WorldWideScience

Sample records for spatial national health

  1. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gething Peter W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. Methods A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. Findings The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries. This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79% and the majority were dispensaries (91%. 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. Conclusion We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for

  2. A spatial national health facility database for public health sector planning in Kenya in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Alegana, Victor A; Gething, Peter W; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-06

    Efforts to tackle the enormous burden of ill-health in low-income countries are hampered by weak health information infrastructures that do not support appropriate planning and resource allocation. For health information systems to function well, a reliable inventory of health service providers is critical. The spatial referencing of service providers to allow their representation in a geographic information system is vital if the full planning potential of such data is to be realized. A disparate series of contemporary lists of health service providers were used to update a public health facility database of Kenya last compiled in 2003. These new lists were derived primarily through the national distribution of antimalarial and antiretroviral commodities since 2006. A combination of methods, including global positioning systems, was used to map service providers. These spatially-referenced data were combined with high-resolution population maps to analyze disparity in geographic access to public health care. The updated 2008 database contained 5,334 public health facilities (67% ministry of health; 28% mission and nongovernmental organizations; 2% local authorities; and 3% employers and other ministries). This represented an overall increase of 1,862 facilities compared to 2003. Most of the additional facilities belonged to the ministry of health (79%) and the majority were dispensaries (91%). 93% of the health facilities were spatially referenced, 38% using global positioning systems compared to 21% in 2003. 89% of the population was within 5 km Euclidean distance to a public health facility in 2008 compared to 71% in 2003. Over 80% of the population outside 5 km of public health service providers was in the sparsely settled pastoralist areas of the country. We have shown that, with concerted effort, a relatively complete inventory of mapped health services is possible with enormous potential for improving planning. Expansion in public health care in Kenya has

  3. Spatial analysis of factors associated with household subscription to the National Health Insurance Scheme in rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Manortey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of health insurance schemes in financing healthcare delivery and to minimize the poverty gap is gaining considerable recognition among the least developed and resource challenged countries around the world. With the implementation of the socialized health insurance scheme, Ghana has taken the lead in Sub-Saharan Africa and now working out further strategies to gain universal coverage among her citizenry. The primary goal of this study is to explore the spatial relationship between the residential homes and demographic features of the people in the Barekese subdistrict in Ghana on the probability to enroll the entire household unit in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS. Household level data were gathered from 20 communities on the enrollment status into the NHIS alongside demographic and socioeconomic indicators and the spatial location of every household that participated in the study. Kulldorff’s purely spatial scan statistic was used to detect geographic clusters of areas with participatory households that have either higher or lower enrollment patterns in the insurance program. Logistic regression models on selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators were built to predict the effect on the odds of enrolling an entire household membership in the NHIS. Three clusters significantly stood out to have either high or low enrollment patterns in the health insurance program taking into accounts the number of households in those sub-zones of the study region. Households in the Cluster 1 insurance group have very high travel expenses compared to their counterparts in the other idenfied clusters. Travel cost and time to the NHIS registration center to enroll in the program were both significant predictors to participation in the program when controlling for cluster effect. Residents in the High socioeconomic group have about 1.66 [95% CI: 1.27-2.17] times the odds to enroll complete households in the insurance program compared to

  4. National Health Expenditure Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Health Expenditure Accounts are comprised of the following, National Health Expenditures - Historical and Projected, Age Estimates, State Health...

  5. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn K.D. Sartorius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  6. Towards evidence-based, GIS-driven national spatial health information infrastructure and surveillance services in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulos Maged

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term "Geographic Information Systems" (GIS has been added to MeSH in 2003, a step reflecting the importance and growing use of GIS in health and healthcare research and practices. GIS have much more to offer than the obvious digital cartography (map functions. From a community health perspective, GIS could potentially act as powerful evidence-based practice tools for early problem detection and solving. When properly used, GIS can: inform and educate (professionals and the public; empower decision-making at all levels; help in planning and tweaking clinically and cost-effective actions, in predicting outcomes before making any financial commitments and ascribing priorities in a climate of finite resources; change practices; and continually monitor and analyse changes, as well as sentinel events. Yet despite all these potentials for GIS, they remain under-utilised in the UK National Health Service (NHS. This paper has the following objectives: (1 to illustrate with practical, real-world scenarios and examples from the literature the different GIS methods and uses to improve community health and healthcare practices, e.g., for improving hospital bed availability, in community health and bioterrorism surveillance services, and in the latest SARS outbreak; (2 to discuss challenges and problems currently hindering the wide-scale adoption of GIS across the NHS; and (3 to identify the most important requirements and ingredients for addressing these challenges, and realising GIS potential within the NHS, guided by related initiatives worldwide. The ultimate goal is to illuminate the road towards implementing a comprehensive national, multi-agency spatio-temporal health information infrastructure functioning proactively in real time. The concepts and principles presented in this paper can be also applied in other countries, and on regional (e.g., European Union and global levels.

  7. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  8. National Jewish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 View More Upcoming Events View All Beaux Arts Ball Saturday, February 24, 2018 Financial Industries Dinner ... Go Submitting... © 2017 National Jewish Health 1400 Jackson Street Denver, Colorado 80206 1.877.225.5654 Policies & ...

  9. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  10. National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC National Center for Health Statistics Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Survey of Family Growth Vital Records National Vital Statistics System National Death Index Vital Statistics Rapid Release ...

  11. Wealth and the nation's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, C

    1993-07-01

    Social and economic prosperity to a great extent depend on a healthy population; similarly good health depends on adequate income, writes Clare Blackburn. The government strategy for health promotion outlined most recently in The health of the nation, fails to acknowledge this. Nevertheless health visitors and school nurses cannot ignore the links between health and wealth.

  12. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, .... calculated based on the value of the 16 indicators of SDI readiness (Table 1). .... instance, majority of the staff at Survey of Kenya; the National Mapping Agency are GIS and.

  13. National Spatial Data Clearinghouses: Worldwide development and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crompvoets, J.W.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years many countries have spent considerable resources on developing their own National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) in order to manage and utilise spatial data assets more efficiently, reduce the cost of data production, and eliminate duplication of data acquisition. One of

  14. Spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resource and social impacts caused by recreationists and tourists have become a management concern in national parks and equivalent protected areas. The need to contain visitor impacts within acceptable limits has prompted park and protected area managers to implement a wide variety of strategies and actions, many of which are spatial in nature. This paper classifies and illustrates the basic spatial strategies for managing visitor impacts in parks and protected areas. A typology of four spatial strategies was proposed based on the recreation and park management literature. Spatial segregation is a common strategy for shielding sensitive resources from visitor impacts or for separating potentially conflicting types of use. Two forms of spatial segregation are zoning and closure. A spatial containment strategy is intended to minimize the aggregate extent of visitor impacts by confining use to limited designated or established Iocations. In contrast, a spatial dispersal strategy seeks to spread visitor use, reducing the frequency of use to levels that avoid or minimize permanent resource impacts or visitor crowding and conflict. Finally, a spatial configuration strategy minimizes impacting visitor behavior though the judicious spatial arrangement of facilities. These four spatial strategics can be implemented separately or in combination at varying spatial scales within a single park. A survey of national park managers provides an empirical example of the diversity of implemented spatial strategies in managing visitor impacts. Spatial segregation is frequently applied in the form of camping restrictions or closures to protect sensitive natural or cultural resources and to separate incompatible visitor activities. Spatial containment is the most widely applied strategy for minimizing the areal extent of resource impacts. Spatial dispersal is commonly applied to reduce visitor crowding or conflicts in popular destination areas but is less frequently applied or

  15. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 forward. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) has monitored the health of the nation since 1957. NHIS data on a broad range of health topics are...

  16. National spatial development planning in South Africa 1930-2010 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National spatial development planning in South Africa 1930-2010: An introductory comparative analysis. ... Town and Regional Planning ... It demonstrates that, despite the ostensible support for national planning during this period, such plans and proposals rarely had a direct impact on the conduct of government business.

  17. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okuku

    Keywords: Spatial data infrastructure, Kenya NSDI, development, assessment, ... of a nation can be used for; network survey of coordinates, waterways, ... to European community (INSPIRE) at the European national, regional and .... Digitisation efforts were spearheaded by the joint cooperation of JICA (Japan international.

  18. Reference Data as a Basis for National Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mildorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data are increasingly being used for a range of applications beyond their, traditional uses. Collection of such data and their update constitute a substantial part of the total costs for their maintenance. In order to ensure sustainable development in the area of geographic information systems, efficient data custody and coordination mechanisms for data sharing must be put in place. This paper shows the importance of reference data as a basis for national spatial data infrastructure that serves as a platform for decision making processes in society. There are several European initiatives supporting the wider use of spatial data. An example is the INSPIRE Directive. Its principles and the main world trends in data integration pave the way to successful SDI driven by stakeholders and coordinated by national mapping agencies.

  19. Rural health care bypass behavior: how community and spatial characteristics affect primary health care selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Scott R; Erickson, Lance D; Call, Vaughn R A; McKnight, Matthew L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-01-01

    (1) To assess the prevalence of rural primary care physician (PCP) bypass, a behavior in which residents travel farther than necessary to obtain health care, (2) To examine the role of community and non-health-care-related characteristics on bypass behavior, and (3) To analyze spatial bypass patterns to determine which rural communities are most affected by bypass. Data came from the Montana Health Matters survey, which gathered self-reported information from Montana residents on their health care utilization, satisfaction with health care services, and community and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to examine the probability and spatial patterns of bypass. Overall, 39% of respondents bypass local health care. Similar to previous studies, dissatisfaction with local health care was found to increase the likelihood of bypass. Dissatisfaction with local shopping also increases the likelihood of bypass, while the number of friends in a community, and commonality with community reduce the likelihood of bypass. Other significant factors associated with bypass include age, income, health, and living in a highly rural community or one with high commuting flows. Our results suggest that outshopping theory, in which patients bundle services and shopping for added convenience, extends to primary health care selection. This implies that rural health care selection is multifaceted, and that in addition to perceived satisfaction with local health care, the quality of local shopping and levels of community attachment also influence bypass behavior. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  20. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...

  1. National Health-Care Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    and pre/ post partum care during delivery. America should select measures that reflect the health-care goals of the nation. As an example, the Healthy...accidents (8) More than 50% of patients with diabetes, hypertension, tobacco addiction, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, asthma, depression ...reflect the cumulative efforts of different types of individual care. For example, infant mortality is a reflection of pre-natal care, post - natal care

  2. A hierarchical spatial framework and database for the national river fish habitat condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Infante, D.; Esselman, P.; Cooper, A.; Wu, D.; Taylor, W.; Beard, D.; Whelan, G.; Ostroff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fisheries management programs, such as the National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP), urgently need a nationwide spatial framework and database for health assessment and policy development to protect and improve riverine systems. To meet this need, we developed a spatial framework and database using National Hydrography Dataset Plus (I-.100,000-scale); http://www.horizon-systems.com/nhdplus). This framework uses interconfluence river reaches and their local and network catchments as fundamental spatial river units and a series of ecological and political spatial descriptors as hierarchy structures to allow users to extract or analyze information at spatial scales that they define. This database consists of variables describing channel characteristics, network position/connectivity, climate, elevation, gradient, and size. It contains a series of catchment-natural and human-induced factors that are known to influence river characteristics. Our framework and database assembles all river reaches and their descriptors in one place for the first time for the conterminous United States. This framework and database provides users with the capability of adding data, conducting analyses, developing management scenarios and regulation, and tracking management progresses at a variety of spatial scales. This database provides the essential data needs for achieving the objectives of NFHAP and other management programs. The downloadable beta version database is available at http://ec2-184-73-40-15.compute-1.amazonaws.com/nfhap/main/.

  3. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... and Events NIOSH Contact Information Related Federal Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration Mine Safety and Health Administration Follow NIOSH ...

  5. National Institute of Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to content Home Health Information Health Information Home Mental Health Information Statistics Consumer Health Publications Help for Mental ... signs and symptoms of depression in men. More Mental Health Services Research Conference Register now for the nation’s ...

  6. Australia's national men's health policy: masculinity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Margo; Peerson, Anita

    2009-08-01

    The development of Australia's first national men's health policy provides an important opportunity for informed discussions of health and gender. It is therefore a concern that the stated policy appears to deliberately exclude hegemonic masculinity and other masculinities, despite evidence of their major influence on men's health-related values, beliefs, perspectives, attitudes, motivations and behaviour. We provide an evidence-based critique of the proposed approach to a national men's health policy which raises important questions about whether the new policy can achieve its aims if it fails to acknowledge 'masculinity' as a key factor in Australian men's health. The national men's health policy should be a means to encourage gender analysis in health. This will require recognition of the influence of hegemonic masculinity, and other masculinities, on men's health. Recognising the influence of 'masculinity' on men's health is not about 'blaming' men for 'behaving badly', but is crucial to the development of a robust, meaningful and comprehensive national men's health policy.

  7. Forest health monitoring: 2007 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Conkling

    2011-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program produces an annual technical report that has two main objectives. The first objective is to present information about forest health from a national perspective. The second objective is to present examples of useful techniques for analyzing forest health data new to the annual national reports and new applications of techniques...

  8. National Minority Health Month Spotlight: Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    April is National Minority Health Month and in support of the 2016 theme, Accelerating Health Equity for the Nation, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) is highlighting how diversity training and career development opportunities are contributing to efforts to reduce the unequal burden of cancer in our society.

  9. Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building National Health Research Information Systems (COHRED). This grant will allow the Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) to create, host and maintain a web-based resource on national health research in low- and middle-income countries in partnership with institutions in the South. Called ...

  10. Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The annual national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  11. Forest health monitoring: 2008 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2012-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program’s annual national technical report has three objectives: (1) to present forest health status and trends from a national or a multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, (2) to introduce new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and (3) to report results of recently completed evaluation monitoring...

  12. National Center for Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # Environmental Health Topics Emergency and Environmental Health Services Chemical Weapons Elimination Environmental Health Services Healthy Homes Healthy Places – Community ...

  13. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  14. Non-Spatial and Geospatial Semantic Query of Health Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, S.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of health information and frequent outbreaks of diseases, the retrieval of health information is given more concern. Machine understanding of spatial information can improve the interpretation of health data semantics. Most of the current research focused on the non-spatia...

  15. Spatial Distribution and Accessibility of Health Facilities in Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore analyzed the spatial patterns of healthcare facilities in Akwa ... Data on six health indicator variables were obtained and analyzed to assess ... of healthcare facilities and thus hinders good access to high quality healthcare ...

  16. National Fish Habitat Action Plan (NFHAP) - Coastal Spatial Framework and Coastal Indicator Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NFHAP Coastal Spatial Framework and Indicator Datasets consist of a geospatial base layer developed in ArcGIS, and associated data fields joined to the spatial...

  17. Forest health monitoring: 2005 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring program's annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests of the Santiago Declaration. The results...

  18. Forest health monitoring: 2006 national technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Health Monitoring Program’s annual national technical report presents results of forest health analyses from a national perspective using data from a variety of sources. The report is organized according to the Criteria and Indicators for the Conservation and Sustainable Management of Temperate and Boreal Forests of the...

  19. National eHealth strategy toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide the application of information and communication technologies to support national health-care services is rapidly expanding and increasingly important. This is especially so at a time when all health systems face stringent economic challenges and greater demands to provide more and better care especially to those most in need. The National eHealth Strategy Toolkit is an expert practical guide that provides governments their ministries and stakeholders with a solid foundation and method for the development and implementation of a national eHealth vision action plan and monitoring fram

  20. Assessing the Development of Kenya National Spatial Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial data plays a vital role in developmental activities, whether natural resource management or socio-economic development. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) facilitate access, sharing and dissemination of spatial data necessary for complex decision-making processes of the future. Thus, conducting SDI assessment ...

  1. Assessing the development of Kenya National Spatial Data Infrastructure (KNSDI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okuku, J.; Bregt, A.K.; Grus, L.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial data plays a vital role in developmental activities, whether natural resource management or socio-economic development. Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) facilitate access, sharing and dissemination of spatial data necessary for complex decision-making processes of the future. Thus,

  2. Health: looking after the Nation's health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available is not realised, the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative (AsgiSA) objectives of systematically reducing poverty and unemployment may not be met. Since infrastructure is essential to healthcare delivery good public health, strengthened capacity to plan...

  3. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4

  4. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  5. Joining up health and planning: how Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) can inform health and wellbeing strategies and spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Paul; Hewitt, Stephen; Blackshaw, Neil

    2013-09-01

    There has been a welcome joining up of the rhetoric around health, the environment and land use or spatial planning in both the English public health white paper and the National Planning Policy Framework. However, this paper highlights a real concern that this is not being followed through into practical guidance needed by local authorities (LAs), health bodies and developers about how to deliver this at the local level. The role of Joint Strategic Needs Assessments (JSNAs) and Health and Wellbeing Strategies (HWSs) have the potential to provide a strong basis for integrated local policies for health improvement, to address the wider determinants of health and to reduce inequities. However, the draft JSNA guidance from the Department of Health falls short of providing a robust, comprehensive and practical guide to meeting these very significant challenges. The paper identifies some examples of good practice. It recommends that action should be taken to raise the standards of all JSNAs to meet the new challenges and that HWSs should be aligned spatially and temporally with local plans and other LA strategies. HWSs should also identify spatially targeted interventions that can be delivered through spatial planning or transport planning. Steps need to be taken to ensure that district councils are brought into the process.

  6. GIS: A Spatial Turn in the Health Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ejstrud, Bo; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In recent years health science seems to have taken a “spatial turn” with a renewed interest in spatially oriented research. There are a number of reasons behind this rediscovery of “the power of maps”. One of the predominant drivers has been the development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS......), software systems that can handle geographically referenced data. GIS is a very helpful tool to characterise neighbourhoods for a wide range of health-related studies. However, neighbourhoods can be defined in many different ways, and modifying the area unit used to delineate a neighbourhood affects...

  7. Health information exchange: national and international approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    2012-01-01

    Health information exchange (HIE), the process of electronically moving patient-level information between different organizations, is viewed as a solution to the fragmentation of data in health care. This review provides a description of the current state of HIE in seven nations, as well was three international HIE efforts, with a particular focus on the relation of exchange efforts to national health care systems, common challenges, and the implications of cross-border information sharing. National and international efforts highlighted in English language informatics journals, professional associations, and government reports are described. Fully functioning HIE is not yet a common phenomenon worldwide. However, multiple nations see the potential benefits of HIE and that has led to national and international efforts of varying scope, scale, and purview. National efforts continue to work to overcome the challenges of interoperability, record linking, insufficient infrastructures, governance, and interorganizational relationships, but have created architectural strategies, oversight agencies, and incentives to foster exchange. The three international HIE efforts reviewed represent very different approaches to the same problem of ensuring the availability of health information across borders. The potential of HIE to address many cost and quality issues will ensure HIE remains on many national agendas. In many instances, health care executives and leaders have opportunities to work within national programs to help shape local exchange governance and decide technology partners. Furthermore, HIE raises policy questions concerning the role of centralized planning, national identifiers, standards, and types of information exchanged, each of which are vital issues to individual health organizations and worthy of their attention.

  8. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  9. A Big Spatial Data Processing Framework Applying to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a novel framework for spatial data processing is proposed, which apply to National Geographic Conditions Monitoring project of China. It includes 4 layers: spatial data storage, spatial RDDs, spatial operations, and spatial query language. The spatial data storage layer uses HDFS to store large size of spatial vector/raster data in the distributed cluster. The spatial RDDs are the abstract logical dataset of spatial data types, and can be transferred to the spark cluster to conduct spark transformations and actions. The spatial operations layer is a series of processing on spatial RDDs, such as range query, k nearest neighbor and spatial join. The spatial query language is a user-friendly interface which provide people not familiar with Spark with a comfortable way to operation the spatial operation. Compared with other spatial frameworks, it is highlighted that comprehensive technologies are referred for big spatial data processing. Extensive experiments on real datasets show that the framework achieves better performance than traditional process methods.

  10. NATIONAL EMPLOYER HEALTH INSURANCE SURVEY (NEHIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Employer Health Insurance Survey (NEHIS) was developed to produce estimates on employer-sponsored health insurance data in the United States. The NEHIS was the first Federal survey to represent all employers in the United States by State and obtain information on all...

  11. Local enactments of national health promotion policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    organisational levels. Visiting, observing and interviewing 15 policy workers from 10 municipalities during a two-year period, this study investigated what happened to a Danish national health promotion policy as it was put into practice and managed in the Danish municipalities. The analysis reveals...... the concrete enactments and their locally experienced effects, our understanding of national public health policies risks becoming detached from praxis and unproductive. Public health policy-makers must pay methodological and analytical attention to the policies' multimodality and their concrete locally......Governments of welfare states are firmly committed to public health, resulting in a substantial number of public health policies. Given the multi-level structure of most welfare systems, the influence of a public health policy is related to its ability to spread geographically and move across...

  12. The prospects for national health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, J R; Palley, H A

    1991-01-01

    This article explores the unequal access to health care in the context of efforts by the American Medical Association (AMA) and its allies to maintain a market-maximizing health care system. The coalition between the AMA and its traditional allies is breaking down, in part, because of converging developments creating an atmosphere which may be more conducive to national health care reform and the development of a reformed health care delivery system that will be accessible, adequate, and equitable in meeting the health care and related social service needs of the American people.

  13. [The national health system in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In 1975, a group of professionals in Peru who were experts on national health systems began a process that led the country to be the first in South America to initiate a modern organization of the health system. This pioneering development meant that the creation of the National Health Services System [in Peru] in 1978 occurred before the health system reforms in Chile (1980), Brazil (1990), Colombia (1993), and Ecuador (2008). This encouraging start has had permanent reformist fluctuations since then, with negative development because of the lack of a State policy. Current features of the Peruvian system are inefficient performance, discontinuity, and lack of assessment, which creates a major setback in comparison with other health systems in America. In the 21st century, significant technical efforts have been missed to modernize the system and its functions. The future is worrying and the role of new generations will be decisive.

  14. Examining national trends in worker health with the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Sestito, John P

    2013-12-01

    To describe data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), both the annual core survey and periodic occupational health supplements (OHSs), available for examining national trends in worker health. The NHIS is an annual in-person household survey with a cross-sectional multistage clustered sample design to produce nationally representative health data. The 2010 NHIS included an OHS. Prevalence rates of various health conditions and health behaviors among workers based on multiple years of NHIS core data are available. In addition, the 2010 NHIS-OHS data provide prevalence rates of selected health conditions, work organization factors, and occupational exposures among US workers by industry and occupation. The publicly available NHIS data can be used to identify areas of concern for various industries and for benchmarking data from specific worker groups against national averages.

  15. Spatial data analysis and the use of maps in scientific health articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Souccar, Patrick Theodore; Castilho, Silvia Diez

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing number of studies with a characteristic element of spatial analysis, the application of the techniques is not always clear and its continuity in epidemiological studies requires careful evaluation. To verify the spread and use of those processes in national and international scientific papers. An assessment was made of periodicals according to the impact index. Among 8,281 journals surveyed, four national and four international were selected, of which 1,274 articles were analyzed regarding the presence or absence of spatial analysis techniques. Just over 10% of articles published in 2011 in high impact journals, both national and international, showed some element of geographical location. Although these percentages vary greatly from one journal to another, denoting different publication profiles, we consider this percentage as an indication that location variables have become an important factor in studies of health.

  16. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella

    2016-01-01

    In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...

  17. Spatial Temporal Modelling of Particulate Matter for Health Effects Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, N. A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution require estimation of individual exposure. It is not possible to obtain measurements at all relevant locations so it is necessary to predict at these space-time locations, either on the basis of dispersion from emission sources or by interpolating observations. This study used data obtained from a low-cost sensor network of 32 air quality monitoring stations in the Dutch city of Eindhoven, which make up the ILM (innovative air (quality) measurement system). These stations currently provide PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 m in diameter), aggregated to hourly means. The data provide an unprecedented level of spatial and temporal detail for a city of this size. Despite these benefits the time series of measurements is characterized by missing values and noisy values. In this paper a space-time analysis is presented that is based on a dynamic model for the temporal component and a Gaussian process geostatistical for the spatial component. Spatial-temporal variability was dominated by the temporal component, although the spatial variability was also substantial. The model delivered accurate predictions for both isolated missing values and 24-hour periods of missing values (RMSE = 1.4 μg m-3 and 1.8 μg m-3 respectively). Outliers could be detected by comparison to the 95% prediction interval. The model shows promise for predicting missing values, outlier detection and for mapping to support health impact studies.

  18. Local consequences of national policies - a spatial analysis of preferences for forest access reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    Stated preference studies eliciting welfare economic consequence of national policies, are often not considering the spatial variation in supply and demand. This spatial variation may however cause large distributional heterogeneity of policy changes. In this study, we use a choice experiment to ...

  19. Spatial accessibility to basic public health services in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Macharia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.

  20. 76 FR 53685 - National Institutes of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ..., CSR management to enhance the operations, processes, organization of, and services provided by the... data collection projects, the Center for Scientific Review (CSR), National Institutes of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the...

  1. Who Killed the English National Health Service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Powell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The death of the English National Health Service (NHS has been pronounced many times over the years, but the time and cause of death and the murder weapon remains to be fully established. This article reviews some of these claims, and asks for clearer criteria and evidence to be presented.

  2. Spatial and multidimensional visualization of Indonesia's village health statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmanto, Bambang; Paramita, Maria V; Sugiantara, Wayan; Pramana, Gede; Scotch, Matthew; Burke, Donald S

    2008-06-11

    A community health assessment (CHA) is used to identify and address health issues in a given population. Effective CHA requires timely and comprehensive information from a wide variety of sources, such as: socio-economic data, disease surveillance, healthcare utilization, environmental data, and health resource allocation. Indonesia is a developing country with 235 million inhabitants over 13,000 islands. There are significant barriers to conducting CHA in developing countries like Indonesia, such as the high cost of computing resources and the lack of computing skills necessary to support such an assessment. At the University of Pittsburgh, we have developed the Spatial OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) Visualization and Analysis Tool (SOVAT) for performing CHA. SOVAT combines Geographic Information System (GIS) technology along with an advanced multidimensional data warehouse structure to facilitate analysis of large, disparate health, environmental, population, and spatial data. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of SOVAT for facilitating CHA among developing countries by using health, population, healthcare resources, and spatial data from Indonesia for use in two CHA cases studies. Bureau of Statistics administered data sets from the Indonesian Census, and the Indonesian village statistics, were used in the case studies. The data consisted of: healthcare resources (number of healthcare professionals and facilities), population (census), morbidity and mortality, and spatial (GIS-formatted) information. The data was formatted, combined, and populated into SOVAT for CHA use. Case study 1 involves the distribution of healthcare professionals in Indonesia, while case study 2 involves malaria mortality. Screen shots are shown for both cases. The results for the CHA were retrieved in seconds and presented through the geospatial and numerical SOVAT interface. The case studies show the potential of spatial and multidimensional analysis using

  3. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Cave, Ben; Ballantyne, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA

  4. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM (Interdisciplinary Research in Environmental Assessment and Management), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cave, Ben, E-mail: ben.cave@bcahealth.co.uk [Ben Cave Associates Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Rob, E-mail: robdballantyne@gmail.com [Planning and Health Consultant, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  5. Teens, Health and Technology: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Wartella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.

  6. CDC National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (Tracking Network)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network is a system of integrated health, exposure, and hazard information and data from a variety of national,...

  7. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A A; Salina, A A; Abdul Kadir, A B; Badiah, Y; Cheah, Y C; Nor Hayati, A; Ruzanna, Z Z; Sharifah Suziah, S M; Chee, K Y

    2008-09-01

    The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) collects information about patients with mental disorder in Malaysia. This information allows us to estimate the incidence of selected mental disorders, and to evaluate risk factors and treatment in the country. The National Mental Health Registry (NMHR) presented its first report in 2004, a year after its establishment. The report focused on schizophrenia as a pioneer project for the National Mental Health Registry. The development of the registry has progressed with data collected from government-based facilities, the academia and the private sector. The 2003-2005 report was recently published and distributed. Since then the registry has progressed to include suicides and other mental illnesses such as depression. The NMHR Report 2003-2005 provides detailed information about the profile of persons with Schizophrenia who presented for the first time to various psychiatry and mental health providers throughout Malaysia. More detailed description regarding pharmacotherapy is reported and few cross tabulations done in an effort to provide better understanding and more clinically meaningful reports.

  8. National spatial and temporal patterns of notified dengue cases, Colombia 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Baker, Peter; Clements, Archie C A

    2014-07-01

    To explore the variation in the spatial distribution of notified dengue cases in Colombia from January 2007 to December 2010 and examine associations between the disease and selected environmental risk factors. Data on the number of notified dengue cases in Colombia were obtained from the National Institute of Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud - INS) for the period 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2010. Data on environmental factors were collected from the Worldclim website. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the relationship between monthly dengue cases and temperature, precipitation and elevation. Monthly dengue counts decreased by 18% (95% credible interval (CrI): 17-19%) in 2008 and increased by 30% (95% CrI: 28-31%) and 326% (95% CrI: 322-331%) in 2009 and 2010, respectively, compared to 2007. Additionally, there was a significant, nonlinear effect of monthly average precipitation. The results highlight the role of environmental risk factors in determining the spatial of dengue and show how these factors can be used to develop and refine preventive approaches for dengue in Colombia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Children's health, the nation's wealth: assessing and improving child health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute Of Medicine Staff; Board on Children, Youth, and Families; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council; Institute of Medicine; National Academy of Sciences

    2004-01-01

    ... competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by contract number 282-99-0045, task order number 6 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Health and Human Services. Supplementary funding for a report synthesis and dissemination of the report and report synthesis was supported by contrac...

