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Sample records for spacer igs region

  1. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phanerochaete inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Karen K. Nakasone; Jacques Haarhof; Harold H. Burdsall; Bernard J.H. Janse

    2003-01-01

    Phanerochaete is a genus of resupinate homobasidiomycetes that are saprophytic on woody debris and logs. Morphological studies in the past indicated that Phanerochaete is a heterogeneous assemblage of species. In this study the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to test the monophyly of the genus Phanerochaete and to infer...

  2. Intra-Genomic Internal Transcribed Spacer Region Sequence Heterogeneity and Molecular Diagnosis in Clinical Microbiology.

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    Zhao, Ying; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Yingchun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-22

    Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing is the most extensively used technology for accurate molecular identification of fungal pathogens in clinical microbiology laboratories. Intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity, which makes fungal identification based on direct sequencing of PCR products difficult, has rarely been reported in pathogenic fungi. During the process of performing ITS sequencing on 71 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens, direct sequencing of the PCR products showed ambiguous sequences in six of them. After cloning the PCR products into plasmids for sequencing, interpretable sequencing electropherograms could be obtained. For each of the six isolates, 10-49 clones were selected for sequencing and two to seven intra-genomic ITS copies were detected. The identities of these six isolates were confirmed to be Candida glabrata (n=2), Pichia (Candida) norvegensis (n=2), Candida tropicalis (n=1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n=1). Multiple sequence alignment revealed that one to four intra-genomic ITS polymorphic sites were present in the six isolates, and all these polymorphic sites were located in the ITS1 and/or ITS2 regions. We report and describe the first evidence of intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity in four different pathogenic yeasts, which occurred exclusively in the ITS1 and ITS2 spacer regions for the six isolates in this study.

  3. DNA methylation in Cosmc promoter region and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 associated with pediatric IgA nephropathy.

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    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is one of the most common glomerular diseases leading to end-stage renal failure. Elevation of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 is a key feature of it. The expression of the specific molecular chaperone of core1ß1, 3galactosyl transferase (Cosmc is known to be reduced in IgAN. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation of CpG islands of Cosmc gene promoter region could act as a possible mechanism responsible for down-regulation of Cosmc and related higher secretion of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1in lymphocytes from children with IgA nephropathy. Three groups were included: IgAN children (n = 26, other renal diseases (n = 11 and healthy children (n = 13. B-lymphocytes were isolated and cultured, treated or not with IL-4 or 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA. The levels of DNA methylation of Cosmc promotor region were not significantly different between the lymphocytes of the three children populations (P = 0.113, but there were significant differences between IgAN lymphocytes and lymphocytes of the other two children populations after IL-4 (P<0.0001 or AZA (P<0.0001. Cosmc mRNA expression was low in IgAN lymphocytes compared to the other two groups (P<0.0001. The level of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was markedly higher in IgAN group compared to the other groups (P<0.0001. After treatment with IL-4, the levels of Cosmc DNA methylation and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN lymphocytes were remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001 with more markedly decreased Cosmc mRNA content (P<0.0001. After treatment with AZA, the levels in IgAN lymphocytes were decreased, but was still remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001, while Cosmc mRNA content in IgAN lymphocytes were more markedly increased than the other two groups (P<0.0001. The alteration of DNA methylation by IL-4 or AZA specifically correlates in IgAN lymphocytes with alterations in Cosmc mRNA expression and with the level of aberrantly glycosylated

  4. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

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    Daniel L. Lindner; Tor Carlsen; Henrik Nilsson; Marie Davey; Trond Schumacher; Havard. Kauserud

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular...

  5. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi.

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    Schoch, Conrad L; Seifert, Keith A; Huhndorf, Sabine; Robert, Vincent; Spouge, John L; Levesque, C André; Chen, Wen

    2012-04-17

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it is difficult to amplify in fungi, often includes large introns, and can be insufficiently variable. Three subunits from the nuclear ribosomal RNA cistron were compared together with regions of three representative protein-coding genes (largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and minichromosome maintenance protein). Although the protein-coding gene regions often had a higher percent of correct identification compared with ribosomal markers, low PCR amplification and sequencing success eliminated them as candidates for a universal fungal barcode. Among the regions of the ribosomal cistron, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has the highest probability of successful identification for the broadest range of fungi, with the most clearly defined barcode gap between inter- and intraspecific variation. The nuclear ribosomal large subunit, a popular phylogenetic marker in certain groups, had superior species resolution in some taxonomic groups, such as the early diverging lineages and the ascomycete yeasts, but was otherwise slightly inferior to the ITS. The nuclear ribosomal small subunit has poor species-level resolution in fungi. ITS will be formally proposed for adoption as the primary fungal barcode marker to the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, with the possibility that supplementary barcodes may be developed for particular narrowly circumscribed taxonomic groups.

  6. Molecular Phylogenetic Screening of Withania somnifera Relative From Indonesia Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

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    Topik Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera (family Solanaceae, known commonly as Ashwaganda, is one of the important medicinal plants, and recent studies reported that Withanone, one of the chemical components in this plant, has ability to kill cancer cell. Because of endemic state of this plant to South Asia, exploring plant species under the same family which grow well in Indonesia has been of interest. The purpose of this study was to screen the Indonesian plant which has strong phylogenetic relationship with Ashwaganda. Thus, phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was conducted. Thus, 19 species of Solanaceae and two species of Convolvulaceae as outgroup were examined. Five ITS regions of Ashwaganda retrieved from GenBank were included in the phylogenetic analysis. Parsimony analysis showed that Indonesia Solanaceae comprises seven groups which is consistent with the global Solanaceae relationship as previously reported. Furthermore, our study revealed that two species, Physalis angulata and Physalis peruviana, are relative to W. somnifera. Morphologically, they share characters of flower and fruit. This result indicated that these two species are potential to have similar chemical properties as Ashwaganda, thus we can have new variants of Withanone originated from Indonesia with similar effect.

  7. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

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    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of cercospora and mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA.

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    Goodwin, S B; Dunkle, L D; Zismann, V L

    2001-07-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the 3,000 named species in the genus Cercospora have no known sexual stage, although a Mycosphaerella teleomorph has been identified for a few. Mycosphaerella is an extremely large and important genus of plant pathogens, with more than 1,800 named species and at least 43 associated anamorph genera. The goal of this research was to perform a large-scale phylogenetic analysis to test hypotheses about the past evolutionary history of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data (ITS1, 5.8S rRNA gene, ITS2), the genus Mycosphaerella is monophyletic. In contrast, many anamorph genera within Mycosphaerella were polyphyletic and were not useful for grouping species. One exception was Cercospora, which formed a highly supported monophyletic group. Most Cercospora species from cereal crops formed a subgroup within the main Cercospora cluster. Only species within the Cercospora cluster produced the toxin cercosporin, suggesting that the ability to produce this compound had a single evolutionary origin. Intraspecific variation for 25 taxa in the Mycosphaerella clade averaged 1.7 nucleotides (nts) in the ITS region. Thus, isolates with ITS sequences that differ by two or more nucleotides may be distinct species. ITS sequences of groups I and II of the gray leaf spot pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis differed by 7 nts and clearly represent different species. There were 6.5 nt differences on average between the ITS sequences of the sorghum pathogen Cercospora sorghi and the maize pathogen Cercospora sorghi var. maydis, indicating that the latter is a separate species and not simply a variety of Cercospora sorghi. The large monophyletic Mycosphaerella cluster contained a number of anamorph genera with no known teleomorph associations. Therefore, the number of anamorph genera related to Mycosphaerella may be much larger than suspected previously.

  9. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions

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    David Gitirana da Rocha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017 [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR sequences are variable antibody (Ab sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  10. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers.

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    Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2011-04-13

    The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  11. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

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    Su Ying-Juan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rpoB-psbZ (BZ region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. Results A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Conclusions Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  12. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  13. Shark IgW C region diversification through RNA processing and isotype switching.

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    Zhang, Cecilia; Du Pasquier, Louis; Hsu, Ellen

    2013-09-15

    Sharks and skates represent the earliest vertebrates with an adaptive immune system based on lymphocyte Ag receptors generated by V(D)J recombination. Shark B cells express two classical Igs, IgM and IgW, encoded by an early, alternative gene organization consisting of numerous autonomous miniloci, where the individual gene cluster carries a few rearranging gene segments and one C region, μ or ω. We have characterized eight distinct Ig miniloci encoding the nurse shark ω H chain. Each cluster consists of VH, D, and JH segments and six to eight C domain exons. Two interspersed secretory exons, in addition to the 3'-most C exon with tailpiece, provide the gene cluster with the ability to generate at least six secreted isoforms that differ as to polypeptide length and C domain combination. All clusters appear to be functional, as judged by the capability for rearrangement and absence of defects in the deduced amino acid sequence. We previously showed that IgW VDJ can perform isotype switching to μ C regions; in this study, we found that switching also occurs between ω clusters. Thus, C region diversification for any IgW VDJ can take place at the DNA level by switching to other ω or μ C regions, as well as by RNA processing to generate different C isoforms. The wide array of pathogens recognized by Abs requires different disposal pathways, and our findings demonstrate complex and unique pathways for C effector function diversity that evolved independently in cartilaginous fishes.

  14. Ig synthesis and class switching do not require the presence of the hs4 enhancer in the 3' IgH regulatory region.

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    Vincent-Fabert, Christelle; Truffinet, Véronique; Fiancette, Remi; Cogné, Nadine; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Several studies have reported that regulatory elements located 3' of the IgH locus (namely hs3a, hs1,2, hs3b, and hs4) might play a role during class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig synthesis. While individual deletion of hs3a or hs1,2 had no effect, pairwise deletion of hs3b (an inverted copy of hs3a) and hs4 markedly affected CSR and Ig expression. Among these two elements, hs4 was tentatively presented with the master role due to its unique status within the 3' regulatory region: distal position outside repeated regions, early activation in pre-B cells, strong activity throughout B cell ontogeny. To clarify its role, we generated mice with a clean deletion of the hs4 after replacement with a floxed neo(R) cassette. Surprisingly, and as for previous deletion of hs3a or hs1,2, deletion of hs4 did not affect either in vivo CSR or the secretion level of any Ig isotype. In vitro CSR and Ig secretion in response to LPS and cytokines was not affected either. The only noticeable effects of the hs4 deletion were a decrease in the number of B splenocytes and a decreased membrane IgM expression. In conclusion, while dispensable for CSR and Ig transcription in plasma cells, hs4 mostly appears to contribute to Ig transcription in resting B lymphocytes.

  15. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decat, E.; van Mechelen, E.; Saerens, B.; Vermeulen, S.J.T.; Boekhout, T.; de Blaiser, S.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Deschaght, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification

  16. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

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    Six DNA regions were evaluated in a multi-national, multi-laboratory consortium as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it...

  17. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Crous, P.W.; Boekhout, T.; Damm, U.; Hoog, de G.S.; Eberhardt, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Hagen, F.; Houbraken, J.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Stielow, B.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.

    2012-01-01

    Six DNA regions were evaluated as potential DNA barcodes for Fungi, the second largest kingdom of eukaryotic life, by a multinational, multilaboratory consortium. The region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 used as the animal barcode was excluded as a potential marker, because it

  18. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region reveals a novel clade of Ichthyophonus sp. from rainbow trout.

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    Rasmussen, C; Purcell, M K; Gregg, J L; LaPatra, S E; Winton, J R; Hershberger, P K

    2010-03-09

    The mesomycetozoean parasite Ichthyophonus hoferi is most commonly associated with marine fish hosts but also occurs in some components of the freshwater rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aquaculture industry in Idaho, USA. It is not certain how the parasite was introduced into rainbow trout culture, but it might have been associated with the historical practice of feeding raw, ground common carp Cyprinus carpio that were caught by commercial fisherman. Here, we report a major genetic division between west coast freshwater and marine isolates of Ichthyophonus hoferi. Sequence differences were not detected in 2 regions of the highly conserved small subunit (18S) rDNA gene; however, nucleotide variation was seen in internal transcribed spacer loci (ITS1 and ITS2), both within and among the isolates. Intra-isolate variation ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 nucleotides over a region consisting of approximately 740 bp. Majority consensus sequences from marine/anadromous hosts differed in only 0 to 3 nucleotides (99.6 to 100% nucleotide identity), while those derived from freshwater rainbow trout had no nucleotide substitutions relative to each other. However, the consensus sequences between isolates from freshwater rainbow trout and those from marine/anadromous hosts differed in 13 to 16 nucleotides (97.8 to 98.2% nucleotide identity).

  19. Molecular Identification of Isolated Fungi from Unopened Containers of Greek Yogurt by DNA Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

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    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study, we described the development of an internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 sequencing method, and used this protocol in species-identification of isolated fungi collected from the manufacturing areas of a compounding company known to have caused the multistate fungal meningitis outbreak in the United States. In this follow-up study, we have analyzed the unopened vials of Greek yogurt from the recalled batch to determine the possible cause of microbial contamination in the product. A total of 15 unopened vials of Greek yogurt belonging to the recalled batch were examined for the detection of fungi in these samples known to cause foodborne illness following conventional microbiological protocols. Fungi were isolated from all of the 15 Greek yogurt samples analyzed. The isolated fungi were genetically typed by DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed all of the isolated fungal isolates from the Greek yogurt to be Rhizomucor variabilis. The generated ITS1 sequences matched 100% with the published sequences available in GenBank. In addition, these yogurt samples were also tested for the presence of five types of bacteria (Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Escherichia coli causing foodborne disease in humans, and found negative for all of them.

  20. c-Abl phosphorylation of Yin Yang 1's conserved tyrosine 254 in the spacer region modulates its transcriptional activity.

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    Daraiseh, Susan I; Kassardjian, Ari; Alexander, Karen E; Rizkallah, Raed; Hurt, Myra M

    2018-05-25

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that can activate or repress transcription depending on the promotor and/or the co-factors recruited. YY1 is phosphorylated in various signaling pathways and is critical for different biological functions including embryogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation, cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YY1 is a substrate for c-Abl kinase phosphorylation at conserved residue Y254 in the spacer region. Pharmacological inhibition of c-Abl kinase by imatinib, nilotinib and GZD824, knock-down of c-Abl using siRNA, and the use of c-Abl kinase-dead drastically reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of YY1. Both radioactive and non-radioactive in vitro kinase assays, as well as co-immunoprecipitation in different cell lines, show that the target of c-Abl phosphorylation is tyrosine residue 254. c-Abl phosphorylation has little effect on YY1 DNA binding ability or cellular localization in asynchronous cells. However, functional studies reveal that c-Abl mediated phosphorylation of YY1 regulates YY1's transcriptional ability in vivo. In conclusion, we demonstrate the novel role of c-Abl kinase in regulation of YY1's transcriptional activity, linking YY1 regulation with c-Abl tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Molecular Strain Typing of Clinical Isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) Region as a Molecular Marker.

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    Ramaraj, Vijayakumar; Vijayaraman, Rajyoganandh S; Elavarashi, Elangovan; Rangarajan, Sudha; Kindo, Anupma Jyoti

    2017-05-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of fungi which infect keratinized tissues and causes superficial mycoses in humans and animals. The group comprises of three major genera, Trichophyton , Microsporum and Epidermophyton . Among them Trichophyton rubrum is a predominant anthropophilic fungi which causes chronic infections. Although, the infection is superficial and treatable, reinfection/coinfection causes inflation in the treatment cost. Identifying the source and mode of transmission is essential to prevent its transmission. Accurate discrimination is required to understand the clinical (relapse or reinfection) and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this species. Polymorphism in the Non Transcribed Spacer (NTS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clusters renders an effective way to discriminate strains among T. rubrum . To carry out the strain typing of the clinical isolates, Trichophyton rubrum using NTS as a molecular marker. Seventy T.rubrum clinical isolates obtained from April-2011-March 2013, from Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, were identified by conventional phenotypic methods and included in this prospective study. The isolates were then subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting two subrepeat elements (SREs), TRS-1 and TRS-2 of the NTS region. Strain-specific polymorphism was observed in both subrepeat loci. Total, nine different strains were obtained on combining both TRS-1 and TRS-2, SREs. The outcome has given a strong representation for using NTS region amplification in discriminating the T. rubrum clinical isolates. The method can be adapted as a tool for conducting epidemiology and population based study in T. rubrum infections. This will help in future exploration of the epidemiology of T. rubrum .

  2. Paenibacillus larvae 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions: DNA fingerprinting and characterization.

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    Dingman, Douglas W

    2012-07-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified DNA, was performed using genomic DNA collected from 134 P. larvae strains isolated in Connecticut, six Northern Regional Research Laboratory stock strains, four strains isolated in Argentina, and one strain isolated in Chile. Following electrophoresis of amplified DNA, all isolates exhibited a common migratory profile (i.e., ITS-PCR fingerprint pattern) of six DNA bands. This profile represented a unique ITS-PCR DNA fingerprint that was useful as a fast, simple, and accurate procedure for identification of P. larvae. Digestion of ITS-PCR amplified DNA, using mung bean nuclease prior to electrophoresis, characterized only three of the six electrophoresis bands as homoduplex DNA and indicating three true ITS regions. These three ITS regions, DNA migratory band sizes of 915, 1010, and 1474 bp, signify a minimum of three types of rrn operons within P. larvae. DNA sequence analysis of ITS region DNA, using P. larvae NRRL B-3553, identified the 3' terminal nucleotides of the 16S rRNA gene, 5' terminal nucleotides of the 23S rRNA gene, and the complete DNA sequences of the 5S rRNA, tRNA(ala), and tRNA(ile) genes. Gene organization within the three rrn operon types was 16S-23S, 16S-tRNA(ala)-23S, and l6S-5S-tRNA(ile)-tRNA(ala)-23S and these operons were named rrnA, rrnF, and rrnG, respectively. The 23S rRNA gene was shown by I-CeuI digestion and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA to be present as seven copies. This was suggestive of seven rrn operon copies within the P. larvae genome. Investigation of the 16S-23S rDNA regions of this bacterium has aided the development of a diagnostic procedure and has helped genomic mapping investigations via characterization of the ITS regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  3. Bat white-nose syndrome: A real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructans

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    Laura K Muller; Jeffrey M. Lorch; Daniel L. Lindner; Michael O' Connor; Andrea Gargas; David S. Blehert

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The...

  4. Impact of underlap spacer region variation on electrostatic and analog performance of symmetrical high-k SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length

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    Jain, Neeraj; Raj, Balwinder

    2017-12-01

    Continued scaling of CMOS technology to achieve high performance and low power consumption of semiconductor devices in the complex integrated circuits faces the degradation in terms of electrostatic integrity, short channel effects (SCEs), leakage currents, device variability and reliability etc. Nowadays, multigate structure has become the promising candidate to overcome these problems. SOI FinFET is one of the best multigate structures that has gained importance in all electronic design automation (EDA) industries due to its improved short channel effects (SCEs), because of its more effective gate-controlling capabilities. In this paper, our aim is to explore the sensitivity of underlap spacer region variation on the performance of SOI FinFET at 20 nm channel length. Electric field modulation is analyzed with spacer length variation and electrostatic performance is evaluated in terms of performance parameter like electron mobility, electric field, electric potential, sub-threshold slope (SS), ON current (I on), OFF current (I off) and I on/I off ratio. The potential benefits of SOI FinFET at drain-to-source voltage, V DS = 0.05 V and V DS = 0.7 V towards analog and RF design is also evaluated in terms of intrinsic gain (A V), output conductance (g d), trans-conductance (g m), gate capacitance (C gg), and cut-off frequency (f T = g m/2πC gg) with spacer region variations.

  5. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s –1 ) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M B = –19.46 mag and Δm 15 (B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v Si = 13,400 km s –1 ). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s –1 . After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF

  6. New treatment for IgA nephropathy: enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region ameliorates proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Bárány, Peter; Lindström, Karin; Fernström, Anders; Sandell, Anna; Påhlsson, Peter; Fellström, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Systemic corticosteroid treatment has been shown to exert some protection against renal deterioration in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) but is not commonly recommended for long-term use due to the well-known systemic side effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new enteric formulation of the locally acting glucocorticoid budesonide (Nefecon®), designed to release the active compound in the ileocecal region. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of targeted release budesonide on albuminuria. Budesonide 8 mg/day was given to 16 patients with IgAN for 6 months, followed by a 3-month follow-up period. The efficacy was measured as change in 24-h urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The median relative reduction in urinary albumin excretion was 23% during the treatment period (interquartile range: -0.36 to -0.04, P = 0.04) with pretreatment values ranging from 0.3 to 6 g/24 h (median: 1.5 g/24 h). The median reduction in urine albumin peaked at 40% (interquartile range: -0.58 to -0.15) 2 months after treatment discontinuation. Serum creatinine was reduced by 6% (interquartile range: -0.12 to -0.02; P = 0.003), and eGFR [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)] increased ∼8% (interquartile range: 0.02-0.16, P = 0.003) during treatment. No major corticosteroid-related side effects were observed. In the present pilot study, enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region had a significant effect on urine albumin excretion, accompanied by a minor reduction of serum creatinine and a modest increase of eGFR calculated by the MDRD equation, while eGFR calculated from Cockcroft-Gault equation and cystatin C was not changed. Enteric budesonide may represent a new treatment of IgAN warranting further investigation.

  7. Cre recombinase activity is inhibited in vivo but not ex vivo by a mutation in the asymmetric spacer region of the distal loxP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, Tania; Moraes, Carlos T

    2015-11-01

    The cre/loxP recombination system is a valuable tool used to generate tissue specific genomic rearrangements in mouse models. The deletion of a region of interest flanked by two loxP sites is accomplished by the recombinase (cre) enzyme, which binds to the inverted repeat segments of two loxP sites and recognition of a conserved TA sequence in the asymmetric central spacer region "ATAACTTCGTATA -NNNTANNN-TATACGAAGTTAT. In vivo, we found that a single T to C mutation at position 4 of the central spacer region in the distal (3') loxP site, completely inhibited the recombination reaction in two conditional mouse models. These mice were generated using a mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (Mtfmt) gene targeted construct and cre transgene under the control of tissue-specific promoters: calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (Camk2a-cre) and myosin light polypeptide 1 (Myl1-cre). Surprisingly, transient transfection of a plasmid expressing cre in dermal fibroblasts derived from the same mutant floxed Mtfmt((loxP/loxP)) mice line, successfully deleted the region of interest. This study demonstrates the sequence specificity required in vivo, the possibility of bypassing this limitation by expressing high levels of cre recombinase ex vivo and raises concerns related to the quality control of large scale production of gene targeted constructs and mice. genesis 53:695-700, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. INDICAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS (IGS COMO FERRAMENTA PARA DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL: UMA PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA SOBRE IGS RELACIONADAS À FARINHA E MANDIOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Paloma Neves Calmon de Siqueira Branco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As Indicações Geográficas são qualificações para produtos e serviços atribuídas por características genuínas que os vinculam à sua região produtora de origem. No mercado global, que intensificou as relações culturais, turísticas e econômicas entre os diversos continentes do mundo, as IG vêm emergindo como ferramenta de desenvolvimento em nível local, regional, nacional e internacional. No Nordeste brasileiro, a Rede dos Núcleos de Inovação Tecnológica (Rede NIT-NE, presentes  em instituições de pesquisa, desenvolveu atividades de disseminação de Propriedade Intelectual, dentre as quais as IG. Nesse cenário, foi estabelecido o Edital de Apoio à Caracterização de Indicações Geográficas na Bahia, pela Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia­ (FAPESB. Este artigo trata da prospecção tecnológica em IG para farinhas e mandioca, no mundo, e da implantação de um dos projetos aprovados nesse Edital: o potencial de IG para a farinha de mandioca de Copioba, do Recôncavo Baiano.

  9. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  10. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) variation in the Anastrepha fraterculus cryptic species complex (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Bruce D.; Steck, Gary J.; Norrbom, Allen L.; Rodriguez, Erick J.; Srivastava, Pratibha; Alvarado, Norma Nolazco; Colque, Fredy; Landa, Erick Yábar; Sánchez, Juan José Lagrava; Quisberth, Elizabeth; Peñaranda, Emilio Arévalo; Clavijo, P. A. Rodriguez; Alvarez-Baca, Jeniffer K.; Zapata, Tito Guevara; Ponce, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) was sequenced for Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) originating from 85 collections from the northern and central Andean countries of South America including Argentina (Tucumán), Bolivia, Perú, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. The ITS1 regions of additional specimens (17 collections) from Central America (México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, and Panamá), Brazil, Caribbean Colombia, and coastal Venezuela were sequenced and together with published sequences (Paraguay) provided context for interpretation. A total of six ITS1 sequence variants were recognized in the Andean region comprising four groups. Type I predominates in the southernmost range of Anastrepha fraterculus. Type II predominates in its northernmost range. In the central and northern Andes, the geographic distributions overlap and interdigitate with a strong elevational effect. A discussion of relationships between observed ITS1 types and morphometric types is included. PMID:26798259

  11. The repetitive portion of the Xenopus IgH Mu switch region mediates orientation-dependent class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng Z; Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Lu, Zhengfei; Hsu, Ellen; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrates developed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) to express different IgH constant regions. Most double-strand breaks for Ig CSR occur within the repetitive portion of the switch regions located upstream of each set of constant domain exons for the Igγ, Igα or Igϵ heavy chain. Unlike mammalian switch regions, Xenopus switch regions do not have a high G-density on the non-template DNA strand. In previous studies, when Xenopus Sμ DNA was moved to the genome of mice, it is able to support substantial CSR when it is used to replace the murine Sγ1 region. Here, we tested both the 2kb repetitive portion and the 4.6 kb full-length portions of the Xenopus Sμ in both their natural (forward) orientation relative to the constant domain exons, as well as the opposite (reverse) orientation. Consistent with previous work, we find that the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ mediates similar levels of CSR in both the forward and reverse orientations. Whereas, the forward orientation of the 2kb portion can restore the majority of the CSR level of the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ, the reverse orientation poorly supports R-looping and no CSR. The forward orientation of the 2kb repetitive portion has more GG dinucleotides on the non-template strand than the reverse orientation. The correlation of R-loop formation with CSR efficiency, as demonstrated in the 2kb repetitive fragment of the Xenopus switch region, confirms a role played by R-looping in CSR that appears to be conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis Typing Based on Nucleotide Sequence Variations in Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions of rRNA Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Hung; Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Tang, Xing; Jin, Shaoling; Li, Baozheng; Bartlett, Marilyn S.; Lu, Jang-Jih; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens D.; Olsson, Mats; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Roux, Patricia; Cargnel, Antonietta; Atzori, Chiara; Matos, Olga; Smith, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the previously reported 157 bp to 161 bp. Likewise, the number of ITS2 nucleotides has been changed from 177 to 192 bp. The number of ITS1 sequence types has increased from 2 to 15, and that of ITS2 has increased from 3 to 14. The 15 ITS1 sequence types are designated types A through O, and the 14 ITS2 types are named types a through n. A total of 59 types of P. carinii f. sp. hominis were found in this study. PMID:9508304

  14. Characterization of Biomphalaria orbignyi, Biomphalaria peregrina and Biomphalaria oligoza by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion of the internal transcribed spacer region of the RNA ribosomal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spatz Linus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of Biomphalaria oligoza, B. orbignyi and B. peregrina species is difficult due to the morphological similarities among them. B. peregrina is widely distributed in South America and is considered a potential intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We have reported the use of the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA for the molecular identification of these snails. The snails were obtained from different localities of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. The restriction patterns obtained with MvaI enzyme presented the best profile to identify the three species. The profiles obtained with all enzymes were used to estimate genetic similarities among B. oligoza, B. peregrina and B. orbignyi. This is also the first report of B. orbignyi in Uruguay.

  15. Spacer st4ructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetti, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A spacer structure is described for maintaining a spaced relation between a plurality of generally parallel fuel rods within a housing in a nuclear reactor. The spacer structure is comprised of a grid pattern of ribs slotted to interlock with each other. The slots are arranged in such a way that when the ribs are welded to each other, the weld shrinkage is distributed uniformly in all directions to reduce or eliminate the amount of rework necessary in manufacturing the spacer structure

  16. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, W John; Erickson, David L

    2007-06-06

    A useful DNA barcode requires sufficient sequence variation to distinguish between species and ease of application across a broad range of taxa. Discovery of a DNA barcode for land plants has been limited by intrinsically lower rates of sequence evolution in plant genomes than that observed in animals. This low rate has complicated the trade-off in finding a locus that is universal and readily sequenced and has sufficiently high sequence divergence at the species-level. Here, a global plant DNA barcode system is evaluated by comparing universal application and degree of sequence divergence for nine putative barcode loci, including coding and non-coding regions, singly and in pairs across a phylogenetically diverse set of 48 genera (two species per genus). No single locus could discriminate among species in a pair in more than 79% of genera, whereas discrimination increased to nearly 88% when the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer was paired with one of three coding loci, including rbcL. In silico trials were conducted in which DNA sequences from GenBank were used to further evaluate the discriminatory power of a subset of these loci. These trials supported the earlier observation that trnH-psbA coupled with rbcL can correctly identify and discriminate among related species. A combination of the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region and a portion of the coding rbcL gene is recommended as a two-locus global land plant barcode that provides the necessary universality and species discrimination.

  17. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2017-10-12

    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  18. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  19. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  20. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  1. Flow behavior of droplets downstream of the spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Eiichiro; Morishita, Kiyohide; Aritomi, Masanori; Yano, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    The fuel spacer, of which role is to maintain an appropriate rod-to-rod clearance, is one of the components of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel rod bundles. The fuel spacer influences flow characteristics of the liquid film in fuel rod bundles, so that its geometry influences greatly thermal hydraulics such as critical power and pressure drop therein. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the spacer geometry on the core flow split downstream of the spacer. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used for their meausrement under the conditions of a small amount of droplets in mist flows. From the experimental results, the normalized droplet velocity profiles with a spacer were split by the spacer and were different between a wider and a narrower regions in the channel, however, they became uniform at the distance far 100mm from the spacer. In the case without a spacer, the velocity was monotonously increasing nearer the rod surface with going toward the center of the channel. In the case with a spacer, the velocity profile downstream of the spacer changed in the narrower region of the channel. This tendency became more remarkable with thickening the spacer and widening clearance between the spacer and the wall. In this paper, 'drift' velocity effect was applied for the spacer model, due to the gas flows were split by the spacer which is based on the momentum balance between the narrower and wider channels. This model was confirmed from the experimental results that the droplet flowed from a wider region to a narrower one. This drift effect appeared more strongly as the spacer became thicker and the clearance did narrower. The analytical results explained qualitatively the measured ones. It is clarified that the drift effect proposed in this work was a dominant factor on droplet deposition downstream of the spacer

  2. Development and evaluation of specific PCR primers targeting the ribosomal DNA-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of peritrich ciliates in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lei; Zhang, Qianqian; Gong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Peritrich ciliates are highly diverse and can be important bacterial grazers in aquatic ecosystems. Morphological identifications of peritrich species and assemblages in the environment are time-consuming and expertise-demanding. In this study, two peritrich-specific PCR primers were newly designed to amplify a fragment including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal rDNA from environmental samples. The primers showed high specificity in silico, and in tests with peritrich isolates and environmental DNA. Application of these primers in clone library construction and sequencing yielded exclusively sequences of peritrichs for water and sediment samples. We also found the ITS1, ITS2, ITS, D1 region of 28S rDNA, and ITS+D1 region co-varied with, and generally more variable than, the V9 region of 18S rDNA in peritrichs. The newly designed specific primers thus provide additional tools to study the molecular diversity, community composition, and phylogeography of these ecologically important protists in different systems.

  3. Extensive 5.8S nrDNA polymorphism in Mammillaria (Cactaceae) with special reference to the identification of pseudogenic internal transcribed spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpke, Doerte; Peterson, Angela

    2008-05-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1, 5.8S rDNA, ITS2) represents the most widely applied nuclear marker in eukaryotic phylogenetics. Although this region has been assumed to evolve in concert, the number of investigations revealing high degrees of intra-individual polymorphism connected with the presence of pseudogenes has risen. The 5.8S rDNA is the most important diagnostic marker for functionality of the ITS region. In Mammillaria, intra-individual 5.8S rDNA polymorphisms of up to 36% and up to nine different types have been found. Twenty-eight of 30 cloned genomic Mammillaria sequences were identified as putative pseudogenes. For the identification of pseudogenic ITS regions, in addition to formal tests based on substitution rates, we attempted to focus on functional features of the 5.8S rDNA (5.8S motif, secondary structure). The importance of functional data for the identification of pseudogenes is outlined and discussed. The identification of pseudogenes is essential, because they may cause erroneous phylogenies and taxonomic problems.

  4. Novel Bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum Strains and Their Differentiation by Sequence Analysis of 16S rDNA, 16S-23S and 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer Regions and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Shojaei Moghadam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Six strains of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (TL1, RG11, RS5, UL4, RG14 and RI11 isolated from Malaysian foods were investigated for their structural bacteriocin genes. A new combination of plantaricin EF and plantaricin W bacteriocin structural genes was successfully amplified from all studied strains, suggesting that they were novel bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum strains. A four-base pair variable region was detected in the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer regions of the studied strains by a comparative analysis with 17 L. plantarum strains deposited in the GenBank, implying they were new genotypes. The studied L. plantarum strains were subsequently differentiated into four groups on the basis of the detected four-base pair variable region of the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Further analysis of the DNA sequence of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region revealed only one type of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region present in the studied strains, indicating it was highly conserved among the studied L. plantarum strains. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA experiments using three different combinations of arbitrary primers successfully differentiated the studied L. plantarum strains from each other, confirming they were different strains. In conclusion, the studied L. plantarum strains were shown to be novel bacteriocin producers and high level of strain discrimination could be achieved with a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and the analysis of the variable region of short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region present in L. plantarum strains.

  5. Structural Stator Spacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andreasen, Jens H.; Pijanowski, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new design aspect to reduce acoustic noise and vibration of electro-magnetic origin for electrical machines, by introducing improved slot wedges referred to as "Structural Stator Spacers". These spacers, by using a very stiff dielectric and non magnetic material...

  6. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  7. Membrane with integrated spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  8. Evolutionary history of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (the Asian soybean rust in Brazil based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra C. M. Freire

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Phakopsora pachyrhizi has dispersed globally and brought severe economic losses to soybean growers. The fungus has been established in Brazil since 2002 and is found nationwide. To gather information on the temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation in P. pachyrhizi , we sequenced the nuclear internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2. Total genomic DNA was extracted using either lyophilized urediniospores or lesions removed from infected leaves sampled from 26 soybean fields in Brazil and one field in South Africa. Cloning prior to sequencing was necessary because direct sequencing of PCR amplicons gave partially unreadable electrophoretograms with peak displacements suggestive of multiple sequences with length polymorphism. Sequences were determined from four clones per field. ITS sequences from African or Asian isolates available from the GenBank were included in the analyses. Independent sequence alignments of the ITS1 and ITS2 datasets identified 27 and 19 ribotypes, respectively. Molecular phylogeographic analyses revealed that ribotypes of widespread distribution in Brazil displayed characteristics of ancestrality and were shared with Africa and Asia, while ribotypes of rare occurrence in Brazil were indigenous. The results suggest P. pachyrhizi found in Brazil as originating from multiple, independent long-distance dispersal events.

  9. Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructanstructans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laura K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; O'Connor, Michael; Gargas, Andrea; Blehert, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg of genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was further qualified by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research.

  10. 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region polymorphism of Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis and Lactococcus lactis as revealed by PCR and nucleotide sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Pepe, Olimpia; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Andolfi, Rosamaria; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2002-12-01

    The intergenic spacer region (ISR) between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes was tested as a tool for differentiating lactococci commonly isolated in a dairy environment. 17 reference strains, representing 11 different species belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Leuconostoc, and 127 wild streptococcal strains isolated during the whole fermentation process of "Fior di Latte" cheese were analyzed. After 16S-23S rDNA ISR amplification by PCR, species or genus-specific patterns were obtained for most of the reference strains tested. Moreover, results obtained after nucleotide analysis show that the 16S-23S rDNA ISR sequences vary greatly, in size and sequence, among Lactococcus garvieae, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus lactis as well as other streptococci from dairy environments. Because of the high degree of inter-specific polymorphism observed, 16S-23S rDNA ISR can be considered a good potential target for selecting species-specific molecular assays, such as PCR primer or probes, for a rapid and extremely reliable differentiation of dairy lactococcal isolates.

  11. The murine Cd48 gene: allelic polymorphism in the IgV-like region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J G; Freeman, G J; Reiser, H

    1998-12-01

    The murine CD48 molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which regulates the activation of T lymphocytes. prior cloning experiments using mRNA from two different mouse strains had yielded discrepant sequences within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48. To resolve this issue, we have directly sequenced genomic DNA of 10 laboratory strains and two inbred strains of wild origin. The results of our analysis reveal an allelic polymorphism within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48.

  12. Cloning of pCDNA3-IgG4 and pQE-2-IgG4 human hinge region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... diseases and in allergy-related immunoassays, thus, anti-hIgG4 antibody is of interest in the development of ... pQE-2-. IgG4 will be used for protein expression in M15 prokaryotic .... Solution conformation of wild-type and ...

  13. Eosinophils may play regionally disparate roles in influencing IgA(+) plasma cell numbers during large and small intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ruth; Bramhall, Michael; Logunova, Larisa; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Else, Kathryn J

    2016-05-31

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in the intestine during inflammatory disorders. Classically the function of eosinophils has been associated with tissue destruction, due to the release of cytotoxic granule contents. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophil plays a more diverse role in the immune system than previously acknowledged, including shaping adaptive immune responses and providing plasma cell survival factors during the steady state. Importantly, it is known that there are regional differences in the underlying immunology of the small and large intestine, but whether there are differences in context of the intestinal eosinophil in the steady state or inflammation is not known. Our data demonstrates that there are fewer IgA(+) plasma cells in the small intestine of eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice compared to eosinophil-sufficient wild-type mice, with the difference becoming significant post-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Remarkably, and in complete contrast, the absence of eosinophils in the inflamed large intestine does not impact on IgA(+) cell numbers during steady state, and is associated with a significant increase in IgA(+) cells post-infection with Trichuris muris compared to wild-type mice. Thus, the intestinal eosinophil appears to be less important in sustaining the IgA(+) cell pool in the large intestine compared to the small intestine, and in fact, our data suggests eosinophils play an inhibitory role. The dichotomy in the influence of the eosinophil over small and large intestinal IgA(+) cells did not depend on differences in plasma cell growth factors, recruitment potential or proliferation within the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We demonstrate for the first time that there are regional differences in the requirement of

  14. Comparison of spontaneous brain activity revealed by regional homogeneity in AQP4-IgG neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis versus MOG-IgG optic neuritis patients: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Junqing Wang,1,* Yuan Tian,2,* Yi Shao,3,* Hui Feng,1 Limin Qin,1 Weiwei Xu,1 Hongjuan Liu,1 Quangang Xu,1 Shihui Wei,1 Lin Ma2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 3Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Patients and methods: A total of 32 NMO-ON and ON subjects (21 with AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON and 11 with MOG-IgG+ON and 34 healthy controls (HCs closely matched for age were recruited, and scans were performed for all subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the regions in which the ReHo was different across the three groups. NMO-ON and ON subjects were distinguished from HCs by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The relationship between the mean ReHo in many brain regions and clinical features in NMO subjects was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, MOG-IgG+ON subjects had significantly decreased ReHo values in the posterior lobe of the left cerebellum and increased ReHo values in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right prefrontal gyrus, and left precentral/postcentral gyrus. AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON subjects showed higher ReHo values in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal/occipital gyrus. Compared with MOG-IgG+ON subjects, AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON subjects had lower Re

  15. IGS-RFLP analysis and development of molecular markers for identification of Fusarium poae, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium kyushuense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinova, P.S.; Yli-Mattila, T.

    2004-01-01

    The intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of the rDNA of several Fusarium spp. strains obtained from the collaborative researchers (Int. J. Food Microbiol. (2003)) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and an IGS¿RFLP analysis was performed. Restriction digestion with AluI, MspI and PstI

  16. Identification of cultured isolates of clinically important yeast species using fluorescent fragment length analysis of the amplified internally transcribed rRNA spacer 2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muylaert An

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of patients with yeast infection has increased during the last years. Also the variety of species of clinical importance has increased. Correct species identification is often important for efficient therapy, but is currently mostly based on phenotypic features and is sometimes time-consuming and depends largely on the expertise of technicians. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of PCR-based amplification of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2, followed by fragment size analysis on the ABI Prism 310 for the identification of clinically important yeasts. Results A rapid DNA-extraction method, based on simple boiling-freezing was introduced. Of the 26 species tested, 22 could be identified unambiguously by scoring the length of the ITS2-region. No distinction could be made between the species Trichosporon asteroides and T. inkin or between T. mucoides and T. ovoides. The two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans (var. neoformans and var. gattii could be differentiated from each other due to a one bp length difference of the ITS2 fragment. The three Cryptococcus laurentii isolates were split into two groups according to their ITS2-fragment lengths, in correspondence with the phylogenetic groups described previously. Since the obtained fragment lengths compare well to those described previously and could be exchanged between two laboratories, an internationally usable library of ITS2 fragment lengths can be constructed. Conclusions The existing ITS2 size based library enables identification of most of the clinically important yeast species within 6 hours starting from a single colony and can be easily updated when new species are described. Data can be exchanged between laboratories.

