media on the properties of the surface solitons. We find that there exist a threshold value of the degree of the nonlocality at the same linear index difference of two media, only when the degree of the nonlocality goes beyond the value, the multipole surface solitons can be stable. -- Highlights: ► We show the impact of nonlocality and the linear index difference of two media on the properties of the surface solitons. ► For the surface solitons, only when the degree of the nonlocality goes beyond a threshold value, they can be stable. ► The number of poles and the index difference of two media can all influence the threshold value.

  4. 2016 CIME Course on Nonlocal and Nonlinear Diffusions and Interactions : New Methods and Directions

    CERN Document Server

    Grillo, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Presenting a selection of topics in the area of nonlocal and nonlinear diffusions, this book places a particular emphasis on new emerging subjects such as nonlocal operators in stationary and evolutionary problems and their applications, swarming models and applications to biology and mathematical physics, and nonlocal variational problems. The authors are some of the most well-known mathematicians in this innovative field, which is presently undergoing rapid development. The intended audience includes experts in elliptic and parabolic equations who are interested in extending their expertise to the nonlinear setting, as well as Ph.D. or postdoctoral students who want to enter into the most promising research topics in the field.

  5. Surface-wave solitons between linear media and nonlocal nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhiwei; Li Huagang; Guo Qi

    2011-01-01

    We address surface solitons at the interface between linear media and nonlocal nonlinear media in the presence of a discontinuity in refractive index at the surface of these two materials. We investigated the influence of the degree of nonlocality on the stability, energy flow, and full width at half-maximum of the surface wave solitons. It is shown that surface solitons will be stable only if the degree of nonlocality exceeds a critical value. We find that the refractive index difference can affect the power distribution of the surface solitons in the two media. Also, different boundary values at the interface can lead to different relative peak positions of the surface solitons. However, neither the refractive index nor the boundary conditions can affect the stability of the solitons, for a given degree of nonlocality.

  6. An Efficient Numerical Approach for Solving Nonlinear Coupled Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Bhrawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important advantages of collocation method is the possibility of dealing with nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs as well as PDEs with variable coefficients. A numerical solution based on a Jacobi collocation method is extended to solve nonlinear coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients subject to initial-boundary nonlocal conservation conditions. This approach, based on Jacobi polynomials and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature integration, reduces solving the nonlinear coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equation which is far easier to solve. In fact, we deal with initial-boundary coupled hyperbolic PDEs with variable coefficients as well as initial-nonlocal conditions. Using triangular, soliton, and exponential-triangular solutions as exact solutions, the obtained results show that the proposed numerical algorithm is efficient and very accurate.

  7. Nonlinear $q$-fractional differential equations with nonlocal and sub-strip type boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with new boundary value problems of nonlinear $q$-fractional differential equations with nonlocal and sub-strip type boundary conditions. Our results are new in the present setting and rely on the contraction mapping principle and a fixed point theorem due to O'Regan. Some illustrative examples are also presented.

  8. Fully discrete Galerkin schemes for the nonlinear and nonlocal Hartree equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter H. Aschbacher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the time dependent Hartree equation in the continuum, the semidiscrete, and the fully discrete setting. We prove existence-uniqueness, regularity, and approximation properties for the respective schemes, and set the stage for a controlled numerical computation of delicate nonlinear and nonlocal features of the Hartree dynamics in various physical applications.

  9. Existence of solutions for quasistatic problems of unilateral contact with nonlocal friction for nonlinear elastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mignot

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the existence of a solution of the quasi-static unilateral contact problem with nonlocal friction law for nonlinear elastic materials. We set up a variational incremental problem which admits a solution, when the friction coefficient is small enough, and then by passing to the limit with respect to time we obtain a solution.

  10. Interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlinear media with an arbitrary degree of nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Zhiping; Yang, Zhenjun; Ling, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shumin; Pang, Zhaoguang

    2016-01-01

    The interaction trajectory of solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. A simple differential equation describing the interaction trajectories is derived based on the light ray equation. Numerical calculations are carried out to illustrate the interaction trajectories with different parameters. The results show that the degree of nonlocality greatly affects the interaction of solitons. For a strongly nonlocal case, the interaction trajectory can be described by a cosine function. Analytical expressions describing the trajectory and the oscillation period are obtained. For generally and weakly nonlocal cases, the interaction trajectories still oscillate periodically, however it is no longer sinusoidal and the oscillation period increases with the nonlocal degree decreasing. In addition, the trajectory of two solitons launched with a relative angle at the entrance plane is investigated. It is found that there exists a critical angle. When the initial relative angle is larger than the critical angle, the two solitons do not collide on propagation. The influence of the degree of nonlocality on the critical angle is also discussed.

  11. Construction of local and non-local conservation laws for non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, V.S.; Volovich, I.V.

    1984-08-01

    A method of constructing conserved currents for non-linear field equations is presented. More explicitly for non-linear equations, which can be derived from compatibility conditions of some linear system with a parameter, a procedure of obtaining explicit expressions for local and non-local currents is developed. Some examples such as the classical Heisenberg spin chain and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory are considered. (author)

  12. Attraction of nonlocal dark optical solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov; Neshev, Dragomir; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2004-01-01

    We study the formation and interaction of spatial dark optical solitons in materials with a nonlocal nonlinear response. We show that unlike in local materials, where dark solitons typically repel, the nonlocal nonlinearity leads to a long-range attraction and formation of stable bound states...

  13. Nonlinear nonlocal vibration of embedded DWCNT conveying fluid using shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanpour Arani, A., E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarei, M.Sh.; Amir, S.; Khoddami Maraghi, Z. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-01

    In this work nonlinear vibration of double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) embedded in an elastic medium and subjected to an axial fluid flow (incompressible and non-viscose) is investigated. The elastic medium is simulated using Pasternak foundation in which adjacent layer interactions are assumed to have been coupled by van der Waals (VdW) force. The higher-order equation of motion is derived using Hamilton's principle and nonlocal-nonlinear shell theory. Galerkin and averaging methods are adopted to solve the higher-order governing equations. Elastic medium, small scale parameter, velocity and fluid density are taken into account to calculate the effects of axial and circumferential wave numbers in this study. Results reveal that increasing circumferential wave number, leads to enhanced nonlinearity. Critical flow velocities of DWCNT are inversely related to the non-local parameter (e{sub 0}a), so that increase in the later lead to reduced critical flow velocities.

  14. Traveling waves in a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and nonlinear incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shou-Peng; Yang, Yun-Rui; Zhou, Yong-Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with traveling waves of a delayed SIR model with nonlocal dispersal and a general nonlinear incidence. The existence and nonexistence of traveling waves of the system are established respectively by Schauder's fixed point theorem and two-sided Laplace transform. It is also shown that the spread speed c is influenced by the dispersal rate of the infected individuals and the delay τ.

  15. The algebra of non-local charges in non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Brunelli, J.C.; Zadra, A.

    1994-01-01

    It is derived the complete Dirac algebra satisfied by non-local charges conserved in non-linear sigma models. Some examples of calculation are given for the O(N) symmetry group. The resulting algebra corresponds to a saturated cubic deformation (with only maximum order terms) of the Kac-Moody algebra. The results are generalized for when a Wess-Zumino term be present. In that case the algebra contains a minor order correction (sub-saturation). (author). 1 ref

  16. The hair-trigger effect for a class of nonlocal nonlinear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelshtein, Dmitri; Tkachov, Pasha

    2018-06-01

    We prove the hair-trigger effect for a class of nonlocal nonlinear evolution equations on which have only two constant stationary solutions, 0 and . The effect consists in that the solution with an initial condition non identical to zero converges (when time goes to ) to θ locally uniformly in . We also find sufficient conditions for existence, uniqueness and comparison principle in the considered equations.

  17. Nonlocal Symmetries to Systems of Nonlinear Diffusion Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Changzheng; Kang Jing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study potential symmetries to certain systems of nonlinear diffusion equations. Those systems have physical applications in soil science, mathematical biology, and invariant curve flows in R 3 . Lie point symmetries of the potential system, which cannot be projected to vector fields of the given dependent and independent variables, yield potential symmetries. The class of the system that admits potential symmetries is expanded.

  18. Analytical modeling of soliton interactions in a nonlocal nonlinear medium analogous to gravitational force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shihao; Chen, Manna; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Lu, Daquan

    2018-01-01

    We illuminate an analytical model of soliton interactions in lead glass by analogizing to a gravitational force system. The orbits of spiraling solitons under a long-range interaction are given explicitly and demonstrated to follow Newton's second law of motion and the Binet equation by numerical simulations. The condition for circular orbits is obtained and the oscillating orbits are proved not to be closed. We prove the analogy between the nonlocal nonlinear optical system and gravitational system and specify the quantitative relation of the quantity between the two models.

  19. Approximate controllability of Sobolev type fractional stochastic nonlocal nonlinear differential equations in Hilbert spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Kerboua

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new notion called fractional stochastic nonlocal condition, and then we study approximate controllability of class of fractional stochastic nonlinear differential equations of Sobolev type in Hilbert spaces. We use Hölder's inequality, fixed point technique, fractional calculus, stochastic analysis and methods adopted directly from deterministic control problems for the main results. A new set of sufficient conditions is formulated and proved for the fractional stochastic control system to be approximately controllable. An example is given to illustrate the abstract results.

  20. Non-local spatial frequency response of photopolymer materials containing chain transfer agents: I. Theoretical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jinxin; Gleeson, Michael R; Liu, Shui; Sheridan, John T

    2011-01-01

    The non-local photopolymerization driven diffusion (NPDD) model predicts that a reduction in the non-local response length within a photopolymer material will improve its high spatial frequency response. The introduction of a chain transfer agent reduces the average molecular weight of polymer chains formed during free radical polymerization. Therefore a chain transfer agent (CTA) provides a practical method to reduce the non-local response length. An extended NPDD model is presented, which includes the chain transfer reaction and most major photochemical processes. The addition of a chain transfer agent into an acrylamide/polyvinyl alcohol photopolymer material is simulated and the predictions of the model are examined. The predictions of the model are experimentally examined in part II of this paper

  1. Rational solitons in the parity-time-symmetric nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Xu Tao; Meng Dexin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, via the generalized Darboux transformation, rational soliton solutions are derived for the parity-time-symmetric nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model with the defocusing-type nonlinearity. We find that the first-order solution can exhibit the elastic interactions of rational antidark-antidark, dark-antidark, and antidark-dark soliton pairs on a continuous wave background, but there is no phase shift for the interacting solitons. Also, we discuss the degenerate case in which only one rational dark or antidark soliton survives. Moreover, we reveal that the second-order rational solution displays the interactions between two solitons with combined-peak-valley structures in the near-field regions, but each interacting soliton vanishes or evolves into a rational dark or antidark soliton as |z| → ∞. In addition, we numerically examine the stability of the first- and second-order rational soliton solutions. (author)

  2. The algebra of non-local charges in non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Abdalla, M.C.B.; Brunelli, J.C.; Zadra, A.

    1993-07-01

    We obtain the exact Dirac algebra obeyed by the conserved non-local charges in bosonic non-linear sigma models. Part of the computation is specialized for a symmetry group O(N). As it turns out the algebra corresponds to a cubic deformation of the Kac-Moody algebra. The non-linear terms are computed in closed form. In each Dirac bracket we only find highest order terms (as explained in the paper), defining a saturated algebra. We generalize the results for the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. The algebra is very similar to the previous one, containing now a calculable correction of order one unit lower. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  3. Nonlocal continuum analysis of a nonlinear uniaxial elastic lattice system under non-uniform axial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérisson, Benjamin; Challamel, Noël; Picandet, Vincent; Perrot, Arnaud

    2016-09-01

    The static behavior of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) axial chain under distributed loading is examined. The FPU system examined in the paper is a nonlinear elastic lattice with linear and quadratic spring interaction. A dimensionless parameter controls the possible loss of convexity of the associated quadratic and cubic energy. Exact analytical solutions based on Hurwitz zeta functions are developed in presence of linear static loading. It is shown that this nonlinear lattice possesses scale effects and possible localization properties in the absence of energy convexity. A continuous approach is then developed to capture the main phenomena observed regarding the discrete axial problem. The associated continuum is built from a continualization procedure that is mainly based on the asymptotic expansion of the difference operators involved in the lattice problem. This associated continuum is an enriched gradient-based or nonlocal axial medium. A Taylor-based and a rational differential method are both considered in the continualization procedures to approximate the FPU lattice response. The Padé approximant used in the continualization procedure fits the response of the discrete system efficiently, even in the vicinity of the limit load when the non-convex FPU energy is examined. It is concluded that the FPU lattice system behaves as a nonlocal axial system in dynamic but also static loading.

  4. Effect of impurity scattering on the low temperature magnetic penetration depth of a nonlocal and nonlinear d-wave superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavary, H.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic penetration depth of a quasi-two dimensional d-wave superconductor in the presence of nonlineary, nonlocality, and impurity effects is investigated by using Green's function method. It is shown that a d-wave superconductor would inevitably avoid the violation of the Nernst theorem by creating a T 2 term in its penetration depth through a competition of nonlinear, nonlocal, and impurity effects and this system may be stable at low temperatures. I also show that in the impure sample at low temperatures, T < T * ∝ γ the impurity effect determines the temperature dependence of the penetration depth, i.e., nonlocal and nonlinear effects are completely masked by impurities

  5. Development an efficient calibrated nonlocal plate model for nonlinear axial instability of zirconia nanosheets using molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S; Fattahi, A M

    2017-08-01

    New ceramic materials containing nanoscaled crystalline phases create a main object of scientific interest due to their attractive advantages such as biocompatibility. Zirconia as a transparent glass ceramic is one of the most useful binary oxides in a wide range of applications. In the present study, a new size-dependent plate model is constructed to predict the nonlinear axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets under axial compressive load. To accomplish this end, the nonlocal continuum elasticity of Eringen is incorporated to a refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. A perturbation-based solving process is put to use to derive explicit expressions for nonlocal equilibrium paths of axial-loaded nanosheets. After that, some molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for axial instability response of square zirconia nanosheets with different side lengths, the results of which are matched with those of the developed nonlocal plate model to capture the proper value of nonlocal parameter. It is demonstrated that the calibrated nonlocal plate model with nonlocal parameter equal to 0.37nm has a very good capability to predict the axial instability characteristics of zirconia nanosheets, the accuracy of which is comparable with that of MD simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of relativistic and non-local non-linearities on modulational instabilities in non-uniform plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, B.F.; El-Shorbagy, Kh.H.

    2000-01-01

    A general detailed analysis for the nonlinear generation of localized fields due to the existence of a strong pump field inside the non-uniform plasma has been considered. We have taken into account the effects of relativistic and non-local nonlinearities on the structure of plasma resonance region. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation described the localized fields are investigated. Besides, the generalized dispersion relation is obtained to study the modulational instabilities in different cases. Keywords: Wave-plasma interaction, Nonlinear effects, Modulation instabilities

  7. Identification of the population density of a species model with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Nguyen Huy; Van Au, Vo; Khoa, Vo Anh; Lesnic, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    The identification of the population density of a logistic equation backwards in time associated with nonlocal diffusion and nonlinear reaction, motivated by biology and ecology fields, is investigated. The diffusion depends on an integral average of the population density whilst the reaction term is a global or local Lipschitz function of the population density. After discussing the ill-posedness of the problem, we apply the quasi-reversibility method to construct stable approximation problems. It is shown that the regularized solutions stemming from such method not only depend continuously on the final data, but also strongly converge to the exact solution in L 2-norm. New error estimates together with stability results are obtained. Furthermore, numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  8. Nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials incorporating nonlocality and strain gradient size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Aghdam, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    A wide range of biological applications such as drug delivery, biosensors and hemodialysis can be provided by nanoporous biomaterials due to their uniform pore size as well as considerable pore density. In the current study, the size dependency in the nonlinear primary resonance of micro/nano-beams made of nanoporous biomaterials is anticipated. To accomplish this end, a refined truncated cube is introduced to model the lattice structure of nanoporous biomaterial. Accordingly, analytical expressions for the mechanical properties of material are derived as functions of pore size. After that, based upon a nonlocal strain gradient beam model, the size-dependent nonlinear Duffing type equation of motion is constructed. The Galerkin technique together with the multiple time-scales method is employed to obtain the nonlocal strain gradient frequency-response and amplitude-response related to the nonlinear primary resonance of a micro/nano-beam made of the nanoporous biomaterial with different pore sizes. It is indicated that the nonlocality causes to decrease the response amplitudes associated with the both bifurcation points of the jump phenomenon, while the strain gradient size dependency causes to increase them. Also, it is found that increasing the pore size leads to enhance the nonlinearity, so the maximum deflection of response occurs at higher excitation frequency.

  9. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamgadge, Y.S.; Talwatkar, S.S.; Sunatkari, A.L.; Pahurkar, V.G.; Muley, G.G.

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  10. Studies on nonlocal optical nonlinearity of Sr–CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamgadge, Y.S. [Department of Physics, Mahatma Fule Arts, Commerce and S C Science Mahavidyalaya, Warud, Dist. Amravati (MS), 444906 (India); Talwatkar, S.S. [Department of Physics, D K Marathe and N G Acharya College, Chembur, Mumbai (MS) 440071 (India); Sunatkari, A.L. [Department of Physics, Siddharth College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Fort, Mumbai (MS) 440001 (India); Pahurkar, V.G. [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India); Muley, G.G., E-mail: gajananggm@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (MS), 444602 (India)

    2015-11-30

    Thermally induced nonlocal nonlinear optical properties of strontium (Sr) doped CuO-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite thin films under continuous wave Helium–Neon laser illumination are investigated by single beam Z-scan method. Undoped and Sr doped CuO nanoparticles (NPs) using L-arginine as surface modifying agent have been synthesized by wet chemical method and their thin films with PVA as host matrix have been obtained by spin coating technique. Structure, morphology and purity of prepared CuO NPs and thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Fourier transform infra-red spectrum attests the role of L-arginine as surface modifier and ultraviolet–visible absorption studies reveal that the excitonic absorption wavelengths are blue shifted for strontium doped CuO NPs. Sr doped CuO NPs with average particle size of 7 nm and calculated optical band gap up to 2.54 eV have been reported. All Sr doped CuO–PVA nanocomposite thin films show enhanced nonlinear refraction and absorption best suited for optical limiting applications. Observed effects have been attributed to thermal lensing effect. - Highlights: • Pure and strontium doped CuO–polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite thin films are prepared. • Z-scan studies of thin films are performed under continuous wave helium–neon laser. • Enhanced values of third order nonlinear optical coefficients are obtained for all films. • Thermally induced self-defocusing and reverse saturable absorption have been discussed.

  11. Spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic, discrete nonlinear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, D.; Bishop, A.R.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the commonly discussed discrete breather, which is a spatially localized, time-periodic solution, we present an exact solution of a discrete nonlinear Schroedinger breather which is a spatially localized, temporally quasiperiodic nonlinear coherent excitation. This breather is a multiple-soliton solution in the sense of the inverse scattering transform. A discrete breather of multiple frequencies is conceptually important in studies of nonlinear lattice systems. We point out that, for this breather, the incommensurability of its frequencies is a discrete lattice effect and these frequencies become commensurate in the continuum limit. To understand the dynamical properties of the breather, we also discuss its stability and its behavior in the presence of an external potential. Finally, we indicate how to obtain an exact N-soliton breather as a discrete generalization of the continuum multiple-soliton solution

  12. On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1978-01-01

    The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws

  13. Finite-volume effects due to spatially non-local operators arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Hansen, Maxwell T.; Monahan, Christopher J.

    Spatially non-local matrix elements are useful lattice-QCD observables in a variety of contexts, for example in determining hadron structure. To quote credible estimates of the systematic uncertainties in these calculations, one must understand, among other things, the size of the finite-volume effects when such matrix elements are extracted from numerical lattice calculations. In this work, we estimate finite-volume effects for matrix elements of non-local operators, composed of two currents displaced in a spatial direction by a distance $\\xi$. We find that the finite-volume corrections depend on the details of the matrix element. If the external state is the lightest degree of freedom in the theory, e.g.~the pion in QCD, then the volume corrections scale as $ e^{-m_\\pi (L- \\xi)} $, where $m_\\pi$ is the mass of the light state. For heavier external states the usual $e^{- m_\\pi L}$ form is recovered, but with a polynomial prefactor of the form $L^m/|L - \\xi|^n$ that can lead to enhanced volume effects. These ...

  14. Spectral tunneling of lattice nonlocal solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Torner, Lluis; Vysloukh, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    We address spectral tunneling of walking spatial solitons in photorefractive media with nonlocal diffusion component of the nonlinear response and an imprinted shallow optical lattice. In contrast to materials with local nonlinearities, where solitons traveling across the lattice close to the Bragg angle suffer large radiative losses, in photorefractive media with diffusion nonlinearity resulting in self-bending, solitons survive when their propagation angle approaches and even exceeds the Bragg angle. In the spatial frequency domain this effect can be considered as tunneling through the band of spatial frequencies centered around the Bragg frequency where the spatial group velocity dispersion is positive.

  15. The effect of non-local higher order stress to predict the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadimehr, M.; Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A.; Maraghi, Z. Khoddami

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.

  16. The effect of non-local higher order stress to predict the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadimehr, M., E-mail: mmohammadimehr@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi-Dehabadi, A.A. [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maraghi, Z. Khoddami [Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, P.O. Box: 87317-53153, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the effect of non-local higher order stress on the nonlinear vibration behavior of carbon nanotube conveying viscous nanoflow resting on elastic foundation is investigated. Physical intuition reveals that increasing nanoscale stress leads to decrease the stiffness of nanostructure which firstly established by Eringen's non-local elasticity theory (previous nonlocal method) while many of papers have concluded otherwise at microscale based on modified couple stress, modified strain gradient theories and surface stress effect. The non-local higher order stress model (new nonlocal method) is used in this article that has been studied by few researchers in other fields and the results from the present study show that the trend of the new nonlocal method and size dependent effect including modified couple stress theory is the same. In this regard, the nonlinear motion equations are derived using a variational principal approach considering essential higher-order non-local terms. The surrounded elastic medium is modeled by Pasternak foundation to increase the stability of system where the fluid flow may cause system instability. Effects of various parameters such as non-local parameter, elastic foundation coefficient, and fluid flow velocity on the stability and dimensionless natural frequency of nanotube are investigated. The results of this research show that the small scale parameter based on higher order stress help to increase the natural frequency which has been approved by other small scale theories such as strain gradient theory, modified couple stress theory and experiments, and vice versa for previous nonlocal method. This study may be useful to measure accurately the vibration characteristics of nanotubes conveying viscous nanoflow and to design nanofluidic devices for detecting blood Glucose.

  17. Unique solvability of a non-linear non-local boundary-value problem for systems of non-linear functional differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dilna, N.; Rontó, András

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2010), s. 327-338 ISSN 0139-9918 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA201/06/0254 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-linear boundary value-problem * functional differential equation * non-local condition * unique solvability * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.316, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.2478%2Fs12175-010-0015-9

  18. On a nonlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusion with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuomao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the existence results for a class of nnlinear integrodifferential evolution inclusions with nonlocal initial conditions in Banach spaces. Our results are based on a fixed point theorem for condensing maps due to Martelli and the resolvent operators combined with approximation techniques.

  19. Spatial solitons in nonlinear photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole

    2000-01-01

    We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero.......We study solitons in one-dimensional quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals with periodic linear and nonlinear susceptibilities. We show that such crystals support stable bright and dark solitons, even when the effective quadratic nonlinearity is zero....

  20. Lie Symmetries and Solitons in Nonlinear Systems with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym; Torres, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Using Lie group theory and canonical transformations, we construct explicit solutions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations with spatially inhomogeneous nonlinearities. We present the general theory, use it to show that localized nonlinearities can support bound states with an arbitrary number solitons, and discuss other applications of interest to the field of nonlinear matter waves

  1. Quantum non-local charges and absence of particle production in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1977-12-01

    Conserved non-local charges are shown to exist in the quantum non-linear sigma-model by a non-perturbative method. They imply the absence of particle production and the 'factorization equations' for the two particle S-matrix, which can then be calculated explicitly. (Auth.)

  2. Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Roberto I. [Instituto de Desarrollo Humano, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, J.M. Gutiérrez 1150, 1613 Los Polvorines (Argentina); Cisneros Ake, Luís [Department of Mathematics, ESFM, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos Edificio 9, 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Minzoni, A.A. [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico); Panayotaros, Panayotis, E-mail: panos@mym.iimas.unam.mx [Depto. Matemáticas y Mecánica, I.I.M.A.S.-U.N.A.M., Apdo. Postal 20-726, 01000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-04

    We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces.

  3. Localized solutions for a nonlocal discrete NLS equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben, Roberto I.; Cisneros Ake, Luís; Minzoni, A.A.; Panayotaros, Panayotis

    2015-01-01

    We study spatially localized time-periodic solutions of breather type for a cubic discrete NLS equation with a nonlocal nonlinearity that models light propagation in a liquid crystal waveguide array. We show the existence of breather solutions in the limit where both linear and nonlinear intersite couplings vanish, and in the limit where the linear coupling vanishes with arbitrary nonlinear intersite coupling. Breathers of this nonlocal regime exhibit some interesting features that depart from what is seen in the NLS breathers with power nonlinearity. One property we see theoretically is the presence of higher amplitude at interfaces between sites with zero and nonzero amplitude in the vanishing linear coupling limit. A numerical study also suggests the presence of internal modes of orbitally stable localized modes. - Highlights: • Show existence of spatially localized solutions in nonlocal discrete NLS model. • Study spatial properties of localized solutions for arbitrary nonlinear nonlocal coupling. • Present numerical evidence that nonlocality leads to internal modes around stable breathers. • Present theoretical and numerical evidence for amplitude maxima at interfaces

  4. Collisions of Two Spatial Solitons in Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiping; Yi Lin; Yang Zhengping; Xie Ruihua; Milivoj, Belic; Chen Goong

    2008-01-01

    Collisions of spatial solitons occurring in the nonlinear Schroeinger equation with harmonic potential are studied, using conservation laws and the split-step Fourier method. We find an analytical solution for the separation distance between the spatial solitons in an inhomogeneous nonlinear medium when the light beam is self-trapped in the transverse dimension. In the self-focusing nonlinear media the spatial solitons can be transmitted stably, and the interaction between spatial solitons is enhanced due to the linear focusing effect (and also diminished for the linear defocusing effect). In the self-defocusing nonlinear media, in the absence of self-trapping or in the presence of linear self-defocusing, no transmission of stable spatial solitons is possible. However, in such media the linear focusing effect can be exactly compensated, and the spatial solitons can propagate through

  5. Nonlinear Spatial Inversion Without Monte Carlo Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A.; Nawaz, A.

    2017-12-01

    High-dimensional, nonlinear inverse or inference problems usually have non-unique solutions. The distribution of solutions are described by probability distributions, and these are usually found using Monte Carlo (MC) sampling methods. These take pseudo-random samples of models in parameter space, calculate the probability of each sample given available data and other information, and thus map out high or low probability values of model parameters. However, such methods would converge to the solution only as the number of samples tends to infinity; in practice, MC is found to be slow to converge, convergence is not guaranteed to be achieved in finite time, and detection of convergence requires the use of subjective criteria. We propose a method for Bayesian inversion of categorical variables such as geological facies or rock types in spatial problems, which requires no sampling at all. The method uses a 2-D Hidden Markov Model over a grid of cells, where observations represent localized data constraining the model in each cell. The data in our example application are seismic properties such as P- and S-wave impedances or rock density; our model parameters are the hidden states and represent the geological rock types in each cell. The observations at each location are assumed to depend on the facies at that location only - an assumption referred to as `localized likelihoods'. However, the facies at a location cannot be determined solely by the observation at that location as it also depends on prior information concerning its correlation with the spatial distribution of facies elsewhere. Such prior information is included in the inversion in the form of a training image which represents a conceptual depiction of the distribution of local geologies that might be expected, but other forms of prior information can be used in the method as desired. The method provides direct (pseudo-analytic) estimates of posterior marginal probability distributions over each variable

  6. Local and non-local deficits in amblyopia: acuity and spatial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneh, Yoram S; Sagi, Dov; Polat, Uri

    2004-12-01

    Amblyopic vision is thought to be limited by abnormal long-range spatial interactions, but their exact mode of action and relationship to the main amblyopic deficit in visual acuity is largely unknown. We studied this relationship in a group (N=59) of anisometropic (N=21) and strabismic (or combined, N=38) subjects, using (1) a single and multi-pattern (crowded) computerized static Tumbling-E test with scaled spacing of two pattern widths (TeVA), in addition to an optotype (ETDRS chart) acuity test (VA) and (2) contrast detection of Gabor patches with lateral flankers (lateral masking) along the horizontal and vertical axes as well as in collinear and parallel configurations. By correlating the different measures of visual acuity and contrast suppression, we found that (1) the VA of the strabismic subjects could be decomposed into two uncorrelated components measured in TeVA: acuity for isolated patterns and acuity reduction due to flanking patterns. The latter comprised over 60% of the VA magnitude, on the average and accounted for over 50% of its variance. In contrast, a slight reduction in acuity was found in the anisometropic subjects, and the acuity for a single pattern could account for 70% of the VA variance. (2) The lateral suppression (contrast threshold elevation) in a parallel configuration along the horizontal axis was correlated with the VA (R2=0.7), as well as with the crowding effect (TeVA elevation, R2=0.5) for the strabismic group. Some correlation with the VA was also found for the collinear configuration in the anisometropic group, but less suppression and no correlation were found for all the vertical configurations in all the groups. The results indicate the existence of a specific non-local component of the strabismic deficit, in addition to the local acuity deficit in all amblyopia types. This deficit might reflect long-range lateral inhibition, or alternatively, an inaccurate and scattered top-down attentional selection mechanism.

  7. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnikov, N.V.

    1987-01-01

    Nonlocal gauge theories including gravity are considered. It is shown that the introduction of the additional nonlocal interaction makes γ 5 -anomalous theories meaningful. The introduction of such interaction leads to macrocausal unitary theory, which describes the interaction of massive vector fields with fermion fields. It is shown that nonlocal gauge theories with nonlocal scale Λ nl ≤(1-10) TeV can solve the gauge hierarchy problem. An example of nonlinear grand unified gauge model in which topologically nontrivial finite energy monopole solutions are absent is found

  8. Analytical results for a conditional phase shift between single-photon pulses in a nonlocal nonlinear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Balakrishnan; Gea-Banacloche, Julio

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that second-order nonlinearities could be used for quantum logic at the single-photon level. Specifically, successive two-photon processes in principle could accomplish the phase shift (conditioned on the presence of two photons in the low-frequency modes) |011 〉→i |100 〉→-|011 〉 . We have analyzed a recent scheme proposed by Xia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 023601 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.023601 to induce such a conditional phase shift between two single-photon pulses propagating at different speeds through a nonlinear medium with a nonlocal response. We present here an analytical solution for the most general case, i.e., for an arbitrary response function, initial state, and pulse velocity, which supports their numerical observation that a π phase shift with unit fidelity is possible, in principle, in an appropriate limit. We also discuss why this is possible in this system, despite the theoretical objections to the possibility of conditional phase shifts on single photons that were raised some time ago by Shapiro [Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.73.062305 and by Gea-Banacloche [Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.043823 one of us.

  9. Nonlocality, Correlations, and Magnetotransport in a Spatially Modulated Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that the classical commensurability phenomena in weakly modulated two-dimensional electron systems is a manifestation of the intrinsic properties of the correlation functions describing a homogeneous electron gas in a magnetic field. The theory demonstrates the importance for consideration of nonlocal response and removes the gap between classical and quantum approaches to magnetotransport in such systems.

  10. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-02

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  11. Localized excitations in discrete nonlinear Schrodinger systems: Effects of nonlocal dispersive interactions and noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Johansson, Magnus

    1998-01-01

    A one-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) model with the power dependence, r(-s) on the distance r, of dispersive interactions is proposed. The stationary states of the system are studied both analytically and numerically. Two kinds of trial functions, exp-like and sech-like are exp...

  12. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  13. Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tianyu; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hui; Chen, Feng; Ma, Xikui; Mittra, Raj

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz-Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core-shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal-dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.

  14. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  15. Nonlinear generation of kinetic-scale waves by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves and nonlocal spectral transport in the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J. S.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: js_zhao@pmo.ac.cn [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-04-20

    We study the nonlocal nonlinear coupling and generation of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and kinetic slow waves (KSWs) by magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves (MHD AWs) in conditions typical for the solar wind in the inner heliosphere. This cross-scale process provides an alternative to the turbulent energy cascade passing through many intermediate scales. The nonlinearities we study are proportional to the scalar products of wave vectors and hence are called 'scalar' ones. Despite the strong Landau damping of kinetic waves, we found fast growing KAWs and KSWs at perpendicular wavelengths close to the ion gyroradius. Using the parametric decay formalism, we investigate two independent decay channels for the pump AW: forward decay (involving co-propagating product waves) and backward decay (involving counter-propagating product waves). The growth rate of the forward decay is typically 0.05 but can exceed 0.1 of the pump wave frequency. The resulting spectral transport is nonlocal and anisotropic, sharply increasing perpendicular wavenumbers but not parallel ones. AWs and KAWs propagating against the pump AW grow with about the same rate and contribute to the sunward wave flux in the solar wind. Our results suggest that the nonlocal decay of MHD AWs into KAWs and KSWs is a robust mechanism for the cross-scale spectral transport of the wave energy from MHD to dissipative kinetic scales in the solar wind and similar media.

  16. Nonlinear static analysis of single layer annular/circular graphene sheets embedded in Winkler–Pasternak elastic matrix based on non-local theory of Eringen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Dastjerdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear bending analysis of orthotropic annular/circular graphene sheets has been studied based on the non-local elasticity theory. The first order shear deformation theory (FSDT is applied in combination with the nonlinear Von-Karman strain field. The obtained differential equations are solved by using two methods, first the differential quadrature method (DQM and a new semi-analytical polynomial method (SAPM which is innovated by the authors. Applying the DQM or SAPM, the differential equations are transformed to nonlinear algebraic equations system. Then the Newton–Raphson iterative scheme is used. First, the obtained results from DQM and SAPM are compared and it is concluded that although the SAPM’s formulation is considerably simpler than DQM, however, the SAPM’s results are so close to DQM. The results are validated with available papers. Finally, the effects of small scale parameter on the results, the comparison between local and non-local theories, and linear to nonlinear analyses are investigated.

  17. A string of Peregrine rogue waves in the nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation with parity-time symmetric self-induced potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samit Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic wave localization phenomena draw fundamental and technological interests in optics and photonics. Based on the recently proposed (Ablowitz and Musslimani, 2013) continuous nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger system with parity-time symmetric Kerr nonlinearity (PTNLSE), a numerical investigation has been carried out for two first order Peregrine solitons as the initial ansatz. Peregrine soliton, as an exact solution to the PTNLSE, evokes a very potent question: what effects does the interaction of two first order Peregrine solitons have on the overall optical field dynamics. Upon numerical computation, we observe the appearance of Kuznetsov-Ma (KM) soliton trains in the unbroken PT-phase when the initial Peregrine solitons are in phase. In the out of phase condition, it shows repulsive nonlinear waves. Quite interestingly, our study shows that within a specific range of the interval factor in the transverse co-ordinate there exists a string of high intensity well-localized Peregrine rogue waves in the PT unbroken phase. We note that the interval factor as well as the transverse shift parameter play important roles in the nonlinear interaction and evolution dynamics of the optical fields. This could be important in developing fundamental understanding of nonlocal non-Hermitian NLSE systems and dynamic wave localization behaviors.

  18. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  19. Spatiotemporal electromagnetic soliton and spatial ring formation in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinggui; Wen Shuangchun; Xiang Yuanjiang; Wang Youwen; Luo Hailu

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in metamaterials (MMs) with simultaneous cubic electric and magnetic nonlinearity. We predict that spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons may exist in the positive-index region of a MM with focusing nonlinearity and anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD), as well as in the negative-index region of the MM with defocusing nonlinearity and normal GVD. The experimental circumstances for generating and manipulating spatiotemporal electromagnetic solitons can be created by elaborating appropriate MMs. In addition, we find that, in the negative-index region of a MM, a spatial ring may be formed as the electromagnetic pulse propagates for focusing nonlinearity and anomalous GVD; while the phenomenon of temporal splitting of the electromagnetic pulse may appear for the same case except for the defocusing nonlinearity. Finally, we demonstrate that the nonlinear magnetization makes the sign of effective electric nonlinear effect switchable due to the combined action of electric and magnetic nonlinearity, exerting a significant influence on the propagation of electromagnetic pulses.

  20. Linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy: Spectral, temporal and spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Marcher

    1997-01-01

    Selected linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopies are being described with special emphasis on the possibility of obtaining simultaneous spectral, temporal and spatial resolution. The potential of various experimental techniques is being demonstrated by specific examples mostly taken from inve...... investigations of the electronic, and opto-electronic, properties of semiconductor nanostructures....

  1. submitter On the identification of Hammerstein systems in the presence of an input hysteretic nonlinearity with nonlocal memory: Piezoelectric actuators – an experimental case study

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Mark; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The identification problem of the linear dynamic part of piezo based actuators is addressed in this paper, exploiting the use of binary signals, specifically the pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS). Due to the presence of nonlocal memory hysteretic behavior in piezoelectric active materials, the dependence of the identification results on this strongly nonlinear effect is analyzed and useful guidelines for the design of the PRBS stimulating signal are derived. Moreover, some properties of hysteresis like cancellation and congruency are experimentally analyzed and their effects on the identification process are discussed. Finally, the use of a hysteresis compensation strategy in the identification process is evaluated and discussed.

  2. On the identification of Hammerstein systems in the presence of an input hysteretic nonlinearity with nonlocal memory: Piezoelectric actuators – an experimental case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.giustiniani@cern.ch; Masi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The identification problem of the linear dynamic part of piezo based actuators is addressed in this paper, exploiting the use of binary signals, specifically the pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS). Due to the presence of nonlocal memory hysteretic behavior in piezoelectric active materials, the dependence of the identification results on this strongly nonlinear effect is analyzed and useful guidelines for the design of the PRBS stimulating signal are derived. Moreover, some properties of hysteresis like cancellation and congruency are experimentally analyzed and their effects on the identification process are discussed. Finally, the use of a hysteresis compensation strategy in the identification process is evaluated and discussed.