  10. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  11. National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is an academic center tasked with leading federal, and coordinating national, efforts to develop...

  12. Spatial pattern evaluation of a calibrated national hydrological model - a remote-sensing-based diagnostic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Stisen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Distributed hydrological models are traditionally evaluated against discharge stations, emphasizing the temporal and neglecting the spatial component of a model. The present study widens the traditional paradigm by highlighting spatial patterns of evapotranspiration (ET), a key variable at the land-atmosphere interface, obtained from two different approaches at the national scale of Denmark. The first approach is based on a national water resources model (DK-model), using the MIKE-SHE model code, and the second approach utilizes a two-source energy balance model (TSEB) driven mainly by satellite remote sensing data. Ideally, the hydrological model simulation and remote-sensing-based approach should present similar spatial patterns and driving mechanisms of ET. However, the spatial comparison showed that the differences are significant and indicate insufficient spatial pattern performance of the hydrological model.The differences in spatial patterns can partly be explained by the fact that the hydrological model is configured to run in six domains that are calibrated independently from each other, as it is often the case for large-scale multi-basin calibrations. Furthermore, the model incorporates predefined temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), root depth (RD) and crop coefficient (Kc) for each land cover type. This zonal approach of model parameterization ignores the spatiotemporal complexity of the natural system. To overcome this limitation, this study features a modified version of the DK-model in which LAI, RD and Kc are empirically derived using remote sensing data and detailed soil property maps in order to generate a higher degree of spatiotemporal variability and spatial consistency between the six domains. The effects of these changes are analyzed by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to evaluate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis shows that including remote-sensing-derived LAI, RD and Kc in the distributed hydrological model adds

  13. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  14. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  15. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  16. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  17. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  18. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  19. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  20. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  1. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  2. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  3. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) measures the prevalence and correlates of drug...

  4. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womble, R.

    2010-04-02

    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  5. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  6. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  7. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  8. National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates...

  9. National Health Accounts development: lessons from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Laixuthai, A; Vasavit, J; Tantigate, N A; Prajuabmoh-Ruffolo, W; Vimolkit, D; Lertiendumrong, J

    1999-12-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) are an important tool to demonstrate how a country's health resources are spent, on what services, and who pays for them. NHA are used by policy-makers for monitoring health expenditure patterns; policy instruments to re-orientate the pattern can then be further introduced. The National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) of Thailand produces aggregate health expenditure data but its estimation methods have several limitations. This has led to the research and development of an NHA prototype in 1994, through an agreed definition of health expenditure and methodology, in consultation with peer and other stakeholders. This is an initiative by local researchers without external support, with an emphasis on putting the system into place. It involves two steps: firstly, the flow of funds from ultimate sources of finance to financing agencies; and secondly, the use of funds by financing agencies. Five ultimate sources and 12 financing agencies (seven public and five private) were identified. Use of consumption expenditures was listed under four main categories and 32 sub-categories. Using 1994 figures, we estimated a total health expenditure of 128,305.11 million Baht; 84.07% consumption and 15.93% capital formation. Of total consumption expenditure, 36.14% was spent on purchasing care from public providers, with 32.35% on private providers, 5.93% on administration and 9.65% on all other public health programmes. Public sources of finance were responsible for 48.79% and private 51.21% of the total 1994 health expenditure. Total health expenditure accounted for 3.56% of GDP (consumption expenditure at 3.00% of GDP and capital formation at 0.57% of GDP). The NESDB consumption expenditure estimate in 1994 was 180,516 million Baht or 5.01% of GDP, of which private sources were dominant (82.17%) and public sources played a minor role (17.83%). The discrepancy of consumption expenditure between the two estimates is 2.01% of GDP. There

  10. A spatial epidemiological analysis of self-rated mental health in the slums of Dhaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deprived physical environments present in slums are well-known to have adverse health effects on their residents. However, little is known about the health effects of the social environments in slums. Moreover, neighbourhood quantitative spatial analyses of the mental health status of slum residents are still rare. The aim of this paper is to study self-rated mental health data in several slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh, by accounting for neighbourhood social and physical associations using spatial statistics. We hypothesised that mental health would show a significant spatial pattern in different population groups, and that the spatial patterns would relate to spatially-correlated health-determining factors (HDF. Methods We applied a spatial epidemiological approach, including non-spatial ANOVA/ANCOVA, as well as global and local univariate and bivariate Moran's I statistics. The WHO-5 Well-being Index was used as a measure of self-rated mental health. Results We found that poor mental health (WHO-5 scores Conclusions Spatial patterns of mental health were detected and could be partly explained by spatially correlated HDF. We thereby showed that the socio-physical neighbourhood was significantly associated with health status, i.e., mental health at one location was spatially dependent on the mental health and HDF prevalent at neighbouring locations. Furthermore, the spatial patterns point to severe health disparities both within and between the slums. In addition to examining health outcomes, the methodology used here is also applicable to residuals of regression models, such as helping to avoid violating the assumption of data independence that underlies many statistical approaches. We assume that similar spatial structures can be found in other studies focussing on neighbourhood effects on health, and therefore argue for a more widespread incorporation of spatial statistics in epidemiological studies.

  11. Ecological health in the Nation's streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Daren M.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic biological communities, which are collections of organisms, are a direct measure of stream health because they indicate the ability of a stream to support life. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a national assessment of stream health by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The assessment was unique in that it integrated the condition of three biological communities—algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish—as well as measures of streamflow modification, pesticides, nutrients, and other factors. At least one biological community was altered at 83 percent of assessed streams, and the occurrence of altered communities was highest in urban streams. Streamflows were modified at 86 percent of assessed streams, and increasing severity of streamflow modification was associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities. Agricultural and urban land use in watersheds may contribute pesticides and nutrients to stream waters, and increasing concentrations of these chemicals were associated with increased occurrence of altered biological communities.

  12. National Health Accounts: A Framework For Understanding Health Care Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Over the course of the past century, the challenges facing the United States in its consumption of health care goods and services have not changed very much. What is being consumed, who is paying for it, and how much is affordable are questions that arise in every cycle of the debate-if they ever go dormant. National Health Accounts are one tool to use in the search for answers to these questions and to the challenges behind the questions. The accounts cannot (and do not pretend to) address every aspect of the debate, but they provide an important context. In this article I briefly review the history of the health accounts and discuss their strengths and weaknesses in the context of the present debate over spending.

  13. A New Method for Spatial Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Sakizadeh*

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The area of contaminated lands exposed to the health risk of environmental pollutants is a matter of argument. In this study, a new method was developed to estimate the amount of area that is exposed to higher than normal levels of Cr, Mn, and V. Methods: Overall, 170 soil samples were collected from the upper 10 cm of soil in an arid area in central part of Iran in Semnan Province. The values of Cr, Mn, and V were detected by ICP-OES technique. A geostatistical method known as sequential Gaussian co-simulation was applied to consider the spatial risk of these toxic elements. Results: The moderate spatial dependence of Cr indicates the contribution of both intrinsic and extrinsic factor to the levels of this heavy metal in the study area, whereas, Mn and V can be attributed to intrinsic factors (such as lithology. There has not been any significant influence due to agricultural practices on the Cr values in the region. The surface of contaminated area for manganese, produced by risk curve on surface method, was higher than chromium and vanadium. Conclusion: The produced risk curves as rendered in this study can be adopted in similar studies to help managers to estimate the total area that requires cleanup action.

  14. Spatial analysis of fuel treatment options for chaparral on the Angeles national forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Jones; J. Chew; R. Silverstein; C. Stalling; J. Sullivan; J. Troutwine; D. Weise; D. Garwood

    2008-01-01

    Spatial fuel treatment schedules were developed for the chaparral vegetation type on the Angeles National Forest using the Multi-resource Analysis and Geographic Information System (MAGIS). Schedules varied by the priority given to various wildland urban interface areas and the general forest, as well as by the number of acres treated per decade. The effectiveness of...

  15. Spatial Information Needs on the Fishlake National Forest: Can FIA Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B., Jr. Campbell; Renee A. O' Brien

    2005-01-01

    National forest staff members are frequently challenged to make assessments with existing information. They rarely have the time or resources to go to the field to gather new data specific to the question at hand. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data have proved useful in the past, but there is an increasing need for spatial depictions of forest resources to...

  16. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  17. National health inequality monitoring: current challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne; Boerma, Ties

    National health inequality monitoring needs considerably more investment to realize equity-oriented health improvements in countries, including advancement towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Following an overview of national health inequality monitoring and the associated resource requirements, we highlight challenges that countries may encounter when setting up, expanding or strengthening national health inequality monitoring systems, and discuss opportunities and key initiatives that aim to address these challenges. We provide specific proposals on what is needed to ensure that national health inequality monitoring systems are harnessed to guide the reduction of health inequalities.

  18. 75 FR 36427 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2... of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and Services Administration, Parklawn Building...

  19. 76 FR 29769 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2..., Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and Services Administration, Parklawn...

  20. 78 FR 55264 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2... Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and Services Administration, Parklawn Building, Room 13-64, 5600...

  1. Teaching Spatial Thinking with the National Atlas of Korea in U.S. Secondary Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Gregory H.; Hwang, Chul Sue; Choi, Jongnam

    2018-05-01

    This paper is predicated on the body of literature that supports a theoretical concept that middle and high school age children possess the cognitive ability to understand thematic maps and achieve some degree of cartographic literacy. In 2006, the US National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies published a landmark book on Learning to Think Spatially. This book documented essential secondary education components and various aspects of teaching spatial thinking. The NRC defines spatial thinking as "a form of thinking based on a constructive amalgam of three elements: concepts of space, tools of representation, and processes of reasoning" (NRC, 2006, ix). This paper is an attempt to document and understand some of the attributes associated with these three elements. Specifically, it aims to find ways that can effectively contribute to the teaching of these elements associated with spatial thinking. The National Atlas of Korea is chosen for lesson plan development because it is well-designed and provides a range of contents and comprehensiveness that are ideal; in addition, it is freely accessible online and downloadable (http://nationalatlas.ngii.go.kr/). Four master geography teachers were invited to examine the Atlas to conceive and develop Advanced Placement Human Geography (APHG) lesson plans. Four lesson plans were written and have continually been implemented in classrooms to over 800 students in the States of Utah, Georgia, Minnesota, and Tennessee since the 2015 Fall semester. Results are presented in this paper.

  2. Spatial Accessibility to Health Care Services: Identifying under-Serviced Neighbourhoods in Canadian Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyab Ikram Shah

    Full Text Available Urban environments can influence many aspects of health and well-being and access to health care is one of them. Access to primary health care (PHC in urban settings is a pressing research and policy issue in Canada. Most research on access to healthcare is focused on national and provincial levels in Canada; there is a need to advance current understanding to local scales such as neighbourhoods.This study examines spatial accessibility to family physicians using the Three-Step Floating Catchment Area (3SFCA method to identify neighbourhoods with poor geographical access to PHC services and their spatial patterning across 14 Canadian urban settings. An index of spatial access to PHC services, representing an accessibility score (physicians-per-1000 population, was calculated for neighborhoods using a 3km road network distance. Information about primary health care providers (this definition does not include mobile services such as health buses or nurse practitioners or less distributed services such as emergency rooms used in this research was gathered from publicly available and routinely updated sources (i.e. provincial colleges of physicians and surgeons. An integrated geocoding approach was used to establish PHC locations.The results found that the three methods, Simple Ratio, Neighbourhood Simple Ratio, and 3SFCA that produce City level access scores are positively correlated with each other. Comparative analyses were performed both within and across urban settings to examine disparities in distributions of PHC services. It is found that neighbourhoods with poor accessibility scores in the main urban settings across Canada have further disadvantages in relation to population high health care needs.The results of this study show substantial variations in geographical accessibility to PHC services both within and among urban areas. This research enhances our understanding of spatial accessibility to health care services at the neighbourhood

  3. CGH observes National Women’s Health Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    This week, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is observing the 17th annual National Women’s Health Week. The goal of the National Women's Health Week is to empower women to make their health a priority. In celebration, the NCI Center for Global Health held a seminar on the Knowledge Summaries for Comprehensive Breast Cancer Control: Pathways for Advanced Cancer Planning.

  4. General practitioners and national health insurance results of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes of South African general practitioners (GPs) to national health insurance (NHI), social health insurance (SHI) and other related health system reforms. Design. A national survey using postal questionnaires and telephonic follow-up of non-responders. Setting. GPs throughout South Africa.

  5. Evaluation of the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoson, Judith M.; Streib, Greg; Thomas, John Clayton; Rivera, Mark; Stevenson, Beth

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 the American Cancer Society (ACS) launched the National School Health Coordinator Leadership Institute, a groundbreaking initiative designed to enhance and invigorate school health in the nation's schools by training individual school health coordinators to act as change agents. The Institute consisted of three, week-long summer training…

  6. Forest Health Monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  7. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2017-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introducesnew techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed...

  8. Forest health monitoring: national status, trends, and analysis 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling

    2015-01-01

    The annual national report of the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  9. 75 FR 44967 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-46, Cincinnati, OH 45226, Telephone 877-222...

  10. Developing Spatial Data Infrastructure in Croatia – Incorporating National and Regional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Bačić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although still not a member State of the European Union, Croatia has recognized in the spatial data infrastructure a concept that can significantly incite the modernization and effectiveness of the State administration, and create preconditions for the accelerated economic growth. Given this fact, Croatia has defined, after preparations which lasted several years, the legal framework for the national spatial data infrastructure establishment by adopting the Law on State Survey and Real Property Cadastre in 2007. During the adoption of this Law, great attention was paid to it being in line with the EU INSPIRE Directive (European Union, 2007 that was being adopted at the time, so the adopted provisions were fully compatible with the INSPIRE provisions. Regarding the model that Croatia has chosen in the establishment of its National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI, the role of the State Geodetic Administration (SGA, the Croatian National Mapping and Cadastre Agency (NMCA, is significant. The SGA acts as a coordination body for the NSDI establishment, giving technical support to the NSDI bodies. One of the obligations is the establishment of a metadata catalogue through the national geoportal. Significant activities have been undertaken in the field of raising the awareness. The most important studies describing the manner of the NSDI establishment and current national as well as European situation have been translated into Croatian language and distributed to more than 1,000 NSDI stakeholders. Several workshops have been organised in order to transfer the best practices from the countries that have achieved big progress in this field. In parallel with the national activities, Croatia, or rather the SGA, has recognized that the spatial data infrastructure (SDI development cannot be based on isolated national activities connected exclusively to the INSPIRE Directive but that the Croatian spatial data infrastructure development activities must be

  11. Spatial filter lens design for the main laser of the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korniski, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), being designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), comprises 192 laser beams The lasing medium is neodymium in phosphate glass with a fundamental frequency (1ω) of 1 053microm Sum frequency generation in a pair of conversion crystals (KDP/KD*P) will produce 1 8 megajoules of the third harmonic light (3ω or λ=351microm) at the target The purpose of this paper is to provide the lens design community with the current lens design details of the large optics in the Main Laser This paper describes the lens design configuration and design considerations of the Main Laser The Main Laser is 123 meters long and includes two spatial filters one 13 5 meters and one 60 meters These spatial filters perform crucial beam filtering and relaying functions We shall describe the significant lens design aspects of these spatial filter lenses which allow them to successfully deliver the appropriate beam characteristic onto the target For an overview of NIF please see ''Optical system design of the National Ignition Facility,'' by R Edward English. et al also found in this volume

  12. 78 FR 9055 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the..., Medical Systems Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo...

  13. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-18

    This poster is based on the paper of the same name, presented at the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, July18, 2016. Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions - native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level - and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  14. VA National Mental Health Statistics - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VAMC-level statistics on the prevalence, mental health utilization, non-mental health utilization, mental health workload, and psychological testing of Veterans with...

  15. National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Mental Health Services Survey (N-MHSS) is an annual survey designed to collect statistical information on the numbers and characteristics of all known...

  16. Using the National Provider Identifier for Health Care...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The establishment in recent years of a National Provider Identifier (NPI) offers a new method for counting and categorizing physicians and other health care...

  17. Program Spotlight: National Outreach Network's Community Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Outreach Network of Community Health Educators located at Community Network Program Centers, Partnerships to Advance Cancer Health Equity, and NCI-designated cancer centers help patients and their families receive survivorship support.

  18. 77 FR 9673 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; R01. Date: February 16, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes...

  19. 77 FR 43850 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Healthand Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  20. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long?term air pollution and health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The health impact of long?term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution?health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the...

  1. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  2. Development of Spatial Scaling Technique of Forest Health Sample Point Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Ryu, J. E.; Chung, H. I.; Choi, Y. Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Forests provide many goods, Ecosystem services, and resources to humans such as recreation air purification and water protection functions. In rececnt years, there has been an increase in the factors that threaten the health of forests such as global warming due to climate change, environmental pollution, and the increase in interest in forests, and efforts are being made in various countries for forest management. Thus, existing forest ecosystem survey method is a monitoring method of sampling points, and it is difficult to utilize forests for forest management because Korea is surveying only a small part of the forest area occupying 63.7 % of the country (Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport Korea, 2016). Therefore, in order to manage large forests, a method of interpolating and spatializing data is needed. In this study, The 1st Korea Forest Health Management biodiversity Shannon;s index data (National Institute of Forests Science, 2015) were used for spatial interpolation. Two widely used methods of interpolation, Kriging method and IDW(Inverse Distance Weighted) method were used to interpolate the biodiversity index. Vegetation indices SAVI, NDVI, LAI and SR were used. As a result, Kriging method was the most accurate method.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF SPATIAL SCALING TECHNIQUE OF FOREST HEALTH SAMPLE POINT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Forests provide many goods, Ecosystem services, and resources to humans such as recreation air purification and water protection functions. In rececnt years, there has been an increase in the factors that threaten the health of forests such as global warming due to climate change, environmental pollution, and the increase in interest in forests, and efforts are being made in various countries for forest management. Thus, existing forest ecosystem survey method is a monitoring method of sampling points, and it is difficult to utilize forests for forest management because Korea is surveying only a small part of the forest area occupying 63.7 % of the country (Ministry of Land Infrastructure and Transport Korea, 2016. Therefore, in order to manage large forests, a method of interpolating and spatializing data is needed. In this study, The 1st Korea Forest Health Management biodiversity Shannon;s index data (National Institute of Forests Science, 2015 were used for spatial interpolation. Two widely used methods of interpolation, Kriging method and IDW(Inverse Distance Weighted method were used to interpolate the biodiversity index. Vegetation indices SAVI, NDVI, LAI and SR were used. As a result, Kriging method was the most accurate method.

  4. Exploring the barriers to implementing National Health Insurance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the challenges of implementing the proposed National Health Insurance for South Africa (SA), based on the six building blocks of the World Health Organization Health System Framework. In the context of the current SA health system, leadership, finance, workforce, technologies, information and service ...

  5. Influence of biomedical sciences on National Health Insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health insurance becomes a viable alternative for financing health care amidst the high cost of health care. This study, conducted in 1997, uses a valuation method to assess the willingness of individuals from the working sector in Accra, Ghana, to join and pay premium for a proposed National Health Insurance Scheme ...

  6. Postdeployment military mental health training: cross-national evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foran, Heather M; Garber, Bryan G; Zamorski, Mark A; Wray, Mariane; Mulligan, Kathleen; Greenberg, Neil; Castro, Carl Andrew; Adler, Amy B

    2013-05-01

    Deployments increase risk for adjustment problems in service members. To mitigate this increased risk, mental health training programs have been developed and implemented in several nations. As part of a coordinated effort, three nations adapted a U.S. mental health training program that had been validated by a series of group randomized trials demonstrating improvement in postdeployment adjustment. Implementation of evidence-based programs in a new context is challenging: How much of the original program needs to remain intact in order to retain its utility? User satisfaction rates can provide essential data to assess how well a program is accepted. This article summarizes service member ratings of postdeployment mental health training and compares ratings from service members across four nations. The participating nations (Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United States) administered mental health training to active duty military personnel in their respective nations. Following the training, military personnel completed an evaluation of the training. Overall, across the four nations, more than 70% of military personnel agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with the mental health training. Although some differences in evaluations were observed across nations, components of training that were most important to overall satisfaction with the training were strikingly similar across nations. Fundamentally, it appears feasible that despite cultural and organizational differences, a mental health training program developed in one nation can be successfully adapted for use in other nations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hupkens, C.L.H.; Berg, J. van den; Zee, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and

  8. Solidarity as a national health care strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Oram, Peter

    2018-05-02

    The Trump Administration's recent attempts to repeal the Affordable Care Act have reignited long-running debates surrounding the nature of justice in health care provision, the extent of our obligations to others, and the most effective ways of funding and delivering quality health care. In this article, I respond to arguments that individualist systems of health care provision deliver higher-quality health care and promote liberty more effectively than the cooperative, solidaristic approaches that characterize health care provision in most wealthy countries apart from the United States. I argue that these claims are mistaken and suggest one way of rejecting the implied criticisms of solidaristic practices in health care provision they represent. This defence of solidarity is phrased in terms of the advantages solidaristic approaches to health care provision have over individualist alternatives in promoting certain important personal liberties, and delivering high-quality, affordable health care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Health Status of Current National Guard Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proctor, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    .... The objectives are to: 1) describe the current health status of this ARNG cohort, 2) examine to what extent the job strain of ARNG service affects the relationship between Civilian job strain and health and job performance outcomes and, 3...

  10. Spatial dynamics of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus, L. in the Paklenica National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I.V. Klobucar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the spatial dynamics of a noble crayfish population inhabiting the Velika Paklenica Stream (Paklenica National Park, Croatia. The study was conducted in July 2000, and between March and September 2002. Crayfish were trapped by baited LiNi traps and hand-made traps at two localities over 25 nights. We recorded the precise position of the captured crayfish, their sex, and total length. Crayfish were individually marked and then released back into the stream at the same spot where they were caught. Spatial analyses included determination of movement direction, distribution type, home range, total distance travelled, and mean daily movement. A mean home range of approximately 19 m was calculated. No difference in home range between the sexes was found. There was a large individual variation in the extent of movement without any effect of sex or size.

  11. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  12. Integrative Spatial Data Analytics for Public Health Studies of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    Increased accessibility of health data made available by the government provides unique opportunity for spatial analytics with much higher resolution to discover patterns of diseases, and their correlation with spatial impact indicators. This paper demonstrated our vision of integrative spatial analytics for public health by linking the New York Cancer Mapping Dataset with datasets containing potential spatial impact indicators. We performed spatial based discovery of disease patterns and variations across New York State, and identify potential correlations between diseases and demographic, socio-economic and environmental indicators. Our methods were validated by three correlation studies: the correlation between stomach cancer and Asian race, the correlation between breast cancer and high education population, and the correlation between lung cancer and air toxics. Our work will allow public health researchers, government officials or other practitioners to adequately identify, analyze, and monitor health problems at the community or neighborhood level for New York State.

  13. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  14. A logistic regression model for Ghana National Health Insurance claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Antwi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In August 2003, the Ghanaian Government made history by implementing the first National Health Insurance System (NHIS in Sub-Saharan Africa. Within three years, over half of the country’s population had voluntarily enrolled into the National Health Insurance Scheme. This study had three objectives: 1 To estimate the risk factors that influences the Ghana national health insurance claims. 2 To estimate the magnitude of each of the risk factors in relation to the Ghana national health insurance claims. In this work, data was collected from the policyholders of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. Quantitative analysis was done using the generalized linear regression (GLR models. The results indicate that risk factors such as sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital were important predictors of health insurance claims. However, it was found that the risk factors; health status, billed charges and income level are not good predictors of national health insurance claim. The outcome of the study shows that sex, age, marital status, distance and length of stay at the hospital are statistically significant in the determination of the Ghana National health insurance premiums since they considerably influence claims. We recommended, among other things that, the National Health Insurance Authority should facilitate the institutionalization of the collection of appropriate data on a continuous basis to help in the determination of future premiums.

  15. Spatial data on energy, environmental, and socioeconomic themes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R. J.; Watts, J. A.; Shonka, D. B.; Leobe, A. S.; Johnson, M. L.; Ogle, M. C.; Malthouse, N. S.; Madewell, D. G.; Hull, J. F.

    1977-02-01

    Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, and socioeconomic themes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are described. The textual descriptions are maintained by the Regional and Urban Studies Information Center (RUSTIC) within the Data Management and Analysis Group, Energy Division, as part of the Oak Ridge Computerized Hierarchical Information System (ORCHIS) and are available for online retrieval using the ORLOOK program. Descriptions provide abstracts, geographic coverage, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. Most of the files described in this document are available on a cost-recovery basis.

  16. 75 FR 66114 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and... Review Officer, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard...

  17. 77 FR 36564 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Support for Conference and Scientific meetings... Institutes of Health, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd...

  18. 75 FR 12766 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research... Review, National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800...

  19. 75 FR 9421 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; Loan Repayment Program for Health Disparities Research..., National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 800, Bethesda...

  20. Development and Validation of Spatially Explicit Habitat Models for Cavity-nesting Birds in Fishlake National Forest, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall A., Jr. Schultz; Thomas C., Jr. Edwards; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracey S. Frescino

    2005-01-01

    The ability of USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) generated spatial products to increase the predictive accuracy of spatially explicit, macroscale habitat models was examined for nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in Fishlake National Forest, Utah. One FIA-derived variable (percent basal area of aspen trees) was significant in the habitat...

  1. Marketing in Greek National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tseroni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The international financial situation in combination with an aging population and the appropriation of health services imposes the management of hospital services as a necessity for the survival of hospitals.Aim: To examine the perceptions of 450 upper administrative hospital executives (Nursing, Medicine and Administrative services in the wider region of Attica, on marketing, communication, and public relations in health-care.Population study: Four hundred and fifty (450 higher health executives from the three basic fields of services in health institutions (medical, nursing, administration constituted the total sample of the research. These people are employed at 9 of the 36 hospitals in the 3 Health Regions of Attica (H.Re.Materials and method:The type of design that was chosen (to gather data for the study of attitudes and perceptions of the health personnel of the health institutions of G.S.H (Greek System of Health is a cross- sectional survey.Results: The participating subjects, even though expressed some reservations at first, formed a favorable attitude towards marketing and its application in the field of health-care. Statistically important correlations emerged between the perceptions of executives and their socio-demographic background including age, sex, education, and profession, work experience in health-care and specifically in their current position in the services as well as statistically important differences between doctors, nurses and administrators as to their perceptions of some issues in marketing.Conclusions: From the comments in the survey it appears there is a need to apply marketing correctly when providing quality care, respecting the patients’ rights and using human and not financial criteria as a guide. Based on the results of the research, important proposals are being submitted in the areas of health-care research, education and clinical practice.

  2. Acceptability to general practitioners of national health insurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D. Mch1tyre. Objective. To determine general practitioners' attitudes to national health insurance (NHI) and to capitation as a ... GPs who approved the introduction of NHI varied depending ... Health Economics Unit, Department of Community Health, University .... in Table I. They were then asked a series of closed questions.

  3. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.

  4. The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010: Process and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Eva I.; Caro, Carla M.; Lysoby, Linda; Auld, M. Elaine; Smith, Becky J.; Muenzen, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Educator Job Analysis 2010 was conducted to update the competencies model for entry- and advanced-level health educators. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Structured interviews, focus groups, and a modified Delphi technique were implemented to engage 59 health educators from diverse work settings and experience…

  5. Building National eHealth Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassilakopoulou, Polyxeni; Grisot, Miria; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    , the coordination of work among multiple contributors, and, the handling of technical heterogeneity within the pre-existing and continuous evolving eHealth landscape. Inclusiveness is related both to the character of public platforms as “common goods”, and, to growth ambitions for public eHealth. The aim...

  6. The spatial politics of place and health policy: Exploring Sustainability and Transformation Plans in the English NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jonathan; Lorne, Colin; Coleman, Anna; Allen, Pauline; Mays, Nicholas; Dam, Rinita; Mason, Thomas; Checkland, Kath

    2017-10-01

    This paper explores how 'place' is conceptualised and mobilized in health policy and considers the implications of this. Using the on-going spatial reorganizing of the English NHS as an exemplar, we draw upon relational geographies of place for illumination. We focus on the introduction of 'Sustainability and Transformation Plans' (STPs): positioned to support improvements in care and relieve financial pressures within the health and social care system. STP implementation requires collaboration between organizations within 44 bounded territories that must reach 'local' consensus about service redesign under conditions of unprecedented financial constraint. Emphasising the continued influence of previous reorganizations, we argue that such spatialized practices elude neat containment within coherent territorial geographies. Rather than a technical process financially and spatially 'fixing' health and care systems, STPs exemplify post-politics-closing down the political dimensions of policy-making by associating 'place' with 'local' empowerment to undertake highly resource-constrained management of health systems, distancing responsibility from national political processes. Relational understandings of place thus provide value in understanding health policies and systems, and help to identify where and how STPs might experience difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. National Institutes of Health Funding in Plastic Surgery: A Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Abbatematteo, Joseph M; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    Decreasing funding rates and increasing competition for National Institutes of Health research grants have prompted diverse interventions in various fields of biomedicine. Currently, the state of National Institutes of Health funding for plastic surgery research is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to describe the portfolio of National Institutes of Health grants in academic plastic surgery. Plastic surgery faculty at integrated and independent programs were queried individually in the National Institutes of Health RePORTER database for grants awarded in 2014. Funding totals, mechanisms, and institutes were calculated. Abstracts were categorized by research type and field of interest. Characteristics of National Institutes of Health-funded principal investigators were elucidated. Eight hundred sixty-one academic plastic surgeons at 94 programs were queried, and only 18 investigators (2.1 percent) were funded at 12 programs (12.8 percent). National Institutes of Health-funded investigators were predominately male (72 percent), fellowship-trained (61 percent), and aged 49.3 ± 7.8 years. A total of 20 awards amounted to $6,916,886, with an average award of $345,844 ± $222,909. Costs were primarily awarded through the R01 mechanism (77.2 percent). The top three National Institutes of Health institutes awarded 72.9 percent of the entire portfolio. Funding supported clinical (41.1 percent), translational (36.9 percent), and basic science (22.0 percent) research. Craniofacial (20.5 percent), hand (18.7 percent), and breast (16.2 percent) had the greatest funding. Few programs and faculty drive the National Institutes of Health portfolio of plastic surgery research. These data suggest a tenuous funding situation that may be susceptible to future spending cuts. Future research is needed to identify barriers to National Institutes of Health funding procurement in academic plastic surgery.