  17. Suitability of the molecular subtyping methods intergenic spacer region, direct genome restriction analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeke, Catharina H M; Fischer, Markus; LaFon, Patti; Cooper, Kara; Jones, Jessica L

    2014-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of infectious illness associated with seafood consumption in the United States. Molecular fingerprinting of strains has become a valuable research tool for understanding this pathogen. However, there are many subtyping methods available and little information on how they compare to one another. For this study, a collection of 67 oyster and 77 clinical V. parahaemolyticus isolates were analyzed by three subtyping methods--intergenic spacer region (ISR-1), direct genome restriction analysis (DGREA), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)--to determine the utility of these methods for discriminatory subtyping. ISR-1 analysis, run as previously described, provided the lowest discrimination of all the methods (discriminatory index [DI]=0.8665). However, using a broader analytical range than previously reported, ISR-1 clustered isolates based on origin (oyster versus clinical) and had a DI=0.9986. DGREA provided a DI=0.9993-0.9995, but did not consistently cluster the isolates by any identifiable characteristics (origin, serotype, or virulence genotype) and ∼ 15% of isolates were untypeable by this method. PFGE provided a DI=0.9998 when using the combined pattern analysis of both restriction enzymes, SfiI and NotI. This analysis was more discriminatory than using either enzyme pattern alone and primarily grouped isolates by serotype, regardless of strain origin (clinical or oyster) or presence of currently accepted virulence markers. These results indicate that PFGE and ISR-1 are more reliable methods for subtyping V. parahemolyticus, rather than DGREA. Additionally, ISR-1 may provide an indication of pathogenic potential; however, more detailed studies are needed. These data highlight the diversity within V. parahaemolyticus and the need for appropriate selection of subtyping methods depending on the study objectives.

  18. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  19. Side insertable spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Ewing, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a spacer for restraining the fuel rods of a nuclear fuel assembly, the assembly being formed of a plurality of parallel, elongated fuel rods so arranged that the assembly is bounded by a polygon having an even number of sides, the rods being so arranged as to lie in a plurality of sets of parallel rows, the rows of each set being perpendicular to one of the sides of the polygon. It comprises a number of spacer combs equal to at least half the number of the sides of the polygon, the spacer combs being superposed on each other, each of the spacer combs comprising: a single base strip having a length equal to that of one of the sides of the polygon and grid strips equal in number to the spaces between rows in one of the sets, and at least a majority of the grid strips being of a length sufficient to extend substantially the full length of the rows; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being secured to and extending at right angles to the base strip; the grid strips of different combs being positioned at angles to each other, so as to occupy the spaces between rows in different sets

  20. Cutting edge: double-stranded DNA breaks in the IgV region gene were detected at lower frequency in affinity-maturation impeded GANP-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Yousuke; Igarashi, Hideya; Matsui, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Fujimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Takagi, Katsumasa; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2005-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at the IgV region (IgV) genes might be involved in somatic hypermutation and affinity-maturation of the B cell receptor in response to T cell-dependent Ag. By ligation-mediated PCR, we studied IgV DSBs that occurred in mature germinal center B cells in response to nitrophenyl-chicken gamma-globulin in a RAG1-independent, Ag-dependent, and IgV-selective manner. We quantified their levels in GANP-deficient B cells that have impaired generation of high-affinity Ab. GANP-/- B cells showed a decreased level of DSBs with blunt ends than control B cells and, on the contrary, the ganp gene transgenic (GANPTg) B cells showed an increased level. These results suggested that the level of IgV DSBs in germinal center B cells is associated with GANP expression, which is presumably required for B cell receptor affinity maturation.

  1. Fuel assembly spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Ken-etsu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the pressure loss of coolants by fuel assembly spacers. Constitution: Spacers for supporting a fuel assembly are attached by means of a plurality of wires to an outer frame. The outer frame is made of shape memory alloy such that the wires are caused to slacken at normal temperature and the slacking of the wires is eliminated in excess of the transition temperature. Since the wires slacken at the normal temperature, fuel rods can be inserted easily. After the insertion of the fuel rods, when the entire portion or the outer frame is heated by water or gas at a predetermined temperature, the outer frame resumes its previously memorized shape to tighten the wires and, accordingly, the fuel rods can be supported firmly. In this way, since the fuel rods are inserted in the slacken state of the wires and, after the assembling, the outer frame resumes its memorized shape, the assembling work can be conducted efficiently. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Phylogenetic relationships in Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on matK gene, chlL gene, trnL-trnF IGS region, and trnL intron sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, J; Tsumura, Y; Yoshimaru, H; Tachida, H

    2000-10-01

    Nucleotide sequences from four chloroplast genes, the matK, chlL, intergenic spacer (IGS) region between trnL and trnF, and an intron of trnL, were determined from all species of Taxodiaceae and five species of Cupressaceae sensu stricto (s.s.). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony and the neighbor-joining methods with Cunninghamia as an outgroup. These analyses provided greater resolution of relationships among genera and higher bootstrap supports for clades compared to previous analyses. Results indicate that Taiwania diverged first, and then Athrotaxis diverged from the remaining genera. Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron form a clade. Taxodium and Glyptostrobus form a clade, which is the sister to Cryptomeria. Cupressaceae s.s. are derived from within Taxodiaceae, being the most closely related to the Cryptomeria/Taxodium/Glyptostrobus clade. These relationships are consistent with previous morphological groupings and the analyses of molecular data. In addition, we found acceleration of evolutionary rates in Cupressaceae s.s. Possible causes for the acceleration are discussed.

  3. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P

    2017-09-01

    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU r

  4. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  5. Definition of IgG- and albumin-binding regions of streptococcal protein G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerström, B; Nielsen, E; Björck, L

    1987-10-05

    Protein G, the immunoglobin G-binding surface protein of group C and G streptococci, also binds serum albumin. The albumin-binding site on protein G is distinct from the immunoglobulin G-binding site. By mild acid hydrolysis of the papain-liberated protein G fragment (35 kDa), a 28-kDa fragment was produced which retained full immunoglobulin G-binding activity (determined by Scatchard plotting) but had lost all albumin-binding capacity. A protein G (65 kDa), isolated after cloning and expression of the protein G gene in Escherichia coli, had comparable affinity to immunoglobulin G (5-10 X 10(10)M-1), but much higher affinity to albumin than the 35- and 28-kDa protein G fragments (31, 2.6, and 0 X 10(9)M-1, respectively). The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the 65-, 35-, and 28-kDa fragments allowed us to exactly locate the three fragments in an overall sequence map of protein G, based on the partial gene sequences published by Guss et al. (Guss, B., Eliasson, M., Olsson, A., Uhlen, M., Frej, A.-K., Jörnvall, H., Flock, J.-I., and Lindberg, M. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 1567-1575) and Fahnestock et al. (Fahnestock, S. R., Alexander, P., Nagle, J., and Filpula, D. (1986) J. Bacteriol. 167, 870-880). In this map could then be deduced the location of three homologous albumin-binding regions and three homologous immunoglobulin G-binding regions.

  6. GANP regulates the choice of DNA repair pathway by DNA-PKcs interaction in AID-dependent IgV region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Shimoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2014-06-15

    RNA export factor germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) interacts with activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and shepherds it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and toward the IgV region loci in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate a role for GANP in the repair of AID-initiated DNA damage in chicken DT40 B cells to generate IgV region diversity by gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. GANP plays a positive role in IgV region diversification of DT40 B cells in a nonhomologous end joining-proficient state. DNA-PKcs physically interacts with GANP, and this interaction is dissociated by dsDNA breaks induced by a topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide, or AID overexpression. GANP affects the choice of DNA repair mechanism in B cells toward homologous recombination rather than nonhomologous end joining repair. Thus, GANP presumably plays a critical role in protection of the rearranged IgV loci by favoring homologous recombination of the DNA breaks under accelerated AID recruitment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curik Ino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE, alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42 located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7. UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8. In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01, which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes.

  8. Characterization of fungi in office dust: Comparing results of microbial secondary metabolites, fungal internal transcribed spacer region sequencing, viable culture and other microbial indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Sulyok, M; Lemons, A R; Green, B J; Cox-Ganser, J M

    2018-05-04

    Recent developments in molecular and chemical methods have enabled the analysis of fungal DNA and secondary metabolites, often produced during fungal growth, in environmental samples. We compared 3 fungal analytical methods by analysing floor dust samples collected from an office building for fungi using viable culture, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 32 metabolites identified, 29 had a potential link to fungi with levels ranging from 0.04 (minimum for alternariol monomethylether) to 5700 ng/g (maximum for neoechinulin A). The number of fungal metabolites quantified per sample ranged from 8 to 16 (average = 13/sample). We identified 216 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with the number per sample ranging from 6 to 29 (average = 18/sample). We identified 37 fungal species using culture, and the number per sample ranged from 2 to 13 (average = 8/sample). Agreement in identification between ITS sequencing and culturing was weak (kappa = -0.12 to 0.27). The number of cultured fungal species poorly correlated with OTUs, which did not correlate with the number of metabolites. These suggest that using multiple measurement methods may provide an improved understanding of fungal exposures in indoor environments and that secondary metabolites may be considered as an additional source of exposure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analytical prediction of fuel assembly spacer grid loss coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J. S.; Nam, K. I.; Park, S. K.; Kwon, J. T.; Park, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    The analytical prediction model of the fuel assembly spacer grid pressure loss coefficient has been studied. The pressure loss of gap between the test section wall and spacer grid was separated from the current model and the different friction drag coefficient on spacer straps from high Reynolds number region were used to low Reynolds number region. The analytical model has been verified based on the hydraulic pressure drop test results for the spacer grids of three types for 5x5, 16x16(or 17x17) arrays. The analytical model predicts the pressure loss coefficients obtained from test results within the maximum errors of 12% and 7% for 5x5 test bundle and full size bundle, respectively, at Reynolds number 500,000 of the core operating condition. This result shows that the analytical model can be used for research and design change of the nuclear fuel assembly

  10. (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  11. Distribution of anti-HAV IgM positivity according to age and months of a year in Van region,Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Parlak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we investigated the anti-HAVIgM positivity rates and their distribution according to ageand season of a year in Van region of Turkey.Materials and methods: During five-year period between2006-2010, the presence of anti-HAV IgM weredetermined in the serum samples sent to our laboratorythat have prediagnosis of hepatitis A by ELISA test, usingAxSYM (Abbott Diagnostics, Germany and i2000SR Architect(Abbott Diagnostics, Germany analyzers. For statisticalanalyze of Anti-HAV IgM positivity rates, patients’age and gender and time of year when specimen wasobtain were compared.Results: The presence of anti-HAV IgM was investigatedin a total of 8851 patients, including 5303 (60% childrenand 3548 (40% adults. Anti-HAV IgM in children and adultpatients were determined as 9.8% and 2.6%, respectively,and this difference was found statistically significant (p<0.01. Anti-HAV IgM positivity rate began to rise in August,reached the highest level in November-Decemberand decreased to the initial level in January. The highestfrequency detected during the November-December periodwas statistically significantly higher than rates foundduring other months.Conclusions: The prevalence of Hepatitis A was found tobe similar with previous studies performed in our country.The prevalence of disease was significantly increased especiallybetween November and December.Key words: Anti-HAV IgM, seasonal distribution, seroprevalence,age

  12. Preliminary analysis of the effect of the grid spacers on the reflood heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Murao, Yoshio

    1982-02-01

    The results are described about the preliminary analysis of the effect of the grid spacers on the heat transfer during reflood phase of a PWR LOCA. Experiments at JAERI and other facilities showed substantial heat transfer enhancement near the grid spacers. The heat transfer enhancement decreases with the distance from the grid spacers in the downstream region of the grid spacers. Several mechanisms are discussed about the heat transfer enhancement near the grid spacers. A model of a coalescence of the water droplets downstream the spacers is proposed based on the review of the experimental data. The heat transfer correlation for the saturated film boiling is utilized to quantify the heat transfer augmentation by the grid spacers. (author)

  13. Spacer device for nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.; Gaines, A.L.; Krawiec, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    The grid-type spacer device consists of two rows of main spacers arranged parallel to each other with some space in between, the first row extending perpendicular to the second row. Parallel to the respective rows of main spacers there are rows of secondary spacers interlocked with the main spacers. The individual spacers are welded together at their points of intersection. A large number of spring cages are installed within the spacer device to hold in place the main spacers which are oriented at right angles relative to each other. In addition, the spring cages serve for supporting the fuel elements. The spacers are made of zirconium which does not greatly influence the neutron capture cross section of the reactor. The material of the spring cages with the spring elements is a nickel alloy. It has the necessary stress relaxation properties to be able to force the fuel elements against the spacers under the action of the spring. (DG) [de

  14. Ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequence in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. and its characterization and application to typing of foxtail millet landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Ichitani, Katsuyuki; Taura, Satoru; Sato, Muneharu; Kawase, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    We determined the sequence of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) of foxtail millet isolated in our previous study, and identified subrepeats in the polymorphic region. We also developed a PCR-based method for identifying rDNA types based on sequence information and assessed 153 accessions of foxtail millet. Results were congruent with our previous works. This study provides new findings regarding the geographical distribution of rDNA variants. This new method facilitates analyses of numerous foxtail millet accessions. It is helpful for typing of foxtail millet germplasms and elucidating the evolution of this millet.

  15. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  16. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  17. Cyanobacterial ecotypes in different optical microenvironments of a 68 C hot spring mat community revealed by 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Mike J.; Kühl, Michael; Wieland, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We examined the population of unicellular cyanobacteria (Synechococcus) in the upper 3-mm vertical interval of a 68°C region of a microbial mat in a hot spring effluent channel (Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Fluorescence microscopy and microsensor measurements of O2 and oxygenic photosynth...

  18. Phylogenetic study of Geitlerinema and Microcystis (Cyanobacteria) using PC-IGS and 16S-23S ITS as markers: investigation of horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccin-Santos, Viviane; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria Do Carmo

    2014-08-01

    Selection of genes that have not been horizontally transferred for prokaryote phylogenetic inferences is regarded as a challenging task. The markers internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal genes (16S-23S ITS) and phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS), based on the operons of ribosomal and phycocyanin genes respectively, are among the most used markers in cyanobacteria. The region of the ribosomal genes has been considered stable, whereas the phycocyanin operon may have undergone horizontal transfer. To investigate the occurrence of horizontal transfer of PC-IGS, phylogenetic trees of Geitlerinema and Microcystis strains were generated using PC-IGS and 16S-23S ITS and compared. Phylogenetic trees based on the two markers were mostly congruent for Geitlerinema and Microcystis, indicating a common evolutionary history among ribosomal and phycocyanin genes with no evidence for horizontal transfer of PC-IGS. Thus, PC-IGS is a suitable marker, along with 16S-23S ITS for phylogenetic studies of cyanobacteria. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  19. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  20. Rapid identification of 11 human intestinal Lactobacillus species by multiplex PCR assays using group- and species-specific primers derived from the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Kato, N; Liu, C; Matsumiya, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, K

    2000-06-15

    Rapid and reliable two-step multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were established to identify human intestinal lactobacilli; a multiplex PCR was used for grouping of lactobacilli with a mixture of group-specific primers followed by four multiplex PCR assays with four sorts of species-specific primer mixtures for identification at the species level. Primers used were designed from nucleotide sequences of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and its flanking 23S rRNA gene of members of the genus Lactobacillus which are commonly isolated from human stool specimens: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii (ssp. bulgaricus and ssp. lactis), Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus paracasei (ssp. paracasei and ssp. tolerans), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus salivarius (ssp. salicinius and ssp. salivarius). The established two-step multiplex PCR assays were applied to the identification of 84 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human stool specimens and the PCR results were consistent with the results from the DNA-DNA hybridization assay. These results suggest that the multiplex PCR system established in this study is a simple, rapid and reliable method for the identification of common Lactobacillus isolates from human stool samples.

  1. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jia-Siang; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Amir, Amirah; Braima, Kamil A; Jeffery, John; Abdul-Aziz, Noraishah M; Fong, Mun-Yik; Lau, Yee-Ling

    2014-07-03

    Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population.

  2. Phylogenetic study of six species of Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of Anopheles mosquitoes. This study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among Anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of Peninsular Malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local Anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline ITS2 rDNA gene. Methods Mosquitoes were collected, identified, dissected to check infection status, and DNA extraction was performed for PCR with primers targeting the ITS2 rDNA region. Sequencing was done and phylogenetic tree was constructed to study the evolutionary relationship among Anopheles mosquitoes within Peninsular Malaysia, as well as across the Asian region. Results A total of 133 Anopheles mosquitoes consisting of six different species were collected from eight different locations across Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, 65 ITS2 rDNA sequences were obtained. The ITS2 rDNA amplicons of the studied species were of different sizes. One collected species, Anopheles sinensis, shows two distinct pools of population in Peninsular Malaysia, suggesting evolvement of geographic race or allopatric speciation. Conclusion Anopheles mosquitoes from Peninsular Malaysia show close evolutionary relationship with the Asian anophelines. Nevertheless, genetic differences due to geographical segregation can be seen. Meanwhile, some Anopheles mosquitoes in Peninsular Malaysia show vicariance, exemplified by the emergence of distinct cluster of An. sinensis population. PMID:24993022

  3. Functional, non-clonal IgMa-restricted B cell receptor interactions with the HIV-1 envelope gp41 membrane proximal external region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Verkoczy

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41 has several features that make it an attractive antibody-based vaccine target, but eliciting an effective gp41 MPER-specific protective antibody response remains elusive. One fundamental issue is whether the failure to make gp41 MPER-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies like 2F5 and 4E10 is due to structural constraints with the gp41 MPER, or alternatively, if gp41 MPER epitope-specific B cells are lost to immunological tolerance. An equally important question is how B cells interact with, and respond to, the gp41 MPER epitope, including whether they engage this epitope in a non-canonical manner i.e., by non-paratopic recognition via B cell receptors (BCR. To begin understanding how B cells engage the gp41 MPER, we characterized B cell-gp41 MPER interactions in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that a significant (approximately 7% fraction of splenic B cells from BALB/c, but not C57BL/6 mice, bound the gp41 MPER via their BCRs. This strain-specific binding was concentrated in IgM(hi subsets, including marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells, and correlated with enriched fractions (approximately 15% of gp41 MPER-specific IgM secreted by in vitro-activated splenic B cells. Analysis of Igh(a (BALB/c and Igh(b (C57BL/6 congenic mice demonstrated that gp41 MPER binding was controlled by determinants of the Igh(a locus. Mapping of MPER gp41 interactions with IgM(a identified MPER residues distinct from those to which mAb 2F5 binds and demonstrated the requirement of Fc C(H regions. Importantly, gp41 MPER ligation produced detectable BCR-proximal signaling events, suggesting that interactions between gp41 MPER and IgM(a determinants may elicit partial B cell activation. These data suggest that low avidity, non-paratopic interactions between the gp41 MPER and membrane Ig on naïve B cells may interfere with or divert bnAb responses.

  4. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asito, Amolo S; Piriou, Erwan; Jura, Walter G Z O; Ouma, Collins; Odada, Peter S; Ogola, Sidney; Fiore, Nancy; Rochford, Rosemary

    2011-12-13

    Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24) and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21). There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440), 18(p = 0.0210) and 24 months (p = 0.0493). No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27-) or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+). However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34-) were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+) were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144), 18 (p = 0.0013) and 24 months (p = 0.0129). These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  5. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asito Amolo S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. Methods To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24 and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21. Results There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440, 18(p = 0.0210 and 24 months (p = 0.0493. No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27- or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+. However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34- were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+ were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144, 18 (p = 0.0013 and 24 months (p = 0.0129. Conclusions These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in different geographic regions and transmission cycles based on a microsatellite motif of the intergenic spacer of spliced leader genes✯

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Carolina I.; Mejía-Jaramillo, Ana M.; Duffy, Tomás; Burgos, Juan M.; Rodriguero, Marcela; Cardinal, Marta V.; Kjos, Sonia; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Blanchet, Denis; De Pablos, Luis M.; Tomasini, Nicolás; Silva, Alex Da; Russomando, Graciela; Cuba Cuba, Cesar A.; Aznar, Christine; Abate, Teresa; Levin, Mariano J.; Osuna, Antonio; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Diosque, Patricio; Solari, Aldo; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2011-01-01

    The intergenic region of spliced-leader (SL-IR) genes from 105 Trypanosoma cruzi I (Tc I) infected biological samples, culture isolates and stocks from 11 endemic countries, from Argentina to the USA were characterised, allowing identification of 76 genotypes with 54 polymorphic sites from 123 aligned sequences. On the basis of the microsatellite motif proposed by Herrera et al. (2007) to define four haplotypes in Colombia, we could classify these genotypes into four distinct Tc I SL-IR groups, three corresponding to the former haplotypes Ia (11 genotypes), Ib (11 genotypes) and Id (35 genotypes); and one novel group, Ie (19 genotypes). Genotypes harboring the Tc Ic motif were not detected in our study. Tc Ia was associated with domestic cycles in southern and northern South America and sylvatic cycles in Central and North America. Tc Ib was found in all transmission cycles from Colombia. Tc Id was identified in all transmission cycles from Argentina and Colombia, including Chagas cardiomyopathy patients, sylvatic Brazilian samples and human cases from French Guiana, Panama and Venezuela. Tc Ie gathered five samples from domestic Triatoma infestans from northern Argentina, nine samples from wild Mepraia spinolai and Mepraia gajardoi and two chagasic patients from Chile and one from a Bolivian patient with chagasic reactivation. Mixed infections by Tc Ia + Tc Id, Tc Ia + Tc Ie and Tc Id + Tc Ie were detected in vector faeces and isolates from human and vector samples. In addition, Tc Ia and Tc Id were identified in different tissues from a heart transplanted Chagas cardiomyopathy patient with reactivation, denoting histotropism. Trypanosoma cruzi I SL-IR genotypes from parasites infecting Triatoma gerstaeckeri and Didelphis virginiana from USA, T. infestans from Paraguay, Rhodnius nasutus and Rhodnius neglectus from Brazil and M. spinolai and M. gajardoi from Chile are to our knowledge described for the first time. PMID:20670628

  7. Lower end fitting debris collector and end cap spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies including an upper end fitting and spaced nuclear fuel rod spacer grids for supporting and spacing a plurality of elongated nuclear fuel rods. Each includes a hollow active portion of nuclear fuel filled cladding intermediate the rod ends and tapering end cap of solid material with a circumferential groove on the rod end which first encounters reactor coolant flow, a lower end filtering debris collector and end cap spacer grid for capturing and retaining deleterious debris carried by reactor coolant before it enters the active region of a fuel assembly and creates fuel rod cladding damage

  8. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Oliveira, VM; Manfio, GP; Coutinho, HLD; Keijzer-Wolters, AC; van Elsas, JD

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  9. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, de V.M.; Manfio, G.P.; Coutinho, H.L.D.; Keijzer-Wolters, A.C.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2006-01-01

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was

  10. Numerical investigation on practicability of reducing MCST by using grid spacer in a tight rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaojing; Morooka, Shinichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard grid spacer design causes decreased heat transfer in a tight rod bundle. • Heat transfer is greatly enhanced by flow-enhancing features. • Swirling flow adversely affects the heat transfer downstream of grid spacer. • Enhanced heat transfer by existing grid spacer is limited in a short region. • Improved grid spacer can effectively reduce MCST. - Abstract: The numerical investigation was carried out to reveal the practicability of reducing the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) within the inner sub-channel of a tight, hexagon rod bundle using commercial CFD code STAR CCM+ 6.04. The special heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics caused by four existing grid spacer designs were discussed in detail by analyzing the effects of grid strap length, different flow enhancing features and different Reynolds numbers. It was found that the local heat transfer within the grid strap is greatly enhanced due to the raised flow velocity. Both the standard grid spacer and the grid spacer with split-vanes cause decreased heat transfer in the downstream region. The friction drag is very influential in the tight rod bundle and can eliminate the positive effect of flow blockage on the heat transfer performance. The grid spacer with flow blockage discs induces relatively good heat transfer performance and higher pressure drop within sub-channels, indicating a tradeoff between the heat transfer augmentation and the pressure drop. The combination of multiple existing grid spacers can reduce the MCST to a certain level, but the corresponding disadvantages cannot be ignored. The improved grid spacer design was proposed based on the overall considerations of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics and has been proved more suitable to widely reduce MCST for SCWR than any other grid spacer designs involved in present study

  11. Two pion correlation from SPACER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.

    1989-12-01

    The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs

  12. Spacers for fuel rod clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The proposition deals with the fixing of nuclear fuel element rods in a grid which consists of a number of crossed Zy-plates which form cells. The rectangular cells have projections which serve as spacers for the fuel rods. According to the invention there are additional butt straps which can be moved in such a way that insertion and extraction of the fuel rods can be done without obstruction and they can be spring-loaded hold in their final position. (UWI) [de

  13. Processing of complex N-glycans in IgG Fc-region is affected by core fucosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Alexandra; Gruber, Clemens; Thader, Andreas; Oostenbrink, Chris; Pechlaner, Maria; Steinkellner, Herta; Altmann, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    We investigated N-glycan processing of immunoglobulin G1 using the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CxMab), which has a glycosite in the Fab domain in addition to the conserved Fc glycosylation, as a reporter. Three GlcNAc (Gn) terminating bi-antennary glycoforms of CxMab differing in core fucosylation (α1,3- and α1,6-linkage) were generated in a plant-based expression platform. These GnGn, GnGnF3, and GnGnF6 CxMab variants were subjected in vivo to further processing toward sialylation and GlcNAc diversification (bisected and branching structures). Mass spectrometry-based glycan analyses revealed efficient processing of Fab glycans toward envisaged structures. By contrast, Fc glycan processing largely depend on the presence of core fucose. A particularly strong support of glycan processing in the presence of plant-specific core α1,3-fucose was observed. Consistently, molecular modeling suggests changes in the interactions of the Fc carbohydrate chain depending on the presence of core fucose, possibly changing the accessibility. Here, we provide data that reveal molecular mechanisms of glycan processing of IgG antibodies, which may have implications for the generation of glycan-engineered therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacies. PMID:26067753

  14. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  15. How to use an inhaler - no spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MDI) administration - no spacer; Bronchial nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - ... 66. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a metered-dose inhaler. ...

  16. Pre-existing IgG antibodies cross-reacting with the Fab region of infliximab predict efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    are common and may cross-react with the murine part of IFX. AIM: To investigate if Abs binding to IFX's Fab region (IFX-Fab) are present in IBD patients before exposure to IFX, and whether they predict efficacy and safety of IFX therapy. METHODS: Observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with CD...... (n = 29) and UC (n = 22). RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels of IFX-Fab reactive IgG Abs were significantly lower in CD patients in remission after 1 year of maintenance IFX (median 91 mU/L, n = 8) than in the rest of the patients (639 mU/L, n = 21; P ...

  17. Pros and cons of symmetrical dual-k spacer technology in hybrid FinFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, K. P.; Andrade, M. G. C.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The symmetrical dual-k spacer technology in hybrid FinFETs has been widely explored for better electrostatic control of the fin-based devices in nanoscale region. Since, high-k tangible spacer materials are broadly became a matter of study due to their better immunity to the short channel effects (SCEs) in nano devices. However, the only cause that restricts the circuit designers from using high-k spacer is the unreasonable increasing fringing capacitances. This work quantitatively analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of considering two different dielectric spacer materials symmetrically in either sides of the channel for the hybrid device. From the demonstrated results, the inclusion of high-k spacer predicts an effective reduction in off-state leakage along with an improvement in drive current. However, these devices have paid the cost in terms of a high total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) that consequently results poor cutoff frequency (fT) and delay.

  18. Biased Iglambda expression in hypermutated IgD multiple myelomas does not result from receptor revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M.; Bende, R. J.; Aarts, W. M.; Langerak, A. W.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van Noesel, C. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Normal IgM(-)IgD(+) CD38(+) B cells and IgM(-)IgD(+) multiple myelomas (MM) are characterized by Cmu deletion, biased Iglambda expression and hypermutated IgV regions. The predominant Iglambda usage has been proposed as resulting from secondary Ig gene rearrangements during extensive clonal

  19. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  20. Synthetic study on cystinyl peptides using solution and solid phase metodology: human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Ježek, Jan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kašička, Václav; Wünsch, Erich; Hlaváček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 641-650 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * immunoglobulin * prion protein * solution synthesis * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.106, year: 2010

  1. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  2. Variation of 45S rDNA intergenic spacers in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlová, Kateřina; Dvořáčková, Martina; Peiro, Ramon; Abia, David; Mozgová, Iva; Vansáčová, Lenka; Gutierrez, Crisanto; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-11-01

    Approximately seven hundred 45S rRNA genes (rDNA) in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome are organised in two 4 Mbp-long arrays of tandem repeats arranged in head-to-tail fashion separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS). These arrays make up 5 % of the A. thaliana genome. IGS are rapidly evolving sequences and frequent rearrangements inside the rDNA loci have generated considerable interspecific and even intra-individual variability which allows to distinguish among otherwise highly conserved rRNA genes. The IGS has not been comprehensively described despite its potential importance in regulation of rDNA transcription and replication. Here we describe the detailed sequence variation in the complete IGS of A. thaliana WT plants and provide the reference/consensus IGS sequence, as well as genomic DNA analysis. We further investigate mutants dysfunctional in chromatin assembly factor-1 (CAF-1) (fas1 and fas2 mutants), which are known to have a reduced number of rDNA copies, and plant lines with restored CAF-1 function (segregated from a fas1xfas2 genetic background) showing major rDNA rearrangements. The systematic rDNA loss in CAF-1 mutants leads to the decreased variability of the IGS and to the occurrence of distinct IGS variants. We present for the first time a comprehensive and representative set of complete IGS sequences, obtained by conventional cloning and by Pacific Biosciences sequencing. Our data expands the knowledge of the A. thaliana IGS sequence arrangement and variability, which has not been available in full and in detail until now. This is also the first study combining IGS sequencing data with RFLP analysis of genomic DNA.

  3. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Lohr, Rebecca L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-05-06

    Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1) and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge) within a species. As in ratfish, sandbar and horn sharks, most nurse shark IgM VH

  4. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Helen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 with non-templated nucleotide (N-region addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. Results IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1 and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge within a species. Conclusion As in ratfish

  5. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  6. Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Sarah; Qamar, Adnan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2018-01-01

    drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1

  7. Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, B; Dunlop, JI; Batten, MR

    2000-01-01

    , Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. sanguis, Neisseria meningitidis types 1 and 2, N. gonorrhoeae types 1 and 2, and Haemophilus influenzae type 2. Thus, for these enzymes the recognition site for IgA1 cleavage is contained within half of the IgA1 hinge region; additional distal elements, if required, are provided...... by either an IgA1 or an IgA2 framework. In contrast, the IgA2/A1 hybrid appeared to be resistant to cleavage with S. oralis and some H. influenzae type 1 IgA1 proteases, suggesting these enzymes require additional determinants for efficient substrate recognition....

  8. The independent loss model with ordered insertions for the evolution of CRISPR spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumdicker, F; Huebner, A M I; Pfaffelhuber, P

    2018-02-01

    Today, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) region within bacterial and archaeal genomes is known to encode an adaptive immune system. We rely on previous results on the evolution of the CRISPR arrays, which led to the ordered independent loss model, introduced by Kupczok and Bollback (2013). When focusing on the spacers (between the repeats), new elements enter a CRISPR array at rate θ at the leader end of the array, while all spacers present are lost at rate ρ along the phylogeny relating the sample. Within this model, we compute the distribution of distances of spacers which are present in all arrays in a sample of size n. We use these results to estimate the loss rate ρ from spacer array data for n=2 and n=3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of IgG4-positive clones in affected organs of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuchi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Hara, Satoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We investigated class switch reaction (CSR) in affected organs and evaluated whether the same or genetically related clones exist in IgG4-RD. We studied three patients with IgG4-RD. Total cellular RNA was extracted from salivary glands and peripheral blood and lung tissue. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and immunoglobulin heavy chain third complementarity determining region (IgVH-CDR3) of IgM and IgG4 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We analyzed the clonal relationship of infiltrating IgG4-positive cells, as compared with IgM. We determined the existence of common clones among organs and patients. AID was expressed in salivary glands of all patients and lung tissue in one. Closely related IgVH-CDR3 sequences in infiltrating IgG4-positive cells were detected in salivary glands and lung tissue. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequence between IgM and IgG4 in salivary glands was detected in one patient, indicating CSR in salivary glands. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequences of IgG4-positive cells were detected between salivary glands and peripheral blood in two patients. Four identical sequences of IgVH-CDR3 existed between patients. Interestingly, one of the four sequences was detected in all patients. Our results demonstrate the existence of common antigen(s) shared by patients with IgG4-RD.

  10. Manipulation of recombination zone by utilizing the donor of electroplex as a spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Zhaoyue, E-mail: lvzhaoyue@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yin, Yuehong [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province 454000 (China); Xiao, Jing [Physics and Electronic Engineering College, Taishan University, Shandong Province 271021,China (China)

    2016-11-15

    The emission of electroplex is varied with applied voltages, leading to poor color stability of devices. In this work, the recombination region was investigated in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the electroplex between N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine(NPB) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Color stability was manipulated by introducing the donor of electroplex as a spacer, which plays an important role of recombination zone for electroplex-based OLEDs. The 5-nm-spacer-device brought out a tolerable chromaticity coordinate shift of less than 0.01 for both x- and y-value. White light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.37,0.28) and (0.33,0.26) at 12 V was achieved when the thickness of spacer was 7 and 10 nm, respectively. The 7-nm-spacer-device exhibited better color stability than the 10-nm-spacer-device. This proves that adjusting spacer thickness is a simple and efficient method to control recombination region and can be useful for fulfilling color-stable electroplex-based white emission.

  11. Manipulation of recombination zone by utilizing the donor of electroplex as a spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Yin, Yuehong; Xiao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The emission of electroplex is varied with applied voltages, leading to poor color stability of devices. In this work, the recombination region was investigated in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the electroplex between N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine(NPB) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Color stability was manipulated by introducing the donor of electroplex as a spacer, which plays an important role of recombination zone for electroplex-based OLEDs. The 5-nm-spacer-device brought out a tolerable chromaticity coordinate shift of less than 0.01 for both x- and y-value. White light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.37,0.28) and (0.33,0.26) at 12 V was achieved when the thickness of spacer was 7 and 10 nm, respectively. The 7-nm-spacer-device exhibited better color stability than the 10-nm-spacer-device. This proves that adjusting spacer thickness is a simple and efficient method to control recombination region and can be useful for fulfilling color-stable electroplex-based white emission.

  12. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T; Meshnick, Steven R; Nicholson, William L; Apperson, Charles S

    2016-04-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detectRickettsiaspp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) ofRickettsiaspp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11Rickettsiaspecies belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to otherRickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA,gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11Rickettsiaspp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii." Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adultDermacentor variabilisticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detectedRickettsiaDNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species ofRickettsia The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species ofRickettsiain the ticks. "CandidatusRickettsia amblyommii,"R. montanensis,R. felis, andR. belliiwere frequently identified species, along with some potentially novelRickettsiastrains that were closely related toR. belliiandR. conorii. Copyright © 2016 Kakumanu et al.

  13. Development and Validation of an Improved PCR Method Using the 23S-5S Intergenic Spacer for Detection of Rickettsiae in Dermacentor variabilis Ticks and Tissue Samples from Humans and Laboratory Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Sutton, Haley T.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Nicholson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel nested PCR assay was developed to detect Rickettsia spp. in ticks and tissue samples from humans and laboratory animals. Primers were designed for the nested run to amplify a variable region of the 23S-5S intergenic spacer (IGS) of Rickettsia spp. The newly designed primers were evaluated using genomic DNA from 11 Rickettsia species belonging to the spotted fever, typhus, and ancestral groups and, in parallel, compared to other Rickettsia-specific PCR targets (ompA, gltA, and the 17-kDa protein gene). The new 23S-5S IGS nested PCR assay amplified all 11 Rickettsia spp., but the assays employing other PCR targets did not. The novel nested assay was sensitive enough to detect one copy of a cloned 23S-5S IGS fragment from “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii.” Subsequently, the detection efficiency of the 23S-5S IGS nested assay was compared to those of the other three assays using genomic DNA extracted from 40 adult Dermacentor variabilis ticks. The nested 23S-5S IGS assay detected Rickettsia DNA in 45% of the ticks, while the amplification rates of the other three assays ranged between 5 and 20%. The novel PCR assay was validated using clinical samples from humans and laboratory animals that were known to be infected with pathogenic species of Rickettsia. The nested 23S-5S IGS PCR assay was coupled with reverse line blot hybridization with species-specific probes for high-throughput detection and simultaneous identification of the species of Rickettsia in the ticks. “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii,” R. montanensis, R. felis, and R. bellii were frequently identified species, along with some potentially novel Rickettsia strains that were closely related to R. bellii and R. conorii. PMID:26818674

  14. Elucidating heterogeneity of IgA1 hinge-region O-glycosylation by use of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry: role of cysteine alkylation during sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Vojtěch; Řehulka, Pavel; Raus, Martin; Stulík, Jiří; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B; Šebela, Marek

    2013-10-30

    Determining disease-associated changes in protein glycosylation provides a better understanding of pathogenesis. This work focuses on human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), where aberrant O-glycosylation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Normal IgA1 hinge region carries 3 to 6 O-glycans consisting of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and galactose (Gal); both sugars may be sialylated. In IgAN patients, some O-glycans on a fraction of IgA1 molecules are Gal-deficient. Here we describe a sample preparation protocol with optimized cysteine alkylation of a Gal-deficient polymeric IgA1 myeloma protein prior to in-gel digestion and analysis of the digest by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Following a novel strategy, IgA1 hinge-region O-glycopeptides were fractionated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a microgradient device and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem MS (MS/MS). The acquired MS/MS spectra were interpreted manually and by means of our own software. This allowed assigning up to six O-glycosylation sites and demonstration, for the first time, of the distribution of isomeric O-glycoforms having the same molecular mass, but a different glycosylation pattern. The most abundant Gal-deficient O-glycoforms were GalNAc4Gal3 and GalNAc5Gal4 with one Gal-deficient site and GalNAc5Gal3 and GalNAc4Gal2 with two Gal-deficient sites. The most frequent Gal-deficient sites were at Ser230 and/or Thr236. In this work, we studied the O-glycosylation in the hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1). Aberrant glycosylation of the protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Thus identification of the O-glycan composition of IgA1 is important for a deeper understanding of the disease mechanism, biomarker discovery and validation, and implementation and monitoring of disease-specific therapies. We developed a new procedure for elucidating the heterogeneity of IgA1 O-glycosylation. After running a polyacrylamide gel

  15. High corrosion-resistant fuel spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toshimi; Takase, Iwao; Ikeda, Shinzo; Masaoka, Isao; Nakajima, Junjiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable manufacturing BWR fuel spacers by prior-art production process, using a zirconium-base alloy having very excellent corrosion resistance. Method: A highly improved nodular-resistant, corrosion-resistant zirconium alloy is devised by adding a slight amount of niobium, titanium and vanadium to zircaloy, of which fuel spacers are produced. That is, there can be obtained an alloy having much more excellent nodular resistance than conventional zircaloy, and free from a large change in plasticity, workability, and weldability, by adding to zirconium about 1.5 % of tin, about 0.15 % of iron, about 0.05 % of chromium, about 0.05 % of nickel, and 0.05 to 0.5 % of at least one or two kinds of niobium, titanium and vanadium. Using this zirconium-base alloy can manufacture fuel spacers by the same manufacturing process, thus improving economy and reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. A study on improvement of analytical prediction model for spacer grid pressure loss coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jonh Seon

    2002-02-01

    Nuclear fuel assemblies used in the nuclear power plants consist of the nuclear fuel rods, the control rod guide tubes, an instrument guide tube, spacer grids,a bottom nozzle, a top nozzle. The spacer grid is the most important component of the fuel assembly components for thermal hydraulic and mechanical design and analyses. The spacer grids fixed with the guide tubes support the fuel rods and have the very important role to activate thermal energy transfer by the coolant mixing caused to the turbulent flow and crossflow in the subchannels. In this paper, the analytical spacer grid pressure loss prediction model has been studied and improved by considering the test section wall to spacer grid gap pressure loss independently and applying the appropriate friction drag coefficient to predict pressure loss more accurately at the low Reynolds number region. The improved analytical model has been verified based on the hydraulic pressure drop test results for the spacer grids of three types with 5x5, 16x16, 17x17 arrays, respectively. The pressure loss coefficients predicted by the improved analytical model are coincident with those test results within ±12%. This result shows that the improved analytical model can be used for research and design change of the nuclear fuel assembly

  17. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  18. Synthesis of protected peptides from the human IgG1 hinge region on PEG support using disulfide bond synthons and alkaline or enzymatic detachment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Gut, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2006), s. 1023-1025 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : peptide synthesis * IgG1 hinge peptide * PEG carrier Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2006

  19. IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Nephritis: Aberrant Glycosylation of IgA1, Formation of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes, and Activation of Mesangial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Renfrow, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposits of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is aberrantly glycosylated; the hinge-region O-linked glycans are galactose-deficient. The circulating IgA1 of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) has a similar defect. This aberrancy...