  3. WE-FG-207B-03: Multi-Energy CT Reconstruction with Spatial Spectral Nonlocal Means Regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Shen, C; Ouyang, L; Yang, M; Jiang, S; Jia, X [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multi-energy computed tomography (MECT) is an emerging application in medical imaging due to its ability of material differentiation and potential for molecular imaging. In MECT, image correlations at different spatial and channels exist. It is desirable to incorporate these correlations in reconstruction to improve image quality. For this purpose, this study proposes a MECT reconstruction technique that employes spatial spectral non-local means (ssNLM) regularization. Methods: We consider a kVp-switching scanning method in which source energy is rapidly switched during data acquisition. For each energy channel, this yields projection data acquired at a number of angles, whereas projection angles among channels are different. We formulate the reconstruction task as an optimziation problem. A least square term enfores data fidelity. A ssNLM term is used as regularization to encourage similarities among image patches at different spatial locations and channels. When comparing image patches at different channels, intensity difference were corrected by a transformation estimated via histogram equalization during the reconstruction process. Results: We tested our method in a simulation study with a NCAT phantom and an experimental study with a Gammex phantom. For comparison purpose, we also performed reconstructions using conjugate-gradient least square (CGLS) method and conventional NLM method that only considers spatial correlation in an image. ssNLM is able to better suppress streak artifacts. The streaks are along different projection directions in images at different channels. ssNLM discourages this dissimilarity and hence removes them. True image structures are preserved in this process. Measurements in regions of interests yield 1.1 to 3.2 and 1.5 to 1.8 times higher contrast to noise ratio than the NLM approach. Improvements over CGLS is even more profound due to lack of regularization in the CGLS method and hence amplified noise. Conclusion: The

  4. Nonlocal homogenization theory in metamaterials: Effective electromagnetic spatial dispersion and artificial chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    We develop, from first principles, a general and compact formalism for predicting the electromagnetic response of a metamaterial with nonmagnetic inclusions in the long-wavelength limit, including spatial dispersion up to the second order. Specifically, by resorting to a suitable multiscale technique, we show that the effective medium permittivity tensor and the first- and second-order tensors describing spatial dispersion can be evaluated by averaging suitable spatially rapidly varying fields, each satisfying electrostatic-like equations within the metamaterial unit cell. For metamaterials with negligible second-order spatial dispersion, we exploit the equivalence of first-order spatial dispersion and reciprocal bianisotropic electromagnetic response to deduce a simple expression for the metamaterial chirality tensor. Such an expression allows us to systematically analyze the effect of the composite spatial symmetry properties on electromagnetic chirality. We find that even if a metamaterial is geometrically achiral, i.e., it is indistinguishable from its mirror image, it shows pseudo-chiral-omega electromagnetic chirality if the rotation needed to restore the dielectric profile after the reflection is either a 0∘ or 90∘ rotation around an axis orthogonal to the reflection plane. These two symmetric situations encompass two-dimensional and one-dimensional metamaterials with chiral response. As an example admitting full analytical description, we discuss one-dimensional metamaterials whose single chirality parameter is shown to be directly related to the metamaterial dielectric profile by quadratures.

  5. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical and ...... and experimental results. Since the core mode is in resonance with cladding modes near the bandedges an unconventional measurement technique is used, in this work named nonlinear spatial mode imaging....

  6. Conceptual Nonlocality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Grandy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocality is a puzzling issue in modern physics. I propose that, aside from the experimental determination of nonlocality, the concept of atomistic lightmdash;discrete, self-bounded photonsmdash;breaks down toward something like nonlocality when subjected to philosophical scrutiny. Louis de Broglie made a similar argument regarding the material atom: the concept of the classical atom, when interrogated, collapses upon itself to offer a glimpse of wave-particle duality. Light atoms or photons, I argue, similarly collapse toward the contradictory possibility of nonlocality.

  7. Spatial Domain Adaptive Control of Nonlinear Rotary Systems Subject to Spatially Periodic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsiu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generic spatial domain control scheme for a class of nonlinear rotary systems of variable speeds and subject to spatially periodic disturbances. The nonlinear model of the rotary system in time domain is transformed into one in spatial domain employing a coordinate transformation with respect to angular displacement. Under the circumstances that measurement of the system states is not available, a nonlinear state observer is established for providing the estimated states. A two-degree-of-freedom spatial domain control configuration is then proposed to stabilize the system and improve the tracking performance. The first control module applies adaptive backstepping with projected parametric update and concentrates on robust stabilization of the closed-loop system. The second control module introduces an internal model of the periodic disturbances cascaded with a loop-shaping filter, which not only further reduces the tracking error but also improves parametric adaptation. The overall spatial domain output feedback adaptive control system is robust to model uncertainties and state estimated error and capable of rejecting spatially periodic disturbances under varying system speeds. Stability proof of the overall system is given. A design example with simulation demonstrates the applicability of the proposed design.

  8. Accurate nonlocal theory for cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in bulk quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  9. Three-dimensional solutions in media with spatial dependence of nonlinear refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovachev, L.M.; Kaymakanova, N.I.; Dakova, D.Y.; Pavlov, L.I.; Donev, S.G.; Pavlov, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate a nonparaxial vector generalization of the scalar 3D+1 Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation (NSE). Exact analytical 3D+1 soliton solutions are obtained for the first time in media of spatial dependence of the nonlinear refractive index

  10. A unified nonlocal strain gradient plate model for nonlinear axial instability of functionally graded porous micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Aghdam, Mohammad Mohammadi; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-04-01

    By gradually changing of the porosity across a specific direction, functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are produced which can impart desirable mechanical properties. To enhance these properties, it is common to reinforce FGPMs with nanofillers. The main aim of the current study is to investigate the size-dependent nonlinear axial postbuckling characteristics of FGPM micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets. For this purpose, the theory of nonlocal strain gradient elasticity incorporating the both stiffness reduction and stiffness enhancement mechanisms of size effects is applied to the refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. Three different patterns of porosity dispersion across the plate thickness in conjunction with the uniform one are assumed for FGPM as an open-cell metal foam is utilized associated with the coefficients of the relative density and porosity. With the aid of the virtual work’s principle, the non-classical governing differential equations are constructed. Thereafter, an improved perturbation technique is employed to capture the size dependencies in the nonlinear load-deflection and load-shortening responses of the reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with and without initial geometric imperfection. It is indicated that by increasing the value of porosity coefficient, the size-dependent critical buckling loads of reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with all types of porosity dispersion pattern reduce, but the associated shortening may increase or decrease which depends on the type of dispersion pattern.

  11. A novel segmentation method for uneven lighting image with noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Fan, Jiulun

    2017-12-01

    Local thresholding methods for uneven lighting image segmentation always have the limitations that they are very sensitive to noise injection and that the performance relies largely upon the choice of the initial window size. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for segmenting uneven lighting images with strong noise injection based on non-local spatial information and intuitionistic fuzzy theory. We regard an image as a gray wave in three-dimensional space, which is composed of many peaks and troughs, and these peaks and troughs can divide the image into many local sub-regions in different directions. Our algorithm computes the relative characteristic of each pixel located in the corresponding sub-region based on fuzzy membership function and uses it to replace its absolute characteristic (its gray level) to reduce the influence of uneven light on image segmentation. At the same time, the non-local adaptive spatial constraints of pixels are introduced to avoid noise interference with the search of local sub-regions and the computation of local characteristics. Moreover, edge information is also taken into account to avoid false peak and trough labeling. Finally, a global method based on intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is employed on the wave transformation image to obtain the segmented result. Experiments on several test images show that the proposed method has excellent capability of decreasing the influence of uneven illumination on images and noise injection and behaves more robustly than several classical global and local thresholding methods.

  12. Localized and periodic exact solutions to the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with spatially modulated parameters: Linear and nonlinear lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Vekslerchik, Vadym E.

    2009-01-01

    Using similarity transformations we construct explicit solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with linear and nonlinear periodic potentials. We present explicit forms of spatially localized and periodic solutions, and study their properties. We put our results in the framework of the exploited perturbation techniques and discuss their implications on the properties of associated linear periodic potentials and on the possibilities of stabilization of gap solitons using polychromatic lattices.

  13. Spatial nonlinearities: Cascading effects in the earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Debra P.C.; Pielke, R.A.; Bestelmeyer, B.T.; Allen, Craig D.; Munson-McGee, Stuart; Havstad, K. M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Pataki, Diane E.; Pitelka, Louis F.

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear behavior is prevalent in all aspects of the Earth System, including ecological responses to global change (Gallagher and Appenzeller 1999; Steffen et al. 2004). Nonlinear behavior refers to a large, discontinuous change in response to a small change in a driving variable (Rial et al. 2004). In contrast to linear systems where responses are smooth, well-behaved, continuous functions, nonlinear systems often undergo sharp or discontinuous transitions resulting from the crossing of thresholds. These nonlinear responses can result in surprising behavior that makes forecasting difficult (Kaplan and Glass 1995). Given that many system dynamics are nonlinear, it is imperative that conceptual and quantitative tools be developed to increase our understanding of the processes leading to nonlinear behavior in order to determine if forecasting can be improved under future environmental changes (Clark et al. 2001).

  14. Exact bright and dark spatial soliton solutions in saturable nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Gabriel F.; Belmonte-Beitia, Juan; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    We present exact analytical bright and dark (black and grey) solitary wave solutions of a nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation describing the propagation of spatial beams in media exhibiting a saturable nonlinearity (such as centrosymmetric photorefractive materials). A qualitative study of the stationary equation is carried out together with a discussion of the stability of the solutions.

  15. Non-local effects in kaonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-04-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self-energy in nuclear matter. The optical potentials show strong non-linearities in the nucleon density and sizeable non-local terms. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful fits are obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. We conclude that a microscopic description of kaonic atom data requires further detailed studies of the microscopic K - nuclear dynamics. (orig.)

  16. dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hong-Yu Wu

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... HONG-YU WU. ∗ and LI-HONG JIANG ... Our present work provides a detailed answer to these questions. ... with the self-consistency condition |Y(θ,ϕ)|2 = 1. Equation (4) .... [4] L Q Kong and C Q Dai, Nonlinear Dyn. 81, 1553 ...

  17. Nanoplasmonics: Exploring nonlocal and quantum effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonics is commonly understood within classical electrodynamics with local-response constitutive relations. However, possibilities for nonlocal dynamics and quantum effects emerge with strong spatial confinement in plasmonic nanostructures. This talks reviews recent theory and experiments...

  18. Boundary fluxes for nonlocal diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Carmen; Elgueta, Manuel; Rossi, Julio D.; Wolanski, Noemi

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  19. Spatial knowledge dynamics of innovation processes: local and non-local aspects of buzz and collective learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    learning processes and require face-to-face contact. In sum, the innovation biography method contributes in uncovering innovation processes and how these rely on many different configurations of spatial knowledge dynamics, including buzz, local ties and global pipelines. The findings imply that policy...

  20. Investigation of the spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Honglin; Fleming, Simon

    2005-05-02

    The spatial distribution of second-order nonlinearity in thermally poled optical fibers was characterized by second-harmonic microscopy. The second-order nonlinearity was found to be confined to a thin layer close to the anode surface and progressed further into the silica as the poling time increased. Position uncertainty of the anode metal wire was observed to have an effect, as the nonlinear layers were found not always symmetrically located around the nearest points between the anode and cathode. Optical microscopy results were obtained on etched poled fiber cross-sections and compared with those from second-harmonic microscopy.

  1. Nonlocality and localizability in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, K.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlocality of simultaneous spatial correlation of a quantum phenomenon as demonstrated in various versions of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen type experiment reduces to nonlocality of the measurement apparatus in the sense that the eigen-wavefunctions for the apparatus are completely specified in a manner of being independent of whatever object it may measure. Nonlocality of the measurement apparatus however serves as no more than a good approximation to reality at best. The theoretical imposition of nonlocality of the measurement apparatus as an approximation is compatible with the actual locality of quantum mechanics that dispenses with an agent claiming globally simultaneous specifiability of boundary conditions, though the genuine locality of quantum mechanics has to be examined without employing the nonlocality of the measurement apparatus. The actual locality of quantum mechanics is intrinsically irreversible in its development

  2. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Cabello, Adan [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Santos, Marcelo Franca, E-mail: l.heaney1@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: adan@us.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Caixa Postal 702, 30123-970, MG (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    Quantum nonlocality is typically assigned to systems of two or more well-separated particles, but nonlocality can also exist in systems consisting of just a single particle when one considers the subsystems to be distant spatial field modes. Single particle nonlocality has been confirmed experimentally via a bipartite Bell inequality. In this paper, we introduce an N-party Hardy-like proof of the impossibility of local elements of reality and a Bell inequality for local realistic theories in the case of a single particle superposed symmetrically over N spatial field modes (i.e. N qubit W state). We show that, in the limit of large N, the Hardy-like proof effectively becomes an all-versus-nothing (or Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like) proof, and the quantum-classical gap of the Bell inequality tends to be the same as that in a three-particle GHZ experiment. We describe how to test the nonlocality in realistic systems.

  3. Temporally and spatially pulsating solitons in a nonlinear stage of the long-wave Buneman instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, M.; Kawakita, M.

    1990-01-01

    A nonlinear equation describing the development of the Buneman instability has been derived and solved with the aid of Hirota's bilinear transform [J. Math. Phys. 14, 810 (1973)] to give a variety of stationary solutions, such as pulsating solitons, temporally localized and spatially periodic solutions, as well as ordinary solitons

  4. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  5. Can EPR non-locality be geometrical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The presence in Quantum Mechanics of non-local correlations is one of the two fundamentally non-intuitive features of that theory. The non-local correlations themselves fall into two classes: EPR and Geometrical. The non-local characteristics of the geometrical type are well-understood and are not suspected of possibly generating acausal features, such as faster-than-light propagation of information. This has especially become true since the emergence of a geometrical treatment for the relevant gauge theories, i.e. Fiber Bundle geometry, in which the quantum non-localities are seen to correspond to pure homotopy considerations. This aspect is reviewed in section 2. Contrary-wise, from its very conception, the EPR situation was felt to be paradoxical. It has been suggested that the non-local features of EPR might also derive from geometrical considerations, like all other non-local characteristics of QM. In[7], one of the authors was able to point out several plausibility arguments for this thesis, emphasizing in particular similarities between the non-local correlations provided by any gauge field theory and those required by the preservation of the quantum numbers of the original EPR state-vector, throughout its spatially-extended mode. The derivation was, however, somewhat incomplete, especially because of the apparent difference between, on the one hand, the closed spatial loops arising in the analysis of the geometrical non-localities, from Aharonov-Bohm and Berry phases to magnetic monopoles and instantons, and on the other hand, in the EPR case, the open line drawn by the positions of the two moving decay products of the disintegrating particle. In what follows, the authors endeavor to remove this obstacle and show that as in all other QM non-localities, EPR is somehow related to closed loops, almost involving homotopy considerations. They develop this view in section 3

  6. Dissipative Vortex Solitons in Defocusing Media with Spatially Inhomogeneous Nonlinear Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Jing; Cai, Xiao-Ou; Zhang, Jie-Fang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by solving a complex nonlinear Schrödinger equation, radially symmetric dissipative vortex solitons are obtained analytically and are tested numerically. We find that spatially inhomogeneous nonlinear absorption gives rise to the stability of dissipative vortex solitons in self-defocusing nonlinear medium in the presence of constant linear gain. Numerical simulation reveals the interaction effect among linear gain and nonlinear loss in the azimuthal modulation instabilities of these vortices suppression. Apart from the uniform linear gain indeed affects the stability of vortex in this media, another noticeable feature of current setup is that the steep spatial modulation of the nonlinear absorption can suppress sidelobes effectively and support stable vortex solitons in situations with uniform linear gain. Under appropriate conditions, the vortex solitons can propagate stably and feature no symmetry breaking, although the beams exhibit radical compression and amplification as they propagate. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11705164 and the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. LQ16A040003

  7. Spectro-spatial analysis of wave packet propagation in nonlinear acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W. J.; Li, X. P.; Wang, Y. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Huang, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze wave packet propagation in weakly nonlinear acoustic metamaterials and reveal the interior nonlinear wave mechanism through spectro-spatial analysis. The spectro-spatial analysis is based on full-scale transient analysis of the finite system, by which dispersion curves are generated from the transmitted waves and also verified by the perturbation method (the L-P method). We found that the spectro-spatial analysis can provide detailed information about the solitary wave in short-wavelength region which cannot be captured by the L-P method. It is also found that the optical wave modes in the nonlinear metamaterial are sensitive to the parameters of the nonlinear constitutive relation. Specifically, a significant frequency shift phenomenon is found in the middle-wavelength region of the optical wave branch, which makes this frequency region behave like a band gap for transient waves. This special frequency shift is then used to design a direction-biased waveguide device, and its efficiency is shown by numerical simulations.

  8. Testing nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paternostro, Mauro; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the violation of nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states (ECSs) under nonlinear operations and homodyne measurements. We address recently proposed Leggett-type inequalities, including a class of optimized incompatibility inequalities proposed by Branciard et al. [Nature Phys. 4, 681 (2008)], and thoroughly assess the effects of detection inefficiency.

  9. Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing: a route towards confined nonlinear materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammel, Robert; Bergner, Klaus; Thomas, Jens; Ackermann, Roland; Skupin, Stefan; Nolte, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers enable reliable and versatile high precision ablation and surface processing of various materials such as metals, polymers and semiconductors. However, when modifications deep inside the bulk of transparent media are required, nonlinear pulse material interactions can decrease the precision, since weak focusing and the long propagation of the intense pulses within the nonlinear media may induce Kerr self-focusing, filamentation and white light generation. In order to improve the precision of those modifications, simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF) allows to reduce detrimental nonlinear interactions, because the ultrashort pulse duration is only obtained at the focus, while outside of the focal region the continuously increasing pulse duration strongly reduces the pulse intensity. In this paper, we review the fundamental concepts of this technology and provide an overview of its applications for purposes of multiphoton microscopy and laser materials processing. Moreover, numerical simulations on the nonlinear pulse propagation within transparent media illustrate the linear and nonlinear pulse propagation, highlighting the differences between conventional focusing and SSTF. Finally, fs-laser induced modifications in gelatine are presented to compare nonlinear side-effects caused by conventional focusing and SSTF. With conventional focusing the complex interplay of self-focusing and filamentation induces strongly inhomogeneous, elongated disruptions. In contrast, disruptions induced by SSTF are homogeneously located at the focal plane and reduced in length by a factor >2, which is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear pulse propagation and might favor SSTF for demanding applications such as intraocular fs-laser surgery.

  10. Chaos induced by breakup of waves in a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Quan-Xing; Li, Li

    2008-01-01

    Spatial epidemiology is the study of spatial variation in disease risk or incidence, including the spatial patterns of the population. The spread of diseases in human populations can exhibit large scale patterns, underlining the need for spatially explicit approaches. In this paper, the spatiotemporal complexity of a spatial epidemic model with nonlinear incidence rate, which includes the behavioral changes and crowding effect of the infective individuals, is investigated. Based on both theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we find out when, under the parameters which can guarantee a stable limit cycle in the non-spatial model, spiral and target waves can emerge. Moreover, two different kinds of breakup of waves are shown. Specifically, the breakup of spiral waves is from the core and the breakup of target waves is from the far-field, and both kinds of waves become irregular patterns at last. Our results reveal that the spatiotemporal chaos is induced by the breakup of waves. The results obtained confirm that diffusion can form spiral waves, target waves or spatial chaos of high population density, which enrich the findings of spatiotemporal dynamics in the epidemic model

  11. Quantum Nonlocality and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Gao, Shan

    2016-09-01

    Preface; Part I. John Stewart Bell: The Physicist: 1. John Bell: the Irish connection Andrew Whitaker; 2. Recollections of John Bell Michael Nauenberg; 3. John Bell: recollections of a great scientist and a great man Gian-Carlo Ghirardi; Part II. Bell's Theorem: 4. What did Bell really prove? Jean Bricmont; 5. The assumptions of Bell's proof Roderich Tumulka; 6. Bell on Bell's theorem: the changing face of nonlocality Harvey R. Brown and Christopher G. Timpson; 7. Experimental tests of Bell inequalities Marco Genovese; 8. Bell's theorem without inequalities: on the inception and scope of the GHZ theorem Olival Freire, Jr and Osvaldo Pessoa, Jr; 9. Strengthening Bell's theorem: removing the hidden-variable assumption Henry P. Stapp; Part III. Nonlocality: Illusions or Reality?: 10. Is any theory compatible with the quantum predictions necessarily nonlocal? Bernard d'Espagnat; 11. Local causality, probability and explanation Richard A. Healey; 12. Bell inequality and many-worlds interpretation Lev Vaidman; 13. Quantum solipsism and non-locality Travis Norsen; 14. Lessons of Bell's theorem: nonlocality, yes; action at a distance, not necessarily Wayne C. Myrvold; 15. Bell non-locality, Hardy's paradox and hyperplane dependence Gordon N. Fleming; 16. Some thoughts on quantum nonlocality and its apparent incompatibility with relativity Shan Gao; 17. A reasonable thing that just might work Daniel Rohrlich; 18. Weak values and quantum nonlocality Yakir Aharonov and Eliahu Cohen; Part IV. Nonlocal Realistic Theories: 19. Local beables and the foundations of physics Tim Maudlin; 20. John Bell's varying interpretations of quantum mechanics: memories and comments H. Dieter Zeh; 21. Some personal reflections on quantum non-locality and the contributions of John Bell Basil J. Hiley; 22. Bell on Bohm Sheldon Goldstein; 23. Interactions and inequality Philip Pearle; 24. Gravitation and the noise needed in objective reduction models Stephen L. Adler; 25. Towards an objective

  12. Spatial buckling analysis of current-carrying nanowires in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field accounting for both surface and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Shahin; Haghshenas, Amin; Hashemian, Mohammad; Eftekhari, S. Ali; Toghraie, Davood

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional buckling behavior of nanowires was investigated based on Eringen's Nonlocal Elasticity Theory. The electric current-carrying nanowires were affected by a longitudinal magnetic field based upon the Lorentz force. The nanowires (NWs) were modeled based on Timoshenko beam theory and the Gurtin-Murdoch's surface elasticity theory. Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method was used to solve the governing equations of the NWs. Two sets of boundary conditions namely simple-simple and clamped-clamped were applied and the obtained results were discussed. Results demonstrated the effect of electric current, magnetic field, small-scale parameter, slenderness ratio, and nanowires diameter on the critical compressive buckling load of nanowires. As a key result, increasing the small-scale parameter decreased the critical load. By the same token, increasing the electric current, magnetic field, and slenderness ratio resulted in a decrease in the critical load. As the slenderness ratio increased, the effect of nonlocal theory decreased. In contrast, by expanding the NWs diameter, the nonlocal effect increased. Moreover, in the present article, the critical values of the magnetic field of strength and slenderness ratio were revealed, and the roles of the magnetic field, slenderness ratio, and NWs diameter on higher buckling loads were discussed.

  13. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph. Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y, the influence of source signal Y on sink signal X, was applied to the nonlinear dynamical model in phase space reconstructed from multichannel EEG. Experimental group involved ten experienced Chan-Meditation practitioners, while control group included ten healthy subjects within the same age range, yet, without any meditation experience. Nonlinear interdependence among various cortical regions was explored for five local neural-network regions, frontal, posterior, right-temporal, left-temporal, and central regions. In the experimental group, the inter-regional interaction was evaluated for the brain dynamics under three different stages, at rest (stage R, pre-meditation background recording, in Chan meditation (stage M, and the unique Chakra-focusing practice (stage C. Experimental group exhibits stronger interactions among various local neural networks at stages M and C compared with those at stage R. The intergroup comparison demonstrates that Chan-meditation brain possesses better cortical inter-regional interactions than the resting brain of control group.

  14. Nonlinear Elastodynamic Behaviour Analysis of High-Speed Spatial Parallel Coordinate Measuring Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulong Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the elastodynamic behaviour of 4- universal joints- prismatic pairs- spherical joints / universal joints- prismatic pairs- universal joints 4-UPS-UPU high-speed spatial PCMMs(parallel coordinate measuring machines, the nonlinear time-varying dynamics model, which comprehensively considers geometric nonlinearity and the rigid-flexible coupling effect, is derived by using Lagrange equations and finite element methods. Based on the Newmark method, the kinematics output response of 4-UPS-UPU PCMMs is illustrated through numerical simulation. The results of the simulation show that the flexibility of the links is demonstrated to have a significant impact on the system dynamics response. This research can provide the important theoretical base of the optimization design and vibration control for 4-UPS-UPU PCMMs.

  15. Nonlocality in Bohmian mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafar, Zati Amalina binti Mohd Abdul; Radiman, Shahidan bin; Siong, Ch'ng Han

    2018-04-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox demonstrates that entangled particles can interact in such a way that it is possible to measure both their position and momentum instantaneously. The position or momentum of one particle can be determined by measuring another identical particle that exists in another space. This instantaneous action is actually called nonlocality. The nonlocality has been proved by Bell's theorem that states that all quantum theories must be nonlocal. The Bell's theorem gives a strong support to the hidden variable theory, i.e. Bohmian mechanics. Using nonlocality, we present that the velocity field of one particle can be obtained by measuring the velocity of other particles. The trajectory of these particles is perhaps surrealistic trajectory due to the nonlocality.

  16. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Faizal, Mir; Nunes, Rafael C

    2017-01-01

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + [Formula: see text] observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction.

  17. Nonlocal teleparallel cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    Even though it is not possible to differentiate general relativity from teleparallel gravity using classical experiments, it could be possible to discriminate between them by quantum gravitational effects. These effects have motivated the introduction of nonlocal deformations of general relativity, and similar effects are also expected to occur in teleparallel gravity. Here, we study nonlocal deformations of teleparallel gravity along with its cosmological solutions. We observe that nonlocal teleparallel gravity (like nonlocal general relativity) is consistent with the present cosmological data obtained by SNe Ia + BAO + CC + H{sub 0} observations. Along this track, future experiments probing nonlocal effects could be used to test whether general relativity or teleparallel gravity gives the most consistent picture of gravitational interaction. (orig.)

  18. Scattering of massless lumps and non-local charges in the two-dimensional classical non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.; Pohlmeyer, K.

    1977-09-01

    Finite energy solutions of the field equations of the non-linear sigma-model are shown to decay asymptotically into massless lumps. By means of a linear eigenvalue problem connected with the field equations we then find an infinite set of dynamical conserved charges. They, however, do not provide sufficient information to decode the complicated scattering of lumps. (orig.) [de

  19. The nonlocal elastomagnetoelectrostatics of disordered micropolar media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabychenkov, A. F.; Lisiovskii, F. V.

    2016-01-01

    The interactions of electric, magnetic, and elastic subsystems in nonlinear disordered micropolar media that possess a bending–torsion tensor and an nonsymmetric strain tensor have been studied in the framework of phenomenological elastomagnetoelectrostatics. A system of nonlinear equations for determining the ground state of these media has been obtained by the variational method. It is shown that nonuniform external and internal rotations not only create elastic stresses, but also generate additional electric and magnetic fields, while nonuniform elastic stresses and external fields induce internal rotations. The nonlocal character of the micropolar media significantly influences elementary excitations and nonlinear dynamic processes.

  20. On the nonlinearity of spatial scales in extreme weather attribution statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angélil, Oliver; Stone, Daíthí; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah; Alexander, Lisa V.; Wehner, Michael; Shiogama, Hideo; Wolski, Piotr; Ciavarella, Andrew; Christidis, Nikolaos

    2018-04-01

    In the context of ongoing climate change, extreme weather events are drawing increasing attention from the public and news media. A question often asked is how the likelihood of extremes might have changed by anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions. Answers to the question are strongly influenced by the model used, duration, spatial extent, and geographic location of the event—some of these factors often overlooked. Using output from four global climate models, we provide attribution statements characterised by a change in probability of occurrence due to anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions, for rainfall and temperature extremes occurring at seven discretised spatial scales and three temporal scales. An understanding of the sensitivity of attribution statements to a range of spatial and temporal scales of extremes allows for the scaling of attribution statements, rendering them relevant to other extremes having similar but non-identical characteristics. This is a procedure simple enough to approximate timely estimates of the anthropogenic contribution to the event probability. Furthermore, since real extremes do not have well-defined physical borders, scaling can help quantify uncertainty around attribution results due to uncertainty around the event definition. Results suggest that the sensitivity of attribution statements to spatial scale is similar across models and that the sensitivity of attribution statements to the model used is often greater than the sensitivity to a doubling or halving of the spatial scale of the event. The use of a range of spatial scales allows us to identify a nonlinear relationship between the spatial scale of the event studied and the attribution statement.

  1. Nonlocal hidden variables and nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, M.

    1984-01-01

    A possible unification of classical fundamental interactions together with quantum interactions is proposed, based on an extension of the concept of local gauge invariance to a nonlocal gauge invariance. As an example this new concept is developed for the particular case of the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  2. Quantum Nonlocality with Spins in Diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we experimentally investigate quantum nonlocality: entangled states of spatially separated objects. Entanglement is one of the most striking consequences of the quantum formalism developed in the 1920's; the predicted outcomes of independent measurements on entangled objects reveal

  3. Analysis of nonlocal phonon thermal conductivity simulations showing the ballistic to diffusive crossover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Philip B.

    2018-04-01

    Simulations [e.g., X. W. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 115201 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.115201] show nonlocal effects of the ballistic/diffusive crossover. The local temperature has nonlinear spatial variation not contained in the local Fourier law j ⃗(r ⃗) =-κ ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) . The heat current j ⃗(r ⃗) depends not just on the local temperature gradient ∇ ⃗T (r ⃗) but also on temperatures at points r⃗' within phonon mean free paths, which can be micrometers long. This paper uses the Peierls-Boltzmann transport theory in nonlocal form to analyze the spatial variation Δ T (r ⃗) . The relaxation-time approximation (RTA) is used because the full solution is very challenging. Improved methods of extrapolation to obtain the bulk thermal conductivity κ are proposed. Callaway invented an approximate method of correcting RTA for the q ⃗ (phonon wave vector or crystal momentum) conservation of N (Normal as opposed to Umklapp) anharmonic collisions. This method is generalized to the nonlocal case where κ (k ⃗) depends on the wave vector of the current j ⃗(k ⃗) and temperature gradient i k ⃗Δ T (k ⃗) .

  4. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  5. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  6. Boundary fluxes for non-local diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar, C.; Elgueta, M.; Rossi, J. D.; Wolanski, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study a nonlocal diffusion operator in a bounded smooth domain prescribing the flux through the boundary. This problem may be seen as a generalization of the usual Neumann problem for the heat equation. First, we prove existence, uniqueness and a comparison principle. Next, we study the behavior of solutions for some prescribed boundary data including blowing up ones. Finally, we look at a nonlinear flux boundary condition.

  7. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with a spatially modulated nonlinearity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices. By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite number of exact soliton solutions in terms of the Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite bandgap of the optical-lattice-induced spectrum. Starting from the exact solutions, we employ the relaxation met...

  8. Controllable nonlocal behaviour by cascaded second-harmonic generation of fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultra-short pulses can act as a prototypical nonlocal nonlinear model, since the strength and nature of the temporal nonlocality can be controlled through the phase-mismatch parameter. The presence of a group-velocity mismatch namely implies that when the phase...... mismatch is small the nonlocal response function becomes oscillatory, while for large phase mismatch it becomes localized. In the transition between the two regimes the strength of the nonlocality diverges, and the system goes from a weakly nonlocal to a strongly nonlocal state. When simulating soliton...... compression to few-cycle pulses in the cascaded quadratic soliton compressor, the spectral content of the full coupled SHG model is predicted by the nonlocal model even when few-cycle pulses are interacting....

  9. A Hybrid Interpolation Method for Geometric Nonlinear Spatial Beam Elements with Explicit Nodal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqing Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on geometrically exact beam theory, a hybrid interpolation is proposed for geometric nonlinear spatial Euler-Bernoulli beam elements. First, the Hermitian interpolation of the beam centerline was used for calculating nodal curvatures for two ends. Then, internal curvatures of the beam were interpolated with a second interpolation. At this point, C1 continuity was satisfied and nodal strain measures could be consistently derived from nodal displacement and rotation parameters. The explicit expression of nodal force without integration, as a function of global parameters, was founded by using the hybrid interpolation. Furthermore, the proposed beam element can be degenerated into linear beam element under the condition of small deformation. Objectivity of strain measures and patch tests are also discussed. Finally, four numerical examples are discussed to prove the validity and effectivity of the proposed beam element.

  10. Shape Changing Nonlocal Molecular Deformations in a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Venkatesh, M.; Gopi, D.

    2010-07-01

    The nature of nonlinear molecular deformations in a homeotropically aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) is presented. We start from the basic dynamical equation for the director axis of a NLC with elastic deformation mapped onto an integro-differential perturbed Nonlinear Schroedinger equation which includes the nonlocal term. By invoking the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method aided with symbolic computation, we obtain a series of solitary wave solutions. Under the influence of the nonlocality induced by the reorientation nonlinearity due to fluctuations in the molecular orientation, the solitary wave exhibits shape changing property for different choices of parameters. This intriguing property, as a result of the relation between the coherence of the solitary deformation and the nonlocality, reveals a strong need for deeper understanding in the theory of self-localization in NLC systems. (author)

  11. Two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wei-Ping, E-mail: zhongwp6@126.com [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Guangdong Province, Shunde 528300 (China); Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Belić, Milivoj [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-12-15

    We present a class of exact solutions to the coupled (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatially modulated nonlinearity and a special external potential, which describe the evolution of two-component vector solitons in defocusing Kerr-type media. We find a robust soliton solution, constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. For specific choices of the topological charge, the radial mode number and the modulation depth, the solitons may exist in various forms, such as the half-moon, necklace-ring, and sawtooth vortex-ring patterns. Our results show that the profile of such solitons can be effectively controlled by the topological charge, the radial mode number, and the modulation depth. - Highlights: • Two-component vector soliton clusters in defocusing Kerr-type media are reported. • These soliton clusters are constructed with the help of Whittaker functions. • The half-moon, necklace-ring and vortex-ring patterns are found. • The profile of these solitons can be effectively controlled by three soliton parameters.

  12. Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilnau, C.; Traeger, D.; Schroeder, J.; Denz, C. [Institute of Applied Physics, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstr. 2/4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Ahles, M.; Petter, J. [Institute of Applied Physics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Hochschulstr. 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    (2+1)-dimensional optical spatial solitons have become a major field of research in nonlinear physics throughout the last decade due to their potential in adaptive optical communication technologies. With the help of photorefractive crystals that supply the required type of nonlinearity for soliton generation, we are able to demonstrate experimentally the formation, the dynamic properties, and especially the interaction of solitary waves, which were so far only known from general soliton theory. Among the complex interaction scenarios of scalar solitons, we reveal a distinct behavior denoted as anomalous interaction, which is unique in soliton-supporting systems. Further on, we realize highly parallel, light-induced waveguide configurations based on photorefractive screening solitons that give rise to technical applications towards waveguide couplers and dividers as well as all-optical information processing devices where light is controlled by light itself. Finally, we demonstrate the generation, stability and propagation dynamics of multi-component or vector solitons, multipole transverse optical structures bearing a complex geometry. In analogy to the particle-light dualism of scalar solitons, various types of vector solitons can - in a broader sense - be interpreted as molecules of light. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Spatial optical (2+1)-dimensional scalar- and vector-solitons in saturable nonlinear media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilnau, C.; Traeger, D.; Schroeder, J.; Denz, C.; Ahles, M.; Petter, J.

    2002-01-01

    (2+1)-dimensional optical spatial solitons have become a major field of research in nonlinear physics throughout the last decade due to their potential in adaptive optical communication technologies. With the help of photorefractive crystals that supply the required type of nonlinearity for soliton generation, we are able to demonstrate experimentally the formation, the dynamic properties, and especially the interaction of solitary waves, which were so far only known from general soliton theory. Among the complex interaction scenarios of scalar solitons, we reveal a distinct behavior denoted as anomalous interaction, which is unique in soliton-supporting systems. Further on, we realize highly parallel, light-induced waveguide configurations based on photorefractive screening solitons that give rise to technical applications towards waveguide couplers and dividers as well as all-optical information processing devices where light is controlled by light itself. Finally, we demonstrate the generation, stability and propagation dynamics of multi-component or vector solitons, multipole transverse optical structures bearing a complex geometry. In analogy to the particle-light dualism of scalar solitons, various types of vector solitons can - in a broader sense - be interpreted as molecules of light. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  15. Quantum Nonlocality and Beyond: Limits from Nonlocal Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Winter, Andreas

    2007-11-01

    We address the problem of “nonlocal computation,” in which separated parties must compute a function without any individual learning anything about the inputs. Surprisingly, entanglement provides no benefit over local classical strategies for such tasks, yet stronger nonlocal correlations allow perfect success. This provides intriguing insights into the limits of quantum information processing, the nature of quantum nonlocality, and the differences between quantum and stronger-than-quantum nonlocal correlations.

  16. Non-Linear Detection for Joint Space-Frequency Block Coding and Spatial Multiplexing in OFDM-MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Imadur Mohamed; Marchetti, Nicola; Fitzek, Frank

    2005-01-01

    (SIC) receiver where the detection is done on subcarrier by sub-carrier basis based on both Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) nulling criterion for the system. In terms of Frame Error Rate (FER), MMSE based SIC receiver performs better than all other receivers compared......In this work, we have analyzed a joint spatial diversity and multiplexing transmission structure for MIMO-OFDM system, where Orthogonal Space-Frequency Block Coding (OSFBC) is used across all spatial multiplexing branches. We have derived a BLAST-like non-linear Successive Interference Cancellation...... in this paper. We have found that a linear two-stage receiver for the proposed system [1] performs very close to the non-linear receiver studied in this work. Finally, we compared the system performance in spatially correlated scenario. It is found that higher amount of spatial correlation at the transmitter...