  8. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  9. Wildlife health initiatives in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Plumb, G.

    2007-01-01

    Yellowstone Science 15(2) • 2007 and conservation organizations ( see inset page 7, The Yellowstone Wildlife Health Program ). Wildlife and Human Health are Linked Much of the interest in disease ecology and wildlife health has been prompted by the emergence, or resurgence, of many parasites that move between livestock, wildlife, and/or humans. Wildlife diseases are important because of their impact on both the natural ecosystem and human health. Many human dis - eases arise from animal reservoirs (WHO 2002). Hantaviruses, West Nile virus, avian influenza, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are examples of disease issues that have arisen over the last decade. Indeed, nearly 75% of all emerg - ing human infectious diseases are zoonotic (a disease that has spread to humans from another animal species). Many of these diseases have spilled over from natural wildlife reservoirs either directly into humans or via domestic animals (WHO/FAO/ OIE 2004). Unprecedented human population abundance and distribution, combined with anthropogenic environmental change, has resulted in dramatic increases in human–animal contact, thus increasing the intimate linkages between animal and human health (Figure 1). Linkage of human and animal health is not a new phenomenon, but the scope, scale, and worldwide impacts of contemporary zoonoses have no historical precedent (OIE 2004a). Zoonotic infectious diseases can have major impacts on wild and domestic animals and human health, resulting in

  10. Spatially disaggregated population estimates in the absence of national population and housing census data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, N. A.; Jochem, W. C.; Bird, T. J.; Chamberlain, H. R.; Clarke, D.; Kerr, D.; Bengtsson, L.; Juran, S.; Seaman, V.; Tatem, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Population numbers at local levels are fundamental data for many applications, including the delivery and planning of services, election preparation, and response to disasters. In resource-poor settings, recent and reliable demographic data at subnational scales can often be lacking. National population and housing census data can be outdated, inaccurate, or missing key groups or areas, while registry data are generally lacking or incomplete. Moreover, at local scales accurate boundary data are often limited, and high rates of migration and urban growth make existing data quickly outdated. Here we review past and ongoing work aimed at producing spatially disaggregated local-scale population estimates, and discuss how new technologies are now enabling robust and cost-effective solutions. Recent advances in the availability of detailed satellite imagery, geopositioning tools for field surveys, statistical methods, and computational power are enabling the development and application of approaches that can estimate population distributions at fine spatial scales across entire countries in the absence of census data. We outline the potential of such approaches as well as their limitations, emphasizing the political and operational hurdles for acceptance and sustainable implementation of new approaches, and the continued importance of traditional sources of national statistical data. PMID:29555739

  11. National health interview surveys in Europe: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, C L; van den Berg, J; van der Zee, J

    1999-05-01

    In order to study the value of national health interview surveys for national and international research and policy activities, this paper examines the existence and content of recent and future health interview surveys in the 15 member states of the European Union (EU), Norway, Iceland and Switzerland. National health interview surveys are performed in most countries, but not in Greece (only regional surveys), Luxembourg, Ireland and Iceland (only multi-purpose surveys). The health interview surveys in the other 14 countries provide regular data on the main health topics. Of the 14 health topics that are examined in this inventory seven are measured in all countries. Questions on health status (e.g. self-assessed health, long-term physical disability, and height and weight) and medical consumption (e.g. consultations with the general practitioner, GP) are often included. Lifestyle topics are less often included, except smoking habits, information about which is sought in all countries. Topics like diet and drugs/narcotics are more often included in special surveys than in general health interview surveys. Despite differences in the content, frequency and methodology of national health interview surveys in different countries, these surveys are a valuable source of information on the health of Europeans.

  12. general practitioners and national health insurance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferences with regard to financing, provision, benefits, ... publicly funded alternative, with the express aim of ensuring ..... Finance (13.4%). In each case the remaining respondents disapproved. The preferred levels at which NHI should be administered were stated to be national (62.6%), provincial (55.2%) or district.

  13. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurgel Jr., Garibaldi D.; Carvalho de Sousa, Islâandia M.; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana

    2017-01-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles......, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having...... chronic disorders and very unequal comorbidities, bring the issue of integrality in the forefront in all 3 countries, and neither the public purchaser provider markets nor the 2-tier system in Brazil delivers on that front. It will demand political leadership and strategic planning with population...

  14. 76 FR 81515 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National..., to hear updates from the Health Resources and Services Administration and the NHSC program, as well... comments and questions. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and...

  15. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamadan Bin Mohammad Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Ec...

  16. The National Health Insurance, the decentralised clinical training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies, particularly those from Australia, Canada, and SA.[1-6] ... Gluckman's principles; therefore it is imperative to keep these in the forefront .... Digby A. Evidence, encounters and effects of South Africa's reforming Gluckman National Health.

  17. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... integrative health-care strategy that incorporates the most effective and achievable means of improving the... smoking cessation, proper nutrition, appropriate exercise, mental health, behavioral health, substance-use... 13544 of June 10, 2010 Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council...

  18. 78 FR 65345 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Research Center in Minority Institution Program... applications. Place: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  19. Resource implications of a national health target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Peter; Sopina, Liza Elizaveta; Ashton, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Background The Shorter Stays in Emergency Departments health target was introduced in New Zealand in 2009. District Health Boards (DHBs) are expected to meet the target with no additional funding or incentives. The costs of implementing such targets have not previously been studied. Method A survey.......03), whereas expenditure in the hospital was not (r = 0.08, P = 0.75). Conclusion The fact that estimated expenditure on the target was over $50 million without additional funding suggests that DHBs were able to make savings through improved efficiencies and/or that funds were reallocated from other services...

  20. Spatially explicit analysis of field inventories for national forest carbon monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Marvin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tropical forests provide a crucial carbon sink for a sizable portion of annual global CO2 emissions. Policies that incentivize tropical forest conservation by monetizing forest carbon ultimately depend on accurate estimates of national carbon stocks, which are often based on field inventory sampling. As an exercise to understand the limitations of field inventory sampling, we tested whether two common field-plot sampling approaches could accurately estimate carbon stocks across approximately 76 million ha of Perúvian forests. A 1-ha resolution LiDAR-based map of carbon stocks was used as a model of the country’s carbon geography. Results Both field inventory sampling approaches worked well in estimating total national carbon stocks, almost always falling within 10 % of the model national total. However, the sampling approaches were unable to produce accurate spatially-explicit estimates of the carbon geography of Perú, with estimates falling within 10 % of the model carbon geography across no more than 44 % of the country. We did not find any associations between carbon stock errors from the field plot estimates and six different environmental variables. Conclusions Field inventory plot sampling does not provide accurate carbon geography for a tropical country with wide ranging environmental gradients such as Perú. The lack of association between estimated carbon errors and environmental variables suggests field inventory sampling results from other nations would not differ from those reported here. Tropical forest nations should understand the risks associated with primarily field-based sampling approaches, and consider alternatives leading to more effective forest conservation and climate change mitigation.

  1. Toward a national health risk management approach in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    There has been increasing international consensus about the importance of competition for achieving national growth and community well-being. The Australian government accordingly has introduced policies to promote such competition. Major legislative review and many public inquiries have assisted implementation of national competition policy and the development of national goals and standards related to international agreements to promote health and sustainable development. Since the 1980s, Australia has had legislation that requires the identification and control of health risks arising at work. The management structures necessary for coordinated delivery of national programs designed for effective identification and control of health risks arising in communities to achieve national health and development goals are still being developed, however. Major difficulties related to this development are discussed. National health development programs should be approached primarily through establishment of regional partnerships between bodies responsible for managing community health, local government, and employment placement, in consultation with other relevant organizations and the community. Related research and evaluation programs are required.

  2. SALUD: A spatial microsimulation application to support regional health planning in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Tomintz, Melanie N.; Kosar, B.; Garcia-Barrios, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    The Austrian Federal Ministry of Health aims to improve the health of all people living in Austria and to decrease health and social inequalities. This leads to a careful planning and distribution of the available health care resources to meet government aims. The research project SALUD, funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Science Fund, focuses on building a Spatial Microsimulation Model for Austria by combining survey and census data to mo...

  3. Stigma, Obesity, and the Health of the Nation's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; Latner, Janet D.

    2007-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity has become a top priority in efforts to improve our nation's public health. Although much research is needed to address this health crisis, it is important to approach childhood obesity with an understanding of the social stigma that obese youths face, which is pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional…

  4. Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckfield, Jason

    2004-01-01

    The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…

  5. An Overview Of The Nigerian National Health Bill | Saka | Savannah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Health Bill was developed in 2004 as an instrument for correcting ... in the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria as it relates to the health sector. ... Its provisions have effects on all three levels of care and subsystems ...

  6. Promoting Health/Preventing Disease. Objectives for the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    Broad national goals, expressed as reductions in overall death rates or days of disability, have been established as guidelines for private and public sector policy makers in health-related fields. These goals were established through the work of various agencies, organizations, and individuals participating in a Department of Health and Human…

  7. Participation in the National Health Insurance Scheme Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The National Health Insurance Scheme was established under Act 35 of 1999 by the Federal Government of Nigeria and is aimed at providing easy access to health care for all Nigerians at an affordable cost through various prepayment systems. It is totally committed to achieving universal coverage and ...

  8. 75 FR 26871 - National Women's Health Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... insurance companies from overcharging because of gender or denying coverage due to a pre-existing condition... recent decades, our Nation has made extraordinary progress in promoting women's health issues. However..., we recommit to breaking existing barriers and improving the health of American women for generations...

  9. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  10. The Spatial Suitable Habitat Model of Acacia decurrens in Mount Merbabu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Untoro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green wattle (Acacia decurrens is an invasive alien species (IAS found in the Mount Merbabu National Park (TNGMb. This study aim to obtain spatially studies on habitat suitability models of A. decurrens in TNGMb region. In fact, this species became as a high invasive and dominance in the TNGMb and contributes the negative impact to the ecosystem. In addition, the result of this study should be useful for controling activities of A. decurrens. Predictor variables in this research were (altitude, slope, rainfall, air temperature, distance from river, NDVI, NDMI, distance from hiking trail, and distance from burnt area. The survey was conducted with random sampling of presence or absence of A. decurrens by marking the coordinate point of location using GPS. Data analysis in this research was used binary logistic regression enter method. Binary logistic regression involves the data acquisition of the presence and absence of A. decurrens as the y variable, while the predictor variable map as the variable x. The type of spatial distribution of A. decurrens in the TNGMb was identified as clumped. The Nagelkerke R2 values obtained in the model was 39,2%, while 60,8% was explained by other variables were not used in the model. The results of the logistic regression model showed a high percentage of suitability of 64,29%, a medium suitability of 28,57%, and a low suitability of 7.14% then the Implications for controlling activities of A. decurrens in TNGMb could be prioritized in high suitability habitat. Keywords: Acacia decurrens, green wattle, invasive, spatial suitable habitat 

  11. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-01

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  12. About the Associate Director for Health of EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Ronald Hines serves as Associate Director for Health for the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD).

  13. Spatial planning for a green economy: National-level hydrologic ecosystem services priority areas for Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua Howard; Tallis, Heather; Cole, Aaron; Schill, Steven; Martin, Erik; Heiner, Michael; Paiz, Marie-Claire; Aldous, Allison; Apse, Colin; Nickel, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces), leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others. These hydrologic ecosystem services (HES) are especially absent from methods applied at large geographies and in data-limited contexts. Here, we present a novel, spatially explicit, and relatively simple methodology to identify countrywide HES priority areas. We applied our methodology to the Gabonese Republic, a country undergoing a major economic transformation under a governmental commitment to balance conservation and development goals. We present the first national-scale maps of HES priority areas across Gabon for erosion control, nutrient retention, and groundwater recharge. Priority sub-watersheds covered 44% of the country's extent. Only 3% of the country was identified as a priority area for all HES simultaneously, highlighting the need to conserve different areas for each different hydrologic service. While spatial tradeoffs occur amongst HES, we identified synergies with two other conservation values, given that 66% of HES priority areas intersect regions of above average area-weighted (by sub-watersheds) total forest carbon stocks and 38% intersect with terrestrial national parks. Considering implications for development, we identified HES priority areas overlapping current or proposed major roads, forestry concessions, and active mining concessions, highlighting the need for proactive planning for avoidance areas and compensatory offsets to mitigate potential conflicts

  14. Spatial planning for a green economy: National-level hydrologic ecosystem services priority areas for Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Howard Goldstein

    Full Text Available Rapidly developing countries contain both the bulk of intact natural areas and biodiversity, and the greatest untapped natural resource stocks, placing them at the forefront of "green" economic development opportunities. However, most lack scientific tools to create development plans that account for biodiversity and ecosystem services, diminishing the real potential to be sustainable. Existing methods focus on biodiversity and carbon priority areas across large geographies (e.g., countries, states/provinces, leaving out essential services associated with water supplies, among others. These hydrologic ecosystem services (HES are especially absent from methods applied at large geographies and in data-limited contexts. Here, we present a novel, spatially explicit, and relatively simple methodology to identify countrywide HES priority areas. We applied our methodology to the Gabonese Republic, a country undergoing a major economic transformation under a governmental commitment to balance conservation and development goals. We present the first national-scale maps of HES priority areas across Gabon for erosion control, nutrient retention, and groundwater recharge. Priority sub-watersheds covered 44% of the country's extent. Only 3% of the country was identified as a priority area for all HES simultaneously, highlighting the need to conserve different areas for each different hydrologic service. While spatial tradeoffs occur amongst HES, we identified synergies with two other conservation values, given that 66% of HES priority areas intersect regions of above average area-weighted (by sub-watersheds total forest carbon stocks and 38% intersect with terrestrial national parks. Considering implications for development, we identified HES priority areas overlapping current or proposed major roads, forestry concessions, and active mining concessions, highlighting the need for proactive planning for avoidance areas and compensatory offsets to mitigate

  15. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  16. INFOMAR - Ireland's National Seabed Mapping Programme: A Tool For Marine Spatial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, T. M.

    2016-02-01

    INFOMAR is Ireland's national seabed mapping programme and is a key action in the national integrated marine plan, Harnessing Our Ocean Wealth. It comprises a multi-platform approach to delivering marine integrated mapping in 2 phases, over a projected 20 year timeline (2006-2026). The programme has three work strands; Data Acquisition, Data Exchange and Integration, and Value Added Exploitation. The Data Acquisition strand includes collection of hydrographic, oceanographic, geological, habitat and heritage datasets that will underpin future sustainable development and management of Ireland's marine resource. INFOMAR outputs are delivered through the Data Exchange and Integration strand. Uses of these outputs are wide ranging and multipurpose, from management plans for fisheries, aquaculture and coastal protection works, to environmental impact assessments, ocean renewable development and integrated coastal zone management. In order to address the evolution and diversification of maritime user requirements, the programme has realigned and developed outputs and new products, in part, through an innovative research funding initiative. Development is also fostered through the Value Added Exploitation strand. INFOMAR outputs and products serve to underpin delivery of Ireland's statutory obligations and enhance compliance with EU and national legislation. This is achieved through co-operation with the agencies responsible for supporting Ireland's international obligations and for the implementation of marine spatial planning. A strategic national seabed mapping programme such as INFOMAR, provides a critical baseline dataset which underpins development of the marine economy, and improves our understanding of the response of marine systems to pressures, and the effect of cumulative impacts. This paper will focus on the evolution and scope of INFOMAR, and look at examples of outputs being harnessed to serve approaches to the management of activities having an impact on the

  17. The Spatial Association Between Federally Qualified Health Centers and County-Level Reported Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Spatial Regression Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Romaguera, Raul A

    2018-02-01

    The number of categorical sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics is declining in the United States. Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) have the potential to supplement the needed sexually transmitted infection (STI) services. In this study, we describe the spatial distribution of FQHC sites and determine if reported county-level nonviral STI morbidity were associated with having FQHC(s) using spatial regression techniques. We extracted map data from the Health Resources and Services Administration data warehouse on FQHCs (ie, geocoded health care service delivery [HCSD] sites) and extracted county-level data on the reported rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and, primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis (2008-2012) from surveillance data. A 3-equation seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedure (with a spatial regression specification that controlled for county-level multiyear (2008-2012) demographic and socioeconomic factors) was used to determine the association between reported county-level STI morbidity and HCSD sites. Counties with HCSD sites had higher STI, poverty, unemployment, and violent crime rates than counties with no HCSD sites (P < 0.05). The number of HCSD sites was associated (P < 0.01) with increases in the temporally smoothed rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and P&S syphilis, but there was no significant association between the number of HCSD per 100,000 population and reported STI rates. There is a positive association between STI morbidity and the number of HCSD sites; however, this association does not exist when adjusting by population size. Further work may determine the extent to which HCSD sites can meet unmet needs for safety net STI services.

  18. Children's health, the nation's wealth: assessing and improving child health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Evaluation of Children's Health, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    ... in the effects of environmental contaminants such as lead. Yet major questions still remain about how to assess the status of children's health, what factors should be monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools that should be...

  19. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, Attn: National Public Health Action Plan... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Reproductive Health, 4770 Buford Highway NE... topic's public health importance, existing challenges, and opportunities for action to decrease the...

  20. Tracks: A National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Overview

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-04

    In this podcast, Dr. Mike McGeehin, Director of CDC's Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, provides an overview of the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. It highlights the Tracking Network's goal, how it will improve public health, its audience, and much more.  Created: 8/4/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/4/2009.

  1. 77 FR 70444 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Health Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Technology; Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee: Request for Comment Regarding the Stage 3 Definition of Meaningful Use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) AGENCY: Health Information Technology (HIT) Policy Committee, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), Department...

  2. 75 FR 56549 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, e...

  3. 75 FR 39265 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Prevention, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337, Hyattsville, MD...

  4. 78 FR 53148 - National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, Announces the... Administrator, Classifications and Public Health Data Standards Staff, NCHS, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 2337...

  5. A spatial decision support system for special health facility location ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to healthcare is a determinant of the wellbeing of the people. Planning the location and distribution of health facilities to ensure efficiency and equity in the face of limited resources can be challenging, especially where the type of care requires expensive equipments and specialists. This study attempts to provide a ...

  6. Geographic analysis of forest health indicators using spatial scan statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters

    2003-01-01

    Forest health analysts seek to define the location, extent, and magnitude of changes in forest ecosystems, to explain the observed changes when possible, and to draw attention to the unexplained changes for further investigation. The data come from a variety of sources including satellite images, field plot measurements, and low-altitude aerial surveys. Indicators...

  7. 78 FR 39738 - National Advisory Council on the National Health Service Corps; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National... Affordable Care Act, NHSC retention resources, and partnerships. The public can join the meeting via audio... the call. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service...

  8. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  9. Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and Métis health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée G

    2013-12-27

    Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue.

  10. The link between health governance models and global health innovation: an exploration of OECD nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnarr, Karin; Snowdon, Anne; Cramm, Heidi; Cohen, Jason; Alessi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    While there is established research that explores individual innovations across countries or developments in a specific health area, there is less work that attempts to match national innovations to specific systems of health governance to uncover themes across nations. We used a cross-comparison design that employed content analysis of health governance models and innovation patterns in eight OECD nations (Australia, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States). Country-level model of health governance may impact the focus of health innovation within the eight jurisdictions studied. Innovation across all governance models has targeted consumer engagement in health systems, the integration of health services across the continuum of care, access to care in the community, and financial models that drive competition. Improving our understanding of the linkage between health governance and innovation in health systems may heighten awareness of potential enablers and barriers to innovation success.

  11. National healthcare systems and the need for health information governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovenga, Evelyn J S

    2013-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of health data, information and knowledge governance needs and associated generic principles so that information systems are able to automate such data collections from point-of-care operational systems. Also covered are health information systems' dimensions and known barriers to the delivery of quality health services, including environmental, technology and governance influences of any population's health status within the context of national health systems. This is where health information managers and health informaticians need to resolve the many challenges associated with eHealth implementations where data are assets, efficient information flow is essential, the ability to acquire new knowledge desirable, and where the use of data and information needs to be viewed from a governance perspective to ensure reliable and quality information is obtained to enhance decision making.

  12. Spatial Analysis of the National Evaluation of Scholastic Achievement (ENLACE in Schools of the Municipality of Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ernesto Cervera Gómez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was focused on analyzing the results of the first National Assessment of Academic Achievement for Scholar Centers (ENLACE; acronym in Spanish applied during the year 2006 in the Municipality of Juarez (State of Chihuahua, Mexico. In order to conduct the spatial analysis a geographical information system (GIS was used to make a georeferenced database were all variables were connected to a point representing a school. Results of the examinations expressed as deficient, elemental, good en excellent were spatially distributed over the urban area of Ciudad Juárez. Apparently there is a high spatial correlation between ENLACE’s results with the socioeconomic level of people. In this way results going from good to excellent were spatially located over the sectors more developed of the city. Poor results going from Insufficient to Elemental were spatially located at places with higher deficits of infrastructure and low socioeconomic levels.

  13. Identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis by using the Delphi Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. Z. A.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Talib, K.; Ng, E. G.

    2018-02-01

    This paper explains the process carried out in identifying the relevant features of the National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) for spatial analysis. The research was initially a part of a larger research exercise to identify the significance of NDCDB from the legal, technical, role and land-based analysis perspectives. The research methodology of applying the Delphi technique is substantially discussed in this paper. A heterogeneous panel of 14 experts was created to determine the importance of NDCDB from the technical relevance standpoint. Three statements describing the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis were established after three rounds of consensus building. It highlighted the NDCDB’s characteristics such as its spatial accuracy, functions, and criteria as a facilitating tool for spatial analysis. By recognising the relevant features of NDCDB for spatial analysis in this study, practical application of NDCDB for various analysis and purpose can be widely implemented.

  14. Evaluating the Value of High Spatial Resolution in National Capacity Expansion Models using ReEDS: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Cole, Wesley

    2016-07-01

    Power sector capacity expansion models (CEMs) have a broad range of spatial resolutions. This paper uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, a long-term national scale electric sector CEM, to evaluate the value of high spatial resolution for CEMs. ReEDS models the United States with 134 load balancing areas (BAs) and captures the variability in existing generation parameters, future technology costs, performance, and resource availability using very high spatial resolution data, especially for wind and solar modeled at 356 resource regions. In this paper we perform planning studies at three different spatial resolutions--native resolution (134 BAs), state-level, and NERC region level--and evaluate how results change under different levels of spatial aggregation in terms of renewable capacity deployment and location, associated transmission builds, and system costs. The results are used to ascertain the value of high geographically resolved models in terms of their impact on relative competitiveness among renewable energy resources.

  15. Allocation of development assistance for health: is the predominance of national income justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterck, Olivier; Roser, Max; Ncube, Mthuli; Thewissen, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Gross national income (GNI) per capita is widely regarded as a key determinant of health outcomes. Major donors heavily rely on GNI per capita to allocate development assistance for health (DAH). This article questions this paradigm by analysing the determinants of health outcomes using cross-sectional data from 99 countries in 2012. We use disability-adjusted life years (Group I) per capita as our main indicator for health outcomes. We consider four primary variables: GNI per capita, institutional capacity, individual poverty and the epidemiological surroundings. Our empirical strategy has two innovations. First, we construct a health poverty line of 10.89 international-$ per day, which measures the minimum level of income an individual needs to have access to basic healthcare. Second, we take the contagious nature of communicable diseases into account, by estimating the extent to which the population health in neighbouring countries (the epidemiological surroundings) affects health outcomes. We apply a spatial two-stage least-squares model to mitigate the risks of reverse causality. Our model captures 92% of the variation in health outcomes. We emphasize four findings. First, GNI per capita is not a significant predictor of health outcomes once other factors are controlled for. Second, the poverty gap below the 10.89 health poverty line is a good measure of universal access to healthcare, as it explains 19% of deviation in health outcomes. Third, the epidemiological surroundings in which countries are embedded capture as much as 47% of deviation in health outcomes. Finally, institutional capacity explains 10% of deviation in health outcomes. Our empirical findings suggest that allocation frameworks for DAH should not only take into account national income, which remains an important indicator of countries' financial capacity, but also individual poverty, governance and epidemiological surroundings to increase impact on health outcomes. The Author(s) 2017

  16. 78 FR 70311 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Male..., Contraception and Infertility Loan Repayment Program, National Institutes of Health, HHS). Dated: November 19...

  17. National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scientists performing preclinical research to approaches for considering sex as a biological variable. Read the article. Pinn Symposium Celebrates Women’s Contributions to Health Read article Watch video Read event summary (PDF - 293.5KB) ORWH Director ...

  18. Landfills in Jiangsu province, China, and potential threats for public health: Leachate appraisal and spatial analysis using geographic information system and remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Kun; Zhou Xiaonong; Yan Weian; Hang Derong; Steinmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Waste disposal is of growing environmental and public health concern in China where landfilling is the predominant method of disposal. The assessment of potential health hazards posed by existing landfills requires sound information, and processing of a significant amount of spatial data. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) are valuable tools for assessing health impacts due to landfills. The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the leachate and gas emissions from landfills used for domestic waste disposal in a metropolitan area of Jiangsu province, China, (ii) to investigate remotely-sensed environmental features in close proximity to landfills, and (iii) to evaluate the compliance of their location and leachate quality with the relevant national regulations. We randomly selected five landfills in the metropolitan areas of Wuxi and Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, established a GIS database and examined whether data were in compliance with national environmental and public health regulations. The leachates of the sampled landfills contained heavy metals (Pb, As, Cr 6+ and Hg) and organic compounds in concentrations considered harmful to human health. Measured methane concentrations on landfill surfaces were low. Spatial analysis of the location of landfills with regard to distance from major water bodies, sensible infrastructure and environmental conditions according to current national legislation resulted in the rejection of four of the five sites as inappropriate for landfills. Our results call for rigorous evaluation of the spatial location of landfills in China that must take into consideration environmental and public health criteria

  19. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  1. Hi-end spatial information technologies : a case for mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Saviour; Agius, Mark; Grech, Anton; Pace, Charles; Cambridge/Luton International Conference on Mental Health 2007

    2007-01-01

    Mental health ‘incidences’ are essentially tied to a spatial location: those parameters emanating from other than purely physiological and psychological triggers. The issue of spatio-temporal social interaction which identifies locational constructs such as patient’s residence, everyday interactions and the resultant impacts of the neighbourhood fabric calls for a holistic approach in understanding health issues. This reality is why aetiology in mental health is described as bio-psycho-social...

  2. Development of SOVAT: a numerical-spatial decision support system for community health assessment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Matthew; Parmanto, Bambang

    2006-01-01

    The development of numerical-spatial routines is frequently required to solve complex community health problems. Community health assessment (CHA) professionals who use information technology need a complete system that is capable of supporting the development of numerical-spatial routines. Currently, there is no decision support system (DSS) that is effectively able to accomplish this task as the majority of public health geospatial information systems (GIS) are based on traditional (relational) database architecture. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is a multidimensional data warehouse technique that is commonly used as a decision support system in standard industry. OLAP alone is not sufficient for solving numerical-spatial problems that frequently occur in CHA research. Coupling it with GIS technology offers the potential for a very powerful and useful system. A community health OLAP cube was created by integrating health and population data from various sources. OLAP and GIS technologies were then combined to develop the Spatial OLAP Visualization and Analysis Tool (SOVAT). The synergy of numerical and spatial environments within SOVAT is shown through an elaborate and easy-to-use drag and drop and direct manipulation graphical user interface (GUI). Community health problem-solving examples (routines) using SOVAT are shown through a series of screen shots. The impact of the difference between SOVAT and existing GIS public health applications can be seen by considering the numerical-spatial problem-solving examples. These examples are facilitated using OLAP-GIS functions. These functions can be mimicked in existing GIS public applications, but their performance and system response would be significantly worse since GIS is based on traditional (relational) backend. OLAP-GIS system offer great potential for powerful numerical-spatial decision support in community health analysis. The functionality of an OLAP-GIS system has been shown through a series of

  3. Symposium Introduction: Papers on 'Modeling National Health Expenditures'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzen, Thomas E; Okunade, Albert A

    2017-07-01

    Significant contributions have been made since the World Health Organization published Brian Abel-Smith's pioneering comparative study of national health expenditures more than 50 years ago. There have been major advances in theories, model specifications, methodological approaches, and data structures. This introductory essay provides a historical context for this line of work, highlights four newly published studies that move health economics research forward, and indicates several important areas of challenging but potentially fruitful research to strengthen future contributions to the literature and make empirical findings more useful for evaluating health policy decisions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Reforming the reform: the Greek National Health System in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Karnaki, Panagiota; Pavi, Elpida

    2002-10-01

    The National Health System (ESY) in Greece, which was established in 1983, is in a state of continuous crisis. This situation is caused mainly by the system's problematic administration, low productivity and inadequate Primary Health Care. These have led the re-elected PASOK government to introduce by the end of 2000 a radical reform of the health system. The 200 reform measures announced by the new Minister of Health and Welfare include changes aiming at: the decentralization of the ESY, the creation of a unified financing system for the social insurance funds, a new management structure in public hospitals, the organization of a Primary Health System in urban areas, and the strengthening of Public Health and Health Promotion. These changes are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Virginia Tech recognizes National Farm Safety and Health Week

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Virginia Cooperative Extension are observing National Farm Safety and Health Week, Sept. 18-22. This week commemorates the hard work, diligence, and sacrifices of our nation's farmers and ranchers and dovetails the announcement of an $800,000 grant to improve the lives of Virginia's farmers, their families, and those who live in rural communities.