  20. Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    The improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1 and 6.6 L.m-2.h-1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those observed with

  1. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    Designs of nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids for supporting and spacing fuel elements are described which do not utilize resilient grid plate protrusions in the peripheral band but retain the advantages inherent in the combination resilient and rigid protrusion cells. (U.K.)

  2. Separator-spacer for electrochemical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Newby, Kenneth R.; Bellows, Richard J.

    1983-08-02

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  3. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  4. Pressure Drop Test of Hybrid Mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D. S.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.; Chun, S. Y.; Chun, T. H

    2007-08-15

    The pressure loss test has been accomplished in the test section containing 5x5 rod bundle with a length of 2 m including 3 spacer grids. The test has been performed for the 5 kinds of spacer grids to compare the pressure loss characteristics: 1. Plain spacer grid which has the same body of the Hybrid but without vane (Plain), 2. Hybrid Vane spacer grid (Hybrid), 3. Hybrid-SC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by spot welding, 4. Hybrid-LC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by line welding along intersection line, 5. Westinghouse spacer grid with split vane (Plus-7). The pressure loss coefficient of the Plain, Hybrid, Hybrid-SC, Hybrid-LC, and Plus-7 spacer grid is 0.93, 1.15, 1.02, 1.04, and 1.08, respectively.

  5. Hydraulic Design Criteria for Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, Luis; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic model for calculating the pressure drop on the CARA spacer grids is extended.This model is validated and feedback from experimental hydraulic test performed in a low pressure loop.The importance of the spacer grid geometric parameter (that is, its thickness and length, the number and kind of their fix spacer), developing hydraulic design criteria for spacer grid on fuel element

  6. Methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer of rRNA genes in excised cotyledons of Cucurbita pepo L. (Zucchini) after hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananiev, E.; Abdulova, G.; Grozdanov, P.; Karagyozov, L.

    2003-01-01

    High molecular mass genomic DNA was isolated from excised marrow cotyledons (Cucurbita pepo L. zucchini) treated with 6-benzyladenine (BA) of methyl ester of jasmonic acid (MeJA) for 24 h in darkness. DNA purified from contaminating polysaccharides with Celite column was completely digested with the restriction enzyme Eco RI and the changes in the methylation pattern of the intergenic spacer (IGS) of r RNA genes were studied after subsequent digestion with the couple of restriction enzymes-isoschizomers MSP I and Hpa II by the method of 'indirect end labelling'. As rDNA units probe a cloned 32 P-labelled Eco RI 2.1 kb fragment spanning in the most part of 18S r RNA gene from flax rDNA was used. Results showed heavy methylation of the rRNA genes. As judged from the almost total lack of digestion with HPA II, there were no methylation free regions in repeated rDNA units or little if any were observed. A hypo methylated Hps II site was detected near the promoter region in some of the repeats. Digestion with Msp I affected nearly 50% of the repeating units. The Msp digestion fragments of the 6.2 kb Eco RI fragment of r DNA were few in number and large in size (0.5 - 2.5 kb). This suggested that in addition with -CpG- sequences, methylation in -CpNpG- might not be random. Methylation pattern in IGS was not changed upon treatment of the cotyledons in vivo with BA and MeJA. Thus, previously observed hormone-mediated effects on the eactivity of rRNA gene expression were not accompanied by any significant changes of the methylation pattern in IGS. (authors)

  7. Heterogeneous diversity of spacers within CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Michael; He, Jiankui

    2011-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of anti-viral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face. 1) J. He and M. W. Deem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 128102

  8. Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Li, Weiyi; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Fane, Anthony G

    2017-03-01

    Spacer design plays an important role in improving the performance of membrane processes for water/wastewater treatment. This work focused on a fundamental issue of spacer design, i.e., investigating the effects of spacer orientations on the fouling behavior during a membrane process. A series of fouling experiments with different spacer orientation were carried out to in situ characterize the formation of a cake layer in a spacer unit cell via 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The cake layers formed at different times were digitalized for quantitatively analyzing the variation in the cake morphology as a function of time. In particular, the local deposition rates were evaluated to determine the active regions where the instantaneous changes in deposit thickness were significant. The characterization results indicate that varying the spacer orientation could substantially change the evolution of membrane fouling by particulate foulants and thereby result in a cake layer with various morphologies; the competition between growth and erosion at different locations would instantaneously respond to the micro-hydrodynamic environment that might change with time. This work confirms that the OCT-based characterization method is a powerful tool for exploring novel spacer design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical test for fuel assembly spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Seok; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Bang, Je Keun.

    1997-06-01

    In order to propose some tests for a new spacer grid, the grid mechanical tests performed by ABB-CE, KWU and Westinghouse have been investigated. It is known that a static compression test, a dynamic impact test, and a grid spring characteristic test were commonly carried out by the vendors when a prototype spacer grid was developed. The static compression test is to measure the stresses on the strips as well as to obtain the grid stiffness. The dynamic impact test is to get some basic data for accident analysis such as impact stiffness, impact strength, and coefficient of restitution. Since each fuel vendor has his theory on an accident analysis, every vendor employs his particular method for the dynamic impact test. The dynamic impact test can be divided into two in accordance with the number of impact face, and the duration of impact pulse. One is an one-sided impact test and the other is an through-gird impact test. The duration of the impact pulse for the former is considerably shorter than the latter. Therefore, the grid can endure much higher load under the one-sided impact condition than under the through-grid impact condition. The grid spring characteristic test is to obtain a force versus deflection curve. This curve is very important in designing the spacer grid to provide fuel rods with a sound supports in core. (author). 18 tabs., 26 figs

  10. Antibiotic impregnated total femur spacers: a technical tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Canham, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous prosthetic joint infection of ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasties is often accompanied by significant bone loss and presents a challenging reconstructive problem. Two-stage reconstruction is favored and requires the placement of a total femur spacer, which is not a commercially available device. We describe a surgical technique, reporting on 2 cases in which a customized total femur antibiotic impregnated spacer was created by combining an articulating knee spacer and an articulating hip spacer with a reinforced cement dowel construct connecting the 2 spacers. Custom total femoral spacers are useful in the management of infected femoral megaprostheses and cases with ipsilateral injected hip and knee arthroplasties and severe femoral bone loss. Keywords: total femur spacer, revision arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, prosthetic joint infection

  11. CFD analysis of pressure drop across grid spacers in rod bundles compared to correlations and heavy liquid metal experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu; Class, A.G., E-mail: class@kit.edu

    2017-02-15

    Early studies of the flow in rod bundles with spacer grids suggest that the pressure drop can be decomposed in contributions due to flow area variations by spacer grids and frictional losses along the rods. For these shape and frictional losses simple correlations based on theoretical and experimental data have been proposed. In the OECD benchmark study LACANES it was observed that correlations could well describe the flow behavior of the heavy liquid metal loop including a rod bundle with the exception of the core region, where different experts chose different pressure-loss correlations for the losses due to spacer grids. Here, RANS–CFD simulations provided very good data compared to the experimental data. It was observed that the most commonly applied Rehme correlation underestimated the shape losses. The available correlations relate the pressure drop across a grid spacer to the relative plugging of the spacer i.e. solidity e{sub max}. More sophisticated correlations distinct between spacer grids with round or sharp leading edge shape. The purpose of this study is to (i) show that CFD is suitable to predict pressure drop across spacer grids and (ii) to access the generality of pressure drop correlations. By verification and validation of CFD results against experimental data obtained in KALLA we show (i). The generality (ii) is challenged by considering three cases which yield identical pressure drop in the correlations. First we test the effect of surface roughness, a parameter not present in the correlations. Here we compare a simulation assuming a typical surface roughness representing the experimental situation to a perfectly smooth spacer surface. Second we reverse the flow direction for the spacer grid employed in the experiments which is asymmetric. The flow direction reversal is chosen for convenience, since an asymmetric spacer grid with given blockage ratio, may result in different flow situations depending on flow direction. Obviously blockage

  12. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  13. Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in dermatomycete genus Trichophyton Malmsten 1848 based on ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, partial 28S rRNA and beta-tubulin genes sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pchelin, Ivan M; Zlatogursky, Vasily V; Rudneva, Mariya V; Chilina, Galina A; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Lavnikevich, Dmitry M; Vasilyeva, Natalya V; Taraskina, Anastasia E

    2016-09-01

    Trichophyton spp. are important causative agents of superficial mycoses. The phylogeny of the genus and accurate strain identification, based on the ribosomal ITS region sequencing, are still under development. The present work is aimed at (i) inferring the genus phylogeny from partial ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences (ii) description of ribosomal ITS region polymorphism in 15 strains of Trichophyton interdigitale. We performed DNA sequence-based species identification and phylogenetic analysis on 48 strains belonging to the genus Trichophyton. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods on concatenated ITS, LSU and BT2 sequences. Ribosomal ITS region polymorphisms were assessed directly on the alignment. By phylogenetic reconstruction, we reveal major anthropophilic and zoophilic species clusters in the genus Trichophyton. We describe several sequences of the ITS region of T. interdigitale, which do not fit in the traditional polymorphism scheme and propose emendations in this scheme for discrimination between ITS sequence types in T. interdigitale. The new polymorphism scheme will allow inclusion of a wider spectrum of isolates while retaining its explanatory power. This scheme was also found to be partially congruent with NTS typing technique. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Fouling resilient perforated feed spacers for membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerdi, Sarah; Qamar, Adnan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2018-04-24

    The improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50%-61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L m -2 .h -1 and 6.6 L m -2 .h -1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those

  15. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    A spacer grid for a nuclear fuel assembly is comprised of a lattice of grid plates forming multiple cells that are penetrated by fuel elements. Resilient protrusions and rigid protrusions projecting into the cells from the plates bear against the fuel element to effect proper support and spacing. Pairs of intersecting grid plates, disposed in a longitudinally spaced relationship, cooperate with other plates to form a lattice wherein each cell contains adjacent panels having resilient protrusions arranged opposite adjacent panels having rigid protrusions. The peripheral band bounding the lattice is provided solely with rigid protrusions projecting into the peripheral cells. (Auth.)

  16. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F Humphreys

    Full Text Available Asian elephant (Elephas maximus immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV, which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  17. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  18. Spacers for use in nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohata, Hironori; Nakamura, Shozo; Hasegawa, Kunio; Higuchi, Shigeo; Nagashima, Hideaki; Kawada, Yoshishige.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent liquid film breakage at the surface of a fuel rod due to swirlings of steam flow generated at the upstream of a contact portion between the fuel rod and a spacer leaf spring, that is, below the contact portion. Constitution: Steam-hot water 2-phase streams flowing from the lower to the upper portions of a fuel assembly is hindered by leaf springs, thereby forming swirlings in the steam flow at the upstream of a contact portion between the fuel rod and the leaf springs, that is, below the contact portion. The horseshoe-like swirlings shed the liquid films at the surface of the fuel rod to remarkably decrease the heat cooling performance, by which the surface temperature of a fuel can is temporarily increased thereby possibly causing failures due to so-called burnout in view of the above, steps are formed to the spacer leaf spring for use in the fuel assembly, to reduce the pressure difference between the leaf spring and the fuel rod at the upstream of the springs relative to the 2-phase coolant stream. In this way, formation of the swirlings is moderated to prevent the liquid film breakage and improve the critical heat power. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Development of structural technology for a high performance spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Kim, H. K.; Kang, H. S.

    2003-03-01

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 14 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates six are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models

  20. Pressure Drop of Chamfer on Spacer Grid Strap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Euijae; Kim, Kanghoon; Kim, Kyounghong; Nahm, Keeyil [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A swirl flow and cross flow are generated by the spacer grid with mixing vane that enhances the thermal performance and critical heat flux (CHF). The additional pressure drop makes it difficult to meet acceptance criteria for overall pressure drop in fuel assembly depending upon the pump capacity. The chamfer on the end of spacer grid strap is one solution to reduce additional pressure drop without any adverse effect on flow fields. In this research, the pressure drop tests for spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the hydraulic test facility. The result can be applied to develop high performance nuclear fuel assemblies for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. The pressure drop tests for 5x5 spacer grid with and without chamfer as well as 6x6 spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the INFINIT test facility. The Reynolds number ranged about from 16000 to 75000. The sweep-up and sweep-down test showed that the direction of sweep did not affect the pressure drop. The chamfer on spacer grid strap reduced the pressure drop due to the decreased in ratio of inlet area to outlet area. The pressure loss coefficient for spacer grid with chamfer was by up to 13.8 % lower than that for spacer grid without chamfer. Hence, the chamfer on spacer grid strap was one of effective ways to reduce the pressure drop.

  1. Determination of Antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pedram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma in malignant patients in order to refer the patients on time to the physician for treatment.Methods: This study was carried out on 252 malignant patients and 252 healthy normal subjects (as control obtained from Shafa Hospital and Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Iran-Zamin, in Ahwaz city. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Serum samples of patients were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA technique using Trinity kits. Results: The results of this study revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in 114 (45.2% cases of patients who were positive for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, and 26 (10.3% cases were confirmed to be positive for Toxoplasma IgM antibodies and also 17 (6.7% of cases had both IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In control group 92 (36.5% cases and 15 (6% cases revealed seropositive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex, close contact with cat, living region, chemotherapy, and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis in patients. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the age of 51 years or higher, and their rates had tendency to increase with age in both groups. No seropositivity significant relationship was found between patients and control group.Conclusion: According to the prevalence of positive cases in these patients, it is necessary to examine the patients for toxoplasmosis before, during and after chemotherapy.

  2. Study on natural convection in core barrel. Experimental and numerical results for band type spacer pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kenji; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamide, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    In a fast reactor an Inter-Wrapper Flow (IWF) is one of significant phenomena for decay heat removal under natural circulation condition, when a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) is adopted for decay heat removal system. Cold coolant provided by dipped heat exchangers (DHX) of DRACS can penetrate into the core barrel (region between the subassemblies) and it makes natural convection int he core barrel. Such IWF will depend on a spacer pad geometry of subassemblies. Water experiment, TRIF (Test Rig for Inter-wrapper Flow), was carried out for IWF in a reactor core. The test section modeled a 1/12th sector of the core and upper plenum of reactor vessel. Experimental parameters were the spacer pad geometry and flow path geometries connecting the upper plenum and core barrel. Numerical simulation using AQUA code was also performed to confirm applicability of a simulation method. An experimental series using a button type spacer pad had been carried out. Here a band type spacer pad was examined. Temperatures at subassembly wall were measured with parameter of the flow path geometries; one was a connection pipe between the upper plenum and core barrel and the other was flow hole in core former plates between the outermost subassemblies and the core barrel. It was found that these flow paths were effective to remove heat in the core in case of the band type spacer pad. A general purpose three dimensional analysis code, AQUA, was applied to the experimental analysis. Each subassembly and inter wrapper gap region were modeled by slab mesh geometry. Pressure loss coefficient at the pacer pad was set based on the geometry. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with measured temperature profiles in the core. (author)

  3. Efficient thermal diode with ballistic spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shunda; Donadio, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    Thermal rectification is of importance not only for fundamental physics, but also for potential applications in thermal manipulations and thermal management. However, thermal rectification effect usually decays rapidly with system size. Here, we show that a mass-graded system, with two diffusive leads separated by a ballistic spacer, can exhibit large thermal rectification effect, with the rectification factor independent of system size. The underlying mechanism is explained in terms of the effective size-independent thermal gradient and the match or mismatch of the phonon bands. We also show the robustness of the thermal diode upon variation of the model's parameters. Our finding suggests a promising way for designing realistic efficient thermal diodes.

  4. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  5. PCR-Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes sequencing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: DNA extraction, purification, amplification and sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes were per- formed using ... Keywords: Internal transcribed spacer genes, phylogenetic, genetic relationship, clinical and environmental fungi, HIV-TB. ... Nigeria. An Ethical clearance was obtained from the Eth-.

  6. Stress Analysis of Single Spacer Grid Support considering Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. G.; Jung, D. H.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel assembly is mainly composed of a top-end piece, a bottom-end piece, lots of fuel rods, and several spacer grids. Among them, the main function of spacer grid is protecting fuel rods from Fluid Induced Vibration (FIV). The cross section of spacer grid assembled by laser welding in upper and lower point. When the fuel rod inserted in spacer gird, spring and dimple and around of welded area got a stresses. The main hypothesis of this analysis is the boundary area of HAZ and base metal can get a lot of damage than other area by FIV. So, design factors of spacer grid mainly considered to preventing the fatigue failure in HAZ and spring and dimple of spacer grid. From previous researching, the environment in reactor verified. Pressure and temperature of light water observed 15MPa and 320 .deg. C, and vibration of the fuel rod observed within 0 {approx} 50Hz. In this study, mechanical properties of zirconium alloy that extracted from the test and the spacer grid model which used in the PWR were applied in stress analyzing. General-purpose finite element analysis program was used ANSYS Workbench 12.0.1 version. 3-D CAD program CATIA was used to create spacer grid model

  7. Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2000-06-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine

  8. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  9. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  10. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  11. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    to 6 years, suspected to have asthma the non-electrostatic spacer delivered a mean total dose of budesonide aerosol of 39% of the nominal dose, which was significantly higher than the Babyhaler (28%), the Nebuhaler (21%), and the AeroChamber (19%). These differences were most pronounced in children......A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  12. Flexibility and conformational change of IgG molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, Y.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-12-01

    The dynamic behaviour of pig anti-Dnp-immunoglobulin (IgG) investigated by the neutron spin echo technique gave evidence of internal motion of a biological macromolecule. It is suggested that this motion belongs to the wobbling of the Fab parts of the investigated IgG molecule around its so called hinge region. (author)

  13. IgM and IgD B cell receptors differentially respond to endogenous antigens and control B cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviski, Mark; Mueller, James L; Satterthwaite, Anne; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Brombacher, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Naive B cells co-express two BCR isotypes, IgM and IgD, with identical antigen-binding domains but distinct constant regions. IgM but not IgD is downregulated on autoreactive B cells. Because these isotypes are presumed to be redundant, it is unknown how this could impose tolerance. We introduced the Nur77-eGFP reporter of BCR signaling into mice that express each BCR isotype alone. Despite signaling strongly in vitro, IgD is less sensitive than IgM to endogenous antigen in vivo and developmental fate decisions are skewed accordingly. IgD-only Lyn−/− B cells cannot generate autoantibodies and short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) in vivo, a fate thought to be driven by intense BCR signaling induced by endogenous antigens. Similarly, IgD-only B cells generate normal germinal center, but impaired IgG1+ SLPC responses to T-dependent immunization. We propose a role for IgD in maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive B cells and restricting their differentiation into autoantibody secreting cells. PMID:29521626

  14. Circulating IgA immune complexes in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.P.; Peck, G.L.; Lawley, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sera of 21 patients with psoriasis were examined for the presence of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (CIC) using the Raji IgA radioimmunoassay. In addition, the Raji IgG radioimmunoassay and 125I-Clq binding assay were used to detect IgG- and IgM-containing CIC. Twenty-five patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders were studied as controls. Patients were studied before institution of systemic therapy with etretinate (20 patients) or 13-cis-retinoic acid (1 patient). In addition, sera of 15 of the patients treated with etretinate were studied before, during, and after therapy. The extent of pretreatment disease involvement as well as response to therapy were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Fourteen of 21 (67%) patients with psoriasis had evidence of IgA-containing CIC at some time during the course of their disease, as compared to only 1 of 25 patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders. In contrast, only 2 of 19 (11%) had evidence of IgG-containing CIC using the Raji IgG assay, and only 1 of 19 (5%) had evidence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC using the 125I-Clq binding assay. A positive correlation was found between the extent of pretreatment disease involvement and the level of IgA-containing CIC by linear regression analysis (p . 0.01). There was, however, no correlation between clinical improvement and the presence or level of IgA-containing CIC in 15 patients followed during therapy. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the IgA-containing CIC found in 2 of these patients demonstrated IgA-containing CIC in the 9S to 13S region. The finding of IgA-containing CIC in a significant number of patients with psoriasis and the relative absence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC suggest that IgA-containing CIC may play a role in psoriasis

  15. How type II CRISPR-Cas establish immunity through Cas1-Cas2-mediated spacer integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yibei; Ng, Sherwin; Nam, Ki Hyun; Ke, Ailong

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and the nearby Cas (CRISPR-associated) operon establish an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes. Molecular memory is created when a short foreign DNA-derived prespacer is integrated into the CRISPR array as a new spacer. Whereas the RNA-guided CRISPR interference mechanism varies widely among CRISPR-Cas systems, the spacer integration mechanism is essentially identical. The conserved Cas1 and Cas2 proteins form an integrase complex consisting of two distal Cas1 dimers bridged by a Cas2 dimer. The prespacer is bound by Cas1-Cas2 as a dual-forked DNA, and the terminal 3'-OH of each 3' overhang serves as an attacking nucleophile during integration. The prespacer is preferentially integrated into the leader-proximal region of the CRISPR array, guided by the leader sequence and a pair of inverted repeats inside the CRISPR repeat. Spacer integration in the well-studied Escherichia coli type I-E CRISPR system also relies on the bacterial integration host factor. In type II-A CRISPR, however, Cas1-Cas2 alone integrates spacers efficiently in vitro; other Cas proteins (such as Cas9 and Csn2) have accessory roles in the biogenesis phase of prespacers. Here we present four structural snapshots from the type II-A system of Enterococcus faecalis Cas1 and Cas2 during spacer integration. Enterococcus faecalis Cas1-Cas2 selectively binds to a splayed 30-base-pair prespacer bearing 4-nucleotide 3' overhangs. Three molecular events take place upon encountering a target: first, the Cas1-Cas2-prespacer complex searches for half-sites stochastically, then it preferentially interacts with the leader-side CRISPR repeat, and finally, it catalyses a nucleophilic attack that connects one strand of the leader-proximal repeat to the prespacer 3' overhang. Recognition of the spacer half-site requires DNA bending and leads to full integration. We derive a mechanistic framework to explain the stepwise spacer

  16. Unprecedented multiplicity of Ig transmembrane and secretory mRNA forms in the cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Diaz, Marilyn; Lohr, Rebecca L; Mochon, Evonne; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-07-15

    In most jawed vertebrates including cartilaginous fish, membrane-bound IgM is expressed as a five Ig superfamily (Igsf)-domain H chain attached to a transmembrane (Tm) region. Heretofore, bony fish IgM was the one exception with IgM mRNA spliced to produce a four-domain Tm H chain. We now demonstrate that the Tm and secretory (Sec) mRNAs of the novel cartilaginous fish Ig isotypes, IgW and IgNAR, are present in multiple forms, most likely generated by alternative splicing. In the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and horn shark, Heterodontus francisci, alternative splicing of Tm exons to the second or the fourth constant (C(H)) exons produces two distinct IgW Tm cDNAs. Although the seven-domain IgW Sec cDNA form contains a canonical secretory tail shared with IgM, IgNAR, and IgA, we report a three-domain cDNA form of shark IgW (IgW(short)) having an unusual Sec tail, which is orthologous to skate IgX(short) cDNA. The IgW and IgW(short) Sec transcripts are restricted in their tissue distribution and expression levels vary among individual sharks, with all forms expressed early in ontogeny. IgNAR mRNA is alternatively spliced to produce a truncated four-domain Tm cDNA and a second Tm cDNA is expressed identical in Igsf domains as the Sec form. PBL is enriched in the Tm cDNA of these Igs. These molecular data suggest that cartilaginous fish have augmented their humoral immune repertoire by diversifying the sizes of their Ig isotypes. Furthermore, these Tm cDNAs are prototypical and the truncated variants may translate as more stable protein at the cell surface.

  17. Effects of different rod spacers (helical types) on coolant crossmixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, A.V.; Sviridenko, E.Ya.; Matyukhin, N.M.; Rymkevich, K.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    The results of investigations (electromagnetic measuring method) on coolant cross mixing in rod clusters with spiral wire spacers with different winding directions, with alternating unfinned and finned rods (case 'fin to rod'), as well as in rod clusters with much space between the rods, (case 'fin to fin') are reported. The local fluid dynamics parameters (distribution of the transversal and longitudinal velocity component) that define the physical processes of the coolant exchange in the rod clusters with helical spacers are explained. The investigation results for different helical spacer types are compared with each other. (orig.) [de

  18. Grid spacers for use in a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwako, Akira.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain spacers capable of reducing the pressure loss by enlarging coolant flow channels when the fuel temperature is high, while capable of reliably maintaining the fuel pins with no vibrations when the fuel temperature is low. Constitution: This invention concerns grid spacers for constituting fuel assemblies for use in water cooled reactors. Memory shape alloys are disposed at least a portion of a spacer element that takes such a shape as urging the pin when the fuel temperature is low, while enlarging the coolant flow channel to reduce the pressure loss when the fuel temperature is high. (Ikeda, J.)

  19. Preclinical Evaluation of Bioabsorbable Polyglycolic Acid Spacer for Particle Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Sulaiman, Nor Shazrina Binti; Nagata, Masaaki; Yamada, Shigeru; Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer through physical and animal experiments. Methods and Materials: The spacer was produced with surgical suture material made of PGA, forming a 3-dimensional nonwoven fabric. For evaluation or physical experiments, 150-MeV proton or 320-MeV carbon-ion beams were used to generate 60-mm width of spread-out Bragg peak. For animal experiments, the abdomens of C57BL/6 mice, with or without the inserted PGA spacers, were irradiated with 20 Gy of carbon-ion beam (290 MeV) using the spread-out Bragg peak. Body weight changes over time were scored, and radiation damage to the intestine was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin stain. Blood samples were also evaluated 24 days after the irradiation. Long-term thickness retention and safety were evaluated using crab-eating macaques. Results: No chemical or structural changes after 100 Gy of proton or carbon-ion irradiation were observed in the PGA spacer. Water equivalency of the PGA spacer was equal to the water thickness under wet condition. During 24 days' observation after 20 Gy of carbon-ion irradiation, the body weights of mice with the PGA spacer were relatively unchanged, whereas significant weight loss was observed in those mice without the PGA spacer (P<.05). In mice with the PGA spacer, villus and crypt structure were preserved after irradiation. No inflammatory reactions or liver or renal dysfunctions due to placement of the PGA spacer were observed. In the abdomen of crab-eating macaques, thickness of the PGA spacer was maintained 8 weeks after placement. Conclusions: The absorbable PGA spacer had water-equivalent, bio-compatible, and thickness-retaining properties. Although further evaluation is warranted in a clinical setting, the PGA spacer may be effective to stop proton or carbon-ion beams and to separate normal tissues from the radiation field

  20. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and acute phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that USS or pregnancy changes different aspects of humoral immunity, thus the co-existence of pregnancy and S. haematobium infection may ... Résultats et conclusions: IgG, IgA et IgM étaient remarquablement élevés chez les femmes enceintes atteintes de la schistose urinaire par rapport aux femmes ...

  3. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Simizu, Shuya; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is often associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. However, the diffuse cholangiographic abnormalities observed in IgG4-SC may resemble those observed in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the presence of segmental stenosis suggests cholangiocarcinoma (CC). IgG4-SC responds well to steroid therapy, whereas PSC is only effectively treated with liver transplantation and CC requires surgical intervention. Since IgG4-SC was first described, it has become a third distinct clinical entity of sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this review was to introduce the diagnostic methods for IgG4-SC. IgG4-SC should be carefully diagnosed based on a combination of characteristic clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features after cholangiographic classification and targeting of a disease for differential diagnosis. When intrapancreatic stenosis is detected, pancreatic cancer or CC should be ruled out. If multiple intrahepatic stenoses are evident, PSC should be distinguished on the basis of cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining. Associated inflammatory bowel disease is suggestive of PSC. If stenosis is demonstrated in the hepatic hilar region, CC should be discriminated by ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and a higher cutoff serum IgG4 level of 182 mg/dL. PMID:24282356

  4. Different patterns of evolution in the centromeric and telomeric regions of group A and B haplotypes of the human killer cell Ig-like receptor locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Woo Pyo

    Full Text Available The fast evolving human KIR gene family encodes variable lymphocyte receptors specific for polymorphic HLA class I determinants. Nucleotide sequences for 24 representative human KIR haplotypes were determined. With three previously defined haplotypes, this gave a set of 12 group A and 15 group B haplotypes for assessment of KIR variation. The seven gene-content haplotypes are all combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. 2DL5, 2DS5 and 2DS3 can be present in centromeric and telomeric locations. With one exception, haplotypes having identical gene content differed in their combinations of KIR alleles. Sequence diversity varied between haplotype groups and between centromeric and telomeric halves of the KIR locus. The most variable A haplotype genes are in the telomeric half, whereas the most variable genes characterizing B haplotypes are in the centromeric half. Of the highly polymorphic genes, only the 3DL3 framework gene exhibits a similar diversity when carried by A and B haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates, point to the centromeric gene-content motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes having emerged ~6 million years ago, contemporaneously with the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In contrast, the telomeric motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes emerged more recently, ~1.7 million years ago, before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Thus the centromeric and telomeric motifs that typify A and B haplotypes have likely been present throughout human evolution. The results suggest the common ancestor of A and B haplotypes combined a B-like centromeric region with an A-like telomeric region.

  5. USE OF ANTIBIOTIC CEMENT SPACERS/BEADS IN TREATMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: Chronic musculoskeletal infection involving bone present a big challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. ... Current data has demonstrated that the use of .... Antibiotic spacers are effective and add value in the treament of ...

  6. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...

  7. Surface-Tethered Iterative Carbohydrate Synthesis (STICS): A spacer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Fujikawa, Kohki; Tan, Yih Horng; Nigudkar, Swati S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative study of STICS using HPLC-assisted experimental set-up clearly demonstrated benefits of using longer spacer-anchoring systems. The use of mixed self-assembled monolayers helps to provide the required space for glycosylation reaction around the immobilized glycosyl acceptor. Both extension of the spacer length and using mixed self-assembled monolayers help to promote reaction and the beneficial effects may include moving the glycosyl acceptor further out into solution and providing additional conformational flexibility. It is possible that surface-immobilized glycosyl acceptors with a longer spacer (C8-O-C8)-lipoic acid have a higher tendency to mimic a solution-phase reaction environment than that of acceptors with shorter spacers. PMID:23822088

  8. Optimized Design of Spacer in Electrodialyzer Using CFD Simulation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuxiang; Yan, Chunsheng; Chen, Lijun; Hu, Yangdong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of length-width ratio and diversion trench of the spacer on the fluid flow behavior in an electrodialyzer have been investigated through CFD simulation method. The relevant information, including the pressure drop, velocity vector distribution and shear stress distribution, demonstrates the importance of optimized design of the spacer in an electrodialysis process. The results show width of the diversion trench has a great effect on the fluid flow compared with length. Increase of the diversion trench width could strength the fluid flow, but also increase the pressure drop. Secondly, the dead zone of the fluid flow decreases with increase of length-width ratio of the spacer, but the pressure drop increases with the increase of length-width ratio of the spacer. So the appropriate length-width ratio of the space should be moderate.

  9. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  10. Numerical Simulation for Flow Distribution in ACE7 Fuel Assemblies affected by a Spacer Grid Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jongpil; Jeong, Ji Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In spite of various efforts to understand hydraulic phenomena in a rod bundle containing deformed rods due to swelling and/or ballooning of clad, the studies for flow blockage due to spacer grid deformation have been limited. In the present work, 3D CFD analysis for flow blockage was performed to evaluate coolant flow within ACE7 fuel assemblies (FAs) containing a FA affected by a spacer grid deformation. The real geometry except for inner grids was used in the simulation and the region including inner grid was replaced by porous media. In the present work, the numerical simulation was performed to predict coolant flow within ACE7 FAs affected by a Mid grid deformation. The 3D CFD result shows that approximately 60 subchannel hydraulic diameter is required to fully recover coolant flow under normal operating condition.

  11. Orthognathic model surgery with LEGO key-spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Alfred Chee-Ching; Lee, Alfred Siu Hong; Li, Wai Keung

    2013-12-01

    A new technique of model surgery using LEGO plates as key-spacers is described. This technique requires less time to set up compared with the conventional plaster model method. It also retains the preoperative setup with the same set of models. Movement of the segments can be measured and examined in detail with LEGO key-spacers. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioinformatics analyses of Shigella CRISPR structure and spacer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Guangcai; Wang, Yingfang; Hong, Lijuan; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Xi, Yuanlin; Yang, Haiyan

    2016-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are inheritable genetic elements of a variety of archaea and bacteria and indicative of the bacterial ecological adaptation, conferring acquired immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Shigella is an important pathogen for anthroponosis. This study aimed to analyze the features of Shigella CRISPR structure and classify the spacers through bioinformatics approach. Among 107 Shigella, 434 CRISPR structure loci were identified with two to seven loci in different strains. CRISPR-Q1, CRISPR-Q4 and CRISPR-Q5 were widely distributed in Shigella strains. Comparison of the first and last repeats of CRISPR1, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3 revealed several base variants and different stem-loop structures. A total of 259 cas genes were found among these 107 Shigella strains. The cas gene deletions were discovered in 88 strains. However, there is one strain that does not contain cas gene. Intact clusters of cas genes were found in 19 strains. From comprehensive analysis of sequence signature and BLAST and CRISPRTarget score, the 708 spacers were classified into three subtypes: Type I, Type II and Type III. Of them, Type I spacer referred to those linked with one gene segment, Type II spacer linked with two or more different gene segments, and Type III spacer undefined. This study examined the diversity of CRISPR/cas system in Shigella strains, demonstrated the main features of CRISPR structure and spacer classification, which provided critical information for elucidation of the mechanisms of spacer formation and exploration of the role the spacers play in the function of the CRISPR/cas system.

  13. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  14. Buckling behavior analysis of spacer grid by lateral impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    2000-05-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, Which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. Therefore, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, free fall type shock tests on the several kinds of the specimens of the spacer grids were also carried out in order to compare the results among the candidate grids. A free fall carriage on the specimen accomplishes the test. In addition to this, a finite element method for predicting the critical impact strength of the spacer grids is described. FE method on the buckling behavior of the spacer grids are performed for a various array of sizes of the grids considering that the spacer grid is an assembled structure with thin-walled plates and imposing proper boundary conditions by nonlinear dynamic impact analysis using ABAQUS/explicit code. The simulated results results also similarly predicted the local buckling phenomena and were found to give good correspondence with the shock test results

  15. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 and IgA2 anti-D used for detection of IgA deficiency and anti-IgA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA.......To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA....

  18. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  19. Improved spacers for high temperature gas-cooled heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, L A [Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1984-07-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations in the field of heat exchanger thermohydraulics have been performed at EIR for many years, Basic studies have been carried out on heat transfer and pressure loss for tube bundles of different geometries and tube surfaces. As a part of this overall R+D programme for heat exchangers, investigations have been carried out on spacer pressure loss in bundles with longitudinal flow. An analytical spacer pressure loss model was developed which could handle different types of subchannel within the bundle. The model has been evaluated against experiments, using about 25 spacers of widely differing geometries. In a gas-cooled reactor it is important to keep the pressure loss over the primary circuit heat exchangers to a minimum. In exchangers with grid spacers these contribute a significant proportion of the overall bundle losses. For example, in the HHT Recuperator, with a shell-side pressure loss of 3.5 % of the inlet pressure, the spacers cause about one half of this loss. Reducing the loss to, say, 2.5 % results in an overall increase in plant efficiency by more than 1 % - a significant improvement Preliminary analysis identified 5 geometries in particular which were chosen for experimental evaluation as part of a joint project with the SULZER Company, to develop a low pressure-loss spacer for HHT heat exchangers (longitudinal counter-flow He/He and He/H{sub 2}O designs). The aim of the tests was to verify the low pressure-loss characteristics of these spacer grid types, as well as the quality of the results calculated by the computer code analytical model. The experimental and analytical results are compared in this report.

  20. [Identification of medicinal plant Dendrobium based on the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Ma, Shuang-jiao; Song, Jing-yuan; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.

  1. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N., E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: jpg@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2013-07-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  2. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Bucs, Sz S; Li, Z; AbuGhdeeb, M; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-06-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46 mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyses of the Collapse Behavior of a Spacer Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Jag, Yeon-Hui; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jong-Bong; Kim, Jaeyoug

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the protection capability of a spacer grid assembly for impact load, a hammer impact test has been carried out. The crush strength is measured in the hammer impact test. Song et al. carried out the experiment and finite element analysis for the hammer impact test for various weld line depth. Park et al. designed the spacer grid shape to get required crush strength via finite element analysis. Song et al. also optimized the spacer grid shape to maximize the crush strength, and carried out the finite element analysis for the hammer impact test considering the weld properties. Kim et al. carried out finite element analysis for various guide tube hole shape and compared the crush shape and crush strength. In this study, the effect of shape defect on the crush behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated. The spacer grid cannot be exactly the square. Therefore a lateral displacement (imperfection) is imposed to square spacer grid and then hammer impact is carried out. The effect of the lateral imperfection on the crush strength is investigated. The effect of the shape defect on the crushing behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated by finite element analysis. It is shown that the collapse become severe as the lateral imperfection displacement increases, especially when the imperfection is greater than or equal to 0.7 mm

  5. Zircaloy spacer grid for boiling light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgiani, F.; Cali', G.P.; Cerretti, P.; Pazzo, P.

    1975-01-01

    The need to increase the neutronic efficiency of the new cores of BWR's, lead to study types of spacer-grids made of low neutronic absorption materials as zircaloy-4. The particular mechanical behaviour of this material suggested to design a spacer-grids such as to utilize only blanking, slotting and bending operations as plastic forming and to avoid therefore drawing effects. The optimization of the bending procedures lead to a final spacer-grids configuration equally stiff in all directions and planes. Only for the ''elastic constraints'' nichel alloy sheets were used to made easy the whole spacer design. The ''rigid constraints'', supporting the rods, have been obtained directly from the spacer structure. Calculations were performed to verify the mechanical strength of the main grid components. In this framework a computer code was developed to find the best elastic characteristic of the ''elastic constraints'' taking into account the machining tolerances. Some original methods to test the integral behaviour of the grid assembled as well as the procedures to be adopted for its best maintenance, are described

  6. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N.

    2013-01-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  7. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... pressurised metered dose inhaler (p-MDI) to minimise the electrostatic charge on the plastic. The procedure prolonged the half life (t1/2) of the aerosol in the Nebuhaler from nine to 32 seconds. A normal cleaning procedure reduced the aerosol t1/2 back to baseline. The t1/2 of the aerosol in the metal spacer...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  8. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Bucs, Szilard; Li, Z.; AbuGhdeeb, M.; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. An improved PCR method for direct identification of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) using conchocelis based on a RUBISCO intergenic spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Dong; Wang, Guangce; Zhang, Baoyu; Peng, Guang; Xu, Pu; Tang, Xiaorong

    2009-09-01

    An improved method of PCR in which the small segment of conchocelis is amplified directly without DNA extraction was used to amplify a RUBISCO intergenic spacer DNA fragment from nine species of red algal genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), including Porphyra yezoensis (Jiangsu, China), P. haitanensis (Fujian, China), P. oligospermatangia (Qingdao, China), P. katadai (Qingdao, China), P. tenera (Qingdao, China), P. suborboculata (Fujian, China), P. pseudolinearis (Kogendo, Korea), P. linearis (Devon, England), and P. fallax (Seattle, USA). Standard PCR and the method developed here were both conducted using primers specific for the RUBISCO spacer region, after which the two PCR products were sequenced. The sequencing data of the amplicons obtained using both methods were identical, suggesting that the improved PCR method was functional. These findings indicate that the method developed here may be useful for the rapid identification of species of Porphyra in a germplasm bank. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the RUBISCO spacer and partial rbcS sequence, and the results were in concordant with possible alternative phylogenies based on traditional morphological taxonomic characteristics, indicating that the RUBISCO spacer is a useful region for phylogenetic studies.

  10. IgG4 Cholangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoh Zen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 cholangiopathy can involve any level of the biliary tree which exhibits sclerosing cholangitis or pseudotumorous hilar lesions. Most cases are associated with autoimmune pancreatitis, an important diagnostic clue. Without autoimmune pancreatitis, however, the diagnosis of IgG4-cholangiopathy is challenging. Indeed such cases have been treated surgically. IgG4-cholangiopathy should be diagnosed based on serological examinations including serum IgG4 concentrations, radiological features, and histological evidence of IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration. Steroid therapy is very effective even at disease relapse. A Th2-dominant immune response or the activation of regulatory T cells seems to be involved in the underlying immune reaction. It is still unknown why IgG4 levels are specifically elevated in patients with this disease. IgG4 might be secondarily overexpressed by Th2 or regulatory cytokines given the lack of evidence that IgG4 is an autoantibody.