  17. Multi-atlas labeling with population-specific template and non-local patch-based label fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed

    We propose a new method combining a population-specific nonlinear template atlas approach with non-local patch-based structure segmentation for whole brain segmentation into individual structures. This way, we benefit from the efficient intensity-driven segmentation of the non-local means framework...... and from the global shape constraints imposed by the nonlinear template matching....

  18. Enhanced spatial resolution in fluorescence molecular tomography using restarted L1-regularized nonlinear conjugate gradient algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junwei; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Guanglei; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Owing to the high degree of scattering of light through tissues, the ill-posedness of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) inverse problem causes relatively low spatial resolution in the reconstruction results. Unlike L2 regularization, L1 regularization can preserve the details and reduce the noise effectively. Reconstruction is obtained through a restarted L1 regularization-based nonlinear conjugate gradient (re-L1-NCG) algorithm, which has been proven to be able to increase the computational speed with low memory consumption. The algorithm consists of inner and outer iterations. In the inner iteration, L1-NCG is used to obtain the L1-regularized results. In the outer iteration, the restarted strategy is used to increase the convergence speed of L1-NCG. To demonstrate the performance of re-L1-NCG in terms of spatial resolution, simulation and physical phantom studies with fluorescent targets located with different edge-to-edge distances were carried out. The reconstruction results show that the re-L1-NCG algorithm has the ability to resolve targets with an edge-to-edge distance of 0.1 cm at a depth of 1.5 cm, which is a significant improvement for FMT.

  19. Nonlocal diffusion and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Working in the fractional Laplace framework, this book provides models and theorems related to nonlocal diffusion phenomena. In addition to a simple probabilistic interpretation, some applications to water waves, crystal dislocations, nonlocal phase transitions, nonlocal minimal surfaces and Schrödinger equations are given. Furthermore, an example of an s-harmonic function, its harmonic extension and some insight into a fractional version of a classical conjecture due to De Giorgi are presented. Although the aim is primarily to gather some introductory material concerning applications of the fractional Laplacian, some of the proofs and results are new. The work is entirely self-contained, and readers who wish to pursue related subjects of interest are invited to consult the rich bibliography for guidance.

  20. Nonlocal Quantum Effects in Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii V. Dumin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it is commonly believed that the observed large-scale structure of the universe is an imprint of quantum fluctuations existing at the very early stage of its evolution, it is reasonable to pose the question: do the effects of quantum nonlocality, which are well established now by the laboratory studies, manifest themselves also in the early universe? We try to answer this question by utilizing the results of a few experiments, namely, with the superconducting multi-Josephson-junction loops and the ultracold gases in periodic potentials. Employing a close analogy between the above-mentioned setups and the simplest one-dimensional Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, we show that the specific nonlocal correlations revealed in the laboratory studies might be of considerable importance also in treating the strongly nonequilibrium phase transitions of Higgs fields in the early universe. Particularly, they should substantially reduce the number of topological defects (e.g., domain walls expected due to independent establishment of the new phases in the remote spatial regions. This gives us a hint on resolving a long-standing problem of the excessive concentration of topological defects, inconsistent with observational constraints. The same effect may be also relevant to the recent problem of the anomalous behavior of cosmic microwave background fluctuations at large angular scales.

  1. Roles of dispersal, stochasticity, and nonlinear dynamics in the spatial structuring of seasonal natural enemy-victim populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Ottar N. Bjornstad

    2005-01-01

    Natural enemy-victim systems may exhibit a range of dynamic space-time patterns. We used a theoretical framework to study spatiotemporal structuring in a transient natural enemy-victim system subject to differential rates of dispersal, stochastic forcing, and nonlinear dynamics. Highly mobile natural enemies that attacked less mobile victims were locally spatially...

  2. Nonlocal N=1 supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tetsuji [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University,Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Mazumdar, Anupam [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Physics Department, Lancaster University,Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen,9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Noumi, Toshifumi [Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology,Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, Kobe University,Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology,Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-10-05

    We construct N=1 supersymmetric nonlocal theories in four dimension. We discuss higher derivative extensions of chiral and vector superfields, and write down generic forms of Kähler potential and superpotential up to quadratic order. We derive the condition in which an auxiliary field remains non-dynamical, and the dynamical scalars and fermions are free from the ghost degrees of freedom. We also investigate the nonlocal effects on the supersymmetry breaking and find that supertrace (mass) formula is significantly modified even at the tree level.

  3. The development and investigation of a strongly non-equilibrium model of heat transfer in fluid with allowance for the spatial and temporal non-locality and energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The differential equation of heat transfer with allowance for energy dissipation and spatial and temporal nonlocality has been derived by the relaxation of heat flux and temperature gradient in the Fourier law formula for the heat flux at the use of the heat balance equation. An investigation of the numerical solution of the heat-transfer problem at a laminar fluid flow in a plane duct has shown the impossibility of an instantaneous acceptance of the boundary condition of the first kind — the process of its settling at small values of relaxation coefficients takes a finite time interval the duration of which is determined by the thermophysical and relaxation properties of the fluid. At large values of relaxation coefficients, the use of the boundary condition of the first kind is possible only at Fo → ∞. The friction heat consideration leads to the alteration of temperature profiles, which is due to the rise of the intervals of elevated temperatures in the zone of the maximal velocity gradients. With increasing relaxation coefficients, the smoothing of temperature profiles occurs, and at their certain high values, the fluid cooling occurs at a gradientless temperature variation along the transverse spatial variable and, consequently, the temperature proves to be dependent only on time and on longitudinal coordinate.

  4. Self-organization analysis for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, J.A.R. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Penna, A.L.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)], E-mail: penna.andre@gmail.com; Vainstein, M.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Morgado, R. [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Departamento de Matematica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia DF (Brazil); Oliveira, F.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil); International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, CP 04513, 70919-970 Brasilia DF (Brazil)

    2009-02-02

    Using both an analytical method and a numerical approach we have investigated pattern formation for a nonlocal convective Fisher equation with constant and spatial velocity fields. We analyze the limits of the influence function due to nonlocal interaction and we obtain the phase diagram of critical velocities v{sub c} as function of the width {mu} of the influence function, which characterize the self-organization of a finite system.

  5. Nonlocal transport in hot plasma. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of describing charged particle transport in hot plasma under the conditions in which the ratio of the electron mean free path to the gradient length is not too small is one of the key problems of plasma physics. However, up to now, there was a deficit of the systematic interpretation of the current state of this problem, which, in most studies, is formulated as the problem of nonlocal transport. In this review, we fill this gap by presenting a self-consistent linear theory of nonlocal transport for small plasma perturbations and an arbitrary collisionality from the classical highly collisional hydrodynamic regime to the collisionless regime. We describe a number of nonlinear transport models and demonstrate the application of the nonclassical transport theory to the solution of some problems of plasma physics, first of all for plasmas produced by nanosecond laser pulses with intensities of 10 13 –10 16 W/cm 2

  6. Self-isospectrality, mirror symmetry, and exotic nonlinear supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyushchay, Mikhail S.; Nieto, Luis-Miguel

    2010-01-01

    We study supersymmetry of a self-isospectral one-gap Poeschl-Teller system in the light of a mirror symmetry that is based on spatial and shift reflections. The revealed exotic, partially broken, nonlinear supersymmetry admits seven alternatives for a grading operator. One of its local, first order supercharges may be identified as a Hamiltonian of an associated one-gap, nonperiodic Bogoliubov-de Gennes system. The latter possesses a nonlinear supersymmetric structure, in which any of the three nonlocal generators of a Clifford algebra may be chosen as the grading operator. We find that the supersymmetry generators for both systems are the Darboux-dressed integrals of a free spin-1/2 particle in the Schroedinger picture, or of a free massive Dirac particle. Nonlocal Foldy-Wouthuysen transformations are shown to be involved in the supersymmetric structure.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION ON NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, M. L.; Schrijver, C. J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover St. B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Wheatland, M. S.; Gilchrist, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G. [NorthWest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Ln., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Amari, T.; Canou, A. [CNRS, Centre de Physique Théorique de l’École Polytechnique, F-91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France); Thalmann, J. K. [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Valori, G. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wiegelmann, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Sun, X. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Régnier, S. [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    The nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model is often used to describe the solar coronal magnetic field, however a series of earlier studies revealed difficulties in the numerical solution of the model in application to photospheric boundary data. We investigate the sensitivity of the modeling to the spatial resolution of the boundary data, by applying multiple codes that numerically solve the NLFFF model to a sequence of vector magnetogram data at different resolutions, prepared from a single Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope Spectro-Polarimeter scan of NOAA Active Region 10978 on 2007 December 13. We analyze the resulting energies and relative magnetic helicities, employ a Helmholtz decomposition to characterize divergence errors, and quantify changes made by the codes to the vector magnetogram boundary data in order to be compatible with the force-free model. This study shows that NLFFF modeling results depend quantitatively on the spatial resolution of the input boundary data, and that using more highly resolved boundary data yields more self-consistent results. The free energies of the resulting solutions generally trend higher with increasing resolution, while relative magnetic helicity values vary significantly between resolutions for all methods. All methods require changing the horizontal components, and for some methods also the vertical components, of the vector magnetogram boundary field in excess of nominal uncertainties in the data. The solutions produced by the various methods are significantly different at each resolution level. We continue to recommend verifying agreement between the modeled field lines and corresponding coronal loop images before any NLFFF model is used in a scientific setting.

  8. Hartman effect and nonlocality in quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandopadhyay, Swarnali; Jayannavar, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the phase time for various quantum mechanical networks having potential barriers in their arms to find the generic presence of Hartman effect. In such systems it is possible to control the 'super arrival' time in one of the arms by changing parameters on another, spatially separated from it. This is yet another quantum nonlocal effect. Negative time delays (time advancement) and 'ultra Hartman effect' with negative saturation times have been observed in some parameter regimes

  9. Effect of nonlocal dispersion on self-interacting excitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim; Gaididei, Yu.B.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of self-interacting quasiparticles in 1Dsystems with long-range dispersive interactions isexpressed in terms of a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödingerequation. Two branches of stationary solutions are found.The new branch which contains a cusp soliton is shown to beunstable and blowup...

  10. Exact solutions of fractional Schroedinger-like equation with a nonlocal term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaoyun; Xu Mingyu; Qi Haitao

    2011-01-01

    We study the time-space fractional Schroedinger equation with a nonlocal potential. By the method of Fourier transform and Laplace transform, the Green function, and hence the wave function, is expressed in terms of H-functions. Graphical analysis demonstrates that the influence of both the space-fractal parameter α and the nonlocal parameter ν on the fractional quantum system is strong. Indeed, the nonlocal potential may act similar to a fractional spatial derivative as well as fractional time derivative.

  11. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie-Fang; Li, Yi-Shen; Meng, Jianping; Wu, Lei; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  12. Matter-wave solitons and finite-amplitude Bloch waves in optical lattices with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefang; Meng Jianping; Wu Lei; Li Yishen; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate solitons and nonlinear Bloch waves in Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices (OLs). By introducing specially designed localized profiles of the spatial modulation of the attractive nonlinearity, we construct an infinite set of exact soliton solutions in terms of Mathieu and elliptic functions, with the chemical potential belonging to the semi-infinite gap of the OL-induced spectrum. Starting from the particular exact solutions, we employ the relaxation method to construct generic families of soliton solutions in a numerical form. The stability of the solitons is investigated through the computation of the eigenvalues for small perturbations, and also by direct simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a virtually exact (in the numerical sense) composition relation between nonlinear Bloch waves and solitons.

  13. Nonlocal quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    The basic ideas for creating the theory of nonlocal interactions of a scalar one-component field are presented. Lagrangian describing a non-interacting field is the ordinary one so that non-interacting particles are described by standard methods of the Fock space. Form factors introduced have been chosen from a class of analytic functionals and quantized. Conditions of microcausality have been considered in detail. The convergence of all integrals corresponding to the arbitrary Feynman diagrams in spinor electrodynamics is guaranteed in the frame of the rules formulated. It is noted in conclusion that the spinor electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction contains no ultraviolet divergencies and satisfies all the requirements of the quantum field theory; in this sense it is mathematically more consistent than its local version

  14. Nonlocal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2012-02-10

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects and provide a physically incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equifrequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  15. Size-dependent nonlocal effects in plasmonic semiconductor particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Localized surface plasmons (LSP) in semiconductor particles are expected to exhibit spatial nonlocal response effects as the geometry enters the nanometer scale. To investigate these nonlocal effects, we apply the hydrodynamic model to nanospheres of two different semiconductor materials: intrinsic...... InSb and n-doped GaAs. Our results show that the semiconductors indeed display nonlocal effects, and that these effects are even more pronounced than in metals. In a 150 nm InSb particle at 300 K, the LSP frequency is blueshifted 35%, which is orders of magnitude larger than the blueshift in a metal...... particle of the same size. This property, together with their tunability, makes semiconductors a promising platform for experiments in nonlocal effects. Copyright (C)EPLA, 2017...

  16. Nonlocal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partovi, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    From a generalization of the covariant derivative, nonlocal gauge theories are developed. These theories enjoy local gauge invariance and associated Ward identities, a corresponding locally conserved current, and a locally conserved energy-momentum tensor, with the Ward identities implying the masslessness of the gauge field as in local theories. Their ultraviolet behavior allows the presence as well as the absence of the Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomaly, the latter in analogy with lattice theories

  17. A nonlocal model of chiral dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdom, B.; Terning, J.; Verbeek, K.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a nonlocal generalization of the nonlinear σ model. Our chirally symmetric model couples quarks with self-energy Σ(p) to Goldstone bosons (GBs). By integrating out the quarks we obtain a chiral lagrangian, the parameters of which are finite integrals of Σ(p). We find that chiral symmetry is not sufficient to derive the well-known Pagels-Stokar formula for the GB decay constant. We reproduce the Wess-Zumino term and we illustrate the dependence of other four derivative coefficients on Σ(p). (orig.)

  18. Robust Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Master-Slave Distributed Parameter Systems with Spatially Variable Coefficients and Nonlinear Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the exponential synchronization problem of a class of master-slave distributed parameter systems (DPSs with spatially variable coefficients and spatiotemporally variable nonlinear perturbation, modeled by a couple of semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs. With a locally Lipschitz constraint, the perturbation is a continuous function of time, space, and system state. Firstly, a sufficient condition for the robust exponential synchronization of the unforced semilinear master-slave PDE systems is investigated for all admissible nonlinear perturbations. Secondly, a robust distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD state feedback controller is desired such that the closed-loop master-slave PDE systems achieve exponential synchronization. Using Lyapunov’s direct method and the technique of integration by parts, the main results of this paper are presented in terms of spatial differential linear matrix inequalities (SDLMIs. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods applied to the robust exponential synchronization problem of master-slave PDE systems with nonlinear perturbation.

  19. Multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Mafalda L.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Scarani, Valerio; Acin, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We present a general method for characterizing the quantum correlations obtained after local measurements on multipartite systems. Sufficient conditions for a quantum system to be fully nonlocal according to a given partition, as well as being (genuinely) multipartite fully nonlocal, are derived. These conditions allow us to identify all completely connected graph states as multipartite fully nonlocal quantum states. Moreover, we show that this feature can also be observed in mixed states: the tensor product of five copies of the Smolin state, a biseparable and bound entangled state, is multipartite fully nonlocal.

  20. Entanglement without nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt-Horsman, C.; Vedral, V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the characterization of entanglement from the perspective of a Heisenberg formalism. We derive a two-party generalized separability criterion, and from this describe a physical understanding of entanglement. We find that entanglement may be considered as fundamentally a local effect, and therefore as a separate computational resource from nonlocality. We show how entanglement differs from correlation physically, and explore the implications of this concept of entanglement for the notion of classicality. We find that this understanding of entanglement extends naturally to multipartite cases

  1. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove

  2. Deconfined quantum criticality of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two spatial dimensions: A renormalization-group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of the O(3) nonlinear σ model without Berry phase in two spatial dimensions. Utilizing the CP 1 representation of the nonlinear σ model, we obtain an effective action in terms of bosonic spinons interacting via compact U(1) gauge fields. Based on the effective field theory, we find that the bosonic spinons are deconfined to emerge at the quantum critical point of the nonlinear σ model. It is emphasized that the deconfinement of spinons is realized in the absence of Berry phase. This is in contrast to the previous study of Senthil et al. [Science 303, 1490 (2004)], where the Berry phase plays a crucial role, resulting in the deconfinement of spinons. It is the reason why the deconfinement is obtained even in the absence of the Berry phase effect that the quantum critical point is described by the XY ('neutral') fixed point, not the IXY ('charged') fixed point. The IXY fixed point is shown to be unstable against instanton excitations and the instanton excitations are proliferated. At the IXY fixed point it is the Berry phase effect that suppresses the instanton excitations, causing the deconfinement of spinons. On the other hand, the XY fixed point is found to be stable against instanton excitations because an effective internal charge is zero at the neutral XY fixed point. As a result the deconfinement of spinons occurs at the quantum critical point of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions

  3. Large Spatial and Temporal Separations of Cause and Effect in Policy Making - Dealing with Non-linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskill, John

    There can be large spatial and temporal separation of cause and effect in policy making. Determining the correct linkage between policy inputs and outcomes can be highly impractical in the complex environments faced by policy makers. In attempting to see and plan for the probable outcomes, standard linear models often overlook, ignore, or are unable to predict catastrophic events that only seem improbable due to the issue of multiple feedback loops. There are several issues with the makeup and behaviors of complex systems that explain the difficulty many mathematical models (factor analysis/structural equation modeling) have in dealing with non-linear effects in complex systems. This chapter highlights those problem issues and offers insights to the usefulness of ABM in dealing with non-linear effects in complex policy making environments.

  4. Effect of spatial variability of ground motion on non-linear dynamic behavior of cable stayed bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouanani Mouloud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This present paper summarizes the main results of incoherence of Spatial Variability of Ground Motion (SVGM component on the non-linear dynamic behavior of a Mila cable stayed bridge. The Hindy and Novack coherence model is developed for the present study in order to examine the SVGM on bridge responses, Nonlinear bridge responses are investigated in terms of transverse displacements and bending moments along the superstructure and substructure of the study bridge, as well as temporal variations of rotational ductility demands at the bridge piers ends under the incoherence SVGM component. The results are systematically compared with those obtained assuming uniform ground motion. As a general trend, it may be concluded that incoherence component of SVGM should be considered for the earthquake response assessments of cable-stayed bridges.

  5. Nonlocal Sediment Transport on Steep Lateral Moraines, Eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Tyler H.; Furbish, David Jon; Roering, Joshua J.; Schumer, Rina; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the significance of long-distance particle motions in hillslope sediment transport. Such motions imply that the flux at a given hillslope position is appropriately described as a weighted function of surrounding conditions that influence motions reaching the given position. Although the idea of nonlocal sediment transport is well grounded in theory, limited field evidence has been provided. We test local and nonlocal formulations of the flux and compare their ability to reproduce land surface profiles of steep moraines in California. We show that nonlocal and nonlinear models better reproduce evolved land surface profiles, notably the amount of lowering and concavity near the moraine crest and the lengthening and straightening of the depositional apron. The analysis provides the first estimates of key parameters that set sediment entrainment rates and travel distances in nonlocal formulations and highlights the importance of correctly specifying the entrainment rate when modeling land surface evolution. Moraine evolution associated with nonlocal and nonlinear transport formulations, when described in terms of the evolution of the Fourier transform of the moraine surface, displays a distinct behavior involving growth of certain wave numbers, in contrast to the decay of all wave numbers associated with linear transport. Nonlinear and nonlocal formulations share key mathematical elements yielding a nonlinear relation between the flux and the land surface slope.

  6. Formation of universal and diffusion regions of non-linear spectra of relativistic electrons in spatially limited sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontorovich, V.M.; Kochanov, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    It is demonstrated that in the case of hard injection of relativistic electrons accompanied by the joint action of synchrotron (Compton) losses and energy-dependent spatial diffusion, a spectrum with 'breaks' is formed containing universal (with index γ = 2) and diffusion regions, both independent of the injection spectrum. The effect from non-linearity of the electron spectrum is considered in averaged electromagnetic spectra for various geometries of sources (sphere, disk, arm). It is shown that an universal region (with index α = 0.5) can occur in the radiation spectrum. (orig.)

  7. Extent of multiparticle quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Nick S.; Linden, Noah; Massar, Serge

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that entangled quantum states are nonlocal: the corrrelations between local measurements carried out on these states cannot be reproduced by local hidden variable models. Svetlichny, followed by others, showed that multipartite quantum states are more nonlocal than bipartite ones in the sense that even some nonlocal classical models with (super-luminal) communication between some of the parties cannot reproduce the quantum correlations. Here we study in detail the kinds of nonlocality present in quantum states. More precisely, we enquire what kinds of classical communication patterns cannot reproduce quantum correlations. By studying the extremal points of the space of all multiparty probability distributions, in which all parties can make one of a pair of measurements each with two possible outcomes, we find a necessary condition for classical nonlocal models to reproduce the statistics of all quantum states. This condition extends and generalizes work of Svetlichny and others in which it was showed that a particular class of classical nonlocal models, the 'separable' models, cannot reproduce the statistics of all multiparticle quantum states. Our condition shows that the nonlocality present in some entangled multiparticle quantum states is much stronger than previously thought. We also study the sufficiency of our condition

  8. Hyper- and hybrid nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanna; Gessner, Manuel; Li, Weidong; Smerzi, Augusto

    2018-02-01

    The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom, have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows us to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.

  9. Nonlinear convective flows in a two-layer system under the action of spatial temperature modulation of heat release/consumption at the interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovskii, Ilya B.; Viviani, Antonio; Dubois, Frank

    2018-06-01

    An influence of a spatial temperature modulation of the interfacial heat release/consumption on nonlinear convective flows in the 47v2 silicone oil - water system, is studied. Rigid heat-insulated lateral walls, corresponding to the case of closed cavities, have been considered. Transitions between the flows with different spatial structures, have been investigated. It is shown that the spatial modulation can change the sequence of bifurcations and lead to the appearance of specific steady and oscillatory flows in the system.

  10. Nonlocal heat transfer in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavin, A.P.; Uryupin, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Kinetics of electrons in a degenerate conductor heated up by absorption of a high-frequency field localized in a region of about hundred nanometers has been studied. A new law for nonlocal electron thermal flux has been predicted

  11. Dependence of Excited State Potential Energy Surfaces on the Spatial Overlap of the Kohn-Sham Orbitals and the Amount of Nonlocal Hartree-Fock Exchange in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plötner, Jürgen; Tozer, David J; Dreuw, Andreas

    2010-08-10

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with standard GGA or hybrid exchange-correlation functionals is not capable of describing the potential energy surface of the S1 state of Pigment Yellow 101 correctly; an additional local minimum is observed at a twisted geometry with substantial charge transfer (CT) character. To investigate the influence of nonlocal exact orbital (Hartree-Fock) exchange on the shape of the potential energy surface of the S1 state in detail, it has been computed along the twisting coordinate employing the standard BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP xc-functionals as well as the long-range separated (LRS) exchange-correlation (xc)-functionals LC-BOP, ωB97X, ωPBE, and CAM-B3LYP and compared to RI-CC2 benchmark results. Additionally, a recently suggested Λ-parameter has been employed that measures the amount of CT in an excited state by calculating the spatial overlap of the occupied and virtual molecular orbitals involved in the transition. Here, the error in the calculated S1 potential energy curves at BP86, B3LYP, and BHLYP can be clearly related to the Λ-parameter, i.e., to the extent of charge transfer. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the CT problem is largely alleviated when the BHLYP xc-functional is employed, although it still exhibits a weak tendency to underestimate the energy of CT states. The situation improves drastically when LRS-functionals are employed within TDDFT excited state calculations. All tested LRS-functionals give qualitatively the correct potential energy curves of the energetically lowest excited states of P. Y. 101 along the twisting coordinate. While LC-BOP and ωB97X overcorrect the CT problem and now tend to give too large excitation energies compared to other non-CT states, ωPBE and CAM-B3LYP are in excellent agreement with the RI-CC2 results, with respect to both the correct shape of the potential energy curve as well as the absolute values of the calculated excitation energies.

  12. Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  13. Nonlocal surface plasmons by Poisson Green's function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J

    2006-01-01

    The Poisson Green's function for all space is derived for the case in which an interface divides space into two separate semi-infinite media, using the Green's function matching method. Each of the separate semi-infinite constituent parts has its own dynamic, nonlocal polarizability, which is taken to be unaffected by the presence of the interface and is represented by the corresponding bulk response property. While this eliminates Friedel oscillatory phenomenology near the interface with p ∼ 2p F , it is nevertheless quite reasonable and useful for a broad range of lower (nonvanishing) wavenumbers, p F . The resulting full-space Poisson Green's function is dynamic, nonlocal and spatially inhomogeneous, and its frequency pole yields the surface plasmon dispersion relation, replete with dynamic and nonlocal features. It also accommodates an ambient magnetic field

  14. Magneto-electro-elastic buckling analysis of nonlocal curved nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent curved beam model is developed to take into account the effects of nonlocal stresses on the buckling behavior of curved magneto-electro-elastic FG nanobeams for the first time. The governing differential equations are derived based on the principle of virtual work and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The power-law function is employed to describe the spatially graded magneto-electro-elastic properties. By extending the radius of the curved nanobeam to infinity, the results of straight nonlocal FG beams can be rendered. The effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, opening angle, nonlocal parameter, power-law index and slenderness ratio on buckling loads of curved MEE-FG nanobeams are studied.

  15. Numerical reconstruction of wave field spatial distributions at the output and input planes of nonlinear medium with use of digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalegaev, S S; Petrov, N V; Bespalov, V G

    2014-01-01

    A numerical reconstruction of spatial distributions of optical radiation propagating through a volume of nonlinear medium at input and output planes of the medium was demonstrated using a scheme of digital holography. A nonlinear Schrodinger equation with Fourier Split-Step method was used as a tool to propagate wavefront in the volume of the medium. Time dependence of the refractive index change was not taken into account.

  16. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  17. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  18. Temporal nonlinear beam dynamics in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennet, Francis; Rosberg, Christian Romer; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) offer a new way of studying light propagation in periodic and discrete systems. A wide range of available fiber structures combined with the ease of infiltration opens up a range of novel experimental opportunities for optical detection and bio...... the evolution of the fiber output beam in the few micro or milliseconds after the beam is turned on. The characterization of the temporal behavior of the thermal nonlinear response provides important information about the nonlocality associated with heat diffusion inside the fiber, thus enabling studies of long...... and technological potential of liquid-infiltrated PCFs it is important to understand the temporal dynamics of nonlinear beam propagation in such structures. In this work we consider thermally induced spatial nonlinear effects in infiltrated photonic crystal fibers. We experimentally study the temporal dynamics...

  19. Incorporating a Spatial Prior into Nonlinear D-Bar EIT Imaging for Complex Admittivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sarah J; Mueller, J L; Alsaker, M

    2017-02-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) aims to recover the internal conductivity and permittivity distributions of a body from electrical measurements taken on electrodes on the surface of the body. The reconstruction task is a severely ill-posed nonlinear inverse problem that is highly sensitive to measurement noise and modeling errors. Regularized D-bar methods have shown great promise in producing noise-robust algorithms by employing a low-pass filtering of nonlinear (nonphysical) Fourier transform data specific to the EIT problem. Including prior data with the approximate locations of major organ boundaries in the scattering transform provides a means of extending the radius of the low-pass filter to include higher frequency components in the reconstruction, in particular, features that are known with high confidence. This information is additionally included in the system of D-bar equations with an independent regularization parameter from that of the extended scattering transform. In this paper, this approach is used in the 2-D D-bar method for admittivity (conductivity as well as permittivity) EIT imaging. Noise-robust reconstructions are presented for simulated EIT data on chest-shaped phantoms with a simulated pneumothorax and pleural effusion. No assumption of the pathology is used in the construction of the prior, yet the method still produces significant enhancements of the underlying pathology (pneumothorax or pleural effusion) even in the presence of strong noise.

  20. Spectral, spatial and temporal control of high-power diode lasers through nonlinear optical feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorst, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    A high-power diode laser offers multi-Watt output power from a small and efficient device, which makes them an interesting source for numerous applications. The spatial and spectral output however, are of reduced quality which limits the applicability. This limited quality is connected to the design

  1. Investigating the spatial scaling effect of the non-linear hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precipitation is the most important component and critical to the study of water and energy cycle. In this study we investigated the propagation of precipitation retrieval uncertainty in the simulation of hydrological variables, such as soil moisture, temperature, runoff, and fluxes, for varying spatial resolution on different ...

  2. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, P. G. L.; Karasu Kalkanli, A.; Nucci, M. C.; Andriopoulos, K.

    2005-11-01

    We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R). The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  3. Ermakov's Superintegrable Toy and Nonlocal Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.L. Leach

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry properties of a pair of Ermakov equations. The system is superintegrable and yet possesses only three Lie point symmetries with the algebra sl(2, R. The number of point symmetries is insufficient and the algebra unsuitable for the complete specification of the system. We use the method of reduction of order to reduce the nonlinear fourth-order system to a third-order system comprising a linear second-order equation and a conservation law. We obtain the representation of the complete symmetry group from this system. Four of the required symmetries are nonlocal and the algebra is the direct sum of a one-dimensional Abelian algebra with the semidirect sum of a two-dimensional solvable algebra with a two-dimensional Abelian algebra. The problem illustrates the difficulties which can arise in very elementary systems. Our treatment demonstrates the existence of possible routes to overcome these problems in a systematic fashion.

  4. Towards LHC physics with nonlocal Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Tirthabir, E-mail: tbiswas@loyno.edu [Department of Physics, Loyola University, 6363 St. Charles Avenue, Box 92, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Okada, Nobuchika, E-mail: okadan@ua.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0324 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We take a few steps towards constructing a string-inspired nonlocal extension of the Standard Model. We start by illustrating how quantum loop calculations can be performed in nonlocal scalar field theory. In particular, we show the potential to address the hierarchy problem in the nonlocal framework. Next, we construct a nonlocal abelian gauge model and derive modifications of the gauge interaction vertex and field propagators. We apply the modifications to a toy version of the nonlocal Standard Model and investigate collider phenomenology. We find the lower bound on the scale of nonlocality from the 8 TeV LHC data to be 2.5–3 TeV.

  5. On the Activation of Quantum Nonlocality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Ducuara

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on some quantum properties of physical systems, namely, entanglement, nonlocality, k-copy nonlocality (superactivation of nonlocality, hidden nonlocality (activation of nonlocality through local filtering and the activation of nonlocality through tensoring and local filtering. The aim of this work is two-fold. First, we provide a review of the numerical procedures that must be followed in order to calculate the aforementioned properties, in particular, for any two-qubit system, and reproduce the bounds for two-qudit Werner states. Second, we use such numerical tools to calculate new bounds of these properties for two-qudit Isotropic states and two-qubit Hirsch states.

  6. Electrovacuum solutions in nonlocal gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karan; Mitra, Arpita

    2018-05-01

    We consider the coupling of the electromagnetic field to a nonlocal gravity theory comprising of the Einstein-Hilbert action in addition to a nonlocal R □-2R term associated with a mass scale m . We demonstrate that in the case of the minimally coupled electromagnetic field, real corrections about the Reissner-Nordström background only exist between the inner Cauchy horizon and the event horizon of the black hole. This motivates us to consider the modified coupling of electromagnetism to this theory via the Kaluza ansatz. The Kaluza reduction introduces nonlocal terms involving the electromagnetic field to the pure gravitational nonlocal theory. An iterative approach is provided to perturbatively solve the equations of motion to arbitrary order in m2 about any known solution of general relativity. We derive the first-order corrections and demonstrate that the higher order corrections are real and perturbative about the external background of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. We also discuss how the Kaluza reduced action, through the inclusion of nonlocal electromagnetic fields, could also be relevant in quantum effects on curved backgrounds with horizons.

  7. Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  9. Nonlocal higher order evolution equations

    KAUST Repository

    Rossi, Julio D.

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

  10. Certifying the absence of quantum nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nonlocality is an inherently non-classical feature of quantum mechanics and manifests itself through violation of Bell inequalities for nonlocal games. We show that in a fairly general setting, a simple extension of a nonlocal game can certify instead the absence of quantum nonlocality. Through contraposition, our result implies that a super-classical performance for such a game ensures that a player's output is unpredictable to the other player. Previously such output unpredictabilit...

  11. Non-linearity and spatial resolution in a cellular automaton model of a small upland basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Coulthard

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing development of computational fluid dynamics is allowing the high resolution study of hydraulic and sediment transport processes but, due to computational complexities, these are rarely applied to areas larger than a reach. Existing approaches, based upon linked cross sections, can give a quasi two-dimensional view, effectively simulating sediment transport for a single river reach. However, a basin represents a whole discrete dynamic system within which channel, floodplain and slope processes operate over a wide range of space and time scales. Here, a cellular automaton (CA approach has been used to overcome some of these difficulties, in which the landscape is represented as a series of fixed size cells. For every model iteration, each cell acts only in relation to the influence of its immediate neighbours in accordance with appropriate rules. The model presented here takes approximations of existing flow and sediment transport equations, and integrates them, together with slope and floodplain approximations, within a cellular automaton framework. This method has been applied to the basin of Cam Gill Beck (4.2 km2 above Starbotton, upper Wharfedale, a tributary of the River Wharfe, North Yorkshire, UK. This approach provides, for the first time, a workable model of the whole basin at a 1 m resolution. Preliminary results show the evolution of bars, braids, terraces and alluvial fans which are similar to those observed in the field, and examples of large and small scale non-linear behaviour which may have considerable implications for future models.

  12. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolovsky, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics

  13. Bell inequality, nonlocality and analyticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socolovsky, M

    2003-09-15

    The Bell and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities are shown to hold for both the cases of complex and real analytic nonlocality in the setting parameters of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments for spin ((1)/(2)) particles and photons, in both the deterministic and stochastic cases. Therefore, the theoretical and experimental violation of the inequalities by quantum mechanics excludes all hidden variables theories with that kind of nonlocality. In particular, real analyticity leads to negative definite correlations, in contradiction with quantum mechanics.

  14. Closed sets of nonlocal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vertesi, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

  15. More nonlocality with less purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro

    2011-05-27

    Quantum information is nonlocal in the sense that local measurements on a composite quantum system, prepared in one of many mutually orthogonal states, may not reveal in which state the system was prepared. It is shown that in the many copy limit this kind of nonlocality is fundamentally different for pure and mixed quantum states. In particular, orthogonal mixed states may not be distinguishable by local operations and classical communication, no matter how many copies are supplied, whereas any set of N orthogonal pure states can be perfectly discriminated with m copies, where miff the set is not conclusively locally distinguishable with multiple copies. © 2011 American Physical Society

  16. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-01-26

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet\\'s performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  17. Median Modified Wiener Filter for nonlinear adaptive spatial denoising of protein NMR multidimensional spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Abbas, Ahmed; Gao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Denoising multidimensional NMR-spectra is a fundamental step in NMR protein structure determination. The state-of-the-art method uses wavelet-denoising, which may suffer when applied to non-stationary signals affected by Gaussian-white-noise mixed with strong impulsive artifacts, like those in multi-dimensional NMR-spectra. Regrettably, Wavelet's performance depends on a combinatorial search of wavelet shapes and parameters; and multi-dimensional extension of wavelet-denoising is highly non-trivial, which hampers its application to multidimensional NMR-spectra. Here, we endorse a diverse philosophy of denoising NMR-spectra: less is more! We consider spatial filters that have only one parameter to tune: the window-size. We propose, for the first time, the 3D extension of the median-modified-Wiener-filter (MMWF), an adaptive variant of the median-filter, and also its novel variation named MMWF*. We test the proposed filters and the Wiener-filter, an adaptive variant of the mean-filter, on a benchmark set that contains 16 two-dimensional and three-dimensional NMR-spectra extracted from eight proteins. Our results demonstrate that the adaptive spatial filters significantly outperform their non-adaptive versions. The performance of the new MMWF* on 2D/3D-spectra is even better than wavelet-denoising. Noticeably, MMWF* produces stable high performance almost invariant for diverse window-size settings: this signifies a consistent advantage in the implementation of automatic pipelines for protein NMR-spectra analysis.

  18. Nonlinear stability of source defects in the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Margaret; Nguyen, Toan T; Sandstede, Björn; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In an appropriate moving coordinate frame, source defects are time-periodic solutions to reaction–diffusion equations that are spatially asymptotic to spatially periodic wave trains whose group velocities point away from the core of the defect. In this paper, we rigorously establish nonlinear stability of spectrally stable source defects in the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation. Due to the outward transport at the far field, localized perturbations may lead to a highly non-localized response even on the linear level. To overcome this, we first investigate in detail the dynamics of the solution to the linearized equation. This allows us to determine an approximate solution that satisfies the full equation up to and including quadratic terms in the nonlinearity. This approximation utilizes the fact that the non-localized phase response, resulting from the embedded zero eigenvalues, can be captured, to leading order, by the nonlinear Burgers equation. The analysis is completed by obtaining detailed estimates for the resolvent kernel and pointwise estimates for Green's function, which allow one to close a nonlinear iteration scheme. (paper)

  19. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude...

  20. Quantum nonlocality does not exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J

    2014-08-05

    Quantum nonlocality is shown to be an artifact of the Copenhagen interpretation, in which each observed quantity has exactly one value at any instant. In reality, all physical systems obey quantum mechanics, which obeys no such rule. Locality is restored if observed and observer are both assumed to obey quantum mechanics, as in the many-worlds interpretation (MWI). Using the MWI, I show that the quantum side of Bell's inequality, generally believed nonlocal, is really due to a series of three measurements (not two as in the standard, oversimplified analysis), all three of which have only local effects. Thus, experiments confirming "nonlocality" are actually confirming the MWI. The mistaken interpretation of nonlocality experiments depends crucially on a question-begging version of the Born interpretation, which makes sense only in "collapse" versions of quantum theory, about the meaning of the modulus of the wave function, so I use the interpretation based on the MWI, namely that the wave function is a world density amplitude, not a probability amplitude. This view allows the Born interpretation to be derived directly from the Schrödinger equation, by applying the Schrödinger equation to both the observed and the observer.