  6. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Romero-Martínez; Teresa Shamah-Levy; Lucia Cuevas-Nasu; Ignacio Méndez Gómez-Humarán; Elsa Berenice Gaona-Pineda; Luz María Gómez-Acosta; Juan Ángel Rivera-Dommarco; Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organizat...

  7. Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.

  8. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  9. Expanding the g-Nexus: Further Evidence Regarding the Relations among National IQ, Religiosity and National Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study seeks to better understand how religiosity and health are positioned within the g-nexus. Specifically, the degree to which differences in average IQ across nations is associated with differences in national religiosity (i.e., belief rate) and national health statistics independent of differences in national wealth is examined.…

  10. National Training and Education Standards for Health and Wellness Coaching: The Path to National Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q.; Lawson, Karen; Moore, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to announce the findings of the job task analysis as well as national training and education standards for health and wellness coaching (HWC) that have been developed by the large-scale, collaborative efforts of the National Consortium for Credentialing Health and Wellness Coaches (NCCHWC) and (2) to invite commentary from the public. The rapid proliferation of individuals and organizations using the terms of health and/or wellness coaches and the propagation of private industry and academic coach training and education programs endeavoring to prepare these coaches has created an urgent and pressing need for national standards for use of the term health and wellness coach, as well as minimal requirements for training, education, and certification. Professionalizing the field with national standards brings a clear and consistent definition of health and wellness coaching and accepted practice standards that are uniform across the field. In addition, clear standards allow for uniform curricular criteria to ensure a minimal benchmark for education, training, and skills and knowledge evaluation of professional health and wellness coaches. PMID:25984418

  11. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  12. Barriers and facilitators to establishing a national public health observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Pooransingh

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine what stakeholders perceive as barriers and facilitators to creating a national public health observatory (PHO in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted based on 15 key informant interviews carried out from April to September 2013. The key informants worked within the health care sector in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a semi-structured interview guide, information was collected on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about creating a PHO; barriers and facilitators to creating and sustaining a PHO; legal considerations; and human resource and information technology requirements. Common themes of the responses were identified. RESULTS: The majority of participants supported the development of a national PHO, recognized its value in informing their work, and indicated that a national PHO could 1 provide information to support evidence-informed decision-making for health policy and strategic planning; 2 facilitate data management by establishing data policies, procedures, and standards; 3 increase the use of data by synthesizing and disseminating information; and 4 provide data for benchmarking. However, a number of barriers were identified, including 1 the perception that data collection is not valued; 2 untimely availability of data; 3 limited data synthesis, dissemination, and utilization to inform decision-making; and 4 challenges related to the allocation of human resources and existing information technology. CONCLUSIONS: Key informants support the development of a national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago. The findings align well within the components of the conceptual framework for establishing national health observatories. A stepwise approach to establishing a national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago, beginning with structural components and followed by functional components, is recommended. A national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago could serve as a model for other countries in the Caribbean.

  13. Barriers and facilitators to establishing a national public health observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooransingh, Shalini; Misir, Akenath; Ramdath, Dan; Ramsewak, Samuel; Jaglal, Susan; Cameron, Cathy; Goel, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    To determine what stakeholders perceive as barriers and facilitators to creating a national public health observatory (PHO) in Trinidad and Tobago. A descriptive study was conducted based on 15 key informant interviews carried out from April to September 2013. The key informants worked within the health care sector in Trinidad and Tobago. Using a semi-structured interview guide, information was collected on knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about creating a PHO; barriers and facilitators to creating and sustaining a PHO; legal considerations; and human resource and information technology requirements. Common themes of the responses were identified. The majority of participants supported the development of a national PHO, recognized its value in informing their work, and indicated that a national PHO could 1) provide information to support evidence-informed decision-making for health policy and strategic planning; 2) facilitate data management by establishing data policies, procedures, and standards; 3) increase the use of data by synthesizing and disseminating information; and 4) provide data for benchmarking. However, a number of barriers were identified, including 1) the perception that data collection is not valued; 2) untimely availability of data; 3) limited data synthesis, dissemination, and utilization to inform decision-making; and 4) challenges related to the allocation of human resources and existing information technology. Key informants support the development of a national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago. The findings align well within the components of the conceptual framework for establishing national health observatories. A stepwise approach to establishing a national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago, beginning with structural components and followed by functional components, is recommended. A national PHO in Trinidad and Tobago could serve as a model for other countries in the Caribbean.

  14. A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: new evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina; Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores

    2009-08-01

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in Spanish society is placing pressure on the National Health Care System to accommodate the needs of this population group while keeping costs under control. In the year 2000, a law was approved in Spain according to which all people, regardless of their nationality, are entitled to use health care services under the same conditions as Spanish citizens, provided that they are registered in the local population census. However, empirical evidence about differences in health status and health care utilization between the immigrant and the Spanish population is insufficient. This paper uses the 2003 and 2006 Spanish National Health Surveys to explore the existence of inequalities in health and in the access to health services for the immigrant population living in Spain, relative to that of Spaniards. Our results show that there are different patterns in the level of health and the medical care use between the national and the foreign population in Spain: while immigrants' self-reported health relative to that of the Spanish population depends upon individual nationality, all immigrants, regardless of their nationality, seem to face barriers of entry to specialized care. Further research is needed to understand the nature of these barriers in order to design more effective health policies.

  15. 75 FR 76986 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Health Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Technology; Health Information Technology; Request for Information Regarding the President's Council of... Information Technology To Improve Healthcare for Americans: The Path Forward'' AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION...

  16. 78 FR 35837 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... disparities research to close the disparity gap in the burden of illness and death experienced by racial and... Number NIH-2007-0931] RIN 0925-AA61 National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Research... disparities research and other health disparities research. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  17. 76 FR 40733 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH), World Trade Center Health Program Science/Technical Advisory Committee (WTCHP-STAC) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on June 23...

  18. Guidelines for developing effective health education service in a national health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochor, J O

    1983-01-01

    The constraints facing health education include: the fragmentation and dispersal of health-educational services among different agencies and personnel; lack of policy guidelines; ineffectively organized and inefficiently managed health education systems; poor hierarchical status and inadequacy of resources. To resolve these constraints, national health education systems in health agencies should be developed on the basis of stipulated guidelines that could ensure their viability, efficiency and effectiveness. A study at the African Regional Health Education Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria, has yielded thirty synthesized guidelines. The "guidelines" were empirically tested as an evaluation tool by assessing the operational and organizational status of Oyo State Health Education Unit, Ibadan, Nigeria. These guidelines are adaptable to local conditions to enhance the re-organization, re-orientation and consolidation of health education in national health agencies.

  19. Why some countries have national health insurance, others have national health services, and the U.S. has neither.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of why some capitalist developed countries have national health insurance schemes, others have national health services, and the U.S. has neither. The first section provides a critical analysis of some of the major answers given to these questions by authors belonging to the schools of thought defined as 'public choice', 'power group pluralism' and 'post-industrial convergence'. The second section puts forward an alternative explanation rooted in an historical analysis of the correlation of class forces in each country. The different forms of funding and organization of health services, structured according to the corporate model or to the liberal-welfare market capitalism model, have appeared historically in societies with different correlations of class forces. In all these societies the major social force behind the establishment of a national health program has been the labor movement (and its political instruments--the socialist parties) in its pursuit of the welfare state. In the final section the developments in the health sector after World War II are explained. It is postulated that the growth of public expenditures in the health sector and the growth of universalism and coverage of health benefits that have occurred during this period are related to the strength of the labor movement in these countries.

  20. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Samer

    2014-01-01

    National health accounts (NHAs) provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE) is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40%) and the OECD average (36%). The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise payment systems for health providers, and produce subnational accounts for non-communicable diseases. More investment in the translation of national health account data into policy

  1. Spatial analyses identify the geographic source of patients at a National Cancer Institute Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Chih; Kanarek, Norma; Fox, Michael G; Guseynova, Alla; Crow, Shirley; Piantadosi, Steven

    2010-02-01

    We examined the geographic distribution of patients to better understand the service area of the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, a designated National Cancer Institute (NCI) comprehensive cancer center located in an urban center. Like most NCI cancer centers, the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center serves a population beyond city limits. Urban cancer centers are expected to serve their immediate neighborhoods and to address disparities in access to specialty care. Our purpose was to learn the extent and nature of the cancer center service area. Statistical clustering of patient residence in the continental United States was assessed for all patients and by gender, cancer site, and race using SaTScan. Primary clusters detected for all cases and demographically and tumor-defined subpopulations were centered at Baltimore City and consisted of adjacent counties in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey and New York, and the District of Columbia. Primary clusters varied in size by race, gender, and cancer site. Spatial analysis can provide insights into the populations served by urban cancer centers, assess centers' performance relative to their communities, and aid in developing a cancer center business plan that recognizes strengths, regional utility, and referral patterns. Today, 62 NCI cancer centers serve a quarter of the U.S. population in their immediate communities. From the Baltimore experience, we might project that the population served by these centers is actually more extensive and varies by patient characteristics, cancer site, and probably cancer center services offered.

  2. Spatial model for risk prediction and sub-national prioritization to aid poliovirus eradication in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Laina D; Safdar, Rana M; Ahmed, Jamal; Mahamud, Abdirahman; Khan, M Muzaffar; Gerber, Sue; O'Leary, Aiden; Ryan, Mike; Salet, Frank; Kroiss, Steve J; Lyons, Hil; Upfill-Brown, Alexander; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume

    2017-10-11

    Pakistan is one of only three countries where poliovirus circulation remains endemic. For the Pakistan Polio Eradication Program, identifying high risk districts is essential to target interventions and allocate limited resources. Using a hierarchical Bayesian framework we developed a spatial Poisson hurdle model to jointly model the probability of one or more paralytic polio cases, and the number of cases that would be detected in the event of an outbreak. Rates of underimmunization, routine immunization, and population immunity, as well as seasonality and a history of cases were used to project future risk of cases. The expected number of cases in each district in a 6-month period was predicted using indicators from the previous 6-months and the estimated coefficients from the model. The model achieves an average of 90% predictive accuracy as measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, for the past 3 years of cases. The risk of poliovirus has decreased dramatically in many of the key reservoir areas in Pakistan. The results of this model have been used to prioritize sub-national areas in Pakistan to receive additional immunization activities, additional monitoring, or other special interventions.

  3. Poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices: their inter-spatial relationship in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.; Morley, David W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wardrop, Nicola A.; Pezzulo, Carla; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Kuleszo, Joanna; Rogers, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses have shown the individual correlations between poverty, health and satellite-derived vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). However, generally these analyses did not explore the statistical interconnections between poverty, health outcomes and NDVI. Methods In this research aspatial methods (principal component analysis) and spatial models (variography, factorial kriging and cokriging) were applied to investigate the correlations and spatial relationships between intensity of poverty, health (expressed as child mortality and undernutrition), and NDVI for a large area of West Africa. Results This research showed that the intensity of poverty (and hence child mortality and nutrition) varies inversely with NDVI. From the spatial point-of-view, similarities in the spatial variation of intensity of poverty and NDVI were found. Conclusions These results highlight the utility of satellite-based metrics for poverty models including health and ecological components and, in general for large scale analysis, estimation and optimisation of multidimensional poverty metrics. However, it also stresses the need for further studies on the causes of the association between NDVI, health and poverty. Once these relationships are confirmed and better understood, the presence of this ecological component in poverty metrics has the potential to facilitate the analysis of the impacts of climate change on the rural populations afflicted by poverty and child mortality. PMID:25733559

  4. Water Quality in Big Cypress National Preserve and Everglades National Park - Trends and Spatial Characteristics of Selected Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Sobczak, Robert; Clark, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal changes in water levels and flows in Big Cypress National Preserve (BICY) and Everglades National Park (EVER) affect water quality. As water levels and flows decline during the dry season, physical, geochemical and biological processes increase the breakdown of organic materials and the build-up of organic waste, nutrients, and other constituents in the remaining surface water. For example, concentrations of total phosphorus in the marsh are less than 0.01 milligram per liter (mg/L) during much of the year. Concentrations can rise briefly above this value during the dry season and occasionally exceed 0.1 mg/L under drought conditions. Long-term changes in water levels, flows, water management, and upstream land use also affect water quality in BICY and EVER, based on analysis of available data (1959-2000). During the 1980's and early 1990's, specific conductance and concentrations of chloride increased in the Taylor Slough and Shark River Slough. Chloride concentrations more than doubled from 1960 to 1990, primarily due to greater canal transport of high dissolved solids into the sloughs. Some apparent long-term trends in sulfate and total phosphorus were likely attributable, at least in part, to high percentages of less-than and zero values and to changes in reporting levels over the period of record. High values in nutrient concentrations were evident during dry periods of the 1980's and were attributable either to increased canal inflows of nutrient-rich water, increased nutrient releases from breakdown of organic bottom sediment, or increased build-up of nutrient waste from concentrations of aquatic biota and wildlife in remaining ponds. Long-term changes in water quality over the period of record are less pronounced in the western Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp; however, short-term seasonal and drought-related changes are evident. Water quality varies spatially across the region because of natural variations in geology, hydrology, and vegetation

  5. A dental phobia treatment within the Swedish National Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglin, Catharina; Boman, Ulla Wide

    2012-01-01

    Severe dental fear/phobia (DF) is a problem for both dental care providers and for patients who often suffer from impaired oral health and from social and emotional distress.The aim of this paper was to present the Swedish model for DF treatment within the National Health Insurance System, and to describe the dental phobia treatment and its outcome at The Dental Fear Research and Treatment Clinic (DFRTC) in Gothenburg. A literature review was made of relevant policy documents on dental phobia treatment from the National Health Insurance System and for Västra Götaland region on published outcome studies from DFRTC. The treatment manual of DFRTC was also used. In Sweden, adult patients with severe DF are able to undergo behavioral treatment within the National Health Insurance System if the patient and caregivers fulfil defined criteria that must be approved for each individual case. At DFRTC dental phobia behavioral treatment is given by psychologists and dentists in an integrated model. The goal is to refer patients for general dental care outside the DFRTC after completing treatment. The DF treatment at DFRTC has shown positive effects on dental fear, attendance and acceptance of dental treatment for 80% of patients. Follow-up after 2 and 10 years confirmed these results and showed improved oral health. In addition, positive psychosomatic and psychosocial side-effects were reported, and benefits also for society were evident in terms of reduced sick-leave. In conlusion, in Sweden a model has been developed within the National Health Insurance System helping individuals with DF. Behavioral treatment conducted at DFRTC has proven successful in helping patients cope with dental care, leading to regular attendance and better oral health.

  6. Awareness and Coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sub- national levels possess a high degree of autonomy in a number of sectors including health. It is important to assess the level of coverage of the scheme among the formal sector workers in Nigeria as a proxy to gauge the extent of coverage of the scheme and derive suitable lessons that could be used in its expansion.

  7. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  8. Exploring fraud and abuse in National Health Insurance Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored patterns of fraud and abuse that exist in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) claims in the Awutu-Effutu-Senya District using data mining techniques, with a specific focus on malaria-related claims. The study employed quantitative research approach with survey design as a strategy of enquiry.

  9. 75 FR 67950 - National Institutes of Health, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration National Institutes of Health, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscopes This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Materials...

  10. 76 FR 58711 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation... and processing facilities. Physically demanding and all-encompassing, farm work requires the... worked to create new markets for these products, and to provide assistance to farms, supporting jobs...

  11. Tackling Work Related Stress in a National Health Service Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Donna; Whyatt, Hilary

    2004-01-01

    The challenge of tackling the problem of coping with work related stress in a National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. Ideas were developed within the context of two different action learning sets and led to actions resulting in a large therapy Taster Session event and the establishment of a centre offering alternative therapies and…

  12. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  13. Controlling for unmeasured confounding and spatial misalignment in long-term air pollution and health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duncan; Sarran, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The health impact of long-term exposure to air pollution is now routinely estimated using spatial ecological studies, owing to the recent widespread availability of spatial referenced pollution and disease data. However, this areal unit study design presents a number of statistical challenges, which if ignored have the potential to bias the estimated pollution-health relationship. One such challenge is how to control for the spatial autocorrelation present in the data after accounting for the known covariates, which is caused by unmeasured confounding. A second challenge is how to adjust the functional form of the model to account for the spatial misalignment between the pollution and disease data, which causes within-area variation in the pollution data. These challenges have largely been ignored in existing long-term spatial air pollution and health studies, so here we propose a novel Bayesian hierarchical model that addresses both challenges and provide software to allow others to apply our model to their own data. The effectiveness of the proposed model is compared by simulation against a number of state-of-the-art alternatives proposed in the literature and is then used to estimate the impact of nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter concentrations on respiratory hospital admissions in a new epidemiological study in England in 2010 at the local authority level. © 2015 The Authors. Environmetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 77 FR 29675 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel; Neural Processes Underlying Sex... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special...

  15. 76 FR 77239 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Mental Health Council... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Mental Health...

  16. 78 FR 73201 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental..., National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC, Room 6182A, Rockville, MD 20852... Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC...

  17. Spatial distribution of Guaiacum sanctum (Zygophyllaceae seedlings and saplings relative to canopy cover in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Fuchs

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of individuals is a fundamental property of most species and constitutes essential information for the development of restoration and conservation strategies, especially for endangered plant species. In this paper we describe the spatial distribution of different size classes of the endangered tropical tree Guaiacum sanctum and the effect of canopy cover on spatial aggregation. Adult G. sanctum were located and mapped in a 50ha plot in Palo Verde National Park, Costa Rica. Seedlings, saplings and juveniles were mapped to the nearest centimetre and permanently marked in three 50x50m subplots. Within each subplot spatial aggregation was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic and canopy opening readings were performed every 5m using a densitometer. Kriging spatial interpolation and Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine if average canopy cover differed among size classes. Individuals of G. sanctum were spatially aggregated at all size classes with seedlings being the most frequent size class in all subplots. Seedlings were found predominantly in areas with significantly higher canopy cover. In contrast, juveniles were more likely found in areas with higher light availability. The high number of seedlings, saplings, and juveniles relative to adults suggests that populations of G. sanctum in PVNP are expanding. Light availability and canopy structure are important factors shaping the spatial distribution of this species. The contemporary demographic structure of G. sanctum is dependent on forest gap dynamics and changes in human disturbance during the past 25 years.

  18. Public health financial management needs: report of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia F; Honoré, Peggy A; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The work reported here builds on the identification of public health financial management practice competencies by a national expert panel. The next logical step was to provide a validity check for the competencies and identify priority areas for educational programming. We developed a survey for local public health finance officers based on the public health finance competencies and field tested it with a convenience sample of officials. We asked respondents to indicate the importance of each competency area and the need for training to improve performance; we also requested information regarding respondent education, jurisdiction size, and additional comments. Our local agency survey sample drew on the respondent list from the National Association of County and City Health Officials 2005 local health department survey, stratified by agency size and limited to jurisdiction populations of 25,000 to 1,000,000. Identifying appropriate respondents was a major challenge. The survey was fielded electronically, yielding 112 responses from 30 states. The areas identified as most important and needing most additional training were knowledge of budget activities, financial data interpretation and communication, and ability to assess and correct the organization's financial status. The majority of respondents had some postbaccalaureate education. Many provided additional comments and recommendations. Health department finance officers demonstrated a high level of general agreement regarding the importance of finance competencies in public health and the need for training. The findings point to a critical need for additional training opportunities that are accessible, cost-effective, and targeted to individual needs.

  19. Health policy in interwar Greece: the intervention by the League of Nations Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2008-01-01

    The first serious attempts to deal with public health problems in Greece were undertaken between 1925 and 1935. This period also witnessed setbacks to developments in public health, caused by the lack of welfare infrastructure for social relief, as well as extensive health problems brought about by the settlement in Greece of 1,300,000 refugees from Asia Minor. In 1928 following the example set by other European countries, the Liberal Government appealed to international health organisations for support in order to effectively deal with these problems. This contribution constitutes a case study addressing the following issues: a) the impact the League of Nations Health Organisation intervention had on the establishment of public health services; b) the framework for a collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation and the League of Nations Health Organisation; and c) the factors that led to the failure of the health care reorganisation.

  20. Association of parental health literacy with oral health of Navajo Nation preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brega, A G; Thomas, J F; Henderson, W G; Batliner, T S; Quissell, D O; Braun, P A; Wilson, A; Bryant, L L; Nadeau, K J; Albino, J

    2016-02-01

    Health literacy is 'the capacity to obtain, process and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions'. Although numerous studies show a link between health literacy and clinical outcomes, little research has examined the association of health literacy with oral health. No large-scale studies have assessed these relationships among American Indians, a population at risk for limited health literacy and oral health problems. This analysis was conducted as part of a clinical trial aimed at reducing dental decay among preschoolers in the Navajo Nation Head Start program. Using baseline data for 1016 parent-child dyads, we examined the association of parental health literacy with parents' oral health knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, as well as indicators of parental and pediatric oral health. More limited health literacy was associated with lower levels of oral health knowledge, more negative oral health attitudes, and lower levels of adherence to recommended oral health behavior. Parents with more limited health literacy also had significantly worse oral health status (OHS) and reported their children to have significantly worse oral health-related quality of life. These results highlight the importance of oral health promotion interventions that are sensitive to the needs of participants with limited health literacy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The israeli virtual national health record: a robust national health information infrastructure based on a firm foundation of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiag, Esther

    2005-01-01

    In many developed countries, a coordinated effort is underway to build national and regional Health Information Infrastructures (HII) for the linking of disparate sites of care, so that an access to a comprehensive Health Record will be feasible when critical medical decisions are made [1]. However, widespread adoption of such national projects is hindered by a series of barriers- regulatory, technical, financial and cultural. Above all, a robust national HII requires a firm foundation of trust: patients must be assured that their confidential health information will not be misused and that there are adequate legal remedies in the event of inappropriate behavior on the part of either authorized or unauthorized parties[2].The Israeli evolving National HII is an innovative state of the art implementation of a wide-range clinical inter-organizational data exchange, based on a unique concept of virtually temporary sharing of information. A logically connection of multiple caregivers and medical organizations creates a patient-centric virtual repository, without centralization. All information remains in its original format, location, system and ownership. On demand, relevant information is instantly integrated and delivered to the point of care. This system, successfully covering more than half of Israel's population, is currently evolving from a voluntary private-public partnership (dbMOTION and CLALIT HMO) to a formal national reality. The governmental leadership, now taking over the process, is essential to achieve a full potential of the health information technology. All partners of the Israeli health system are coordinated in concert with each other, driven with a shared vision - realizing that a secured, private, confidential health information exchange is assured.

  2. Changes in retiree health benefits: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lissovoy, G; Kasper, J D; Di Carlo, S; Gabel, J

    1990-01-01

    Employers are increasingly concerned by the cost of health benefits provided to retired workers. One reason is that the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the organization that establishes "generally accepted accounting principles," has proposed altering the way firms report expenditures for retiree medical coverage on financial statements. We recently completed a national survey of business firms offering retiree health benefits to address three issues: 1) What is the current structure of retiree health benefit plans? 2) What changes are firms planning to implement in the structure of their retiree health benefits? 3) To what extent are these changes due to the FASB proposal? The FASB reporting proposal is only one factor underlying these changes. More important is the real financial pressure on firms due to the accelerating cost of retiree health care.

  3. Evidence from the national health account: the case of Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidi S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hamidi School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamadan Bin Mohammad Smart University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Introduction: National health accounts (NHAs provide useful information to aid in understanding the health care financing system. This article aims to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai using data from the NHA. We also aim to compare the provider structure of financing schemes in Dubai with those of the State of Qatar and selected Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. Methods: The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs for Dubai and Qatar, and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat, for 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing measures used are as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA. Results: In Dubai, only 33% of current health expenditure (CHE is funded by the government. However, the public sector is the main source of health funding in Qatar and most OECD countries, with an average of 79% and 72%, respectively. Households in Dubai spent about 22% of CHE, equivalent to an average US$187 per capita, ranking the highest among Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, and compared with 20% of CHE across OECD countries. Hospitals in Dubai accounted for 48% of CHE, which is much higher than Qatar (40% and the OECD average (36%. Conclusion: The Dubai health care financing system differs substantially from that in OECD countries, as it is more private oriented. The findings point to several potential opportunities for growth and improvement. Policy areas that may be addressed using the information presented in this article are broad and include the following: shift from hospital care to ambulatory and day care, sustainability of health finance, shift the cost of health care to the private sector, introduce cost-containment measures, revise

  4. Health of Tenants in an English-Speaking Developing Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Bourne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, whenever there are wars, world oil and financial crises, natural disasters, governments in developed as well as developing nations have responded by using rent control to protect tenants. Since 1990s, Jamaica has experienced banking, world oil, food and public debt crises was well as the recession; yet no study has examined the health status of tenants. Objectives: To determine factors that account for 1 health status, 2 self-reported illness and 3 health coverage of tenants in Jamaica, and compare particular demographic characteristics of tenants with that of the population as well as health, health conditions and health seeking behaviour in order to establish disparities. Results: Poverty among tenants is a rural phenomenon (69 out of every 100 poorest. Two out of every 5 tenants in the poorest income quintile sought medical care, 27 out of every 50 purchased the prescribed medication, 21% had chronic illnesses, 29% received social assistance and wealthy tenants were 4.7 times (95%CI: 0.90 – 24.9 more likely to have good health than those in the lower class. Three out of every 4 sick tenants utilized public health care services. Methods: This work utilized a 2007 national cross-sectional probability survey. A sub-sample of 1, 062 respondents (tenants were taken from the initial sample of 6,783 respondents. Logistic regression analyses were used to establish 1 self-rated health, 2 presence of illness and 3 health insurance coverage models. Conclusion: These findings provide an understanding of tenants, and can be used to make policy intervention in the future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 243-260

  5. Financing health care for all insurance the first step? is national h-ealth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-04

    Aug 4, 1990 ... supplemented by a national health insurance scheme, rather than through simply ... duals and families, and often unaffordable to individuals if they have to pay the .... Employees' contributions may be matched by employers.

  6. HEALTH INITIATIVES IN NATIONAL PAN-AMERICAN SWIMMING FEDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Perez Diaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: National Swimming Federations (NFs supervise a large number of athletes and have the duty to protect their health that implies also the opportunity to improve public health. Objective: 1 To determine if the health professionals, the priorities, activities, and researches of the Pan-American NFs are focused on protecting athletes’ health and promoting the health of the population in general. 2 To determine if the FINA rules, projects and programs are applied. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among the 45 Pan-American NFs requesting information on the profile of the health professionals (dimension 1; D1, on programs, activities and research to promote health measures (dimension 2; D2, and on the importance of Pan-American NFs for the health of athletes and for the promotion of health in society in general (dimension 3; D3. We performed a similarity study according to the Rogers-Tanimoto coefficient (D1 and D2 and the chi-squared test (χ² (D3. Results: Thirty NFs answered the survey (response rate: 66.6%. For each dimension, the NFs were classified into five groups (A, B, C, D, E. Among the NFs, 33.3% have physicians and 33.3% have physical therapists. In each of the dimensions, Group A accounted for the majority of NFs but their results were lower. The groups with the highest rates in each dimension contained a maximum of two NFs. The health of the elite athletes was ranked as the fourth most important issue. The health of the recreational athletes and the health of the general population had the lowest priority. Drowning prevention programs were the most common. Conclusions: Pan-American NFs have few medical resources and only a few have injury prevention programs for elite athletes. There is a need to improve health promotion programs to achieve relevant social outcomes.