  11. IgA nephropathy enigma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Městecký, Jiří; Novák, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Raška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, NOV 2016 SI (2016), s. 72-77 ISSN 1521-6616 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33686A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IgA nephropathy * IgA subclasses * Autoimmunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2016

  12. Experimental study of mechanical properties on spacer in NHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yueyuan; Shi Jibing; Xu Yong

    2007-01-01

    The spacer of NHR-200 is composed mainly of the inner, outer and cornual strips which are ranged in egg-crate of 12 x 12-3. First, the pre-distortion of three kinds of three-arc springs on reactor working condition and their related clipping-force ranges are analyzed in this paper. Secondly, the mechanical experiments of 1:1 prototype, such as the load-distortion experiments, which the load and distortion are respectively measured by strain gauge and displacement sensor, of three kinds of springs, rigid supports and the spacers in two different directions are carried out on a special experimental facility. The experimental results show that the spacer can completely meet the design demands of mechanical properties of the fuel assemblies in NHR-200. (authors)

  13. Effect of a spacer moiety on radiometal labelled Neurotensin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarin, A.; Valverde, I.E.; Mindt, T.L. [Univ. of Basel Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2013-07-01

    The binding sequence of the regulatory peptide Neurotensin, NT(8-13), represents a promising tumour-specific vector for the development of radiopeptides useful in nuclear oncology for the diagnosis (imaging) and therapy of cancer. A number of radiometal-labelled NT(8-13) derivatives have been reported, however, the effect of the spacer which connects the vector with the radiometal complex has yet not been investigated systematically. Because a spacer moiety can influence potentially important biological characteristics of radiopeptides, we synthesized three [DOTA({sup 177}Lu)]-X-NT(8-13) derivatives and evaluated the effect of a spacer (X) on the physico-chemical properties of the conjugate including lipophilicity, stability, and in vitro receptor affinity and cell internalization. (orig.)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of IgM, IgG, and IgA brucella antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrett, D.; Nielson, K.H.; White, R.G.; Payne, D.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (R.I.A.) has been devised to measure the serum antibody against Brucella abortus in each of the immunoglobulin classes IgM, IgG, and IgA. This test was applied to 46 sera from individuals with various clinical types of brucellosis, and the results were compared with the results of conventional direct and indirect agglutination and complement-fixation tests. The R.I.A. provided a highly sensitive primary-type assay which avoided the difficulties with blocking or non-agglutinating antibody, and thus has many advantages in the diagnosis of acute and chronic stages of brucella infection in man. The R.I.A. was successful in detection of antibody in many instances in which conventional serological tests were negative, and such antibody could (if IgM) be associated with acute or (if IgG or IgA) with chronic cases of brucellosis. One case in which B.abortus was isolated by blood culture but which failed to yield antibody by conventional tests, nevertheless showed substantial levels of IgM and IgG antibody by R.I.A. In other cases the R.I.A. test helped to eliminate the diagnosis of brucellosis by revealing absent or low antibody levels. (author)

  15. Spacer grid for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid consists of pairs of plates forming rectangular cells and enclosing the cylindrical fuel assemblies. They have got rigid as well as elastic projections extending into the cells and holding the fuel assemblies. Additional pairs of plates are arranged in about the center of the grid of plates. They have got only elastic projections extending on both sides of the plates into one cell each. This spacer grid may be used for reactor cores with and without fuel channels. By the combination of spring-elastic and rigid projections there is obtained a reinforced outer tie. Hydraulic pressure losses, parasitic neutron capture, and hot spots are essentially reduced. (DG) [de

  16. Biomechanical Analysis of an Expandable Lumbar Interbody Spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; Palma, Atilio E; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Kelly, Brian P; Kaibara, Taro

    2018-06-01

    Recently developed expandable interbody spacers are widely accepted in spinal surgery; however, the resulting biomechanical effects of their use have not yet been fully studied. We analyzed the biomechanical effects of an expandable polyetheretherketone interbody spacer inserted through a bilateral posterior approach with and without different modalities of posterior augmentation. Biomechanical nondestructive flexibility testing was performed in 7 human cadaveric lumbar (L2-L5) specimens followed by axial compressive loading. Each specimen was tested under 6 conditions: 1) intact, 2) bilateral L3-L4 cortical screw/rod (CSR) alone, 3) WaveD alone, 4) WaveD + CSR, 5) WaveD + bilateral L3-L4 pedicle screw/rod (PSR), and 6) WaveD + CSR/PSR, where CSR/PSR was a hybrid construct comprising bilateral cortical-level L3 and pedicle-level L4 screws interconnected by rods. The range of motion (ROM) with the interbody spacer alone decreased significantly compared with the intact condition during flexion-extension (P = 0.02) but not during lateral bending or axial rotation (P ≥ 0.19). The addition of CSR or PSR to the interbody spacer alone condition significantly decreased the ROM compared with the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.002); and WaveD + CSR, WaveD + PSR, and WaveD + CSR/PSR (hybrid) (P ≥ 0.29) did not differ. The axial compressive stiffness (resistance to change in foraminal height during compressive loading) with the interbody spacer alone did not differ from the intact condition (P = 0.96), whereas WaveD + posterior instrumentation significantly increased compressive stiffness compared with the intact condition and the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.001). The WaveD alone significantly reduced ROM during flexion-extension while maintaining the axial compressive stiffness. CSR, PSR, and CSR/PSR hybrid constructs were all effective in augmenting the expandable interbody spacer system and improving its stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  17. IgG4 autoantibodies are inhibitory in the autoimmune disease bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yagang; Evangelista, Flor; Culton, Donna; Guilabert, Antonio; Lin, Lin; Li, Ning; Diaz, Luis; Liu, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The IgG4 subclass of antibodies exhibits unique characteristics that suggest it may function in an immunoregulatory capacity. The inhibitory function of IgG4 has been well documented in allergic disease by the demonstration of IgG4 blocking antibodies, but similar functions have not been explored in autoimmune disease. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against BP180 and an inflammatory infiltrate including eosinophils and neutrophils. Animal models have revealed that the NC16A region within BP180 harbors the critical epitopes necessary for autoantibody mediated disease induction. BP180 NC16A-specific IgG belong to the IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses. The purpose of this study was to determine effector functions of different IgG subclasses of NC16A-specific autoantibodies in BP. We find that IgG4 anti-NC16A autoantibodies inhibit the binding of IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies to the NC16A region. Moreover, IgG4 anti-NC16A blocks IgG1 and IgG3 induced complement fixation, neutrophil infiltration, and blister formation clinically and histologically in a dose-dependent manner following passive transfer to humanized BP180-NC16A mice. These findings highlight the inhibitory role of IgG4 in autoimmune disease and have important implications for the treatment of BP as well as other antibody mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative studies of 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody using spacer-containing and non-spacer bifunctional chelates. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Baofu

    1994-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled A7 monoclonal antibodies using two spacer-containing chelates, succinimido-EGS-DTPA (EGS-DTPA: diester spacer) and maleimido-C10-Bz-EDTA (C10-Bz-EDTA: hydrocarbon spacer) were investigated in human LS180 colon tumor bearing nude mice and were compared with two non-spacer chelates, cyclic DTPA dianhydride (cDTPAA) and isothiocyanatobenzyl-EDTA (SCN-Bz-EDTA). Compared with immunoconjugates using non-spacer chelates, immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates, especially C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 showed lower 111 In activity in normal organs. The radioactivity in the liver for C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 decreased continuously till 96 hrs postinjection, however, this liver radioactivity for EGS-DTPA-A7 showed little change after 24 hrs. Moreover, in liver subcellular distribution study, EGS-DTPA-A7 showed a higher activity retention in mitochondrial fraction which contained lysosome, a place for metabolizing and storing of 111 In labeled antibody, than that of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7. The C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 conjugate demonstrated more preferable tumor-to-non tumor contrast on the scintigrams than that found with other three immunoconjugates. Up to 96 hrs postinjection, tumor bearing nude mice injecting with immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates exreted twice radioactivity from whole body than that excreted by using non-spacer chelates. Interestingly, different from other three chelates, C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 were mainly excreted via feces. We conclude that the decrease of radioactivity in normal tissues in the case of EGS-DTPA-A7 was due to the rapid decrease of activity in the blood, while in the case of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 it was due to the quickly excreted small metabolite through faces. 111 In labeled C10-Bz-EDTA conjugate is superior, at least when conjugated with A7, to other three chelate conjugates used in this study. (author)

  19. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of intergenic spacers and small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phylogenetic analysis of test isolates included assessment of variation in sequences and length of IGS and SSU-rRNA genes with reference to 16 different microsporidian sequences. The results proved that IGS sequences have more variation than SSU-rRNA gene sequences. Analysis of phylogenetic trees reveal that ...

  20. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  1. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  2. Deformation behavior of cell spring of an irradiated spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Kim, D. S.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.; Choo, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a space grid of a fuel assembly are of great importance for fuel operation reliability in extended fuel burnup and duration of fuel life. The spacer grid with inner and outer straps has cell spring and dimples, which are in contact with the fuel rod. The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow and also grid spring force is decreasing under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause the grid to rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the significant issues recently in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the stiffness test and dimensional measurement of cell springs were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of cell springs of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (irradiated materials examination facility) of KAERI

  3. Hot fuel examination facility element spacer wire-wrap machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module

  4. Knowledge of spacer device, peak flow meter and inhaler technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Metered dose inhalers are cornerstone in effective management of bronchial asthma when correctly used. Most studies hitherto have focused on assessing patient's knowledge of inhaler technique. We sought to assess the knowledge of inhaler technique, spacer device and peak flow meter among doctors and ...

  5. On the impact analysis of a PWR spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    A spacer grid, which is an interconnected array of slotted grid straps and is welded at the intersections to form an egg crate structure, is one of the most important structural components in a PWR fuel assembly. From a structural point of view, the spacer grid is required to have sufficient crush strength under lateral loads so that nuclear fuel rods are maintained in a cool able geometry, and that control rods can be inserted. The capacity of a spacer grid to resist lateral loads is usually characterized in terms of its crush strength, and it was reported that the lateral crush strength of the spacer grid is closely related with welding quality of the spacer grid. Microstructures in the weld zone, including a heat affected zone (HAZ), are different from that in a parent material. Consequently, the mechanical properties in the weld zone are different from those in the parent material to some extent. When a welded structure is loaded, the mechanical behavior of the welded structure might be different from the case of a structure with homogeneous mechanical properties. Nonetheless, mechanical properties in the welded structure have been neglected in many structural analyses of the spacer grid due to a lack of mechanical properties in the weld zone. When the weld zone is very narrow and the interfaces are not clear, it is difficult to take tensile test specimens in the weld zone. The reason for this is that the mechanical properties in the parent material are usually used in the structural analyses in the welded structure. As an aside, it has been recently determined that the ball indentation technique has the potential to be an excellent substitute for a standard tensile test, particularly in the case of small specimens or property gradient materials such as welds. In this study, to investigate the effect on the mechanical behavior of the spacer grid when using weld mechanical properties, strength analyses considering the weld mechanical properties recently obtained

  6. 3-D flow analyses for design of nuclear fuel spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouta, Z. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); GU, Chun-Yuan [ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteras (Sweden); Schoelin, B. [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, CFDS-FLOW3D, was used to develop improved fuel designs for PWR cores. It was used primarily to understand the fluid dynamics of grid spacers, the mass transfer between subchannels caused by spacers and in the long term to develop two-phase models which enable prediction of critical heat flux in PWR fuel. A single subchannel of one grid span was modeled. In this model different spacer designs with mixing devices were analyzed. A special treatment of the boundary condition was developed making use of flow symmetry to model the mass transfer between different subchannels and minimize the size of the computational model. This reduced the computational model to a fraction of a subchannel using traditional periodic boundary conditions. The Navier-Stokes equation was solved for the liquid and the flow turbulence was modeled by k-{xi} turbulence model. The spacer and mixing device were treated as infinite thin surfaces in the model and a zero velocity condition and turbulent wall function were applied on each side of the thin surfaces. This approach simulated the swirl from the mixing devices well, but had the drawback of not predicting pressure drop accurately since the wake behind the plates and the acceleration effect of the spacers were ignored. CFDS-FLOW3D models with mixing devices were applied in the single-phase flow regime. Velocity profiles from the CFDS-FLOW3D models were compared to Laser Doppler Velocimeter measurements taken from the flow field downstream of spaces in a full scale, cold water test loop. The predicted axial and lateral velocity profiles were in good agreement with the measurements. The evaluation of the performance of different spacer devices was made by comparing the swirl ratio downstream of the grid spacers. It is planned to evaluate heat transfer coefficient downstream of the spaces, to implement two-phase flow models, and to model the superheated boundary layer on the surface of the fuel rod.

  7. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidarsson, Gestur; Overbeeke, Natasja; Stemerding, Annette M.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie; van Ulsen, Peter; van der Ley, Peter; Kilian, Mogens; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still

  8. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsson, G; Overbeeke, N; Stemerding, AM

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still...

  9. Implementation of spacer therapy for acute asthma in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vandeleur, M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination. Children admitted to Cork University Hospital Paediatric Department with acute asthma were identified during two identical 2 month seasonal periods before (2005) and after (2006) implementation of the new guidelines in September 2006. Pre-intervention and post-intervention audits by case note review were performed to determine the impact of and compliance with this evidence-based guideline emphasising patient assessment, spacer delivered bronchodilator and specific discharge criteria. Patients had similar characteristics during the two study periods. There was a raised threshold for admission after guideline implementation with 11\\/52 patients having mild exacerbations in 2006, compared to 21\\/36 in 2005. Duration of admission was less in the post-implementation group for equivalent exacerbation severity e.g. for moderate severity; 28 hours in 2005, 23 hours in 2006. Duration of bronchodilator therapy was shorter in 2006 and more likely to be given by spacer device earlier for equivalent levels of severity e.g. for moderate exacerbations, in 2006 the average length of salbutamol therapy was 18 hours with 12 hours by spacer device, in 2005 the average length of therapy was 25 hours with 3 hours by spacer. There was earlier initiation of oral corticosteroids; the average time to administration was 56 minutes in 2006 and 227 minutes in 2005. There was an improved documentation of asthma education in 2006 e.g. inhaler technique was reviewed in 37\\/52 in 2006, 21\\/35 in 2005 and better use of written action plans.

  10. Effect of spacer grids on CHF in tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanti, Sreenivas; Valette, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Spacers grids are used to support tube bundles in steam generators and in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. These grids interface with the flow and heat transfer in a number of ways and their effect has been studied by a number of researchers. It is known that generally they have a beneficial effect on critical heat flux (CHF) in typical nuclear reactor assemblies. However, the enhancement obtained depends on the geometric characteristics of the spacer grids as well as on the parameter range in terms of pressure, local mass velocity and quality. In the present study, the problem is approached in the context of a one-dimensional three-field model. Unlike in previous approaches, no specific modeling of the constitutive laws is made to account for spacer effects and only the geometric details such as the reduction in the cross-sectional area and the hydraulic diameter are included in the calculation which is otherwise the same as that for flow through a single tube. It is shown by comparison with literature data that this approach leads to satisfactory prediction of the thermal-hydraulic effects of spacers and that the beneficial effects of spacers on dry out can be manifested only when the entrainment rate is neither too high nor too low. Their effect on reducing the post-dry out wall temperature is also limited to certain cases. The present work has been performed as part of the EDF-CEA Neptune project also supported by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and FRAMATOME-ANP. NEPTUNE is a new set of two phase thermalhydraulic computer codes devoted to safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-01

    was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral

  12. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Miller, Daniel J.; Correia, Patrí cia B.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Freeman, Benny Dean; Paul, Donald; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g

  13. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating

  14. Kinetics of hemolytic plaque formation. IV. IgM plaque inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLisi, C

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the inhibition of hemolytic plaques formed against IgM antibodies is presented. The starting point is the equations of DeLisi and Bell (1974) which describe the kinetics of plaque growth, and DeLisi and Goldstein (1975) which describe inhibition of IgG plaques. However, the physical chemical models which were used previously to describe IgG inhibition data are shown to be inadequate for describing the characteristics of IgM inhibition curves. Moreover, it is shown that the experimental results place severe restrictions on the possible choices of physical chemical models for IgM upon which to base the calculations. It is argued that in order to account even qualitatively for all the data, one must assume (1) a very restricted motion of IgMs about the Fab hinge region and (2) a very narrow secretion rate distribution of IgM by antibody secreting cells. (auth)

  15. Human Cell Line-Derived Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IgA antibodies have great potential to improve the functional diversity of current IgG antibody-based cancer immunotherapy options. However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. IgA antibodies possess up to five N-glycosylation sites within their constant region of the heavy chain as compared to one site for IgG antibodies. The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen–Friedenreich and hematological (CD20 cancer indications. The feasibility of good manufacturing practice was shown by the production of 11 g IgA within 35 days in a one liter perfusion bioreactor, and IgA antibodies in high purity were obtained after purification. The monoclonal IgA antibodies possessed a high sialylation degree, and no non-human glycan structures were detected. Kinetic analysis revealed increased avidity antigen binding for IgA dimers as compared to monomeric antibodies. The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In conclusion, a panel of novel biofunctional IgA antibodies with human glycosylation was successfully generated.

  16. Histopathologie der IgG4-RD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, S; Klöppel, G

    2016-01-01

    infiltrate, 2) storiform fibrosis and 3) obliterative phlebitis. The diagnosis is further supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of an increased infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio. The morphological criteria of IgG4-RD are in most cases detectable in biopsies...

  17. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-01

    High-quality drinking water can be produced with membrane-based filtration processes like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. One of the major problems in these membrane systems is biofouling that reduces the membrane performance, increasing operational costs. Current biofouling control strategies such as pre-treatment, membrane modification, and chemical cleaning are not sufficient in all cases. Feed spacers are thin (0.8 mm), complex geometry meshes that separate membranes in a module. The main objective of this research was to evaluate whether feed spacer modification is a suitable strategy to control biofouling. Membrane fouling simulator studies with six feed spacers showed differences in biofouled spacer performance, concluding that (i) spacer geometry influences biofouling impact and (ii) biofouling studies are essential for evaluation of spacer biofouling impact. Computed tomography (CT) was found as a suitable technique to obtain three-dimensional (3D) measurements of spacers, enabling more representative mathematical modeling of hydraulic behavior of spacers in membrane systems. A strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of spacers by numerical modeling, 3D printing of spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral-wound membrane systems.

  18. A novel IgA-like immunoglobulin in the reptile Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Francisco Gambón; Espinel, Christian Sánchez; Beneitez, Julio Valdueza

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of antibody genes over evolution coincided with the origin of the vertebrates. Reptiles are of great interest in evolution since they are the link between the amphibians, birds, and mammals. This work describes the presence of a gene in the reptile leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) where phylogenetic studies suggest that it is the gene orthologue of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin X (IgX) in Xenopus. Messenger RNA samples taken from different tissues showed expression of this antibody in intestinal tissue. Data on the structure deduced from the sequence of nucleotides showed an antibody with four domains in the constant region. There is a sequence of 20 amino acids in the C terminus similar to the secretory tail of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA. A detailed analysis of the sequence of amino acids displayed a paradox, i.e., domains CH1 and CH2 showed a clear homology with domains CH1 and CH2 of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) while domains CH3 and CH4 were homologous with domains CH3 and CH4 of IgM. This homology pattern is also seen in Xenopus IgX and bird IgA. The most logical explanation for this phenomenon is that a recombination between the IgM and IgY gave rise to the IgA.

  19. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  20. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathogenicity of IgG in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Tomono, Teruko; Morita, Toshihiro; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Mima, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Tatsuki; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Yamauchi, Yuki; Minami, Ryuki; Sakuma, Yojiro; Ota, Yuji; Maruno, Takahisa; Kurita, Akira; Sawai, Yugo; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Uza, Norimitsu; Matsumura, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Notohara, Kenji; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Seno, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterised by elevated serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the affected tissues. The pathogenic role of IgGs, including IgG4, in patients with IgG4-RD, however, is unknown. We examined the pathogenic activity of circulating IgGs in patients with IgG4-RD by injecting their IgGs into neonatal male Balb/c mice. Binding of patient IgGs to pancreatic tissue was also analysed in an ex vivo mouse organ culture model and in tissue samples from patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Subcutaneous injection of patient IgG, but not control IgG, resulted in pancreatic and salivary gland injuries. Pancreatic injury was also induced by injecting patient IgG1 or IgG4, with more destructive changes induced by IgG1 than by IgG4. The potent pathogenic activity of patient IgG1 was significantly inhibited by simultaneous injection of patient IgG4. Binding of patient IgG, especially IgG1 and IgG4, to pancreatic tissue was confirmed in both the mouse model and AIP tissue samples. IgG1 and IgG4 from patients with IgG4-RD have pathogenic activities through binding affected tissues in neonatal mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.; Delagrange, H.; D'Enterria, D.G.; Guay, M.L.M. Le; Martinez, G.; Mora, M.J.; Pichot, P.; Roy, D.; Schutz, Y.; Gandi, A.; Oliveira, R. de

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel design for large-area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides a uniform 200 μm amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages

  3. Successful implementation of spacer treatment guideline for acute asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, C; Maskell, G; Marks, M; South, M; Robertson, C; LENNEY, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination.
METHODS—Defined strategies were used for the development and implementation of a guideline, assessed by a prospective, descriptive, study using notes review, and patient, nursing, and medical staff telephone contact. The setting was a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria, Australia with 25 000 yearly admissions, and asthma acco...

  4. Device for a nuclear reactor. [Fuel element spacers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulds, R B; Kasberg, A H; Puechl, K H; Bleiberg, M L

    1972-03-08

    A spacer design for fuel element clusters for PWR type reactors is described. It consists of a frame supporting an egg-carton like grid each sector of which is provided with springs which grip the fuel pins. The spring design is such as to prevent fuel pin vibrations and at same time accommodate fuel pin deformations. Formulae for the calculation of natural frequencies, spring stiffness and friction loads are presented.

  5. Bimetallic spacer means for a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means designed to be cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The subject bimetallic spacer means in accord with one embodiment of the invention includes a member formed, at least principally, of Zircaloy to which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. The latter stainless steel strips are located on the external surface of the Zircaloy member and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially perpendicular to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with another embodiment of the invention, the subject bimetallic spacer means includes a member formed at least principally of Zircaloy to which a plurality of stainless steel strips are attached so as to be positioned thereon externally thereof and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially parallel to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with a further embodiment of the invention, the stainless steel strips are attached to preselected members, each embodying at least a cladding of Zircaloy, which are located in the rows of fuel rods that define the perimeter of the fuel matrix of the nuclear fuel assembly. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. Namely, the stainless steel strips expand laterally relative to the fuel assembly and thereby occupy the space adjacent to the external surface of the fuel assembly

  6. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Eddy current monitoring of spacers in coolant channel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1993-01-01

    An eddy current testing method has been standardised for monitoring spacer springs which are used in coolant channel assemblies of pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWRs). The standard bobbin coil probe used for monitoring the spacer spring detects only the location but does not monitor the tilt orientation and tilt angle of a tilted spacer spring. The knowledge of location along with the tilt orientation of the spacer spring greatly improves the performance of repositioning methods. A modified probe with angular windings has been developed in laboratory tests for monitoring the location as well as the tilt orientation of the spacer springs. Experimental results are presented showing excellent performance of the modified probe in monitoring the exact location as well as tilt orientation of a spacer spring. The modified probe has also been used successfully in the field during repositioning of spacer springs in PHWRs before commissioning. (Author)

  8. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-02

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydraulic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydraulic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydraulic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on

  9. Oxidation Behavior of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 Graphites in Air Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Ki; Chi, Se Hwan

    2006-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), graphite is used as a moderator and a reflector as well as a major structural component. During operation or in the event of an accident, subsequent graphite oxidation due to the graphite out-gassing or heat exchanger tube leakage results in changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the components. For this reason, a lot of studies on oxidation have long been performed to understand the high temperature oxidation behavior and to find a proper countermeasure over the expected operating range. In this study, the oxidation rates of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 nuclear graphites were determined at high temperature and evaluated in view of the grades and the oxidation mechanisms at different temperature range

  10. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, Fungal ITS, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  11. Spacer engineered Trigate SOI TFET: An investigation towards harsh temperature environment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjunarao; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pradhan, K. P.; Artola, L.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel N-channel Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) i.e., Trigate Silicon-ON-Insulator (SOI) N-TFET with high-k spacer is proposed for better Sub-threshold swing (SS) and OFF-state current (IOFF) by keeping in mind the sensitivity towards temperature. The proposed model can achieve a Sub-threshold swing less than 35 mV/decade at various temperatures, which is desirable for designing low power CTFET for digital circuit applications. In N-TFET source doping has a significant effect on the ON-state current (ION) level; therefore more electrons will tunnel from source to channel region. High-k Spacer i.e., HfO2 is used to enhance the device performance and also it avoids overlapping of transistors in an integrated circuits (IC's). We have designed a reliable device by performing the temperature analysis on Transfer characteristics, Drain characteristics and also on various performance metrics like ON-state current (ION), OFF-state current (IOFF), ION/IOFF, Trans-conductance (gm), Trans-conductance Generation Factor (TGF), Sub-threshold Swing (SS) to observe the applications towards harsh temperature environment.

  12. Radioimmunoassay of IgG and IgM rheumatoid factors reacting with human IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Lawrance, S.; Catalano, M.A.; Vaughan, J.H.; Abraham, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although IgG rheumatoid factor may play a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, previously there have been no precise methods for its specific measurement in serum and synovial fluid. This paper describes a solid phase radioimmunoassay for the independent quantification of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factor reacting with the Fc fragment of human IgG. As measured by this assay, serum IgG rheumatoid factor levels differed significantly between patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and normal control subjects. In addition, several sera and joint fluids from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, even without vasculitis, were shown by gel chromatography to have acid-dissociable complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor suggestive of IgG-IgG dimer or trimer formation

  13. Anti-PGL1 salivary IgA/IgM, serum IgG/IgM, and nasal Mycobacterium leprae DNA in individuals with household contact with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito e Cabral, Paula; Júnior, José Evandro Cunha; de Macedo, Alexandre Casimiro; Alves, Alexandre Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Brito e Cabral, Tereza Cristina; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Pinto, Maria Isabel Moraes; Oseki, Karen Tubono; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-11-01

    Leprosy household contacts represent a group at high risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to detect Mycobacterium leprae subclinical infection in this group through serological and molecular parameters. Serum anti-PGL1 IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM was investigated using an ELISA, and nasal carriage of M. leprae DNA was detected by PCR, in leprosy household contacts of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) household leprosy patients (n=135), their index cases (n=30), and in persons living in a low endemic city (n=17). Salivary anti-PGL1 IgA and IgM and serum anti-PGL1 IgG showed good correlation comparing contacts and index cases (p0.05). A high frequency of anti-PGL1 IgM positivity was found in IgG-negative samples (pleprae DNA was found in the nasal swabs of nine out of the 85 MB household leprosy contacts (10.6%) and in three out of the 50 PB household leprosy contacts (6.0%). We strongly suggest that serum IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM measurements are used to follow leprosy household contacts. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IgG4-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Klöppel, Günter

    2018-01-01

    disease (IgG4-RD). The histologic key findings are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells combined with storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Among the organs mainly affected by IgG4-RD are the pancreas and the extrahepatic bile ducts. The pancreatic and biliary...... alterations have been described under the terms autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and sclerosing cholangitis, respectively. These diseases are currently more precisely called IgG4-related pancreatitis (or type 1 AIP to distinguish it from type 2 AIP that is unrelated to IgG4-RD) and IgG4-related sclerosing...... cholangitis (IgG4-related SC). Clinically and grossly, both diseases commonly imitate pancreatic and biliary adenocarcinoma, tumors that are well known for their dismal prognosis. As IgG4-RD responds to steroid treatment, making a resection of a suspected tumor unnecessary, a biopsy is often required...

  15. Role of Natural IgM Autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) and IgM Anti-Leukocyte Antibodies (IgM-ALA) in Regulating Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Peter I

    2017-01-01

    Natural IgM autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) are rapidly produced to inhibit pathogens and abrogate inflammation mediated by invading microorganisms and host neoantigens. IgM-NAA achieve this difficult task by being polyreactive with low binding affinity but with high avidity, characteristics that allow these antibodies to bind antigenic determinants shared by pathogens and neoantigens. Hence the same clones of natural IgM can bind and mask host neoantigens as well as inhibit microorganisms. In addition, IgM-NAA regulate the inflammatory response via mechanisms involving binding of IgM to apoptotic cells to enhance their removal and binding of IgM to live leukocytes to regulate their function. Secondly, we review how natural IgM prevents autoimmune disorders arising from pathogenic IgG autoantibodies as well as by autoreactive B and T cells that have escaped tolerance mechanisms. Thirdly, using IgM knockout mice, we show that regulatory B and T cells require IgM to effectively regulate inflammation mediated by innate, adaptive and autoimmune mechanisms. It is therefore not surprising why the host positively selects such autoreactive B1 cells that generate protective IgM-NAA, which are also evolutionarily conserved. Fourthly, we show that IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALA) levels and their repertoire can vary in normal humans and disease states and this variation may partly explain the observed differences in the inflammatory response after infection, ischemic injury or after a transplant. Finally we also show how protective IgM-NAA can be rendered pathogenic under non-physiological conditions. IgM-NAA have therapeutic potential. Polyclonal IgM infusions can be used to abrogate ongoing inflammation. Additionally, inflammation arising after ischemic kidney injury, e.g., during high-risk elective cardiac surgery or after allograft transplantation, can be prevented by pre-emptively infusing polyclonal IgM, or DC pretreated ex vivo with IgM, or by increasing in vivo Ig

  16. Mouse Chromosome 4 Is Associated with the Baseline and Allergic IgE Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Kanagaratham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of IgE concentration in the blood is a complex trait, with high concentrations associated with parasitic infections as well as allergic diseases. A/J strain mice have significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgE, both at baseline and after ovalbumin antigen exposure, when compared to C57BL/6J strain mice. Our objective was to determine the genomic regions associated with this difference in phenotype. To achieve this, we used a panel of recombinant congenic strains (RCS derived from A/J and C57BL/6J strains. We measured IgE in the RCS panel at baseline and following allergen exposure. Using marker by marker analysis of the RCS genotype and phenotype data, we identified multiple regions associated with the IgE phenotype. A single region was identified to be associated with baseline IgE level, while multiple regions wereassociated with the phenotype after allergen exposure. The most significant region was found on Chromosome 4, from 81.46 to 86.17 Mbp. Chromosome 4 substitution strain mice had significantly higher concentration of IgE than their background parental strain mice, C57BL/6J. Our data presents multiple candidate regions associated with plasma IgE concentration at baseline and following allergen exposure, with the most significant one located on Chromosome 4.

  17. IgG4 breaking the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies have been known for some time to be functionally monovalent. Recently, the structural basis for this monovalency has been elucidated: the in vivo exchange of IgG half-molecules (one H-plus one L-chain) among IgG4. This process results in bispecific antibodies that

  18. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, D; D'Enterria, D G; Le Guay, M; Martínez, G; Mora, M J; Pichot, P; Roy, D; Schutz, Y; Gandi, A; De Oliveira, R

    2002-01-01

    We present an original design for large area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides an uniform 200 $\\mu$m amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified under several experimental conditions. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages.

  19. Spacer grid with mixing blades for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noailly, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spacer grid for nuclear fuel assembly has two sets of intersecting metal plates provided with blades and defining cells. The plates are fitted only with half-blades associated with a single grid opening. The half-blades of adjacent cells are arranged at 90deg C to each other and each plate has at most one half-blade at each corner of a cell. The invention concerns fuel assemblies of pressurized water reactors. The blades arranged on a single side of the plate provide a good hydraulic uniformity. The invention provides a uniform distribution of blades (and thus of absorbing material in each hydraulic cell) [fr

  20. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  1. The pyloric caeca area is a major site for IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cell recruitment in response to oral vaccination in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have characterized some aspects of the immune response of the teleost gut in response to diverse pathogens or stimuli, most studies have focused on the posterior segments exclusively. However, there are still many details of how teleost intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved, including the location of IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cells along the digestive tract and their role during the course of a local stimulus. Thus, in the current work, we have studied the B cell response in five different segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss digestive tract in both naïve fish and fish orally vaccinated with an alginate-encapsulated DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV. IgM(+ and IgT(+ cells were identified all along the tract with the exception of the stomach in naïve fish. While IgM(+ cells were mostly located in the lamina propria (LP, IgT(+ cells were primarily localized as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs. Scattered IgM(+ IELs were only detected in the pyloric caeca. In response to oral vaccination, the pyloric caeca region was the area of the digestive tract in which a major recruitment of B cells was demonstrated through both real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, observing a significant increase in the number of both IgM(+ and IgT(+ IELs. Our findings demonstrate that both IgM(+ and IgT(+ respond to oral stimulation and challenge the paradigm that teleost IELs are exclusively T cells. Unexpectedly, we have also detected B cells in the fat tissue associated to the digestive tract that respond to vaccination, suggesting that these cells surrounded by adipocytes also play a role in mucosal defense.

  2. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Lulu; Bi, Jiacheng; Yan, Dehong; Ye, Xiufeng; Zheng, Mingxing; Yu, Guang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    IgE is a key effector molecule in atopic diseases; however, the regulation mechanisms of IgE production in IgE B cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective STAT3 inhibitor, selectively inhibits production of IgE by a human IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells, while does not affect the IgG production by IgG B cell lines. In the aspect of molecular mechanism, we found that Igλ, but not Ighe, gene expression was suppressed by JSI-124. The above effects of JSI-124 were not mediated by affecting cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, multiple B cell differentiation-related genes expression was not significantly affected by JSI-124. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential strategy of therapeutically suppressing IgE production without affecting IgG production in atopic patients. - Highlights: • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells. • JSI-124 does not affect IgG production by IgG B cell lines. • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production mainly by suppressing transcription of Igλ.

  3. In vitro microbiologic evaluation of PTFE and cotton as spacer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjpe, Avina; Jain, Sumita; Alibhai, Karim J; Wadhwani, Chandur P; Darveau, Richard P; Johnson, James D

    2012-09-01

    To microbiologically evaluate the efficacy of cotton and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape used as spacer materials. Twenty-six extracted human molars were restored using either cotton or PTFE tape as spacers under a standardized provisional restorative material (Cavit). The teeth were incubated for 7 days in a culture of Streptococcus gordonii or in liquid media alone. The spacers were removed and tested for bacterial contamination. The access cavities were also evaluated for bacterial contamination. Nine of 10 teeth with cotton spacers and one of 10 teeth with PTFE spacers were positive for S gordonii growth. The nine teeth in the cotton group also showed contamination of the access cavities. Even under optimal conditions, cotton spacers may cause leakage into the access cavities. Cotton fibers may serve as a route for bacterial contamination of the access cavities and root canal space. In contrast, PTFE tape did not provide an avenue for bacterial contamination.

  4. A technical report on the evaluation of the integrity for the TIG welded spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Yoo, Ho Sik; Lww, Chang Woo

    1994-07-01

    The spacer grid, which supports fuel rods, guide thimble and instrumentation tube, is classified into two types according to their strap material,.ie. inconel and zircaloy spacer grid. KOFA fuel of 14 x 14 and 17 x 17 type has seven and eight spacer grid respectively. Zircaloy spacer grid is assembled by straps whose cross points are welded by TIG welding method. This technical report provides to give some information about structure and function of the spacer grid and the basis and characteristic of the TIG welding method. A series of test which is conducted to evaluate the integrity of TIG welded zircaloy spacer grid and their results have been also studied. (Author) 18 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  5. A technical report on the evaluation of the integrity for the TIG welded spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Yoo, Ho Sik; Lww, Chang Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The spacer grid, which supports fuel rods, guide thimble and instrumentation tube, is classified into two types according to their strap material,.ie. inconel and zircaloy spacer grid. KOFA fuel of 14 x 14 and 17 x 17 type has seven and eight spacer grid respectively. Zircaloy spacer grid is assembled by straps whose cross points are welded by TIG welding method. This technical report provides to give some information about structure and function of the spacer grid and the basis and characteristic of the TIG welding method. A series of test which is conducted to evaluate the integrity of TIG welded zircaloy spacer grid and their results have been also studied. (Author) 18 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Transcriptional regulator-mediated activation of adaptation genes triggers CRISPR de novo spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I......, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci...... in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence...

  7. Enterovirus IgM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisk, G.; Nilsson, E.; Diderholm, H.

    1989-01-01

    A predominantly type-specific L-capture radio-immunoassay (RIA) of IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B1-B5 (CB1-CB5) viruses was previously described. The present study is concerned with the specificity of this assay, using as antigen different strains of one serotype (CB5) and procapsids of two serotypes (CB3 and CB5). Eight strains of CB5 virions were tested against acute and/or convalescent sera from 10 patients from whom CB5 had been isolated. It is concluded that the choice of strain is important if a high frequency of homotypic titres with no or only a few heterotypic reactions is to be obtained. When procapsids were used as antigen, both homotypic and heterotypic titres were seen to a large extent. All patients with homotypic IgM against CB3 or CB5 virions showed IgM against the CB3 or the CB5 procapsids, respectively. It is concluded that the use of two or more procapsids in combination is of value for the diagnosis of a recent or current enterovirus infection (author). 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  8. Influence of the spacer dielectric processes on PMOS junction properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Pierre; Wacquant, Francois; Juhel, Marc; Laviron, Cyrille; Lenoble, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the interaction observed in PMOS transistor between the boron lightly doped drain (LDD) extensions and the spacer oxide and nitride dielectrics have been studied, with a simple experimental methodology. Low thermal budget oxide obtained by sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) and nitride deposited by plasma process have been evaluated as spacer layers. The influence of the oxide liner hydrogen content is shown to be critical for the p type shallow junction. Indeed, during the activation anneal, hydrogen content increases the boron out diffusion from the extension into the oxide liner and yield to a significant dose loss in this area. Nitride porosity has also been studied. A lower boron dose loss is observed with a porous layer because hydrogen can degas out significantly from the oxide, during anneal, through the porous nitride film. These results confirm the model of boron out diffusion based on oxide hydrogen content proposed by Kohli. Finally, a boron diffusion mechanism driven by chemistry and enhanced by hydrogen defects is proposed

  9. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  10. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  11. A Study on Structural Strength of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. J. [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A fuel assembly consists of an array of fuel rods, spacer grids, guide thimbles, instrumentation tubes, and top and bottom nozzles. In PWR (Pressurized light Water Reactor) fuel assemblies, the spacer grids support the fuel rods by the friction forces between the fuel rods and springs/dimples. Under irradiation, the spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and also bear static and dynamic loads during operation inside the nuclear reactor and transportation for spent fuel storage. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of deformation behavior and the change in structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid.. In the present study, the static compression test of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the structural strength of the irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. The fuel assembly was dismantled and the irradiated spacer grid was obtained for the compression test. The apparatus for measuring the compression strength of the irradiated spacer grid was developed and installed successfully in the hot cell.

  12. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: r.kumar@neu.edu [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  13. Research report on development of spacer grid strap for AFA 3G fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuandong

    2004-11-01

    The current development and tendency for fuel assemblies being of low leakage, high burn-up and long cycle fuel reload in the world are presented, and the necessity and feasibility to develop the spacer grid for high burn-up fuel assembly are elaborated. Considering all the activities in implementing of spacer grid and the technical difficulties in machining of tools, the major technological processes are introduced; the research program and the approaches to develop the spacer grid while research targets and overall schedule are defined and some key technical points and applicable practices are discussed. Finally the requirements and the conditions necessary for developing of spacer grid are proposed. (authors)

  14. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Belz, Jodi; Markovic, Stacey; Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William; Niedre, Mark; Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G.; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  15. Cervical interfacet spacers and maintenance of cervical lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee A; Straus, David C; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The cervical interfacet spacer (CIS) is a relatively new technology that can increase foraminal height and area by facet distraction. These offer the potential to provide indirect neuroforaminal decompression while simultaneously enhancing fusion potential due to the relatively large osteoconductive surface area and compressive forces exerted on the grafts. These potential benefits, along with the relative ease of implantation during posterior cervical fusion procedures, make the CIS an attractive adjuvant in the management of cervical pathology. One concern with the use of interfacet spacers is the theoretical risk of inducing iatrogenic kyphosis. This work tests the hypothesis that interfacet spacers are associated with loss of cervical lordosis. METHODS Records from patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion at Rush University Medical Center between March 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. The FacetLift CISs were used in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic data were reviewed and the Ishihara indices and cervical lordotic angles were measured and recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were identified in whom 154 cervical levels were implanted with machined allograft interfacet spacers. Of these, 15 patients underwent anterior-posterior fusions, 4 underwent anterior-posterior-anterior fusions, and the remaining 45 patients underwent posterior-only fusions. In the 45 patients with posterior-only fusions, a total of 110 levels were treated with spacers. There were 14 patients (31%) with a single level treated, 16 patients (36%) with two levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with three levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with four levels treated, 1 patient (2%) with five levels treated, and 4 patients (9%) with six levels treated. Complete radiographic data were available in 38 of 45 patients (84%). On average, radiographic follow-up was obtained at 256.9 days (range 48-524 days

  16. Control of IgE and IgGl antibody production in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Macedo, M.S.; Braga, F.; Mota, I.