  1. Nonlocal quasilinear damped differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouffak Benchohra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of mild solutions to second order initial value problems for a class of damped differential inclusions with nonlocal conditions. By using suitable fixed point theorems, we study the case when the multivalued map has convex and nonconvex values.

  2. Nonlocal interactions and Bell's inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garuccio, A.; Selleri, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that natural extensions of the local hidden variable theories to include nonlocal effects still lead to a full validity of Bell's inequality. It is conjectured that the essential point expressed by this inequality is not locality, but the wave-particle dualism

  3. Nonlinear phonons in high-Tc superconductors mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, B.R.; Dzhavadov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    The integrodifferential kinetic equation which is a generalization of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism is introduced. The peculiarities of nonlinear kinetics are investigated by entering the nonlocal function, which is a quantitative measure of time dispersion. The classification nonlocal function is made by its Hausdorff dimensionality d c . It is shown that in the case d c c =1, the relaxation equation is the equation of damping harmonic oscillator. In the case d c >1, the relaxation equation contains the time derivation arbitrary high order. After linearization of the corresponding dynamic equations near the corresponding nonlinear static equations the dispersion and then after spatial averaging, temperature and frequency dependency of corresponding dynamic susceptibility have been determined. It is shown that in the cases d c c >1 the temperature evolution system alongside with the soft mode is accompanied by the modes which depend nonlinearly on the temperature. The physical nature of quasiscattering in the incommensurate phases of layered crystals is studied. The obtained theoretical results are applied to the layered HTSC crystals. (author)

  4. Persistent chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Chimera states in the systems of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators are considered stable in the continuous limit of spatially distributed oscillators. However, it is reported that in the numerical simulations without taking such limit, chimera states are chaotic transient and finally collapse into the completely synchronous solution. In this Rapid Communication, we numerically study chimera states by using the coupling function different from the previous studies and obtain the result that...

  5. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguo...

  6. Nonlocal multi-scale traffic flow models: analysis beyond vector spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Kloeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Realistic models of traffic flow are nonlinear and involve nonlocal effects in balance laws. Flow characteristics of different types of vehicles, such as cars and trucks, need to be described differently. Two alternatives are used here, $$L^p$$ L p -valued Lebesgue measurable density functions and signed Radon measures. The resulting solution spaces are metric spaces that do not have a linear structure, so the usual convenient methods of functional analysis are no longer applicable. Instead ideas from mutational analysis will be used, in particular the method of Euler compactness will be applied to establish the well-posedness of the nonlocal balance laws. This involves the concatenation of solutions of piecewise linear systems on successive time subintervals obtained by freezing the nonlinear nonlocal coefficients to their values at the start of each subinterval. Various compactness criteria lead to a convergent subsequence. Careful estimates of the linear systems are needed to implement this program.

  7. Fast and accurate implementation of Fourier spectral approximations of nonlocal diffusion operators and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Qiang; Yang, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    This work is concerned with the Fourier spectral approximation of various integral differential equations associated with some linear nonlocal diffusion and peridynamic operators under periodic boundary conditions. For radially symmetric kernels, the nonlocal operators under consideration are diagonalizable in the Fourier space so that the main computational challenge is on the accurate and fast evaluation of their eigenvalues or Fourier symbols consisting of possibly singular and highly oscillatory integrals. For a large class of fractional power-like kernels, we propose a new approach based on reformulating the Fourier symbols both as coefficients of a series expansion and solutions of some simple ODE models. We then propose a hybrid algorithm that utilizes both truncated series expansions and high order Runge–Kutta ODE solvers to provide fast evaluation of Fourier symbols in both one and higher dimensional spaces. It is shown that this hybrid algorithm is robust, efficient and accurate. As applications, we combine this hybrid spectral discretization in the spatial variables and the fourth-order exponential time differencing Runge–Kutta for temporal discretization to offer high order approximations of some nonlocal gradient dynamics including nonlocal Allen–Cahn equations, nonlocal Cahn–Hilliard equations, and nonlocal phase-field crystal models. Numerical results show the accuracy and effectiveness of the fully discrete scheme and illustrate some interesting phenomena associated with the nonlocal models.

  8. Interaction of chimera states in a multilayered network of nonlocally coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremyko, M. V.; Maksimenko, V. A.; Makarov, V. V.; Ghosh, D.; Bera, B.; Dana, S. K.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-08-01

    The processes of formation and evolution of chimera states in the model of a multilayered network of nonlinear elements with complex coupling topology are studied. A two-layered network of nonlocally intralayer-coupled Kuramoto-Sakaguchi phase oscillators is taken as the object of investigation. Different modes implemented in this system upon variation of the degree of interlayer interaction are demonstrated.

  9. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R.

    2011-01-01

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis

  10. Nonlocal beam models for buckling of nanobeams using state-space method regarding different boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahmani, S.; Ansari, R. [University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Buckling analysis of nanobeams is investigated using nonlocal continuum beam models of the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT). To this end, Eringen's equations of nonlocal elasticity are incorporated into the classical beam theories for buckling of nanobeams with rectangular cross-section. In contrast to the classical theories, the nonlocal elastic beam models developed here have the capability to predict critical buckling loads that allowing for the inclusion of size effects. The values of critical buckling loads corresponding to four commonly used boundary conditions are obtained using state-space method. The results are presented for different geometric parameters, boundary conditions, and values of nonlocal parameter to show the effects of each of them in detail. Then the results are fitted with those of molecular dynamics simulations through a nonlinear least square fitting procedure to find the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter for the buckling analysis of nanobeams relevant to each type of nonlocal beam model and boundary conditions analysis.

  11. On nonlocality in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasskij, B.I.; Moskovskij, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The properties of nonlocality of quantum objects are considered on the example of the Aharonov-Bohm, effect Brown-Twiss effect, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These effects demonstrate inherent features of specific integrity in quantum objects. The term ''nonlocality'' is considered as a ''quantum analog'' of the notion of long range. Experiments on checking the Bell inequalities for fulfilment are described. The inequalities permit to solve which of the quantum mechanics interpretations is correct either the Einstein interpretation according to which the quantum system properties exist as elements of physical reality irrespective of their observation, or the Copenhagen one, according to which the microsystem properties described by noncommuting operators do not exist irrespective of measurement means

  12. Temporal nonlocality in bistable perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Filk, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    A novel conceptual framework for theoretical psychology is presented and illustrated for the example of bistable perception. A basic formal feature of this framework is the non-commutativity of operations acting on mental states. A corresponding model for the bistable perception of ambiguous stimuli, the Necker-Zeno model, is sketched and some empirical evidence for it so far is described. It is discussed how a temporal nonlocality of mental states, predicted by the model, can be understood and tested.

  13. IMPLICATIONS OF NON-LOCALITY OF TRANSPORT IN GEOMORPHIC TRANSPORT LAWS: HILLSLOPES AND LANDSCAPE EVOLUTION MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Sediment transport on hillslopes can be thought of as a hopping process, where the sediment moves in a series of jumps. A wide range of processes shape the hillslopes which can move sediment to a large distance in the downslope direction, thus, resulting in a broad-tail in the probability density function (PDF) of hopping lengths. Here, we argue that such a broad-tailed distribution calls for a non-local computation of sediment flux, where the sediment flux is not only a function of local topographic quantities but is an integral flux which takes into account the upslope topographic “memory” of the point of interest. We encapsulate this non-local behavior into a simple fractional diffusive model that involves fractional (non-integer) derivatives. We present theoretical predictions from this nonlocal model and demonstrate a nonlinear dependence of sediment flux on local gradient, consistent with observations. Further, we demonstrate that the non-local model naturally eliminates the scale-dependence exhibited by any local (linear or nonlinear) sediment transport model. An extension to a 2-D framework, where the fractional derivative can be cast into a mixture of directional derivatives, is discussed together with the implications of introducing non-locality into existing landscape evolution models.

  14. Generic features of modulational instability in nonlocal Kerr media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2002-01-01

    the nonlocality tends to suppress MI, but can never remove it completely, irrespectively of the shape of the response function. For a defocusing nonlinearity the stability properties depend sensitively on the profile of the response function. For response functions with a positive-definite spectrum......, such as Gaussians and exponentials, plane waves are always stable, whereas response functions with spectra that are not positive definite (such as the rectangular) will lead to MI if sigma exceeds a certain threshold. For the square response function, in both the focusing and defocusing case, we show analytically...

  15. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion cu...

  16. Frustrated Brownian Motion of Nonlocal Solitary Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folli, V.; Conti, C.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of solitary waves in a nonlocal medium in the presence of disorder. By using a perturbational approach, we show that an increasing degree of nonlocality may largely hamper the Brownian motion of self-trapped wave packets. The result is valid for any kind of nonlocality and in the presence of nonparaxial effects. Analytical predictions are compared with numerical simulations based on stochastic partial differential equations.

  17. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, E. G. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Centre for Quantum-Atom Optics (Australian Research Council), Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Wiseman, H. M. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia); Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology (Australian Research Council), Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  18. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  19. Robustness of multiparty nonlocality to local decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Cheong, Yong Wook; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the robustness of multiparty nonlocality under local decoherence, acting independently and equally on each subsystem. To be specific, we consider an N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state under a depolarization, dephasing, or dissipation channel, and examine nonlocality by testing violation of the Mermin-Klyshko inequality, which is one of Bell's inequalities for multiqubit systems. The results show that the robustness of nonlocality increases with the number of qubits, and that the nonlocality of an N-qubit GHZ state with even N is extremely persistent against dephasing

  20. Non-Local Effects in Kaonic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.; Florkowski, W.

    2000-01-01

    Optical potentials with non-local (gradient) terms are used to describe the spectra of kaonic atoms. The strength of the non-local terms is determined from a many-body calculation of the kaon self energy in nuclear matter. We find that the non-local terms are quantitatively important and the results depend strongly on the way the gradient terms are arranged. Phenomenologically successful description is obtained for p-wave like optical potentials. It is suggested that the microscopic form of the non-local interaction terms is obtained systematically by means of a semi-classical expansion of the nucleus structure. (author)

  1. Existence of Solutions of Nonlinear Integrodifferential Equations of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we prove the existence of mild and strong solutions of a nonlinear integrodifferential equation of Sobolev type with nonlocal condition. The results are obtained by using semigroup theory and the Schauder fixed point theorem.

  2. One-Dimensional Fokker-Planck Equation with Quadratically Nonlinear Quasilocal Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation in one-dimensional spacetime with quadratically nonlinear nonlocal drift in the quasilocal approximation is reduced with the help of scaling of the coordinates and time to a partial differential equation with a third derivative in the spatial variable. Determining equations for the symmetries of the reduced equation are derived and the Lie symmetries are found. A group invariant solution having the form of a traveling wave is found. Within the framework of Adomian's iterative method, the first iterations of an approximate solution of the Cauchy problem are obtained. Two illustrative examples of exact solutions are found.

  3. A nonlocal inhomogeneous dispersal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortázar, C.; Coville, J.; Elgueta, M.; Martínez, S.

    This article in devoted to the study of the nonlocal dispersal equation u(x,t)=∫R J({x-y}/{g(y)}){u(y,t)}/{g(y)} dy-u(x,t) in R×[0,∞), and its stationary counterpart. We prove global existence for the initial value problem, and under suitable hypothesis on g and J, we prove that positive bounded stationary solutions exist. We also analyze the asymptotic behavior of the finite mass solutions as t→∞, showing that they converge locally to zero.

  4. The Green’s functions for peridynamic non-local diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. J.; Xu, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we develop the Green’s function method for the solution of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model in which the spatial gradient of the generalized potential in the classical theory is replaced by an integral of a generalized response function in a horizon. We first show that the general solutions of the peridynamic non-local diffusion model can be expressed as functionals of the corresponding Green’s functions for point sources, along with volume constraints for non-local diffusion. Then, we obtain the Green’s functions by the Fourier transform method for unsteady and steady diffusions in infinite domains. We also demonstrate that the peridynamic non-local solutions converge to the classical differential solutions when the non-local length approaches zero. Finally, the peridynamic analytical solutions are applied to an infinite plate heated by a Gauss source, and the predicted variations of temperature are compared with the classical local solutions. The peridynamic non-local diffusion model predicts a lower rate of variation of the field quantities than that of the classical theory, which is consistent with experimental observations. The developed method is applicable to general diffusion-type problems. PMID:27713658

  5. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Light Meets Water in Nonlocal Media: Surface Tension Analogue in Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikis, Theodoros P.; Frantzeskakis, Dimitrios J.

    2017-06-01

    Shallow water wave phenomena find their analogue in optics through a nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model in 2 +1 dimensions. We identify an analogue of surface tension in optics, namely, a single parameter depending on the degree of nonlocality, which changes the sign of dispersion, much like surface tension does in the shallow water wave problem. Using multiscale expansions, we reduce the NLS model to a Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, which is of the KPII (KPI) type, for strong (weak) nonlocality. We demonstrate the emergence of robust optical antidark solitons forming Y -, X -, and H -shaped wave patterns, which are approximated by colliding KPII line solitons, similar to those observed in shallow waters.

  7. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves...... of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens...... in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we...

  8. Nonlocal Galileons and self-acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Yu, Siqing, E-mail: sy1430@nyu.edu

    2017-05-10

    A certain class of nonlocal theories eliminates an arbitrary cosmological constant (CC) from a universe that can be perceived as our world. Dark energy then cannot be explained by a CC; it could however be due to massive gravity. We calculate the new corrections, which originate from the nonlocal terms that eliminate the CC, to the decoupling limit Lagrangian of massive gravity. The new nonlocal terms also have internal field space Galilean symmetry and are referred here as “nonlocal Galileons.” We then study a self-accelerated solution and show that the new nonlocal terms change the perturbative stability analysis. In particular, small fluctuations are now stable and non-superluminal for some simple parameter choices, whereas for the same choices the pure massive gravity fluctuations are unstable. We also study stable spherically symmetric solutions on this background.

  9. Virial Theorem in Nonlocal Newtonian Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mashhoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal gravity is the recent classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravitation in which the past history of the gravitational field is taken into account. In this theory, nonlocality appears to simulate dark matter. The virial theorem for the Newtonian regime of nonlocal gravity theory is derived and its consequences for “isolated” astronomical systems in virial equilibrium at the present epoch are investigated. In particular, for a sufficiently isolated nearby galaxy in virial equilibrium, the galaxy’s baryonic diameter D 0 —namely, the diameter of the smallest sphere that completely surrounds the baryonic system at the present time—is predicted to be larger than the effective dark matter fraction f D M times a universal length that is the basic nonlocality length scale λ 0 ≈ 3 ± 2 kpc.

  10. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens.

  11. Prey-Predator Model with a Nonlocal Bistable Dynamics of Prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Banerjee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal pattern formation in integro-differential equation models of interacting populations is an active area of research, which has emerged through the introduction of nonlocal intra- and inter-specific interactions. Stationary patterns are reported for nonlocal interactions in prey and predator populations for models with prey-dependent functional response, specialist predator and linear intrinsic death rate for predator species. The primary goal of our present work is to consider nonlocal consumption of resources in a spatiotemporal prey-predator model with bistable reaction kinetics for prey growth in the absence of predators. We derive the conditions of the Turing and of the spatial Hopf bifurcation around the coexisting homogeneous steady-state and verify the analytical results through extensive numerical simulations. Bifurcations of spatial patterns are also explored numerically.

  12. Overlapping Schwarz for Nonlinear Problems. An Element Agglomeration Nonlinear Additive Schwarz Preconditioned Newton Method for Unstructured Finite Element Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X C; Marcinkowski, L; Vassilevski, P S

    2005-02-10

    This paper extends previous results on nonlinear Schwarz preconditioning ([4]) to unstructured finite element elliptic problems exploiting now nonlocal (but small) subspaces. The non-local finite element subspaces are associated with subdomains obtained from a non-overlapping element partitioning of the original set of elements and are coarse outside the prescribed element subdomain. The coarsening is based on a modification of the agglomeration based AMGe method proposed in [8]. Then, the algebraic construction from [9] of the corresponding non-linear finite element subproblems is applied to generate the subspace based nonlinear preconditioner. The overall nonlinearly preconditioned problem is solved by an inexact Newton method. Numerical illustration is also provided.

  13. Experimental nonlocal steering of Bohmian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Kedem, Yaron; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-26

    Interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM), or proposals for underlying theories, that attempt to present a definite realist picture, such as Bohmian mechanics, require strong non-local effects. Naively, these effects would violate causality and contradict special relativity. However if the theory agrees with QM the violation cannot be observed directly. Here, we demonstrate experimentally such an effect: we steer the velocity and trajectory of a Bohmian particle using a remote measurement. We use a pair of photons and entangle the spatial transverse position of one with the polarization of the other. The first photon is sent to a double-slit-like apparatus, where its trajectory is measured using the technique of Weak Measurements. The other photon is projected to a linear polarization state. The choice of polarization state, and the result, steer the first photon in the most intuitive sense of the word. The effect is indeed shown to be dramatic, while being easy to visualize. We discuss its strength and what are the conditions for it to occur.

  14. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Based on the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the produced photon pairs can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  15. (Non)perturbative gravity, nonlocality, and nice slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    Perturbative dynamics of gravity is investigated for high-energy scattering and in black hole backgrounds. In the latter case, a straightforward perturbative analysis fails, in a close parallel to the failure of the former when the impact parameter reaches the Schwarzschild radius. This suggests a flaw in a semiclassical description of physics on spatial slices that intersect both outgoing Hawking radiation and matter that has carried information into a black hole; such slices are instrumental in a general argument for black hole information loss. This indicates a possible role for the proposal that nonperturbative gravitational physics is intrinsically nonlocal

  16. Detecting nonlocal Cooper pair entanglement by optical Bell inequality violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Simon E.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Walter, Stefan; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity, the coherent splitting of Cooper pairs from a superconductor to two spatially separated quantum dots has been predicted to generate nonlocal pairs of entangled electrons. In order to test this hypothesis, we propose a scheme to transfer the spin state of a split Cooper pair onto the polarization state of a pair of optical photons. We show that the photon pairs produced can be used to violate a Bell inequality, unambiguously demonstrating the entanglement of the split Cooper pairs.

  17. Strong coupling between coherent gratings due to nonlinear spatial frequency mixing in Bi12SiO20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Buchhave, P.; Petersen, Paul Michael

    1996-01-01

    Nonlinear interactions between multiple coherent photorefractive gratings in Bi12SiO20 are investigated. It is demonstrated that the nonlinear mixing, or cross talk, is strongly influenced by the intensity ration kappa between the two object beams. The diffraction efficiency of a specific grating...... may be increased or strongly decreased depending on kappa. In the limit of a weak reference beam intensity compared to the sum of the object beam intencities, we derive an analytical expression for the cross talk valid for all kappa. Furthermore, we find the value of kappa yielding zero cross talk. We...

  18. Existence and uniqueness of positive solutions for a nonlocal dispersal population model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Wen Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the solutions of a nonlocal dispersal equation with a spatial weight representing competitions and aggregation. To overcome the limitations of comparison principles, we introduce new definitions of upper-lower solutions. The proof of existence and uniqueness of positive solutions is based on the method of monotone iteration sequences.

  19. Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Zozulya, A.A.; Mezentsev, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    We find and analyze bound dipole solitary solutions in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The dipole solutions consist of two elliptically shaped Gaussian-type beams separated by several diameters, and with a pi phase shift between their fields. Spatial evolution...

  20. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  1. Bell's theorem, accountability and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Nicola; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Bell's theorem is a fundamental theorem in physics concerning the incompatibility between some correlations predicted by quantum theory and a large class of physical theories. In this paper, we introduce the hypothesis of accountability, which demands that it is possible to explain the correlations of the data collected in many runs of a Bell experiment in terms of what happens in each single run. Under this assumption, and making use of a recent result by Colbeck and Renner (2011 Nature Commun. 2 411), we then show that any nontrivial account of these correlations in the form of an extension of quantum theory must violate parameter independence. Moreover, we analyze the violation of outcome independence of quantum mechanics and show that it is also a manifestation of nonlocality. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell's theorem’. (paper)

  2. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox

  3. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  4. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-09-01

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.140402 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  5. Revealing Hidden Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walborn, S. P.; Salles, A.; Gomes, R. M.; Toscano, F.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.

    2011-04-01

    Steering is a form of quantum nonlocality that is intimately related to the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox that ignited the ongoing discussion of quantum correlations. Within the hierarchy of nonlocal correlations appearing in nature, EPR steering occupies an intermediate position between Bell nonlocality and entanglement. In continuous variable systems, EPR steering correlations have been observed by violation of Reid’s EPR inequality, which is based on inferred variances of complementary observables. Here we propose and experimentally test a new criterion based on entropy functions, and show that it is more powerful than the variance inequality for identifying EPR steering. Using the entropic criterion our experimental results show EPR steering, while the variance criterion does not. Our results open up the possibility of observing this type of nonlocality in a wider variety of quantum states.

  6. Employee Travel Data (Non-Local)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — ‘This dataset provides information regarding the total approved actual expenses incurred by Montgomery County government employees traveling non-locally (over 75...

  7. Plasmonic nanostructures: local versus nonlocal response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Wubs, Martijn; Xiao, Sanshui

    2010-01-01

    , and hence it is sensitive to possible narrow resonances that may arise due to strong electronic quantum confinement in the metal. This feature allows us to accurately determine which geometries are strongly affected by nonlocal response, for example regarding applications based on electric field enhancement......We study the importance of taking the nonlocal optical response of metals into account for accurate determination of optical properties of nanoplasmonic structures. Here we focus on the computational physics aspects of this problem, and in particular we report on the nonlocal-response package...... that we wrote for state-of the art numerical software, enabling us to take into account the nonlocal material response of metals for any arbitrarily shaped nanoplasmonic structures, without much numerical overhead as compared to the standard local response. Our method is a frequency-domain method...

  8. Nonlinear propagation of a spatially incoherent laser beam: self-induced smoothing and reduction of scattering instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximov, A.V.; Ourdev, I.G.; Rozmus, W.; Capjack, C.E.; Mounaix, Ph.; Huller, S.; Pesme, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Divol, L.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that plasma-induced angular spreading and spectral broadening of a spatially incoherent laser beam correspond to increased spatial and temporal incoherence of the laser light. The spatial incoherence is characterized by an effective beam f-number, decreasing in space along the direction of light propagation. Plasma-induced beam smoothing can influence laser-plasma interaction physics. In particular, decreasing the correlation time of the propagating laser light may dramatically reduce the levels of backward stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering inside the plasma. Also, the decrease of the laser beam effective f-number reduces the reflectivity of backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. (authors)

  9. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arises from ultra-planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simul...

  10. Gauging Non-local Quark Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniowski, W.

    1999-09-01

    The gauge effective quark model with non-local interactions is considered. It is shown how this approach regularize the theory in such a way that the anomalies are preserved and charges are properly quantized. With non-local interactions the effective action is finite to all orders in the loop expansion and there is no need to introduce the quark momentum cut-off parameter

  11. Robust non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filter with superior performance on detail-preserving removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on natural gray-scale images. The non-local means filter is in the limelight as a way of Gaussian noise removal with superior performance on detail preservation. By referring the fundamental concept of the non-local means, we had proposed a non-local median filter as a specialized way for random-valued impulse noise removal so far. In the non-local processing, the output of a filter is calculated from pixels in blocks which are similar to the block centered at a pixel of interest. As a result, aggressive noise removal is conducted without destroying the detailed structures in an original image. However, the performance of non-local processing decreases enormously in the case of high noise occurrence probability. A cause of this problem is that the superimposed noise disturbs accurate calculation of the similarity between the blocks. To cope with this problem, we propose an improved non-local median filter which is robust to the high level of corruption by introducing a new similarity measure considering possibility of being the original signal. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural gray-scale images.

  12. Nonlocal quasinormal modes for arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional plasmonic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandar Dezfouli, Mohsen; Tserkezis, Christos; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    Nonlocal effects have been shown to be responsible for a variety of non-trivial optical effects in small-size plasmonic nanoparticles, beyond classical electrodynamics. However, it is not clear whether optical mode descriptions can be applied to such extreme confinement regimes. Here, we present...... quasinormal modes, even at the single mode level. We exemplify the use of this theory by calculating the Purcell factors of single quantum emitters, the electron energy-loss spectroscopy spatial maps, as well as the Mollow triplet spectra of field-driven quantum dots with and without nonlocal effects...... for different size nanoresonators. Our nonlocal quasinormal mode theory offers a reliable and efficient technique to study both classical and quantum optical problems in nanoplasmonics....

  13. Asymptotic properties of blow-up solutions in reaction-diffusion equations with nonlocal boundary flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingchen; Dong, Mengzhen; Li, Fengjie

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with a reaction-diffusion problem with coupled nonlinear inner sources and nonlocal boundary flux. Firstly, we propose the critical exponents on nonsimultaneous blow-up under some conditions on the initial data. Secondly, we combine the scaling technique and the Green's identity method to determine four kinds of simultaneous blow-up rates. Thirdly, the lower and the upper bounds of blow-up time are derived by using Sobolev-type differential inequalities.

  14. A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes in electrode particles of lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Kamlah, Marc

    2018-01-01

    A nonlocal species concentration theory for diffusion and phase changes is introduced from a nonlocal free energy density. It can be applied, say, to electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. This theory incorporates two second-order partial differential equations involving second-order spatial derivatives of species concentration and an additional variable called nonlocal species concentration. Nonlocal species concentration theory can be interpreted as an extension of the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In principle, nonlocal effects beyond an infinitesimal neighborhood are taken into account. In this theory, the nonlocal free energy density is split into the penalty energy density and the variance energy density. The thickness of the interface between two phases in phase segregated states of a material is controlled by a normalized penalty energy coefficient and a characteristic interface length scale. We implemented the theory in COMSOL Multiphysics^{circledR } for a spherically symmetric boundary value problem of lithium insertion into a Li_xMn_2O_4 cathode material particle of a lithium ion battery. The two above-mentioned material parameters controlling the interface are determined for Li_xMn_2O_4 , and the interface evolution is studied. Comparison to the Cahn-Hilliard theory shows that nonlocal species concentration theory is superior when simulating problems where the dimensions of the microstructure such as phase boundaries are of the same order of magnitude as the problem size. This is typically the case in nanosized particles of phase-separating electrode materials. For example, the nonlocality of nonlocal species concentration theory turns out to make the interface of the local concentration field thinner than in Cahn-Hilliard theory.

  15. Hopf bifurcation in a reaction-diffusive two-species model with nonlocal delay effect and general functional response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Renji; Dai, Binxiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We model general two-dimensional reaction-diffusion with nonlocal delay. • The existence of unique positive steady state is studied. • The bilinear form for the proposed system is given. • The existence, direction of Hopf bifurcation are given by symmetry method. - Abstract: A nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusive two-species model with Dirichlet boundary condition and general functional response is investigated in this paper. Based on the Lyapunov–Schmidt reduction, the existence, bifurcation direction and stability of Hopf bifurcating periodic orbits near the positive spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution are obtained, where the time delay is taken as the bifurcation parameter. Moreover, the general results are applied to a diffusive Lotka–Volterra type food-limited population model with nonlocal delay effect, and it is found that diffusion and nonlocal delay can also affect the other dynamic behavior of the system by numerical experiments.

  16. Stabilized linear semi-implicit schemes for the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qiang; Ju, Lili; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Zhonghua

    2018-06-01

    Comparing with the well-known classic Cahn-Hilliard equation, the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation is equipped with a nonlocal diffusion operator and can describe more practical phenomena for modeling phase transitions of microstructures in materials. On the other hand, it evidently brings more computational costs in numerical simulations, thus efficient and accurate time integration schemes are highly desired. In this paper, we propose two energy-stable linear semi-implicit methods with first and second order temporal accuracies respectively for solving the nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard equation. The temporal discretization is done by using the stabilization technique with the nonlocal diffusion term treated implicitly, while the spatial discretization is carried out by the Fourier collocation method with FFT-based fast implementations. The energy stabilities are rigorously established for both methods in the fully discrete sense. Numerical experiments are conducted for a typical case involving Gaussian kernels. We test the temporal convergence rates of the proposed schemes and make a comparison of the nonlocal phase transition process with the corresponding local one. In addition, long-time simulations of the coarsening dynamics are also performed to predict the power law of the energy decay.

  17. Nonlocal Dynamics in Nonlinear Biomolecular and Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Ulrik Vingaard

    2006-01-01

    Begrebet ikke-lokalitet nyder større og større interesse indenfor modelleringen af fysiske systemer - og med god grund. At en model er ikke-lokal betyder at for at kunne beskrive dens fysiske egenskaber i et givet punkt korrekt er det ikke tilstrækkeligt blot at betragte omstændighederne netop de...

  18. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses...

  19. Weakly nonlocal symplectic structures, Whitham method and weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltsev, A Ya

    2005-01-01

    We consider the special type of field-theoretical symplectic structures called weakly nonlocal. The structures of this type are, in particular, very common for integrable systems such as KdV or NLS. We introduce here the special class of weakly nonlocal symplectic structures which we call weakly nonlocal symplectic structures of hydrodynamic type. We investigate then the connection of such structures with the Whitham averaging method and propose the procedure of 'averaging' the weakly nonlocal symplectic structures. The averaging procedure gives the weakly nonlocal symplectic structure of hydrodynamic type for the corresponding Whitham system. The procedure also gives 'action variables' corresponding to the wave numbers of m-phase solutions of the initial system which give the additional conservation laws for the Whitham system

  20. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  1. Sign-changing solutions for non-local elliptic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxiao Luo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence of sign-changing solutions for equations driven by a non-local integrodifferential operator with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions, $$\\displaylines{ -\\mathcal{L}_Ku=f(x,u,\\quad x\\in \\Omega, \\cr u=0,\\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^n\\setminus\\Omega, }$$ where $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb{R}^n\\; (n\\geq2$ is a bounded, smooth domain and the nonlinear term f satisfies suitable growth assumptions. By using Brouwer's degree theory and Deformation Lemma and arguing as in [2], we prove that there exists a least energy sign-changing solution. Our results generalize and improve some results obtained in [27

  2. Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-11-04

    Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of bank failure during extreme flood events: Evidence of nonlinearity and self-organised criticality at the basin scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. J.; Croke, J. C.; Grove, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Non-linearity in physical systems provides a conceptual framework to explain complex patterns and form that are derived from complex internal dynamics rather than external forcings, and can be used to inform modeling and improve landscape management. One process that has been investigated previously to explore the existence of self-organised critical system (SOC) in river systems at the basin-scale is bank failure. Spatial trends in bank failure have been previously quantified to determine if the distribution of bank failures at the basin scale exhibit the necessary power law magnitude/frequency distributions. More commonly bank failures are investigated at a small-scale using several cross-sections with strong emphasis on local-scale factors such as bank height, cohesion and hydraulic properties. Advancing our understanding of non-linearity in such processes, however, requires many more studies where both the spatial and temporal measurements of the process can be used to investigate the existence or otherwise of non-linearity and self-organised criticality. This study presents measurements of bank failure throughout the Lockyer catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia, which experienced an extreme flood event in January 2011 resulting in the loss of human lives and geomorphic channel change. The most dominant form of fluvial adjustment consisted of changes in channel geometry and notably widespread bank failures, which were readily identifiable as 'scalloped' shaped failure scarps. The spatial extents of these were mapped using high-resolution LiDAR derived digital elevation model and were verified by field surveys and air photos. Pre-flood event LiDAR coverage for the catchment also existed allowing direct comparison of the magnitude and frequency of bank failures from both pre and post-flood time periods. Data were collected and analysed within a GIS framework and investigated for power-law relationships. Bank failures appeared random and occurred

  4. Non-local matrix generalizations of W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, A.

    1995-01-01

    There is a standard way to define two symplectic (hamiltonian) structures, the first and second Gelfand-Dikii brackets, on the space of ordinary m th -order linear differential operators L=-d m +U 1 d m-1 +U 2 d m-2 +..+U m . In this paper, I consider in detail the case where the U k are nxn-matrix-valued functions, with particular emphasis on the (more interesting) second Gelfand-Dikii bracket. Of particular interest is the reduction to the symplectic submanifold U 1 =0. This reduction gives rise to matrix generalizations of (the classical version of) the non-linear W m -algebras, called V n,m -algebras. The non-commutativity of the matrices leads to non-local terms in these V n,m -algebras. I show that these algebras contain a conformal Virasoro subalgebra and that combinations W k of the U k can be formed that are nxn-matrices of conformally primary fields of spin k, in analogy with the scalar case n=1. In general however, the V m,n -algebras have a much richer structure than the W m -algebras as can be seen on the examples of the non-linear and non-local Poisson brackets {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(U 2 ) cd (σ')}, {(U 2 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} and {(W 3 ) ab (σ),(W 3 ) cd (σ')} which I work out explicitly for all m and n. A matrix Miura transformation is derived, mapping these complicated (second Gelfand-Dikii) brackets of the U k to a set of much simpler Poisson brackets, providing the analogue of the free-field representation of the W m -algebras. (orig.)

  5. Controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with delay and Poisson jumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diem Dang Huan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper is concerned with the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps in Hilbert spaces. Using the theory of a strongly continuous cosine family of bounded linear operators, stochastic analysis theory and with the help of the Banach fixed point theorem, we derive a new set of sufficient conditions for the controllability of nonlocal second-order impulsive neutral stochastic functional integro-differential equations with infinite delay and Poisson jumps. Finally, an application to the stochastic nonlinear wave equation with infinite delay and Poisson jumps is given.

  6. Soliton-induced nonlocal resonances observed through high-intensity tunable spectrally compressed second-harmonic peaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Experimental data of femtosecond thick-crystal second-harmonic generation show that when tuning away from phase matching, a dominating narrow spectral peak appears in the second harmonic that can be tuned over hundreds of nanometers by changing the phase-mismatch parameter. Traditional theory...... and the nonlocal theory indirectly proves that we have observed a soliton-induced nonlocal resonance. The soliton exists in the self-defocusing regime of the cascaded nonlinear interaction and in the normal dispersion regime of the crystal, and needs high input intensities to become excited....

  7. Engineering Synthesis of Nonlinear Spatial Selection with Artificial Intelligence Elements to Suppress Critical Interference of Background in Aviation and Space-Based Opto-Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Levshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous authors’ works have shown that the system of quasi-optimal linear spatial filtering, due to the restriction of this class of filters, related to the superposition principle, has very limited capacity to suppress the most critical interference spatially inhomogeneous background. Such partial suppression does not meet extreme approach requirements for providing high probability characteristics to detect small targets in the most difficult background conditions.In this regard, there is a conclusion that it is necessary to find a different approach, in which the result of the system operation in complex background does not depend on the level of the background noise at the input. This article performs an engineering synthesis of the system with the artificial visual intelligence elements, which recognizes a class of the small-sized radiating objects with the suppression of the most critical interference through nonlinear topological selection.Consideration of this problem begins with the formation of the filter-discriminator aperture, which is a basis for this theory, «echoing» with the theory of optimal nonlinear filtering spatial Poisson processes. Thus, formation of the optimized nonlinear filter structure is based on the optimal linear filter (Wiener filter structure. As a result, there are three versions of filter apertures (4-, 8- and 16-connected ones, with one of which later providing operations of the object shape discrimination. The focus of the article is, mainly, on the 8-connected aperture, as the average in balance of efficiency and complexity option.The article pays considerable attention to development of signs and algorithms to select the objects by size and shape. It shows that selection on a uniform background is possible by the maximum value of the first derivative and to separate the most critical form of Markov’s field inhomogeneities and background brightness, as the fragments of component boundaries of

  8. A Generalized Nonlocal Calculus with Application to the Peridynamics Model for Solid Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2014-01-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in [2] that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A generalization is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal...

  9. Nonlocal discrete regularization on weighted graphs: a framework for image and manifold processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Lezoray, Olivier; Bougleux, Sébastien

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a nonlocal discrete regularization framework on weighted graphs of the arbitrary topologies for image and manifold processing. The approach considers the problem as a variational one, which consists of minimizing a weighted sum of two energy terms: a regularization one that uses a discrete weighted p-Dirichlet energy and an approximation one. This is the discrete analogue of recent continuous Euclidean nonlocal regularization functionals. The proposed formulation leads to a family of simple and fast nonlinear processing methods based on the weighted p-Laplace operator, parameterized by the degree p of regularity, the graph structure and the graph weight function. These discrete processing methods provide a graph-based version of recently proposed semi-local or nonlocal processing methods used in image and mesh processing, such as the bilateral filter, the TV digital filter or the nonlocal means filter. It works with equal ease on regular 2-D and 3-D images, manifolds or any data. We illustrate the abilities of the approach by applying it to various types of images, meshes, manifolds, and data represented as graphs.

  10. Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory.

  11. Constraining generalized non-local cosmology from Noether symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dialektopoulos, Konstantinos F. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Pancini' ' , Naples (Italy); Complesso di Monte Sant' Angelo, Naples (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    We study a generalized non-local theory of gravity which, in specific limits, can become either the curvature non-local or teleparallel non-local theory. Using the Noether symmetry approach, we find that the coupling functions coming from the non-local terms are constrained to be either exponential or linear in form. It is well known that in some non-local theories, a certain kind of exponential non-local couplings is needed in order to achieve a renormalizable theory. In this paper, we explicitly show that this kind of coupling does not need to be introduced by hand, instead, it appears naturally from the symmetries of the Lagrangian in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. Finally, we find de Sitter and power-law cosmological solutions for different non-local theories. The symmetries for the generalized non-local theory are also found and some cosmological solutions are also achieved using the full theory. (orig.)

  12. NLOM - a program for nonlocal optical model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.T.; Kyum, M.C.; Hong, S.W.; Park, M.H.; Udagawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    A FORTRAN program NLOM for nonlocal optical model calculations is described. It is based on a method recently developed by Kim and Udagawa, which utilizes the Lanczos technique for solving integral equations derived from the nonlocal Schroedinger equation. (orig.)