  7. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Selena; Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Mytton, Julie; Lease, Helen; Joynt, Jennifer

    2011-11-24

    Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries.The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes), lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury) more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Research is needed to assess (i) the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK) incorporate health; (ii) whether recommendations arising from health

  8. The effectiveness of health appraisal processes currently in addressing health and wellbeing during spatial plan appraisal: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Selena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial planning affects the built environment, which in turn has the potential to have a significant impact on health, for good or ill. One way of ensuring that spatial plans take due account of health is through the inclusion of health considerations in the statutory and non statutory appraisal processes linked to plan-making processes. Methods A systematic review to identify evaluation studies of appraisals or assessments of plans where health issues were considered from 1987 to 2010. Results A total of 6161 citations were identified: 6069 from electronic databases, 57 fromwebsite searches, with a further 35 citations from grey literature, of which 20 met the inclusion criteria. These 20 citations reported on a total of 135 different case studies: 11 UK HIA; 11 non UK high income countries HIA, 5 UK SEA or other integrated appraisal; 108 non UK high income SEA or other integrated appraisal. All studies were in English. No relevant studies were identified reporting on low or middle income countries. The studies were limited by potential bias (no independent evaluation, with those undertaking the appraisal also responsible for reporting outcomes, lack of detail and a lack of triangulation of results. Health impact assessments generally covered the four specified health domains (physical activity, mental health and wellbeing, environmental health issues such as pollution and noise, injury more comprehensively than SEA or other integrated appraisals, although mental health and wellbeing was an underdeveloped area. There was no evidence available on the incorporation of health in Sustainability Appraisal, limited evidence that the recommendations from any type of appraisal were implemented, and almost no evidence that the recommendations had led to the anticipated outcomes or improvements in health postulated. Conclusion Research is needed to assess (i the degree to which statutory plan appraisal processes (SA in the UK

  9. A national action plan for workforce development in behavioral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Michael A; Morris, John A; Stuart, Gail W; Huey, Leighton Y; Bergeson, Sue; Flaherty, Michael T; Morgan, Oscar; Peterson, Janice; Daniels, Allen S; Paris, Manuel; Madenwald, Kappy

    2009-07-01

    Across all sectors of the behavioral health field there has been growing concern about a workforce crisis. Difficulties encompass the recruitment and retention of staff and the delivery of accessible and effective training in both initial, preservice training and continuing education settings. Concern about the crisis led to a multiphased, cross-sector collaboration known as the Annapolis Coalition on the Behavioral Health Workforce. With support from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, this public-private partnership crafted An Action Plan for Behavioral Health Workforce Development. Created with input from a dozen expert panels, the action plan outlines seven core strategic goals that are relevant to all sectors of the behavioral health field: expand the role of consumers and their families in the workforce, expand the role of communities in promoting behavioral health and wellness, use systematic recruitment and retention strategies, improve training and education, foster leadership development, enhance infrastructure to support workforce development, and implement a national research and evaluation agenda. Detailed implementation tables identify the action steps for diverse groups and organizations to take in order to achieve these goals. The action plan serves as a call to action and is being used to guide workforce initiatives across the nation.

  10. 76 FR 32374 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0065] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH subgroups. SUMMARY: The National Advisory...

  11. 75 FR 28659 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0012] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH). SUMMARY: The National Advisory Committee on Occupational...

  12. 75 FR 78775 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0012] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH subgroup meetings. SUMMARY: The National...

  13. 75 FR 7599 - Announcement of Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... address efforts to develop the nation's health promotion and disease prevention objectives and strategies... innovations to develop the next iteration of national health promotion and disease prevention objectives... of health needs, encourage collaborations across sectors, guide individuals toward making informed...

  14. A spatial modeling approach to identify potential butternut restoration sites in Mammoth Cave National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L.M.; Van Manen, F.T.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; DePoy, M.

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of disease resistance is nearly complete for several important North American hardwood species threatened by exotic fungal diseases. The next important step toward species restoration would be to develop reliable tools to delineate ideal restoration sites on a landscape scale. We integrated spatial modeling and remote sensing techniques to delineate potential restoration sites for Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) trees, a hardwood species being decimated by an exotic fungus, in Mammoth Cave National Park (MCNP), Kentucky. We first developed a multivariate habitat model to determine optimum Butternut habitats within MCNP. Habitat characteristics of 54 known Butternut locations were used in combination with eight topographic and land use data layers to calculate an index of habitat suitability based on Mahalanobis distance (D2). We used a bootstrapping technique to test the reliability of model predictions. Based on a threshold value for the D2 statistic, 75.9% of the Butternut locations were correctly classified, indicating that the habitat model performed well. Because Butternut seedlings require extensive amounts of sunlight to become established, we used canopy cover data to refine our delineation of favorable areas for Butternut restoration. Areas with the most favorable conditions to establish Butternut seedlings were limited to 291.6 ha. Our study provides a useful reference on the amount and location of favorable Butternut habitat in MCNP and can be used to identify priority areas for future Butternut restoration. Given the availability of relevant habitat layers and accurate location records, our approach can be applied to other tree species and areas. ?? 2006 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  15. Modeling the spatial distribution of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Hughes

    Full Text Available The population density of wildlife reservoirs contributes to disease transmission risk for domestic animals. The objective of this study was to model the African buffalo distribution of the Kruger National Park. A secondary objective was to collect field data to evaluate models and determine environmental predictors of buffalo detection. Spatial distribution models were created using buffalo census information and archived data from previous research. Field data were collected during the dry (August 2012 and wet (January 2013 seasons using a random walk design. The fit of the prediction models were assessed descriptively and formally by calculating the root mean square error (rMSE of deviations from field observations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the detection of buffalo herds and linear regression was used to identify predictors of larger herd sizes. A zero-inflated Poisson model produced distributions that were most consistent with expected buffalo behavior. Field data confirmed that environmental factors including season (P = 0.008, vegetation type (P = 0.002, and vegetation density (P = 0.010 were significant predictors of buffalo detection. Bachelor herds were more likely to be detected in dense vegetation (P = 0.005 and during the wet season (P = 0.022 compared to the larger mixed-sex herds. Static distribution models for African buffalo can produce biologically reasonable results but environmental factors have significant effects and therefore could be used to improve model performance. Accurate distribution models are critical for the evaluation of disease risk and to model disease transmission.

  16. Modeling the spatial distribution of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kristen; Budke, Christine M.; Ward, Michael P.; Kerry, Ruth; Ingram, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The population density of wildlife reservoirs contributes to disease transmission risk for domestic animals. The objective of this study was to model the African buffalo distribution of the Kruger National Park. A secondary objective was to collect field data to evaluate models and determine environmental predictors of buffalo detection. Spatial distribution models were created using buffalo census information and archived data from previous research. Field data were collected during the dry (August 2012) and wet (January 2013) seasons using a random walk design. The fit of the prediction models were assessed descriptively and formally by calculating the root mean square error (rMSE) of deviations from field observations. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of environmental variables on the detection of buffalo herds and linear regression was used to identify predictors of larger herd sizes. A zero-inflated Poisson model produced distributions that were most consistent with expected buffalo behavior. Field data confirmed that environmental factors including season (P = 0.008), vegetation type (P = 0.002), and vegetation density (P = 0.010) were significant predictors of buffalo detection. Bachelor herds were more likely to be detected in dense vegetation (P = 0.005) and during the wet season (P = 0.022) compared to the larger mixed-sex herds. Static distribution models for African buffalo can produce biologically reasonable results but environmental factors have significant effects and therefore could be used to improve model performance. Accurate distribution models are critical for the evaluation of disease risk and to model disease transmission. PMID:28902858

  17. Spatial clustering of metal and metalloid mixtures in unregulated water sources on the Navajo Nation - Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Joseph H; Coker, Eric; Barney, Yolanda; Shuey, Chris; Lewis, Johnnye

    2018-08-15

    Contaminant mixtures are identified regularly in public and private drinking water supplies throughout the United States; however, the complex and often correlated nature of mixtures makes identification of relevant combinations challenging. This study employed a Bayesian clustering method to identify subgroups of water sources with similar metal and metalloid profiles. Additionally, a spatial scan statistic assessed spatial clustering of these subgroups and a human health metric was applied to investigate potential for human toxicity. These methods were applied to a dataset comprised of metal and metalloid measurements from unregulated water sources located on the Navajo Nation, in the southwest United States. Results indicated distinct subgroups of water sources with similar contaminant profiles and that some of these subgroups were spatially clustered. Several profiles had metal and metalloid concentrations that may have potential for human toxicity including arsenic, uranium, lead, manganese, and selenium. This approach may be useful for identifying mixtures in water sources, spatially evaluating the clusters, and help inform toxicological research investigating mixtures. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Community trust and household health: A spatially-based approach with evidence from rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Alan

    2015-12-01

    What is the relationship between community trust and household health? Scholars working to understand the effects of trust and social capital on human health tend to focus on individual characteristics or social environments, frequently without integrating these two dimensions. In light of this, the present paper makes contributions in both conceptualization and measurement. First, I develop a spatially-based approach for operationalizing community trust as the product of individual orientation and social environment. This approach highlights the need for a household to trust its neighbors and for those neighbors to reciprocate trust in order to constitute the psychological and material mechanisms critical for linking social context to individual health. Second, I illustrate the utility of this measure by evaluating the relationship between community trust and self-rated health status using an original population census survey from 2009 to 2010 for two municipalities in western Honduras (approximately 2800 households with a response rate of 94.9%). I implement spatial regression analysis and show that there is a positive and substantively meaningful relationship between community trust and household health; households that are trusting and surrounded by similarly trusting neighbors report better health status, while those in uncertain or mutually distrusting environments report worse health. The theory and results presented here suggest an important link between trust and social capital at the community level, which is particularly salient for rural regions in developing countries where health resources are scarce and community-based interventions are common. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wealth, Health Expenditure, and Cancer: A National Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, Jad; Semaan, Adele; Rieber, Alyssa

    2016-08-01

    The US health care system is characterized by high health expenditures with penultimate outcomes. This ecological study evaluates the associations between wealth, health expenditure, and cancer outcomes at the state level. We extracted gross domestic product (GDP) and health expenditure per capita from the 2009 Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, respectively. Using data from the NCI, we retrieved colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, and all-cancer age-adjusted rates and computed mortality/incidence (M/I) ratios. We used the Spearman's rank correlation to determine the association between the financial indicators and cancer outcomes, and we constructed geographic distribution maps to describe these associations. GDP per capita significantly correlated with lower M/I ratios for all cancers, breast cancer, and CRC. As for health expenditure per capita, preliminary analysis highlighted a rift between the Northeastern and Southern states, which translated into worse breast and all-cancer outcomes in Southern states. Further analysis showed that higher health expenditure significantly correlated with decreased breast cancer M/I ratio. However, CRC outcomes were not significantly affected by health expenditure, nor were all-cancer outcomes. All cancers, breast cancer, and CRC outcomes significantly correlated with wealth, whereas only breast cancer correlated with higher health expenditure. Future research is needed to evaluate the potential role of policies in optimizing resource allocation in the states' efforts against CRC and minimizing disparities in interstate cancer outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  20. Spatial Modelling Tools to Integrate Public Health and Environmental Science, Illustrated with Infectious Cryptosporidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna

    2016-02-02

    Contemporary spatial modelling tools can help examine how environmental exposures such as climate and land use together with socio-economic factors sustain infectious disease transmission in humans. Spatial methods can account for interactions across global and local scales, geographic clustering and continuity of the exposure surface, key characteristics of many environmental influences. Using cryptosporidiosis as an example, this review illustrates how, in resource rich settings, spatial tools have been used to inform targeted intervention strategies and forecast future disease risk with scenarios of environmental change. When used in conjunction with molecular studies, they have helped determine location-specific infection sources and environmental transmission pathways. There is considerable scope for such methods to be used to identify data/infrastructure gaps and establish a baseline of disease burden in resource-limited settings. Spatial methods can help integrate public health and environmental science by identifying the linkages between the physical and socio-economic environment and health outcomes. Understanding the environmental and social context for disease spread is important for assessing the public health implications of projected environmental change.

  1. Spatial Modelling Tools to Integrate Public Health and Environmental Science, Illustrated with Infectious Cryptosporidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary spatial modelling tools can help examine how environmental exposures such as climate and land use together with socio-economic factors sustain infectious disease transmission in humans. Spatial methods can account for interactions across global and local scales, geographic clustering and continuity of the exposure surface, key characteristics of many environmental influences. Using cryptosporidiosis as an example, this review illustrates how, in resource rich settings, spatial tools have been used to inform targeted intervention strategies and forecast future disease risk with scenarios of environmental change. When used in conjunction with molecular studies, they have helped determine location-specific infection sources and environmental transmission pathways. There is considerable scope for such methods to be used to identify data/infrastructure gaps and establish a baseline of disease burden in resource-limited settings. Spatial methods can help integrate public health and environmental science by identifying the linkages between the physical and socio-economic environment and health outcomes. Understanding the environmental and social context for disease spread is important for assessing the public health implications of projected environmental change.

  2. Sexual orientation and health among U.S. adults: national health interview survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brian W; Dahlhamer, James M; Galinsky, Adena M; Joestl, Sarah S

    2014-07-15

    To provide national estimates for indicators of health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is an annual multipurpose health survey conducted continuously throughout the year. Analyses were based on data collected in 2013 from 34,557 adults aged 18 and over. Sampling weights were used to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. adult population. Differences in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access by sexual orientation were examined for adults aged 18-64, and separately for men and women. Based on the 2013 NHIS data, 96.6% of adults identified as straight, 1.6% identified as gay or lesbian, and 0.7% identified as bisexual. The remaining 1.1% of adults identified as ''something else,'' stated ''I don't know the answer,'' or refused to provide an answer. Significant differences were found in health-related behaviors, health status, health care service utilization, and health care access among U.S. adults aged 18-64 who identified as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. NHIS sexual orientation data can be used to track progress toward meeting the Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives related to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In addition, the data can be used to examine a wide range of health disparities among adults identifying as straight, gay or lesbian, or bisexual. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  3. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  4. Retail prescription drug spending in the National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    Recent rapid spending growth for retail drugs has largely arisen from increased use of new drugs, rather than from increasing prices of existing drugs. A sizable shift in the payment from consumers to third parties has also contributed to faster growth. Strategies such as negotiating for rebates and using tiered copayments have sought to slow spending growth but simultaneously have complicated the estimation of spending in the National Health Accounts (NHA). NHA estimates show that retail pharmaceuticals' share of health spending is not much different than it was in 1960, although its share of gross domestic product (GDP) has tripled.

  5. [Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Martín; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucía; Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio Méndez; Gaona-Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Gómez-Acosta, Luz María; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Ángel; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  6. Workforce Implications of Injury among Home Health Workers: Evidence from the National Home Health Aide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Kim, Jungyoon; Brannon, Diane; Leroy, Hannes; Jablonski, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of study: The direct care workforce continues to rank as one of the most frequently injured employee groups in North America. Occupational health and safety studies have shown that workplace injuries translate into negative outcomes for workers and their employers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)…

  7. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  8. 75 FR 46950 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Gulf Oil Spill Health Effects. Date: August 17, 2010. Time: 1 p.m...--Health Risks from Environmental Exposures; 93.142, NIEHS Hazardous Waste Worker Health and Safety... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of...

  9. Strengthening Rehabilitation in Health Systems Worldwide by Integrating Information on Functioning in National Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John

    2017-09-01

    A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.

  10. [Role of "Health" National project in improvement of health parameters in working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskaia, T Iu

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed results of "Health" National project accomplishment in Rostov region over 2006-2009. Findings are that quality of primary medical care has improved, material and technical basis of municipal health care institutions has progressed, salary of primary health care division specialists has increased. Over this period, infant mortality and mortality among able-bodied population in the region has decreased, birth rate has increased, coefficient of natural loss of population has reduced, life expectancy has increased.

  11. A ubiquitous method for street scale spatial data collection and analysis in challenging urban environments: mapping health risks using spatial video in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Widmer, Jocelyn M; Morris, J Glenn

    2013-04-15

    Fine-scale and longitudinal geospatial analysis of health risks in challenging urban areas is often limited by the lack of other spatial layers even if case data are available. Underlying population counts, residential context, and associated causative factors such as standing water or trash locations are often missing unless collected through logistically difficult, and often expensive, surveys. The lack of spatial context also hinders the interpretation of results and designing intervention strategies structured around analytical insights. This paper offers a ubiquitous spatial data collection approach using a spatial video that can be used to improve analysis and involve participatory collaborations. A case study will be used to illustrate this approach with three health risks mapped at the street scale for a coastal community in Haiti. Spatial video was used to collect street and building scale information, including standing water, trash accumulation, presence of dogs, cohort specific population characteristics, and other cultural phenomena. These data were digitized into Google Earth and then coded and analyzed in a GIS using kernel density and spatial filtering approaches. The concentrations of these risks around area schools which are sometimes sources of diarrheal disease infection because of the high concentration of children and variable sanitary practices will show the utility of the method. In addition schools offer potential locations for cholera education interventions. Previously unavailable fine scale health risk data vary in concentration across the town, with some schools being proximate to greater concentrations of the mapped risks. The spatial video is also used to validate coded data and location specific risks within these "hotspots". Spatial video is a tool that can be used in any environment to improve local area health analysis and intervention. The process is rapid and can be repeated in study sites through time to track spatio

  12. Evapotranspiration over spatially extensive plant communities in the Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Lopez, Christian D.; Duever, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was quantified over plant communities within the Big Cypress National Preserve (BCNP) using the eddy covariance method for a period of 3 years from October 2007 to September 2010. Plant communities selected for study included Pine Upland, Wet Prairie, Marsh, Cypress Swamp, and Dwarf Cypress. These plant communities are spatially extensive in southern Florida, and thus, the ET measurements described herein can be applied to other humid subtropical locations such as the Everglades.

  13. Spatial data on energy, environmental, and socio-economic themes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: 1977 inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R. (ed.)

    1978-05-01

    Spatial data files covering energy, environmental, and socio-economic themes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are described. The textual descriptions are maintained as part of the Oak Ridge Computerized Hierarchical Information System and are available for on-line retrieval using the ORLOOK program. Descriptions provide abstracts, geographic coverage, original data source, availability limitations, and contact person. Most of the files described in this document are available on a cost-recovery basis.

  14. Spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between spatial abilities and technical skills performance in health care in beginners and to compare this relationship with those in intermediate and autonomous learners. Search criteria included 'spatial abilities' and 'technical skills'. Keywords related to these criteria were defined. A literature search was conducted to 20 December, 2013 in Scopus (including MEDLINE) and in several databases on EBSCOhost platforms (CINAHL Plus with Full Text, ERIC, Education Source and PsycINFO). Citations were obtained and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Articles related to retained citations were reviewed and a final list of eligible articles was determined. Articles were assessed for quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network-50 assessment instrument. Data were extracted from articles in a systematic way. Correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were identified. A series of 8289 citations was obtained. Eighty articles were retained and fully reviewed, yielding 36 eligible articles. The systematic review found a tendency for spatial abilities to be negatively correlated with the duration of technical skills and positively correlated with the quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners. Pooled correlations of studies were -0.46 (p = 0.03) and -0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.53 to -0.21) for duration and 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.44) and 0.41 (95% CI 0.26-0.54) for quality of technical skills performance in beginners and intermediate learners, respectively. However, correlations between spatial abilities test scores and technical skills performance were not statistically significant in autonomous learners. Spatial abilities are an important factor to consider in selecting and training individuals in technical skills in health care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. 78 FR 32259 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a...

  16. 75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan AGENCY: Department of Health and Human... National Health Security Strategy (NHSS) of the United States of America (2009) and build upon the NHSS Interim Implementation Guide for the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America...

  17. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...

  18. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental...: Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Road, Bethesda, MD 20852. Contact Person... of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 6154, MSC 9609, Bethesda...

  19. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5..., National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC, Room 6182A, Rockville, MD 20852...

  20. 77 FR 74198 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental... U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Mental Health Council... Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 6154, MSC 9609, Bethesda...

  1. 78 FR 57865 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... Person: Ms. Lina Perez, Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH...

  2. 78 FR 77472 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard...

  3. 78 FR 48696 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... Perez, Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive...

  4. 78 FR 35293 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard...

  5. 78 FR 27974 - National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting Name: National Advisory Council on Migrant.... Status: The meeting of the National Advisory Council on Migrant Health, scheduled for May 21 and 22, 2013...

  6. 77 FR 70788 - National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on Migrant Health; Cancellation of Meeting Name: National Advisory Council on Migrant....m. STATUS: The meeting of the National Advisory Council on Migrant Health, scheduled for December 4...

  7. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Hosseinpoor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective: This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design: We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions: The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  8. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level.

  9. Promoting health equity: WHO health inequality monitoring at global and national levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Schlotheuber, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Health equity is a priority in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda and other major health initiatives. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a history of promoting actions to achieve equity in health, including efforts to encourage the practice of health inequality monitoring. Health inequality monitoring systems use disaggregated data to identify disadvantaged subgroups within populations and inform equity-oriented health policies, programs, and practices. Objective This paper provides an overview of a number of recent and current WHO initiatives related to health inequality monitoring at the global and/or national level. Design We outline the scope, content, and intended uses/application of the following: Health Equity Monitor database and theme page; State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health report; Handbook on health inequality monitoring: with a focus on low- and middle-income countries; Health inequality monitoring eLearning module; Monitoring health inequality: an essential step for achieving health equity advocacy booklet and accompanying video series; and capacity building workshops conducted in WHO Member States and Regions. Conclusions The paper concludes by considering how the work of the WHO can be expanded upon to promote the establishment of sustainable and robust inequality monitoring systems across a variety of health topics among Member States and at the global level. PMID:26387506

  10. Advancing Open 3D Modelling Standards in National Spatial Information Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakas, A.; Janssen, P.; Stoter, J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals and organisations around the world - facing extraordinary challenges and new opportunities - are together engaged in numerous projects, involving natural and built environments. Spatial information policy is at the heart of these projects. The information technologies available enable

  11. Health Policy Brief: Global Mental Health and the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cratsley, Kelso; Mackey, Tim K

    2018-01-25

    Increased awareness of the importance of mental health for global health has led to a number of new initiatives, including influential policy instruments issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN). This policy brief describes two WHO instruments, the Mental Health Action Plan for 2013-2020 (World Health Organization, 2013) and the Mental Health Atlas (World Health Organization, 2015), and presents a comparative analysis with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the UN's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). The WHO's Action Plan calls for several specific objectives and targets, with a focus on improving global mental health governance and service coverage. In contrast, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals include only one goal specific to mental health, with a single indicator tracking suicide mortality rates. The discrepancy between the WHO and UN frameworks suggests a need for increased policy coherence. Improved global health governance can provide the basis for ensuring and accelerating progress in global mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The National Institute for Health Research Leadership Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Molly Morgan; Wamae, Watu; Fry, Caroline Viola; Kennie, Tom; Chataway, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract RAND Europe evaluated the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leadership Programme in an effort to help the English Department of Health consider the extent to which the programme has helped to foster NIHR's aims, extract lessons for the future, and develop plans for the next phase of the leadership programme. Successful delivery of high-quality health research requires not only an effective research base, but also a system of leadership supporting it. However, research leaders are not often given the opportunity, nor do they have the time, to attend formal leadership or management training programmes. This is unfortunate because research has shown that leadership training can have a hugely beneficial effect on an organisation. Therefore, the evaluation has a particular interest in understanding the role of the programme as a science policy intervention and will use its expertise in science policy analysis to consider this element alongside other, more traditional, measures of evaluation. PMID:28083231

  13. National Survey of Yoga Practitioners: Mental and Physical Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Friedmann, Erika; Bevans, Margaret; Thomas, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives to describe yoga practice and health characteristics of individuals who practice yoga, and to explore their beliefs regarding the effects of their yoga practice on their health. Design a cross-sectional design with anonymous online surveys Setting 4307 randomly selected individuals from 15 US Iyengar yoga studios (n = 18,160), representing 41 states; 1087 individuals responded, with 1045 (24.3%) surveys completed. Outcome Measures Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory, Mental Health Continuum (subjective well-being), Multi-factor Screener (diet), PROMIS sleep disturbance, fatigue, and social support, International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Age: 19 to 87 years (M = 51.7 ± 11.7), 84.2% female, 89.2% white, 87.4% well educated (≥ bachelor’s degree). Mean years of yoga practice = 11.4 (± 7.5). BMI = 12.1–49.4 (M = 23.1 ± 3.9). Levels of obesity (4.9%), smoking (2%), and fruit and vegetable consumption (M = 6.1 ± 1.1) were favorable compared to national norms. 60% reported at least one chronic/serious health condition, yet most reported very good (46.3%) or excellent (38.8%) general health. Despite high levels of depression (24.8 %), nearly all were moderately mentally healthy (55.2%) or flourishing (43.8%). Participants agreed yoga improved: energy (84.5%), happiness (86.5%), social relationships (67%), sleep (68.5%), and weight (57.3%), and beliefs did not differ substantially according to race or gender. The more they practiced yoga, whether in years or in amount of class or home practice, the higher their odds of believing yoga improved their health. Conclusions Individuals who practice yoga are not free of health concerns, but most believe their health improved because of yoga. Yoga might be beneficial for a number of populations including elderly women and those with chronic health conditions. PMID:23876562

  14. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: national youth fitness survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrud, Lori; Chiappa, Michele M; Burt, Vicki L; Gahche, Jaime; Zipf, George; Johnson, Clifford L; Dohrmann, Sylvia M

    2014-04-01

    In October 2008, the federal government issued its first-ever Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide science-based guidance on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits for Americans (1). Guidelines for children and adolescents recommend 60 minutes or more of aerobic, muscle-strengthening, or bone-strengthening physical activity daily (1). While the number of children in the United States who meet the recommendations in the Physical Activity Guidelines is unknown, the percentage that is physically active in the United States may be declining. No recent national data exist on the fitness levels of children and adolescents. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's (NHANES) National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) was conducted in 2012 and collected data on physical activity and fitness levels for U.S. children and adolescents aged 3-15 years. The objective of NNYFS was to provide national-level estimates of the physical activity and fitness levels of children, based on interview and physical examination data. Results from the survey are intended to contribute to the development of policies and programs to improve youth fitness nationally. The data also may be used in the development of national reference standards for measures of fitness and physical activity. Methods The NNYFS survey design used the design for NHANES, which is a multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized resident population of the United States. NNYFS consisted of a household interview and a physical activity and fitness examination in a mobile examination center. A total of 1,640 children and adolescents aged 3-15 were interviewed, and 1,576 were examined. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  15. Implementation and integration of regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampsas, Petros; Vidalis, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Christos; Vagelatos, Aristides

    2002-12-01

    Modern health care is provided with close cooperation among many different institutions and professionals, using their specialized expertise in a common effort to deliver best-quality and, at the same time, cost-effective services. Within this context of the growing need for information exchange, the demand for realization of data networks interconnecting various health care institutions at a regional level, as well as a national level, has become a practical necessity. To present the technical solution that is under consideration for implementing and interconnecting regional health care data networks in the Hellenic National Health System. The most critical requirements for deploying such a regional health care data network were identified as: fast implementation, security, quality of service, availability, performance, and technical support. The solution proposed is the use of proper virtual private network technologies for implementing functionally-interconnected regional health care data networks. The regional health care data network is considered to be a critical infrastructure for further development and penetration of information and communication technologies in the Hellenic National Health System. Therefore, a technical approach was planned, in order to have a fast cost-effective implementation, conforming to certain specifications.

  16. Cohort profile: the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Sang Cheol; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Park, Sue K; Khang, Young Ho; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Park, Jong Heon; Kang, Hee-Jin; Do, Cheol-Ho; Song, Jong-Sun; Lee, Eun-Joo; Ha, Seongjun; Shin, Soon Ae; Jeong, Seung-Lyeal

    2017-09-24

    The National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) is a cohort of participants who participated in health screening programmes provided by the NHIS in the Republic of Korea. The NHIS constructed the NHIS-HEALS cohort database in 2015. The purpose of this cohort is to offer relevant and useful data for health researchers, especially in the field of non-communicable diseases and health risk factors, and policy-maker. To construct the NHIS-HEALS database, a sample cohort was first selected from the 2002 and 2003 health screening participants, who were aged between 40 and 79 in 2002 and followed up through 2013. This cohort included 514 866 health screening participants who comprised a random selection of 10% of all health screening participants in 2002 and 2003. The age-standardised prevalence of anaemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia and abnormal urine protein were 9.8%, 8.2%, 35.6%, 2.7%, 14.2% and 2.0%, respectively. The age-standardised mortality rate for the first 2 years (through 2004) was 442.0 per 100 000 person-years, while the rate for 10 years (through 2012) was 865.9 per 100 000 person-years. The most common cause of death was malignant neoplasm in both sexes (364.1 per 100 000 person-years for men, 128.3 per 100 000 person-years for women). This database can be used to study the risk factors of non-communicable diseases and dental health problems, which are important health issues that have not yet been fully investigated. The cohort will be maintained and continuously updated by the NHIS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Suminski, Richard; Snella, Kathleen; Warady, Bradley

    2015-08-17

    Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL) on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs) were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL) and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER) visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). A P value of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA® 11.0 statistical software. The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%). Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83%) and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P healthcare utilization and expenditure. Individuals with below basic or basic HLL have greater healthcare

  18. 77 FR 40622 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH..., oxygen supply partnership, safety culture, occupational health and safety management systems, preventing...

  19. Development of spatial scaling technique of forest health sample point information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Ryu, J.; Choi, Y. Y.; Chung, H. I.; Kim, S. H.; Jeon, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    Most forest health assessments are limited to monitoring sampling sites. The monitoring of forest health in Britain in Britain was carried out mainly on five species (Norway spruce, Sitka spruce, Scots pine, Oak, Beech) Database construction using Oracle database program with density The Forest Health Assessment in GreatBay in the United States was conducted to identify the characteristics of the ecosystem populations of each area based on the evaluation of forest health by tree species, diameter at breast height, water pipe and density in summer and fall of 200. In the case of Korea, in the first evaluation report on forest health vitality, 1000 sample points were placed in the forests using a systematic method of arranging forests at 4Km × 4Km at regular intervals based on an sample point, and 29 items in four categories such as tree health, vegetation, soil, and atmosphere. As mentioned above, existing researches have been done through the monitoring of the survey sample points, and it is difficult to collect information to support customized policies for the regional survey sites. In the case of special forests such as urban forests and major forests, policy and management appropriate to the forest characteristics are needed. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the survey headquarters for diagnosis and evaluation of customized forest health. For this reason, we have constructed a method of spatial scale through the spatial interpolation according to the characteristics of each index of the main sample point table of 29 index in the four points of diagnosis and evaluation report of the first forest health vitality report, PCA statistical analysis and correlative analysis are conducted to construct the indicators with significance, and then weights are selected for each index, and evaluation of forest health is conducted through statistical grading.