    1976-01-01

    The production of IgE and IgCl was studied in untreated, thymectomized, splenectomized, anti-thymocyte serum-treated, or sublethally X-irradiated mice. Dinitrophenyl, Ascaris, and ovalbumin were used as antigens, and aluminum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. A suppression of IgE production was observed in adult thymectomized mice, although the kinetic pattern of the antibody response was the same as in control animals. IgGl antibody production was not affected by thymectomy. Splenectomy did not change either IgE or IgGl production. A single dose of rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) given 8 days after immunization inhibited IgE antibody production. The effect of ATS was dose dependent and also varied with the amount of antigen used, the immune response to high doses being more susceptible to the effect of ATS. No alteration in IgGl production was caused by ATS even when IgE antibody formation was completely inhibited. When preceding immunization, sublethal irradiation enhanced IgE antibody formation and partially suppressed IgGl production; applied after immunization, irradiation caused an enhancement of IgE production which was inversely proportional to the interval elapsed between the two procedures. On the other hand, the IgGl antibody production was fairly resistant to the same treatment. The results suggest a clearcut separation between the mechanisms regulating IgE and IgGl production in mice

  17. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  18. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  19. Serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cell elevation in orbital IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD): Potential use in IgG4-RD assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anita S Y; Mudhar, Hardeep; Shen, Sunny Yu; Lang, Stephanie S; Fernando, Malee; Hilmy, Maryam Hazly; Guppy, Naomi Jayne; Rennie, Ian; Dunkley, Lisa; Al Jajeh, Issam

    2017-11-01

    To determine the role of serum and tissue IgG2 in orbital biopsies with the histological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in comparison with non-IgG4-related orbital inflammatory disorders (OID), including autoimmune disorders. This is an international (Sheffield, UK, and Singapore) collaborative, retrospective case review of 69 patients (38 from Singapore National Eye Centre and 31 from Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) with orbital inflammatory biopsies between 2002 and 2016. Clinical information and histology were reviewed and cases were classified into three groups: Group 1: IgG4-RD orbital inflammation (n=43); Group 2: idiopathic OID (n=12) and Group 3: autoimmune OID (n=14). Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were collated where available and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tissue IgG2 plasma cells was performed. Dual IHC showed IgG2 plasma cells as a distinct population from IgG4 plasma cells. Significant (twofold) serum IgG2 elevation was noted among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic (group 2) and autoimmune OID (group 3). Similarly, significant elevation of tissue IgG2 plasma cells was also seen among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic and autoimmune OID (groups 2 and 3). Significant elevations of serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cells are present in orbital IgG4-RD in comparison with non-IgG4 orbital inflammation (idiopathic and autoimmune OID), suggesting that IgG2 may play a role in IgG4-RD. A serum IgG2 cut-off >5.3 g/L was found to be 80% sensitive and 91.7% specific for orbital IgG4-RD, with an accuracy of 0.90. Tissue IgG2 and IgG4 subclass reporting may provide additional insight regarding the 'IgG4-RD' pathogenesis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Evidence of IgY subclass diversification in snakes: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Shao, Wenwei; Cheng, Gang; Li, Lingxiao; Cao, Zubing; Yang, Zhi; Zou, Huiying; Zhang, Wei; Han, Binyue; Hu, Yang; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian IgG and IgE are thought to have evolved from IgY of nonmammalian tetrapods; however, no diversification of IgY subclasses has been reported in reptiles or birds, which are phylogenetically close to mammals. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence of the presence of multiple IgY-encoding (υ) genes in snakes. Two υ genes were identified in the snake Elaphe taeniura, and three υ genes were identified in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus). Although four of the υ genes displayed a conventional four-H chain C region exon structure, one of the υ genes in the Burmese python lacked the H chain C region 2 exon, thus exhibiting a structure similar to that of the mammalian γ genes. We developed mouse mAbs specific for the IgY1 and IgY2 of E. taeniura and showed that both were expressed in serum; each had two isoforms: one full-length and one truncated at the C terminus. The truncation was not caused by alternative splicing or transcriptional termination. We also identified the μ and δ genes, but no α gene, in both snakes. This study provides valuable clues for our understanding of Ig gene evolution in tetrapods.

  1. Effects of spacers on blockage of coolant channels in clad melting accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, D. T.; Scale, T.; Hsieh, S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). The Technological Inst.

    1977-07-01

    The elements and configuration of these assemblies are representative of the current design for a GCFR. The fuel elements are stainless-steel clad, mixed-oxide spaced by a grid structure on 250 mm centers with a pitch of 9.5 mm, diameter, 7.2 mm, and cladding thickness, 0.5 m. Three series of experiments have been conducted to study the flow and disposition of molten cladding metal into a lower powered blanket region of the reactor following a loss of flow situation. The first two series used a simulant fuel-element bundle to simplify the experimental procedure and make visual observation possible. The 'fuel' was simulated by mullite rods 6.4 mm in diameter and 610 mm long. These were clad with a 50 Pb/50 Sn alloy tubing which was drawn onto the 'fuel'. The first series used cast spacers with webs of about 0.5-0.55 mm thickness placed 175 and 425 mm from the top end of the assembly. The second series used grid spacers fabricated of 0.25 mm alloy strips. This provided a more accurate representation of the hydraulic diameter. The bundle was encased in a hexagonal glass tube. The bundle was at 22/sup 0/C and the molten alloy was poured at a temperature of 260/sup 0/C (35/sup 0/C superheat). Motion pictures recorded the experiments and the bundle was sectioned for observation. The third set of experiments was done with a stainless steel bundle of 37 elements fabricated of mullite rods, 7.14 mm diameter. The stainless steel cladding had an O.D. of 8.41 mm. The element pitch was 11.1 mm. The grid spacers were prototypic. The experiment was conducted in an inert-gas tube furnace. The 'core fuel' cladding was melted in an induction furnace and the molten liquid flowed through the center seven element channels. X-ray pictures were taken after the tests and the bundle was sectioned for further study.

  2. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyuan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals.

  3. Measurement and CFD calculation of spacer loss coefficient for a tight-lattice fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Kwack, Young Kyun; Lee, Chi Young

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and CFD analysis evaluated the pressure drop in a spacer grid. • The measurement and CFD errors for the spacer loss coefficient were estimated. • The spacer loss coefficient for the dual-cooled annular fuel bundle was determined. • The CFD prediction agrees with the measured spacer loss coefficient within 8%. - Abstract: An experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed to evaluate the pressure drop in a spacer grid for a dual-cooled annular fuel (DCAF) bundle. The DCAF bundle for the Korean optimum power reactor (OPR1000) is a 12 × 12 tight-lattice rod array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.08 owing to a larger outer diameter of the annular fuel rod. An experiment was conducted to measure the pressure drop in spacer grid for the DCAF bundle. The test bundle is a full-size 12 × 12 rod bundle with 11 spacer grid. The test condition covers a Reynolds number range of 2 × 10 4 –2 × 10 5 by changing the temperature and flow rate of water. A CFD analysis was also performed to predict the pressure drop through a spacer grid using the full-size and partial bundle models. The pressure drop and loss coefficient of a spacer grid were predicted and compared with the experimental results. The CFD predictions of spacer pressure drop and loss coefficient agree with the measured values within 8%. The spacer loss coefficient for the DCAF bundle is estimated to be approximately 1.50 at a nominal operating condition of OPR1000, i.e., Re = 4 × 10 5

  4. Amylolytic activity of IgM and IgG antibodies from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Andrew N; Ivanen, Dina R; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ershova, Nadezhda A; Kanyshkova, Tat'yana G; Buneva, Valentina N; Mogelnitskii, Alexander S; Doronin, Boris M; Favorova, Olga O; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Neustroev, Kirill N

    2003-05-01

    IgG and IgM antibodies from the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were found to possess amylolytic activity hydrolyzing alpha-(1-->4)-glucosyl linkages of maltooligosaccharides, glycogen, and several artificial substrates. Individual IgM fractions isolated from 54 analyzed patients with the clinically definite diagnoses of MS had approximately three orders of magnitude higher specific amylolytic activity than that for healthy donors, whereas IgG from only a few patients had high amylolytic activity. Strict criteria were used to prove that the amylolytic activity of IgMs and IgGs is their intrinsic property and is not due to any enzyme contamination. Fab fragments produced from IgM and IgG fractions of the MS patients displayed the same amylolytic activity. IgMs from various patients demonstrated different modes of action in hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides.

  5. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  6. Pathological manifestations in lymphatic filariasis correlate with lack of inhibitory properties of IgG4 antibodies on IgE-activated granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodjinotho, Ulrich F; von Horn, Charlotte; Debrah, Alex Y; Batsa Debrah, Linda; Albers, Anna; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2017-07-01

    granulocytes. Our findings suggest that quantitative and qualitative alterations in IgG4 molecules are associated with the different clinical phenotypes in LF endemic regions.

  7. The influence of the preliminary garter spring spacer simulator clamping force in the pressure tube spacer -calandria tube hook-up simulator aging behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, T.; Deloreanu, G.; Puiu, D.; Corbescu, B.; Anghel, N.; Dinu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The garter spring spacer is a specially constructed torsion spring used to fit-out the CANDU 6 fuel channel. The pressure tube ageing decreases the gap to the calandria tube. Continuous gap decrease directly affects the garter spring spacers behavior during fuel channel assembly operation. The preliminary clamping force value of the garter spring spacer assembly is important for its ageing behavior. This paper briefly describes the experimental technological facilities used for conducted the experiments and highlights some of the important moments during an experiment carried out in laboratory conditions, without using pressurized boiled water and irradiation working conditions. The results analysis and some conclusions are outlined at the end, pointing out that a garter spring spacer preliminary clamping force increase reduces the vibration response signal amplitude, and does not lead to its relaxation. The paper is dedicated to specialists working in research and technological engineering. (authors)

  8. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyue Han

    Full Text Available Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  9. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods. PMID:28403146

  10. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Li, Yan; Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  11. Determination of IgE rheumatoid factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.; Schlenvoigt, G.; Jaeger, L.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been developed for the identification of IgE rheumatoid factor (IgE RF). For both, human IgG was used as antigen. Bound IgE RF was detected by means of commercially available rabbit anti-human IgE antiserum and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG as well as monoclonal anti-human-ε-chain antibody and horse-radish peroxidase-labelled sheep anti-mouse IgG. The presence of IgM RF did not cause false positive results. Correlation in the results of both assays were significant, the reproducibility was very good. In 50.6% of 79 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis IgE RF has been detected with both or one of the methods. Only in 1 out of 12 seronegative rheumatoid arthritis sera IgE RF was identified. (author)

  12. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  13. A ribosomal RNA gene intergenic spacer based PCR and DGGE fingerprinting method for the analysis of specific rhizobial communities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Manfio, Gilson Paulo; da Costa Coutinho, Heitor Luiz; Keijzer-Wolters, Anneke Christina; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2006-03-01

    A direct molecular method for assessing the diversity of specific populations of rhizobia in soil, based on nested PCR amplification of 16S-23S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) sequences, was developed. Initial generic amplification of bacterial rDNA IGS sequences from soil DNA was followed by specific amplification of (1) sequences affiliated with Rhizobium leguminosarum "sensu lato" and (2) R. tropici. Using analysis of the amplified sequences in clone libraries obtained on the basis of soil DNA, this two-sided method was shown to be very specific for rhizobial subpopulations in soil. It was then further validated as a direct fingerprinting tool of the target rhizobia based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The PCR-DGGE approach was applied to soils from fields in Brazil cultivated with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under conventional or no-tillage practices. The community fingerprints obtained allowed the direct analysis of the respective rhizobial community structures in soil samples from the two contrasting agricultural practices. Data obtained with both primer sets revealed clustering of the community structures of the target rhizobial types along treatment. Moreover, the DGGE profiles obtained with the R. tropici primer set indicated that the abundance and diversity of these organisms were favoured under NT practices. These results suggest that the R. leguminosarum-as well as R. tropici-targeted IGS-based nested PCR and DGGE are useful tools for monitoring the effect of agricultural practices on these and related rhizobial subpopulations in soils.

  14. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  15. Magnetic decoupling of ferromagnetic metals through a graphene spacer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimaldi, I.; Papagno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Ferrari, L. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Sheverdyaeva, P.M.; Mahatha, S.K. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Pacilé, D., E-mail: daniela.pacile@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Carbone, C. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We study the magnetic coupling between different ferromagnetic metals (FMs) across a graphene (G) layer, and the role of graphene as a thin covalent spacer. Starting with G grown on a FM substrate (Ni or Co), we deposited on top at room temperature several FM metals (Fe, Ni, Co). By measuring the dichroic effect of 3p photoemission lines we detect the magnetization of the substrate and the sign of the exchange coupling in FM overlayer at room temperature. We show that the G layer magnetically decouples the FM metals. - Highlights: • The magnetic coupling between ferromagnets mediated by graphene is studied. • To this end, the linear dichroic effect in 3p photoemission lines is employed. • For selected junctions no magnetic coupling is attained through graphene. • Graphene inhibits the magnetic alignment that normally occurs between ferromagnets.

  16. Dark current of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2015-03-01

    The dark current density at fixed voltage bias in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the donor and acceptor layers. The dominant current flow process in these systems involves the formation and subsequent recombination of an interfacial exciplex state. If the exciplex formation rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer can increase dark current whereas, if the exciplex recombination rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer decreases dark current. We present a device model to describe this behavior and illustrate it experimentally for various donor/acceptor systems, e.g. P3HT/LiF/C60.

  17. Optimized spacer layer thickness for plasmonic-induced enhancement of photocurrent in a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, Z. M., E-mail: zaki.saleh@aauj.edu, E-mail: zakimsaleh@yahoo.com; Nasser, H.; Özkol, E.; Günöven, M.; Abak, K. [Middle East Technical University, Center for Solar Energy Research and Applications (GÜNAM) (Turkey); Canli, S. [Middle East Technical University, Central Laboratory (Turkey); Bek, A.; Turan, R. [Middle East Technical University, Center for Solar Energy Research and Applications (GÜNAM) (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver nanoparticles of different sizes (50–100 nm) have been processed by the self-assembled dewetting technique and integrated to hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using SiNx spacer layers to investigate the dependence of optical trapping enhancement on spacer layer thickness through the enhancements in photocurrent. Samples illuminated from the a-Si:H side exhibit a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that is red-shifted with the increasing particle size and broadened into the red with the increasing spacer layer thickness. The photocurrent measured in a-Si:H is not only consistent with the red-shift and broadening of the LSPR, but exhibits critical dependence on the spacer layer thickness also. The samples with plasmonic interfaces and a SiNx spacer layer exhibit appreciable enhancement of photocurrent compared with flat a-Si:H reference depending on the size of the Ag nanoparticle. Simulations conducted on one-dimensional square structures exhibit electric fields that are localized near the plasmonic structures but extend appreciably into the higher refractive index a-Si:H. These simulations produce a clear red-shift and broadening of extinction spectra for all spacer layer thicknesses and predict an enhancement in photocurrent in agreement with experimental results. The spectral dependence of photocurrent for six plasmonic interfaces with different Ag nanoparticle sizes and spacer layer thicknesses are correlated with the optical spectra and compared with the simulations to predict an optimal spacer layer thickness.

  18. Ertapenem Articulating Spacer for the Treatment of Polymicrobial Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radoicic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are the primary cause of early failure of the total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Polymicrobial TKA infections are often associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ertapenem loaded spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial PJI. Methods. There were 18 patients enrolled; nine patients with polymicrobial PJI treated with ertapenem loaded articulating spacers were compared to the group of 9 patients treated with vancomycin or ceftazidime loaded spacers. Results. Successful reimplantation with revision implants was possible in 66.67%. Ertapenem spacers were used in 6 cases in primary two-stage procedure and in 3 cases in secondary spacer exchange. Successful infection eradication was achieved in all cases; final reimplantation with revision knee arthroplasty implants was possible in 6 cases. Conclusion. Ertapenem can be successfully used as antimicrobial addition to the cement spacers in two-stage revision treatment of polymicrobial PJIs. However, this type of spacer may also be useful in the treatment of infections caused by monomicrobial extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative bacilli. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertapenem spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs.

  19. Boiling transition phenomenon in BWR fuel assemblies effect of fuel spacer shape on critical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Mitsutake, Toru; Yokobori, Seiichi; Kimura, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena near fuel spacer is necessary for the accurate prediction of the critical power of BWR fuel assemblies, and is thus essential for effective developments of a new BWR fuel assembly. The main purpose of this study is to develop an accurate method for predicting the effect of spacer shapes on critical power. Tests have been conducted under actual BWR operating conditions, using an annulus flow channel consisting of a heated rod and circular-tube channel, and BWR simulated 4x4 rod bundles with heater rods unheated just upsteam of spacer. The effect of spacer shapes on critical power was predicted analytically based on the droplet deposition rate estimation. The droplet deposition rate for different spacer shapes was calculated using a single-phase flow model. The prediction results were compared with the test results for the annulus flow channel using ring-type spacers. Analytical results of critical power agreed with measured critical power from point of the effects of changes in the rod-spacer clearance and the spacer thickness on critical power. (author)

  20. Modeling the effect of spacers and biofouling on forward osmosis performance

    KAUST Repository

    Mosqueira Santillá n, Marí a José

    2014-01-01

    and operational conditions. For this, a two dimensional numerical model for FO systems was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This model allowed the evaluation of the impact of (i) spacers and (ii) biofilm, and (iii) the combined impact of spacers

  1. Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells with embedded optical spacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, Afshin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell in which the two photoactive single cells are separated by an optical spacer. The use of an optical spacer allows for an independent optimization of both the electronic and optical properties of the tandem cell. The optical transmission

  2. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...

  3. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the head and neck manifestations of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels as well as abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes and fibrosis in various organs, including the head and neck region. In particular, the salivary glands, orbit, and thyroid are common sites of disease involvement. IgG4-RD is diagnosed based on various clinical, serological, and histopathological findings, none of which are pathognomonic. Hence, various differential diagnoses, which exhibit elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration of IgG4-postive cells into tissues, need to be excluded, especially malignant diseases and mimicking disorders. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in inducing IgG4-RD remission; however, recurrent or refractory cases are common. In addition, although the pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4-RD remain unclear, an antigen-driven inflammatory condition is believed to be involved. Recent studies have indicated the important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration and innate immunity in this disease. Nevertheless, additional research and discussions are needed to resolve many remaining questions. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent insights on the history, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of IgG4-RD in the head and neck region. Furthermore, we have also addressed the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  5. The CRISPR Spacer Space Is Dominated by Sequences from Species-Specific Mobilomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakov, Sergey A; Sitnik, Vassilii; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Severinov, Konstantin V; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-09-19

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems store the memory of past encounters with foreign DNA in unique spacers that are inserted between direct repeats in CRISPR arrays. For only a small fraction of the spacers, homologous sequences, called protospacers, are detectable in viral, plasmid, and microbial genomes. The rest of the spacers remain the CRISPR "dark matter." We performed a comprehensive analysis of the spacers from all CRISPR- cas loci identified in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and we found that, depending on the CRISPR-Cas subtype and the prokaryotic phylum, protospacers were detectable for 1% to about 19% of the spacers (~7% global average). Among the detected protospacers, the majority, typically 80 to 90%, originated from viral genomes, including proviruses, and among the rest, the most common source was genes that are integrated into microbial chromosomes but are involved in plasmid conjugation or replication. Thus, almost all spacers with identifiable protospacers target mobile genetic elements (MGE). The GC content, as well as dinucleotide and tetranucleotide compositions, of microbial genomes, their spacer complements, and the cognate viral genomes showed a nearly perfect correlation and were almost identical. Given the near absence of self-targeting spacers, these findings are most compatible with the possibility that the spacers, including the dark matter, are derived almost completely from the species-specific microbial mobilomes. IMPORTANCE The principal function of CRISPR-Cas systems is thought to be protection of bacteria and archaea against viruses and other parasitic genetic elements. The CRISPR defense function is mediated by sequences from parasitic elements, known as spacers, that are inserted into CRISPR arrays and then transcribed and employed as guides to identify and inactivate the cognate parasitic genomes. However, only a small fraction of the CRISPR spacers

  6. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  7. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Y Y Wai

    Full Text Available Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1 has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49 and epitope deletion (MED171. Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  8. Differences in serum IgA responses to HIV-1 gp41 in elite controllers compared to viral suppressors on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Nabi

    Full Text Available Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV replication in elite controllers (EC remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC and viremic noncontrollers (HN on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays. Measurements for IgG were performed in parallel. EC were found to have stronger p24- and V1V2-specific IgG responses than HN, but there were no IgG differences for EC and HC. In contrast, IgA in EC serum bound more frequently to gp160 and gag proteins than IgA in HC or HN. The avidity of anti-gp41 IgA was also greater in EC, and these subjects had stronger IgA responses to the gp41 heptad repeat region 1 (HR1, a reported target of anti-bacterial RNA polymerase antibodies that cross react with gp41. However, EC did not demonstrate greater IgA responses to E. coli RNA polymerase or to peptides containing the shared LRAI sequence, suggesting that most of their HR1-specific IgA antibodies were not induced by intestinal microbiota. In both EC and HAART recipients, the concentrations of HIV-specific IgG were greater than HIV-specific IgA, but their avidities were comparable, implying that they could compete for antigen. Exceptions were C1 peptides and V1V2 loops. IgG and IgA responses to these antigens were discordant, with IgG reacting to V1V2, and IgA reacting to C1, especially in EC. Interestingly, EC with IgG hypergammaglobulinemia had greater HIV-specific IgA and IgG responses than EC with normal total IgG levels. Heterogeneity in EC antibody responses may therefore be due to a more focused HIV-specific B cell response in some of these individuals. Overall, these data suggest that development of

  9. BWR fuel assembly with improved spacer and fuel bundle design for enhanced thermal-hydraulic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildrum, C.M.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having a bundle of elongated fuel rods disposed in side-by-side relationship so as to form an array of spaced fuel rods, an outer tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid along the fuel rods, a hollow water cross extending centrally through and interconnected with the outer flow channel so as to divide the channel into separate compartments and the bundle of fuelrods into a plurality of mini-bundles thereof being disposed in the compartments, and spacers axially displaced along the fuel rods in each of the mini-bundles thereof. Each spacer is composed of inner and outer means which together define spacer cells at corner, side and interior locations of the spacer and have respective protrusions formed thereon which extend into cells so as to maintain the fuel rods received through the spacer cells in laterally spaced relationships. The improvement is described which comprises: (a) a generally uniform poison coating within at least a majority of the fuel rods; (b) a predetermined pattern of fuel enrichment with respect to the fuel rods of each mini-bundle thereof which together with the uniform poison coating within the fuel rods ensures that the packing powers of the fuel rods in the corner and side cells of the spacers are less than the peaking power of a leading one of the fuel rods in the interior cells of the spacers; and (c) each of the fuel rods being received through the cells of each spacer having a diametric size smaller than that of each of the fuel rods received through the side and interior cells of each spacer, the diametric sizes of each of the fuel rods received through the side and interior cells of each spacer being generally equal

  10. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Spacers for Anterior Cervical Fusion: A Retrospective Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcke, Johannes; Al-Zain, Ferass; Meier, Ullrich; Suess, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is the standard surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has an elasticity similar to bone and thus appears well suited for use as the implant in ACDF procedures. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients treated with standing alone PEEK spacers without bone morphogenic protein (BMP) or plating and to examine the influence of the different design of the two spacers on the rate of subsidence and dislocation. This retrospective comparative study reviewed 335 patients treated by ACDF in a specialized urban hospital for radiculopathy or myelopathy due to degenerative pathologies. The Intromed PEEK spacer was used in 181 patients from 3/2002 to 11/2004, and the AMT SHELL spacer was implanted in 154 patients from 4/2004 to 12/2007. The follow-up rate was 100% at three months post-op and 82.7% (277 patients) at one year. The patients were assessed with the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) questionnaire and radiographically. At the one-year follow-up there were 118/277 patients with an excellent clinical outcome on the JOA, 112/277 with a good outcome, 20/277 with a fair outcome, and 27/277 with a poor outcome. Subsidence was observed in 13.3% of patients with the Intromed spacer vs 8.4% of the patients with the AMT SHELL. Dislocation of the spacer was observed in 10 of the 181 patients with Intromed spacers but in none of the 154 patients with Shell spacers. The study demonstrates that ACDF with standing alone PEEK cages leads to excellent and good clinical outcomes. The differences we observed in the subsidence rate between the two spacers were not significant and cannot be related to a single design feature of the spacers.

  11. IgG4-related nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disorder, often with multiple organ involvement, characterized by dense tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and frequently elevated serum IgG4 concentration. The kidney can be involved either directly or indirectly. The most frequent direct renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy. Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is another condition that is frequently IgG4-related and that can indirectly affect the kidney causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography show different imaging findings and are useful tools for monitoring therapeutic response. Steroid treatment is the first line of therapy, but relapsing or refractory forms of the disease are frequently observed and require more aggressive therapeutic approaches. At our centre, we treated three cases of aggressive IgG4-related TIN and two cases of IgG4-related RPF with an intensified, immune suppressive protocol, obtaining good results without severe adverse effects.

  12. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    More men than women develop immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Age at clinical onset is significantly older in patients with IgG4-SC. Patients with IgG4-SC appear similar to those with cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The association between IgG4-SC and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is useful for the diagnosis of IgG4-SC. However, some IgG4-SC cases are isolated from AIP and are difficult to diagnose. The authors focus on three distinct features of IgG4-SC. First, diffuse inflammation induces a longer stenosis on cholangiography in contrast to the short stenosis of patients with PSC. Second, fibroinflammatory involvement is observed mainly in the stroma of the bile duct wall, whereas the bile duct epithelium is intact. Third, steroid therapy results in remarkable improvement. Although the prognosis of patients with IgG4-SC is good, some cases have developed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis during their clinical course. Further study is needed to elucidate the long-term outcomes and mechanism of IgG4-SC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant hormones. ... both of animal origin, using chemical couplings to their respective functional groups. ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA) to detect and quantify these ...

  14. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Lehmann, S.; Bucs, Szilard; Fresquet, M.; Fel, L.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; Ogier, J.; Schellenberg, C.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems

  15. INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER (ITS), AN IDEAL DNA BARCODE FOR SPECIES DISCRIMINATION IN CRAWFURDIA WALL. (GENTIANACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dequan; Jiang, Bei; Duan, Lizhen; Zhou, Nong

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding is a technique used to identify species based on species-specific differences in short regions of their DNA. It is widely used in species discrimination of medicinal plants and traditional medicines. In the present study, four potential DNA barcodes, namely rbcL , matK , trnH-psbA and ITS (nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) were adopted for species discrimination in Crawfurdia Wall (Genetiaceae). Identification ability of these DNA barcodes and combinations were evaluated using three classic methods (Distance, Blast and Tree-Building). As a result, ITS, trnH-psbA and rbcL regions showed great universality for a success rate of 100%; whereas matK was disappointing for which only 65% samples gained useful DNA sequences. ITS region, which could clearly and effectively identify the five species in Crawfurdia , performed very well in this study. On the contrary, trnH-psbA and rbcL performed poorly in discrimination among these species. ITS marker was an ideal DNA barcode in Crawfurdia and it should be incorporated into one of the core barcodes for seed plants.

  16. Cord blood IgE. I. IgE screening in 2814 newborn children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    Screening of total IgE in 2814 cord blood samples was analysed by Phadebas IgE PRIST in 2 1-year birth cohorts (1983-1984 and 1985-1986) in Denmark (n = 1189 + 1625). 48.6% of the sera contained less IgE than the detection limit 0.1 kU/l. Cord blood IgE values greater than or equal to 0.5 kU/l we...

  17. In vitro performance of three combinations of spacers and pressurized metered dose inhalers for treatment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, E; Madsen, J; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    The performance of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and spacers in correct dose recommendations is important, but limited information on dose delivery and fine-particle dose from different combinations of spacers and pMDIs is available. In this study, three combinations of spacers and p...... and spacers, with the NebuChamber giving the highest dose, both as delivered dose and in droplets account for these differences....

  18. Evidence of a common regulation of IgE and IgG-subclass antibodies in humans during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1992-01-01

    Based on a 3-year prospective study of 20 pollen-allergic patients, where a detailed analysis of the IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immune response was performed, we propose that a common regulatory mechanism exists between the IgE and IgG1 synthesis and between IgE and IgG4 synthesis during immunotherapy. I...

  19. Circulating immune complexes, immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:- To evaluate serum levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs), immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and Complement Components (C3c, C4 and Factor B) in Nigerians with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design:- Case control study. Setting:- University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk factors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Vhembe district of South Africa. ... shown a high prevalence of T. gondii (IgG) among patients attending different HIV clinics in the Vhembe district with no current infections among pregnant women.

  1. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  2. Change in IgHV Mutational Status of CLL Suggests Origin From Multiple Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Afaf; Gocke, Christopher D; Gladstone, Douglas E

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable-region (IgHV) mutational status are used to predict outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although DNA aberrations change over time, IgHV sequences and mutational status are considered stable. In a retrospective review, 409 CLL patients, between 2008 and 2015, had IgHV analysis: 56 patients had multiple analyses performed. Seven patients' IgHV results changed: 2 from unmutated to mutated and 5 from mutated to unmutated IgHV sequence. Three concurrently changed their variable heavy-chain sequence. Secondary to allelic exclusion, 2 of the new variable heavy chains produced were biologically nonplausible. The existence of these new nonplausible heavy-chain variable regions suggests either the CLL cancer stem-cell maintains the ability to rearrange a previously silenced IgH allele or more likely that the cancer stem-cell produced at least 2 subclones, suggesting that the CLL cancer stem cell exists before the process of allelic exclusion occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  4. System for measuring spacer pin pitch in a nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Kenji; Tateishi, Yoshinori; Mano, Tadashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce the period for discriminating whether or not spacer pin pitch is satisfactory by simultaneously inserting a number of reference rods into a nuclear fuel assembly spacer ring element of a reactor and arranging them such that they can be simultaneously withdrawn to simplify the withdrawing operation. Structure: A spacer provided with a ring element which clamps a nuclear fuel element is supported on a spacer support with a rod secured to the support as a guide and is secured to the support by securing means. A vertically movable structure with a reference rod provided upright and thru-holes formed in two support plates provided in the same row as the spacer ring element is operated by a fluid pressure mechanism to simultaneously insert the reference rod into the spacer ring element. The reference rod is mounted in support plates via ball bearings such that it is slightly movable in the horizontal direction, and it is aligned with respect to the core of the ring element. The intercore distance of the reference rod is measured with the reference rod inserted in the ring element, thereby measuring the space pin pitch. From the results of measurement, discrimination as to whether the spacer is satisfactory or not is made. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. A Study on Cell Size of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    2014-01-01

    The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and grid spring force decreases under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause grid-to-rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the recent significant issues in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior and the change in size of grid cells for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the dimensional measurement of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the cell size of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the fretting wear performance of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. Hot cell examinations include dimensional measurements for the irradiated spacer grid. The change of cell sizes was dependent on the direction of the spacer grids, leading to significant gap variations. It was found that the change in size of the cell springs due to irradiation-induced stress relaxation and creep during the fuel residency in the reactor core affect the contact behavior between the fuel rod and the cell spring

  6. Antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer for infected total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Standard treatment of chronic infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a two-stage revision, the first step being placement of an antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer. Here we describe the results of a new technique (modification of the Goldstien′s technique for intraoperative manufacture of a customized articulating spacer at minimal cost and with relatively good conformity and longevity. Materials and Methods : Thirty-six infected knees underwent this procedure from June 2002 to May 2007. The technique consists of using the freshened femur and tibia interface as molds wrapped in a tin foil for manufacturing the two components of the spacer with antibiotic-impregnated methyl methycrylate cement. We used the spacer and the femoral component of the trial set of a TKA system to mold them to perfect articulation. We also reinforced the spacer with a K-wire scaffold to prevent fracture of the cement mantle in the last 21 cases. Results : All 36 knees showed excellent results in terms of infection control, mobility, and stability. There was significant improvement in the WOMAC and Knee Society Scores (20 and 39 points respectively. There were two fractures of the spacers in the initial 15 cases that did not have K-wire scaffolding but none in the last 21 that had reinforcement. Conclusion : This technique provides a more conforming spacer, with good range of motion and stability. The reinforcement helps in preventing the fracture of the cement mantle and is cost effective.

  7. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow through spacer grids in fuel rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraghiaur, Diana; Anglart, Henryk; Frid, Wiktor

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains experimental data of pressure, velocity and turbulence intensity in a 24-rod fuel bundle with spacer grids. Detailed pressure measurements inside the spacer grid have been obtained by use of a sliding pressure-sensing rod. Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique was used to measure the local axial velocity and its fluctuating component upstream and downstream of the spacer grid in sub-channels with different blockage ratios. The measurements show a changing pattern in function of radial position in the cross-section of the fuel bundle. For sub-channels close to the box wall, the turbulence intensity suddenly increases just downstream of the spacer and then gradually decays. In inner sub-channels, however, the turbulence intensity downstream of the spacer decreases below its upstream value and then gradually increases until it reaches the maximum value at approximately two spacer heights. The present study reveals that spacer effects, such as local pressure distribution and turbulence intensity enhancement, not only depend exclusively on the local geometry details, but also on the location in the cross-section of the rod bundle.

  8. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow through spacer grids in fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caraghiaur, Diana [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Reactor Technology, Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: dianac@kth.se; Anglart, Henryk [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Reactor Technology, Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Reactor Technology and Structural Integrity, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    This paper contains experimental data of pressure, velocity and turbulence intensity in a 24-rod fuel bundle with spacer grids. Detailed pressure measurements inside the spacer grid have been obtained by use of a sliding pressure-sensing rod. Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique was used to measure the local axial velocity and its fluctuating component upstream and downstream of the spacer grid in sub-channels with different blockage ratios. The measurements show a changing pattern in function of radial position in the cross-section of the fuel bundle. For sub-channels close to the box wall, the turbulence intensity suddenly increases just downstream of the spacer and then gradually decays. In inner sub-channels, however, the turbulence intensity downstream of the spacer decreases below its upstream value and then gradually increases until it reaches the maximum value at approximately two spacer heights. The present study reveals that spacer effects, such as local pressure distribution and turbulence intensity enhancement, not only depend exclusively on the local geometry details, but also on the location in the cross-section of the rod bundle.

  9. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos

    2017-01-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  10. IgG4-gerelateerde ziekte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J.; Doorenspleet, Marieke E.; Verheij, Joanne; de Vries, Niek; Beuers, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is often difficult to make. The clinical spectrum is diverse, with a variety of organ systems that may be affected simultaneously or sequentially. Patients often present with symptoms that mimic a malignant disease, for example, symptoms compatible with a

  11. IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzalla Cassione, Emanuele; Stone, John H

    2017-05-01

    Remarkable insights have been gleaned recently with regard to the pathophysiology of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). These findings have direct implications for the development of targeted strategies for the treatment of this condition. Oligoclonal expansions of cells of both the B and T lymphocyte lineages are present in the blood of patients with IgG4-RD. Oligoclonal expansions of plasmablasts are a good biomarker for disease activity. An oligoclonally expanded population of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is found not only in the peripheral blood but also at tissue sites of active disease. This cell elaborates cytokines that may drive the fibrosis characteristic of IgG4-RD. T follicular helper cells (Tfhc), particularly the Tfhc2 subset, appear to play a major role in driving the class switch to IgG4 that typifies this disease. The relationship between malignancy and IgG4-RD remains an area of interest. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD have proceeded swiftly, leading to the identification of a number of potential targeted treatment strategies. The completion of classification criteria for IgG4-RD, an effort supported jointly by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, will further facilitate studies on this disease.

  12. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l [fr

  13. Determination of serum IgD radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayol, V.; Hartmann, D.J.; Sabbagh, I.; Ville, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a sensitive liquid phase radioimmunoassay for serum IgD. Extreme values obtained from 85 control patients sera are 0.2 and 121 mg/l with an arithmetic mean of 25 mg/l. In atopic patients (with high serum IgE levels), arithmetic mean is 47 mg/l.

  14. Immunochemical characteristics of IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Although a small part of the IgG4 subclass probably can bind to basophils (and mast cells), IgG4 antibodies usually do not behave as anaphylactic antibodies. Therefore, detection of IgG4 antibodies in serum is not a suitable in vitro assay for IgG-S-TS activity. Furthermore, differences between IgG4

  15. Persistent Lymphadenopathy due to IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    capsid IgM negative), CMV (IgM negative, IgG negative), parvovirus B19 (IgM negative, IgG negative), Hepatitis (HBs Ag negative, HBc Ab negative, HBs...lymphadenopathy). Figure 2: Hematoxylin and eosin stain of a resected lymph node, 2x magnification. This preparation shows nonspecific reactive follicular

  16. Success of Two-Stage Reimplantation in Patients Requiring an Interim Spacer Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Miller, Evan M; Curtis, Gannon L; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K; Mont, Michael A; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-03-23

    Some patients undergoing a 2-stage revision for a periprosthetic joint infection require a repeat spacer in the interim (removal of existing spacer with insertion of a new spacer or spacer exchange) due to persistent infection. The objectives of this study are to (1) determine the factors associated with patients who receive a repeat spacer and (2) compare the infection-free survival (overall and stratified by joint type) of reimplantation in patients who did or did not receive a repeat spacer. From 2001 to 2014, 347 hip or knee 2-stage revisions that finally underwent reimplantation and had a minimum 2-year follow-up were identified. An interim spacer exchange was performed in 59 (17%) patients (exchange cohort). Patient-related and organism-related factors were compared between the exchange and non-exchange cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed to assess the success (absence of signs of infection, reoperation for infection, periprosthetic joint infection-related mortality) of both cohorts. Patients in the exchange group had higher comorbidity score (P = .020), prolonged time to reimplantation (P exchange cohort, and 78% (knee 77%, hip 78%) in the non-exchange cohort (P = .020). Patients requiring an interim spacer exchange were found to have more comorbidities, prolonged treatment period, and were more likely to be infected with a resistant organism. About one-third of such patients became reinfected within 5 years compared to only one-fifth of the patients without an interim spacer exchange. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haaksman, Viktor A.

    2016-09-09

    Spiral-wound membrane modules used in water treatment for water reuse and desalination make use of spacer meshes for keeping the membrane leaves apart and for enhancing the mass transfer. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has gained importance in the design of new spacers with optimized hydrodynamic characteristics, but this requires a precise description of the spacer geometry. This study developed a method to obtain accurate three-dimensional (3-D) geometry representations for any given spacer design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction factors were calculated from numerical simulations on five commercially available feed spacers used in practice. Model solutions compared well to experimental data measured using a flow cell for average velocities up to 0.2 m/s, as used in industrial reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane operations. A newly-proposed spacer geometry with alternating strand thickness was tested, which was found to yield a lower pressure drop while being highly efficient in converting the pumping power into membrane shear. Numerical model solutions using CFD with geometries from CT scans were closer to measurements than those obtained using the traditional circular cross-section strand simplification, indicating that CT scans are very well suitable to approximate real feed spacer geometries. By providing detailed insight on the spacer filament shape, CT scans allow better quantification of local distribution of velocity and shear, possibly leading to more accurate estimations of fouling and concentration polarization. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Roles of N-glycans in the polymerization-dependent aggregation of mutant Ig-μ chains in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Chiara; Fagioli, Claudio; Valetti, Caterina; Sitia, Roberto; Anelli, Tiziana

    2017-02-03

    The polymeric structure of secretory IgM allows efficient antigen binding and complement fixation. The available structural models place the N-glycans bound to asparagines 402 and 563 of Ig-μ chains within a densely packed core of native IgM. These glycans are found in the high mannose state also in secreted IgM, suggesting that polymerization hinders them to Golgi processing enzymes. Their absence alters polymerization. Here we investigate their role following the fate of aggregation-prone mutant μ chains lacking the Cμ1 domain (μ∆). Our data reveal that μ∆ lacking 563 glycans (μ∆5) form larger intracellular aggregates than μ∆ and are not secreted. Like μ∆, they sequester ERGIC-53, a lectin previously shown to promote polymerization. In contrast, μ∆ lacking 402 glycans (μ∆4) remain detergent soluble and accumulate in the ER, as does a double mutant devoid of both (μ∆4-5). These results suggest that the two C-terminal Ig-μ glycans shape the polymerization-dependent aggregation by engaging lectins and acting as spacers in the alignment of individual IgM subunits in native polymers.