  13. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    for the 'fine scale' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can

  14. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arise from ultra-Planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simultaneous description of modes that have fallen into the black hole and outgoing Hawking modes can be given without appearance of a large kinematic invariant, or other dependence on ultra-Planckian physics. This indicates that a reliable argument for information loss has not been constructed, and that strong gravitational dynamics is important. Such dynamics has been argued to be fundamentally nonlocal in extreme situations, such as those required to investigate the fate of information

  15. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang, Ru [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Ethnic Minority Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Chuan, E-mail: wangchuan@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  16. Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.

  17. Nonlocal correlations as an information-theoretic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Jonathan; Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Roberts, David

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that measurements performed on spatially separated entangled quantum systems can give rise to correlations that are nonlocal, in the sense that a Bell inequality is violated. They cannot, however, be used for superluminal signaling. It is also known that it is possible to write down sets of 'superquantum' correlations that are more nonlocal than is allowed by quantum mechanics, yet are still nonsignaling. Viewed as an information-theoretic resource, superquantum correlations are very powerful at reducing the amount of communication needed for distributed computational tasks. An intriguing question is why quantum mechanics does not allow these more powerful correlations. We aim to shed light on the range of quantum possibilities by placing them within a wider context. With this in mind, we investigate the set of correlations that are constrained only by the no-signaling principle. These correlations form a polytope, which contains the quantum correlations as a (proper) subset. We determine the vertices of the no-signaling polytope in the case that two observers each choose from two possible measurements with d outcomes. We then consider how interconversions between different sorts of correlations may be achieved. Finally, we consider some multipartite examples

  18. Reversed rainbow with a nonlocal metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, Tiago A., E-mail: tiago.morgado@co.it.pt; Marcos, João S.; Silveirinha, Mário G., E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Department of Electrical Engineering, Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Coimbra, 3030 Coimbra (Portugal); Costa, João T. [CST AG, Bad Nauheimer Strasse 19, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Costa, Jorge R. [Instituto de Telecomunicações and Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL), 1649-026 Lisboa (Portugal); Fernandes, Carlos A. [Instituto de Telecomunicações, and Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-12-29

    One of the intriguing potentials of metamaterials is the possibility to realize a nonlocal electromagnetic reaction, such that the effective medium response at a given point is fundamentally entangled with the macroscopic field distribution at long distances. Here, it is experimentally and numerically verified that a microwave nonlocal metamaterial formed by crossed metallic wires enables a low-loss broadband anomalous material response such that the refractive index decreases with frequency. Notably, it is shown that an electromagnetic beam refracted by our metamaterial prism creates a reversed microwave rainbow.

  19. On nonlocal modeling in continuum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Martowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to provide an overview of nonlocal formulations for models of elastic solids. The author presents the physical foundations for nonlocal theories of continuum mechanics, followed by various analytical and numerical techniques. The characteristics and range of practical applications for the presented approaches are discussed. The results of numerical simulations for the selected case studies are provided to demonstrate the properties of the described methods. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from peridynamic analyses. Fatigue and axial stretching were simulated to show the capabilities of the developed numerical tools.

  20. Hyperbolic metamaterials: Nonlocal response regularizes broadband supersingularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We study metamaterials known as hyperbolic media that in the usual local-response approximation exhibit hyperbolic dispersion and an associated broadband singularity in the density of states. Instead, from the more microscopic hydrodynamic Drude theory we derive qualitatively different optical...... properties of these metamaterials, due to the free-electron nonlocal optical response of their metal constituents. We demonstrate that nonlocal response gives rise to a large-wavevector cutoff in the dispersion that is inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity of the electron gas, but also for small...

  1. Nonlocal Symmetries, Conservation Laws and Interaction Solutions of the Generalised Dispersive Modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue-Wei; Tian, Shou-Fu; Dong, Min-Jie; Wang, Xiu-Bin; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2018-05-01

    We consider the generalised dispersive modified Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation, which describes an approximation status for long surface wave existed in the non-linear dispersive media. By employing the truncated Painlevé expansion method, we derive its non-local symmetry and Bäcklund transformation. The non-local symmetry is localised by a new variable, which provides the corresponding non-local symmetry group and similarity reductions. Moreover, a direct method can be provided to construct a kind of finite symmetry transformation via the classic Lie point symmetry of the normal prolonged system. Finally, we find that the equation is a consistent Riccati expansion solvable system. With the help of the Jacobi elliptic function, we get its interaction solutions between solitary waves and cnoidal periodic waves.

  2. Nonreciprocal acoustics and dynamics in the in-plane oscillations of a geometrically nonlinear lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Koroleva, I; Manevitch, L I; Bergman, L A; Vakakis, A F

    2016-09-01

    We study the dynamics and acoustics of a nonlinear lattice with fixed boundary conditions composed of a finite number of particles coupled by linear springs, undergoing in-plane oscillations. The source of the strongly nonlinearity of this lattice is geometric effects generated by the in-plane stretching of the coupling linear springs. It has been shown that in the limit of low energy the lattice gives rise to a strongly nonlinear acoustic vacuum, which is a medium with zero speed of sound as defined in classical acoustics. The acoustic vacuum possesses strongly nonlocal coupling effects and an orthogonal set of nonlinear standing waves [or nonlinear normal modes (NNMs)] with mode shapes identical to those of the corresponding linear lattice; in contrast to the linear case, however, all NNMs except the one with the highest wavelength are unstable. In addition, the lattice supports two types of waves, namely, nearly linear sound waves (termed "L waves") corresponding to predominantly axial oscillations of the particles and strongly nonlinear localized propagating pulses (termed "NL pulses") corresponding to predominantly transverse oscillating wave packets of the particles with localized envelopes. We show the existence of nonlinear nonreciprocity phenomena in the dynamics and acoustics of the lattice. Two opposite cases are examined in the limit of low energy. The first gives rise to nonreciprocal dynamics and corresponds to collective, spatially extended transverse loading of the lattice leading to the excitation of individual, predominantly transverse NNMs, whereas the second case gives rise to nonreciprocal acoutics by considering the response of the lattice to spatially localized, transverse impulse or displacement excitations. We demonstrate intense and recurring energy exchanges between a directly excited NNM and other NNMs with higher wave numbers, so that nonreciprocal energy exchanges from small-to-large wave numbers are established. Moreover, we show the

  3. A model of the extended electron and its nonlocal electromagnetic interaction: Gauge invariance of the nonlocal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namsrai, Kh.; Nyamtseren, N.

    1994-09-01

    A model of the extended electron is constructed by using definition of the d-operation. Gauge invariance of the nonlocal theory is proved. We use the Efimov approach to describe the nonlocal interaction of quantized fields. (author). 4 refs

  4. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...

  5. Fractional power-law spatial dispersion in electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.; Trujillo, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    Electric fields in non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion are discussed. Equations involving a fractional Laplacian in the Riesz form that describe the electric fields in such non-local media are studied. The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for power-law non-local media are characterized. We consider simple models with anomalous behavior of plasma-like media with power-law spatial dispersions. The suggested fractional differential models for these plasma-like media are discussed to describe non-local properties of power-law type. -- Highlights: •Plasma-like non-local media with power-law spatial dispersion. •Fractional differential equations for electric fields in the media. •The generalizations of Coulomb’s law and Debye’s screening for the media

  6. Nonlinear quantum gravity on the constant mean curvature foliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantum gravity is presented based on a nonlinear quantization scheme for canonical field theories with an implicitly defined Hamiltonian. The constant mean curvature foliation is employed to eliminate the momentum constraints in canonical general relativity. It is, however, argued that the Hamiltonian constraint may be advantageously retained in the reduced classical system to be quantized. This permits the Hamiltonian constraint equation to be consistently turned into an expectation value equation on quantization that describes the scale factor on each spatial hypersurface characterized by a constant mean exterior curvature. This expectation value equation augments the dynamical quantum evolution of the unconstrained conformal three-geometry with a transverse traceless momentum tensor density. The resulting quantum theory is inherently nonlinear. Nonetheless, it is unitary and free from a nonlocal and implicit description of the Hamiltonian operator. Finally, by imposing additional homogeneity symmetries, a broad class of Bianchi cosmological models are analysed as nonlinear quantum minisuperspaces in the context of the proposed theory

  7. Quadratic solitons for negative effective second-harmonic diffraction as nonlocal solitons with periodic nonlocal response function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, B.K.; Bache, Morten; Krolikowski, W.

    2012-01-01

    We employ the formal analogy between quadratic and nonlocal solitons to investigate analytically the properties of solitons and soliton bound states in second-harmonic generation in the regime of negative diffraction or dispersion of the second harmonic. We show that in the nonlocal description...... this regime corresponds to a periodic nonlocal response function. We then use the strongly nonlocal approximation to find analytical solutions of the families of single bright solitons and their bound states in terms of Mathieu functions....

  8. Nonlocal effective actions in semiclassical gravity: Thermal effects in stationary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, M.; Mazzitelli, F. D.; Trombetta, L. G.

    2017-11-01

    We compute the gravitational effective action by integrating out quantum matter fields in a weak gravitational field, using the Schwinger-Keldysh (in-in) formalism. We pay particular attention to the role of the initial quantum state in the structure of the nonlocal terms in the effective action, with an eye to nonlinear completions of the theory that may be relevant in astrophysics and cosmology. In this first paper we consider a quantum scalar field in thermal equilibrium, in a stationary gravitational field. We obtain a covariant expression for the nonlocal effective action, which can be expressed in terms of the curvature tensor, the four-velocity of the thermal bath, and the local Tolman temperature. We discuss the connection between the results for ultrastatic and static metrics through conformal transformations, and the main features of the thermal corrections to the semiclassical Einstein equations.

  9. Regularized finite element modeling of progressive failure in soils within nonlocal softening plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maosong; Qu, Xie; Lü, Xilin

    2017-11-01

    By solving a nonlinear complementarity problem for the consistency condition, an improved implicit stress return iterative algorithm for a generalized over-nonlocal strain softening plasticity was proposed, and the consistent tangent matrix was obtained. The proposed algorithm was embodied into existing finite element codes, and it enables the nonlocal regularization of ill-posed boundary value problem caused by the pressure independent and dependent strain softening plasticity. The algorithm was verified by the numerical modeling of strain localization in a plane strain compression test. The results showed that a fast convergence can be achieved and the mesh-dependency caused by strain softening can be effectively eliminated. The influences of hardening modulus and material characteristic length on the simulation were obtained. The proposed algorithm was further used in the simulations of the bearing capacity of a strip footing; the results are mesh-independent, and the progressive failure process of the soil was well captured.

  10. Nonlocal constitutive equations of elasto-visco-plasticity coupled with damage and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nonlocal anisothermal elasto-visco-plastic constitutive equations strongly coupled with ductile isotropic damage, nonlinear isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening are developed to model the material behaviour under finite strain. The new micromorphic variable of damage is introduced into the principle of virtual power and new additional balance equations are obtained. Thermodynamically-consistent nonlocal constitutive equations are then deduced. The evolution equations are deduced from the generalized normality rule for the Norton-Hoff visco-plastic potential. This model is used to simulate various material responses under different velocities at high temperature. The micromorphic parameters of damage: micromorphic density and H moduli are studied to examine the effects of micromorphic damage. Biaxial tension is performed to make a comparison between the local damage model and the micromorphic damage model.

  11. Nonlocality, Entanglement Witnesses and Supra-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    quantum non-locality, non-signaling theories, Popescu-Rohrlich boxes, EPR 1. INTRODUCTION Physics imposes limits on the correlations that can be...References [1] J.S. Bell, “On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox ,” Physics 1, 195 (1964). [2] B. Tsirelson, “Quantum Generalizations of Bell’s

  12. Energy dependence of nonlocal optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A. E.; Bacq, P.-L.; Capel, P.; Nunes, F. M.; Titus, L. J.

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a variety of studies have shown the importance of including nonlocality in the description of reactions. The goal of this work is to revisit the phenomenological approach to determining nonlocal optical potentials from elastic scattering. We perform a χ2 analysis of neutron elastic scattering data off 40Ca, 90Zr, and 208Pb at energies E ≈5 -40 MeV, assuming a Perey and Buck [Nucl. Phys. 32, 353 (1962), 10.1016/0029-5582(62)90345-0] or Tian et al. [Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 24, 1550006 (2015), 10.1142/S0218301315500068] nonlocal form for the optical potential. We introduce energy and asymmetry dependencies in the imaginary part of the potential and refit the data to obtain a global parametrization. Independently of the starting point in the minimization procedure, an energy dependence in the imaginary depth is required for a good description of the data across the included energy range. We present two parametrizations, both of which represent an improvement over the original potentials for the fitted nuclei as well as for other nuclei not included in our fit. Our results show that, even when including the standard Gaussian nonlocality in optical potentials, a significant energy dependence is required to describe elastic-scattering data.

  13. Nonlocal study of ultimate plasmon hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Wubs, Martijn; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    the transition from separated dimers via touching dimers to finally overlapping dimers. In particular, we focus on the touching case, showing a fundamental limit on the hybridization of the bonding plasmon modes due to nonlocality. Using transformation optics, we determine a simple analytical equation...

  14. The statistical strength of nonlocality proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van W.; Gill, R.D.; Grünwald, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    There exist numerous proofs of Bell's theorem, stating that quantum mechanics is incompatible with local realistic theories of nature. Here the strength of such nonlocality proofs is defined in terms of the amount of evidence against local realism provided by the corresponding experiments.

  15. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  16. Travelling wave and convergence in stage-structured reaction-diffusion competitive models with nonlocal delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rui; Chaplain, M.A.J.; Davidson, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first investigate a stage-structured competitive model with time delays, harvesting, and nonlocal spatial effect. By using an iterative technique recently developed by Wu and Zou (Wu J, Zou X. Travelling wave fronts of reaction-diffusion systems with delay. J Dynam Differen Equat 2001;13:651-87), sufficient conditions are established for the existence of travelling front solution connecting the two boundary equilibria in the case when there is no positive equilibrium. The travelling wave front corresponds to an invasion by a stronger species which drives the weaker species to extinction. Secondly, we consider a stage-structured competitive model with time delays and nonlocal spatial effect when the domain is finite. We prove the global stability of each of the nonnegative equilibria and demonstrate that the more complex model studied here admits three possible long term behaviors: coexistence, bistability and dominance as is the case for the standard Lotka-Voltera competitive model

  17. Nonlocal gravity. Conceptual aspects and cosmological predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgacem, Enis; Dirian, Yves; Foffa, Stefano; Maggiore, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Even if the fundamental action of gravity is local, the corresponding quantum effective action, that includes the effect of quantum fluctuations, is a nonlocal object. These nonlocalities are well understood in the ultraviolet regime but much less in the infrared, where they could in principle give rise to important cosmological effects. Here we systematize and extend previous work of our group, in which it is assumed that a mass scale Λ is dynamically generated in the infrared, giving rise to nonlocal terms in the quantum effective action of gravity. We give a detailed discussion of conceptual aspects related to nonlocal gravity (including causality, degrees of freedom, ambiguities related to the boundary conditions of the nonlocal operator, scenarios for the emergence of a dynamical scale in the infrared) and of the cosmological consequences of these models. The requirement of providing a viable cosmological evolution severely restricts the form of the nonlocal terms, and selects a model (the so-called RR model) that corresponds to a dynamical mass generation for the conformal mode. For such a model: (1) there is a FRW background evolution, where the nonlocal term acts as an effective dark energy with a phantom equation of state, providing accelerated expansion without a cosmological constant. (2) Cosmological perturbations are well behaved. (3) Implementing the model in a Boltzmann code and comparing with observations we find that the RR model fits the CMB, BAO, SNe, structure formation data and local H0 measurements at a level statistically equivalent to ΛCDM. (4) Bayesian parameter estimation shows that the value of H0 obtained in the RR model is higher than in ΛCDM, reducing to 2.0σ the tension with the value from local measurements. (5) The RR model provides a prediction for the sum of neutrino masses that falls within the limits set by oscillation and terrestrial experiments (in contrast to ΛCDM, where letting the sum of neutrino masses vary as a free

  18. Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2017-01-01

    Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity

  19. Nonlocal collisionless and collisional electron transport in low temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Igor

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the talk is to describe recent advances in nonlocal electron kinetics in low-pressure plasmas. A distinctive property of partially ionized plasmas is that such plasmas are always in a non-equilibrium state: the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with the neutral species and ions, and the electrons are also not in thermodynamic equilibrium within their own ensemble, which results in a significant departure of the electron velocity distribution function from a Maxwellian. These non-equilibrium conditions provide considerable freedom to choose optimal plasma parameters for applications, which make gas discharge plasmas remarkable tools for a variety of plasma applications, including plasma processing, discharge lighting, plasma propulsion, particle beam sources, and nanotechnology. Typical phenomena in such discharges include nonlocal electron kinetics, nonlocal electrodynamics with collisionless electron heating, and nonlinear processes in the sheaths and in the bounded plasmas. Significant progress in understanding the interaction of electromagnetic fields with real bounded plasma created by this field and the resulting changes in the structure of the applied electromagnetic field has been one of the major achievements of the last decade in this area of research [1-3]. We show on specific examples that this progress was made possible by synergy between full scale particle-in-cell simulations, analytical models, and experiments. In collaboration with Y. Raitses, A.V. Khrabrov, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA; V.I. Demidov, UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Beavercreek, OH 45322, USA and AFRL, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433, USA; and D. Sydorenko, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. [4pt] [1] D. Sydorenko, A. Smolyakov, I. Kaganovich, and Y. Raitses, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 34, 895 (2006); Phys. Plasmas 13, 014501 (2006); 14 013508 (2007); 15, 053506 (2008). [0pt] [2] I. D. Kaganovich, Y. Raitses, D. Sydorenko, and

  20. Impact of hyperbolicity on chimera states in ensembles of nonlocally coupled chaotic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenova, N.; Anishchenko, V. [Department of Physics, Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaya Str. 83, 410012 Saratov (Russian Federation); Zakharova, A.; Schöll, E. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-06-08

    In this work we analyse nonlocally coupled networks of identical chaotic oscillators. We study both time-discrete and time-continuous systems (Henon map, Lozi map, Lorenz system). We hypothesize that chimera states, in which spatial domains of coherent (synchronous) and incoherent (desynchronized) dynamics coexist, can be obtained only in networks of chaotic non-hyperbolic systems and cannot be found in networks of hyperbolic systems. This hypothesis is supported by numerical simulations for hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic cases.

  1. Modulational instability in the nonlocal chi(2)-model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, John Andreas; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole

    2007-01-01

    ) 036614; I.V. Shadrivov, A.A. Zharov, Dynamics of optical spatial solitons near the interface between two quadratically nonlinear media, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19 (2002) 596-602]. It is shown that the MI is of the oscillatory type and of finite bandwidth. Moreover, it is possible to identify regions...

  2. Variation of High-Intensity Therapeutic Ultrasound (HITU) Pressure Field Characterization: Effects of Hydrophone Choice, Nonlinearity, Spatial Averaging and Complex Deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbo; Wear, Keith A; Harris, Gerald R

    2017-10-01

    Reliable acoustic characterization is fundamental for patient safety and clinical efficacy during high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) treatment. Technical challenges, such as measurement variation and signal analysis, still exist for HITU exposimetry using ultrasound hydrophones. In this work, four hydrophones were compared for pressure measurement: a robust needle hydrophone, a small polyvinylidene fluoride capsule hydrophone and two fiberoptic hydrophones. The focal waveform and beam distribution of a single-element HITU transducer (1.05 MHz and 3.3 MHz) were evaluated. Complex deconvolution between the hydrophone voltage signal and frequency-dependent complex sensitivity was performed to obtain pressure waveforms. Compressional pressure (p + ), rarefactional pressure (p - ) and focal beam distribution were compared up to 10.6/-6.0 MPa (p + /p - ) (1.05 MHz) and 20.65/-7.20 MPa (3.3 MHz). The effects of spatial averaging, local non-linear distortion, complex deconvolution and hydrophone damage thresholds were investigated. This study showed a variation of no better than 10%-15% among hydrophones during HITU pressure characterization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. HARDI denoising using nonlocal means on S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuurstra, Alan; Dolui, Sudipto; Michailovich, Oleg

    2012-02-01

    Diffusion MRI (dMRI) is a unique imaging modality for in vivo delineation of the anatomical structure of white matter in the brain. In particular, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is a specific instance of dMRI which is known to excel in detection of multiple neural fibers within a single voxel. Unfortunately, the angular resolution of HARDI is known to be inversely proportional to SNR, which makes the problem of denoising of HARDI data be of particular practical importance. Since HARDI signals are effectively band-limited, denoising can be accomplished by means of linear filtering. However, the spatial dependency of diffusivity in brain tissue makes it impossible to find a single set of linear filter parameters which is optimal for all types of diffusion signals. Hence, adaptive filtering is required. In this paper, we propose a new type of non-local means (NLM) filtering which possesses the required adaptivity property. As opposed to similar methods in the field, however, the proposed NLM filtering is applied in the spherical domain of spatial orientations. Moreover, the filter uses an original definition of adaptive weights, which are designed to be invariant to both spatial rotations as well as to a particular sampling scheme in use. As well, we provide a detailed description of the proposed filtering procedure, its efficient implementation, as well as experimental results with synthetic data. We demonstrate that our filter has substantially better adaptivity as compared to a number of alternative methods.

  4. Non-Local Diffusion of Energetic Electrons during Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, N. H.; Emslie, G.; Kontar, E.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) generally being either treated as a small correction or even neglected. Here, we critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. We further show that a satisfactory treatment of the diffusion process requires consideration of non-local effects, so that the electron flux depends not just on the local gradient of the electron distribution function but on the value of this gradient within an extended region encompassing a significant fraction of a mean free path. Our analysis applies generally to pitch-angle scattering by a variety of mechanisms, from Coulomb collisions to turbulent scattering. We further show that the spatial transport of electrons along the magnetic field of a flaring loop can be modeled as a Continuous Time Random Walk with velocity-dependent probability distribution functions of jump sizes and occurrences, both of which can be expressed in terms of the scattering mean free path.

  5. Nonlocal inhomogeneous broadening in plasmonic nanoparticle ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Z.

    Nonclassical effects are increasingly more relevant in plasmonics as modern nanofabrication techniques rapidly approach the extreme nanoscale limits, for which departing from classical electrodynamics becomes important. One of the largest-scale necessary corrections towards this direction...... is to abandon the local response approximation (LRA) and take the nonlocal response of the metal into account, typically through the simple hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM), which predicts a sizedependent deviation of plasmon modes from the quasistatic (QS) limit. While this behaviour has been explored for simple...... metallic nanoparticles (NPs) or NP dimers, the possibility of inhomogeneous resonance broadening due to size variation in a large NP collection and the resulting spectral overlap of modes (as depicted in Fig. 1), has been so far overlooked. Here we study theoretically the effect of nonlocality on ensemble...

  6. Nonlocal synchronization in nearest neighbour coupled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nashar, H.F.; Elgazzar, A.S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    2002-02-01

    We investigate a system of nearest neighbour coupled oscillators. We show that the nonlocal frequency synchronization, that might appear in such a system, occurs as a consequence of the nearest neighbour coupling. The power spectra of nonadjacent oscillators shows that there is no complete coincidence between all frequency peaks of the oscillators in the nonlocal cluster, while the peaks for neighbouring oscillators approximately coincide even if they are not yet in a cluster. It is shown that nonadjacent oscillators closer in frequencies, share slow modes with their adjacent oscillators which are neighbours in space. It is also shown that when a direct coupling between non-neighbours oscillators is introduced explicitly, the peaks of the spectra of the frequencies of those non-neighbours coincide. (author)

  7. Evidence and concepts for nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Kissick, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    Up until a few years ago, most transient transport studies observed primarily diffusive plasma transport responses to fast, localized perturbations. Recently, a number of experiments have, in addition, observed nonlocal electron heat responses. Most remarkably, in cold pulse experiments the abrupt edge cooling via radiative processes can induce both a diffusive cooling response moving in from the edge, and simultaneously a rising electron temperature in the central core of tokamak plasmas--an opposite response even before the diffusive cooling from the edge reaches the center. These and other nonlocal electron heat transport conundrums from recent experiments are reviewed. Also, models and physical processes being advanced to explain these puzzling phenomena are discussed. The importance of resolving this transport enigma is emphasized

  8. Nonlocal Operational Calculi for Dunkl Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan H. Dimovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The one-dimensional Dunkl operator $D_k$ with a non-negative parameter $k$, is considered under an arbitrary nonlocal boundary value condition. The right inverse operator of $D_k$, satisfying this condition is studied. An operational calculus of Mikusinski type is developed. In the frames of this operational calculi an extension of the Heaviside algorithm for solution of nonlocal Cauchy boundary value problems for Dunkl functional-differential equations $P(D_ku = f$ with a given polynomial $P$ is proposed. The solution of these equations in mean-periodic functions reduces to such problems. Necessary and sufficient condition for existence of unique solution in mean-periodic functions is found.

  9. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  10. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  11. Mathematical model of the heat transfer process taking into account the consequences of nonlocality in structurally sensitive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvyrkin, G. N.; Savelyeva, I. Y.; Kuvshynnikova, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Creation of new materials based on nanotechnology is an important direction of modern materials science development. Materials obtained using nanotechnology can possess unique physical-mechanical and thermophysical properties, allowing their effective use in structures exposed to high-intensity thermomechanical effects. An important step in creation and use of new materials is the construction of mathematical models to describe the behavior of these materials in a wide range of changes under external effects. The model of heat conduction of structural-sensitive materials is considered with regard to the medium nonlocality effects. The relations of the mathematical model include an integral term describing the spatial nonlocality of the medium. A difference scheme, which makes it possible to obtain a numerical solution of the problem of nonstationary heat conduction with regard to the influence of the medium nonlocality on space, has been developed. The influence of the model parameters on the temperature distributions is analyzed.

  12. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional Terry–Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth–Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an E×B nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  13. On non-local energy transfer via zonal flow in the Dimits shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Denis A.

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Terry-Horton equation is shown to exhibit the Dimits shift when suitably modified to capture both the nonlinear enhancement of zonal/drift-wave interactions and the existence of residual Rosenbluth-Hinton states. This phenomenon persists through numerous simplifications of the equation, including a quasilinear approximation as well as a four-mode truncation. It is shown that the use of an appropriate adiabatic electron response, for which the electrons are not affected by the flux-averaged potential, results in an nonlinearity that can efficiently transfer energy non-locally to length scales of the order of the sound radius. The size of the shift for the nonlinear system is heuristically calculated and found to be in excellent agreement with numerical solutions. The existence of the Dimits shift for this system is then understood as an ability of the unstable primary modes to efficiently couple to stable modes at smaller scales, and the shift ends when these stable modes eventually destabilize as the density gradient is increased. This non-local mechanism of energy transfer is argued to be generically important even for more physically complete systems.

  14. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2016-01-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are

  15. EPR paradox, quantum nonlocality and physical reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczynski, M.

    2016-03-01

    Eighty years ago Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen demonstrated that instantaneous reduction of wave function, believed to describe completely a pair of entangled physical systems, led to EPR paradox. The paradox disappears in statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) according to which a wave function describes only an ensemble of identically prepared physical systems. QM predicts strong correlations between outcomes of measurements performed on different members of EPR pairs in far-away locations. Searching for an intuitive explanation of these correlations John Bell analysed so called local realistic hidden variable models and proved that correlations consistent with these models satisfy Bell inequalities which are violated by some predictions of QM and by experimental data. Several different local models were constructed and inequalities proven. Some eminent physicists concluded that Nature is definitely nonlocal and that it is acting according to a law of nonlocal randomness. According to these law perfectly random, but strongly correlated events, can be produced at the same time in far away locations and a local and causal explanation of their occurrence cannot be given. We strongly disagree with this conclusion and we prove the contrary by analysing in detail some influential finite sample proofs of Bell and CHSH inequalities and so called Quantum Randi Challenges. We also show how one can win so called Bell's game without violating locality of Nature. Nonlocal randomness is inconsistent with local quantum field theory, with standard model in elementary particle physics and with causal laws and adaptive dynamics prevailing in the surrounding us world. The experimental violation of Bell-type inequalities does not prove the nonlocality of Nature but it only confirms a contextual character of quantum observables and gives a strong argument against counterfactual definiteness and against a point of view according to which experimental outcomes are produced

  16. Using nonlocal coherence to quantify quantum correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Pei; Wang, Wei; Li, Chong; Song, He-Shan

    2010-01-01

    We reexamine quantum correlation from the fundamental perspective of its consanguineous quantum property, the coherence. We emphasize the importance of specifying the tensor product structure of the total state space before discussing quantum correlation. A measure of quantum correlation for arbitrary dimension bipartite states using nonlocal coherence is proposed, and it can be easily generalized to the multipartite case. The quantification of non-entangled component within quantum correlati...

  17. Nonlocal Boltzmann theory of plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.S.; Melendez, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical framework for the LLNL code NUTS is developed. This code is designed to study the evolution of an electron-beam-generated plasma channel at all pressures. The Boltzmann treatment of the secondary electrons presented include all inertial, nonlocal, electric and magnetic effects, as well as effects of atomic collisions. Field equations are advanced simultaneously and self-consistently with the evolving plasma currents

  18. Switching non-local vector median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method that removes random-valued impulse noise superimposed on a natural color image. In impulse noise removal, it is essential to employ a switching-type filtering method, as used in the well-known switching median filter, to preserve the detail of an original image with good quality. In color image filtering, it is generally preferable to deal with the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) components of each pixel of a color image as elements of a vectorized signal, as in the well-known vector median filter, rather than as component-wise signals to prevent a color shift after filtering. By taking these fundamentals into consideration, we propose a switching-type vector median filter with non-local processing that mainly consists of a noise detector and a noise removal filter. Concretely, we propose a noise detector that proactively detects noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the isolation tendencies of pixels of interest not in an input image but in difference images between RGB components. Furthermore, as the noise removal filter, we propose an extended version of the non-local median filter, we proposed previously for grayscale image processing, named the non-local vector median filter, which is designed for color image processing. The proposed method realizes a superior balance between the preservation of detail and impulse noise removal by proactive noise detection and non-local switching vector median filtering, respectively. The effectiveness and validity of the proposed method are verified in a series of experiments using natural color images.

  19. Nonlocal Gravity and Structure in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Park, Sohyun [Penn State U., University Park, IGC

    2014-08-26

    The observed acceleration of the Universe can be explained by modifying general relativity. One such attempt is the nonlocal model of Deser and Woodard. Here we fix the background cosmology using results from the Planck satellite and examine the predictions of nonlocal gravity for the evolution of structure in the universe, confronting the model with three tests: gravitational lensing, redshift space distortions, and the estimator of gravity $E_G$. Current data favor general relativity (GR) over nonlocal gravity: fixing primordial cosmology with the best fit parameters from Planck leads to weak lensing results favoring GR by 5.9 sigma; redshift space distortions measurements of the growth rate preferring GR by 7.8 sigma; and the single measurement of $E_G$ favoring GR, but by less than 1-sigma. The significance holds up even after the parameters are allowed to vary within Planck limits. The larger lesson is that a successful modified gravity model will likely have to suppress the growth of structure compared to general relativity.

  20. Numerical fluid solutions for nonlocal electron transport in hot plasmas: Equivalent diffusion versus nonlocal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where nonlocal transport (instead of simple single flux limit) has been modeled, it has always been with what we denote the equivalent diffusion solution, namely treating the transport as only a diffusion process. We introduce here a new approach called the nonlocal source solution and show it is numerically viable for laser produced plasmas. It turns out that the equivalent diffusion solution generally underestimates preheat. Furthermore, the advance of the temperature front, and especially the preheat, can be held up by artificial 'thermal barriers'. The nonlocal source method of solution, on the other hand more accurately describes preheat and can stably calculate the solution for the temperature even if the heat flux is up the gradient.

  1. Three-Dimensional Hermite—Bessel—Gaussian Soliton Clusters in Strongly Nonlocal Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hai-Qin; Yi Lin; Liang Jian-Chu; Cai Ze-Bin; Liu Fei

    2012-01-01

    We analytically and numerically demonstrate the existence of Hermite—Bessel—Gaussian spatial soliton clusters in three-dimensional strongly nonlocal media. It is found that the soliton clusters display the vortex, dipole azimuthon and quadrupole azimuthon in geometry, and the total number of solitons in the necklaces depends on the quantum number n and m of the Hermite functions and generalized Bessel polynomials. The numerical simulation is basically identical to the analytical solution, and white noise does not lead to collapse of the soliton, which confirms the stability of the soliton waves. The theoretical predictions may give new insights into low-energetic spatial soliton transmission with high fidelity

  2. Nonlocal electron kinetics and spectral line emission in the positive column of an argon glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu; Kalanov, D; Gorchakov, S; Uhrlandt, D

    2015-01-01

    Modern non-local electron kinetics theory predicts several interesting effects connected with spectral line emission from the positive column in the range of low and medium pressures and currents. Some theoretical works describe non-monotonic behavior of the radial profiles of line emission at intermediate pressures and currents between the validity ranges of the non-local and local approximation of the electron kinetics. Despite a great number of publications, there have been no systematic measurements attempting to confirm these theoretical predictions through experiments. In this work the radial profiles of the line emission from the positive column of an argon glow discharge have been measured with high spatial resolution and new effects caused by the narrowing and broadening of the spatial emission profiles with dependence on discharge conditions have been discovered. The effect of intensity maximum shift predicted by theory using a self-consistent model was not found in the experiment. The properties of the spectral line radiation are influenced by the peculiarities of the formation of the high-energy tail of the electron energy distribution function. An interpretation of the observed effects based on the non-local character of the electron kinetics in radially inhomogeneous fields is given. The obtained experimental data are compared with the results of calculations. (paper)

  3. Experimental demonstration of conflicting interest nonlocal games using superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Haozhen; Li, Lvzhou; Huang, Zhiming; He, Zhimin; Zhang, Cai

    2018-06-01

    Conflicting interest nonlocal games are special Bayesian games played by noncooperative players without communication. In recent years, some conflicting interest nonlocal games have been proposed where quantum advice can help players to obtain higher payoffs. In this work we perform an experiment of six conflicting interest nonlocal games using the IBM quantum computer made up of five superconducting qubits. The experimental results demonstrate quantum advantage in four of these games, whereas the other two games fail to showcase quantum advantage in the experiment.

  4. Modulational instability and nonlocality management in coupled NLS systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doktorov, Evgeny V; Molchan, Maxim A

    2007-01-01

    The modulational instability of two interacting waves in a nonlocal Kerr-type medium is considered analytically and numerically. For a generic choice of wave amplitudes, we give a complete description of stable/unstable regimes for zero group-velocity mismatch. It is shown that nonlocality suppresses considerably the growth rate and bandwidth of instability. For nonzero group-velocity mismatch we perform a geometrical analysis of a nonlocality management which can provide stability of waves otherwise unstable in a local medium

  5. Global dynamics of a nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusion equation on a half plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjie; Duan, Yueliang

    2018-04-01

    We consider a delayed reaction-diffusion equation with spatial nonlocality on a half plane that describes population dynamics of a two-stage species living in a semi-infinite environment. A Neumann boundary condition is imposed accounting for an isolated domain. To describe the global dynamics, we first establish some a priori estimate for nontrivial solutions after investigating asymptotic properties of the nonlocal delayed effect and the diffusion operator, which enables us to show the permanence of the equation with respect to the compact open topology. We then employ standard dynamical system arguments to establish the global attractivity of the nontrivial equilibrium. The main results are illustrated by the diffusive Nicholson's blowfly equation and the diffusive Mackey-Glass equation.

  6. Nonlocal effects on dynamic damage accumulation in brittle solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, E.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal analysis of the dynamic damage accumulation processes in brittle solids. A nonlocal formulation of a microcrack based continuum damage model is developed and implemented into a transient dynamic finite element computer code. The code is then applied to the study of the damage accumulation process in a concrete plate with a central hole and subjected to the action of a step tensile pulse applied at opposite edges of the plate. Several finite element discretizations are used to examine the mesh size effect. Comparisons between calculated results based on local and nonlocal formulations are made and nonlocal effects are discussed.

  7. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states

  8. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  9. Measurement of large nonlinear refractive index of natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves with a low power CW laser and by spatial self-phase modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, S.; Kumbhakar, P.

    2017-02-01

    We have reported here, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a high nonlinear refractive index (n2e) of a natural pigment extracted from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves by using spatial self-phase modulation technique (SSPM) with a low power CW He-Ne laser radiation at 632.8 nm. It is found by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic analysis that chlrophyll-a, chlrophyll-b and carotenoid are present in the pigment extract with 56%, 25% and 19%, respectively. The photoluminescence (PL) emission characteristics of the extracted samples have also been measured at room temperature as well as in the temperature range of 283-333 K to investigate the effect of temperature on luminescent properties of the sample. By analyzing the SSPM experimental data, the nonlinear refractive index value of pigment extract has been determined to be 3.5 × 10- 5 cm2/W. The large nonlinear refractive index has been assigned due to asymmetrical structure, molecular reorientation and thermally induced nonlinearity in the sample. The presented results might open new avenues for the green and economical technique of syntheses of organic dyes with such a large nonlinear optical property.

  10. Homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions of double layered viscoelastic nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and extended Melnikov method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yi-Ze [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 137, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fmli@bjut.edu.cn [School of Astronautics, Harbin Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 137, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The nonlinear dynamical equations are established for the double layered viscoelastic nanoplates (DLNP) subjected to in-plane excitation based on the nonlocal theory and von Kármán large deformation theory. The extended high dimensional homoclinic Melnikov method is employed to study the homoclinic phenomena and chaotic motions for the parametrically excited DLNP system. The criteria for the homoclinic transverse intersection for both the asynchronous and synchronous buckling cases are proposed. Lyapunov exponents and phase portraits are obtained to verify the Melnikov-type analysis. The influences of structural parameters on the transverse homoclinic orbits and homoclinic bifurcation sets are discussed for the two buckling cases. Some novel phenomena are observed in the investigation. It should be noticed that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions is quite remarkable. Hence, the small scale effect should be taken into account for homoclinic and chaotic analysis for nanostructures. It is significant that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic phenomena for the asynchronous buckling case is quite different from that for the synchronous buckling case. Moreover, due to the van der Walls interaction between the layers, the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions for high order mode is rather tiny under the asynchronous buckling condition.