  20. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  1. The Politico-Economic Challenges of Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Fusheini

    2016-01-01

    Background National/social health insurance schemes have increasingly been seen in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as a vehicle to universal health coverage (UHC) and a viable alternative funding mechanism for the health sector. Several countries, including Ghana, have thus introduced and implemented mandatory national health insurance schemes (NHIS) as part of reform efforts towards increasing access to health services. Ghana passed mandatory national health insurance (NHI)...

  2. [Actively promote nutrition and health surveillance, achieve the national nutrition and health goals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi

    2016-03-01

    The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.

  3. Establishing a national resource: a health informatics collection to maintain the legacy of health informatics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Beverley; Roberts, Jean; Cooper, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This case study report of the establishment of a national repository of multi-media materials describes the creation process, the challenges faced in putting it into operation and the opportunities for the future. The initial resource has been incorporated under standard library and knowledge management practices. A collaborative action research method was used with active experts in the domain to determine the requirements and priorities for further development. The National Health Informatics Collection (NatHIC) is now accessible and the further issues are being addressed by inclusion in future University and NHS strategic plans. Ultimately the Collection will link with other facilities that contribute to the description and maintenance of effective informatics in support of health globally. The issues raised about the National Health Informatics Collection as established in the UK have resonance with the challenges of capturing the overall historic development of an emerging discipline in any country.

  4. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries.

  5. Perspectives on global health amongst obstetrician gynecologists: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Raglan, Greta B; Little, Sarah E; Schulkin, Jay; Robinson, Julian N

    2018-02-01

    Objective To characterize contemporary attitudes toward global health amongst board-certified obstetricians-gynecologists (Ob-Gyns) in the US. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Respondents were stratified by interest and experience in global health and group differences were reported. Results A total of 202 of 400 (50.5%) surveys were completed; and 67.3% ( n = 136) of respondents expressed an interest in global health while 25.2% ( n = 51) had experience providing healthcare abroad. Personal safety was the primary concern of respondents (88 of 185, 47.6%), with 44.5% (57 of 128) identifying 2 weeks as an optimal period of time to spend abroad. The majority (113 of 186, 60.8%) cited hosting of local physicians in the US as the most valuable service to developing a nation's healthcare provision. Conclusion Despite high interest in global health, willingness to spend significant time abroad was limited. Concerns surrounding personal safety dovetailed with the belief that training local physicians in the US provides the most valuable service to international efforts. These attitudes and concerns suggest novel solutions will be required to increase involvement of Ob-Gyns in global women's health.

  6. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...

  7. 76 FR 58006 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... for Health Information Technology; Delegation of Authority Notice is hereby given that I have delegated to the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (National Coordinator), or his or... information technology as it relates to health information and health promotion, preventive health services...

  8. National expenditure on health research in South Africa: What is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mexico (2004), Bamako (2008) and Algiers (2008) declarations committed the South African (SA) Ministry of Health to allocate 2% of the national health budget to research, while the National Health Research Policy (2001) proposed that the country budget for health research should be 2% of total public sector health ...

  9. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified

  10. National ignition facility environment, safety, and health management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The ES ampersand H Management Plan describes all of the environmental, safety, and health evaluations and reviews that must be carried out in support of the implementation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. It describes the policy, organizational responsibilities and interfaces, activities, and ES ampersand H documents that will be prepared by the Laboratory Project Office for the DOE. The only activity not described is the preparation of the NIF Project Specific Assessment (PSA), which is to be incorporated into the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (PEIS). This PSA is being prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with input from the Laboratory participants. As the independent NEPA document preparers ANL is directly contracted by the DOE, and its deliverables and schedule are agreed to separately with DOE/OAK

  11. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  12. Effects of spatial heterogeneity on butterfly species richness in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Simonson, S.E.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated butterfly responses to plot-level characteristics (plant species richness, vegetation height, and range in NDVI [normalized difference vegetation index]) and spatial heterogeneity in topography and landscape patterns (composition and configuration) at multiple spatial scales. Stratified random sampling was used to collect data on butterfly species richness from seventy-six 20 ?? 50 m plots. The plant species richness and average vegetation height data were collected from 76 modified-Whittaker plots overlaid on 76 butterfly plots. Spatial heterogeneity around sample plots was quantified by measuring topographic variables and landscape metrics at eight spatial extents (radii of 300, 600 to 2,400 m). The number of butterfly species recorded was strongly positively correlated with plant species richness, proportion of shrubland and mean patch size of shrubland. Patterns in butterfly species richness were negatively correlated with other variables including mean patch size, average vegetation height, elevation, and range in NDVI. The best predictive model selected using Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size (AICc), explained 62% of the variation in butterfly species richness at the 2,100 m spatial extent. Average vegetation height and mean patch size were among the best predictors of butterfly species richness. The models that included plot-level information and topographic variables explained relatively less variation in butterfly species richness, and were improved significantly after including landscape metrics. Our results suggest that spatial heterogeneity greatly influences patterns in butterfly species richness, and that it should be explicitly considered in conservation and management actions. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. [Spatial analysis of syphilis and gonorrhea infections in a Public Health Service in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijers, Irene G M; Sánchez Gómez, Amaya; Taveira Jiménez, Jose Antonio

    2017-06-21

    Sexually transmitted diseases are a significant public health problem. Within the Madrid Autonomous Region, the districts with the highest syphilis and gonorrhea incidences are part of the same Public Health Service (Servicio de Salud Pública del Área 7, SSPA 7). The objective of this study was to identify, by spatial analysis, clusters of syphilis and gonorrhea infections in this SSPA in Madrid. All confirmed syphilis and gonorrhea cases registered in SSPA 7 in Madrid were selected. Moran's I was calculated in order to identify the existence of spatial autocorrelation and a cluster analysis was performed. Clusters and cumulative incidences (CI) per health zone were mapped. The district with most cases was Centro (CI: 67.5 and 160.7 per 100.000 inhabitants for syphilis and gonorrhea, respectively) with the highest CI (120.0 and 322.6 per 100.000 inhabitants) in the Justicia health zone.91.6% of all syphilis cases and 89.6% of gonorrhea cases were among men who have sex with men (MSM). Moran's I was 0.54 and 0.55 (p=0.001) for syphilis and gonorrhea, respectively. For syphilis, a cluster was identified including the six health zones of the Centro district, with a relative risk (RR)of 6.66 (p=0.001). For gonorrhea, a cluster was found including the Centro district, three health zones of the Chamberí district and one of Latina (RR 5.05; p=0.001). Centro was the district with most cases of syphilis and gonorrhea and the most affected population were MSM. For both infections, clusters were found with an important overlap. By identifying the most vulnerable health zones and populations, these results can help to design public health measures for preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

  14. Remote sensing data handling to improve the system integration of indonesian national spatial data infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari, G. R. V.

    2010-01-01

    With the usage of metadata as a reference for spatial data query, remote sensing images and other spatial datasets have been linked to their related semantic information. In the current catalogue systems, like those or satellite data provides, or clearinghouses, each remote sensing image is maintained as an independent entity. There is a very limited possibility to know the linkage of one image to another, even if one image has actually been derived from the other. It is an advantage for many purposes if the linkage among remote sensing image or other spatial data can be maintained or at least reconstructed. This research will explore how an image is linked to its related information, and how an image can be linked to another images. By exploring links among remote sensing images, a query of remote sensing data collection can be extended, for example, to find the answer of the query: 'which images are used to create certain dataset?', or 'which images have been created from a concrete dataset?', or 'is there a relationship between image A and image B based on their processing steps?'. By building links among spatial datasets in a collection based on their creation process, a further possibility of spatial data organization can be supported. The applicability and compatibility of the proposed method with the current platform is also considered. The proposed method can be implemented using the same standard and protocol and using the same metadata file as used by the existing system. This approach makes it also possible to be implemented in many countries which use the same infrastructure. To prove this purpose, we develop a prototype based on open source platform, including PostgreSQL, Apache Webserver, Mapserver WebGIS, and PHP programming environment. The output of this research leads to an improvement of spatial data handling, where an adjacency list is used to maintain spatial dataset history link. This improvement can enhance the query of spatial data in a

  15. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  16. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Radiometric system for clinical applications in the National Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa Perez, G.; Arteche Diaz, R.; Camejo Batista, A.; Fonfria Bragado, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the radiometric detection system SRNIC-02, manufactured at CEADEN. The system has three major components: a well-type Nal(TI) scintillator detector with its collimator, a measurement module, and the application software, which allows fixing the working parameters of the system, as well as the acquisition and processing of data. The system has two main applications in the National Health System, one for the quality control in Radiopharmacy, and in RIA/IRMA blood tests. There are 16 systems installed, in 13 provinces of the country up to this date. (Author)

  18. The National Health Service (NHS) at 70: some comparative reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Carolyn H

    2018-03-16

    As the National Health Service (NHS) turns 70, it bears comparison with another universal system celebrating an anniversary this year: Canada's 50-year-old medicare model. Each system is iconically popular, and each revolves around a profession-state accommodation. Both the popularity and the central axis of each system have been tested by external shocks in the form of periodic fiscal cycles of investment and austerity, and internal stresses generating organizational cycles of centralization and decentralization. In addition, the English NHS has undergone periodic bursts of major policy change, which have arguably moved the system closer to the Canadian single-payer model.

  19. 78 FR 20666 - Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/National Science Foundation Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0345] Food and Drug Administration/National Institutes of Health/ National Science Foundation Public Workshop... public workshop; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its...

  20. Advancing Open 3D Modelling Standards in National Spatial Information Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Trakas, A.; Janssen, P.; Stoter, J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals and organisations around the world - facing extraordinary challenges and new opportunities - are together engaged in numerous projects, involving natural and built environments. Spatial information policy is at the heart of these projects. The information technologies available enable individuals to observe, measure, describe, map and portray these environments with increasing ease, flexibility and precision. In our time, individuals create digital geographic objects that reflect ...

  1. The variability of the primeval forest's spatial pattern in the Babia Gora National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrobaczek, U.; Jastrzebski, R.; Ziemniewicz, M.; Kaczor, D.; Widlak, M.; Lesiak, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial variability of stand volume, species composition and regeneration in a primeval stand located in the lower maintain belt in the Babia Gora massif. These characteristics were surveyed on 259 circular plots (of a 7.0 m radius) located in a square grid 20 m · 20 m on the total area 10.36 ha. (authors)

  2. Using National Coastal Assessment Data to Model Estuarine Water Quality at Large Spatial Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The water quality of the Nation’s estuaries is attracting scrutiny in light of population growth and enhanced nutrient delivery. The USEPA has evaluated water quality in the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) programs. Here we rep...

  3. Enabling strategic projects: assessment of key instruments for national spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, F.; Salet, W.; Majoor, S.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the instruments and tools which national planning agencies have at their disposal to intervene and get involved in strategic projects. The research examines how strategic national visions are translated into interventions in local projects across the Dutch territory. This

  4. Assessing the quality of care in a new nation: South Sudan's first national health facility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Sima; Lako, Richard L; Whitson, Donald; Gould, Simon; Valadez, Joseph J

    2014-10-01

    We adapted a rapid quality of care monitoring method to a fragile state with two aims: to assess the delivery of child health services in South Sudan at the time of independence and to strengthen local capacity to perform regular rapid health facility assessments. Using a two-stage lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) design, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among 156 randomly selected health facilities in 10 states. In each of these facilities, we obtained information on a range of access, input, process and performance indicators during structured interviews and observations. Quality of care was poor with all states failing to achieve the 80% target for 14 of 19 indicators. For example, only 12% of facilities were classified as acceptable for their adequate utilisation by the population for sick-child consultations, 16% for staffing, 3% for having infection control supplies available and 0% for having all child care guidelines. Health worker performance was categorised as acceptable in only 6% of cases related to sick-child assessments, 38% related to medical treatment for the given diagnosis and 33% related to patient counselling on how to administer the prescribed drugs. Best performance was recorded for availability of in-service training and supervision, for seven and ten states, respectively. Despite ongoing instability, the Ministry of Health developed capacity to use LQAS for measuring quality of care nationally and state-by-state, which will support efficient and equitable resource allocation. Overall, our data revealed a desperate need for improving the quality of care in all states. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. From the school health education study to the national health education standards: concepts endure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D; Lyde, Adrian R

    2015-05-01

    The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design, fosters a student's understanding of information that develops with experience. Data were collected through content analysis of the SHES CF and the National Health Education Standards: Achieving Excellence (NHES), 2nd edition. Similarity of essential framework elements was established. Inter-rater reliability was established. Alignment of the SHES components with the NHES reveals parallel conceptual structures around which to develop curriculum. The conceptual approach to curriculum planning has enduring value. It provides a foundation for teaching and learning that is adaptable, flexible, and can maintain permanence in conjunction with emerging scientific evidence and cultural and political influences on health behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  6. Building oral health research infrastructure: the first national oral health survey of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P; Isyagi, Moses; Ntaganira, Joseph; Gatarayiha, Agnes; Pagni, Sarah E; Roomian, Tamar C; Finkelman, Matthew; Steffensen, Jane E M; Barrow, Jane R; Mumena, Chrispinus H; Hackley, Donna M

    2018-01-01

    Oral health affects quality of life and is linked to overall health. Enhanced oral health research is needed in low- and middle-income countries to develop strategies that reduce the burden of oral disease, improve oral health and inform oral health workforce and infrastructure development decisions. To implement the first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda to assess the oral disease burden and inform oral health promotion strategies. In this cross-sectional study, sample size and site selection were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Surveys Pathfinder stratified cluster methodologies. Randomly selected 15 sites included 2 in the capital city, 2 other urban centers and 11 rural locations representing all provinces and rural/urban population distribution. A minimum of 125 individuals from each of 5 age groups were included at each site. A Computer Assisted Personal Instrument (CAPI) was developed to administer the study instrument. Nearly two-thirds (64.9%) of the 2097 participants had caries experience and 54.3% had untreated caries. Among adults 20 years of age and older, 32.4% had substantial oral debris and 60.0% had calculus. A majority (70.6%) had never visited an oral health provider. Quality-of-life challenges due to oral diseases/conditions including pain, difficulty chewing, self-consciousness, and difficulty participating in usual activities was reported at 63.9%, 42.2% 36.2%, 35.4% respectively. The first National Oral Health Survey of Rwanda was a collaboration of the Ministry of Health of Rwanda, the University of Rwanda Schools of Dentistry and Public Health, the Rwanda Dental Surgeons and Dental (Therapists) Associations, and Tufts University and Harvard University Schools of Dental Medicine. The international effort contributed to building oral health research capacity and resulted in a national oral health database of oral disease burden. This information is essential for developing oral disease prevention and management

  7. Right To Health And Judicialization: A Study About Its Efficiency Of The National Judiciary Forum On Health

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Maria Barbosa Ramos; Isadora Moraes Diniz

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, the judicialization of health has become a problematic theme to the Judiciary. In this contexto, the National Justice Council to puts itself in the role of promoting a judicial public policy for defense and guarantee of health rights, by the National Judiciary Forum on Health institution. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the National Forum practice in offering solutions and alternatives to the health judicialization process. The research was carried out durin...

  8. 78 FR 78966 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Health Statistics In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) announces the following meeting of the aforementioned..., NCHS; discussion of vital statistics; future program reviews; National Health Interview Survey 2017...

  9. 77 FR 24968 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... and Concept Clearance and Discussion. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center... evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, Conference... Wide. Place: National Institutes of Health, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, Conference Room 10, Bethesda...

  10. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July..., Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  11. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  12. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  13. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  14. 76 FR 31620 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Research on Ethics and Integrity of Human and or Animal Subjects... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of..., DVM, Chief, Scientific Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute...

  15. 77 FR 68134 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5.... Contact Person: Ms. Lina Perez, Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental...

  16. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5.... Contact Person: Ms. Lina Perez, Office of Autism Research Coordination, National Institute of Mental...

  17. 29 CFR 1960.35 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 1960.35 Section 1960.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 1960.35 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (a) The Director of the National...

  18. Reform towards National Health Insurance in Malaysia: the equity implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chai Ping; Whynes, David K; Sach, Tracey H

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses the potential equity impact of Malaysia's projected reform of its current tax financed system towards National Health Insurance (NHI). The Kakwani's progressivity index was used to assess the equity consequences of the new NHI system (with flat rate NHI scheme) compared to the current tax financed system. It was also used to model a proposed system (with a progressive NHI scheme) that can generate the same amount of funding more equitably. The new NHI system would be less equitable than the current tax financed system, as evident from the reduction of Kakwani's index to 0.168 from 0.217. The new flat rate NHI scheme, if implemented, would reduce the progressivity of the health finance system because it is a less progressive finance source than that of general government revenue. We proposed a system with a progressive NHI scheme that generates the same amount of funding whilst preserving the equity at the Kakwani's progressivity index of 0.213. A NHI system with a progressive NHI scheme is proposed to be implemented to raise health funding whilst preserving the equity in health care financing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Politics as a tool in National Health System transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila Torres, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The politics as an activity oriented to the decision making process, seeks to achieve specific objectives, and it is a fundamental tool for the transformation of the National Health System (NHS). It is important to point out that there are different elements, interest and participants that take part in the design and implementation of these policies. Therefore, it should be considered the presence of the health care institutions in the development of the health policies, as well as the participation of the Congress where each political party presents and defends their proposals, negotiate the approval and assignation of the financial budget, among others. Nowadays, there are elements with a relevant presence on these policies and in the transformation process of the NHS such as the media and laboral force represented by the unions. Finally, some general statements are expressed to contribute with the advances in the integration process for a stronger NHS. This should consider the economic, demographic and social changes in the country; furthermore it should focus on universal coverage and provision of a better health care for the Mexican population.

  20. Financing national policy on oral health in Brazil in the context of the Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the model of oral health care implemented in the Unified Health System of Brazil in the last decade. This model was conceived as a sub-sector policy that, over the years, has sought to improve the quality of life of the Brazilian population. Through a chronological line, the study presents the National Policy on Oral Health as a counter-hegemonic patient care model for the dentistry practices existing in the country before this policy was implemented. The reorganization of the levels of oral health care, the creation of reference facilities for secondary and tertiary care, through Centers of Dental Specialties and Regional Dental Prosthesis Laboratories, and the differential funding and decentralized management of financial resources were able to expand the actions of oral health for more than 90 million inhabitants. The evolution shown after the deployment of the National Oral Health Policy, as of 2004, demonstrates the greater integration of oral health care under the Unified Health System and provides feedback information to help this policy to continue to be prioritized by the Federal Government and receive more support from the state and local levels in the coming years.

  1. Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia; Behrendt, Thorsten; Wong, Lorraine

    2015-08-31

    Health sector employment is a prerequisite for availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of health services. Thus, in this article health worker shortages are used as a tracer indicator estimating the proportion of the population lacking access to such services: The SAD (ILO Staff Access Deficit Indicator) estimates gaps towards UHC in the context of Social Protection Floors (SPFs). Further, it highlights the impact of investments in health sector employment equity and sustainable development. The SAD is used to estimate the share of the population lacking access to health services due to gaps in the number of skilled health workers. It is based on the difference of the density of the skilled health workforce per population in a given country and a threshold indicating UHC staffing requirements. It identifies deficits, differences and developments in access at global, regional and national levels and between rural and urban areas. In 2014, the global UHC deficit in numbers of health workers is estimated at 10.3 million, with most important gaps in Asia (7.1 million) and Africa (2.8 million). Globally, 97 countries are understaffed with significantly higher gaps in rural than in urban areas. Most affected are low-income countries, where 84 per cent of the population remains excluded from access due to the lack of skilled health workers. A positive correlation of health worker employment and population health outcomes could be identified. Legislation is found to be a prerequisite for closing access as gaps. Health worker shortages hamper the achievement of UHC and aggravate weaknesses of health systems. They have major impacts on socio-economic development, particularly in the world's poorest countries where they act as drivers of health inequities. Closing the gaps by establishing inclusive multi-sectoral policy approaches based on the right to health would significantly increase equity, reduce poverty due to ill health and ultimately contribute

  2. Monitoring of health and environment by National Uranium Company (NUC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, D.P.; Banciu, O

    1998-01-01

    Among the activities of geological survey, exploitation and processing of radioactive ore performed by National Uranium Company (NUC) a major attention is paid to personnel medical monitoring, to influences on the public health in the affected zones and also to the impact on environment, based on specific criteria and accomplished by medical and technical institutions having an adequate profile, in conformity with the enforced laws and with recommendations of international authorities on this field. Health monitoring of the active and retired personnel and of population from the affected sites by the NUC activities is done on the basis of a program established in co-operation with the Work Protection Department and the management of the company's subunits. The methodology used at present has the following three stages: 1. Periodical medical examination of the personnel including all the compulsory investigations requested by the Ministry of Health; 2. Annual epidemiology descriptive studies concerning the analysis of the personnel health state; 3. Analytical epidemiologic studies (retrospective and prospective) having the aim of surveying the radiation effects on the human target organs of the exposed personnel and also the impact on the public health in the influenced zones. At present the incidence of professional diseases liked to uranium is no longer a problem. Attention has to be focused to the diseases due to microclimate, noise, intensive physical effort and stress (non-specific chronic breathing diseases, arterial high blood pressure, heart diseases, digestive diseases and neuroses). The paper presents also the environmental factors investigated in connection with the importance which they have in radioactive contamination: air, water, soil, sediments, vegetation, and agricultural products. There are given the results of the tests performed on 25,000 samples and from more then 20,000 radiometric measurements performed between 1975 - 1997 in each subunit of

  3. Correlates of consumer trust in online health information: findings from the health information national trends survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinjiao

    2011-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumers seeking health information online. However, the quality of such information remains questionable, and the trustworthiness of online health information has become a hot topic, whereas little attention has been paid to how consumers evaluate online health information credibility. This study builds on theoretical perspectives of trust such as personal-capital-based, social-capital-based, and transfer-based, and it examines various correlates of consumer trust in online health information. The author analyzed the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 7,674). Results showed that consumer trust in online health information did not correlate with personal capital such as income, education, and health status. Social capital indicated by visiting social networking Web sites was not associated with trust in online health information either. Nevertheless, trust in online health information transferred from traditional mass media and government health agencies to the Internet, and it varied by such information features as easiness to locate and to understand. Age appeared to be a key factor in understanding the correlates of trust in online health information. Theoretical and empirical implications of the results are discussed.

  4. Are health centers in Thailand ready for health information technology? : a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Speedie, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    The Thailand universal health care coverage scheme was instituted in 2001 and The Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) is restructuring its information systems to support this reform. The MOPH anticipates developing computerized health information systems which can provide information for administration tasks and can improve both healthcare delivery and public health services. To achieve these target goals, knowledge about users and organizations is vital. The knowledge of how health center workers currently use information technology (IT), their knowledge of IT, and acceptance of IT are not only beneficial to policy makers but also to system designers and implementers. The primary objective of this study is to learn how health centers in Thailand use IT, the level of basic IT knowledge among their workers, and their acceptance of health IT. We surveyed a random cross sectional sample of 1,607 health centers representing the total of 9,806 in Thailand in 2005. With an 82% response rate, the preliminary results indicate that information technology usage is pervasive in health centers. The respondents showed a moderately high degree of health information technology acceptance with a modest level of basic IT knowledge. There were no differences in degrees of acceptance among the four geographic regions. The mean score of "intention to use IT" was 5.6 on a scale of 7 and the average basic IT knowledge score was 13 out of 20. These results suggests the possibility of project success if the national health center information system projects are developed and implemented.

  5. Methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Romero-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC 2016. Materials and methods. The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the in­habitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results. A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions. The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on over­weight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.

  6. National Institutes of Health addresses the science of diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valantine, Hannah A.; Collins, Francis S.

    2015-01-01

    The US biomedical research workforce does not currently mirror the nation’s population demographically, despite numerous attempts to increase diversity. This imbalance is limiting the promise of our biomedical enterprise for building knowledge and improving the nation’s health. Beyond ensuring fairness in scientific workforce representation, recruiting and retaining a diverse set of minds and approaches is vital to harnessing the complete intellectual capital of the nation. The complexity inherent in diversifying the research workforce underscores the need for a rigorous scientific approach, consistent with the ways we address the challenges of science discovery and translation to human health. Herein, we identify four cross-cutting diversity challenges ripe for scientific exploration and opportunity: research evidence for diversity’s impact on the quality and outputs of science; evidence-based approaches to recruitment and training; individual and institutional barriers to workforce diversity; and a national strategy for eliminating barriers to career transition, with scientifically based approaches for scaling and dissemination. Evidence-based data for each of these challenges should provide an integrated, stepwise approach to programs that enhance diversity rapidly within the biomedical research workforce. PMID:26392553

  7. Health Indicators for Older Sexual Minorities: National Health Interview Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Christina N; Laffan, Alison M; Erdem, Erkan; Cahill, Sean R; Kenefick, Daniel; Ye, Jiahui; Haffer, Samuel C

    2017-12-01

    Advances in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (sexual minority [SM]) acceptance and equality have been made in the past decade. However, certain SM subgroups continue to be disadvantaged due to lack of data and, thus, lack of knowledge about these populations. Data for older sexual minorities are especially lacking and will be increasingly important as more sexual minorities enter older age. This research explores results from a nationally representative health survey to elucidate some health indicators for older sexual minorities. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) were pooled for increased sample size, and established research methods were followed as recommended by prior NHIS sexual orientation studies. We conducted descriptive analyses on the differences between SM and heterosexual groups, aged 65 years and older, for 12 health indicators. Four out of the 12 health indicators were significantly different for sexual minorities, and three out of those four indicated positive health outcomes or behaviors when compared with heterosexuals. Sexual minorities were more than three times as likely to receive HIV testing as heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more likely to receive an influenza vaccination, and much more likely to report excellent or very good health, than their heterosexual peers. Sexual minorities were more than twice as likely to report binge drinking, which is consistent with prior research for adult sexual minorities. This analysis is the first to examine national data on health indicators for sexual minorities, aged 65 years and older, using NHIS data. As more surveys begin to collect SMdata and more years of data are collected by NHIS, a clearer picture of the health of older adult sexual minorities should emerge.

  8. Linking NASA Environmental Data with a National Public Health Cohort Study and a CDC On-Line System to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; hide

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely-sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county, state or regional level as per users need and downloaded in tabular, graphical, and map formats. The

  9. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  10. Geo-spatial Service and Application based on National E-government Network Platform and Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X.; Deng, Y.; Li, H.; Yao, L.; Shi, J.

    2014-04-01

    With the acceleration of China's informatization process, our party and government take a substantive stride in advancing development and application of digital technology, which promotes the evolution of e-government and its informatization. Meanwhile, as a service mode based on innovative resources, cloud computing may connect huge pools together to provide a variety of IT services, and has become one relatively mature technical pattern with further studies and massive practical applications. Based on cloud computing technology and national e-government network platform, "National Natural Resources and Geospatial Database (NRGD)" project integrated and transformed natural resources and geospatial information dispersed in various sectors and regions, established logically unified and physically dispersed fundamental database and developed national integrated information database system supporting main e-government applications. Cross-sector e-government applications and services are realized to provide long-term, stable and standardized natural resources and geospatial fundamental information products and services for national egovernment and public users.

  11. A National Approach for Mapping and Quantifying Habitat-based Biodiversity Metrics Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services, i.e., "services provided to humans from natural systems," have become a key issue of this century in resource management, conservation planning, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have become strategic national inte...