  19. [A case of IgA2-lambda type M-protein that IgA concentration differs from the values of M-protein by serum protein electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Sugano, M; Ichikawa, T; Honda, T; Totsuka, M; Katsuyama, T; Fujita, K

    2001-07-01

    We report an IgA-lambda type M-protein in which the IgA concentration differed from the values of M-protein by serum protein electrophoresis found in a 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma. The M-protein value as determined by serum protein electrophoresis was 6,170 mg/dl. However, the serum IgA concentration was 3,052 mg/dl by turbidimetric immunoassay. Immuno-fixation electrophoresis using IgA subclass antisera revealed that this M-protein was the IgA2-lambda type. Western blotting analysis showed that the IgA2 molecules were composed of two approximately 68 kDa alpha 2 chains and two 28 kDa lambda chains. In addition the free lambda chain band was detected at the position of 28 kDa without 2-mercaptoethanol(2-ME) even though the patient IgA was purified. Since it is known that IgA2m(1) allotype easily release light chains from the IgA molecules in SDS-PAGE without 2-ME, we speculated that in this patient the IgA was the IgA2m(1) allotype. After peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT), immunofixation electrophoresis of the patient serum revealed not only the bands of IgA2-lambda type M-protein, but also three bands of IgG1-kappa type M-protein in the gamma region.

  20. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhang; Tongxi, Liu; Jie, Luo; Yujuan, Jiao; Wei, Jiang; Xia, Liu; Yumin, Zheng; Xin, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the clinical, laboratory, imaging pathology, and prognosis features of IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis. We worked with a 55-year-old man suffering from IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis who had the most widespread lesion in his dura mater. We also review previous related studies and discuss the clinical characteristics of this rare disease. In total, eight IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis patients have been reported in the literature since 2009. They were mostly male patients, 51.7 ± 11.9 years old on average. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae were the most common sites for lesions. The most prominent symptom was varying numbness and weakness of the limbs and/or body associated with spinal cord compression. There was one patient (1/5) with elevated serum IgG4 levels and three patients (3/3) with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG4 index. Positive histopathologic findings are the strongest basis for a diagnosis. All the patients with IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis is an orphan disease that mainly occurs in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Older males are the most susceptible group. Serum IgG4 levels were consistently normal in these cases, so analysis of CSF for IgG4 production (IgG4 index) could become a useful tool. Pathological findings remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients responded favorably to glucocorticoid treatment.

  1. APPLICATIONS OF SPACERS MADE WITH DOUBLE BAR RASCHEL MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DÍAZ-GARCÍA Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, textile technologies develop to adapt their different techniques for creating new products for the different sectors of application every day. Particularly, warp knitted fabrics and warp-knitting technology have applications in all different groups of technical textiles. It could be the most applied technique, the most versatile technology to develop new textile products for the new textile market. Warp knitted fabrics play the most important role among the technical textile fabrics. This technology is used in different product groups such as mobile textiles (car seat covers, dashboard cover, industrial textiles (composites, medical textiles (anti-decubitus blankets, sports textiles and foundation garments (bra cups, pads for swimwear. This study presents some examples of the application of this technology in some markets Within the market of technical textile, medical textile has an increasing relevance and knitted fabrics and knitting technology, at the same time, play a very important role in the fields of technical and medical textiles. Studies have demonstrated that knitted structures possess excellent mechanical properties and can promote more effective regenerative medicine, tissue repair, ligament, tendon cartilage, reconstruction, etc. The aim of this paper is to present different possibilities of textiles developed with this kind of structures, to present different alternatives, different examples of products obtained with this kind of textile structure combined with the correct kind of textile fiber. In this kind of technology, double-bar Raschel machines used for producing three-dimensional textiles, spacers, play an important role.

  2. Conversion of a Mouse Fab into a Whole Humanized IgG Antibody for Detecting Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palys, Thomas J; Schmid, Kara E; Scherer, John M; Schoepp, Randal J

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore we sought to convert a murine Fab into a whole humanized IgG. The variable regions from an anti-botulinum Fab were cloned into human IgG heavy and light chain vectors and produced in myeloma cells...

  3. IgG4-related disease with sinonasal involvement: A case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Shailesh M; Yadav, Vikas; Irodi, Aparna; Mani, Sunithi; Varghese, Ajoy Mathew

    2014-01-01

    We present the imaging findings in two cases of IgG4-related disease involving the sinonasal region in the pediatric age group. Imaging findings in IgG4-related disease affecting the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses have been rarely reported in literature. The diagnosis is made by a combination of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic findings. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging findings of this condition to ensure early diagnosis and treatment

  4. Extreme conservation of the psaA/psaB intercistronic spacer reveals a translational motif coincident with the evolution of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Elena L; Les, Donald H; King, Ursula M; Benoit, Lori K

    2012-12-01

    Although chloroplast transcriptional and translational mechanisms were derived originally from prokaryote endosymbionts, chloroplasts retain comparatively few genes as a consequence of the overall transfer to the nucleus of functions associated formerly with prokaryotic genomes. Various modifications reflect other evolutionary shifts toward eukaryotic regulation such as posttranscriptional transcript cleavage with individually processed cistrons in operons and gene expression regulated by nuclear-encoded sigma factors. We report a notable exception for the psaA-psaB-rps14 operon of land plant (embryophyte) chloroplasts, where the first two cistrons are separated by a spacer region to which no significant role had been attributed. We infer an important function of this region, as indicated by the conservation of identical, structurally significant sequences across embryophytes and their ancestral protist lineages, which diverged some 0.5 billion years ago. The psaA/psaB spacers of embryophytes and their progenitors exhibit few sequence and length variants, with most modeled transcripts resolving the same secondary structure: a loop with projecting Shine-Dalgarno site and well-defined stem that interacts with adjacent coding regions to sequester the psaB start codon. Although many functions of the original endosymbiont have been usurped by nuclear genes or interactions, conserved functional elements of embryophyte psaA/psaB spacers provide compelling evidence that translation of psaB is regulated here by a cis-acting mechanism comparable to those common in prokaryotes. Modeled transcripts also indicate that spacer variants in some plants (e.g., aquatic genus Najas) potentially reflect ecological adaptations to facilitate temperature-regulated translation of psaB.

  5. Human IgG4 binds to IgG4 and conformationally altered IgG1 via Fc-Fc interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooievaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Vermeulen, Ellen; Schuurman, Janine; van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fc fragment of IgG4 can interact with the Fc fragment of another IgG molecule. This interaction is a confounding factor when measuring IgG4 rheumatoid factor levels. Recently, we demonstrated that half-molecules of IgG4 can exchange to form a bispecific Ab. We expected these two phenomena to be

  6. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D [Cancer Care of Western New York, Cheektowaga, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site.

  7. SU-E-T-284: Dose Plan Optimization When Using Hydrogel Prostate-Rectum Spacer: A Single Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajecki, M; Thurber, A; Catalfamo, F; Duff, M; Shah, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe rectal dose reduction achieved and techniques used to take advantage of the increased peri-rectal spacing provided by injected polyethylene-glycol. Methods: Thirty prostate cancer patents were 2:1 randomized during a clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of injected poly-ethylene glycol hydrogel (SpaceOAR System) in creating space between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall. All patients received a baseline CT/MR scan and baseline IMRT treatment plan. Patients were randomized to receive hydrogel injection (n=20) or Control (n=10), followed by another CT/MR scan and treatment plan (single arc VMAT, 6 MV photons, 79.2 Gy, 44 fractions). Additional optimization structures were employed to constrain the dose to the rectum; specifically an avoidance structure to limit V75 <15%, and a control structure to limit the maximum relative dose <105% in the interface region of the anterior rectal wall and the prostate planning target volume. Dose volumetric data was analyzed for rectal volumes receiving 60 through 80 Gy. Results: Rectal dose reduction was observed in all patients who received the hydrogel. Volumetric analysis indicates a median rectal volume and (reduction from baseline plan) following spacer application of 4.9% (8.9%) at V60Gy, 3.8% (8.1%) at V65Gy, 2.5% (7.2%) at V70Gy, 1.6% (5.8%) at V75Gy, and 0.5% (2.5%) at V80Gy. Conclusion: Relative to planning without spacers, rectal dose constraints of 5%, 4%, 3%, 2%, 1% for V60, V65, V70, V75, and V80, should be obtainable when peri-rectal spacers are used. The combined effect of increased peri-rectal space provided by the hydrogel, with strict optimization objectives, resulted in reduced dose to the rectum. To maximize benefit, strict optimization objectives and reduced rectal dose constraints should be employed when creating plans for patients with perirectal spacers. Clinical Trial for SpaceOAR product conducted by Augmenix,Inc. The research site was paid to be a participating site

  8. Articulating spacers used in two-stage revision of infected hip and knee prostheses abrade with time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernd; Rechtenbach, Annett; Büchner, Hubert; Vogt, Sebastian; Hahn, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Articulating spacers used in two-stage revision surgery of infected prostheses have the potential to abrade and subsequently induce third-body wear of the new prosthesis. We asked whether particulate material abraded from spacers could be detected in the synovial membrane 6 weeks after implantation when the spacers were removed for the second stage of the revision. Sixteen hip spacers (cemented prosthesis stem articulating with a cement cup) and four knee spacers (customized mobile cement spacers) were explanted 6 weeks after implantation and the synovial membranes were removed at the same time. The membranes were examined by xray fluorescence spectroscopy, xray diffraction for the presence of abraded particles originating from the spacer material, and analyzed in a semiquantitative manner by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Histologic analyses also were performed. We found zirconium dioxide in substantial amounts in all samples, and in the specimens of the hip synovial lining, we detected particles that originated from the metal heads of the spacers. Histologically, zirconium oxide particles were seen in the synovial membrane of every spacer and bone cement particles in one knee and two hip spacers. The observations suggest cement spacers do abrade within 6 weeks. Given the presence of abrasion debris, we recommend total synovectomy and extensive lavage during the second-stage reimplantation surgery to minimize the number of abraded particles and any retained bacteria.

  9. Effects of grid spacer with mixing vane on entrainments and depositions in two-phase annular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimaro Kawahara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mixing vanes (MVs attached to a grid spacer on the characteristics of air–water annular flows were experimentally investigated. To know the effects, a grid spacer with or without MV was inserted in a vertical circular pipe of 16-mm internal diameter. For three cases (i.e., no spacer, spacer without MV, and spacer with MV, the liquid film thickness, liquid entrainment fraction, and deposition rate were measured by the constant current method, single liquid film extraction method, and double liquid film extraction method, respectively. The MVs significantly promote the re-deposition of liquid droplets in the gas core flow into the liquid film on the channel walls. The deposition mass transfer coefficient is three times higher for the spacer with MV than for the spacer without MV, even for cases 0.3-m downstream from the spacer. The liquid film thickness becomes thicker upstream and downstream for the spacer with MV, compared with the thickness for the spacer without MV and for the case with no spacer.

  10. Anti Helicobacter pylori IgG and IgA response in patients with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nebojsa; Babic, Dragana; Filipovic-Ljeshovic, Ivana; Pilcevic, Dijana

    2008-01-01

    Immune response against Helicobacter pylori is important for the course and outcome of infection. We conducted study looking for the difference in anti H. pylori IgG and IgA between patients with intestinal type of gastric cancer, superficial and atrophic gastritis. For this study, 133 patients infected with H. pylori were enrolled: 50 with superficial gastritis, 42 with atrophic gastritis and 41 with gastric cancer. Anti H. pylori IgG and IgA ELISA tests were performed. The difference in antibody titers of IgG and IgA, frequency of IgA > IgG ratio and combination of low IgG and IgA > IgG ratio were analyzed. The patients with gastritis had higher titer of IgG that the patients with gastric cancer (p gastritis had higher titer of IgA than the patients with gastric cancer (p IgG ratio is more frequent in patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with superficial gastritis (p IgG is more frequent in the patients with gastric cancer than in the patients with gastritis (p cancer elicit different anti H. pylori IgG and IgA response than the patients with superficial and atrophic gastritis. Low IgG and IgA predominance seems characteristic for gastric cancer.

  11. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  12. The effect of endoskeleton on antibiotic impregnated cement spacer for treating deep hip infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Wei-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds A two-stage revision arthroplasty was suggested optimal treatment for deep infections in hip joint. The effect of endoskeleton of cement spacers on the interim function and infection control remains unclear. Methods From Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2007, we collected a prospective cohort of consecutive 34 patients who treated with two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty for deep infection of hip joint. In group 1, fifteen patients were treated by a novel design augmented with hip compression screw while nineteen patients were treated by traditional design in group 2. Results No fracture of cement spacer occurred in group 1 while 6 cases developed spacer failure in group 2. (p Conclusions Patients being treated for deep infection of hip joint using cement spacer augmented with stronger endoskeleton have lower pain levels and better joint function between stages.

  13. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc; Siddiqui, Amber; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create

  14. A Facile Technique to Make Articulating Spacers for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Su

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Treating infected total knee arthroplasty with these self-made articulating spacers eradicates infection effectively, improves the life quality before reimplantation and provides good final results without significant complications.

  15. Reentrainment of droplet from grid spacer in mist flow portion of LOCA reflood of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Cho, S.K.; Sheen, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is made on the influence of a quenched grid spacer on the greatly enhanced heat transfer from heated fuel rods during the mist flow phase of emergency reflood of loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The situation for the case of a dry grid spacer before its quenching has not been covered in this study. The experimental technique used is a relatively simple optical scheme which combines the reference-mode laser-Doppler anemometry making use of the scattering of a light beam from a droplet. The results reveal that the large droplets in the mist flow, which are intercepted by the grid spacer, are responsible for the creation of a large number of smaller droplets. These small droplets, due to their large surface area to mass ratios, can serve as superb evaporative cooling agents to heat transfer downstream of the grid spacer

  16. Non linear fe analysis on the static buckling behavior of the spacer grid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.N.; Yoon, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study considered is the static buckling behavior of spacer grids in the fuel assembly, which are required to have a sufficient strength against an accident like earthquake. Special attention is given to the finite element modeling of the spot-welding and the constraints between the spacer strips assembled together: it is found that a proper treatment of the constraints is critical for accurate assessment of the buckling behavior including strain localization at the point of spot welding. The buckling strength of the 17 x 17 spacer grid, which is difficult to analyze due to a large number of degrees of freedom, is estimated from analysis for the smaller models 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 7 x 7, and 9 x 9 spacer grids. (authors)

  17. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Computer-Aided Design Method of Warp-Knitted Jacquard Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a further study on knitting and jacquard principles, this paper presents a mathematical design model to make computer-aided design of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics more efficient. The mathematical model with matrix method employs three essential elements of chain notation, threading and Jacquard designing. With this model, the processing to design warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics with CAD software is also introduced. In this study, the sports shoes which have separated functional areas according to the feet structure and characteristics of movement are analysed. The results show the different patterns on Jacquard spacer fabrics that are seamlessly stitched with jacquard technics. The computer-aided design method of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics is efficient and simple.

  19. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    KAUST Repository

    Radu, A.I.; van Steen, M.S.H.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic

  20. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  1. Suppression of subthreshold characteristics variation for junctionless multigate transistors using high-k spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, Haijun; Zhang, Baili; Li, Dan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Chan, Mansun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the high-k spacer is proposed to suppress the subthreshold characteristics variation of junctionless multigate transistor (JMT) with non-ideal sidewall angle for the first time. It is demonstrated that the variation of subthreshold characteristics induced by the changing sidewall angle is efficiently suppressed by high-k spacers due to the enhanced corner effect through the fringe capacitance, and the electrostatic integrity of JMTs is also improved at sub-22 nm gate length. Two key parameters of high-k spacer, the thickness and length, have been optimized in terms of the suppression of subthreshold characteristics variation. Then their optimal values are proposed. The benefit of high-k spacer makes JMTs more scalable. (paper)

  2. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...... on separate days. Blood samples were taken for plasma salbutamol at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after inhalation to measure lung bioavailability as a surrogate for relative lung dose. With immediate inhalation following actuation, a new rinsed spacer (NewRinsed ) was compared with a used spacer after repeated daily...... log transformed and expressed as geometric mean fold difference for the average plasma salbutamol concentration (Cav) over 20 min. RESULTS: There were significant differences (P NewRinsed 1.92 fold (95% CI 1.15, 3...

  3. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  4. A study on the characteristics of the spacer spring by finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Keun; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Kyu Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of spacer springs in KOFA was certified through the mechanical tests by KWU. In this report, the spacer spring characteristics were obtained by using a commercial FEM code ANSYS, and the calculated results were compared with the mechanical test results. It has been found that the analytical results from ANSYS were in good agreement with the test results in the actual working range of the spacer springs even though some errors occurred in the range of initial spring deflection. The errors were thought to occur due to the simplified boundary conditions and the nominal dimensions which are used in calculations rather than the as-fabricated dimensions. Though the results from ANSYS are not fully satisfied, the analytical method in this report has been verified to be used as a method for investigating the characteristic of spacer springs roughly before conducting mechanical tests. 8 tabs., 25 figs (Author) .new.

  5. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment.

  6. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Staal, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  7. Feasibility Study of Interactive Game Technologies to Improve Experience with Inhaler Spacer Devices in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Tariq; Shakir, Savana; Murray, Clare

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe correct use of inhaler devices with facemasks and spacers in young children can be difficult for both children and parents, resulting in distress for both, poor adherence and ineffective drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the utility and impact of an interactive electronic game designed to improve the experience of spacer devices in young asthmatic children.MethodsThe Respiratory Aid For Inhaler (RAFIhaler) technology consists of a smartphone mounte...

  8. Technology of electron beam welding for Zr-4 alloy spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Qiusheng; Wu Xueyi; Yang Qishun

    1989-10-01

    The welding technology for Zr-4 alloy spacer grid by using vacuum electron beam was studied. Through a series of welding technological experiments, metallographic examinations of seam structure and detecting tests for welding defect by X-ray defectoscopy, a good welding technology was selected to meet the requirements. The experimental results indicated that the Zr-4 alloy spacer grid welded by vacuum electron beam welding is feasible

  9. Separation of Hepatitis C genotype 4a into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions reveals a unique quasispecies profile.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moreau, Isabelle

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates in an infected individual as a heterogeneous mixture of closely related viruses called quasispecies. The E1\\/E2 region of the HCV genome is hypervariable (HVR1) and is targeted by the humoral immune system. Hepatitis C virions are found in two forms: antibody associated or antibody free. The objective of this study was to investigate if separation of Hepatitis C virions into antibody enriched and antibody depleted fractions segregates quasispecies populations into distinctive swarms. RESULTS: A HCV genotype 4a specimen was fractionated into IgG-depleted and IgG-enriched fractions by use of Albumin\\/IgG depletion spin column. Clonal analysis of these two fractions was performed and then compared to an unfractionated sample. Following sequence analysis it was evident that the antibody depleted fraction was significantly more heterogeneous than the antibody enriched fraction, revealing a unique quasispecies profile. An in-frame 3 nt insertion was observed in 26% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 64% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. In addition, an in-frame 3 nt indel event was observed in 10% of clones in the unfractionated population and in 9% of clones in the IgG-depleted fraction. Neither of these latter events, which are rare occurrences in genotype 4a, was identified in the IgG-enriched fraction. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the homogeneity of the IgG-enriched species is postulated to represent a sequence that was strongly recognised by the humoral immune system at the time the sample was obtained. The heterogeneous nature of the IgG-depleted fraction is discussed in the context of humoral escape.

  10. Numerical prediction on turbulent heat transfer of a spacer ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    1994-11-01

    The turbulent heat transfer of a fuel rod with three-dimensional trapezoidal spacer ribs for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was analyzed numerically using the k-ε turbulence model, and investigated experimentally using a simulated fuel rod under the helium gas condition of a maximum outlet temperature of 1000degC and pressure of 4MPa. From the experimental results, it found that the turbulent heat transfer coefficients of the fuel rod were 18 to 80% higher than those of a concentric smooth annulus at a region of Reynolds number exceeding 2000. On the other hand, the predicted average Nusselt number of the fuel rod agreed well with the heat transfer correlation obtained from the experimental data within a relative error of 10% with Reynolds number of more than 5000. It was verified that the numerical analysis results had sufficient accuracy. Furthermore, the numerical prediction could clarify quantitatively the effects of the heat transfer augmentation by the spacer rib and the axial velocity increase due to a reduction in the annular channel cross-section. (author)

  11. Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofânia HDA Vidigal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.

  12. Hyper IgM Syndrome with low IgM and thrombocytosis: an unusual case of immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Ejaz; Arshad Alvi, M

    2016-09-01

    We report a 5 years old male child with low serum IgG, IgA and IgM levels, who presented with recurrent perianal and oral ulcers, intermittent fever, and protracted diarrhea. Despite the lack of typical respiratory symptoms, low serum IgM level and persistent thrombocytosis, an X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (X-HIGM) was considered. Laboratory investigations revealed a diagnosis of hyper-IgM syndrome caused by CD40L deficiency.

  13. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  14. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10"4 to 5.4 x 10"4. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  15. Numerical simulation of bubble motion about a grid spacer in a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zheng; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Hayashi, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations based on a three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking method are carried out to predict bubble motions in a square duct with an obstacle and in a two-by-three rod bundle with a grid spacer. Comparisons between measured and predicted bubble motions demonstrate that the two-way bubble tracking method gives good predictions for trajectories of small bubbles in the upstream side of the grid spacer in the rod bundle geometry. The predicted bubble trajectories clearly show that bubbles are apt to migrate toward the rod surface in the vicinity of the bottom of the grid spacer. Analysis of forces acting on the bubbles confirms that pressure gradient force induced by the presence of the spacer is the main cause of the bubble lateral migration toward the rod surface. Motions of steam bubbles at a nominal operating condition of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are also predicted by using the bubble tracking method, which indicates that steam bubbles also migrate toward the rod surface at the upstream side of the spacer due to the spacer-induced pressure gradient force. (author)

  16. BWR fuel assembly having fuel rod spacers axially positioned by exterior springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having spaced fuel rods, an outer hollow tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid there-along, and at least one spacer being disposed along the channel and about the fuel rods so as to maintain them in side-by-side spaced relationship, an arrangement for disposing the spacer in a desired axial position along the fuel rods is described comprising: yieldably resilient springs disposed between an interior side of the outer channel and an exterior side of the spacer. The springs have an inherent spring bias directed away from the exterior sides of the spacers and toward the interior side of the channel such that by contact with the channel and spacer the springs assume states in which they are deflected away from the channel interior side so as to exert sufficient compressive contacting force thereon to maintain the spacer substantially stationary in the desired axial position along the fuel rods

  17. Conformational plasticity at the IgE-binding site of the B-cell receptor CD23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Pang, Marie O Y; Yuan, Daopeng; Yahya, Norhakim; Fabiane, Stella M; McDonnell, James M; Gould, Hannah J; Beavil, Andrew J; Sutton, Brian J

    2013-12-01

    IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic disease. They recognize allergens via their Fab regions, whilst their effector functions are controlled through interactions of the Fc region with two principal cell surface receptors, FcɛRI and CD23. Crosslinking of FcɛRI-bound IgE on mast cells and basophils by allergen initiates an immediate inflammatory response, while the interaction of IgE with CD23 on B-cells regulates IgE production. We have determined the structures of the C-type lectin "head" domain of CD23 from seven crystal forms. The thirty-five independent structures reveal extensive conformational plasticity in two loops that are critical for IgE binding. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. IgG and IgE antibodies to Chironomidae in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, N; Ito, K; Nakagawa, T; Haida, M; Okudaira, H; Nakada, S; Miyamoto, T; Shibuya, T; Kamei, K; Sasa, M

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 5 PMID:3652516

  19. Abundant and diverse clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat spacers in Clostridium difficile strains and prophages target multiple phage types within this pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Katherine R; Flores, Cesar O; Lawley, Trevor D; Clokie, Martha R J

    2014-08-26

    Clostridium difficile is an important human-pathogenic bacterium causing antibiotic-associated nosocomial infections worldwide. Mobile genetic elements and bacteriophages have helped shape C. difficile genome evolution. In many bacteria, phage infection may be controlled by a form of bacterial immunity called the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system. This uses acquired short nucleotide sequences (spacers) to target homologous sequences (protospacers) in phage genomes. C. difficile carries multiple CRISPR arrays, and in this paper we examine the relationships between the host- and phage-carried elements of the system. We detected multiple matches between spacers and regions in 31 C. difficile phage and prophage genomes. A subset of the spacers was located in prophage-carried CRISPR arrays. The CRISPR spacer profiles generated suggest that related phages would have similar host ranges. Furthermore, we show that C. difficile strains of the same ribotype could either have similar or divergent CRISPR contents. Both synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in the protospacer sequences were identified, as well as differences in the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which could explain how phages escape this system. This paper illustrates how the distribution and diversity of CRISPR spacers in C. difficile, and its prophages, could modulate phage predation for this pathogen and impact upon its evolution and pathogenicity. Clostridium difficile is a significant bacterial human pathogen which undergoes continual genome evolution, resulting in the emergence of new virulent strains. Phages are major facilitators of genome evolution in other bacterial species, and we use sequence analysis-based approaches in order to examine whether the CRISPR/Cas system could control these interactions across divergent C. difficile strains. The presence of spacer sequences in prophages that are homologous to phage genomes raises an

  20. Efficient Subgroup C Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Receptor Activity Requires the IgV Domain of the Tvc Receptor and Proper Display on the Cell Membrane▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection. PMID:18768966

  1. Efficient subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor activity requires the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor and proper display on the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection.

  2. Time spans and spacers : Molecular phylogenetic explorations in the Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta) from the perspective of rDNA gene and spacer sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Frederik Theodoor

    1995-01-01

    In this study, phylogenetic relationships among genera, species and biogeographic representatives of single Cladophora species within the Cladophorales were analyzed using rDNA gene and spacer sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, the Cladophora complex is shown to be

  3. IgE antibodies to alpha-gal in the general adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Dam Laursen, A S; Vidal, C

    2014-01-01

    -gal-specific (s)IgE and its associated factors in the general adult population from two separated (Northern and Southern) European regions (Denmark and Spain, respectively). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2297 and 444 randomly selected adults from 11 municipalities in Denmark and one in Spain. Alpha-gal s.......1% in the Danish and Spanish series, respectively. The prevalence of sIgE ≥ 0.35 kUA /L was 1.8% and 2.2% in Denmark and Spain, respectively. Alpha-gal sIgE positivity was associated with pet ownership in both series and, particularly, cat ownership (data available in the Danish series). Alpha-gal sIgE positivity...

  4. A new framework for the interpretation of IgE sensitization tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, G; Ollert, M; Aalberse, R.

    2016-01-01

    tests to make a definitive diagnosis; these are often expensive and potentially associated with severe reactions. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be semi-quantified from an IgE sensitization test results. This relationship varies though according to the patients' age, ethnicity, nature...... of the putative allergic reaction and coexisting clinical diseases such as eczema. The likelihood of clinical allergy can be more precisely estimated from an IgE sensitization test result, by taking into account the patient's presenting features (pretest probability). The presence of each of these patient...... pretest probabilities for diverse setting, regions and allergens. Also, cofactors, such as exercise, may be necessary for exposure to an allergen to result in an allergic reaction in specific IgE-positive patients. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergy is now being aided by the introduction of allergen...

  5. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  6. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-22

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  7. Comparison of in-house IgM and IgG ELISAs for the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Shirley Yi Fen; Ali, Noor Azila; Ahmad, Norazah; Amran, Fairuz

    2017-11-01

    Melioidosis is an endemic infectious disease in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. However, the incidence rate in Malaysia is not well documented. The high mortality rate and broad range of clinical presentations require rapid and accurate diagnosis for appropriate treatment. This study compared the efficacy of in-house IgM and IgG ELISA methods using a local B. pseudomallei strain. The diagnostic accuracy of the in-house IgG ELISA was better than that of the IgM ELISA: sensitivity (IgG: 84.71 %, IgM: 76.14 %) and specificity (IgG: 93.64 %, IgM: 90.17 %); positive predictive value (IgG: 86.75 %, IgM: 79.76 %) and negative predictive value (IgG: 92.57 %, IgM: 89.66 %); likelihood ratio (LR) [IgG: 13.32, IgM: 7.75 (LR+); IgG: 0.16, IgM: 0.26 (LR-)], and was supported by the observation of the absorbance value in comparisons between culture and serology sampling. In-house IgG ELISA was shown to be useful as an early diagnostic tool for melioidosis.

  8. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mediator facilitates transcriptional activation and dynamic long-range contacts at the IgH locus during class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Claudepierre, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Isabelle; Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Schiavo, Ebe; Heyer, Vincent; Bonneau, Richard; Luo, Vincent M; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman; Skok, Jane A; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo

    2016-03-07

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) is initiated by the transcription-coupled recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to Ig switch regions (S regions). During CSR, the IgH locus undergoes dynamic three-dimensional structural changes in which promoters, enhancers, and S regions are brought to close proximity. Nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we show that Med1 and Med12, two subunits of the mediator complex implicated in transcription initiation and long-range enhancer/promoter loop formation, are dynamically recruited to the IgH locus enhancers and the acceptor regions during CSR and that their knockdown in CH12 cells results in impaired CSR. Furthermore, we show that conditional inactivation of Med1 in B cells results in defective CSR and reduced acceptor S region transcription. Finally, we show that in B cells undergoing CSR, the dynamic long-range contacts between the IgH enhancers and the acceptor regions correlate with Med1 and Med12 binding and that they happen at a reduced frequency in Med1-deficient B cells. Our results implicate the mediator complex in the mechanism of CSR and are consistent with a model in which mediator facilitates the long-range contacts between S regions and the IgH locus enhancers during CSR and their transcriptional activation. © 2016 Thomas-Claudepierre et al.

  10. Experimental investigations of turbulent flows in rod bundles with and without spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, G.

    1979-07-01

    In the thermofluiddynamic design of liquid metal cooled reactor fuel elements the lack of experimentally confirmed knowledge of the three-dimensional flow events in rod bundles provided with spacer grids has appeared as a significant problem. To close this gap of knowledge, detailed measurements of the local velocities were made on a 19-rod bundle model. The Pitot method of differential pressure measurements was used as the measuring system. In the first part of the work the fully developed flow regime not influenced by spacers was investigated. A simple relation was derived for distributing the mass flow among the subchannels of a rod bundle; it is but slightly dependent on the Reynolds number. This relation allows a quick, coarse calculation of the distribution of the undisturbed, fully developed mass flow in bundles with similar geometries. By evaluation of further experiments known from the literature, empirical relationships were found for the local velocity distribution within the subchannels of such bundles. In the second part the effect of grid shaped spacers was investigated. The three-dimensional flow events caused by the spacers were completely recorded and interpreted physically. The deeper understanding of these flow processes can now serve to improve the model concept used in the present design computer programs. Single results of the investigations which take primary importance are the quantitative relations existing between the changes of mass flow in the bundle boundary zone, caused by a spacer, and the geometry of this spacer. The transferability to other bundle geometries was discussed and delimited. Moreover, it was shown that the mass flow in the bundle boundary zone can be successively reduced by spacers placed one behind the other in the bundle. A noticeable dependence of flow events on the Reynolds number was not found for the range relevant in practical application (30.000 [de

  11. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(DJ recombination signal sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ian Lee

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available During lymphocyte development, V(DJ recombination assembles antigen receptor genes from component V, D, and J gene segments. These gene segments are flanked by a recombination signal sequence (RSS, which serves as the binding site for the recombination machinery. The murine Jbeta2.6 gene segment is a recombinationally inactive pseudogene, but examination of its RSS reveals no obvious reason for its failure to recombine. Mutagenesis of the Jbeta2.6 RSS demonstrates that the sequences of the heptamer, nonamer, and spacer are all important. Strikingly, changes solely in the spacer sequence can result in dramatic differences in the level of recombination. The subsequent analysis of a library of more than 4,000 spacer variants revealed that spacer residues of particular functional importance are correlated with their degree of conservation. Biochemical assays indicate distinct cooperation between the spacer and heptamer/nonamer along each step of the reaction pathway. The results suggest that the spacer serves not only to ensure the appropriate distance between the heptamer and nonamer but also regulates RSS activity by providing additional RAG:RSS interaction surfaces. We conclude that while RSSs are defined by a "digital" requirement for absolutely conserved nucleotides, the quality of RSS function is determined in an "analog" manner by numerous complex interactions between the RAG proteins and the less-well conserved nucleotides in the heptamer, the nonamer, and, importantly, the spacer. Those modulatory effects are accurately predicted by a new computational algorithm for "RSS information content." The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems.

  12. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(D)J recombination signal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred Ian; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Cowell, Lindsay G; Ptaszek, Leon M; Kelsoe, Garnett; Schatz, David G

    2003-10-01

    During lymphocyte development, V(D)J recombination assembles antigen receptor genes from component V, D, and J gene segments. These gene segments are flanked by a recombination signal sequence (RSS), which serves as the binding site for the recombination machinery. The murine Jbeta2.6 gene segment is a recombinationally inactive pseudogene, but examination of its RSS reveals no obvious reason for its failure to recombine. Mutagenesis of the Jbeta2.6 RSS demonstrates that the sequences of the heptamer, nonamer, and spacer are all important. Strikingly, changes solely in the spacer sequence can result in dramatic differences in the level of recombination. The subsequent analysis of a library of more than 4,000 spacer variants revealed that spacer residues of particular functional importance are correlated with their degree of conservation. Biochemical assays indicate distinct cooperation between the spacer and heptamer/nonamer along each step of the reaction pathway. The results suggest that the spacer serves not only to ensure the appropriate distance between the heptamer and nonamer but also regulates RSS activity by providing additional RAG:RSS interaction surfaces. We conclude that while RSSs are defined by a "digital" requirement for absolutely conserved nucleotides, the quality of RSS function is determined in an "analog" manner by numerous complex interactions between the RAG proteins and the less-well conserved nucleotides in the heptamer, the nonamer, and, importantly, the spacer. Those modulatory effects are accurately predicted by a new computational algorithm for "RSS information content." The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems.

  13. Epithelial-microbial crosstalk in polymeric Ig receptor deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reikvam, D.H.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Islam, R.; Erofeev, A.; Grcic, V.; Sandvik, A.; Gaustad, P.; Meza-Zepeda, L.A.; Jahnsen, F.L.; Smidt, H.; Johansen, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Innate and adaptive mucosal defense mechanisms ensure a homeostatic relationship with the large and complex mutualistic gut microbiota. Dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM are transported across the intestinal epithelium via the epithelial polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR) and provide a significant portion of

  14. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency is a common immunodeficiency in Caucasians, but the molecular basis of the disorder remains elusive. To address this issue we examined the molecular events leading to IgA production. Naive IgD positive B cells were purified from four donors with IgA deficiency and four...

  15. High-temperature carrier density and mobility enhancements in AlGaN/GaN HEMT using AlN spacer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Tsung-Shine; Lin, Der-Yuh; Lin, Chia-Feng; Chang, Che-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Tu, Shang-Ju

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we experimentally studied the effect of AlN spacer layer on optical and electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electric mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition method. For AlGaN layer in HEMT structure, the Al composition of the sample was determined using x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence. Electrolyte electro-reflectance (EER) measurement not only confirmed the aluminum composition of AlGaN layer, but also determined the electric field strength on the AlGaN layer through the Franz-Keldysh oscillation phenomenon. This result indicated that the electric field on the AlGaN layer could be improved from 430 to 621 kV/cm when AlN spacer layer was inserted in HEMT structure, which increased the concentration of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and improve the mobility. The temperature dependent Hall results show that both the mobility and the carrier concentration of 2DEG would decrease abruptly causing HEMT loss of function due to phonon scattering and carrier thermal escape when temperature increases above a specific value. Meanwhile, our study also demonstrates using AlN spacer layer could be beneficial to allow the mobility and carrier density of 2DEG sustaining at high temperature region.

  16. Treatment of IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, J; Feehally, J

    2006-06-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an important cause of progressive kidney disease with 25-30% of patients developing end-stage renal disease within 20 years of diagnosis. There is still no treatment to modify mesangial IgA deposition and available treatments are those extrapolated from the management of other patterns of chronic glomerulonephritis. There remains no consensus on the use of immunosuppressive agents for treatment of progressive IgAN and this is compounded by the relative lack in IgAN of randomized controlled trials relevant to current clinical practice. Patients with recurrent macroscopic hematuria or isolated microscopic hematuria and proteinuria renal biopsy should be managed as for minimal change nephropathy. There is no evidence to support the use of corticosteroids for nephrotic IgAN outside this group of patients. Patients presenting with acute renal failure require evaluation to distinguish acute tubular necrosis, which requires supportive therapy only, from crescentic IgAN, for which treatment with cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids in a regimen similar to that for renal small vessel vasculitis is indicated in the absence of significant chronic histologic injury. Patients at greatest risk of progressive renal impairment are those with hypertension, proteinuria >1 g/24 h, and reduced glomerular filtration rate at diagnosis. All such patients should be treated to a blood pressure of 125/75 mm Hg with dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade. At present, there is insufficient evidence for the additional use of immunosuppressive agents, antiplatelet agents, or anticoagulants.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Di Capua

    Full Text Available Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI. Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species.

  18. Knitting Technologies And Tensile Properties Of A Novel Curved Flat-Knitted Three-Dimensional Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaoying

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a knitting technique for making innovative curved three-dimensional (3D spacer fabrics by the computer flat-knitting machine. During manufacturing, a number of reinforcement yarns made of aramid fibres are inserted into 3D spacer fabrics along the weft direction to enhance the fabric tensile properties. Curved, flat-knitted 3D spacer fabrics with different angles (in the warp direction were also developed. Tensile tests were carried out in the weft and warp directions for the two spacer fabrics (with and without reinforcement yarns, and their stress–strain curves were compared. The results showed that the reinforcement yarns can reduce the fabric deformation and improve tensile stress and dimensional stability of 3D spacer fabrics. This research can help the further study of 3D spacer fabric when applied to composites.

  19. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by enhancing formation of AID-accessible single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID to access the IgV genes due to reduced formation of ssDNA during IgV transcription. Loss of H3.3 also diminishes IgV R-loop formation. However, reducing IgV R-loops by RNase HI overexpression in wild-type cells does not affect IgV diversification, showing that these structures are not necessary intermediates for AID access. Importantly, the reduction in the formation of AID-accessible ssDNA in cells lacking H3.3 is independent of any effect on the level of transcription or the kinetics of RNAPII elongation, suggesting the presence of H3.3 in the nucleosomes of the IgV genes increases the chances of the IgV DNA becoming single-stranded, thereby creating an effective AID substrate. © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. IgG4 and IgE co-positive group found in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Xiang Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To reveal the cytokines involved in idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease (IOID and the relationship between Th17 cells, IgE and IOID pathogenesis. METHODS: Whole blood samples were processed immediately after collection and serological IgG4, IgG, and IgE antibodies were tested using ELISA. IOID and orbital cavernous hemangioma (CH tissue samples underwent Bio-Plex multiplex cytokine detection. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE staining of all paraffin samples suggested the histological features of IOIDs, and expressions of IgG4 and IL-17A in affected tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Among 40 IOID plasma samples, 52.5% (21/40 were positive for IgG4 and 25% (10/40 were positive for IgE. Overlapped IgG4 or IgE positive samples accounted for 22.5% (9/40. Therefore, IOID samples were separated into three groups. The IgE+/IgG4+ group had a relevantly lower level of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. IL-4 (Th2 cell related, IL-10 and TGF-β1 (Treg cell immunity related were elevated in all three groups. Some of the Th17 cell related cytokines (i.e. IL-17A/F, IL-25, IL-23, and IL-33 displayed higher expression levels in the IgE-/IgG4- group compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: We discovered an IgG4-IgE co-positive group as well as Th17 cell immune involvement in IgG4-IgE co-negative subgtroup in IOID for the first time. The pathogenesis of IOID could differ from different subgroups according to the IgG4 and IgE detection. Therefore, we recommend that, Treatment stratagy should be made according to the clinical assessment of IgG4-IgE and Th17 profile detection.