  11. Homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions of double layered viscoelastic nanoplates based on nonlocal theory and extended Melnikov method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Feng-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ze

    2015-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamical equations are established for the double layered viscoelastic nanoplates (DLNP) subjected to in-plane excitation based on the nonlocal theory and von Kármán large deformation theory. The extended high dimensional homoclinic Melnikov method is employed to study the homoclinic phenomena and chaotic motions for the parametrically excited DLNP system. The criteria for the homoclinic transverse intersection for both the asynchronous and synchronous buckling cases are proposed. Lyapunov exponents and phase portraits are obtained to verify the Melnikov-type analysis. The influences of structural parameters on the transverse homoclinic orbits and homoclinic bifurcation sets are discussed for the two buckling cases. Some novel phenomena are observed in the investigation. It should be noticed that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions is quite remarkable. Hence, the small scale effect should be taken into account for homoclinic and chaotic analysis for nanostructures. It is significant that the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic phenomena for the asynchronous buckling case is quite different from that for the synchronous buckling case. Moreover, due to the van der Walls interaction between the layers, the nonlocal effect on the homoclinic behaviors and chaotic motions for high order mode is rather tiny under the asynchronous buckling condition.

  12. On an application of Tikhonov's fixed point theorem to a nonlocal Cahn-Hilliard type system modeling phase separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Pierluigi; Gilardi, Gianni; Sprekels, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates a nonlocal version of a model for phase separation on an atomic lattice that was introduced by P. Podio-Guidugli (2006) [36]. The model consists of an initial-boundary value problem for a nonlinearly coupled system of two partial differential equations governing the evolution of an order parameter ρ and the chemical potential μ. Singular contributions to the local free energy in the form of logarithmic or double-obstacle potentials are admitted. In contrast to the local model, which was studied by P. Podio-Guidugli and the present authors in a series of recent publications, in the nonlocal case the equation governing the evolution of the order parameter contains in place of the Laplacian a nonlocal expression that originates from nonlocal contributions to the free energy and accounts for possible long-range interactions between the atoms. It is shown that just as in the local case the model equations are well posed, where the technique of proving existence is entirely different: it is based on an application of Tikhonov's fixed point theorem in a rather unusual separable and reflexive Banach space.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of semiclassical coherent states in periodic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carles, Rémi; Sparber, Christof

    2012-01-01

    We consider nonlinear Schrödinger equations with either local or nonlocal nonlinearities. In addition, we include periodic potentials as used, for example, in matter wave experiments in optical lattices. By considering the corresponding semiclassical scaling regime, we construct asymptotic solutions, which are concentrated both in space and in frequency around the effective semiclassical phase-space flow induced by Bloch’s spectral problem. The dynamics of these generalized coherent states is governed by a nonlinear Schrödinger model with effective mass. In the case of nonlocal nonlinearities, we establish a novel averaging-type result in the critical case. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)

  14. Some loopholes to save quantum nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, Luigi

    2005-02-01

    The EPR-chameleon experiment has closed a long standing debate between the supporters of quantum nonlocality and the thesis of quantum probability according to which the essence of the quantum pecularity is non Kolmogorovianity rather than non locality. The theory of adaptive systems (symbolized by the chameleon effect) provides a natural intuition for the emergence of non-Kolmogorovian statistics from classical deterministic dynamical systems. These developments are quickly reviewed and in conclusion some comments are introduced on recent attempts to "reconstruct history" on the lines described by Orwell in "1984".

  15. Pion polarizability in nonlocal quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Okhlopkova, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The γγ→ππ amplitude was calculated in nonlocal quark model in the fourth order on the perturbation theory. The coefficients of electric[a) and magnetic polarizability (β) determined are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign αsub(π+-)=βsub(π+-)=+0.014α/msub(π)sup(3), αsub(πsup(0))=-βsub(πsup(0))=-0.07α/msub(π)sup(3). The results have been compared with calculations in other models

  16. Non-local Effects of Conformal Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Nicolai, Hermann

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that the nonlocal anomalous effective actions corresponding to the quantum breaking of the conformal symmetry can lead to observable modifications of Einstein's equations. The fact that Einstein's general relativity is in perfect agreement with all observations including cosmological or recently observed gravitational waves imposes strong restrictions on the field content of possible extensions of Einstein's theory: all viable theories should have vanishing conformal anomalies. It is shown that a complete cancellation of conformal anomalies in D=4 for both the C^2 invariant and the Euler (Gauss-Bonnet) invariant can only be achieved for N-extended supergravity multiplets with N ≥ 5.

  17. Hyperspherical effective interaction for nonlocal potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnea, N.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.

    2010-01-01

    The effective interaction hyperspherical-harmonics method, formulated for local forces, is generalized to accommodate nonlocal interactions. As for local potentials this formulation retains the separation of the hyper-radial part leading solely to a hyperspherical effective interaction. By applying the method to study ground-state properties of 4 He with a modern effective-field-theory nucleon-nucleon potential model (Idaho-N3LO), one finds a substantial acceleration in the convergence rate of the hyperspherical-harmonics series. Also studied are the binding energies of the six-body nuclei 6 He and 6 Li with the JISP16 nuclear force. Again an excellent convergence is observed.

  18. Non-local modeling of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2002-01-01

    Numerical studies of non-local plasticity effects on different materials and problems are carried out. Two different theories are used. One is of lower order in that it retains the structure of a conventional plasticity boundary value problem, while the other is of higher order and employs higher...... order stresses as work conjugates to higher order strains and uses higher order boundary conditions. The influence of internal material length parameters is studied, and the effects of higher order boundary conditions are analyzed. The focus of the thesis is on metal-matrix composites, and non...

  19. Discussion record of the workshop on nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Stroth, U.; Iwasaki, T.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-06-01

    The discussion on the problem of the transient response and nonlocal transport is reported. Problem of the transient response is surveyed, and several approaches are reviewed. The formulation based on the nonlocal transport is discussed. Example of the analysis is presented. Future study is identified. (author)

  20. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality in arbitrary even dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinhyoung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    We generalize Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) nonlocality to every even-dimensional and odd-partite system. For the purpose we employ concurrent observables that are incompatible and nevertheless have a common eigenstate. It is remarkable that a tripartite system can exhibit the genuinely high-dimensional GHZ nonlocality

  1. On nonlocal symmetries of some shallow water equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, Enrique G [Departamento de Matematicas y Ciencia de la Computacion, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 307 Correo 2 Santiago (Chile)

    2007-04-27

    A recent construction of nonlocal symmetries for the Korteweg-de Vries, Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton equations is reviewed, and it is pointed out that-in the Camassa-Holm and Hunter-Saxton case-these symmetries can be considered as (nonlocal) symmetries of integro-differential equations.

  2. Violation of Bell's inequality with continuous spatial variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouraddy, Ayman F.; Yarnall, Timothy; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2007-01-01

    The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument revealed the paradoxical properties of a two-particle system entangled continuously in the spatial parameter. Yet a direct test of quantum nonlocality exhibited by this state, via a violation of Bell's inequality, has not been forthcoming. In this paper, we identify and construct experimental arrangements comprising simple optical components, without nonlinearities or moving parts, that implement operators in the spatial-parity space of single-photon fields that correspond to the familiar Pauli spin operators. We achieve this by first establishing an isomorphism between the single-mode multiphoton electromagnetic-field space spanned by a Fock-state basis and the single-photon multimode electromagnetic-field space spanned by a spatial-eigenmode basis. We then proceed to construct a Hilbert space with a two-dimensional basis of spatial even-odd parity modes. In particular, we describe an arrangement that implements a rotation in the parity space of each photon of an entangled-photon pair, allowing for a straightforward experimental test of Bell's inequality using the EPR state. Finally, the violation of a Bell inequality is quantified in terms of the physical parameters of the two-photon source

  3. A new treatment of nonlocality in scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, N. J.; Bhagwat, A.; Jain, B. K.

    2018-01-01

    Nonlocality in the scattering potential leads to an integro-differential equation. In this equation nonlocality enters through an integral over the nonlocal potential kernel. The resulting Schrödinger equation is usually handled by approximating r,{r}{\\prime }-dependence of the nonlocal kernel. The present work proposes a novel method to solve the integro-differential equation. The method, using the mean value theorem of integral calculus, converts the nonhomogeneous term to a homogeneous term. The effective local potential in this equation turns out to be energy independent, but has relative angular momentum dependence. This method is accurate and valid for any form of nonlocality. As illustrative examples, the total and differential cross sections for neutron scattering off 12C, 56Fe and 100Mo nuclei are calculated with this method in the low energy region (up to 10 MeV) and are found to be in reasonable accord with the experiments.

  4. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  5. Protecting nonlocality of multipartite states by feed-forward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Gang; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin

    2018-06-01

    Nonlocality is a useful resource in quantum communication and quantum information processing. In practical quantum communication, multipartite entangled states must be distributed between different users in different places through a channel. However, the channel is usually inevitably disturbed by the environment in quantum state distribution processing and then the nonlocality of states will be weakened and even lost. In this paper, we use a feed-forward control scheme to protect the nonlocality of the Bell and GHZ states against dissipation. We find that this protection scheme is very effective, specifically, for the Bell state, we can increase the noise threshold from 0.5 to 0.98, and for GHZ state from 0.29 to 0.96. And we also find that entanglement is relatively easier to be protected than nonlocality. For our scheme, protecting entanglement is equivalent to protecting the state in the case of Bell state, while protecting nonlocality is not.

  6. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  7. Buonomano against Bell: Nonergodicity or nonlocality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    The aim of this note is to attract attention of the quantum foundational community to the fact that in Bell’s arguments, one cannot distinguish two hypotheses: (a) quantum mechanics is nonlocal, (b) quantum mechanics is nonergodic. Therefore, experimental violations of Bell’s inequality can be as well interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that stochastic processes induced by quantum measurements are nonergodic. The latter hypothesis was discussed actively by Buonomano since 1980. However, in contrast to Bell’s hypothesis on nonlocality, it did not attract so much attention. The only experiment testing the hypothesis on nonergodicity was performed in neutron interferometry (by Summhammer, in 1989). This experiment can be considered as rejecting this hypothesis. However, it cannot be considered as a decisive experiment. New experiments are badly needed. We point out that a nonergodic model can be realistic, i.e. the distribution of hidden (local!) variables is well-defined. We also discuss coupling of violation of the Bell inequality with violation of the condition of weak mixing for ergodic dynamical systems.

  8. Feature-Based Nonlocal Polarimetric SAR Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images are inherently contaminated by multiplicative speckle noise, which complicates the image interpretation and image analyses. To reduce the speckle effect, several adaptive speckle filters have been developed based on the weighted average of the similarity measures commonly depending on the model or probability distribution, which are often affected by the distribution parameters and modeling texture components. In this paper, a novel filtering method introduces the coefficient of variance ( CV and Pauli basis (PB to measure the similarity, and the two features are combined with the framework of the nonlocal mean filtering. The CV is used to describe the complexity of various scenes and distinguish the scene heterogeneity; moreover, the Pauli basis is able to express the polarimetric information in PolSAR image processing. This proposed filtering combines the CV and Pauli basis to improve the estimation accuracy of the similarity weights. Then, the similarity of the features is deduced according to the test statistic. Subsequently, the filtering is proceeded by using the nonlocal weighted estimation. The performance of the proposed filter is tested with the simulated images and real PolSAR images, which are acquired by AIRSAR system and ESAR system. The qualitative and quantitative experiments indicate the validity of the proposed method by comparing with the widely-used despeckling methods.

  9. Bistable near field and bistable transmittance in 2D composite slab consisting of nonlocal core-Kerr shell inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Wu, Ya Min; Gao, Lei

    2017-01-23

    We carry out a theoretical study on optical bistability of near field intensity and transmittance in two-dimensional nonlinear composite slab. This kind of 2D composite is composed of nonlocal metal/Kerr-type dielectric core-shell inclusions randomly embedded in the host medium, and we derivate the nonlinear relation between the field intensity in the shell of inclusions and the incident field intensity with self-consistent mean field approximation. Numerical demonstration has been performed to show the viable parameter space for the bistable near field. We show that nonlocality can provide broader region in geometric parameter space for bistable near field as well as bistable transmittance of the nonlocal composite slab compared to local case. Furthermore, we investigate the bistable transmittance in wavelength spectrum, and find that besides the input intensity, the wavelength operation could as well make the transmittance jump from a high value to a low one. This kind of self-tunable nano-composite slab might have potential application in optical switching devices.

  10. Nonlinear electron transport in magnetized laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Haines, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Electron transport in a magnetized plasma heated by inverse bremsstrahlung is studied numerically using a nonlinear Fokker--Planck model with self-consistent E and B fields. The numerical scheme is described. Nonlocal transport is found to alter many of the transport coefficients derived from linear transport theory, in particular, the Nernst and Righi--Leduc effects, in addition to the perpendicular heat flux q/sub perpendicular/, are substantially reduced near critical surface. The magnetic field, however, remains strongly coupled to the nonlinear q/sub perpendicular/ and, as has been found in hydrosimulations, convective amplification of the magnetic field occurs in the overdense plasma

  11. Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Dutta

    Full Text Available Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET, which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM.NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch.To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches.The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high

  12. Non-local means denoising of dynamic PET images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Joyita; Leahy, Richard M; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission tomography (PET), which reveals information about both the spatial distribution and temporal kinetics of a radiotracer, enables quantitative interpretation of PET data. Model-based interpretation of dynamic PET images by means of parametric fitting, however, is often a challenging task due to high levels of noise, thus necessitating a denoising step. The objective of this paper is to develop and characterize a denoising framework for dynamic PET based on non-local means (NLM). NLM denoising computes weighted averages of voxel intensities assigning larger weights to voxels that are similar to a given voxel in terms of their local neighborhoods or patches. We introduce three key modifications to tailor the original NLM framework to dynamic PET. Firstly, we derive similarities from less noisy later time points in a typical PET acquisition to denoise the entire time series. Secondly, we use spatiotemporal patches for robust similarity computation. Finally, we use a spatially varying smoothing parameter based on a local variance approximation over each spatiotemporal patch. To assess the performance of our denoising technique, we performed a realistic simulation on a dynamic digital phantom based on the Digimouse atlas. For experimental validation, we denoised [Formula: see text] PET images from a mouse study and a hepatocellular carcinoma patient study. We compared the performance of NLM denoising with four other denoising approaches - Gaussian filtering, PCA, HYPR, and conventional NLM based on spatial patches. The simulation study revealed significant improvement in bias-variance performance achieved using our NLM technique relative to all the other methods. The experimental data analysis revealed that our technique leads to clear improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio in Patlak parametric images generated from denoised preclinical and clinical dynamic images, indicating its ability to preserve image contrast and high intensity details while

  13. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    associated with the lattice background; the nonlinearity is derived from the inclusion of cubic nonlinearity. Often the background potential is periodic...dispersion branch we can find discrete evolution equations for the envelope associated with the lattice NLS equation (1) by looking for solutions of...spatial operator in the above NLS equation can be elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic . We remark that further reduction is possible by going into a moving

  14. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...... the case of a power-law nonlinearity in detail. We discuss several scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of the nonlinear impurity modes, including the mode decay or switching to a new stable state, and collapse at the impurity site....

  15. Optical interrupter based in the internal total reflection of spatial solitons at nonlinear saturable interfaces; Interruptores opticos basados en reflexion interna total de solitones espaciales en interfaces no lineales saturables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Mendez, E.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Gutierrez-Hernandez, D. A.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Lagunas, R.; Pedraza-Ortega, J. C.; Torres Cisneros, G. E. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato (Mexico); Sanchez Mondragon, J. J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Morelos (Mexico); Flores-Alvarado, G. [Preparatoria por Cooperacion Domingo Arenas, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    We study the reflection of one-dimensional spatial soliton at the nonlinear interface between a saturable type medium and linear medium. Our study makes emphasis on determining the physical conditions under which the beam reflected by the interface is still a spatial soliton. Depended the incidence angle we find three critical regions for spatial solitons in the interface. We observed nonlinear Goos- Haechen shift is determined if reflection angle are conserved. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results in SBN61:Ce of the total internal reflection of one dimensional beam. [Spanish] Estudiamos la reflexion de un soliton espacial unidimensional en una interfase formada por un medio no lineal saturable y un medio lineal. Nuestros estudios hacen enfasis en determinar las condiciones fisicas bajo las cuales el haz reflejado por la interfase no lineal sigue siendo soliton. Encontramos tres regiones criticas para un soliton especial en la interfase, dependiendo del valor que tome el angulo de incidencia. Asi mismo observamos corrimiento Goos-Haechen no lineal que es determinante para la conservacion del angulo de reflexion. Finalmente, presentamos resultados preliminares experimentales en SBN61:Ce de la reflexion interna total de un haz unidimensional.

  16. Mermin Non-Locality in Abstract Process Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gogioso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-locality is fundamental to the understanding of quantum mechanics. The past 50 years have seen a number of non-locality proofs, but its fundamental building blocks, and the exact role it plays in quantum protocols, has remained elusive. In this paper, we focus on a particular flavour of non-locality, generalising Mermin's argument on the GHZ state. Using strongly complementary observables, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for Mermin non-locality in abstract process theories. We show that the existence of more phases than classical points (aka eigenstates is not sufficient, and that the key to Mermin non-locality lies in the presence of certain algebraically non-trivial phases. This allows us to show that fRel, a favourite toy model for categorical quantum mechanics, is Mermin local. We show Mermin non-locality to be the key resource ensuring the device-independent security of the HBB CQ (N,N family of Quantum Secret Sharing protocols. Finally, we challenge the unspoken assumption that the measurements involved in Mermin-type scenarios should be complementary (like the pair X,Y, opening the doors to a much wider class of potential experimental setups than currently employed. In short, we give conditions for Mermin non-locality tests on any number of systems, where each party has an arbitrary number of measurement choices, where each measurement has an arbitrary number of outcomes and further, that works in any abstract process theory.

  17. Nonlocal approach to the analysis of the stress distribution in granular systems. I. Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkre, V. M.; Scott, J. E.; Pease, E. A.; Hurd, A. J.

    1998-05-01

    A theoretical framework for the analysis of the stress distribution in granular materials is presented. It makes use of a transformation of the vertical spatial coordinate into a formal time variable and the subsequent study of a generally non-Markoffian, i.e., memory-possessing (nonlocal) propagation equation. Previous treatments are obtained as particular cases corresponding to, respectively, wavelike and diffusive limits of the general evolution. Calculations are presented for stress propagation in bounded and unbounded media. They can be used to obtain desired features such as a prescribed stress distribution within the compact.

  18. Nonlocal kinetic-energy-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, P.; Alvarellos, J.E.; Chacon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present nonlocal kinetic-energy functionals T[n] within the average density approximation (ADA) framework, which do not require any extra input when applied to any electron system and recover the exact kinetic energy and the linear response function of a homogeneous system. In contrast with previous ADA functionals, these present good behavior of the long-range tail of the exact weight function. The averaging procedure for the kinetic functional (averaging the Fermi momentum of the electron gas, instead of averaging the electron density) leads to a functional without numerical difficulties in the calculation of extended systems, and it gives excellent results when applied to atoms and jellium surfaces. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  20. Certainty relations between local and nonlocal observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R Garcia; Romero, J L; Bjoerk, G; Bourennane, M

    2005-01-01

    We point out that for an arbitrary number of identical particles, each defined on a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension, there exists a whole ladder of relations of complementarity between certain local and nonlocal measurements corresponding to every conceivable grouping of the particles, e.g., the more accurately we can know (by a measurement) some joint property of three qubits (projecting the state onto a tripartite-entangled state), the less accurate some other property, local to the three qubits, becomes. We investigate the relation between these complementarity relations and a similar relation based on interference visibilities. We also show that the complementarity relations are particularly tight for particles defined on prime dimensional Hilbert spaces

  1. Switching non-local median filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Jyohei; Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki; Uchino, Eiji

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a novel image filtering method for removal of random-valued impulse noise superimposed on grayscale images. Generally, it is well known that switching-type median filters are effective for impulse noise removal. In this paper, we propose a more sophisticated switching-type impulse noise removal method in terms of detail-preserving performance. Specifically, the noise detector of the proposed method finds out noise-corrupted pixels by focusing attention on the difference between the value of a pixel of interest (POI) and the median of its neighboring pixel values, and on the POI's isolation tendency from the surrounding pixels. Furthermore, the removal of the detected noise is performed by the newly proposed median filter based on non-local processing, which has superior detail-preservation capability compared to the conventional median filter. The effectiveness and the validity of the proposed method are verified by some experiments using natural grayscale images.

  2. The quantum handshake entanglement, nonlocality and transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, John G

    2016-01-01

    This book shines bright light into the dim recesses of quantum theory, where the mysteries of entanglement, nonlocality, and wave collapse have motivated some to conjure up multiple universes, and others to adopt a "shut up and calculate" mentality. After an extensive and accessible introduction to quantum mechanics and its history, the author turns attention to his transactional model. Using a quantum handshake between normal and time-reversed waves, this model provides a clear visual picture explaining the baffling experimental results that flow daily from the quantum physics laboratories of the world. To demonstrate its powerful simplicity, the transactional model is applied to a collection of counter-intuitive experiments and conceptual problems.

  3. Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1990-09-01

    We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  4. Graphene plasmons: Impurities and nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Giovanni; Wenger, Tobias; Kinaret, Jari; Fogelström, Mikael

    2018-02-01

    This work analyzes how impurities and vacancies on the surface of a graphene sample affect its optical conductivity and plasmon excitations. The disorder is analyzed in the self-consistent Green's function formulation and nonlocal effects are fully taken into account. It is shown that impurities modify the linear spectrum and give rise to an impurity band whose position and width depend on the two parameters of our model, the density and the strength of impurities. The presence of the impurity band strongly influences the electromagnetic response and the plasmon losses. Furthermore, we discuss how the impurity-band position can be obtained experimentally from the plasmon dispersion relation and discuss this in the context of sensing.

  5. Global solution branches for a nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuto, Kousuke; Mori, Tatsuki; Tsujikawa, Tohru; Yotsutani, Shoji

    2018-05-01

    We consider the Neumann problem of a 1D stationary Allen-Cahn equation with nonlocal term. Our previous paper [4] obtained a local branch of asymmetric solutions which bifurcates from a point on the branch of odd-symmetric solutions. This paper derives the global behavior of the branch of asymmetric solutions, and moreover, determines the set of all solutions to the nonlocal Allen-Cahn equation. Our proof is based on a level set analysis for an integral map associated with the nonlocal term.

  6. Torsion of cracked nanorods using a nonlocal elasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loya, J A; Aranda-Ruiz, J; Fernández-Sáez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlocal cracked-rod model from which we have analysed the torsional vibrations of a carbon nanotube with a circumferential crack. Several types of boundary conditions, including the consideration of a buckyball at the end of the nanotube, have been studied. The nonlocal Eringen elasticity theory is used to formulate the problem. The cracked rod is modelled by dividing the cracked element into two segments connected by a torsional linear spring whose stiffness is related to the crack severity. The effect of the nonlocal small-scale parameter, crack severity, cracked section position, different boundary conditions and attached mass are examined in this work. (paper)

  7. Fractional diffusion models of nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2006-01-01

    A class of nonlocal models based on the use of fractional derivatives (FDs) is proposed to describe nondiffusive transport in magnetically confined plasmas. FDs are integro-differential operators that incorporate in a unified framework asymmetric non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian ('memory') effects, and nondiffusive scaling. To overcome the limitations of fractional models in unbounded domains, we use regularized FDs that allow the incorporation of finite-size domain effects, boundary conditions, and variable diffusivities. We present an α-weighted explicit/implicit numerical integration scheme based on the Grunwald-Letnikov representation of the regularized fractional diffusion operator in flux conserving form. In sharp contrast with the standard diffusive model, the strong nonlocality of fractional diffusion leads to a linear in time response for a decaying pulse at short times. In addition, an anomalous fractional pinch is observed, accompanied by the development of an uphill transport region where the 'effective' diffusivity becomes negative. The fractional flux is in general asymmetric and, for steady states, it has a negative (toward the core) component that enhances confinement and a positive component that increases toward the edge and leads to poor confinement. The model exhibits the characteristic anomalous scaling of the confinement time, τ, with the system's size, L, τ∼L α , of low-confinement mode plasma where 1<α<2 is the order of the FD operator. Numerical solutions of the model with an off-axis source show that the fractional inward transport gives rise to profile peaking reminiscent of what is observed in tokamak discharges with auxiliary off-axis heating. Also, cold-pulse perturbations to steady sates in the model exhibit fast, nondiffusive propagation phenomena that resemble perturbative experiments

  8. Nonlocal kinetic energy functionals by functional integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Wenhui; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts[ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δ/Ts[ρ ] δ ρ (r ) , yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration. A new nonlocal functional for Ts[ρ] is prescribed [which we dub Mi-Genova-Pavanello (MGP)] having a density independent kernel. MGP is constructed to satisfy three exact conditions: (1) a nonzero "Kinetic electron" arising from a nonzero exchange hole; (2) the second functional derivative must reduce to the inverse Lindhard function in the limit of homogenous densities; (3) the potential is derived from functional integration of the second functional derivative. Pilot calculations show that MGP is capable of reproducing accurate equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, total energy, and electron densities for metallic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) and semiconducting (crystal diamond) phases of silicon as well as of III-V semiconductors. The MGP functional is found to be numerically stable typically reaching self-consistency within 12 iterations of a truncated Newton minimization algorithm. MGP's computational cost and memory requirements are low and comparable to the Wang-Teter nonlocal functional or any generalized gradient approximation functional.

  9. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  10. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despoja, Vito; Echenique, Pedro M.; Sunjic, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  11. Entanglement and nonlocality in multi-particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret D.; He, Qiong-Yi; Drummond, Peter D.

    2012-02-01

    Entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell's failure of local-hiddenvariable (LHV) theories are three historically famous forms of "quantum nonlocality". We give experimental criteria for these three forms of nonlocality in multi-particle systems, with the aim of better understanding the transition from microscopic to macroscopic nonlocality. We examine the nonlocality of N separated spin J systems. First, we obtain multipartite Bell inequalities that address the correlation between spin values measured at each site, and then we review spin squeezing inequalities that address the degree of reduction in the variance of collective spins. The latter have been particularly useful as a tool for investigating entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We present solutions for two topical quantum states: multi-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, and the ground state of a two-well BEC.

  12. Identification of the Diffusion Parameter in Nonlocal Steady Diffusion Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Elia, M., E-mail: mdelia@fsu.edu, E-mail: mdelia@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Gunzburger, M. [Florida State University (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The problem of identifying the diffusion parameter appearing in a nonlocal steady diffusion equation is considered. The identification problem is formulated as an optimal control problem having a matching functional as the objective of the control and the parameter function as the control variable. The analysis makes use of a nonlocal vector calculus that allows one to define a variational formulation of the nonlocal problem. In a manner analogous to the local partial differential equations counterpart, we demonstrate, for certain kernel functions, the existence of at least one optimal solution in the space of admissible parameters. We introduce a Galerkin finite element discretization of the optimal control problem and derive a priori error estimates for the approximate state and control variables. Using one-dimensional numerical experiments, we illustrate the theoretical results and show that by using nonlocal models it is possible to estimate non-smooth and discontinuous diffusion parameters.

  13. Non-local means filter for trim statics

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Wang, Xin; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we propose a trim statics inspired by the non-local means algorithm originally developed for image denoising. This method differs from the conventional one in two fundamental respects. First, the trim statics are computed by comparing image

  14. A single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for transversely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rameshchandra P Shimpi

    2018-05-11

    May 11, 2018 ... Abstract. In this paper, a simple single variable shear deformable nonlocal theory for bending of micro- and ... the models based upon continuum mechanics are widely .... of the body. ...... Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK. pp.

  15. Nonlocality versus complementarity: a conservative approach to the information problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B

    2011-01-01

    A proposal for resolution of the information paradox is that 'nice slice' states, which have been viewed as providing a sharp argument for information loss, do not in fact do so as they do not give a fully accurate description of the quantum state of a black hole. This however leaves an information problem, which is to provide a consistent description of how information escapes when a black hole evaporates. While a rather extreme form of nonlocality has been advocated in the form of complementarity, this paper argues that is not necessary, and more modest nonlocality could solve the information problem. One possible distinguishing characteristic of scenarios is the information retention time. The question of whether such nonlocality implies acausality, and particularly inconsistency, is briefly addressed. The need for such nonlocality, and its apparent tension with our empirical observations of local quantum field theory, may be a critical missing piece in understanding the principles of quantum gravity.

  16. A Systems-Theoretical Generalization of Non-Local Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stillfried, Nikolaus

    Non-local correlations between quantum events are not due to a causal interaction in the sense of one being the cause for the other. In principle, the correlated events can thus occur simultaneously. Generalized Quantum Theory (GQT) formalizes the idea that non-local phenomena are not exclusive to quantum mechanics, e.g. due to some specific properties of (sub)atomic particles, but that they instead arise as a consequence of the way such particles are arranged into systems. Non-local phenomena should hence occur in any system which fulfils the necessary systems-theoretical parameters. The two most important parameters with respect to non-local correlations seem to be a conserved global property of the system as a whole and sufficient degrees of freedom of the corresponding property of its subsystems. Both factors place severe limitations on experimental observability of the phenomena, especially in terms of replicability. It has been suggested that reported phenomena of a so-called synchronistic, parapsychological or paranormal kind could be understood as instances of systems-inherent non-local correlations. From a systems-theoretical perspective, their phenomenology (including the favorable conditions for their occurrence and their lack of replicability) displays substantial similarities to non-local correlations in quantum systems and matches well with systems-theoretical parameters, thus providing circumstantial evidence for this hypothesis.

  17. Coupling of nonlocal and local continuum models by the Arlequinapproach

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Fei

    2011-08-09

    The objective of this work is to develop and apply the Arlequin framework to couple nonlocal and local continuum mechanical models. A mechanically-based model of nonlocal elasticity, which involves both contact and long-range forces, is used for the \\'fine scale\\' description in which nonlocal interactions are considered to have non-negligible effects. Classical continuum mechanics only involving local contact forces is introduced for the rest of the structure where these nonlocal effects can be neglected. Both models overlap in a coupling subdomain called the \\'gluing area\\' in which the total energy is separated into nonlocal and local contributions by complementary weight functions. A weak compatibility is ensured between kinematics of both models using Lagrange multipliers over the gluing area. The discrete formulation of this specific Arlequin coupling framework is derived and fully described. The validity and limits of the technique are demonstrated through two-dimensional numerical applications and results are compared against those of the fully nonlocal elasticity method. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  19. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  20. Video denoising, deblocking, and enhancement through separable 4-D nonlocal spatiotemporal transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Matteo; Boracchi, Giacomo; Foi, Alessandro; Egiazarian, Karen

    2012-09-01

    We propose a powerful video filtering algorithm that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy characterizing natural video sequences. The algorithm implements the paradigm of nonlocal grouping and collaborative filtering, where a higher dimensional transform-domain representation of the observations is leveraged to enforce sparsity, and thus regularize the data: 3-D spatiotemporal volumes are constructed by tracking blocks along trajectories defined by the motion vectors. Mutually similar volumes are then grouped together by stacking them along an additional fourth dimension, thus producing a 4-D structure, termed group, where different types of data correlation exist along the different dimensions: local correlation along the two dimensions of the blocks, temporal correlation along the motion trajectories, and nonlocal spatial correlation (i.e., self-similarity) along the fourth dimension of the group. Collaborative filtering is then realized by transforming each group through a decorrelating 4-D separable transform and then by shrinkage and inverse transformation. In this way, the collaborative filtering provides estimates for each volume stacked in the group, which are then returned and adaptively aggregated to their original positions in the video. The proposed filtering procedure addresses several video processing applications, such as denoising, deblocking, and enhancement of both grayscale and color data. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of our method in terms of both subjective and objective visual quality, and show that it outperforms the state of the art in video denoising.

  1. Retail environments and spatial shopping behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, H.J.P.; Gaerling, T.; Golledge, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The interplay between aspects of retail environments and consumer spatial shopping behavior has traditionally been an area of major concern in geography, urban planning and related disciplines. It reflects an interest in explaining the relationship between locational and nonlocational attributes of

  2. Glueball phenomenology within a nonlocal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacosa, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the properties of glueball phenomenology within a nonlocal covariant constituent approach. The search for glueballs, their theoretical description and the mixing with quarkonia mesons is an active and unsolved issue of hadronic QCD. Different models and assignments have been proposed, but up to now no certain statement about their existence can be done. After introducing the theoretical framework in which we will work in, the attention will be focused on the problem of the scalar glueball, which lattice QCD predicts to be the lightest gluonic state with a mass between 1.4-1.8 GeV. In the same mass region one encounters many scalar resonances; mixing between the bare glueball and quarkonia states is therefore likely. In a covariant constituent approach one cannot define rigorously a mixing matrix connecting the bare to physical fields. However, we propose a definition which satisfies the correct requirements and which can be compared to other phenomenological studies. The two-photon decay of isoscalar-scalar states is believed to be crucial to pin down the flavor content of the resonances between 1 and 2 GeV. We discuss and calculate the two-photon decay rates of the mixed states glueball-quarkonia, getting results which are consistent with the current experimental upper limits

  3. Causality and local determinism versus quantum nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczynski, M

    2014-01-01

    The entanglement and the violation of Bell and CHSH inequalities in spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCE) is considered to be one of the biggest mysteries of Nature and is called quantum nonlocality. In this paper we show once again that this conclusion is based on imprecise terminology and on the lack of understanding of probabilistic models used in various proofs of Bell and CHSH theorems. These models are inconsistent with experimental protocols used in SPCE. This is the only reason why Bell and CHSH inequalities are violated. A probabilistic non-signalling description of SPCE, consistent with quantum predictions, is possible and it depends explicitly on the context of each experiment. It is also deterministic in the sense that the outcome is determined by supplementary local parameters describing both physical signals and measuring instruments. The existence of such description gives additional arguments that quantum theory is emergent from some more detailed theory respecting causality and local determinism. If quantum theory is emergent then there exist perhaps some fine structures in time-series of experimental data which were not predicted by quantum theory. In this paper we explain how a systematic search for such fine structures can be done. If such reproducible fine structures were found it would show that quantum theory is not predictably complete, which would be a major discovery.

  4. Exploring nonlocal observables in shock wave collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, Christian; Grumiller, Daniel; Stanzer, Philipp; Stricker, Stefan A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Schee, Wilke van der [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    We study the time evolution of 2-point functions and entanglement entropy in strongly anisotropic, inhomogeneous and time-dependent N=4 super Yang-Mills theory in the large N and large ’t Hooft coupling limit using AdS/CFT. On the gravity side this amounts to calculating the length of geodesics and area of extremal surfaces in the dynamical background of two colliding gravitational shockwaves, which we do numerically. We discriminate between three classes of initial conditions corresponding to wide, intermediate and narrow shocks, and show that they exhibit different phenomenology with respect to the nonlocal observables that we determine. Our results permit to use (holographic) entanglement entropy as an order parameter to distinguish between the two phases of the cross-over from the transparency to the full-stopping scenario in dynamical Yang-Mills plasma formation, which is frequently used as a toy model for heavy ion collisions. The time evolution of entanglement entropy allows to discern four regimes: highly efficient initial growth of entanglement, linear growth, (post) collisional drama and late time (polynomial) fall off. Surprisingly, we found that 2-point functions can be sensitive to the geometry inside the black hole apparent horizon, while we did not find such cases for the entanglement entropy.

  5. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  6. Understanding quantum interference in general nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haijun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to give a new understanding of quantum double-slit interference of fermions in the framework of general nonlocality (GN) [J. Math. Phys. 49, 033513 (2008)] by studying the self-(inter)action of matter wave. From the metric of the GN, we derive a special formalism to interpret the interference contrast when the self-action is perturbative. According to the formalism, the characteristic of interference pattern is in agreement with experiment qualitatively. As examples, we apply the formalism to the cases governed by Schroedinger current and Dirac current, respectively, both of which are relevant to topology. The gap between these two cases corresponds to the fermion magnetic moment, which is possible to test in the near future. In addition, a general interference formalism for both perturbative and nonperturbative self-actions is presented. By analyzing the general formalism we predict that in the nonperturbative limit there is no interference at all. And by comparison with the special formalism of Schroedinger current, the coupling strength of self-action in the limit is found to be ∞. In the perturbative case, the interference from self-action turns out to be the same as that from the standard approach of quantum theory. Then comparing the corresponding coefficients quantitatively we conclude that the coupling strength of self-action in this case falls in the interval [0, 1].

  7. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  8. Stability of stationary states of non-local equations with singular interaction potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Fellner, Klemens

    2011-04-01

    We study the large-time behaviour of a non-local evolution equation for the density of particles or individuals subject to an external and an interaction potential. In particular, we consider interaction potentials which are singular in the sense that their first derivative is discontinuous at the origin.For locally attractive singular interaction potentials we prove under a linear stability condition local non-linear stability of stationary states consisting of a finite sum of Dirac masses. For singular repulsive interaction potentials we show the stability of stationary states of uniformly bounded solutions under a convexity condition.Finally, we present numerical simulations to illustrate our results. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Monostable traveling waves for a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panxiao; Wu, Shi-Liang

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with a time-periodic and delayed nonlocal reaction-diffusion population model with monostable nonlinearity. Under quasi-monotone or non-quasi-monotone assumptions, it is known that there exists a critical wave speed c_*>0 such that a periodic traveling wave exists if and only if the wave speed is above c_*. In this paper, we first prove the uniqueness of non-critical periodic traveling waves regardless of whether the model is quasi-monotone or not. Further, in the quasi-monotone case, we establish the exponential stability of non-critical periodic traveling fronts. Finally, we illustrate the main results by discussing two types of death and birth functions arising from population biology.