  12. Spatial analysis of binary health indicators with local smoothing techniques The Viadana study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Marcon, Alessandro; Rava, Marta; Pironi, Vanda; Ricci, Paolo; de Marco, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    When pollution data from a monitoring network is not available, mapping the spatial distribution of disease can be useful to identify populations at risk and to suggest a potential role for suspected emission sources. We aimed at obtaining a continuous spatial representation of the prevalence of symptoms that are potentially associated with the exposure to the pollutants emitted from the wood factories in the children who live in the district of Viadana (Northern Italy). In 2006, all the parents of the children aged 3-14 years residing in the Viadana district (n = 3854), filled in a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, irritation symptoms of the eyes and skin, use of health services. The children's residential addresses were also collected and geocoded. Generalized additive models and local weighted regression (LOWESS) were used to estimate the distribution of the symptoms, to test for spatial trends of the symptoms' prevalence and to control for potential confounders. Permutation tests were used to identify the areas of significantly increased risk ("hot spots"). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms, eye symptoms and the use of health services showed a statistically significant spatial variation (p big chipboard industries were located. Hot spots were identified fairly near to one of the two chipboard industries in the district. The north-to-south trend in the prevalence of respiratory and eye symptoms, but not of skin symptoms, as well as the location of hot spots, are consistent with the potential exposure to air pollutants both emitted by the wood factories and related to traffic. In these "high risk areas" monitoring of pollution and preventive actions are clearly needed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Tourism and the Libyan National Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Taguri A

    2007-01-01

    recognized location of choice for quality healthcare and an integrated centre of excellence for clinical and wellness services, medical education and research [2]. An international medical travel conference (IMTC was held in December 2006 and some web sites such as ArabMedicare.com were established to accompany the needs of this growing market.In spite of the aforementioned rewards, medical tourism is not without risks [3]. Medical tourism can do harm to national health services of the host as well as the country of origin. Besides cultural and language issues, there are risks inherent in traveling as accidents, exposure to different infectious diseases, risks from traveling soon after surgery, impossibility of treating chronic disease after a single consultation, the non familiarity of how a certain specialty applies to other communities, the on-off consultations, the limited possibility for follow up, the absence of record of the consultation [3], and most importantly fraud and abuse.The total amount of money spent by Libyans on both forms of medical tourism is difficult to estimate. It ranges between $100-200 millions per year for treatment abroad, but the accurate figures are not available. The form of medical tourism where doctors rather than patients travel, gained a momentum with the increased role of private practice in health service delivery. There is a real threat from the growing market of medical tourism in the region on the public health oriented national health system in Libya. The two neighboring countries that are mostly visited by Libyans have a lower performance of National Health Service in comparison to Libyan National Health services with an objective assessment as revealed by infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality ratio and proportion of low birth weight [7]. Giving the non-popularity of tourism among the Libyan population, traveling in itself is an important event in one’s life. We should not deny that in many cases

  14. Implementing primary health care: some problems of creating national programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, J P; Walt, G

    1984-07-01

    While there is a great deal of agreement about the principles underlying Primary Health Care (PHC), there exist many problems, political, planning and management, involved in putting the approach into effect. Some of these difficulties are discussed. It is clear that the PHC approach is essentially political; the way it is implemented in each country will reflect the political priorities and systems of that country. Moreover, ministries of health are not known for their strong position in the ministerial pecking order. Finance and planning ministeries would have to be won over to the importance of the concept of PHC to try to eexpand the health budget and to change the emphasis of existing resource allocation patterns. Costs incurred by a PHC approach ( e.g., expensive transport and communication systems), and resources needed to finance it may be available; however, they may not be channelled to the politically less articulate groups in rural areas. Political implications are not limited to national levels; considerable conflict may exist between different status groups and classes at the village level, thus sabotaging PHC plans. Professional politics will also be played at all levels. It is equally essential to recognize the historical context in which PHC is being introduced. Many countries have inherited colonial infrastructures. Changing the values, perceptions, expectations, administration and organization that accompany such systems is extremely hard, and to put PHC into effect demands radical changes. The planning difficulties which beset PHC are related to the still large private provision of social services like health, and to a flourishing traditional private sector in many developing countries. These may limit the implementation of a national health policy and PHC may thus result in a very patchy service throughout the country. The level of centralized planning will also affect resource allocation and therefore the policy, planning and implementation

  15. Spatial spreading of infectious disease via local and national mobility networks in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik

    2017-12-01

    We study the spread of infectious disease based on local- and national-scale mobility networks. We construct a local mobility network using data on urban bus services to estimate local-scale movement of people. We also construct a national mobility network from orientation-destination data of vehicular traffic between highway tollgates to evaluate national-scale movement of people. A metapopulation model is used to simulate the spread of epidemics. Thus, the number of infected people is simulated using a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) model within the administrative division, and inter-division spread of infected people is determined through local and national mobility networks. In this paper, we consider two scenarios for epidemic spread. In the first, the infectious disease only spreads through local-scale movement of people, that is, the local mobility network. In the second, it spreads via both local and national mobility networks. For the former, the simulation results show infected people sequentially spread to neighboring divisions. Yet for the latter, we observe a faster spreading pattern to distant divisions. Thus, we confirm the national mobility network enhances synchronization among the incidence profiles of all administrative divisions.

  16. Australia’s National Health Programs: An Ontological Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkalgud Ramaprasad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a large number of health program initiatives whose comprehensive assessment will help refine and redefine priorities by highlighting areas of emphasis, under-emphasis, and non-emphasis. The objectives of our research are to: (a systematically map all the programs onto an ontological framework, and (b systemically analyse their relative emphases at different levels of granularity. We mapped all the health program initiatives onto an ontology with five dimensions, namely: (a Policy-scope, (b Policy-focus, (c Outcomes, (d Type of care, and (e Population served. Each dimension is expanded into a taxonomy of its constituent elements. Each combination of elements from the five dimensions is a possible policy initiative component. There are 30,030 possible components encapsulated in the ontology. It includes, for example: (a National financial policies on accessibility of preventive care for family, and (b Local-urban regulatory policies on cost of palliative care for individual-aged. Four of the authors mapped all of Australia’s health programs and initiatives on to the ontology. Visualizations of the data are used to highlight the relative emphases in the program initiatives. The dominant emphasis of the program initiatives is: [National] [educational, personnel-physician, information] policies on [accessibility, quality] of [preventive, wellness] care for the [community]. However, although (a information is emphasized technology is not; and (b accessibility and quality are emphasized cost, satisfaction, and quality are not. The ontology and the results of the mapping can help systematically reassess and redirect the relative emphases of the programs and initiatives from a systemic perspective.

  17. Racial and ethnic disparities in children's oral health: the National Survey of Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Thomas; Culler, Corinna; Garcia, Raul I; Henshaw, Michelle M

    2008-11-01

    The authors evaluated racial/ethnic differences and their socioeconomic determinants in the oral health status of U.S. children, as reported by parents. The authors used interview data from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, a large representative survey of U.S. children. They calculated weighted, nationally representative prevalence estimates for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, and they used logistic regression to explore the association between parents' reports of fair or poor oral health and various socioeconomic determinants of oral health. The results showed significant racial/ethnic differences in parental reports of fair or poor oral health, with prevalences of 6.5 percent for non-Hispanic whites, 12.0 percent for non-Hispanic blacks and 23.4 percent for Hispanics. Although adjustments for family socioeconomic status (poverty level and education) partially explained these racial/ethnic disparities, Hispanics still were twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to report their children's oral health as fair or poor, independent of socioeconomic status. The authors did find differences in preventive-care attitudes among groups. However, in multivariate models, such differences did not explain the disparities. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in parental reports of their children's oral health, with Hispanics being the most disadvantaged group. Disparities appear to exist independent of preventive-care attitudes and socioeconomic status.

  18. RECALMIN: The association between management of Spanish National Health Service Internal Medical Units and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio; Javier Elola-Somoza, Francisco; Casariego-Vales, Emilio; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Bernal, José Luis; Barba-Martín, Raquel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between management of Internal Medical Units (IMUs) with outcomes (mortality and length of stay) within the Spanish National Health Service. Data on management were obtained from a descriptive transversal study performed among IMUs of the acute hospitals. Outcome indicators were taken from an administrative database of all hospital discharges from the IMUs. Spanish National Health Service. One hundred and twenty-four acute general hospitals with available data of management and outcomes (401 424 discharges). IMU risk standardized mortality rates were calculated using a multilevel model adjusted by Charlson Index. Risk standardized myocardial infarction and heart failure mortality rates were calculated using specific multilevel models. Length of stay was adjusted by complexity. Greater hospital complexity was associated with longer average length of stays (r: 0.42; P International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Pittman; W. W. Bowerman; L. H. Grim; Teryl Grubb; W. C. Bridges

    2011-01-01

    Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) have been utilized as a biosentinel of aquatic ecosystem health in the Great Lakes Region since the early 1960s. Bald eagle populations have been monitored at Voyageurs National Park (VNP), Minnesota, since 1973. For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure...

  20. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosselin Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence, a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Results Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at

  1. Easier surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities through a Web-based spatial OLAP application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Eveline; Gosselin, Pierre; Badard, Thierry; Bédard, Yvan

    2009-04-03

    Climate change has a significant impact on population health. Population vulnerabilities depend on several determinants of different types, including biological, psychological, environmental, social and economic ones. Surveillance of climate-related health vulnerabilities must take into account these different factors, their interdependence, as well as their inherent spatial and temporal aspects on several scales, for informed analyses. Currently used technology includes commercial off-the-shelf Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Database Management Systems with spatial extensions. It has been widely recognized that such OLTP (On-Line Transaction Processing) systems were not designed to support complex, multi-temporal and multi-scale analysis as required above. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) is central to the field known as BI (Business Intelligence), a key field for such decision-support systems. In the last few years, we have seen a few projects that combine OLAP and GIS to improve spatio-temporal analysis and geographic knowledge discovery. This has given rise to SOLAP (Spatial OLAP) and a new research area. This paper presents how SOLAP and climate-related health vulnerability data were investigated and combined to facilitate surveillance. Based on recent spatial decision-support technologies, this paper presents a spatio-temporal web-based application that goes beyond GIS applications with regard to speed, ease of use, and interactive analysis capabilities. It supports the multi-scale exploration and analysis of integrated socio-economic, health and environmental geospatial data over several periods. This project was meant to validate the potential of recent technologies to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between public health and climate change, and to facilitate future decision-making by public health agencies and municipalities in Canada and elsewhere. The project also aimed at integrating an initial collection of geo

  2. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd.

  3. Spatial Distribution, Sources Apportionment and Health Risk of Metals in Topsoil in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunyuan; Zhao, Wenji; Zhang, Qianzhong; Yu, Xue; Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Jiayin; Lv, Ming

    2016-07-20

    In order to acquire the pollution feature and regularities of distribution of metals in the topsoil within the sixth ring road in Beijing, a total of 46 soil samples were collected, and the concentrations of twelve elements (Nickel, Ni, Lithium, Li, Vanadium, V, Cobalt, Co, Barium, Ba, Strontium, Sr, Chrome, Cr, Molybdenum, Mo, Copper, Cu, Cadmium, Cd, Zinc, Zn, Lead, Pb) were analyzed. Geostatistics and multivariate statistics were conducted to identify spatial distribution characteristics and sources. In addition, the health risk of the analyzed heavy metals to humans (adult) was evaluated by an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency health risk assessment model. The results indicate that these metals have notable variation in spatial scale. The concentration of Cr was high in the west and low in the east, while that of Mo was high in the north and low in the south. High concentrations of Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in the central part of the city. The average enrichment degree of Cd is 5.94, reaching the standard of significant enrichment. The accumulation of Cr, Mo, Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb is influenced by anthropogenic activity, including vehicle exhaustion, coal burning, and industrial processes. Health risk assessment shows that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks of selected heavy metals are within the safety standard and the rank of the carcinogenic risk of the four heavy metals is Cr > Co > Ni > Cd.

  4. Maternal autonomy and child health care utilization in India: results from the National Family Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls; Subramanian, S V

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of maternal autonomy with preventive and curative child health care utilization in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006 were used to ascertain association of maternal autonomy (in 3 dimensions: decision making, access to financial resources, freedom of movement) with child's primary immunization status (indicative of preventive health care use) and treatment seeking for child's acute respiratory infection (indicative of curative health care use). Low maternal freedom of movement was associated with higher odds of incomplete primary immunization of the child and for not seeking treatment for the child's acute respiratory infection. Low maternal financial access was associated with increased odds for incomplete primary immunization of the child. The findings show that improvement in autonomy of Indian mothers, especially their freedom of movement, may help improve utilization of health care for their children. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Impact of National Ambient Air Quality Standards Nonattainment Designations on Particulate Pollution and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigler, Corwin M; Choirat, Christine; Dominici, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    Despite dramatic air quality improvement in the United States over the past decades, recent years have brought renewed scrutiny and uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness of specific regulatory programs for continuing to improve air quality and public health outcomes. We employ causal inference methods and a spatial hierarchical regression model to characterize the extent to which a designation of "nonattainment" with the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2005 causally affected ambient PM2.5 and health outcomes among over 10 million Medicare beneficiaries in the Eastern United States in 2009-2012. We found that, on average across all retained study locations, reductions in ambient PM2.5 and Medicare health outcomes could not be conclusively attributed to the nonattainment designations against the backdrop of other regional strategies that impacted the entire Eastern United States. A more targeted principal stratification analysis indicates substantial health impacts of the nonattainment designations among the subset of areas where the designations are estimated to have actually reduced ambient PM2.5 beyond levels achieved by regional measures, with noteworthy reductions in all-cause mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and respiratory tract infections. These findings provide targeted evidence of the effectiveness of local control measures after nonattainment designations for the 1997 PM2.5 air quality standard.

  6. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee... (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr... of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National...

  7. 78 FR 47715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee, July 24, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to July 26, 2013, 02:00...

  8. A National Initiative to Advance School Mental Health Performance Measurement in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth Halsted; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Lever, Nancy; Ereshefsky, Sabrina; Mosby, Amanda; Bohnenkamp, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Standardized health performance measurement has increasingly become an imperative for assuring quality standards in national health care systems. As compared to somatic health performance measures, behavioral health performance measures are less developed. There currently is no national standardized performance measurement system for monitoring…

  9. 75 FR 52504 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Animal Health Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...; National Animal Health Monitoring System; Dairy Heifer Raiser 2010 Study AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Service's intention to initiate an information collection to support the National Animal Health Monitoring... Warnken, Management and Program Analyst, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, VS, APHIS, 2150...

  10. 75 FR 68612 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC, 8185a, Rockville, MD 20852, Phone: 301-443...

  11. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... Institute of Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC, Room 6182A, Rockville, MD 20852, Phone: (301...

  12. 76 FR 23612 - National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5... Mental Health, NIH, 6001 Executive Boulevard, NSC, Room 8185a, Rockville, MD 20852. Phone: 301-443-6040...

  13. 78 FR 51729 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with... demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health. The Board of Scientific Counselors shall provide guidance to the Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health on...

  14. [The strategic purchasing of health services: a big opportunity for the National Universal Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Alarcón Irigoyen, José; Figueroa Lara, Alejandro; Ibarra Espinosa, Ignacio; Cortés Llamas, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    proposed to establish a service packages, whether through a single obligatory list or through the definition of a flexible, high priority set to be offered to specific populations according to their economic possibilities. For the strategic purchasing of services, two alternatives are proposed: to assign the fund either to a single national manager or to each of the existing public provider institutions, with the expectation that they would contract across each other and with private providers to fulfill their complementary needs.The proposal does not consider the risks and alternatives to a single tax contribution fund, which could have been suggested given that it is not an essential part of a National Universal Health System. However, it is necessary to discuss in more detail the roles and strategies for a national single-payer, especially for the strategic purchasing of high-cost and specialized interventions in the context of public and private providers. The alternative of allocating funds directly to providers would undermine the incentives for competition and collaboration and the capacity to steer providers towards the provision of high quality health services.It is proposed to focus the discussion of the reform of the national health system around strategic purchasing and the functions and structure of a single-payer as well as of agencies to articulate integrated health service networks as tools to promote quality and efficiency of the National Universal Health System. The inclusion of economic incentives to providers will be vital for competition, but also for the cooperation of providers within integrated, multi-institutional health service networks.Health professionals and sector policy specialists coordinated by the Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesi as in Mexico propose a policy to anchor the health system in primary care centered on the individual. The vision includes effective stewardship,solid financing, and the provision of services by a

  15. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John; Lains, Jorge; Nugraha, Boya

    2018-04-18

    One of the aims of the World Health Organization's Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up) rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory) missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  16. Strengthening health-related rehabilitation services at national levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gutenbrunner

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the aims of the World Health Organization’s Global Disability Action Plan is to strengthen rehabilitation services. Some countries have requested support to develop (scale-up rehabilitation services. This paper describes the measures required and how (advisory missions can support this purpose, with the aim of developing National Disability, Health and Rehabilitation Plans. Recommendations: It is important to clarify the involvement of governments in the mission, to define clear terms of reference, and to use a systematic pathway for situation assessment. Information must be collected regarding policies, health, disability, rehabilitation, social security systems, the need for rehabilitation, and the existing rehabilitation services and workforce. Site visits and stakeholder dialogues must be done. In order to develop a Rehabilitation Service Implementation Framework, existing rehabilitation services, workforce, and models for service implementation and development of rehabilitation professions are described. Governance, political will and a common understanding of disability and rehabilitation are crucial for implementation of the process. The recommendations of the World Report on Disability are used for reporting purposes. Conclusion: This concept is feasible, and leads to concrete recommendations and proposals for projects and a high level of consensus stakeholders.

  17. The National Socialist Sisterhood: an instrument of National Socialist health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2009-06-01

    When Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) came to power in 1933, the new Nazi government focused the German health system on their priorities such as the creation of a racially homogeneous society and the preparation of war. One of the measures to bring nursing under their control was the foundation of a new sisterhood. In 1934, Erich Hilgenfeldt (1897-1945), the ambitious head of the National Socialist People's Welfare Association (Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt), founded the National Socialist (NS) Sisterhood (Nationalsozialistische Schwesternschaft) to create an elite group that would work for the goals of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, NSDAP). Hilgenfeldt proclaimed community nursing as a priority for NS Sisterhood nurses. Catholic and Protestant sisters, who were traditionally dedicated to community nursing, were to be gradually replaced. However, other competing priorities, such as hospital service for the training of junior nurses and work in conquered regions, as well as the lack of NS nursing personnel, hampered the expansion of community nursing. The paper also addresses areas for future research: everyday activities of NS nurses, the service of NS Sisterhood nurses for NSDAP organisations such as the elite racist paramilitary force SS (Schutzstaffel, Protective Squadron), and involvement in their crimes have hardly been investigated as yet.

  18. 42 CFR 124.515 - Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and certain National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., migrant health centers and certain National Health Service Corps sites. 124.515 Section 124.515 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.515 Compliance alternative for community health centers, migrant health centers and... migrant health center under section 329 of the Act is in substantial compliance with the terms and...

  19. 75 FR 32472 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Standards Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Coordinator for Health Information Technology AGENCY: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology, HHS. ACTION: Notice of committee recommendations and invitation for public input... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC). Name of Committee: HIT Standards Committee. General...

  20. [Democracy without equity: analysis of health reform and nineteen years of National Health System in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ivan Batista

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the nineteen years of the National Health System in Brazil, under the prism of equity. It takes into account the current political context in Brazil in the 80s, that the democratization of the country and the health sector could, per se, lead to a more equitable situation regarding the access to health services. Democracy and equity concepts are here discussed; analyzing which situations may facilitate or make it difficult its association in a theoretical plan, applying them to the Brazilian context in a more general form and, to emphasizing practical implications to the National Health System and to groups of activism related to health reforms. It also seeks to show the limits and possibilities of these groups with regards to the reduction of inequality, in relation to the access to health services, which still remain. To conclude, the author points out the need for other movements to be established which seek the reduction of such and other inequalities, such as access to education, housing, etc, drawing special attention to the role played by the State, which is questioned regarding its incapacity of promoting equity, once it presents itself as being powerful when approaching other matters.

  1. GeoCREV: veterinary geographical information system and the development of a practical sub-national spatial data infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV, defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability, development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i collection of data and information; (ii building a geodatabase; and (iii development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework. Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.

  2. GeoCREV: veterinary geographical information system and the development of a practical sub-national spatial data infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Nicola; Mulatti, Paolo; Mazzucato, Matteo; Lorenzetto, Monica; Trolese, Matteo; Pandolfo, Dario; Vio, Piero; Sitta, Guido; Marangon, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS) developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV), defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability), development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i) collection of data and information; (ii) building a geodatabase; and (iii) development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access) were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework). Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.

  3. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. The Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnquist, Johanna; Wamala, Sarah P

    2011-10-11

    Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i) independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii) associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12), severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness) logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves), were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators), while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  4. Economic hardships in adulthood and mental health in Sweden. the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnquist Johanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible accumulative effects of a combined economic hardship's measure, including both income and non-income related economic hardships measures, on mental health has not been well investigated. The aim of this paper was to investigate; (i independent associations between multiple measures of economic hardships and mental health problems, and (ii associations between a combined economic hardships measure and mental health problems. Methods We analysed data from the 2009 Swedish National Survey of Public Health comprising a randomly selected representative national sample combined with a randomly selected supplementary sample from four county councils and three municipalities consisting of 23,153 men and 28,261 women aged 16-84 years. Mental health problems included; psychological distress (GHQ-12, severe anxiety and use of antidepressant medication. Economic hardship was measured by a combined economic hardships measure including low household income, inability to meet expenses and lacking cash reserves. Results The results from multivariate adjusted (age, country of birth, educational level, occupational status, employment status, family status and long term illness logistic regression analysis indicate that self-reported current economic difficulties (inability to pay for ordinary bills and lack of cash reserves, were significantly associated with both women's and men's mental health problems (all indicators, while low income was not. In addition, we found a statistically significant graded association between mental health problems and levels of economic hardships. Conclusions The findings indicate that indicators of self-reported current economic difficulties seem to be more strongly associated with poor mental health outcomes than the more conventional measure low income. Furthermore, the likelihood of mental health problems differed significantly in a graded fashion in relation to levels of economic hardships.

  5. Rather unspectacular: design choices in National Health Service glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Joanne Gooding

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the design and production of spectacles in Britain following the introduction of standardised frame styles under the National Health Service. NHS spectacles were provided as a functional, durable medical appliance to be delivered cost-effectively and there was no explicit concern for fashion or the patient experience. The actions of the government and professional bodies greatly affected the trade in eyewear and thus restricted opportunities for innovative design and consumer choice. Within the range of state regulation frames there was no active concern for ‘design’ in terms of appearance and it was only through the purchase of private frames that significant choice and variety in eyewear could be attained. The scope for the public to select a more fashionable frame whilst receiving an element of state aid was through the purchase of NHS hybrid private frames.

  6. Slovenian national health insurance card: the next step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, T; Kandus, G; Trcek, D; Zupan, B

    1999-01-01

    The Slovenian national health insurance company started a full-scale deployment of the insurance smart card that is at the present used for insurance data and identification purpose only. There is ample capacity on the cards that were selected, to contain much more data than needed for the purely administrative and charging purposes. There are plans to include some basic medical information, donor information, etc. On the other hand, there are no firm plans to use the security infrastructure and the extensive network, connecting the insurance company with the more than 200 self service terminals positioned at the medical facilities through the country to build an integrated medical information system that would be very beneficial to the patients and the medical community. This paper is proposing some possible future developments and further discusses on the security issues involved with such countrywide medical information system.

  7. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  8. Psychiatric genetic research at the National Institute of Mental Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, K.; Mullican, C.; Maestri, N. [NIMH/NIH, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-15

    For some time it has been known through the results of family, twin, and adoption studies that hereditary appears to play a significant casual role in many mental disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders, Alzheimer`s Disease, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, dyslexia, and Tourette`s syndrome. The precise patterns of inheritance of these complex disorders have not been determined, nor have the relevant genes been localized or cloned. Because the genetics are complex and because there is also clearly an environmental contribution to behavior, we expect the analysis of the genetics of mental illness to be arduous and not quickly resolved. There are several compelling reasons to continue to focus our attention on uncovering the genetic factors for severe mental illness. Prominent among these are the implications for better treatment of mental disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health supports a wide range of studies on psychiatric genetic research. 16 refs.

  9. Japanese national forest inventory and its spatial extension by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumasa Hirata; Mitsuo Matsumoto; Toshiro Iehara

    2009-01-01

    Japan has two independent forest inventory systems. One forest inventory is required by the forest planning system based on the Forest Law, in which forest registers and forest planning maps are prepared. The other system is a forest resource monitoring survey, in which systematic sampling is done at 4-km grid intervals. Here, we present these national forest inventory...

  10. Catalogue of National Health and Social Care Data Collections

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  11. Importance of antimicrobial stewardship to the English National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jill Dixon, Christopher JA Duncan Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Antimicrobials are an extremely valuable resource across the spectrum of modern medicine. Their development has been associated with dramatic reductions in communicable disease mortality and has facilitated technological advances in cancer therapy, transplantation, and surgery. However, this resource is threatened by the dwindling supply of new antimicrobials and the global increase in antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS to protect our remaining antimicrobials for future generations. AMS emphasizes sensible, appropriate antimicrobial management for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. Within the English National Health Service (NHS, a series of recent policy initiatives have focused on all aspects of AMS, including best practice guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing, enhanced surveillance mechanisms for monitoring antimicrobial use across primary and secondary care, and new prescribing competencies for doctors in training. Here we provide a concise summary to clarify the current position and importance of AMS within the NHS and review the evidence base for AMS recommendations. The evidence supports the impact of AMS strategies on modifying prescribing practice in hospitals, with beneficial effects on both antimicrobial resistance and the incidence of Clostridium difficile, and no evidence of increased sepsis-related mortality. There is also a promising role for novel diagnostic technologies in AMS, both in enhancing microbiological diagnosis and improving the specificity of sepsis diagnosis. More work is needed to establish an evidence base for interventions to improve public and patient education regarding the role of antibiotics in common clinical syndromes, such as respiratory tract infection. Future

  12. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  13. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  14. Analysis of National Institutes of Health Funding in Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Ruan, Qing Z; Chang, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Federal research dollars help investigators develop biomedical therapies for human diseases. Currently, the state of funding in hand surgery is poorly understood. This study defines the portfolio of National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants awarded in hand surgery. This was a cross-sectional study of hand surgeons in the US. Faculty members of accredited hand surgery fellowships and/or members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand were queried in the NIH RePORT database for awards obtained during 2005-2015. Of 2317 hand surgeons queried, only 18 obtained an NIH grant (0.8%). Thirty-eight unique grants were identified totaling $42 197 375. R01 awards comprised the majority of funding (78.0%) while K08 awards accounted for 1.1%. The K-to-R transition rate was zero. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease supported the most funding (65.2%), followed by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (30.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in NIH funding totals with hand surgeon characteristics. Funding supported translational (46.0%), basic science (29.6%), clinical (21.0%), and education-based (3.4%) research. Peripheral nerve (33.3%) and bone and joint disease (30.1%) received the most research funding. Less than 1% of hand surgeons obtain NIH research grants. Of the 2 identified K08 awards, none led to a subsequent R award. Future research should identify barriers to grant procurement to design effective policies to increase NIH funding in hand surgery.

  15. Rehabilitation Research at the National Institutes of Health:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jonathan F.; Damiano, Diane; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jette, Alan; Jung, Ranu; Lieber, Rick L.; Malec, James F.; Mueller, Michael J.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Tansey, Keith E.; Thompson, Aiko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Approximately 53 million Americans live with a disability. For decades, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has been conducting and supporting research to discover new ways to minimize disability and enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. After the passage of the American With Disabilities Act, the NIH established the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research with the goal of developing and implementing a rehabilitation research agenda. Currently, a total of 17 institutes and centers at NIH invest more than $500 million per year in rehabilitation research. Recently, the director of NIH, Dr Francis Collins, appointed a Blue Ribbon Panel to evaluate the status of rehabilitation research across institutes and centers. As a follow-up to the work of that panel, NIH recently organized a conference under the title “Rehabilitation Research at NIH: Moving the Field Forward.” This report is a summary of the discussions and proposals that will help guide rehabilitation research at NIH in the near future. This article is being published almost simultaneously in the following six journals: American Journal of Occupational Therapy, American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Physical Therapy, and Rehabilitation Psychology. Citation information is as follows: Frontera WR, Bean JF, Damiano D, et al. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2017;97(4):393–403. PMID:28499004

  16. Spatial modelling of arsenic distribution and human health effects in Lake Victoria basin, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijumulana, Julian; Mtalo, Felix; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2016-04-01

    Increasing incidences of naturally occurring geogenic pollutants in drinking water sources and associated human health risks are the two major challenges requiring detailed knowledge to support decision making process at various levels. The presence, location and extent of environmental contamination is needed towards developing mitigation measures to achieve required standards. In this study we are developing a GIS-based model to detect and predict drinking water pollutants at the identified hotspots and monitor its variation in space. In addition, the mobility of pollutants within the affected region needs to be evaluated using topographic and hydrogeological data. Based on these geospatial data on contaminant distribution, spatial relationship of As and F contamination and reported human health effects such as dental caries, dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and bone crippling, skin and other cancers etc. can be modeled for potential interventions for safe drinking water supplies.

  17. Strengthening global health security by embedding the International Health Regulations requirements into national health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin

    2018-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.

  18. A Secondary Spatial Analysis of Gun Violence near Boston Schools: a Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gia

    2018-04-11

    School neighborhood violence continues to be a major public health problem among urban students. A large body of research addresses violence at school; however, fewer studies have explored concentrations of violence in areas proximal to schools. This study aimed to quantify the concentration of shootings near schools to elucidate the place-based dynamics that may be focal points for violence prevention. Geocoded databases of shooting and school locations were used to examine locational patterns of firearm shootings and elementary, middle, and high schools in Boston, Massachusetts. Analyses utilized spatial statistics for point pattern data including distance matrix and K function methodology to quantify the degree of spatial dependence of shootings around schools. Results suggested that between 2012 and 2015, there were 678 shooting incidents in Boston; the average density was 5.1 per square kilometer. The nearest neighbor index (NNI = 0.335 km, p shooting incidents indicative of a spatially non-random process. The mean and median distance from any school to the nearest shooting location was 0.35 and 0.33 km, respectively. A majority (56%, 74/133) of schools in Boston had at least one shooting incident within 400 m, a distance that would take about 5 min to walk if traveling by foot. The bivariate K function indicated that a significantly greater number of shootings were clustered within short distances from schools than would be expected under a null hypothesis of no spatial dependence. Implications for students attending schools in racially homogenous neighborhoods across all income levels are discussed.

  19. Climate change and human health: Spatial modeling of water availability, malnutrition, and livelihoods in Mali, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Lopez-Carr, David; Funk, Chris; Husak, Gregory J.; Chafe, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops a novel approach for projecting climate trends in the Sahel in relation to shifting livelihood zones and health outcomes. Focusing on Mali, we explore baseline relationships between temperature, precipitation, livelihood, and malnutrition in 407 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) clusters with a total of 14,238 children, resulting in a thorough spatial analysis of coupled climate-health dynamics. Results suggest links between livelihoods and each measure of malnutrition, as well as a link between climate and stunting. A ‘front-line’ of vulnerability, related to the transition between agricultural and pastoral livelihoods, is identified as an area where mitigation efforts might be usefully targeted. Additionally, climate is projected to 2025 for the Sahel, and demographic trends are introduced to explore how the intersection of climate and demographics may shift the vulnerability ‘front-line’, potentially exposing an additional 6 million people in Mali, up to a million of them children, to heightened risk of malnutrition from climate and livelihood changes. Results indicate that, holding constant morbidity levels, approximately one quarter of a million children will suffer stunting, nearly two hundred thousand will be malnourished, and over one hundred thousand will become anemic in this expanding arid zone by 2025. Climate and health research conducted at finer spatial scales and within shorter projected time lines can identify vulnerability hot spots that are of the highest priority for adaptation interventions; such an analysis can also identify areas with similar characteristics that may be at heightened risk. Such meso-scale coupled human-environment research may facilitate appropriate policy interventions strategically located beyond today’s vulnerability front-line.