  1. Ion therapy of prostate cancer: daily rectal dose reduction by application of spacer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Antoni; Brons, Stephan; Richter, Daniel; Habl, Gregor; Debus, Jürgen; Bert, Christoph; Haberer, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam therapy represents a promising approach to treat prostate cancer, mainly due to its high conformity and radiobiological effectiveness. However, the presence of prostate motion, patient positioning and range uncertainties may deteriorate target dose and increase exposure of organs at risk. Spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum may increase the safety of prostate cancer (PC) radiation therapy by separating the rectum from the target dose field. The dosimetric impact of the application of spacer gel for scanned carbon ion therapy of PC has been analyzed at Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). The robustness of ion therapy treatment plans was investigated by comparison of two data sets of patients treated with and without spacer gel. A research treatment planning system for ion therapy was used for treatment plan optimization and calculation of daily dose distributions on 2 to 9 Computed Tomography (CT) studies available for each of the 19 patients. Planning and daily dose distributions were analyzed with respect to target coverage, maximal dose to the rectum (excluding 1 ml of the greatest dose; Dmax-1 ml) and the rectal volume receiving dose greater than 90% of prescribed target dose (V90 Rectum ), respectively. The application of spacer gel did substantially diminish rectum dose. Dmax-1 ml on the treatment planning CT was on average reduced from 100.0 ± 1.0% to 90.2 ± 4.8%, when spacer gel was applied. The robustness analysis performed with daily CT studies demonstrated for all analyzed patient cases that application of spacer gel results in a decrease of the daily V90 Rectum index, which calculated over all patient cases and CT studies was 10.2 ± 10.4 [ml] and 1.1 ± 2.1 [ml] for patients without and with spacer gel, respectively. The dosimetric benefit of increasing the distance between prostate and rectum using spacer gel for PC treatment with carbon ion beams has been quantified. Application of spacer gel substantially reduced rectal

  2. Aberrantly Glycosylated IgA1 as a Factor in the Pathogenesis of IgA Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mototsugu Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Predominant or codominant immunoglobulin (Ig A deposition in the glomerular mesangium characterizes IgA nephropathy (IgAN. Accumulated glomerular IgA is limited to the IgA1 subclass and usually galactose-deficient. This underglycosylated IgA may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. Recently, antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 were found to be well associated with the development of IgAN. Several therapeutic strategies based on corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents have been shown to at least partially suppress the progression of IgAN. On the other hand, several case reports of kidney transplantation or acquired IgA deficiency uncovered a remarkable ability of human kidney to remove mesangial IgA deposition, resulting in the long-term stabilization of kidney function. Continuous exposure to circulating immune complexes containing aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 and sequential immune response seems to be essential in the disease progression of IgAN. Removal of mesangial IgA deposition may be a challenging, but fundamental approach in the treatment of IgAN.

  3. On the role of IgG4 in inflammatory conditions: lessons for IgG4-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, David C.; Hubers, Lowiek M.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and its most common manifestations, IgG4-associated (sclerosing) cholangitis and autoimmune pancreatitis, remains largely unknown, but IgG4 is presumably involved. IgG4 is a promiscuous antibody, which could be directly pathogenic,

  4. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  5. IgD in the reptile leopard gecko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambón-Deza, Francisco; Espinel, Christian Sánchez

    2008-07-01

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) has been a mysterious antibody ever since it was discovered in mammals 40 years ago. It shares with IgM the role of antigen-receptor in the membrane of mature B cells. The absence of IgD in birds and its description in bony fishes contributed to the confusion about its evolutionary origins. Recent studies have established the presence of IgD in the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis. It is essential to study IgD genes in reptiles in order to better understand the evolution of this immunoglobulin in vertebrates. We describe in this report the IgM and IgD genes of the reptile Eublepharis macularius. The IgM gene has characteristics that are similar to those described in other species whereas IgD gene departs from the normal structure described for this antibody class in other species. It is made up of 11 immunoglobulins domains without evidence of recent intragenic duplications of exons as described in IgD genes of fish and X.tropicalis. It is possible that the immunoglobulin is comprised of domains inherited from earlier species and that this form of IgD is close to that present in animals that left the sea to live on land. Furthermore, domains CH7 and CH8 of E. macularius IgD are orthologues to domains CH2 and CH3 of mammalian IgD. The present study also describes a second IgD (IgD2) which must have appeared recently by duplication of an older immunoglobulin gene and recombination with the IgA-like gene described in this specie. Tissue expression of IgD and IgD2 mRNA is similar to that of IgM mRNA, suggesting a functional role of reptilian IgD.

  6. High seropositivity of IgG and IgM antibodies against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study reports on the high seropositivity of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and M antibodies against CMV and the risk factors for CMV ... sex, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were not statistically associated with CMV seropositivity in this study. ... are infected with HIV have detectable IgG antibodies to CMV ...

  7. Genus and species-specific IgG and IgM antibodies pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Abbassi, S.A.; Ahmad, R.N.; Mahmood, A.; Karamat, K.A; Malik, H.S.; Anwar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate three different enzyme immunoassays for serological diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and to compare their diagnostic accuracy in different combinations. Subjects and Methods: Sera from patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis (n=94) with sputum positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and sera from control group of healthy individuals (n=90) with sputum negative for AFB were tested by Pathozyme-Myco G EIA, Pathozyme-TB Complex Plus EIA and Pathozyme Myco M EIA kits for the genus-specific IgG and IgM, and the species-specific IgG antibodies against antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results: The detection of IgG against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme-Myco G had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 93%, of IgG against species-specific antigens by Pathozyme- TB Complex Plus had a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 97% and of IgM against genus-specific antigens by Pathozyme Myco M had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 98%. When the results of these immunoassays were evaluated in combination, their sensitivity improved. Combination of genus-specific IgM and species-specific IgG yielded best results with a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 93%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of serological diagnosis of tuberculosis is low, but it can be increased by utilizing a combination of several antigens. (author)

  8. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.

  9. Air-water flooding in multirod channels: effects of spacer grids and blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jong Hee; Jun, Hyung Gil

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on flooding of countercurrent flow in vertical multirod channels, which consists of falling water film and upward air flow. In particular, the effects of spacer grids, with and without mixing vane, and of blockage in the multirod bundle on the behaviour of flooding were investigated. The 5 x 5 zircaloy tube bundle was used for the test section. The comparison of previous analytical models and empirical correlations with present data on flooding showed that the existing models and correlations predict much higher flooding curves. The spacer grid causes the lower flooding air flow rate to compare with the bare rod bundle. However, the mixing spacer grids need a higher flooding air flow rate for a constant liquid flow rate than the spacer grids without mixing vanes. The bundle containing blockages has the highest flooding air flow rate among the bundles with spacer grids and blokages. Empirical flooding correlations for the three types of test section have been made. (Author)

  10. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Radu, Andrea I.; Lavric, Vasile; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Simulation study of transfer characteristics for spacer-filled membrane distillation desalination modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hsuan; Hsu, Jian-An; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Ho, Chii-Dong; Cheng, Tung-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D CFD model takes in transmembrane heat and mass transfer developed. • DCMD modules using spacer-filled and empty channels for desalination simulated. • Fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer profiles revealed. • Correlations of friction factor and Nusselt number developed. - Abstract: Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging and promising membrane separation process, which can directly utilize renewable thermal energy or low-grade waste heat, for applications in water or wastewater treatment and food industry. However, a major drawback of MD process is its low energy efficiency. Spacer is the most suggested and studied eddy promoter to enhance the heat and mass transfer, which further improves both the separation and the energy utilization performance, of MD processes. This paper presents the results of a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of DCMD (direct contact membrane distillation) modules using channels with and without spacers for desalination application. The model employs permeable wall boundary condition to take into account the transmembrane heat and mass transfer and simulates the entire module length. The simulation reveals similar fluctuating distributions of temperature polarization coefficient, transmembrane heat and mass fluxes as well as the shear stress on the membrane surface along the entire module length. Correlations have been developed for friction factor and average Nusselt number. These correlations are useful for the analysis and design of DCMD modules. The extent of heat transfer enhancement by spacers depends on the geometry of spacers and the Reynolds number of fluid.

  13. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qiao

    2012-04-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs. Spacers can be used to minimize the reactor size without adversely affecting performance. A single 1.5mm expanded plastic spacer (S1.5) produced a maximum power density (973±26mWm -2) that was similar to that of an MFC with the cathode exposed directly to air (no spacer). However, a very thin spacer (1.3mm) reduced power by 33%. Completely covering the air cathode with a solid plate did not eliminate power generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0.9Lh -1 of air would be needed for 1m 2 of cathode area suggesting active air flow may be needed for larger scale MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. IgA Nephropathy and Thrombotic Microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela De Rosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the association between thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA and IgA nephropathy (IgAN is a known fact, its prevalence, pathogenesis and progression are not clear yet. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study involving 12 patients with IgAN and TMA (IgAN-TMA was carried out; patients were diagnosed by a renal biopsy performed in our hospital in order to analyze clinicopathologic features. All the biopsy samples were processed for light microscopy and immunofluorescence. Results: The prevalence of patients with IgAN-TMA was 4.4% (12/274. The mean age was 33 and 58.3% of the subjects were men, showing, during diagnosis, mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of 171.3±53 mmHg and 97.5±19.8 mmHg, respectively. The average amount of protein in urine was 5.3 ± 3.7g/24 h and 8 patients had nephrotic- range proteinuria. Impairment of renal function was found in 11 patients, with a mean serum creatinine level of 7.2±4.7 mg/dL. No clinical or laboratory findings suggested thrombotic microangiopathy in any of the patients. The renal biopsy showed acute TMA with arteriolar fibrin thrombi in 75% of the subjects and ‘onion-skin-like’ chronic lesions with concentric intimal hyperplasia in 83.3% of them, which were associated with a high percentage of global glomerulosclerosis (72%, moderate tubular atrophy (38.6% and/or interstitial fibrosis (31.3%. In 91.7% of the cases, TMA was related to histological grade 5. Conclusions: The prevalence and significance of the relationship between IgAN and TMA pose the question of whether TMA is the cause or consequence of advanced stage IgAN. Several clinicopathologic studies have proved that TMA plays a major role in IgAN progression. The connection of TMA with creatinine serum and proteinuria levels seems to support this conclusion. While systemic TMA usually affects multiple organs, in these cases, the kidney was the only one compromised. Endothelial injury and the

  15. Non-immune binding of human IgG to M-related proteins confers resistance to phagocytosis of group A streptococci in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry S Courtney

    Full Text Available The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp are group A streptococcal (GAS receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG₁>IgG₄>IgG₂>IgG₃. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host.

  16. Recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers block cytotoxicity and pathological changes in experimental in vitro and rat models of neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Felix, Christian M; Spirig, Rolf; Morelli, Adriana Baz; Verkman, A S

    2018-05-01

    Intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IVIG) may have therapeutic benefit in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO), in part because of the anti-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc region. Here, we evaluated recombinant Fc hexamers consisting of the IgM μ-tailpiece fused with the Fc region of human IgG1. In vitro, the Fc hexamers prevented cytotoxicity in aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expressing cells and in rat spinal cord slice cultures exposed to NMO anti-AQP4 autoantibody (AQP4-IgG) and complement, with >500-fold greater potency than IVIG or monomeric Fc fragments. Fc hexamers at low concentration also prevented antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity produced by AQP4-IgG and natural killer cells. Serum from rats administered a single intravenous dose of Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg taken at 8 h did not produce complement-dependent cytotoxicity when added to AQP4-IgG-treated AQP4-expressing cell cultures. In an experimental rat model of NMO produced by intracerebral injection of AQP4-IgG, Fc hexamers at 50 mg/kg administered before and at 12 h after AQP4-IgG fully prevented astrocyte injury, complement activation, inflammation and demyelination. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of recombinant IgG1 Fc hexamers in AQP4-IgG seropositive NMO. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. IgG4-Related Perineural Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To elucidate characteristics of IgG4-related disease involving the peripheral nervous system. Methods. Retrospective review of 106 patients with IgG4-related disease identified 21 peripheral nerve lesions in 7 patients. Clinicopathological and radiological features were examined. Results. Peripheral nerve lesions were commonly identified in orbital or paravertebral area, involving orbital (=9, optic (=4, spinal (=7, and great auricular nerves (=1. The predominant radiological feature was a distinct perineural soft tissue mass, ranging 8 to 30 mm in diameter. Histologically, the epineurium was preferentially involved by massive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4+ plasma cells. All lesions were neurologically asymptomatic and steroid-responsive at the first presentation, but one recurrent lesion around the optic nerve caused failing vision. Conclusion. IgG4-related disease of the peripheral nervous system is characterized by orbital or paravertebral localization, perineural mass formation, and rare neurologic symptoms. The term “IgG4-related perineural disease” seems appropriate to describe this entity.

  18. Methods of quantifying circulating IgE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, T.G.; Merrett, J.

    1978-01-01

    Four radioimmunoassay techniques, two conventional and two sandwich, have been used to measure circulating IgE levels in 100 sera. The test sera had IgE levels ranging from 1.0 to 20,000 u/ml, and each was measured at five dilutions, ranging from three-fold to 400-fold. The same IgE standards were used throughout, and the optimal range for each assay was determined by assessing data for quality control sera and the WHO standard 69/204. To be of general use in the United Kingdom an IgE test must measure accurately levels as low as 20-30 u IgE/ml. The Phadebas RIST method failed to meet this criterion, and of the remaining tests the double antibody method had the most useful operating range and produced the most reliable results. However, the double antibody method is not available commercially and so, for the majority of laboratories, the Phadebas PRIST technique should be the method chosen. (author)

  19. Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important.

  20. Generation and characterisation of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for cervine immunoglobulin light chain, IgM and IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibma, M.; Griffin, J.F.T.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which react with cervine immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain, IgM and IgG were produced using conventional cell fusion technology. Hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for specificity against cervine Ig using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificity of supernatants against size-fractionated cervine Ig was further determined. Supernatants were characterised using western blotting and autoradiographic techniques. The mAb OU1G, OU2G and OU3G were specific for cervine gamma-chain of IgG, whereas OU1L was specific for light chain of Ig. A further mAb (OU1M) bound IgM and not IgG. These mAb were found to have varying cross-reactivity against Ig from other species

  1. Definitive Upfront Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy Combined with Image-Guided, Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IG-IMRT or IG-IMRT Alone for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Chi

    Full Text Available Image-guided (IG intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT enables maximal tumor margin reduction for the sparing of organs at risk (OARs when used to treat locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC with definitive chemo-radiation. It also allows for the incorporation of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR into the treatment regimen. Here, we describe our initial experience in combining definitive upfront SABR to the primary lesion with chemo-radiation delivered with conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT to the remaining regional disease; along with clinical outcome following chemo-radiation with conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT alone in the treatment of locally advanced NSCLC.The clinical outcome of 29 patients with locally advanced NSCLC who underwent conventionally fractionated IG-IMRT, or definitive upfront SABR followed by IG-IMRT combined with chemotherapy (induction, concurrent, or both was retrospectively reviewed.After a median follow up of 23.7 months, the median overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS were 19.8 and 11.3 months, respectively. The 2 year local, regional, and distant control was 60%, 62%, and 38%, respectively. No local failure was observed in 3 patients following SABR + IG-IMRT while 6/26 patients failed locally following IG-IMRT alone. SABR + IG-IMRT was well tolerated. No ≥ grade 3 radiation-related toxicity was observed.Definitive upfront SABR followed by IG-IMRT in selected patients with locally advanced NSCLC warrants further investigation in future clinical trials, while chemo-radiation with IG-IMRT alone was well tolerated.

  2. Microbiologic Evaluation of Cotton and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Tape as Endodontic Spacer Materials in Primary Molars An in Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe Ramasetty; Dixit, Kratika; Raju, O S

    PTFE tape, which is commonly used as plumber's tape is an inorganic, non-fibrous, ribbon like material. The aim of this study was to evaluate PTFE tape as endodontic spacer material and to compare it with commonly used spacer material that is cotton, in primary teeth. Seventeen children undergoing pulpectomy of lower second primary molar bilaterally were included in the study. Cotton and PTFE tape were placed as spacers on each side randomly. Samples were taken from the access cavity at baseline and after seven days to check for microbial leakage. Spacer materials were also checked for microbial contamination. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the bacterial colony count after seven days in cotton group. The access cavities were also positive for microbial leakage in the cotton group where the spacers showed positive growth. In PTFE group only two samples showed microbial contamination of spacer and out of two only one sample showed contamination of access cavity along with spacer. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that PTFE tape performed better than cotton as endodontic spacer material. Thus, PTFE tape can be recommended as an endodontic spacer material as an alternative to cotton in primary teeth.

  3. Lung surfactant levels are regulated by Ig-Hepta/GPR116 by monitoring surfactant protein D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Fukuzawa

    Full Text Available Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins, which is secreted from the alveolar type II epithelial cell and coats the surface of alveoli as a thin layer. It plays a crucial role in the prevention of alveolar collapse through its ability to reduce surface tension. Under normal conditions, surfactant homeostasis is maintained by balancing its release and the uptake by the type II cell for recycling and the internalization by alveolar macrophages for degradation. Little is known about how the surfactant pool is monitored and regulated. Here we show, by an analysis of gene-targeted mice exhibiting massive accumulation of surfactant, that Ig-Hepta/GPR116, an orphan receptor, is expressed on the type II cell and sensing the amount of surfactant by monitoring one of its protein components, surfactant protein D, and its deletion results in a pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and emphysema-like pathology. By a coexpression experiment with Sp-D and the extracellular region of Ig-Hepta/GPR116 followed by immunoprecipitation, we identified Sp-D as the ligand of Ig-Hepta/GPR116. Analyses of surfactant metabolism in Ig-Hepta(+/+ and Ig-Hepta(-/- mice by using radioactive tracers indicated that the Ig-Hepta/GPR116 signaling system exerts attenuating effects on (i balanced synthesis of surfactant lipids and proteins and (ii surfactant secretion, and (iii a stimulating effect on recycling (uptake in response to elevated levels of Sp-D in alveolar space.

  4. Neuromyelitis optica IgG stimulates an immunological response in rat astrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Charles L; Kaptzan, Tatiana; Magaña, Setty M; Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G; Lucchinetti, Claudia F

    2014-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a primary astrocyte disease associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and tissue injury. Brain lesions are frequently observed in regions enriched in expression of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, an antigenic target of the NMO IgG serologic marker. Based on observations of disease reversibility and careful characterization of NMO lesion development, we propose that the NMO IgG may induce a dynamic immunological response in astrocytes. Using primary rat astrocyte-enriched cultures and treatment with NMO patient-derived serum or purified IgG, we observed a robust pattern of gene expression changes consistent with the induction of a reactive and inflammatory phenotype in astrocytes. The reactive astrocyte factor lipocalin-2 and a broad spectrum of chemokines, cytokines, and stress response factors were induced by either NMO patient serum or purified IgG. Treatment with IgG from healthy controls had no effect. The effect is disease-specific, as serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Sjögren's, or systemic lupus erythematosus did not induce a response in the cultures. We hypothesize that binding of the NMO IgG to AQP4 induces a cellular response that results in transcriptional and translational events within the astrocyte that are consistent with a reactive and inflammatory phenotype. Strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes may short circuit an amplification loop associated with NMO lesion development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Immunoglobulins in nasal secretions of healthy humans: structural integrity of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and occurrence of neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of nasal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, L; Rasmussen, TT; Reinholdt, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro....... Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11...... healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and...

  6. Serological analysis of human IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies by solid-phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Rendell, M.; Adkinson, N.F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A single solid-phase assay system which is useful for quantitative measurement of both IgG and IgE anti-insulin antibodies in human serum has been developed. Insulin-specific immunoglobulins are absorbed from human serum by excess quantities of insulin-agarose. After washes to remove unbound immunoglobulins, radioiodinated Staph A or rabbit anti-human IgE is added to detect bound IgG or IgE anbitodies, respectively

  7. Histopathology of IgG4-Related Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4-Related Hepatopathy in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Ishizu, Yoji; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Umemura, Takeji

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease involving many organs; it includes IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory pseudotumor in the hepatobiliary system. Two types of hepatic parenchymal involvement have been reported in IgG4-RD: IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and IgG4-hepatopathy. Moreover, only three cases of IgG4-related AIH have been reported. Immunoglobulin G4-related AIH is clinicopathologically similar to AIH, except for an elevated serum IgG4 level and heavy infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the liver tissue. Interestingly, IgG4-related AIH can be complicated by well-known IgG4-RD(s). Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy, which includes various histopathological lesions encountered in the liver of patients with type I autoimmune pancreatitis, is classified into five histological categories: portal inflammation, large bile duct damage, portal sclerosis, lobular hepatitis, and cholestasis. Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy is currently a collective term covering hepatic lesions primarily or secondarily related to IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the liver is not immune to IgG4-RD, and at least two types of hepatic involvement in IgG4-RD have been reported: IgG4-related AIH and IgG4-hepatopathy. Additional studies are required to clarify their precise clinical significance with respect to IgG4-RD and inherent liver diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Associations between an IgG3 polymorphism in the binding domain for FcRn, transplacental transfer of malaria-specific IgG3, and protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria during infancy: A birth cohort study in Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Dechavanne

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transplacental transfer of maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG to the fetus helps to protect against malaria and other infections in infancy. Recent studies have emphasized the important role of malaria-specific IgG3 in malaria immunity, and its transfer may reduce the risk of malaria in infancy. Human IgGs are actively transferred across the placenta by binding the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn expressed within the endosomes of the syncytiotrophoblastic membrane. Histidine at position 435 (H435 provides for optimal Fc-IgG binding. In contrast to other IgG subclasses, IgG3 is highly polymorphic and usually contains an arginine at position 435, which reduces its binding affinity to FcRn in vitro. The reduced binding to FcRn is associated with reduced transplacental transfer and reduced half-life of IgG3 in vivo. Some haplotypes of IgG3 have histidine at position 435. This study examines the hypotheses that the IgG3-H435 variant promotes increased transplacental transfer of malaria-specific antibodies and a prolonged IgG3 half-life in infants and that its presence correlates with protection against clinical malaria during infancy.In Benin, 497 mother-infant pairs were included in a longitudinal birth cohort. Both maternal and cord serum samples were assayed for levels of IgG1 and IgG3 specific for MSP119, MSP2 (both allelic families, 3D7 and FC27, MSP3, GLURP (both regions, R0 and R2, and AMA1 antigens of Plasmodium falciparum. Cord:maternal ratios were calculated. The maternal IgG3 gene was sequenced to identify the IgG3-H435 polymorphism. A multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal IgG3-H435 polymorphism and transplacental transfer of IgG3, adjusting for hypergammaglobulinemia, maternal malaria, and infant malaria exposure. Twenty-four percent of Beninese women living in an area highly endemic for malaria had the IgG3-H435 allele (377 women homozygous for the IgG3-R435 allele, 117 women heterozygous for the Ig

  9. Asma y deficiencia de subclases de IgG Asthma and IgG subclases deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Santamaría Ortiz

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudiaron 45 pacientes asmáticos adultos de difícil manejo, de más de 5 años de evolución, 37 de ellos esteroide dependientes y 8 no dependientes, con asma alérgica o intrínseca y algunos con Infecciones respiratorias recurrentes de predominio viral. Por nefelometría se midieron los niveles séricos de las IgsG, M y A, y por ELISA se determinó la IgE total. Se encontraron 4 pacientes con deficiencia de IgG total, en el grupo de los esteroide dependientes. Mediante ELISA tipo sandwich y con anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para las sub clases de IgG se investigaron los niveles sé ricos de IgG1, 2, 3 y 4. En el 55.6% de los enfermos se encontraron una O más deficiencias de sub clases. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos esteroide y no esteroide dependientes, ni entre los asmáticos alérgicos e intrínsecos, ni entre los con infección recurrente o sin ella. predominó la deficiencia de IgG1; en total el 46.7% de los pacientes tenían deficiencia aislada o combinada de IgG1, el 31.1% de IgG2, el 24.4% de IgG3 y el 17.8% de Igd4. La alta incidencia de deficiencia de sub clases podría deberse a la acción de los esteroides o a una alteración en la regulación de la síntesis de Igs producida por un defecto Inmune primario. Esta deficiencia sería la responsable del comportamiento agresivo de la enfermedad.

    We studied 45 adult asthmatic patients with difficult to care disease and who had more than five years of evolution; they suffered from elther allergic or intrinsic asthma and some had experienced recurrent respiratory tract infections. predominantly of viral etiology. Serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by nephelometry and total lgE was determined by an Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Total lg

  10. Spacer Facial Artery Musculomucosal Flap: Simultaneous Closure of Oronasal Fistulas and Palatal Lengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan Y; Alizadeh, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    In this series, the authors describe a modification of the facial artery musculomucosal flap for oronasal fistula repair. The spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap technique is characterized by a pedicle inset into the retromolar trigone and palate, obviating a second operative stage. This was performed in 14 patients with a 5.2-cm mean fistula size. Average follow-up was 4.3 years, with one partial flap necrosis but no recurrent oronasal fistula. There was a mean decrease of 18 percent in the distance between the velum and the posterior pharyngeal wall. The spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap provides a single-stage reconstruction of oronasal fistula while lengthening the palate through a pushback mechanism. Although further study of velopharyngeal function is needed, the spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap may be beneficial for patients with a short velum and an oronasal fistula. Therapeutic, IV.

  11. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  12. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  13. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  14. Measurement of droplet dynamics across grid spacer in mist cooling of subchannel of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Sheen, H.J.; Cho, S.K.; Issapour, I.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was conducted of the dynamics and heat transfer of a droplet-vapor mist flow across a test grid spacer in a flow channel of 2 x 2 electrically heated simulation fuel rods. Embedded thermocouples were used to measure the rod cladding temperature and an unshielded Chromel-Alumel thermocouple was transversed in the center of the subchannel to measure the temperature of the water and steam coolant phases at various axial locations. Thermocouples were also embedded in the test grid spacer. Optical measurements of the size and velocity distributions of droplets and the velocity distribution of the superheated steam were made by special laser-Doppler anemometry techniques through quartz glass windows immediately upstream and downstream of the test grid spacer. Experiments over a range of steam and injected water flow rates and rod heat flux have been performed and some representative results and discussions are presented

  15. Measurement of grid spacer's enhanced droplet cooling under reflood condition in a PWR by LDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.L.; Sheen, H.J.; Cho, S.K.; Issapour, I.; Hua, S.Q.

    1984-01-01

    Reported is an experiment designed for the measurements of grid spacer's enhanced droplet cooling under reflood condition at elevated temperatures in a steam environment. The flow channel consists of a simulated 1.60m-long pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rod bundle of 2 x 2 electrically heated rods. Embedded thermocouples are used to measure the rod cladding temperature at various axial levels and an unshielded Chromel-Alumel thermocouple sheathed by a small Inconel tube is traversed in the center of the subchannel to measure the temperatures of the water and steam coolant phases at various levels. The droplet dynamics across the grid spacer is directly obtained by a special laser-Doppler anemometry technique for the in situ simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of droplets through two observation windows on the test channel, one immediately before and one immediately after the grid spacer. Some results are presented and analyzed

  16. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickasundaram, S. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Kannan, P. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: pakannan@annauniv.edu; Deepa, S. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Palanisamy, P.K. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2007-01-15

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers.

  17. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manickasundaram, S.; Kannan, P.; Deepa, S.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers

  18. Effect of Weld Properties on the Crush Strength of the PWR Spacer Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-nam Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties in a weld zone are different from those in the base material because of different microstructures. A spacer grid in PWR fuel is a structural component with an interconnected and welded array of slotted grid straps. Previous research on the strength analyses of the spacer grid was performed using base material properties owing to a lack of mechanical properties in the weld zone. In this study, based on the mechanical properties in the weld zone of the spacer grid recently obtained by an instrumented indentation technique, the strength analyses considering the mechanical properties in the weld zone were performed, and the analysis results were compared with the previous research.

  19. AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Andrey M; Lebedeva, Irina V; Knizhnik, Andrey A; Lozovik, Yurii E; Potapkin, Boris V; Poklonski, Nikolai A; Siahlo, Andrei I; Vyrko, Sergey A

    2013-10-21

    Structural, energetic, and tribological characteristics of double-layer graphene with commensurate and incommensurate krypton spacers of nearly monolayer coverage are studied within the van der Waals-corrected density functional theory. It is shown that when the spacer is in the commensurate phase, the graphene layers have the AA stacking. For this phase, the barriers to relative in-plane translational and rotational motion and the shear mode frequency of the graphene layers are calculated. For the incommensurate phase, both of the barriers are found to be negligibly small. A considerable change of tunneling conductance between the graphene layers separated by the commensurate krypton spacer at their relative subangstrom displacement is revealed by the use of the Bardeen method. The possibility of nanoelectromechanical systems based on the studied tribological and electronic properties of the considered heterostructures is discussed.

  20. Geometric effects of spacer grid in an annulus flow channel during reflooding period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Chun, S. Y.; Kim, B. D.; Park, J. K.; Yun, Y. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies on the reflooding phase were actively carried out from the early 70's due to its importance for the safety of the nuclear reactor. (Martini et al., 1973; Henry, 1974; Chung, 1978;) However, few studies have presented the spacer grid effect during the reflooding period. Since the grid is an obstruction in the flow passage, it causes an increased pressure drop due to form and skin friction losses. On the other hand, the spacer grid tends to increase the local wall heat transfer. The present work has been performed in a vertical annulus flow channel with various flow conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a swirl-vane spacer grid on the rewetting phenomena during the reflooding phase

  1. The Induction of IgM and IgG Antibodies against HLA or MICA after Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelieke W. M. Paantjens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of IgG HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LTx is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of chronic rejection, represented by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS. It has recently been observed that elevated levels of IgM HLA antibodies also correlates with the development of chronic rejection in heart and kidney transplantation. This study investigates the relationship between IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA after lung transplantation. Serum was collected from 49 patients once prior to transplantation and monthly for up to 1 year after lung transplantation was analyzed by Luminex to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA. The presence of either IgM or IgG HLA and/or MICA antibodies prior to or after transplantation was not related to survival, gender, primary disease, or the development of BOS. Additionally, the production of IgG alloantibodies was not preceded by an increase in levels of IgM, and IgM levels were not followed by an increase in IgG. Under current immune suppressive regimen, although the presence of IgM antibodies does not correlate with BOS after LTx, IgM high IgG low HLA class I antibody titers were observed more in patients with BOS compared to patients without BOS.

  2. Uncoupling of glomerular IgA deposition and disease progression in alymphoplasia mice with IgA nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Aizawa

    Full Text Available Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN, at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM. Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6. Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition.

  3. Application of a hydrogel spacer for postoperative salvage radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Schubert, Carolin; Escobar-Corral, Nuria; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to primary radiotherapy, no reports are available for a hydrogel spacer application in postoperative salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A 77-year-old patient presented 20 years after radical prostatectomy with a digitally palpable local recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis (PSA 5.5 ng/ml). The hydrogel spacer (10 ml, SpaceOAR trademark) was injected between the local recurrence and rectal wall under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Treatment planning was performed with an intensity-modulated technique up to a total dose of 76 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. The same planning was performed based on computed tomography before spacer injection for comparison. The local recurrence, initially directly on the rectal wall, could be displaced more than 1 cm from the rectal wall after hydrogel injection. With a mean total dose of 76 Gy to the planning target volume, rectal wall volumes included in the 70 Gy, 60 Gy, 50 Gy isodoses were 0 cm 3 , 0 cm 3 , and 0.4 cm 3 with a spacer and 2.9 cm 3 , 4.5 cm 3 , and 6.2 cm 3 without a spacer, respectively. The patient reported rectal urgency during radiotherapy, completely resolving after the end of treatment. The PSA level was 5.4 ng/ml a week before the end of radiotherapy and dropped to 0.9 ng/ml 5 months after radiotherapy. A hydrogel spacer was successfully applied for dose-escalated radiotherapy in a patient with macroscopic local prostate cancer recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis to decrease the dose at the rectal wall. This option can be considered in specifically selected patients. (orig.) [de

  4. [IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina

    2014-01-01

    The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

  5. Time spans and spacers: Molecular phylogenetic explorations in the Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta) from the perspective of rDNA gene and spacer sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Frederik Theodoor

    1995-01-01

    In this study, phylogenetic relationships among genera, species and biogeographic representatives of single Cladophora species within the Cladophorales were analyzed using rDNA gene and spacer sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, the Cladophora complex is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Cladophora species and includes several genera shich werde traditionally ascribed to the Siphonocladales (Chapter 3). ... Zie: Summary/Samenvatting

  6. RFLP of analyses of an intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... In this study, 11 wheat species of Triticum and. Aegilops were ... and a phenogram was constructed using SAHN clustering unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages.

  7. RFLP of analyses of an intergenic spacer region of chloroplast DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... amplified with PCR and digested with 6 restriction endonucleases (Hpa II, Alu I, Hinc II, Ava III, Nde I and. Hae III). According to results ... the environment, but DNA based techniques represent reliable tools and do not have many of ... existence of some variations in gene content (Downie and Palmer, 1992).

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction of endophytic fungal isolates using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GokulRaj, Kathamuthu; Sundaresan, Natesan; Ganeshan, Enthai Jagan; Rajapriya, Pandi; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Pandi, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are inhabitants of plants, living most part of their lifecycle asymptomatically which mainly confer protection and ecological advantages to the host plant. In this present study, 48 endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants and characterized based on ITS2 sequence - secondary structure analysis. ITS2 secondary structures were elucidated with minimum free energy method (MFOLD version 3.1) and consensus structure of each genus was generated by 4SALE. ProfDistS was used to generate ITS2 sequence structure based phylogenetic tree respectively. Our elucidated isolates were belonging to Ascomycetes family, representing 5 orders and 6 genera. Colletotrichum/Glomerella spp., Diaporthae/Phomopsis spp., and Alternaria spp., were predominantly observed while Cochliobolus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Emericella sp., were represented by singletons. The constructed phylogenetic tree has well resolved monophyletic groups with >50% bootstrap value support. Secondary structures based fungal systematics improves not only the stability; it also increases the precision of phylogenetic inference. Above ITS2 based phylogenetic analysis was performed for our 48 isolates along with sequences of known ex-types taken from GenBank which confirms the efficiency of the proposed method. Further, we propose it as superlative marker for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels due to their lesser length.

  9. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schoch, C.L.; Seifert, K.A.; Huhndorf, S.; Robert, V.; Spouge, J.L.; Levesque, C.A.; Chen, W.; Bolchacova, E.; Voigt, K.; Crous, P.W.; Miller, A.N.; Wingfield, M. J.; Aime, M.C.; An, K.D.; Bai, F.Y.; Barreto, R.W.; Bergeron, M.J.; Blackwell, M.; Boekhout, T.; Bogale, M.; Boonyuen, N.; Burgaz, A.R.; Buyck, B.; Cai, L.; Cai, Q.; Cardinali, G.; Chaverri, P.; Coppins, B.J.; Crespo, A.; Cubas, P.; Cummings, C.; Damm, U.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Hoog, G.S.; Del-Prado, R.; Dentinger, B.; Dieguez-Uribeondo, J.; Divakar, P.K.; Douglas, B.; Duenas, M.; Duong, T.A.; Eberhardt, U.; Edwards, J.E.; Elshahed, M.S.; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Furtado, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Ge, Z.W.; Griffith, G.W.; Griffiths, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Grube, M.; Gryzenhout, M.; Guo, L.D.; Hagen, F.; Hambleton, S.; Hamelin, R.C.; Hansen, K.; Harrold, P.; Heller, G.; Herrera, C.; Hirayama, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Ho, H.M.; Hoffmann, K.; Hofstetter, V.; Hognabba, F.; Hollingsworth, P.M.; Hong, S.B.; Hosaka, K.; Houbraken, J.; Hughes, K.; Huhtinen, S.; Hyde, K.D.; James, T.; Johnson, E.M.; Johnson, J.E.; Johnston, P.R.; Jones, E.B.; Kelly, L.J.; Kirk, P.M.; Knapp, D.G.; Koljalg, U.; Kovacs, G.M.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Landvik, S.; Leavitt, S.D.; Liggenstoffer, A.S.; Liimatainen, K.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Maganti, H.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.; Martin, M.P.; May, T.W.; McTaggart, A.R.; Methven, A.S.; Meyer, W.; Moncalvo, J.M.; Mongkolsamrit, S.; Nagy, L.G.; Nilsson, R.H.; Niskanen, T.; Nyilasi, I.; Okada, G.; Okane, I.; Olariaga, I.; Otte, J.; Papp, T.; Park, D.; Petkovits, T.; Pino-Bodas, R.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Raja, H.A.; Redecker, D.; Rintoul, T.; Ruibal, C.; Sarmiento-Ramirez, J.M.; Schmitt, I.; Schussler, A.; Shearer, C.; Sotome, K.; Stefani, F.O.; Stenroos, S.; Stielow, B.; Stockinger, H.; Suetrong, S.; Suh, S.O.; Sung, G.H.; Suzuki, M.; Tanaka, K.; Tedersoo, L.; Telleria, M.T.; Tretter, E.; Untereiner, W.A.; Urbina, H.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Vialle, A.; Vu, T.D.; Walther, G.; Wang, Q.M.; Wang, Y.; Weir, B.S.; Weiss, M.; White, M.M.; Xu, J.; Yahr, R.; Yang, Z.L.; Yurkov, A.; Zamora, J.C.; Zhang, N.; Zhuang, W.Y.; Schindel, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 16 (2012), s. 6241-6246 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : DNA barcoding * fungal biodiversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.737, year: 2012

  10. Cytomolecular analysis of ribosomal DNA evolution in a natural allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum and its putative ancestors – dissecting complex repetitive structure of intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Borowska-Zuchowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon associated with nuclear 35S rRNA genes and consists in selective suppression of gene loci inherited from one of the progenitors in the allopolyploid. Our understanding of the exact mechanisms that determine this process is still fragmentary, especially in case of the grass species. This study aimed to shed some light on the molecular basis of this genome-specific inactivation of 35S rDNA loci in an allotetraploid Brachypodium hybridum (2n=30, which arose from the interspecific hybridization between two diploid ancestors that were very similar to modern B. distachyon (2n=10 and B. stacei (2n=20. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with 25S rDNA and chromosome-specific BAC clones as probes we revealed that the nucleolar dominance is present not only in meristematic root-tip cells but also in differentiated cell fraction of B. hybridum. Additionally, the intergenic spacers (IGSs from both of the putative ancestors and the allotetraploid were sequenced and analyzed. The presumptive transcription initiation sites, spacer promoters and repeated elements were identified within the IGSs. Two different length variants, 2.3 kb and 3.5 kb, of IGSs were identified in B. distachyon and B. stacei, respectively, however only the IGS that had originated from B. distachyon-like ancestor was present in the allotetraploid. The amplification pattern of B. hybridum IGSs suggests that some genetic changes occurred in inactive B. stacei-like rDNA loci during the evolution of the allotetraploid. We hypothesize that their preferential silencing is an effect of structural changes in the sequence rather than just the result of the sole inactivation at the epigenetic level.

  11. Human antibodies to immunoglobulin A (IgA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munster, P.J.J. van; Nadorp, J.H.S.M.; Shuurman, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    In the sera of 12 out of 27 individuals with IgA deficiency (serum level below 0.02 mg IgA/m) class-specific anti-IgA antibodies were demonstrated by haemagglutination. These sera showed false-positive results in a solid-phase inhibition radioimmunoassay (RIST) (apparent IgA concentration between 0.6 and 13.7 μg IgA/ml) indicating that the RIST is not an appropriate test for the analysis of serum of IgA seficient individuals. A modification of the RIST is proposed (titration RIA) that permits differentiation between low levels of IgA and class-specific anti-IgA antibodies. With this test IgA deficient individuals could be classified as those with low but detectable levels of IgA and those with class-specific anti-IgA antibodies. A computer procedure was developed to calculate both the amount and the avidity (K) of the anti-IgA antibodies and to simulate the assay system. The K value calculated from experimental points proved to be an overestimation of the K value which fitted most adequately in the simulation. The comparison of the results with clinical findings indicated a possible correlation between the amount and the avidity of the anti-IgA antibodies and the appearence of anaphylactic reactions after transfusion of IgA. (Auth.)