  10. Evidence of Non-local Chemical, Thermal and Gravitational Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu H.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entanglement is ubiquitous in the microscopic world and manifests itself macroscopically under some circumstances. But common belief is that it alone cannot be used to transmit information nor could it be used to produce macroscopic non- local effects. Yet we have recently found evidence of non-local effects of chemical substances on the brain produced through it. While our reported results are under independent verifications by other groups, we report here our experimental findings of non-local chemical, thermal and gravitational effects in simple physical systems such as reservoirs of water quantum-entangled with water being manipulated in a remote reservoir. With the aids of high-precision instruments, we have found that the pH value, temperature and gravity of water in the detecting reservoirs can be non-locally affected through manipulating water in the remote reservoir. In particular, the pH value changes in the same direction as that being manipulated; the temperature can change against that of local environment; and the gravity apparently can also change against local gravity. These non-local effects are all reproducible and can be used for non-local signalling and many other purposes. We suggest that they are mediated by quantum entanglement between nuclear and/or electron spins in treated water and discuss the implications of these results.

  11. On a non-local gas dynamics like integrable hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, Jose Carlos; Das, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    We study a new hierarchy of equations derived from the system of isentropic gas dynamics equations where the pressure is a non-local function of the density. We show that the hierarchy of equations is integrable. We construct the two compatible Hamiltonian structures and show that the first structure has three distinct Casimirs while the second has one. The existence of Casimirs allows us to extend the flows to local ones. We construct an infinite series of commuting local Hamiltonians as well as three infinite series (related to the three Casimirs) of non-local charges. We discuss the zero curvature formulation of the system where we obtain a simple expression for the non-local conserved charges, which also clarifies the existence of the three series from a Lie algebraic point of view. We point out that the non-local hierarchy of Hunter-Zheng equations can be obtained from our non-local flows when the dynamical variables are properly constrained. (author)

  12. Multiclustered chimeras in large semiconductor laser arrays with nonlocal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shena, J.; Hizanidis, J.; Hövel, P.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2017-09-01

    The dynamics of a large array of coupled semiconductor lasers is studied numerically for a nonlocal coupling scheme. Our focus is on chimera states, a self-organized spatiotemporal pattern of coexisting coherence and incoherence. In laser systems, such states have been previously found for global and nearest-neighbor coupling, mainly in small networks. The technological advantage of large arrays has motivated us to study a system of 200 nonlocally coupled lasers with respect to the emerging collective dynamics. Moreover, the nonlocal nature of the coupling allows us to obtain robust chimera states with multiple (in)coherent domains. The crucial parameters are the coupling strength, the coupling phase and the range of the nonlocal interaction. We find that multiclustered chimera states exist in a wide region of the parameter space and we provide quantitative characterization for the obtained spatiotemporal patterns. By proposing two different experimental setups for the realization of the nonlocal coupling scheme, we are confident that our results can be confirmed in the laboratory.

  13. Non-local magnetoresistance in YIG/Pt nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B., E-mail: goennenwein@wmi.badw.de; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstraße 4, 80799 München (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schlitz, Richard; Ganzhorn, Kathrin [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Althammer, Matthias [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Walther-Meißner-Str. 8, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-26

    We study the local and non-local magnetoresistance of thin Pt strips deposited onto yttrium iron garnet. The local magnetoresistive response, inferred from the voltage drop measured along one given Pt strip upon current-biasing it, shows the characteristic magnetization orientation dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. We simultaneously also record the non-local voltage appearing along a second, electrically isolated, Pt strip, separated from the current carrying one by a gap of a few 100 nm. The corresponding non-local magnetoresistance exhibits the symmetry expected for a magnon spin accumulation-driven process, confirming the results recently put forward by Cornelissen et al. [“Long-distance transport of magnon spin information in a magnetic insulator at room temperature,” Nat. Phys. (published online 14 September 2015)]. Our magnetotransport data, taken at a series of different temperatures as a function of magnetic field orientation, rotating the externally applied field in three mutually orthogonal planes, show that the mechanisms behind the spin Hall and the non-local magnetoresistance are qualitatively different. In particular, the non-local magnetoresistance vanishes at liquid Helium temperatures, while the spin Hall magnetoresistance prevails.

  14. Nonlocal non-Markovian effects in dephasing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Dong; Wang An-Min

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonlocal non-Markovian effects through local interactions between two subsystems and the corresponding two environments. It has been found that the initial correlations between two environments can turn a Markovian to a non-Markovian regime with extra control on the local interaction time. We further research the nonlocal non-Markovian effects from two situations: without extra control, the nonlocal non-Markovian effects only appear under the condition that two local dynamics are non-Markovian–non-Markovian (both of the two local dynamics are non-Markovian) or Markovian–non-Markovian, but not under the condition of Markovian–Markovian; with extra control, the nonlocal non-Markovian effects can occur under the condition of Markovian–Markovian. It shows that the function of correlations between two environments has an upper bound, which makes a flow of information from the environment back to the global system beginning finitely earlier than that back to one of the two local systems, not infinitely. Then, we proposed two special ways to distribute classical correlations between two environments without initial correlations. Finally, from numerical solutions in the spin star configuration, we found that the self-correlation (internal correlation) of each environment promotes the nonlocal non-Markovian effects. (general)

  15. Nonlocal conductivity in type-II superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, C.; Wortis, R.; Dorsey, A.T.; Huse, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Multiterminal transport measurements on YBa 2 Cu 2 O 7 crystals in the vortex liquid regime have shown nonlocal conductivity on length scales up to 50 microns. Motivated by these results we explore the wave vector (k) dependence of the dc conductivity tensor, σ μν (k), in the Meissner, vortex lattice, and disordered phases of a type-II superconductor. Our results are based on time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) theory and on phenomenological arguments. We find four qualitatively different types of behavior. First, in the Meissner phase, the conductivity is infinite at k=0 and is a continuous function of k, monotonically decreasing with increasing k. Second, in the vortex-lattice phase, in the absence of pinning, the conductivity is finite (due to flux flow) at k=0; it is discontinuous there and remains qualitatively like the Meissner phase for k>0. Third, in the vortex liquid regime in a magnetic field and at low temperature, the conductivity is finite, smooth and nonmonotonic, first increasing with k at small k and then decreasing at larger k. This third behavior is expected to apply at temperatures just above the melting transition of the vortex lattice, where the vortex liquid shows strong short-range order and a large viscosity. Finally, at higher temperatures in the disordered phase, the conductivity is finite, smooth and again monotonically decreasing with k. This last, monotonic behavior applies in zero magnetic field for the entire disordered phase, i.e., at all temperatures above T c , while in a field the nonmonotonic behavior may occur in a low-temperature portion of the disordered phase

  16. Random access codes and nonlocal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Anubhav; Pawlowski, Marcin; Horodecki, Karol

    2017-08-01

    This work explores the notion of inter-convertibility between a cryptographic primitive: the random access code (RAC) and bipartite no-signaling nonlocal resources. To this end we introduce two generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich box (PR) and investigate their relation with the corresponding RACs. The first generalization is based on the number of Alice's input bits; we refer to it as the Bn-box. We show that the no-signaling condition imposes an equivalence between the Bn-box and the (n →1 ) RAC (encoding of n input bits to 1 bit of message). As an application we show that (n -1 ) PRs supplemented with one bit communication are necessary and sufficient to win a (n →1 ) RAC with certainty. Furthermore, we present a signaling instant of a perfectly working (n →1 ) RAC which cannot simulate the Bn-box, thus showing that it is weaker than its no-signaling counterpart. For the second generalization we replace Alice's input bits with d its (d -leveled classical systems); we call this the Bnd-box. In this case the no-signaling condition is not enough to enforce an equivalence between the Bnd-box and (n →1 ,d ) RAC (encoding of n input d its to 1 d it of message); i.e., while the Bnd-box can win a (n →1 ,d ) RAC with certainty, not all no-signaling instances of a (n →1 ,d ) RAC can simulate the Bnd-box. We use resource inequalities to quantitatively capture these results.

  17. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  18. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  19. Time-nonlocal kinetic equations, jerk and hyperjerk in plasmas and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-06-01

    The simulation and analysis of nonlocal effects in fluids and plasmas is an inherently complicated problem due to the massive breadth of physics required to describe the nonlocal dynamics. This is a multi-physics problem that draws upon various miscellaneous fields, such as electromagnetism and statistical mechanics. In this paper we strive to focus on one narrow but motivating mathematical way: the derivation of nonlocal plasma-fluid equations from a generalized nonlocal Liouville derivative operator motivated from Suykens's nonlocal arguments. The paper aims to provide a guideline toward modeling nonlocal effects occurring in plasma-fluid systems by means of a generalized nonlocal Boltzmann equation. The generalized nonlocal equations of fluid dynamics are derived and their implications in plasma-fluid systems are addressed, discussed and analyzed. Three main topics were discussed: Landau damping in plasma electrodynamics, ideal MHD and solar wind. A number of features were revealed, analyzed and confronted with recent research results and observations.

  20. Global stability and pattern formation in a nonlocal diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenjie; Shi, Junping; Wang, Mingxin

    2018-06-01

    A diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model with nonlocal intraspecific and interspecific competition between species is formulated and analyzed. The nonlocal competition strength is assumed to be determined by a diffusion kernel function to model the movement pattern of the biological species. It is shown that when there is no nonlocal intraspecific competition, the dynamics properties of nonlocal diffusive competition problem are similar to those of classical diffusive Lotka-Volterra competition model regardless of the strength of nonlocal interspecific competition. Global stability of nonnegative constant equilibria are proved using Lyapunov or upper-lower solution methods. On the other hand, strong nonlocal intraspecific competition increases the system spatiotemporal dynamic complexity. For the weak competition case, the nonlocal diffusive competition model may possess nonconstant positive equilibria for some suitably large nonlocal intraspecific competition coefficients.

  1. Dynamics and stability of transverse vibrations of nonlocal nanobeams with a variable axial load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Yu, J L; Lim, C W

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the natural frequency, steady-state resonance and stability for the transverse vibrations of a nanobeam subjected to a variable initial axial force, including axial tension and axial compression, based on nonlocal elasticity theory. It is reported that the nonlocal nanoscale has significant effects on vibration behavior, which results in a new effective nonlocal bending moment different to but dependent on the corresponding nonlocal bending moment. The effects of nonlocal nanoscale and the variation of initial axial force on the natural frequency as well as the instability regions are analyzed by the perturbation method. It concludes that both the nonlocal nanoscale and the initial tension, including static and dynamic tensions, cause an increase in natural frequency, while an initial compression causes the natural frequency to decrease. Instability regions are also greatly influenced by the nonlocal nanoscale and initial tension and they become smaller with stronger nonlocal effects or larger initial tension

  2. Revival of the Deser-Woodard nonlocal gravity model: Comparison of the original nonlocal form and a localized formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun

    2018-02-01

    We examine the origin of two opposite results for the growth of perturbations in the Deser-Woodard (DW) nonlocal gravity model. One group previously analyzed the model in its original nonlocal form and showed that the growth of structure in the DW model is enhanced compared to general relativity (GR) and thus concluded that the model was ruled out. Recently, however, another group has reanalyzed it by localizing the model and found that the growth in their localized version is suppressed even compared to the one in GR. The question was whether the discrepancy originates from an intrinsic difference between the nonlocal and localized formulations or is due to their different implementations of the subhorizon limit. We show that the nonlocal and local formulations give the same solutions for the linear perturbations as long as the initial conditions are set the same. The different implementations of the subhorizon limit lead to different transient behaviors of some perturbation variables; however, they do not affect the growth of matter perturbations at the sub-horizon scale much. In the meantime, we also report an error in the numerical calculation code of the former group and verify that after fixing the error the nonlocal version also gives the suppressed growth. Finally, we discuss two alternative definitions of the effective gravitational constant taken by the two groups and some open problems.

  3. Nonlocal superconducting correlations in graphene in the quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beconcini, Michael; Polini, Marco; Taddei, Fabio

    2018-05-01

    We study Andreev processes and nonlocal transport in a three-terminal graphene-superconductor hybrid system under a quantizing perpendicular magnetic field [G.-H. Lee et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 693 (2017), 10.1038/nphys4084]. We find that the amplitude of the crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) processes crucially depends on the orientation of the lattice. By employing Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory, we find that CAR is generally very small for a zigzag edge, while for an armchair edge it can be larger than the normal transmission, thereby resulting in a negative nonlocal resistance. In the case of an armchair edge and with a wide superconducting region (as compared to the superconducting coherence length), CAR exhibits large oscillations as a function of the magnetic field due to interference effects. This results in sign changes of the nonlocal resistance.

  4. Non-local charges in local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Lopuszanski, J.T.; Rabsztyn, S.

    1985-05-01

    Non-local charges are studied in the general setting of local quantum field theory. It is shown, that these charges can be represented as polynomials in the incoming respectively outgoing fields with coefficients (kernels) which are subject to specific constraints. For the restricted class of models of a scalar, massive, self interacting particle in four dimensions, a more detailed analysis shows that all non-local charges of the generic type (genus 2) are products of generators of the Poincare group. This analysis, which is based on the macroscopic causality properties of the S-matrix, seems to indicate that less trivial examples of non-local charges can only exist in two dimensions. (orig.)

  5. A non-local variable for general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    The usual description of differential geometry and general relativity is in terms of local fields, e.g. the metric, the curvature tensor, etc, which satisfy local differential equations. The authors introduce a new non-local field (Z) from which the local fields can be derived. Basically Z, though it is non-local, should be thought of as a function on the bundle of null directions on a space-time. The program can be divided into two parts; first the authors want to show the geometric meaning of and the relationship between Z and the local field. Then they want to provide field equations (non-local) for Z which will be equivalent to the vacuum Einstein equations for the local field. (Auth.)

  6. Non-local quantal Noether identities and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional for a system with a singular high-order Lagrangian, the quantal canonical Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such system have been derived. For a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian, the quantal Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in configuration space have also been derived. it has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantal Noether identities may be converted to the conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantal conservation laws is significantly different from the first quantal Noether theorem. The applications to the non-Abelian CS theories with higher-order derivatives are given. The conserved quantities at the quantum level for some local and non-local transformation are found respectively

  7. Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, G K; Iblisdir, S; Pachos, J K; Slingerland, J K

    2009-01-01

    Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.

  8. Non-locality of non-Abelian anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennen, G. K.; Iblisdir, S.; Pachos, J. K.; Slingerland, J. K.

    2009-10-01

    Entangled states of quantum systems can give rise to measurement correlations of separated observers that cannot be described by local hidden variable theories. Usually, it is assumed that entanglement between particles is generated due to some distance-dependent interaction. Yet anyonic particles in two dimensions have a nontrivial interaction that is purely topological in nature. In other words, it does not depend on the distance between two particles, but rather on their exchange history. The information encoded in anyons is inherently non-local even in the single subsystem level making the treatment of anyons non-conventional. We describe a protocol to reveal the non-locality of anyons in terms of correlations in the outcomes of measurements in two separated regions. This gives a clear operational measure of non-locality for anyonic states and it opens up the possibility to test Bell inequalities in quantum Hall liquids or spin lattices.

  9. Poisson-Fermi Formulation of Nonlocal Electrostatics in Electrolyte Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinn-Liang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a nonlocal electrostatic formulation of nonuniform ions and water molecules with interstitial voids that uses a Fermi-like distribution to account for steric and correlation efects in electrolyte solutions. The formulation is based on the volume exclusion of hard spheres leading to a steric potential and Maxwell’s displacement field with Yukawa-type interactions resulting in a nonlocal electric potential. The classical Poisson-Boltzmann model fails to describe steric and correlation effects important in a variety of chemical and biological systems, especially in high field or large concentration conditions found in and near binding sites, ion channels, and electrodes. Steric effects and correlations are apparent when we compare nonlocal Poisson-Fermi results to Poisson-Boltzmann calculations in electric double layer and to experimental measurements on the selectivity of potassium channels for K+ over Na+.

  10. Nonlinear evolution inclusions arising from phase change models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colli, P.; Krejčí, Pavel; Rocca, E.; Sprekels, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2007), s. 1067-1098 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlinear and nonlocal evolution equations * Cahn-Hilliard type dynamics * phase transitions models Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.155, year: 2007 http://www.dml.cz/bitstream/handle/10338.dmlcz/128228/CzechMathJ_57-2007-4_2.pdf

  11. Two- and three-dimensional nonlocal density functional theory for inhomogeneous fluids. 1. Algorithms and parallelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    Fluids adsorbed near surfaces, near macromolecules, and in porous materials are inhomogeneous, exhibiting spatially varying density distributions. This inhomogeneity in the fluid plays an important role in controlling a wide variety of complex physical phenomena including wetting, self-assembly, corrosion, and molecular recognition. One of the key methods for studying the properties of inhomogeneous fluids in simple geometries has been density functional theory (DFT). However, there has been a conspicuous lack of calculations in complex two- and three-dimensional geometries. The computational difficulty arises from the need to perform nested integrals that are due to nonlocal terms in the free energy functional. These integral equations are expensive both in evaluation time and in memory requirements; however, the expense can be mitigated by intelligent algorithms and the use of parallel computers. This paper details the efforts to develop efficient numerical algorithms so that nonlocal DFT calculations in complex geometries that require two or three dimensions can be performed. The success of this implementation will enable the study of solvation effects at heterogeneous surfaces, in zeolites, in solvated (bio)polymers, and in colloidal suspensions

  12. Existence of solutions for nonlinear mixed type integrodifferential equation of second order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haribhau Laxman Tidke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the existence of solutions for nonlinear mixed Volterra-Fredholm integrodifferential equation of second order with nonlocal conditions in Banach spaces. Our analysis is based on Leray-Schauder alternative, rely on a priori bounds of solutions and the inequality established by B. G. Pachpatte.

  13. Power-induced evolution and increased dimensionality of nonlinear modes in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudyn, Urszula A; Jung, Paweł S; Zegadło, Krzysztof B; Karpierz, Miroslaw A; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-15

    We demonstrate the evolution of higher order one-dimensional guided modes into two-dimensional solitary waves in a reorientational medium. The observations, carried out at two different wavelengths in chiral nematic liquid crystals, are in good agreement with a simple nonlocal nonlinear model.

  14. Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Integrated Fracture Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlewood, David John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silling, Stewart A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, John A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Seleson, Pablo D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bond, Stephen D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Michael L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, Daniel Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnett, Damon J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ostien, Jakob [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Gunzburger, Max [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Peridynamics, a nonlocal extension of continuum mechanics, is unique in its ability to capture pervasive material failure. Its use in the majority of system-level analyses carried out at Sandia, however, is severely limited, due in large part to computational expense and the challenge posed by the imposition of nonlocal boundary conditions. Combined analyses in which peridynamics is em- ployed only in regions susceptible to material failure are therefore highly desirable, yet available coupling strategies have remained severely limited. This report is a summary of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project "Strong Local-Nonlocal Coupling for Inte- grated Fracture Modeling," completed within the Computing and Information Sciences (CIS) In- vestment Area at Sandia National Laboratories. A number of challenges inherent to coupling local and nonlocal models are addressed. A primary result is the extension of peridynamics to facilitate a variable nonlocal length scale. This approach, termed the peridynamic partial stress, can greatly reduce the mathematical incompatibility between local and nonlocal equations through reduction of the peridynamic horizon in the vicinity of a model interface. A second result is the formulation of a blending-based coupling approach that may be applied either as the primary coupling strategy, or in combination with the peridynamic partial stress. This blending-based approach is distinct from general blending methods, such as the Arlequin approach, in that it is specific to the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics. Facilitating the coupling of peridynamics and classical continuum mechanics has also required innovations aimed directly at peridynamic models. Specifically, the properties of peridynamic constitutive models near domain boundaries and shortcomings in available discretization strategies have been addressed. The results are a class of position-aware peridynamic constitutive laws for

  15. Nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dexuan; Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-07-01

    We propose a nonlocal Poisson-Fermi model for ionic solvent that includes ion size effects and polarization correlations among water molecules in the calculation of electrostatic potential. It includes the previous Poisson-Fermi models as special cases, and its solution is the convolution of a solution of the corresponding nonlocal Poisson dielectric model with a Yukawa-like kernel function. The Fermi distribution is shown to be a set of optimal ionic concentration functions in the sense of minimizing an electrostatic potential free energy. Numerical results are reported to show the difference between a Poisson-Fermi solution and a corresponding Poisson solution.

  16. Nonlocal, yet translation invariant, constraints for rotationally invariant slave bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayral, Thomas; Kotliar, Gabriel

    The rotationally-invariant slave boson (RISB) method is a lightweight framework allowing to study the low-energy properties of complex multiorbital problems currently out of the reach of more comprehensive, yet more computationally demanding methods such as dynamical mean field theory. In the original formulation of this formalism, the slave-boson constraints can be made nonlocal by enlarging the unit cell and viewing the quantum states enclosed in this new unit cell as molecular levels. In this work, we extend RISB to constraints which are nonlocal while preserving translation invariance. We apply this extension to the Hubbard model.

  17. Local models and hidden nonlocality in Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Guerini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    This Master's thesis has two central subjects: the simulation of correlations generated by local measurements on entangled quantum states by local hidden-variables models and the revelation of hidden nonlocality. We present and detail the Werner's local model and the hidden nonlocality of some Werner states of dimension $d\\geq5$, the Gisin-Degorre's local model for a Werner state of dimension $d=2$ and the local model of Hirsch et al. for mixtures of the singlet state and noise, all of them f...

  18. Local and Nonlocal Parallel Heat Transport in General Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Chacon, L.

    2011-01-01

    A novel approach for the study of parallel transport in magnetized plasmas is presented. The method avoids numerical pollution issues of grid-based formulations and applies to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields with local or nonlocal parallel closures. In weakly chaotic fields, the method gives the fractal structure of the devil's staircase radial temperature profile. In fully chaotic fields, the temperature exhibits self-similar spatiotemporal evolution with a stretched-exponential scaling function for local closures and an algebraically decaying one for nonlocal closures. It is shown that, for both closures, the effective radial heat transport is incompatible with the quasilinear diffusion model.

  19. Nonlocal thermoelectric symmetry relations in ferromagnet-superconductor proximity structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham Hill, EGHAM, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients in quantum coherent structures are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. We generalize Onsager's symmetry relation to nonlocal thermoelectric currents in a three terminal ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and direct electron transfer processes. We proof this general symmetry by applying spin-dependent boundary conditions for quasi-classical Green's functions in both the clean and the dirty limit. We predict an anomalously large local thermopower and a nonlocal Seebeck effect, which can be explained by the spin-dependent spectral properties.

  20. To the non-local theory of cold nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we revisit the cold fusion (CF) phenomenon using the generalized Bolzmann kinetics theory which can represent the non-local physics of this CF phenomenon. This approach can identify the conditions when the CF can take place as the soliton creation under the influence of the intensive sound waves. The vast mathematical modelling leads to affirmation that all parts of soliton move with the same velocity and with the small internal change of the pressure. The zone of the high density is shaped on the soliton's front. It means that the regime of the 'acoustic CF' could be realized from the position of the non-local hydrodynamics.

  1. Faithful test of nonlocal realism with entangled coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok; Paternostro, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the violation of Leggett's inequality for nonlocal realism using entangled coherent states and various types of local measurements. We prove mathematically the relation between the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt form of Bell's inequality and Leggett's one when tested by the same resources. For Leggett inequalities, we generalize the nonlocal realistic bound to systems in Hilbert spaces larger than bidimensional ones and introduce an optimization technique that allows one to achieve larger degrees of violation by adjusting the local measurement settings. Our work describes the steps that should be performed to produce a self-consistent generalization of Leggett's original arguments to continuous-variable states.

  2. A nonlocal potential form for s-wave α-α scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Bennett, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    Low energy s-wave α-α phase shifts that agree well with the measured set, have been extracted using a nonlocal interaction formed by folding (local real) nucleon -α particle interactions with density matrix elements of the (projectile) α particle. The resultant nonlocal s-wave α-α interaction is energy dependent and has a nonlocality range of about 2 fm

  3. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  4. Challenges in Upscaling Geomorphic Transport Laws: Scale-dependence of Local vs. Non-local Formalisms and Derivation of Closures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Ganti, V. K.; Passalacqua, P.

    2010-12-01

    Nonlinear geomorphic transport laws are often derived from mechanistic considerations at a point, and yet they are implemented on 90m or 30 m DEMs, presenting a mismatch in the scales of derivation and application of the flux laws. Since estimates of local slopes and curvatures are known to depend on the scale of the DEM used in their computation, two questions arise: (1) how to meaningfully compensate for the scale dependence, if any, of local transport laws? and (2) how to formally derive, via upscaling, constitutive laws that are applicable at larger scales? Recently, non-local geomorphic transport laws for sediment transport on hillslopes have been introduced using the concept of an integral flux that depends on topographic attributes in the vicinity of a point of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate the scale dependence of local nonlinear hillslope sediment transport laws and derive a closure term via upscaling (Reynolds averaging). We also show that the non-local hillslope transport laws are inherently scale independent owing to their non-local, scale-free nature. These concepts are demonstrated via an application to a small subbasin of the Oregon Coast Range using 2m LiDAR topographic data.

  5. Nonlocality of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas nonlocal plasma transport and radial structural formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)

  6. Single-shot measurement of nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, J; Singh, Asha; Oak, Shrikant M

    2006-06-01

    A single-shot method for measurement of nonlinear optical absorption and refraction is described and analyzed. A spatial intensity variation of an elliptical Gaussian beam in conjugation with an array detector is the key element of this method. The advantages of this single-shot technique were demonstrated by measuring the two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption in GaAs as well as the nonlinear refractive index of CS2 using a modified optical Kerr setup.

  7. Nonlocal free vibration in the pre- and post-buckled states of magneto-electro-thermo elastic rectangular nanoplates with various edge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.

    2016-09-01

    Considering the small scale effect together with the influences of transverse shear deformation, rotary inertia and the magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical coupling, the linear free vibration of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic (METE) rectangular nanoplates with various edge supports in pre- and post-buckled states is investigated herein. It is assumed that the METE nanoplate is subjected to the external in-plane compressive loads in combination with magnetic, electric and thermal loads. The Mindlin plate theory, von Kármán hypothesis and the nonlocal theory are utilized to develop a size-dependent geometrically nonlinear plate model for describing the size-dependent linear and nonlinear mechanical characteristics of moderately thick METE rectangular nanoplates. The nonlinear governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton’s principle which are then discretized via the generalized differential quadrature method. The pseudo-arc length continuation approach is used to obtain the equilibrium postbuckling path of METE nanoplates. By the obtained postbuckling response, and taking a time-dependent small disturbance around the buckled configuration, and inserting them into the nonlinear governing equations, an eigenvalue problem is achieved from which the frequencies of pre- and post-buckled METE nanoplates can be calculated. The effects of nonlocal parameter, electric, magnetic and thermal loadings, length-to-thickness ratio and different boundary conditions on the free vibration response of METE rectangular nanoplates in the pre- and post-buckled states are highlighted.

  8. On a nonlocal Cauchy problem for differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Sficas

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of solutions for semilinear differential inclusions, with nonlocal conditions. We rely on a fixed-point theorem for contraction multivalued maps due to Covitz and Nadler andon the Schaefer's fixed-point theorem combined with lower semicontinuous multivalued operators with decomposable values.

  9. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined 'steering', a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob's state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob's state was subsequently called steering by Schroedinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox

  10. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-11-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined “steering,” a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob’s state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob’s state was subsequently called steering by Schrödinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox.

  11. Nonlocal elasticity tensors in dislocation and disclination cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, V.; Gbemou, K.; Fressengeas, C.; Capolungo, L.

    2017-01-01

    We introduced nonlocal elastic constitutive laws for crystals containing defects such as dislocations and disclinations. Additionally, the pointwise elastic moduli tensors adequately reflect the elastic response of defect-free regions by relating stresses to strains and couple-stresses to curvatures, elastic cross-moduli tensors relating strains to couple-stresses and curvatures to stresses within convolution integrals are derived from a nonlocal analysis of strains and curvatures in the defects cores. Sufficient conditions are derived for positive-definiteness of the resulting free energy, and stability of elastic solutions is ensured. The elastic stress/couple stress fields associated with prescribed dislocation/disclination density distributions and solving the momentum and moment of momentum balance equations in periodic media are determined by using a Fast Fourier Transform spectral method. Here, the convoluted cross-moduli bring the following results: (i) Nonlocal stresses and couple stresses oppose their local counterparts in the defects core regions, playing the role of restoring forces and possibly ensuring spatio-temporal stability of the simulated defects, (ii) The couple stress fields are strongly affected by nonlocality. Such effects favor the stability of the simulated grain boundaries and allow investigating their elastic interactions with extrinsic defects, (iii) Driving forces inducing grain growth or refinement derive from the self-stress and couple stress fields of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline configurations.

  12. Tomograms and the quest for single particle nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, M A; Caponigro, M; Mancini, S; Man'ko, V I

    2007-01-01

    By using a tomographic approach to quantum states, we rise the problem of nonlocality within a single particle (single degree of freedom). We propose a possible way to look for such effects on a qubit. Although a conclusive answer is far from being reached, we provide some reflections on the foundational ground

  13. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2018-01-01

    separations, either coated with or encapsulating an excitonic layer. Through detailed simulations based on the generalized nonlocal optical response theory, which simultaneously accounts both for modal shifts due to screening and for surface-enhanced Landau damping, we show that, contrary to expectations...... architectures with ultrafine geometrical details....

  14. On nonlocal semi linear elliptic problem with an indefinite term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yechoui, Akila

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the existence of solutions of a nonlocal semi linear elliptic equation with an indefinite term. The monotone method, the method of upper and lower solutions and the classical maximum principle are used to obtain our results. (author)

  15. Robustness of the Rabi Splitting under Nonlocal Corrections in Plexcitonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2018-01-01

    , the influence of nonlocality is rather limited, as in most occasions the width of the Rabi splitting remains largely unaffected and the two hybrid modes are well distinguishable. We discuss how this behavior can be understood in view of the popular coupled-harmonic-oscillator model, while we also provide...

  16. Non-local model analysis of heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Takuya; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-01-01

    A new theoretical model equation which includes the non-local effect in the heat flux is proposed to study the transient transport phenomena. A non-local heat flux, which is expressed in terms of the integral equation, is superimposed on the conventional form of the heat flux. This model is applied to describe the experimental results from the power switching [Stroth U, et al 1996 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 38 1087] and the power modulation experiments [Giannone L, et al 1992 Nucl. Fusion 32 1985] in the W7-AS stellarator. A small fraction of non-local component in the heat flux is found to be very effective in modifying the response against an external modulation. The transient feature of the transport property, which are observed in the response of heat pulse propagation, are qualitatively reproduced by the transport simulations based on this model. A possibility is discussed to determine the correlation length of the non-local effect experimentally by use of the results of transport simulations. (author)

  17. Nonlocal formalism for nanoplasmonics: Phenomenological and semi-classical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    . Without specifying further details of the underlying physical mechanism we show how this leads to a Laplacian correction term in the electromagnetic wave equation. Within the hydrodynamic model we demonstrate this explicitly and we identify the characteristic nonlocal range to be ξNL∼vF/ω where v...

  18. A nonlocal phase-field system with inertial term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grasselli, M.; Petzeltová, Hana; Schimperna, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 3 (2007), s. 451-469 ISSN 0033-569X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : nonlocal phase-field system * Lojasiewicz inequality * convergence to equilibria Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.463, year: 2007

  19. Nonlocal transport in the presence of transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, D.

    2013-10-01

    There is experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence that transport in plasmas can, under certain circumstances, depart from the standard local, diffusive description. Examples include fast pulse propagation phenomena in perturbative experiments, non-diffusive scaling in L-mode plasmas, and non-Gaussian statistics of fluctuations. From the theoretical perspective, non-diffusive transport descriptions follow from the relaxation of the restrictive assumptions (locality, scale separation, and Gaussian/Markovian statistics) at the foundation of diffusive models. We discuss an alternative class of models able to capture some of the observed non-diffusive transport phenomenology. The models are based on a class of nonlocal, integro-differential operators that provide a unifying framework to describe non- Fickian scale-free transport, and non-Markovian (memory) effects. We study the interplay between nonlocality and internal transport barriers (ITBs) in perturbative transport including cold edge pulses and power modulation. Of particular interest in the nonlocal ``tunnelling'' of perturbations through ITBs. Also, flux-gradient diagrams are discussed as diagnostics to detect nonlocal transport processes in numerical simulations and experiments. Work supported by the US Department of Energy.

  20. Sparse representation based image interpolation with nonlocal autoregressive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weisheng; Zhang, Lei; Lukac, Rastislav; Shi, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Sparse representation is proven to be a promising approach to image super-resolution, where the low-resolution (LR) image is usually modeled as the down-sampled version of its high-resolution (HR) counterpart after blurring. When the blurring kernel is the Dirac delta function, i.e., the LR image is directly down-sampled from its HR counterpart without blurring, the super-resolution problem becomes an image interpolation problem. In such cases, however, the conventional sparse representation models (SRM) become less effective, because the data fidelity term fails to constrain the image local structures. In natural images, fortunately, many nonlocal similar patches to a given patch could provide nonlocal constraint to the local structure. In this paper, we incorporate the image nonlocal self-similarity into SRM for image interpolation. More specifically, a nonlocal autoregressive model (NARM) is proposed and taken as the data fidelity term in SRM. We show that the NARM-induced sampling matrix is less coherent with the representation dictionary, and consequently makes SRM more effective for image interpolation. Our extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NARM-based image interpolation method can effectively reconstruct the edge structures and suppress the jaggy/ringing artifacts, achieving the best image interpolation results so far in terms of PSNR as well as perceptual quality metrics such as SSIM and FSIM.

  1. Nonlocal ultrafast magnetization dynamics in the high fluence limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, K.C.; Malinowski, G.; Dalla Longa, F.; Koopmans, B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to explain a number of recent experimental observations of laser-induced femtosecond demagnetization in the large fluence limit, we discuss the consequences of a recently proposed nonlocal approach. A microscopic description of spin flip scattering is implemented in an effective three

  2. Hard-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamidas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present, for the first time, a Hardy-type proof of nonlocality for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional total Hilbert space. Furthermore, the violation of local realistic predictions occurs for 25 % of trials, exceeding the 9 % maximum obtained by Hardy for nonmaximally entangled states. (author)

  3. Quantifying multipartite nonlocality via the size of the resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchod, Florian John; Gisin, Nicolas; Liang, Yeong-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    The generation of (Bell-)nonlocal correlations, i.e., correlations leading to the violation of a Bell-like inequality, requires the usage of a nonlocal resource, such as an entangled state. When given a correlation (a collection of conditional probability distributions) from an experiment or from a theory, it is desirable to determine the extent to which the participating parties would need to collaborate nonlocally for its (re)production. Here, we propose to achieve this via the minimal group size (MGS) of the resource, i.e., the smallest number of parties that need to share a given type of nonlocal resource for the above-mentioned purpose. In addition, we provide a general recipe—based on the lifting of Bell-like inequalities—to construct MGS witnesses for nonsignaling resources starting from any given ones. En route to illustrating the applicability of this recipe, we also show that when restricted to the space of full-correlation functions, nonsignaling resources are as powerful as unconstrained signaling resources. Explicit examples of correlations where their MGS can be determined using this recipe and other numerical techniques are provided.

  4. Second Order Impulsive Retarded Differential Inclusions with Nonlocal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán R. Henríquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we establish some existence results for abstract second order Cauchy problems modeled by a retarded differential inclusion involving nonlocal and impulsive conditions. Our results are obtained by using fixed point theory for the measure of noncompactness.

  5. Nonlocal response in plasmonic waveguiding with extreme light confinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Yan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel wave equation for linearized plasmonic response, obtained by combining the coupled real-space differential equations for the electric field and current density. Nonlocal dynamics are fully accounted for, and the formulation is very well suited for numerical implementation, allo...

  6. Ultrafast Single-Shot Optical Oscilloscope based on Time-to-Space Conversion due to Temporal and Spatial Walk-Off Effects in Nonlinear Mixing Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Seiji; Sakabe, Shuji

    2005-09-01

    A simple method for single-shot sub-picosecond optical pulse diagnostics has been demonstrated by imaging the time evolution of the optical mixing onto the beam cross section of the sum-frequency wave when the interrogating pulse passes over the tested pulse in the mixing crystal as a result of the combined effect of group-velocity difference and walk-off beam propagation. A high linearity of the time-to-space projection is deduced from the process solely dependent upon the spatial uniformity of the refractive indices. A snap profile of the accidental coincidence between asynchronous pulses from separate mode-locked lasers has been detected, which demonstrates the single-shot ability.

  7. Formulation analysis and computation of an optimization-based local-to-nonlocal coupling method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Elia, Marta [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for Computing Research

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an optimization-based coupling method for local and nonlocal continuum models. Our approach couches the coupling of the models into a control problem where the states are the solutions of the nonlocal and local equations, the objective is to minimize their mismatch on the overlap of the local and nonlocal problem domains, and the virtual controls are the nonlocal volume constraint and the local boundary condition. We present the method in the context of Local-to-Nonlocal di usion coupling. Numerical examples illustrate the theoretical properties of the approach.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of a driven mode near marginal stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Pekker, M.

    1995-09-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a linearly unstable mode in a driven kinetic system is investigated to determine scaling of the saturated fields near the instability threshold. To leading order, this problem reduces to solving an integral equation with a temporally nonlocal cubic term. This equation can exhibit a self-similar solution that blows up in a finite time. When the blow-up occurs, higher nonlinearities become important and the mode saturates due to plateau formation arising from particle trapping in the wave. Otherwise, the simplified equation gives a regular solution that leads to a different saturation scaling reflecting the closeness to the instability threshold

  9. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of resistive electrostatic drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which is pertur......The evolution of weakly nonlinear electrostatic drift waves in an externally imposed strong homogeneous magnetic field is investigated numerically in three spatial dimensions. The analysis is based on a set of coupled, nonlinear equations, which are solved for an initial condition which...... polarity, i.e. a pair of electrostatic convective cells....

  11. Dispersive shock waves in systems with nonlocal dispersion of Benjamin-Ono type

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, G. A.; Nguyen, L. T. K.; Smyth, N. F.