  20. simSALUD - a Web-based Spatial Microsimulation Application to Support Regional Health Planning in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Tomintz; Bernhard Kosar; Victor Garcia-Barrios

    2013-01-01

    The Austrian Federal Ministry of Health aims to improve the health of all people living in Austria and to decrease health and social inequalities. This leads to a careful planning and distribution of the available health care resources to meet government aims. The research project SALUD, funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology and the Austrian Science Fund, focuses on building a Spatial Microsimulation Model for Austria by combining survey and census data to mo...

  1. Effects of spatial location and household wealth on health insurance subscription among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2013-06-17

    This study compares ownership of health insurance among Ghanaian women with respect to wealth status and spatial location. We explore the overarching research question by employing geographic and proxy means targeting through interactive analysis of wealth status and spatial issues. The paper draws on the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Bivariate descriptive analysis coupled with binary logistic regression estimation technique was used to analyse the data. By wealth status, the likelihood of purchasing insurance was significantly higher among respondents from the middle, richer and richest households compared to the poorest (reference category) and these differences widened more profoundly in the Northern areas after interacting wealth with zone of residence. Among women at the bottom of household wealth (poorest and poorer), there were no statistically significant differences in insurance subscription in all the areas. The results underscore the relevance of geographic and proxy means targeting in identifying populations who may be need of special interventions as part of the efforts to increase enrolment as well as means of social protection against the vulnerable.

  2. Real-time appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Sismanidis, Panagiotis

    2016-08-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an adverse environmental effect of urbanization that increases the energy demand of cities, impacts the human health, and intensifies and prolongs heatwave events. To facilitate the study of UHIs the Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of the National Observatory of Athens (IAASARS/NOA) has developed an operational real-time system that exploits remote sensing image data from Meteosat Second Generation - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) and generates high spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) and 2 m air temperature (TA) time series. These datasets form the basis for the generation of higher value products and services related to energy demand and heat-related health issues. These products are the heatwave hazard (HZ); the HUMIDEX (i.e. an index that describes the temperature felt by an individual exposed to heat and humidity); and the cooling degrees (CD; i.e. a measure that reflects the energy needed to cool a building). The spatiotemporal characteristics of HZ, HUMIDEX and CD are unique (1 km/5 min) and enable the appraisal of the spatially distributed heat related health risk and energy demand of cities. In this paper, the real time generation of the high spatiotemporal HZ, HUMIDEX and CD products is discussed. In addition, a case study corresponding to Athens' September 2015 heatwave is presented so as to demonstrate their capabilities. The overall aim of the system is to provide high quality data to several different end users, such as health responders, and energy suppliers. The urban thermal monitoring web service is available at http://snf-652558.vm.okeanos.grnet.gr/treasure/portal/info.html.

  3. National health information infrastructure model: a milestone for health information management education realignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidani, Zahra; Sadoughi, Farhnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Zohoor, Alireza; Saddik, Basema

    2012-01-01

    Challenges and drawbacks of the health information management (HIM) curriculum at the Master's degree were examined, including lack of well-established computing sciences and inadequacy to give rise to specific competencies. Information management was condensed to the hospital setting to intensify the indispensability of a well-organized educational campaign. The healthcare information dimensions of a national health information infrastructure (NHII) model present novel requirements for HIM education. Articles related to challenges and barriers to adoption of the personal health record (PHR), the core component of personal health dimension of an NHII, were searched through sources including Science Direct, ProQuest, and PubMed. Through a literature review, concerns about the PHR that are associated with HIM functions and responsibilities were extracted. In the community/public health dimension of the NHII the main components have been specified, and the targeted information was gathered through literature review, e-mail, and navigation of international and national organizations. Again, topics related to HIM were evoked. Using an information system (decision support system, artificial neural network, etc.) to support PHR media and content, patient education, patient-HIM communication skills, consumer health information, conducting a surveillance system in other areas of healthcare such as a risk factor surveillance system, occupational health, using an information system to analyze aggregated data including a geographic information system, data mining, online analytical processing, public health vocabulary and classification system, and emerging automated coding systems pose major knowledge gaps in HIM education. Combining all required skills and expertise to handle personal and public dimensions of healthcare information in a single curriculum is simply impractical. Role expansion and role extension for HIM professionals should be defined based on the essence of

  4. The Epidemiology of Social Isolation: National Health & Aging Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Roth, David L; Szanton, Sarah L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Boyd, Cynthia M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2018-03-26

    Social isolation among older adults is an important but under-recognized risk for poor health outcomes. Methods are needed to identify subgroups of older adults at risk for social isolation. We constructed a typology of social isolation using data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and estimated the prevalence and correlates of social isolation among community-dwelling older adults. The typology was formed from four domains: living arrangement, core discussion network size, religious attendance, and social participation. In 2011, 24% of self-responding, community-dwelling older adults (65+ years), approximately 7.7 million people, were characterized as socially isolated, including 1.3 million (4%) who were characterized as severely socially isolated. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression indicated that being unmarried, male, having low education, and low income were all independently associated with social isolation. Black and Hispanic older adults had lower odds of social isolation compared to White older adults, after adjusting for covariates. Social isolation is an important and potentially modifiable risk that affects a significant proportion of the older adult population.

  5. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. The Spatial Development of the National Territory. Perspectives and Strategic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela NECHITA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the processes of administrative decentralization and the repositioning of territories in the local or regional context, corroborated with the dynamic of the social-economic aspects and environmental problems needed a new vision of the way we understand the potential of resources and opportunities in territorial respects that can be capitalized both locally and globally. In this context, the spatial planning practice modifies the territorial structure, involving solid strategic development activities through three main ways – identifying the local politics and defining the investment projects, as well as the correlation of activities with the right compentences of the interested parties and actors. The regional interdependences are more and more complex and dynamic and require the permanent constitution of networks, the cooperation and integration of different regions of the European Union at all relevant territorial levels.

  7. Economic growth and health progress in Italy: 30 years of National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannelli, Alberto; Buongiorno, Massimo; Zanardo, Michele; Basilico, Valerio; Capriata, Giulio; Rossi, Fabrizio; Pruiti, Vincenzo; Battaglia, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    On December 23 of 1978, during first Italian recession since the end of World War II, Parliament voted for Law 833 that gives birth to the Italian National Public Health Services (SSN) as the new and alternative model of health care system. It was the beginning of the match of Italian health care with the world class level of the public health care. Each crisis requires solidarity and actions. Maintaining levels of health and other social expenditures is critical to protect life and livelihood and to boost productivity. The purpose of the present study is to establish an alternative point of view to demonstrate that Gross Domestic Product, is a function of health care expenditure. The chronology of the events was created by using the laws published on "Gazzetta Ufficiale" (GU). In order to analyze the corporate effectiveness and efficiency, we have divided the SSN into its three main components, namely resources (input), services (output) and performances (outcome). Health services have certainly been pioneers and are still today standard-bearers of a challenge which has borne its fruits. According to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development", SSN ranks second in the world classification of the return on the health care services in 2000. The World Health Organization has published in 2005 the same result: SSN ranks second in the world for ability and quality of the health care in relationship to the resources invested The continuous reforms of health care system introduced stability to the Italian system more than others countries. Success of SSN function rooted in the ability of system to adapt assuring mechanism of positive feed-back correction. In the future SSN, will required new set of reforms, such as redefinition of structures and mechanisms of governance, strategic plans, clinical administrations.

  8. National health insurance reform in South Africa: estimating the implications for demand for private health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okorafor, Okore Apia

    2012-05-01

    A recent health reform proposal in South Africa proposes universal access to a comprehensive package of healthcare services in the public sector, through the implementation of a national health insurance (NHI) scheme. Implementation of the scheme is likely to involve the introduction of a payroll tax. It is implied that the introduction of the payroll tax will significantly reduce the size of the private health insurance market. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an NHI payroll tax on the demand for private health insurance in South Africa, and to explore the broader implications for health policy. The study applies probit regression analysis on household survey data to estimate the change in demand for private health insurance as a result of income shocks arising from the proposed NHI. The introduction of payroll taxes for the proposed NHI was estimated to result in a reduction to private health insurance membership of 0.73%. This suggests inelasticity in the demand for private health insurance. In the literature on the subject, this inelasticity is usually due to quality differences between alternatives. In the South African context, there may be other factors at play. An NHI tax may have a very small impact on the demand for private health insurance. Although additional financial resources will be raised through a payroll tax under the proposed NHI reform, systemic problems within the South African health system can adversely affect the ability of the NHI to translate additional finances into better quality healthcare. If these systemic challenges are not adequately addressed, the introduction of a payroll tax could introduce inefficiencies within the South African health system.

  9. 77 FR 37424 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Children's Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  10. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Diet, Obesity.... Kandasamy, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child...

  11. 77 FR 5035 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room... constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child...

  12. 77 FR 16845 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the... Study, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100... National Children's Study Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance...

  13. Integrating Health Promotion in the National Agenda: The Perspective of a Grassroots Advocate

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    On June 16, 2011, Dr. Regina Benjamin, Surgeon General of the United States, released the "National Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy: America's Plan for Better Health and Wellness," described as "the nation's first-ever National Prevention Strategy" by the U.S. Surgeon General. This was one of at least 38 provisions in the Patient…

  14. 78 FR 24154 - Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...] Notice of Availability of a National Animal Health Laboratory Network Reorganization Concept Paper AGENCY... available a concept paper that describes a revised structure for the National Animal Health Laboratory... biological threats to the nation's food animals. The concept paper we are making available for comment...

  15. Training of Home Health Aides and Nurse Aides: Findings from National Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Manisha; Ejaz, Farida K.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.

    2012-01-01

    Training and satisfaction with training were examined using data from nationally representative samples of 2,897 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) from the National Nursing Assistant Survey and 3,377 home health aides (HHAs) from the National Home Health Aide Survey conducted in 2004 and 2007, respectively. This article focuses on the…

  16. 75 FR 4402 - Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council Conference Call Time and... the second meeting of the National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership... Leadership Council provides overall guidance to the National Conversation project and will be responsible for...

  17. The WHO-ITU national eHealth strategy toolkit as an effective approach to national strategy development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    With few exceptions, national eHealth strategies are the pivotal tools upon which the launch or refocusing of national eHealth programmes is hinged. The process of their development obviates cross-sector ministerial commitment led by the Ministry of Health. Yet countries often grapple with the task of strategy development and best efforts frequently fail to address strategic components of eHealth key to ensure successful implementation and stakeholder engagement. This can result in strategies that are narrowly focused, with an overemphasis placed on achieving technical outcomes. Without a clear link to a broader vision of health system development and a firm commitment from partners, the ability of a strategy to shape development of a national eHealth framework will be undermined and crucial momentum for implementation will be lost. WHO and ITU have sought to address this issue through the development of the National eHealth Strategy Toolkit that provides a basis for the components and processes to be considered in a strategy development or refocusing exercise. We look at this toolkit and highlight those areas which the countries should consider in formulating their national eHealth strategy.

  18. Toward a New Era of Policy: Health Care Service Delivery to First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda D. Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The disproportionate burdens of ill health experienced by First Nations have been attributed to an uncoordinated, fragmented health care system. This system is rooted in public policies that have created jurisdictional gaps and a long-standing debate between federal, provincial and First Nations governments as to who is responsible for First Nations health care. This article examines: (1 the policies that shape First Nations health care in Canada and in the province of British Columbia (BC specifically; (2 the interests of the actors involved in First Nations health policy; and (3 recent developments in BC that present an opportunity for change to First Nations health policy development and have broader implications for Indigenous health policy across Canada and worldwide.

  19. Contributions of national and global health estimates to monitoring health-related sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Limwattananon, Supon; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2016-01-01

    The millennium development goals triggered an increased demand for data on child and maternal mortalities for monitoring progress. With the advent of the sustainable development goals and growing evidence of an epidemiological transition toward non-communicable diseases, policymakers need data on mortality and disease trends and distribution to inform effective policies and support monitoring progress. Where there are limited capacities to produce national health estimates (NHEs), global health estimates (GHEs) can fill gaps for global monitoring and comparisons. This paper discusses lessons learned from Thailand's burden of disease (BOD) study on capacity development on NHEs and discusses the contributions and limitations of GHEs in informing policies at the country level. Through training and technical support by external partners, capacities are gradually strengthened and institutionalized to enable regular updates of BOD at national and subnational levels. Initially, the quality of cause-of-death reporting in death certificates was inadequate, especially for deaths occurring in the community. Verbal autopsies were conducted, using domestic resources, to determine probable causes of deaths occurring in the community. This method helped to improve the estimation of years of life lost. Since the achievement of universal health coverage in 2002, the quality of clinical data on morbidities has also considerably improved. There are significant discrepancies between the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimates for Thailand and the 1999 nationally generated BOD, especially for years of life lost due to HIV/AIDS, and the ranking of priority diseases. National ownership of NHEs and an effective interface between researchers and decision-makers contribute to enhanced country policy responses, whereas subnational data are intended to be used by various subnational partners. Although GHEs contribute to benchmarking country achievement compared with global health

  20. Heat stress and occupational health and safety – spatial and temporal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of climatic health hazards on the general population has been discussed in many studies but limited focus is placed on developing a relationship between climate and its effects on occupational health. Long working hours with high physical activity can cause health problems for workers ranging from mild heat cramps to severe heat stroke leading to death. The paper presents the possible risk of heat hazard to outdoor workers, using the example of Warsaw. The heat stress hazard, defined by WBGT values above 26 and 28°C and UTCI above 32 and 38°C, is assessed from two perspectives: its spatial distribution on a local scale and its temporal changes during the 21st century due to climate change. City centre and industrial districts were identified as the places with the greatest heat stress hazard. The number of heat stress days in a year (as predicted for the 21st century is increasing, meaning that heat-related illnesses are more likely to have a direct impact on workers’ health.

  1. The impact of universal National Health Insurance on population health: the experience of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Ken N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan established a system of universal National Health Insurance (NHI in March, 1995. Today, the NHI covers more than 98% of Taiwan's population and enrollees enjoy almost free access to healthcare with small co-payment by most clinics and hospitals. Yet while this expansion of coverage will almost inevitably have improved access to health care, however, it cannot be assumed that it will necessarily have improved the health of the population. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan in 1995 was associated with a change in deaths from causes amenable to health care. Methods Identification of discontinuities in trends in mortality considered amenable to health care and all other conditions (non-amenable mortality using joinpoint regression analysis from 1981 to 2005. Results Deaths from amenable causes declined between 1981 and 1993 but slowed between 1993 and 1996. Once NHI was implemented, the decline accelerated significantly, falling at 5.83% per year between 1996 and 1999. In contrast, there was little change in non-amenable causes (0.64% per year between 1981 and 1999. The effect of NHI was highest among the young and old, and lowest among those of working age, consistent with changes in the pattern of coverage. NHI was associated with substantial reductions in deaths from circulatory disorders and, for men, infections, whilst an earlier upward trend in female cancer deaths was reversed. Conclusions NHI was associated in a reduction in deaths considered amenable to health care; particularly among those age groups least likely to have been insured previously.

  2. 76 FR 27597 - National Women's Health Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... schedule their annual checkups and talk to their health care provider about important health screenings... women's health and to promote awareness, prevention, and educational activities that improve the health...

  3. Public health strategy against overweight and obesity in Mexico's National Agreement for Nutritional Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latnovic, L; Rodriguez Cabrera, L

    2013-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major world global health challenges of the 21st century. Mexico is not an exception. Approximately 70% of the adult Mexican population has an excessive body weight. The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Mexican school children aged 5-11 is also high: one child in four is overweight. In light of the seriousness of the situation, the solutions for this problem are based on modification of the environments and change of individual habits and behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity. As a result, the Mexican government, public sector and academy established three common goals and 10 priority objectives that are expressed in the National Agreement for Nutritional Health-Strategy to Control Overweight and Obesity. The obesity problem requires interventions and policies that reside outside of the health sector domain, key aspects of this public health policy was agreement among all stakeholders on cross-cutting actions. The best examples of National Agreement's inter-sectorial action implementation is in the school setting and Code of 'Self Regulation' on Advertising of Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverages to Children introduced by the food and beverage industry. The ultimate goal of this national policy is to provide the strategic plan for healthy weight and better health, by promoting healthy lifestyles focused on correct diet and physical activity in all life stages, from pregnancy and early childhood and on into adulthood by a multi stakeholder approach. Although there have been great achievements in some areas of implementation, there are still challenges to confront.

  4. Fast Updating National Geo-Spatial Databases with High Resolution Imagery: China's Methodology and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Wang, D.; Zhao, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Liao, A.; Jiu, J.

    2014-04-01

    Geospatial databases are irreplaceable national treasure of immense importance. Their up-to-dateness referring to its consistency with respect to the real world plays a critical role in its value and applications. The continuous updating of map databases at 1:50,000 scales is a massive and difficult task for larger countries of the size of more than several million's kilometer squares. This paper presents the research and technological development to support the national map updating at 1:50,000 scales in China, including the development of updating models and methods, production tools and systems for large-scale and rapid updating, as well as the design and implementation of the continuous updating workflow. The use of many data sources and the integration of these data to form a high accuracy, quality checked product were required. It had in turn required up to date techniques of image matching, semantic integration, generalization, data base management and conflict resolution. Design and develop specific software tools and packages to support the large-scale updating production with high resolution imagery and large-scale data generalization, such as map generalization, GIS-supported change interpretation from imagery, DEM interpolation, image matching-based orthophoto generation, data control at different levels. A national 1:50,000 databases updating strategy and its production workflow were designed, including a full coverage updating pattern characterized by all element topographic data modeling, change detection in all related areas, and whole process data quality controlling, a series of technical production specifications, and a network of updating production units in different geographic places in the country.

  5. Occupational safety and health: progress toward the 1990 objectives for the nation.

    OpenAIRE

    Millar, J D; Myers, M L

    1983-01-01

    Occupational safety and health is 1 of 15 areas addressed in the Public Health Service's Objectives for the Nation. This area represents 104 million working men and women and the deaths, diseases, and injuries that result from exposures to hazards in their work environment. Characteristics of public health practice are compared with characteristics of occupational safety and health practice. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), created by the Occupational Safety ...

  6. 76 FR 7225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  7. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the NIH Reform Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. 281 (d)(4)), notice is hereby given that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Popovich, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Extramural Research and Training...

  8. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National..., Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National...

  9. 76 FR 62422 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee, October 12, 2011, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m...

  10. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meeting. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance...

  11. 78 FR 64221 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of the following meetings. The meetings will be closed to the public in accordance...

  12. Nigeria's national health act 2014: a review of some of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's National Health Act 2014 was enacted on the 31st of October, 2014. The Act which provides a legal framework for the regulation and management of Nigeria's national health system, bristles with implications such as the need for improved political commitment by government to the health of Nigerians, improved ...

  13. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  14. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  15. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  16. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  17. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  18. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  19. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  20. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular and Cellular Controls of... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  1. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Alexander Disease; Mechanisms... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100...

  2. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Training in Executive... Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD...

  3. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z 41 2. Date: July 19, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  4. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Neuroplasticity and the Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  5. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  6. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Social-Cognitive Skill Intervention..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  7. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  8. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Academic-Community Partnership... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  9. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. NICHD T32 Teleconference Review... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  10. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  11. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  12. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Risk Genes and Environment... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Y 41 1. Date: November 15... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  14. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  15. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Prenatal Events-Postnatal... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  16. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: March... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of, Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  17. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z. Date: November 13, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  18. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee Date: June 14..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  19. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Congenital Defects Topics. Date: May..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  20. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Environmental and Biological..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  1. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  2. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY.../nationalconversation/work_groups.html . For additional information on the National Conversation on Public Health and...

  3. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is requesting public comment on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH...

  4. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is extending the public comment period on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a...

  5. 76 FR 33764 - Announcement of Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020 AGENCY: Department of... of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 217a... next Federal advisory committee meeting regarding the national health promotion and disease prevention...

  6. 76 FR 16777 - Announcement of Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020 AGENCY: Department of... of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 217a... federal advisory committee meeting regarding the national health promotion and disease prevention...

  7. 75 FR 37813 - Announcement of Meeting of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020 AGENCY: Department of... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 217a, Section 222... federal advisory committee meeting regarding the national health promotion and disease prevention...

  8. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, FES Controller for Upper Limb... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  9. Forest health monitoring in the United States: focus on national reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt Riitters; Kevin Potter

    2013-01-01

    The health and sustainability of United States forests have been monitored for many years from several different perspectives. The national Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program was established in 1990 by Federal and State agencies to develop a national system for monitoring and reporting on the status and trends of forest ecosystem health. We describe and illustrate...

  10. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group; Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  11. 76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  12. 78 FR 78362 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal; Notice of public meeting in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal; Notice of public meeting in Endicott, New York AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control.... SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease...

  13. 76 FR 73689 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0065] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH Work Groups. SUMMARY: The National Advisory...

  14. 29 CFR 1912.5 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Health. 1912.5 Section 1912.5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Matters § 1912.5 National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. (a) Section 7(a) of the Act established a National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. The Committee is to...

  15. 78 FR 12065 - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Personal Protective Technology for Pesticide Handlers: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers...: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of...

  16. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asthma Cohort Support Contract. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892...

  17. 78 FR 19710 - Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... organizations to participate in National Women's Health Week (NWHW) as partners to help create awareness of..., May 18, 2013. NWHW seeks to educate women about improving their physical and mental health and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's...

  18. 77 FR 38845 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 ...

  19. 75 FR 21642 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 51466 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  1. 75 FR 72833 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  2. 78 FR 15021 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting hosted by the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 200...

  3. 78 FR 52552 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  4. 78 FR 33098 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting hosted by the NIH Scientific Management Review Board (SMRB). Presentations...

  5. 76 FR 62081 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  6. 75 FR 60132 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The meeting will be open to the...

  7. 75 FR 66114 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Scientific Management Review Board. The NIH Reform Act of 2006 (Pub....

  8. 78 FR 63230 - Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a stakeholder meeting hosted by the NIH Scientific Management Review Board (SMRB)....

  9. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Nicolette F; Kenealy, Timothy W; Connolly, Martin J; Mahony, Faith; Barber, P Alan; Boyd, Mary Anne; Carswell, Peter; Clinton, Janet; Devlin, Gerard; Doughty, Robert; Dyall, Lorna; Kerse, Ngaire; Kolbe, John; Lawrenson, Ross; Moffitt, Allan

    2011-10-20

    In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. A national survey of district health boards (DHBs) was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21), some PHOs (21/84) and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so for other ethnic groups or by geography. Populations

  10. Health equity in the New Zealand health care system: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughty Robert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In all countries people experience different social circumstances that result in avoidable differences in health. In New Zealand, Māori, Pacific peoples, and those with lower socioeconomic status experience higher levels of chronic illness, which is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and inequitable health outcomes. Whilst the health system can enable a fairer distribution of good health, limited national data is available to measure health equity. Therefore, we sought to find out whether health services in New Zealand were equitable by measuring the level of development of components of chronic care management systems across district health boards. Variation in provision by geography, condition or ethnicity can be interpreted as inequitable. Methods A national survey of district health boards (DHBs was undertaken on macro approaches to chronic condition management with detail on cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and diabetes. Additional data from expert informant interviews on program reach and the cultural needs of Māori and Pacific peoples was sought. Survey data were analyzed on dimensions of health equity relevant to strategic planning and program delivery. Results are presented as descriptive statistics and free text. Interviews were transcribed and NVivo 8 software supported a general inductive approach to identify common themes. Results Survey responses were received from the majority of DHBs (15/21, some PHOs (21/84 and 31 expert informants. Measuring, monitoring and targeting equity is not systematically undertaken. The Health Equity Assessment Tool is used in strategic planning but not in decisions about implementing or monitoring disease programs. Variable implementation of evidence-based practices in disease management and multiple funding streams made program implementation difficult. Equity for Māori is embedded in policy, this is not so

  11. An analysis of spatial development paradigm for enhancing regional integration within national and it’s supporting spatial systems in Africa / Donald Chiuba Okeke

    OpenAIRE

    Okeke, Donald Chiuba

    2015-01-01

    The global aim of this research is to postulate a spatial development paradigm for regional integration in developing countries - more specifically, the research prospects to conceptualize form-based spatial planning theory for Africa. This was considered necessary on two grounds: first, the need for spatial regional integration as panacea for economic growth, and second the resilience of formal planning in the context of a neo-liberal paradigm shift in planning for economic gr...

  12. Does Indonesian National Health Insurance serve a potential for improving health equity in favour of workers in informal economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, Dwintha Maya

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether Indonesian national health insurance system promotes health equity in favour of informal economy workers. It first lays out the theoretical justification on the need of social protection, particularly health protection for informal workers. The paper argues that the absence of health protection for vulnerable informal workers in Indonesia has reinforced health inequity between formal and informal workers, thus provides a justification on extending health protection...

  13. The national health insurance scheme: perceptions and experiences of health care providers and clients in two districts of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Dalinjong, Philip Ayizem; Laar, Alexander Suuk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prepayments and risk pooling through social health insurance has been advocated by international development organizations. Social health insurance is seen as a mechanism that helps mobilize resources for health, pool risk, and provide more access to health care services for the poor. Hence Ghana implemented the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to help promote access to health care services for Ghanaians. The study examined the influence of the NHIS on the behavior of healt...

  14. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  15. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Pedrana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. Objectives: This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. Design: We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed® database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results: The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many

  16. Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrana, Leo; Pamponet, Marina; Walker, Ruth; Costa, Federico; Rasella, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The strategic importance of monitoring social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity and inequity has been a central focus in global discussions around the 2011 Rio Political Declaration on SDH and the Millennium Development Goals. This study is part of the World Health Organization (WHO) equity-oriented analysis of linkages between health and other sectors (EQuAL) project, which aims to define a framework for monitoring SDH and health equity. This review provides a global summary and analysis of the domains and indicators that have been used in recent studies covering the SDH. These studies are considered here within the context of indicators proposed by the WHO EQuAL project. The objectives are as follows: to describe the range of international and national studies and the types of indicators most frequently used; report how they are used in causal explanation of the SDH; and identify key priorities and challenges reported in current research for national monitoring of the SDH. We conducted a scoping review of published SDH studies in the PubMed(®) database to obtain evidence of socio-economic indicators. We evaluated, selected, and extracted data from national scale studies published from 2004 to 2014. The research included papers published in English, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Spanish. The final sample consisted of 96 articles. SDH monitoring is well reported in the scientific literature independent of the economic level of the country and magnitude of deprivation in population groups. The research methods were mostly quantitative and many papers used multilevel and multivariable statistical analyses and indexes to measure health inequalities and SDH. In addition to the usual economic indicators, a high number of socio-economic indicators were used. The indicators covered a broad range of social dimensions, which were given consideration within and across different social groups. Many indicators included in the WHO EQuAL framework were not

  17. NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alison Davis NIH's National Institute of General Medical Sciences celebrates 45 years of Discovery for Health The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) is the NIH institute that primarily supports ...

  18. 76 FR 38401 - National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Revision to Proposed Collection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... (b) shall-- (1) incorporate behavioral, emotional, educational, and contextual consequences to enable... Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communication, National Institute of Child Health and.... Glavin, Deputy Director, Office of Science Policy, Analysis and Communications, National Institute of...

  19. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in...

  20. BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS IN INDONESIA: NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD HEALTH SURVEY 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. M. Kristanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of National Household Health Surveys (NHHS reported the occurrence of epidemiological transition caused by demographic transition and prolonged economical diversity, Communicable diseases are still prevalent, followed by the emergence of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs, which are due to an increasing level of behavior risk factors in the population. In the NHHS 2001, a morbidity survey collected information about behavioral risk indicators, whereas the WHO'S STEPwise approach was one of the study instruments. The 'WHO Step 1 questionnaire' was adapted with some modifications. Samples of NHHS, morbidity survey was sub-sample of module sample of National Social Economic Survey (NSES 2001. A sample of 15,148 people aged 10 years+ were analyzed to identify their behavior regarding smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity. These findings are a representation of the national figures, which were presented by characteristics of the population such as: sex, age, residence, region and economic status. Economic status was divided into 5 strata, which were calculated from a quintile of household expenditure. The results showed that 29.7% of the population aged 10 years+ are daily smokers. This is more prevalent in males than females (58.9% vs. 3.7%. This behavior increases by age group, except for the oldest; there are slightly more smokers in rural areas than urban areas (31% vs. 28%, and no difference among regions (30-31%. Those with better economic status are less likely to smoke than poorer ones. Alcohol consumption is reportedly very low (2.7%, more prevalent in males than females (4.9% vs. 0.8%, and higher in rural areas than urban areas (3.1% vs. 2.1%. Eastern Indonesia, was higher than Sumatra, Java and Bali (6.3%, 4.7%, and 1.2% respectively. There were no differences in alcohol consumption according to economic status'.' Physical inactivity is very high (68%, more prevalent in females than males (73% vs. 63%, and higher in