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general approach to the description of dispersive shock waves (DSWs) for a class of nonlinear wave equations with a nonlocal Benjamin-Ono type dispersion term involving the Hilbert transform. Integrability of the governing equation is not a pre-requisite for the application of this method which represents a modification of the DSW fitting method previously developed for dispersive-hydrodynamic systems of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type (i.e. reducible to the KdV equation in the weakly nonlinear, long wave, unidirectional approximation). The developed method is applied to the Calogero-Sutherland dispersive hydrodynamics for which the classification of all solution types arising from the Riemann step problem is constructed and the key physical parameters (DSW edge speeds, lead soliton amplitude, intermediate shelf level) of all but one solution type are obtained in terms of the initial step data. The analytical results are shown to be in excellent agreement with results of direct numerical simulations.

  12. Nonlinear optics of liquid crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystals occupy an important niche in nonlinear optics as a result of their unique physical and optical properties. Besides their broadband birefringence and transparency, abilities to self-assemble into various crystalline phases and to conform to various flexible forms and shapes, liquid crystals are compatible with almost all other optoelectronic materials and technology platforms. In both isotropic and ordered phases, liquid crystals possess extraordinarily large optical nonlinearities that stretch over multiple time scales. To date, almost all conceivable nonlinear optical phenomena have been observed in a very broad spectrum spanning the entire visible to infrared and beyond. In this review, we present a self-contained complete discussion of the optical nonlinearities of liquid crystals, and a thorough review of a wide range of nonlinear optical processes and phenomena enabled by these unique properties. Starting with a brief historical account of the development of nonlinear optical studies of the mesophases of liquid crystals, we then review various liquid crystalline materials and structures, and their nonlinear optical properties. Emphasis is placed on the nematic phase, which best exemplifies the dual nature of liquid crystals, although frequent references to other phases are also made. We also delve into recent work on novel structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials and nanostructures and their special characteristics and emergent properties. The mechanisms and complex nonlocal dynamics of optical nonlinearities associated with laser induced director axis reorientation, thermal, density, and order parameter fluctuations, space charge field formation and photorefractivity are critically reviewed as a foundation for the discussions of various nonlinear optical processes detailed in this paper

  13. Optical Observation of Plasnionic Nonlocal Effects in a 2D Superlattice of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    in single ultrasmall silver nanopartides have been experimentally observed in single-particle spectroscopy enabled by the unprecedented high spatial resolution of electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). However, the unambig-optical observation of such new effects in gold nanopartides has yet not been...... reported, due to the extremely weak scattering and the obscuring fingerprint of strong interband transitions. Here we present a nanosystem, a superlattice monolayer formed by sub-10 nm gold nanopartides. Plasmon resonances are spectrally well-separated from interband transitions, while exhibiting clearly...... distinguishable blue-shifts compared to predictions by the classical local-response model. Our far-field spectroscopy was performed by a standard optical transmission and reflection setup, and the results agreed excellently with the hydrodynamic nonlocal model, opening a simple and Widely accessible way...

  14. Non--Local Approach to the Analysis of the Stress Distribution in Granular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. E.; Kenkre, V. M.; Hurd, A. J.

    1998-03-01

    A continuum mechanical theory of the stress distribution in granular materials is presented, where the transformation of the vertical spatial coordinate into a formal time variable converts the study of the static stress distribution into a generally non--Markoffian, i.e., memory-possessing (non-local) propagation analysis. Previous treatments (J. -P). Bouchaud, M. E. Cates, and P. Claudin, J. Phys. I France 5, 639 (1995). (C. -h). Liu, S. R. Nagel, D. A. Schecter, S. N. Coppersmith, S. Majumdar, O. Narayan, and T. A. Witten, Science 269, 513 (1995). are shown to be particular cases of our theory corresponding to, respectively, wave-like and dif fusive limits of the general evolution. Calculations are presented for the example of ceramic or metal powder compaction in dies, with emphasis on the understanding of previously unexplained features as seen in experimental data found in the literature o ver the past 50 years. Specific proposals for new experimental investigations are presented.

  15. Non-local coexistence of multiple spiral waves with independent frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Meng; Luo Jinming

    2009-01-01

    The interactions of several spiral waves with different independent rotation frequencies are studied in a model of two-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Laudau equation. We find a general coexistence phenomenon, non-local non-phase-locking-invasion coexistence, that is, the non-slowest spiral wave can survive and not be killed by the fastest spiral wave as it is insulated from the fastest one with the sacrifice of the slowest one, which stays in the spatial position between the fastest spiral and the non-slowest one. Both the parameter non-monotonicity and the non-phase-locking invasion between the fastest and the slowest spiral waves play key roles in this phenomenon. Importantly, the results could give a general idea for extensively observed coexistence of spiral waves in various inhomogeneous circumstances.

  16. An approach for quantitatively analyzing the genuine tripartite nonlocality of general three-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaofeng; Li, Lvzhou; Ling, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Nonlocality is an important resource for quantum information processing. Genuine tripartite nonlocality, which is sufficiently confirmed by the violation of Svetlichny inequality, is a kind of more precious resource than the standard one. The genuine tripartite nonlocality is usually quantified by the amount of maximal violation of Svetlichny inequality. The problem of detecting and quantifying the genuine tripartite nonlocality of quantum states is of practical significance but still open for the case of general three-qubit quantum states. In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the genuine nonlocality of three-qubit states, which not only include pure states but also include mixed states. Firstly, we derive a simplified formula for the genuine nonlocality of a general three-qubit state, which is a function of the corresponding three correlation matrices. Secondly, we develop three properties of the genuine nonlocality which can help us to analyze the genuine nonlocality of complex states and understand the nature of quantum nonlocality. Further, we get analytical results of genuine nonlocality for two classes of three-qubit states which have special correlation matrices. In particular, the genuine nonlocality of generalized three-qubit GHZ states, which is derived by Ghose et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 250404, 2009), and that of three-qubit GHZ-symmetric states, which is derived by Paul et al. (Phys. Rev. A 94, 032101, 2016), can be easily derived by applying the strategy and properties developed in this paper.

  17. Rationale for switching to nonlocal functionals in density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, P; Atodiresei, N; Caciuc, V; Brako, R; Gumhalter, B; Blügel, S

    2012-10-24

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been steadily improving over the past few decades, becoming the standard tool for electronic structure calculations. The early local functionals (LDA) were eventually replaced by more accurate semilocal functionals (GGA) which are in use today. A major persisting drawback is the lack of the nonlocal correlation which is at the core of dispersive (van der Waals) forces, so that a large and important class of systems remains outside the scope of DFT. The vdW-DF correlation functional of Langreth and Lundqvist, published in 2004, was the first nonlocal functional which could be easily implemented. Beyond expectations, the nonlocal functional has brought significant improvement to systems that were believed not to be sensitive to nonlocal correlations. In this paper, we use the example of graphene nanodomes growing on the Ir(111) surface, where with an increase of the size of the graphene islands the character of the bonding changes from strong chemisorption towards almost pure physisorption. We demonstrate how the seamless character of the vdW-DF functionals makes it possible to treat all regimes self-consistently, proving to be a systematic and consistent improvement of DFT regardless of the nature of bonding. We also discuss the typical surface science example of CO adsorption on (111) surfaces of metals, which shows that the nonlocal correlation may also be crucial for strongly chemisorbed systems. We briefly discuss open questions, in particular the choice of the most appropriate exchange part of the functional. As the vdW-DF begins to appear implemented self-consistently in a number of popular DFT codes, with numerical costs close to the GGA calculations, we draw the attention of the DFT community to the advantages and benefits of the adoption of this new class of functionals.

  18. Rationale for switching to nonlocal functionals in density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazić, P; Atodiresei, N; Caciuc, V; Blügel, S; Brako, R; Gumhalter, B

    2012-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been steadily improving over the past few decades, becoming the standard tool for electronic structure calculations. The early local functionals (LDA) were eventually replaced by more accurate semilocal functionals (GGA) which are in use today. A major persisting drawback is the lack of the nonlocal correlation which is at the core of dispersive (van der Waals) forces, so that a large and important class of systems remains outside the scope of DFT. The vdW-DF correlation functional of Langreth and Lundqvist, published in 2004, was the first nonlocal functional which could be easily implemented. Beyond expectations, the nonlocal functional has brought significant improvement to systems that were believed not to be sensitive to nonlocal correlations. In this paper, we use the example of graphene nanodomes growing on the Ir(111) surface, where with an increase of the size of the graphene islands the character of the bonding changes from strong chemisorption towards almost pure physisorption. We demonstrate how the seamless character of the vdW-DF functionals makes it possible to treat all regimes self-consistently, proving to be a systematic and consistent improvement of DFT regardless of the nature of bonding. We also discuss the typical surface science example of CO adsorption on (111) surfaces of metals, which shows that the nonlocal correlation may also be crucial for strongly chemisorbed systems. We briefly discuss open questions, in particular the choice of the most appropriate exchange part of the functional. As the vdW-DF begins to appear implemented self-consistently in a number of popular DFT codes, with numerical costs close to the GGA calculations, we draw the attention of the DFT community to the advantages and benefits of the adoption of this new class of functionals.

  19. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  20. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  1. Nonlinear hybridization of the fundamental eigenmodes of microscopic ferromagnetic ellipses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V E; Buchmeier, M; Rott, K; Krzysteczko, P; Münchenberger, J; Reiss, G; Demokritov, S O

    2010-05-28

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes simultaneously exhibit features specific for both their linear analogues.

  2. Nonlinear Hybridization of the Fundamental Eigenmodes of Microscopic Ferromagnetic Ellipses

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, V. E.; Buchmeier, M.; Rott, Karsten; Krzysteczko, Patryk; Münchenberger, Jana; Reiss, Günter; Demokritov, S. O.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied experimentally with high spatial resolution the nonlinear eigenmodes of microscopic Permalloy elliptical elements. We show that the nonlinearity affects the frequencies of the edge and the center modes in an essentially different way. This leads to repulsion of corresponding resonances and to nonlinear mode hybridization resulting in qualitative modifications of the spatial characteristics of the modes. We find that the nonlinear counterparts of the edge and the center modes s...

  3. Some Aspects of Nonlinearity and Self-Organization In Biosystems on Examples of Localized Excitations in the DNA Molecule and Generalized Fisher–KPP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shapovalov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with ideas and approaches to nonlinear phenomena, based on different branches of physics and related to biological systems, that focus on how small impacts can significantly change the state of the system at large spatial scales. This problem is very extensive, and it cannot be fully resolved in this paper. Instead, some selected physical effects are briefly reviewed. We consider sine-Gordon solitons and nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in some models of DNA as examples of self-organization at the molecular level, as well as examine features of their formation and dynamics under the influence of external influences. In addition, the formation of patterns in the generalized Fisher–KPP model is viewed as a simple example of self-organization in a system with nonlocal interaction at the cellular level. Symmetries of model equations are employed to analyze the considered nonlinear phenomena. In this context the possible relations between phenomena considered and released activity effect, which is assessed differently in the literature, are discussed.

  4. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielczarek, Jakub, E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Trześniewski, Tomasz, E-mail: tbwbt@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wrocław, pl. Borna 9, 50-204 Wrocław (Poland)

    2016-08-10

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  5. The Nonlinear Field Space Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the idea that not only the configuration space of particles, i.e. spacetime, but also the corresponding momentum space may have nontrivial geometry has attracted significant attention, especially in the context of quantum gravity. The aim of this letter is to extend this concept to the domain of field theories, by introducing field spaces (i.e. phase spaces of field values) that are not affine spaces. After discussing the motivation and general aspects of our approach we present a detailed analysis of the prototype (quantum) Nonlinear Field Space Theory of a scalar field on the Minkowski background. We show that the nonlinear structure of a field space leads to numerous interesting predictions, including: non-locality, generalization of the uncertainty relations, algebra deformations, constraining of the maximal occupation number, shifting of the vacuum energy and renormalization of the charge and speed of propagation of field excitations. Furthermore, a compact field space is a natural way to implement the “Principle of finiteness” of physical theories, which once motivated the Born–Infeld theory. Thus the presented framework has a variety of potential applications in the theories of fundamental interactions (e.g. quantum gravity), as well as in condensed matter physics (e.g. continuous spin chains), and can shed new light on the issue of divergences in quantum field theories.

  6. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  7. Nonlocal transformation of the internal quantum particle structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Samarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the integral wave equation, having path integral kernel, has resulted, that collapse phenomenon is based on the nonlocal transformation of the internal structure of a quantum particle, considering in the form of the matter fields collection. This nonlocality allows to escape the contradiction between the reduction quantum mechanics postulate and special relativity. It is shown, that the wave function transformation, corresponding to von Neumann's reduction, has the deterministic nature and the quantum mechanics stochasticity is a consequence of a macroscopic measurer presence in the measuring process. Besides it is demonstrated, that the decogerence phenomenon has the same mechanism of the wave function transformation. EPR-type experiment is described in detail and the possibility of the faster-then light communication is proved, as well the possible rules of thumb of this communication are proposed.

  8. Nonlocality of the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, O.

    1997-11-01

    We examine the properties and behavior of the original Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) wave function [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] and related Gaussian-correlated wave functions. We assess the degree of entanglement of these wave functions and consider an argument of Bell [Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 480, 263 (1986)] based on the Wigner phase-space distribution [Phys. Rev. 40, 749 (1932)], which implies that the original EPR correlations can accommodate a local hidden-variable description. We extend Bell's analysis to the related Gaussian wave functions. We then show that it is possible to identify definite nonlocal aspects for the original EPR state and related states. We describe possible experiments that would demonstrate these nonlocal features through violations of Bell inequalities. The implications of our results, and in particular their relevance for the causal interpretation of quantum mechanics, are considered.

  9. Nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction in a nanosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabolotskii, A. A., E-mail: zabolotskii@iae.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automatics and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The dynamics of a nanoparticle during its dipole interaction with an excitonic excitation in an extended quasi-one-dimensional polarizable medium is investigated. Bundles of J-aggregates of dye molecules are considered as an example of the latter. The nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction between the field of an amplifying or absorbing nanoparticle and excitons in a bundle has been simulated numerically. It has been found that the interaction between the field of the induced nanoparticle dipole and the fields of the molecular dipoles in an aggregate can lead to a change in the particle trajectory and excitonic pulse shape. The possibility of controlling the nanoparticle by excitonic pulses and the reverse effect of the nanoparticle field on the dynamics of excitons due to the nonlocal excitonic–mechanical interaction has been demonstrated.

  10. Patterning in systems driven by nonlocal external forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luneville, L; Mallick, K; Pontikis, V; Simeone, D

    2016-11-01

    This work focuses on systems displaying domain patterns resulting from competing external and internal dynamics. To this end, we introduce a Lyapunov functional capable of describing the steady states of systems subject to external forces, by adding nonlocal terms to the Landau Ginzburg free energy of the system. Thereby, we extend the existing methodology treating long-range order interactions, to the case of external nonlocal forces. By studying the quadratic term of this Lyapunov functional, we compute the phase diagram in the temperature versus external field and we determine all possible modulated phases (domain patterns) as a function of the external forces and the temperature. Finally, we investigate patterning in chemical reactive mixtures and binary mixtures under irradiation, and we show that the last case opens the path toward micro-structural engineering of materials.

  11. On a class of nonlocal wave equations from applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Horst Reinhard; Aksoylu, Burak; Celiker, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    We study equations from the area of peridynamics, which is a nonlocal extension of elasticity. The governing equations form a system of nonlocal wave equations. We take a novel approach by applying operator theory methods in a systematic way. On the unbounded domain ℝn, we present three main results. As main result 1, we find that the governing operator is a bounded function of the governing operator of classical elasticity. As main result 2, a consequence of main result 1, we prove that the peridynamic solutions strongly converge to the classical solutions by utilizing, for the first time, strong resolvent convergence. In addition, main result 1 allows us to incorporate local boundary conditions, in particular, into peridynamics. This avenue of research is developed in companion papers, providing a remedy for boundary effects. As main result 3, employing spherical Bessel functions, we give a new practical series representation of the solution which allows straightforward numerical treatment with symbolic computation.

  12. Stability issues of black hole in non-local gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Park, Young-Jai

    2018-04-01

    We discuss stability issues of Schwarzschild black hole in non-local gravity. It is shown that the stability analysis of black hole for the unitary and renormalizable non-local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 cannot be performed in the Lichnerowicz operator approach. On the other hand, for the unitary and non-renormalizable case with γ2 = 0, the black hole is stable against the metric perturbations. For non-unitary and renormalizable local gravity with γ2 = - 2γ0 = const (fourth-order gravity), the small black holes are unstable against the metric perturbations. This implies that what makes the problem difficult in stability analysis of black hole is the simultaneous requirement of unitarity and renormalizability around the Minkowski spacetime.

  13. Generalized ward identities for non-local transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping; Li Ruijie

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional of Green function for a system with a singular higher-order Lagrangian, the generalized canonical Ward identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such a system have been derived. Starting from the configuration-space generating functional for a gauge-invariant system, the generalized Ward identities were deduced under the local, non-local and global transformation, respectively. The applications to the non-Abelian Chern-Simons theories with higher derivatives were given. Some relationships among the proper vertices have been deduced, in which one does not need to carry out the integration over canonical momenta in phase-space generating functional. The Ward-Takahashi identities for BRS transformation are also obtained

  14. Experimental nonlocality-based randomness generation with nonprojective measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, S.; Mattar, A.; Gómez, E. S.; Cavalcanti, D.; Farías, O. Jiménez; Acín, A.; Lima, G.

    2018-04-01

    We report on an optical setup generating more than one bit of randomness from one entangled bit (i.e., a maximally entangled state of two qubits). The amount of randomness is certified through the observation of Bell nonlocal correlations. To attain this result we implemented a high-purity entanglement source and a nonprojective three-outcome measurement. Our implementation achieves a gain of 27% of randomness as compared with the standard methods using projective measurements. Additionally, we estimate the amount of randomness certified in a one-sided device-independent scenario, through the observation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. Our results prove that nonprojective quantum measurements allow extending the limits for nonlocality-based certified randomness generation using current technology.

  15. Wave propagation in nanostructures nonlocal continuum mechanics formulations

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Wave Propagation in Nanostructures describes the fundamental and advanced concepts of waves propagating in structures that have dimensions of the order of nanometers. The book is fundamentally based on non-local elasticity theory, which includes scale effects in the continuum model. The book predominantly addresses wave behavior in carbon nanotubes and graphene structures, although the methods of analysis provided in this text are equally applicable to other nanostructures. The book takes the reader from the fundamentals of wave propagation in nanotubes to more advanced topics such as rotating nanotubes, coupled nanotubes, and nanotubes with magnetic field and surface effects. The first few chapters cover the basics of wave propagation, different modeling schemes for nanostructures and introduce non-local elasticity theories, which form the building blocks for understanding the material provided in later chapters. A number of interesting examples are provided to illustrate the important features of wave behav...

  16. Quantum nonlocality in two three-level systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acin, A.; Durt, T.; Gisin, N.; Latorre, J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a new Bell inequality has been introduced by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)], which is strongly resistant to noise for maximally entangled states of two d-dimensional quantum systems. We prove that a larger violation, or equivalently a stronger resistance to noise, is found for a nonmaximally entangled state. It is shown that the resistance to noise is not a good measure of nonlocality and we introduce some other possible measures. The nonmaximally entangled state turns out to be more robust also for these alternative measures. From these results it follows that two von Neumann measurements per party may be not optimal for detecting nonlocality. For d=3,4, we point out some connections between this inequality and distillability. Indeed, we demonstrate that any state violating it, with the optimal von Neumann settings, is distillable

  17. Maximum nonlocality and minimum uncertainty using magic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We prove that magic states from the Clifford hierarchy give optimal solutions for tasks involving nonlocality and entropic uncertainty with respect to Pauli measurements. For both the nonlocality and uncertainty tasks, stabilizer states are the worst possible pure states, so our solutions have an operational interpretation as being highly nonstabilizer. The optimal strategy for a qudit version of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt game in prime dimensions is achieved by measuring maximally entangled states that are isomorphic to single-qudit magic states. These magic states have an appealingly simple form, and our proof shows that they are "balanced" with respect to all but one of the mutually unbiased stabilizer bases. Of all equatorial qudit states, magic states minimize the average entropic uncertainties for collision entropy and also, for small prime dimensions, min-entropy, a fact that may have implications for cryptography.

  18. On the compatible weakly nonlocal Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ya. Maltsev

    2002-01-01

    of hydrodynamic type (Ferapontov brackets and the corresponding integrable hierarchies. We show that, under the requirement of the nondegeneracy of the corresponding “first” pseudo-Riemannian metric g(0 νμ and also some nondegeneracy requirement for the nonlocal part, it is possible to introduce a “canonical” set of “integrable hierarchies” based on the Casimirs, momentum functional and some “canonical Hamiltonian functions.” We prove also that all the “higher” “positive” Hamiltonian operators and the “negative” symplectic forms have the weakly nonlocal form in this case. The same result is also true for “negative” Hamiltonian operators and “positive” symplectic structures in the case when both pseudo-Riemannian metrics g(0 νμ and g(1 νμ are nondegenerate.

  19. Cosmological perturbations in non-local higher-derivative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Jonckheere, Tim De; Koshelev, Alexey S.

    2014-01-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in a non-local higher-derivative model of gravity introduced by Biswas, Mazumdar and Siegel. We extend previous work, which had focused on classical scalar perturbations around a cosine hyperbolic bounce solution, in three ways. First, we point out the existence of a Starobinsky solution in this model, which is more attractive from a phenomenological point of view (even though it has no bounce). Second, we study classical vector and tensor pertuxsxrbations. Third, we show how to quantize scalar and tensor perturbations in a de Sitter phase (for choices of parameters such that the model is ghost-free). Our results show that the model is well-behaved at this level, and are very similar to corresponding results in local f(R) models. In particular, for the Starobinsky solution of non-local higher-derivative gravity, we find the same tensor-to-scalar ratio as for the conventional Starobinsky model

  20. Quantum Correlations in Nonlocal Boson Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Farid; Lund, Austin P; Ralph, Timothy C

    2017-09-22

    Determination of the quantum nature of correlations between two spatially separated systems plays a crucial role in quantum information science. Of particular interest is the questions of if and how these correlations enable quantum information protocols to be more powerful. Here, we report on a distributed quantum computation protocol in which the input and output quantum states are considered to be classically correlated in quantum informatics. Nevertheless, we show that the correlations between the outcomes of the measurements on the output state cannot be efficiently simulated using classical algorithms. Crucially, at the same time, local measurement outcomes can be efficiently simulated on classical computers. We show that the only known classicality criterion violated by the input and output states in our protocol is the one used in quantum optics, namely, phase-space nonclassicality. As a result, we argue that the global phase-space nonclassicality inherent within the output state of our protocol represents true quantum correlations.

  1. Genuinely high-dimensional nonlocality optimized by complementary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, James; Ryu, Junghee; Yoo, Seokwon; Lee, Changhyoup; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Jinhyoung

    2010-01-01

    Qubits exhibit extreme nonlocality when their state is maximally entangled and this is observed by mutually unbiased local measurements. This criterion does not hold for the Bell inequalities of high-dimensional systems (qudits), recently proposed by Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu and Son-Lee-Kim. Taking an alternative approach, called the quantum-to-classical approach, we derive a series of Bell inequalities for qudits that satisfy the criterion as for the qubits. In the derivation each d-dimensional subsystem is assumed to be measured by one of d possible measurements with d being a prime integer. By applying to two qubits (d=2), we find that a derived inequality is reduced to the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality when the degree of nonlocality is optimized over all the possible states and local observables. Further applying to two and three qutrits (d=3), we find Bell inequalities that are violated for the three-dimensionally entangled states but are not violated by any two-dimensionally entangled states. In other words, the inequalities discriminate three-dimensional (3D) entanglement from two-dimensional (2D) entanglement and in this sense they are genuinely 3D. In addition, for the two qutrits we give a quantitative description of the relations among the three degrees of complementarity, entanglement and nonlocality. It is shown that the degree of complementarity jumps abruptly to very close to its maximum as nonlocality starts appearing. These characteristics imply that complementarity plays a more significant role in the present inequality compared with the previously proposed inequality.

  2. Multiple-Trace Operators and Non-Local String Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstein, Eva M.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that a novel deformation of string perturbation theory, involving non-local interactions between strings, is required to describe the gravity duals of field theories deformed by multiple-trace operators. The new perturbative expansion involves a new parameter, which is neither the string coupling nor the coefficient of a vertex operator on the worldsheet. We explore some of the properties of this deformation, focusing on a special case where the deformation in the field theory is exactly marginal

  3. Ground state solutions for non-local fractional Schrodinger equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Pu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a time-independent fractional Schrodinger equation with non-local (regional diffusion $$ (-\\Delta^{\\alpha}_{\\rho}u + V(xu = f(x,u \\quad \\text{in }\\mathbb{R}^{N}, $$ where $\\alpha \\in (0,1$, $N > 2\\alpha$. We establish the existence of a non-negative ground state solution by variational methods.

  4. Stable solutions of nonlocal electron heat transport equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.K.; Kershaw, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Electron heat transport equations with a nonlocal heat flux are in general ill-posed and intrinsically unstable, as proved by the present authors [Phys. Fluids B 1, 2430 (1989)]. A straightforward numerical solution of these equations will therefore lead to absurd results. It is shown here that by imposing a minimal set of constraints on the problem it is possible to arrive at a globally stable, consistent, and energy conserving numerical solution

  5. Non-local deformation of a supersymmetric field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qin [National University of Singapore, Department of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge (Canada); University of British Columbia - Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Bhat, Anha [National Institute of Technology, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Srinagar (India); Zaz, Zaid [University of Kashmir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Srinagar, Kashmir (India); Masood, Syed; Raza, Jamil; Irfan, Raja Muhammad [International Islamic University, Department of Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we will analyze a supersymmetric field theory deformed by generalized uncertainty principle and Lifshitz scaling. It will be observed that this deformed supersymmetric field theory contains non-local fractional derivative terms. In order to construct such a deformed N = 1 supersymmetric theory, a harmonic extension of functions will be used. However, the supersymmetry will only be preserved for a free theory and will be broken by the inclusion of interaction terms. (orig.)

  6. Optimal Robust Self-Testing by Binary Nonlocal XOR Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Carl A.; Shi, Yaoyun

    2013-01-01

    Self-testing a quantum apparatus means verifying the existence of a certain quantum state as well as the effect of the associated measuring devices based only on the statistics of the measurement outcomes. Robust (i.e., error-tolerant) self-testing quantum apparatuses are critical building blocks for quantum cryptographic protocols that rely on imperfect or untrusted devices. We devise a general scheme for proving optimal robust self-testing properties for tests based on nonlocal binary XOR g...

  7. Extraordinary optical transmission through nonlocal holey metal films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Christin; Christensen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We investigate nonlocal electrodynamics based on the generalized hydrodynamic approach including electron diffusion in holey gold films, showing extraordinary optical transmission (EOT). Dramatic changes with respect to the local approximation for rather large film thicknesses t less than...... or similar to 100 nm impact both reflectance and absorbance at normal incidence. Beyond the familiar resonance blueshift with the decreasing film thickness, the interference of longitudinal pressure waves in the holey structure generates an unexpected oscillatory response with geometrical parameters...

  8. Non-local gravity with a Weyl-square term

    CERN Document Server

    Cusin, Giulia; Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has shown that modifications of General Relativity based on the addition of a non-local term $R\\,\\Box^{-2}R$ produce a dynamical model of dark energy, which is cosmologically viable both at the background level and at the level of cosmological perturbations. We explore a more general class of models based on the addition of terms proportional to $R_{\\mu\

  9. Chiral phase transition in a covariant nonlocal NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General, I.; Scoccola, N.N.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of the chiral phase transition at finite temperature and chemical potential are investigated within a nonlocal covariant extension of the NJL model based on a separable quark-quark interaction. We find that for low values of T the chiral transition is always of first order and, for finite quark masses, at certain end point the transition turns into a smooth crossover. Our predictions for the position of this point is similar, although somewhat smaller, than previous estimates. (author)

  10. Nonlocal Regularized Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques for MRI: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We attempt to revitalize researchers' interest in algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART by expanding their capabilities and demonstrating their potential in speeding up the process of MRI acquisition. Using a continuous-to-discrete model, we experimentally study the application of ART into MRI reconstruction which unifies previous nonuniform-fast-Fourier-transform- (NUFFT- based and gridding-based approaches. Under the framework of ART, we advocate the use of nonlocal regularization techniques which are leveraged from our previous research on modeling photographic images. It is experimentally shown that nonlocal regularization ART (NR-ART can often outperform their local counterparts in terms of both subjective and objective qualities of reconstructed images. On one real-world k-space data set, we find that nonlocal regularization can achieve satisfactory reconstruction from as few as one-third of samples. We also address an issue related to image reconstruction from real-world k-space data but overlooked in the open literature: the consistency of reconstructed images across different resolutions. A resolution-consistent extension of NR-ART is developed and shown to effectively suppress the artifacts arising from frequency extrapolation. Both source codes and experimental results of this work are made fully reproducible.

  11. Extending Newton's law from nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suykens, J.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    We study a new equation of motion derived from a context of classical Newtonian mechanics by replacing the kinetic energy with a form of nonlocal-in-time kinetic energy. It leads to a hypothetical extension of Newton's second law of motion. In a first stage the obtainable solution form is studied by considering an unknown value for the nonlocality time extent. This is done in relation to higher-order Euler-Lagrange equations and a Hamiltonian framework. In a second stage the free particle case and harmonic oscillator case are studied and compared with quantum mechanical results. For a free particle it is shown that the solution form is a superposition of the classical straight line motion and a Fourier series. We discuss the link with quanta interpretations made in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The discrete nature emerges from the continuous time setting through application of the least action principle. The harmonic oscillator case leads to energy levels that approximately correspond to the quantum harmonic oscillator levels. The solution to the extended Newton equation also admits a quantization of the nonlocality time extent, which is determined by the classical oscillator frequency. The extended equation suggests a new possible way for understanding the relationship between classical and quantum mechanics

  12. Image fusion via nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Fangyi; Bai, Bendu; Shen, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Image fusion aims to merge two or more images captured via various sensors of the same scene to construct a more informative image by integrating their details. Generally, such integration is achieved through the manipulation of the representations of the images concerned. Sparse representation plays an important role in the effective description of images, offering a great potential in a variety of image processing tasks, including image fusion. Supported by sparse representation, in this paper, an approach for image fusion by the use of a novel dictionary learning scheme is proposed. The nonlocal self-similarity property of the images is exploited, not only at the stage of learning the underlying description dictionary but during the process of image fusion. In particular, the property of nonlocal self-similarity is combined with the traditional sparse dictionary. This results in an improved learned dictionary, hereafter referred to as the nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary (where K-SVD stands for the K times singular value decomposition that is commonly used in the literature), and abbreviated to NL_SK_SVD. The performance of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary is applied for image fusion using simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit. The proposed approach is evaluated with different types of images, and compared with a number of alternative image fusion techniques. The resultant superior fused images using the present approach demonstrates the efficacy of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary in sparse image representation.

  13. Multiscale Hybrid Nonlocal Means Filtering Using Modified Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain Shamsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multiscale implementation of nonlocal means filtering (MHNLM for image denoising is proposed. The proposed algorithm also introduces a modification of the similarity measure for patch comparison. Assuming the patch as an oriented surface, the notion of a normal vectors patch is introduced. The inner product of these normal vectors patches is defined and then used in the weighted Euclidean distance of intensity patches as the weight factor. The algorithm involves two steps: the first step is a multiscale implementation of an accelerated nonlocal means filtering in the discrete stationary wavelet domain to obtain a refined version of the noisy patches for later comparison. The next step is to apply the proposed modification of standard nonlocal means filtering to the noisy image using the reference patches obtained in the first step. These refined patches contain less noise, and consequently the computation of normal vectors and partial derivatives is more precise. Experimental results show equivalent or better performance of the proposed algorithm compared to various state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Nonlocal neoclassical transport in tokamak and spherical torus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W. X.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Hinton, F. L.; Manickam, J.; Zakharov, L. E.; White, R. B.; Kaye, S.

    2006-01-01

    Large ion orbits can produce nonlocal neoclassical effects on ion heat transport, the ambipolar radial electric field, and the bootstrap current in realistic toroidal plasmas. Using a global δf particle simulation, it is found that the conventional local, linear gradient-flux relation is broken for the ion thermal transport near the magnetic axis. With regard to the transport level, it is found that details of the ion temperature profile determine whether the transport is higher or lower when compared with the predictions of standard neoclassical theory. Particularly, this nonlocal feature is suggested to exist in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], being consistent with NSTX experimental evidence. It is also shown that a large ion temperature gradient can increase the bootstrap current. When the plasma rotation is taken into account, the toroidal rotation gradient can drive an additional parallel flow for the ions and then additional bootstrap current, either positive or negative, depending on the gradient direction. Compared with the carbon radial force balance estimate for the neoclassical poloidal flow, our nonlocal simulation predicts a significantly deeper radial electric field well at the location of an internal transport barrier of an NSTX discharge

  15. Comparative Assessment of Nonlocal Continuum Solvent Models Exhibiting Overscreening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Baihua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal continua have been proposed to offer a more realistic model for the electrostatic response of solutions such as the electrolyte solvents prominent in biology and electrochemistry. In this work, we review three nonlocal models based on the Landau-Ginzburg framework which have been proposed but not directly compared previously, due to different expressions of the nonlocal constitutive relationship. To understand the relationships between these models and the underlying physical insights from which they are derive, we situate these models into a single, unified Landau-Ginzburg framework. One of the models offers the capacity to interpret how temperature changes affect dielectric response, and we note that the variations with temperature are qualitatively reasonable even though predictions at ambient temperatures are not quantitatively in agreement with experiment. Two of these models correctly reproduce overscreening (oscillations between positive and negative polarization charge densities, and we observe small differences between them when we simulate the potential between parallel plates held at constant potential. These computations require reformulating the two models as coupled systems of local partial differential equations (PDEs, and we use spectral methods to discretize both problems. We propose further assessments to discriminate between the models, particularly in regards to establishing boundary conditions and comparing to explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrennikov, Andrei, E-mail: Andrei.Khrennikov@lnu.s [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, Linnaeus University, Vaexjoe (Sweden); Institute of Information Security, Russian State University for Humanities, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  17. Subquantum nonlocal correlations induced by the background random field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We developed a purely field model of microphenomena-prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). This model not only reproduces important probabilistic predictions of quantum mechanics (QM) including correlations for entangled systems, but also gives a possibility to go beyond QM, i.e. to make predictions of phenomena that could be observed at the subquantum level. In this paper, we discuss one such prediction-the existence of nonlocal correlations between prequantum random fields corresponding to all quantum systems. (And by PCSFT, quantum systems are represented by classical Gaussian random fields and quantum observables by quadratic forms of these fields.) The source of these correlations is the common background field. Thus all prequantum random fields are 'entangled', but in the sense of classical signal theory. On the one hand, PCSFT demystifies quantum nonlocality by reducing it to nonlocal classical correlations based on the common random background. On the other hand, it demonstrates total generality of such correlations. They exist even for distinguishable quantum systems in factorizable states (by PCSFT terminology-for Gaussian random fields with covariance operators corresponding to factorizable quantum states).

  18. Critical thresholds in flocking hydrodynamics with non-local alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Eitan; Tan, Changhui

    2014-11-13

    We study the large-time behaviour of Eulerian systems augmented with non-local alignment. Such systems arise as hydrodynamic descriptions of agent-based models for self-organized dynamics, e.g. Cucker & Smale (2007 IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 52, 852-862. (doi:10.1109/TAC.2007.895842)) and Motsch & Tadmor (2011 J. Stat. Phys. 144, 923-947. (doi:10.1007/s10955-011-0285-9)) models. We prove that, in analogy with the agent-based models, the presence of non-local alignment enforces strong solutions to self-organize into a macroscopic flock. This then raises the question of existence of such strong solutions. We address this question in one- and two-dimensional set-ups, proving global regularity for subcritical initial data. Indeed, we show that there exist critical thresholds in the phase space of the initial configuration which dictate the global regularity versus a finite-time blow-up. In particular, we explore the regularity of non-local alignment in the presence of vacuum. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlocal Reformulations of Water and Internal Waves and Asymptotic Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablowitz, Mark J.

    2009-09-01

    Nonlocal reformulations of the classical equations of water waves and two ideal fluids separated by a free interface, bounded above by either a rigid lid or a free surface, are obtained. The kinematic equations may be written in terms of integral equations with a free parameter. By expressing the pressure, or Bernoulli, equation in terms of the surface/interface variables, a closed system is obtained. An advantage of this formulation, referred to as the nonlocal spectral (NSP) formulation, is that the vertical component is eliminated, thus reducing the dimensionality and fixing the domain in which the equations are posed. The NSP equations and the Dirichlet-Neumann operators associated with the water wave or two-fluid equations can be related to each other and the Dirichlet-Neumann series can be obtained from the NSP equations. Important asymptotic reductions obtained from the two-fluid nonlocal system include the generalizations of the Benney-Luke and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equations, referred to as intermediate-long wave (ILW) generalizations. These 2+1 dimensional equations possess lump type solutions. In the water wave problem high-order asymptotic series are obtained for two and three dimensional gravity-capillary solitary waves. In two dimensions, the first term in the asymptotic series is the well-known hyperbolic secant squared solution of the KdV equation; in three dimensions, the first term is the rational lump solution of the KP equation.

  20. Dissipation and nonlocality in a general expanding braneworld universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remazeilles, Mathieu

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of both scalar and tensor cosmological perturbations in a Randall-Sundrum braneworld having an arbitrary expansion history. We adopt a four dimensional point of view where the degrees of freedom on the brane constitute an open quantum system coupled to an environment composed of the bulk gravitons. Because of the expansion of the universe, the brane degrees of freedom and the bulk degrees of freedom interact as they propagate forward in time. Brane excitations may decay through the emission of bulk gravitons which may escape to future infinity, leading to a sort of dissipation from the four dimensional point of view of an observer on the brane. Bulk gravitons may also be reflected off of the curved bulk and reabsorbed by the brane, thereby transformed into quanta on the brane, leading to a sort of nonlocality from the four dimensional point of view. The dissipation and the nonlocality are encoded into the retarded bulk propagator. We estimate the dissipation rates of the bound state as well as of the matter degrees of freedom at different cosmological epochs and for different sources of matter on the brane. We use a near-brane limit of the bulk geometry for the study when purely nonlocal bulk effects are encountered.