  12. IgG4-related kidney disease – an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues such as sarcoidosis. The kidney is a frequently affected organ with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the representative lesion of IgG4-RD. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Recent findings A wide range of renal manifestations of IgG4-RD, that is TIN, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) and other glomerular lesions, and pyelitis, are collectively referred to as IgG4-RKD. Clinically, decreased renal function, or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic wall, are typical presenting features. Although a rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is a very important feature of IgG4-TIN, in cases in which renal function is moderately to severely decreased before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. Summary TIN with characteristic imaging findings is a typical manifestation of IgG4-RKD in the interstitium, while MGN is a representative manifestation of the glomerular lesions. Although IgG4 is a central feature of IgG4-RD, the recent discovery of IgG4-negative IgG4-RD raises questions about the causative role of the IgG4 molecule in this context. PMID:25594543

  13. Reliable differentiation of Meyerozyma guilliermondii from Meyerozyma caribbica by internal transcribed spacer restriction fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Wahengbam; Keisam, Santosh; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2014-02-28

    Meyerozyma guilliermondii (anamorph Candida guilliermondii) and Meyerozyma caribbica (anamorph Candida fermentati) are closely related species of the genetically heterogenous M. guilliermondii complex. Conventional phenotypic methods frequently misidentify the species within this complex and also with other species of the Saccharomycotina CTG clade. Even the long-established sequencing of large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene remains ambiguous. We also faced similar problem during identification of yeast isolates of M. guilliermondii complex from indigenous bamboo shoot fermentation in North East India. There is a need for development of reliable and accurate identification methods for these closely related species because of their increasing importance as emerging infectious yeasts and associated biotechnological attributes. We targeted the highly variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and identified seven restriction enzymes through in silico analysis for differentiating M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Fifty five isolates of M. guilliermondii complex which could not be delineated into species-specific taxonomic ranks by API 20 C AUX and LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 sequencing were subjected to ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP) analysis. TaqI ITS-RFLP distinctly differentiated the isolates into M. guilliermondii (47 isolates) and M. caribbica (08 isolates) with reproducible species-specific patterns similar to the in silico prediction. The reliability of this method was validated by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequencing, mitochondrial DNA RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. We herein described a reliable ITS-RFLP method for distinct differentiation of frequently misidentified M. guilliermondii from M. caribbica. Even though in silico analysis differentiated other closely related species of M. guilliermondii complex from the above two species, it is yet to be confirmed by in vitro analysis using reference strains. This method can be used

  14. Microbial fuel cells with an integrated spacer and separate anode and cathode modules

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    A new type of scalable MFC was developed based on using alternating graphite fiber brush array anode modules and dual cathode modules in order to simplify construction, operation, and maintenance of the electrodes. The modular MFC design was tested with a single (two-sided) cathode module with a specific surface area of 29 m2 m−3 based on a total liquid volume (1.4 L; 20 m2 m−3 using the total reactor volume of 2 L), and two brush anode modules. Three different types of spacers were used in the cathode module to provide structural stability, and enhance air flow relative to previous cassette (combined anode–cathode) designs: a low-profile wire spacer; a rigid polycarbonate column spacer; and a flexible plastic mesh spacer. The best performance was obtained using the wire spacer that produced a maximum power density of 1100 ± 10 mW m−2 of cathode (32 ± 0.3 W m−3 based on liquid volume) with an acetate-amended wastewater (COD = 1010 ± 30 mg L−1), compared to 1010 ± 10 mW m−2 for the column and 650 ± 20 mW m−2 for the mesh spacers. Anode potentials were unaffected by the different types of spacers. Raw domestic wastewater produced a maximum of 400 ± 8 mW m−2 under fed batch conditions (wire-spacers), which is one of the highest power densities for this fuel. Over time the maximum power was reduced to 300 ± 10 mW m−2 and 275 ± 7 mW m−2 for the two anode compartments, with only slightly less power of 250 ± 20 mW m−2 obtained under continuous flow conditions. In fixed-resistance tests, the average COD removal was 57 ± 5% at a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. These results show that this modular MFC design can both simplify reactor construction and enable relatively high power generation from even relatively dilute wastewater.

  15. Heterogeneous Diversity of Spacers within CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of antiviral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face.

  16. Organic light-emitting diodes with a spacer enhanced exciplex emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Chen, Rui; Sun, Handong; Wei Sun, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    By introducing a spacer molecule into the blended exciplex emissive layer, the performance of the bulk heterojunction exciplex organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was improved dramatically; the maximum luminous efficiency was enhanced by about 22% from 7.9 cd/A to 9.7 cd/A, and the luminous efficiency drop was reduced by 28% at 400 mA/cm2. Besides the suppressed annihilation of exciton, the time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that the spacer enhanced the delayed fluorescence through increasing the backward intersystem crossing rate from the triplet to singlet exciplex state. This method is useful for developing high performance exciplex OLEDs.

  17. Comparison of velocity and temperature fields for two types of spacers in an annular channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lávička David

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement of flow field using a modern laser method (PIV in an annular channel of very small dimension - a fuel cell model. The velocity field was measured in several positions and plains around the spacer. The measurement was extended also to record temperatures by thermocouples soldered into stainless-steel tube wall. The measurement was focused on cooling process of the preheated fuel cell tube model, where the tube was very slowly flooded with water. Main result of the paper is comparison of two spacer's designs with respect to measured velocity and temperature fields.

  18. Cellular Signaling and Production of Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in IgA Nephropathy, an Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Reily

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy (IgAN, the leading cause of primary glomerulonephritis, is characterized by IgA1-containing immunodeposits in the glomeruli. IgAN is a chronic disease, with up to 40% of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease, with no disease-specific treatment. Multiple studies of the origin of the glomerular immunodeposits have linked elevated circulating levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (galactose-deficient in some O-glycans; Gd-IgA1 with formation of nephritogenic Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes. Gd-IgA1 is recognized as an autoantigen in susceptible individuals by anti-glycan autoantibodies, resulting in immune complexes that may ultimately deposit in the kidney and induce glomerular injury. Genetic studies have revealed that an elevated level of Gd-IgA1 in the circulation of IgAN patients is a hereditable trait. Moreover, recent genome-wide association studies have identified several immunity-related loci that associated with IgAN. Production of Gd-IgA1 by IgA1-secreting cells of IgAN patients has been attributed to abnormal expression and activity of several key glycosyltransferases. Substantial evidence is emerging that abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells is related to the production of Gd-IgA1. As Gd-IgA1 is the key autoantigen in IgAN, understanding the genetic, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells will provide insight into possible targets for future disease-specific therapy.

  19. Omalizumab decreases IgE production in patients with allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma; PKPD analysis of a biomarker, total IgE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip J; Renard, Didier

    2011-01-01

    AIM To determine whether excessive IgE production by patients with atopic allergic asthma decreases with omalizumab therapy. METHODS Omalizumab, free and total IgE data were obtained from an epidemiological study and six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in patients with allergic asthma. The binding between omalizumab and IgE together with the production and elimination of IgE were modelled as previously, except that, in order to explain why total IgE was decreasing over a period of 5 years, the expression of IgE was allowed to change. RESULTS The prior constant IgE production model failed to converge on the data once long-term observations were included, whereas models allowing IgE production to decrease fitted. A feedback model indicated that, on average, IgE production decreased by 54% per year. This model was further developed with covariate searches indicating clinically small but statistically significant effects of age, gender, body mass index and race on some parameters. Model predictions were checked internally and externally against 3–5 year data from paediatric and adult atopic asthmatic patients and externally against extensive total IgE data from a long-duration (>1 year) phase 1 study which was not used in the model building. CONCLUSIONS A pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model incorporating omalizumab–IgE binding and feedback for control of IgE production indicates that omalizumab reduces production of IgE. This raises the possibility that indefinite treatment may not be required, only for perhaps a few years. After the initial accumulation, total IgE should provide a means to monitor IgE production and guide individual treatment decisions. PMID:21392073

  20. Toxoplasmosis serology: an efficient hemagglutination procedure to detect IgG and IgM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Camargo

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available In search of an efficient but simple, low cost procedure for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis, especially suited for routine laboratories facing technical and budget limitations as in less developed countries, the diagnostic capability of Hematoxo® , an hemagglutination test for toxoplasmosis, was evaluated in relation to a battery of tests including IgG- and IgM-immunofluorescence tests, hemagglutination and an IgM-capture enzymatic assay. Detecting a little as 5 I.U. of IgG antitoxoplasma antibodies, Hematoxo® showed a straight agreement as to reactivity and non-reactivity for the 443 non-reactive and the 387 reactive serum samples, included in this study. In 23 cases presenting a serological pattern of acute toxoplasmosis and showing IgM antibodies, Hematoxo® could detect IgM antibodies in 18, indicated by negativation or a significant decrease in titers as a result of treating samples with 2-mercapto-ethanol. However, a neat increase in sensitivity for IgM specific antibodies could be achieved by previously removing IgG from the sample, as demonstrated in a series of acute toxoplasmosis sera. A simple procedure was developed for this purpose, by reconstituting a lyophilized suspension of Protein A - rich Staphylococcus with the lowest serum dilution to be tested. Of low cost and easy to perform, Hematoxo® affords not only a practical qualitative procedure for screening reactors and non-reactors, as in prenatal services, but also quantitative assays that permit to titrate antibodies as well as to identify IgM antibodies.

  1. Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest Mechanisms Involving Early B-Cell Development in Canine IgA Deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Olsson

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD is the most common primary immune deficiency disorder in both humans and dogs, characterized by recurrent mucosal tract infections and a predisposition for allergic and other immune mediated diseases. In several dog breeds, low IgA levels have been observed at a high frequency and with a clinical resemblance to human IgAD. In this study, we used genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify genomic regions associated with low IgA levels in dogs as a comparative model for human IgAD. We used a novel percentile groups-approach to establish breed-specific cut-offs and to perform analyses in a close to continuous manner. GWAS performed in four breeds prone to low IgA levels (German shepherd, Golden retriever, Labrador retriever and Shar-Pei identified 35 genomic loci suggestively associated (p <0.0005 to IgA levels. In German shepherd, three genomic regions (candidate genes include KIRREL3 and SERPINA9 were genome-wide significantly associated (p <0.0002 with IgA levels. A ~20kb long haplotype on CFA28, significantly associated (p = 0.0005 to IgA levels in Shar-Pei, was positioned within the first intron of the gene SLIT1. Both KIRREL3 and SLIT1 are highly expressed in the central nervous system and in bone marrow and are potentially important during B-cell development. SERPINA9 expression is restricted to B-cells and peaks at the time-point when B-cells proliferate into antibody-producing plasma cells. The suggestively associated regions were enriched for genes in Gene Ontology gene sets involving inflammation and early immune cell development.

  2. Interaction between the macrophage system and IgA immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccatello, D; Coppo, R; Basolo, B; Martina, G; Rollino, C; Cordonnier, D; Busquet, G; Picciotto, G; Sena, L M; Piccoli, G

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with IgA nephropathy, the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system was assessed by measuring in vivo clearance of anti-D coated red blood cells (RBC) and in vitro phagocytosis of sensitised RBC by monocytes. A strict correlation was found between in vivo macrophage function and in vitro monocyte phagocytosis. Statistical correlations were also found between in vivo clearance values and IgAIC and C3d values. A defective macrophage and monocyte function affects patients with major signs of clinical activity, highest IgAIC values, signs of complement activation and the most unfavourable clinical course.

  3. Radio-continuum jets around the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report new radio-continuum observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA of the region surrounding the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022 at the centre of the poor cluster Abell S0102. We observed this cluster at wavelengths of λ=20/13 and 6/3 cm with the ATCA 6 km array. With these configurations, we achieved a resolution of ~2'' at 3 cm which is sufficient to resolve the jet-like structure of ~3' length detected at 20 cm. From our new high resolution images at 6 and 3 cm we confirm the presence of a double jet structure, most likely originating from the northern galaxy (ESO 295-IG022-N, bent and twisted towards the south. We found the spectral index of the jet to be very steep (α=-1.32. No point source was detected that could be associated with the core of ESO 295-IG022-N. On the other hand, ESO 295-IG022-S does not show any jet structure, but does show a point radio source. This source has variable flux and spectral index, and appears to be superposed on the line-of-sight of the jets (seen at 20-cm originating from the northern galaxy ESO 295-IG022-N. Finally, regions of very high and somewhat well ordered polarization were detected at the level of 70%.

  4. Detection of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenqiong; Wu, Xuefen; Miao, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Bai, Lin; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases. Methods A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD. Results IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L) were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12) patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels. PMID:25885536

  5. Selective excretion of IgA in rat bronchial secretions: lack of significant contribution from plasma IgA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre-Coelho, I.; Yamakido, M.; Montgomery, P.C.; Langendries, A.E.; Vaerman, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Concentrated rat bronchial washings (BW) were analyzed by gel-filtration and immunochemical methods. BW contained mainly albumin, transferrin and IgG. Free secretory component and secretory IgA were identified in BW; the BW-IgA had the same three sedimentation coefficients, i.e. +/- 11 S, 13 S, 15 S by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, as rat milk and rat bile IgA; the three peaks were secretory IgA. Compared to serum, and relatively to albumin, BW were significantly enriched in IgA, although much less than rat bile. Purified polyclonal rat polymeric 125 I-IgA was injected intravenously into normal rats, and into rats with bile duct ligation or partial hepatectomy, which decrease the liver plasma-to-bile transfer of IgA. BW were then collected, one or four hours later, to assess the recovery of the 125 I-IgA in BW and to estimate the contribution of serum IgA to BW-IgA. Very little 125 I-IgA (less than 0.2%) was recovered in all BW. The specific activity, measured only in the rat with the highest recovery in BW, was 20 times lower in BW than in serum. The data demonstrate that rat serum IgA does not contribute significantly to IgA in BW

  6. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients...

  7. Anticuerpos antinucleares, imágenes y características obtenidas por inmunofluorescencia: Importancia de los isotipos IgA, IgM e IgG Antinuclear antibodies, patterns and characteristics obtained by immunofluorescence: The importance of the IgA, IgM and IgG isotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Arcavi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La técnica de elección para el screening de anticuerpos antinucleares (ANA es la inmunofluorescencia indirecta que utiliza como sustrato una línea de células epiteliales de carcinoma de laringe humano (IFI-HEp2, y como antisuero, anti-IgG o anti-Ig totales. Los ANA-IgG son los más importantes para el diagnóstico y monitoreo de las enfermedades del tejido conectivo (ETC, mientras los ANA-IgM son de menor relevancia clínica en estos pacientes. Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los ANA-IgA ya que estos Ac han sido menos investigados. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la prevalencia de los diferentes isotipos de inmunoglobulinas de anticuerpos antinucleares en los pacientes con ETC y evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar conjugados monovalentes o polivalentes. Se procesaron 100 sueros de pacientes con diversas ETC empleando IFI-HEp2, en los cuales se detectó 38% de ANA-IgA (títulos ≥ 1:80 y 12% de ANA-IgM (títulos ≤ 1:160. En 29 casos se detectó IgA en ausencia de IgM, en 3 casos IgM en ausencia de IgA. En todos los casos los ANA-IgG estuvieron presentes. En 6 sueros se observó un cambio de imagen con conjugado anti-IgA y en 3 con conjugado anti-IgM. Debido a la alta prevalencia de ANA-IgA detectada por IFI-HEp2, se destaca la conveniencia de utilizar conjugado anti-Ig totales en lugar de anti-IgG, mientras se desconozca la relevancia de los ANA-IgA en el diagnóstico, pronóstico y seguimiento de las enfermedades reumáticas sistémicas.The indirect immunofluorescence with epitelial cell line from human laryngeal carcinoma as substrate (IIF-HEp2 and anti-IgG or anti-total Ig as antisera, is the technique currently used for the detection of antinuclear antibodies. The most important antibodies for the diagnosis and follow-up of connective tissue diseases (CTD are the IgG-ANA, while the IgM-ANA have no clinical relevance. However the IgA-ANA have not been thoroughly investigated so far. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence

  8. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Marston, Jeremy O.; Radu, Andrea I.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water

  9. Development of an Efficient G-Quadruplex-Stabilised Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Containing a Three-Carbon Spacer Molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaldering, Lukas J.; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Langkjær, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), which shows anticoagulant properties, is one of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers. In this study, we investigated the impact of different chemical modifications such as a three-carbon spacer (spacer-C3), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 3′-amino-mod...

  10. The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells : theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Barbu, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    For org. solar cells, insertion of an optical spacer between the active layer and the reflective electrode results in a redistribution of the optical elec. field. In this paper, theor. calcns. using optical modeling are compared with exptl. results for devices with ZnO as optical spacer. An

  11. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by?enhancing formation of AID?accessible single?stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation?induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single?stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID. Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID t...

  12. Role and Redirection of IgE against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa A. Nigro

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IgE is a highly elusive antibody class, yet a tremendously powerful elicitor of immune reactions. Despite huge efforts spent on the characterization and understanding of the IgE system many questions remain either unanswered or only marginally addressed. One above all relates to the role of IgE. A common doubt is based on whether IgE mode of action should only be relegated to anti-parasite immunity and allergic manifestations. In search for a hidden role of IgE, reports from several laboratories are described herein in which a natural IgE link to cancer or the experimental redirection of IgE against cancer have been investigated. Epidemiological and investigational studies are trying to elucidate a possible direct intervention of endogenous IgE against cancer, raising thus far no definitive evidence. Conversely, experimental approaches implementing several strategies and engineered IgE formats built up a series of convincing results indicating that cancer might be tackled by the effector functions of this immunoglobulin class. Because of its peculiar immune features, IgE may present a superior anti-tumor performance as compared to IgG. However, extreme care should be taken on how IgE-based anti-tumor approaches should be devised. Overall, IgE appears as a promising resource, likely destined to enrich the anti-cancer arsenal.

  13. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS), an ideal DNA barcode for species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: DNA barcoding is a technique used to identify species based on species-specific differences in short regions of their DNA. It is widely used in species discrimination of medicinal plants and traditional medicines. Materials and Methods: In the present study, four potential DNA barcodes, namely rbcL, matK, ...

  14. Local repeat sequence organization of an intergenic spacer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The amplification yielded the same uniquely ``sequence-scrambled” product, whether the template used for PCR was total cellular DNA, chloroplast DNA or a plasmid clone DNA corresponding to that region. The PCR product, a ``unique” new sequence, had lost the repetitive organization of the template genome where it ...

  15. An examination of the influence of spacers on burnout in an annulus cooled by the upflow of Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, V.

    1975-04-01

    To evaluate the spacer influence on burnout, tests were carried out in Freon-12 at 1.04 MPa (abs.) test section inlet pressure with an internally heated annulus 2743 mm long by 14.4 mm heater diameter, the outer tube (shroud) having a bore of 22.1 mm. The inner rod (heater) was located centrally to the shroud by spacers and their configuration was changed for each test. Comparison of the results with those obtained with a test section having no spacers indicated that spacers can increase burnout power up to 75 per cent, decrease it, or show no effect at all, depending on the combination of the inlet temperature and mass velocity. If the spacers were streamlined, removed from the upstream portion of the heater or relocated farther upstream from the downstream end of the heater, there was a considerably reduced effect on the test section performance. (author)

  16. A numerical approach to the simulation of one-phase and two phase reactor coolant flow around nuclear fuel spacers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, Z.V.; Stevanovic, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology for the simulation and analysis of one-phase and two-phase coolant flows around one or a row of spacers is presented. It is based on the multidimensional two-fluid mass, momentum and energy balance equations and application of adequate turbulence models. Necessary closure laws for interfacial transfer processes are presented. The stated general approach enables simulation and analyses of reactor coolant flow around spacers on different scale levels of the rod bundle geometry: detailed modelling of coolant flow around spacers and investigation of the influence of spacer's geometry on the coolant thermal-hydraulics, as well as prediction of global thermal-hydraulic parameters within the whole rod bundle with the investigation of the influence of rows of spacers on the bulk thermal-hydraulic processes. Sample problems are included illustrating these different modelling approaches. (author)

  17. Mechanical Properties Of 3D-Structure Composites Based On Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties (compression and impact behaviours of three-dimension structure (3D-structure composites based on warp-knitted spacer fabrics have been thoroughly investigated. In order to discuss the effect of fabric structural parameters on the mechanical performance of composites, six different types of warp-knitted spacer fabrics having different structural parameters (such as outer layer structure, diameter of spacer yarn, spacer yarn inclination angle and thickness were involved for comparison study. The 3D-structure composites were fabricated based on a flexible polyurethane foam. The produced composites were characterised for compression and impact properties. The findings obtained indicate that the fabric structural parameters have strong influence on the compression and impact responses of 3D-structure composites. Additionally, the impact test carried out on the 3D-structure composites shows that the impact loads do not affect the integrity of composite structure. All the results reveal that the product exhibits promising mechanical performance and its service life can be sustained.

  18. Aerosol delivery from spacers in wheezy infants: a daily life study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); E.M. Heijnen; V.M. de Jong; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.P. Holland (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aims of this study were to assess and compare dose delivery and dose variability of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI)/spacers in wheezy infants in daily life and to investigate factors influencing aerosol delivery. In an open randomized

  19. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qiao; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0

  20. Response of an annular electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; MacAllister, I. W.

    2002-01-01

    The response of an annular electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to a right cylindrical spacer. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive characteristic parameters. These parameters enable the response of the probe to different charge distributions...

  1. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Haaksman, Viktor A.; Siddiqui, Amber; Schellenberg, Carsten; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction

  2. The sequence of spacers between the consensus sequences modulates the strength of procaryotic promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    A library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis was constructed, in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 relative units, and up to more t......-reactors and cell factories....

  3. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  4. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  5. Prediction of droplet deposition around BWR fuel spacer by FEM flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Morooka, Shinichi

    1997-01-01

    The critical power of the BWR fuel assembly has been remarkably increased. That increase mainly depends on the improvement of the spacer which keeps fixed gaps between fuel rods. So far, these improvements have been carried out on the basis of what developers consider to be appropriate and the results of mockup tests of the BWR fuel assembly. However, continued reliance on these approaches for the development of a higher performance fuel assembly will prove time-consuming and costly. Therefore, it is hoped that the spacer effects for the critical power can be investigated by computer simulation, and it is significantly important to develop the critical power prediction method. Direct calculation of the two-phase flow in a BWR fuel channel s still difficult. Accordingly, a new method for predicting the critical power was proposed. Our method consists of CFD (computer fluid dynamics) code based on the single-phase flow analysis method and the subchannel analysis code. To verify our method, the critical power predictions for various spacer geometries were performed. The predicted results of the critical power were compared with the experimental data. The result of the comparison showed a good agreement and the applicability of our method for various spacer geometries. (author)

  6. Modeling the effect of spacers and biofouling on forward osmosis performance

    KAUST Repository

    Mosqueira Santillán, María José

    2014-11-01

    Currently, the most utilized desalination technology is reverse osmosis (RO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the seawater, using high hydraulic pressure as driving force. A major problem in RO systems is biofouling, caused by severe growth of bacterial biofilms. Both, the need of an external energy input, as well as biofouling, impose a high cost on RO operation. Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative membrane process that uses an osmotic pressure difference as driving force. FO uses a concentrated draw solution to generate high osmotic pressure, which extracts water across a semi permeable membrane from a feed solution. One of the main advantages of FO is the limited amount of external energy required to extract water from the feed solution. The objective of this research is the assessment of the impact of spacers, separating the membrane sheets, and biofouling on the FO system performance. This type of studies allow the optimization of membrane devices and operational conditions. For this, a two dimensional numerical model for FO systems was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This model allowed the evaluation of the impact of (i) spacers and (ii) biofilm, and (iii) the combined impact of spacers and biofilm on the performance of FO systems. The results obtained showed that the presence of spacers improved the performance of FO systems. Cavity configuration spacer gave the higher water flux across the membrane in clean systems; whereas for biofouled systems, the submerged configuration showed a better performance. In absence of spacers, the thickness or amount of biofilm is inversely proportional with the water flux. Furthermore, membrane surface coverage of the biofilm is more important than the amount of biofilm in terms of the impact on the performance. The numerical model can be adapted with other parameters (e.g. membrane and spacer thickness, feed and draw solution, solution concentration, etc.) to

  7. Saliva and sera IgA and IgG in Egyptian Giardia-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Moussa, Hanaa M Ezzat; Rabia, Ibrahim; Abu-Zekry, Maha

    2012-08-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.

  8. Comparison of NBG-18, NBG-17, IG-110 and IG-11 oxidation kinetics in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jo Jo; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2018-03-01

    The oxidation rates of several nuclear-grade graphites, NBG-18, NBG-17, IG-110 and IG-11, were measured in air using thermogravimetry. Kinetic parameters and oxidation behavior for each grade were compared by coke type, filler grain size and microstructure. The thickness of the oxidized layer for each grade was determined by layer peeling and direct density measurements. The results for NBG-17 and IG-11 were compared with those available in the literature and our recently reported results for NBG-18 and IG-110 oxidation in air. The finer-grained graphites IG-110 and IG-11 were more oxidized than medium-grained NBG-18 and NBG-17 because of deeper oxidant penetration, higher porosity and higher probability of available active sites. Variation in experimental conditions also had a marked effect on the reported kinetic parameters by several studies. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy and transition temperature were sensitive to air flow rates as well as sample size and geometry.

  9. Barriers and supports to implementation of MDI/spacer use in nine Canadian pediatric emergency departments: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI/spacers in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI/spacers in Canadian PEDs. Methods Using a comparative case study design, we classified nine tertiary care pediatric hospital PEDs based on their stage of implementation. Data were collected using focus group interviews with physicians, registered nurses (RNs, and respiratory therapists (RTs, and individual interviews with both patient care and medical directors at each site. Initial coding was based on the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU categories of elements known to influence the uptake of innovations. Results One hundred and fifty healthcare professionals from nine different healthcare institutions participated in this study. Lack of leadership in the form of a research champion, a lack of consensus about the benefits of MDI/spacers among staff, perceived resistance from patients/parents, and perceived increased cost and workload associated with MDI/spacer use were the most prevalent barriers to the adoption of the MDI/spacer. Common strategies used by early-adopting sites included the active participation of all professional groups in the adoption process in addition to a well-planned and executed educational component for staff, patients, and families. Early adopter sites were also more likely to have the MDI/spacer included in a clinical protocol/pathway. Conclusion Potential barriers and supports to implementation have been identified that will help EDs adopt MDI/spacer use. Future interventions intended to increase MDI/spacer use in PEDs will need to be sensitive to the barriers identified in this study.

  10. Hydrogel Spacer Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Pivotal Trial: Dosimetric and Clinical Effects of Perirectal Spacer Application in Men Undergoing Prostate Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariados, Neil, E-mail: nmariados@ampofny.com [Associated Medical Professionals of New York, Syracuse, New York (United States); Sylvester, John [21st Century Oncology, East Bradenton, Florida (United States); Shah, Dhiren [Western New York Urology Associates, Cancer Care of WNY, Cheektowaga, New York (United States); Karsh, Lawrence [The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Hudes, Richard [Chesapeake Urology Research Associates, The Prostate Center, Owings Mills, Maryland (United States); Beyer, David [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Kurtzman, Steven [Urological Surgeons of Northern California, Campbell, California (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey [The Research Foundation of State University of New York, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States); Hsi, R. Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, Washington (United States); Kos, Michael [Urology Nevada, Reno, Nevada (United States); Ellis, Rodney [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Logsdon, Mark [Sutter Health Sacramento Sierra Region, Sutter Institute for Medical Research, Sacramento, California (United States); Zimberg, Shawn [Advanced Radiation Centers of New York, Lake Success, New York (United States); Forsythe, Kevin [Oregon Urology Institute, Springfield, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Hong [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Soffen, Edward [CentraState Medical Center, Freehold, New Jersey (United States); Francke, Patrick [Carolina Regional Cancer Center, 21st Century Oncology, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (United States); Mantz, Constantine [21st Century Oncology, Fort Meyers, Florida (United States); Rossi, Peter [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Perirectal spacing, whereby biomaterials are placed between the prostate and rectum, shows promise in reducing rectal dose during prostate cancer radiation therapy. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled pivotal trial was performed to assess outcomes following absorbable spacer (SpaceOAR system) implantation. Methods and Materials: Overall, 222 patients with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for treatment planning, followed with fiducial marker placement, and were randomized to receive spacer injection or no injection (control). Patients received postprocedure CT and MRI planning scans and underwent image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Spacer safety and impact on rectal irradiation, toxicity, and quality of life were assessed throughout 15 months. Results: Spacer application was rated as “easy” or “very easy” 98.7% of the time, with a 99% hydrogel placement success rate. Perirectal spaces were 12.6 ± 3.9 mm and 1.6 ± 2.0 mm in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There were no device-related adverse events, rectal perforations, serious bleeding, or infections within either group. Pre-to postspacer plans had a significant reduction in mean rectal V70 (12.4% to 3.3%, P<.0001). Overall acute rectal adverse event rates were similar between groups, with fewer spacer patients experiencing rectal pain (P=.02). A significant reduction in late (3-15 months) rectal toxicity severity in the spacer group was observed (P=.04), with a 2.0% and 7.0% late rectal toxicity incidence in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There was no late rectal toxicity greater than grade 1 in the spacer group. At 15 months 11.6% and 21.4% of spacer and control patients, respectively, experienced 10-point declines in bowel quality of life. MRI scans at 12 months verified spacer absorption. Conclusions: Spacer

  11. The property distance index PD predicts peptides that cross-react with IgE antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Schein, Catherine H.; Xie, Liping; Hillman, Gilbert R.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Similarities in the sequence and structure of allergens can explain clinically observed cross-reactivities. Distinguishing sequences that bind IgE in patient sera can be used to identify potentially allergenic protein sequences and aid in the design of hypo-allergenic proteins. The property distance index PD, incorporated in our Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/), may identify potentially cross-reactive segments of proteins, based on their similarity to known IgE epitopes. We sought to obtain experimental validation of the PD index as a quantitative predictor of IgE cross-reactivity, by designing peptide variants with predetermined PD scores relative to three linear IgE epitopes of Jun a 1, the dominant allergen from mountain cedar pollen. For each of the three epitopes, 60 peptides were designed with increasing PD values (decreasing physicochemical similarity) to the starting sequence. The peptides synthesized on a derivatized cellulose membrane were probed with sera from patients who were allergic to Jun a 1, and the experimental data were interpreted with a PD classification method. Peptides with low PD values relative to a given epitope were more likely to bind IgE from the sera than were those with PD values larger than 6. Control sequences, with PD values between 18 and 20 to all the three epitopes, did not bind patient IgE, thus validating our procedure for identifying negative control peptides. The PD index is a statistically validated method to detect discrete regions of proteins that have a high probability of cross-reacting with IgE from allergic patients. PMID:18950868

  12. Association of IgG co-deposition with serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric IgA nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eison, T. Matthew; Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Sanders, John T.; Gaber, Lillian; Walker, Patrick D.; Lau, Keith K; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the absence of mesangial IgG deposits is associated with the absence of elevated blood levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Design and methods: Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were determined by ELISA using an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from Helix aspersa. Levels of Gd-IgA1 above the 90th percentile for healthy pediatric controls were considered to be elevated. Renal biopsy samples were examined by immunofluorescence for presence and intensity of staining for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C1q and by light microscopy for histological changes. Findings were graded by a single pathologist (L. Gaber) at UTHSC until 2007 and by NephropathTM (Little Rock, AR, USA) thereafter. Staining for the mesangial deposits was considered negative when intensity was trace or less, and positive at greater intensity. Fisher’s exact-test was used to determine significance of 2 × 2 tables. Results: Serum samples were obtained from 30 patients with IgAN diagnosed before age 18 years. Male : female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Twenty were Caucasian and 10 were African-American. Blood was obtained within 3 months of biopsy (incident cases) for 12, while 18 provided blood > 3 months after biopsy (prevalent cases). Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated in 23 (77%) of cases and 20 (67%) had a biopsy positive for IgG. Of those 20 patients, 18 (90%) had an elevated serum Gd-IgA1 level, whereas 5 (50%) of patients with biopsies without IgG had a normal serum Gd-IgA1 level (p = 0.026). Summary: In this small study we found a weak association between the absence of IgG in the biopsy and normal serum Gd-IgA1 level. PMID:23006340

  13. Influence of an interpositional spacer on the behaviour of the tibiofemoral joint: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, S; Taylor, M; New, A

    2008-10-01

    Interpositional arthroplasty is considered by many surgeons for the treatment of isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. In this procedure, an interpositional spacer is inserted into the medial compartment of the joint with no bone resection and no mechanical fixation. Major problems such as implant dislocation, severe pain or need for revision have been reported post-operatively. In this study, the kinematics of a knee implanted with an interpositional spacer made of either polyurethane or cobalt-chrome during walking, stair ascent and squatting cycles have been predicted and compared to the normal knee using finite element analysis. In addition, articular cartilage stress histories have been examined to obtain distributions of cumulative stress, a measure of the likelihood of articular cartilage degeneration. The insertion of a polyurethane interpositional spacer in the medial side of the knee did not affect knee kinematics as compared to the normal knee, but caused an increase of articular cartilage cumulative contact stress exposures in the medial compartment of the joint. The knee implanted with the Co-Cr spacer exhibited similar trends in knee kinematics, however significantly different ranges of motion were observed during some periods of the activity cycles, specifically during the first half of the walking cycle where lower ranges of motion were predicted. In addition, higher articular cartilage cumulative contact stress exposures were observed in both compartments of the knee. In both cases, cumulative contact stress exposures of the tibial articular cartilage were more affected than those of the femoral articular cartilage. These results suggest implant material as an important parameter in the design phase of interpositional spacers.

  14. Gluten sensitivity in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Fellström, Bengt; Hällgren, Roger; Osagie, Sonia; Venge, Per; Kristjánsson, Gudjón

    2009-08-01

    Coeliac disease is more frequent in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients compared to the healthy population. Several hypotheses postulate that food antigens like gluten may be involved in the onset of IgAN. In this study, we used a recently developed mucosal patch technique to evaluate the rectal mucosal inflammatory reaction to gluten in patients with IgAN (n = 27) compared to healthy subjects (n = 18). The rectal mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured. Serum samples were analysed for IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies (AGA), IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies. Gluten reactivity, defined as increase in MPO and/or NO after gluten exposure, was observed in 8 of 27 IgAN patients. The prevalence of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 was not increased among gluten-sensitive patients, and the total prevalence among IgAN patients was the same as for the normal population. An elevated serum IgA AGA response was seen in 9 of 27 IgAN patients. The increase in IgA AGA did not correlate with the gluten sensitivity as measured by NO and/or MPO. A specific serum IgG AGA response was seen in one patient only. Antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were not observed. It is concluded that approximately one-third of our IgAN patients have a rectal mucosal sensitivity to gluten, but without signs of coeliac disease, and we hypothesize that such sub-clinical inflammation to gluten might be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN in a subgroup of patients.

  15. Extensive diversification of IgD-, IgY-, and truncated IgY(δFc)-encoding genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Cheng, Gang; Yang, Hui; Wei, Zhiguo; Wang, Ping; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Ren, Liming; Meng, Qingyong; Zhang, Ran; Guo, Ying; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-15

    IgY(ΔFc), containing only CH1 and CH2 domains, is expressed in the serum of some birds and reptiles, such as ducks and turtles. The duck IgY(ΔFc) is produced by the same υ gene that expresses the intact IgY form (CH1-4) using different transcriptional termination sites. In this study, we show that intact IgY and IgY(ΔFc) are encoded by distinct genes in the red-eared turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans). At least eight IgY and five IgY(ΔFc) transcripts were found in a single turtle. Together with Southern blotting, our data suggest that multiple genes encoding both IgY forms are present in the turtle genome. Both of the IgY forms were detected in the serum using rabbit polyclonal Abs. In addition, we show that multiple copies of the turtle δ gene are present in the genome and that alternative splicing is extensively involved in the generation of both the secretory and membrane-bound forms of the IgD H chain transcripts. Although a single μ gene was identified, the α gene was not identified in this species.

  16. IgG4-related Disease of the Genitourinary Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul K. Divatia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently established albeit well recognized fibro-inflammatory condition with distinctive features including a characteristic histopathological appearance; a propensity to develop tumefactive lesions in multiple body sites; and oft elevated serum IgG4 levels. The consensus statement on IgG-4 RD equips practicing pathologists with a set of working guidelines for the diagnosis of pathologic lesions identified in a host of different organ system affected with this disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD requires the combined presence of the characteristic histopathological appearance and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The essential histopathological features include a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Tissue IgG4-positive plasma cell counts and IgG4: IgG ratios are significant ancillary aids in establishing the diagnosis. The spectrum of IgG4-RD continues to expand and involve multiple body sites. The genitourinary system comprising of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, prostate gland, testes and penis is one of the multiple organ systems to be affected by IgG4-RD. This review describes the clinical and histopathologic patterns of involvement of the genitourinary system by IgG4-RD, in association with serologic and radiological features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 3-18

  17. Inhibition of complement activation by IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; van Swieten, P.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to antigens may result in high IgG4 antibody titres as was shown in a previous paper (Aalberse et al., 1983b). In novice bee keepers, a shift in the IgG1/IgG4 ratio of the response against phospholipase-A (PLA; a major component of bee venom) occurred. This resulted in an

  18. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions

  19. Stabilization and augmentation of circulating AIM in mice by synthesized IgM-Fc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kai

    Full Text Available Owing to rapid and drastic changes in lifestyle and eating habits in modern society, obesity and obesity-associated diseases are among the most important public health problems. Hence, the development of therapeutic approaches to regulate obesity is strongly desired. In view of previous work showing that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM blocks lipid storage in adipocytes, thereby preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, we here explored a strategy to augment circulating AIM levels. We synthesized the Fc portion of the soluble human immunoglobulin (IgM heavy chain and found that it formed a pentamer containing IgJ as natural IgM does, and effectively associated with AIM in vitro. When we injected the synthesized Fc intravenously into mice lacking circulating IgM, it associated with endogenous mouse AIM, protecting AIM from renal excretion and preserving the circulating AIM levels. As the synthesized Fc lacked the antigen-recognizing variable region, it provoked no undesired immune response. In addition, a challenge with the Fc-human AIM complex in wild-type mice, which exhibited normal levels of circulating IgM and AIM, successfully maintained the levels of the human AIM in mouse blood. We also observed that the human AIM was effectively incorporated into adipocytes in visceral fat tissue, suggesting its functionality against obesity. Thus, our findings reveal potent strategies to safely increase AIM levels, which could form the basis for developing novel therapies for obesity.

  20. The Induction of IgM and IgG Antibodies against HLA or MICA after Lung Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Paantjens, Annelieke W. M.; van de Graaf, Ed A.; Kwakkel-van Erp, Johanna M.; Hoefnagel, Tineke; van Ginkel, Walter G. J.; Fakhry, Farzia; van Kessel, Diana A.; van den Bosch, Jules M. M.; Otten, Henny G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of IgG HLA antibodies after lung transplantation (LTx) is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of chronic rejection, represented by the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). It has recently been observed that elevated levels of IgM HLA antibodies also correlates with the development of chronic rejection in heart and kidney transplantation. This study investigates the relationship between IgM and IgG antibodies against HLA and MICA after lung transplantati...

  1. Dendritic cells support production of IgA and other non-IgM isotypes in clonal microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, C E; George, A; Kerlin, R L; Cebra, J J

    1990-01-01

    Microcultures of helper T (Th) cells and a few appropriately primed murine B cells can be used to detect cognate T-B interactions which lead to clonal production of IgM, IgG1, and IgE. However, IgG2, IgG3, and IgA are very rarely expressed. We have found that the addition of dendritic cells to such cultures creates an extremely supportive environment for clones expressing IgA with other isotypes, as well as clones expressing only detectable IgA. Typically, 400 dendritic cells were added to 3000 conalbumin-specific Th cells (D10.G4.1) and 30 hapten-specific Peyer's patch (PP) B cells with antigen in 15 microliters. The response was antigen dependent and clonal. Almost half of the clones expressed only non-IgM isotypes, 43% expressed some IgA, and 14% expressed some IgG3; isotype diversity increased over time. Dendritic cells from PP and spleen were found to be equally supportive, and allowed the number of T cells required in microculture to be decreased from 3000 to 400. However, T cell proliferation was not required for the supportive effect of dendritic cells. Surface IgD-bearing cells were also found to switch to IgA production in microculture as judged by their generating clones expressing IgM along with IgA and other isotypes. Again, IgA was usually expressed only in the presence of dendritic cells. The mechanism may involve dendritic cell-induced T cell activation and/or dendritic cell factors, and is under investigation.

  2. Transfer of maternal IgE can be a common cause of increased IgE levels in cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Bisgaard, Hans

    2010-01-01

    IgE in cord blood is thought to be a product of the fetus. A high level of total IgE is therefore used as a measure of atopic propensity in the newborn. We recently found strong evidence that allergen-specific IgE in cord blood was the result of transfer of maternal IgE to fetal blood or cord blood...

  3. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  4. New radioimmunoassay for IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors, based on a double antibody method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordfang, O. (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Hoeier-Madsen, M.; Lieberkind, J. (Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Halberg, P. (Medical Department, Division of Rheumatology, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark)

    1981-11-30

    A new radioimmunoassay has been developed for measuring IgM and IgG rheumatoid factors. Diluted sera from donors and patients were incubated with immunoprecipitates prepared from sheep serum and rabbit anti-sheep IgG antiserum. The precipitates were washed, and radioiodinated rabbit F(ab')/sub 2/ fragments specific for human IgM or IgG were added. The precipitates were isolated by filtration and measured in a gamma counter. With this assay IgM rheumatoid factors were detected in sera from all patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and in sera from 40% of patients with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. IgG rheumatoid factors were found in sera from 68% of the seropositive and 40% of the seronegative patients. Gel filtration experiments demonstrated that it is possible to detect monomeric IgG rheumatoid factors and IgM rheumatoid factors of molecular weight smaller than pentameric IgM. Furthermore it has been shown that IgG rheumatoid factor activity is still present after reduction of IgM rheumatoid factors with dithiotreitol.

  5. Differential expression of IgE and IgG4 specific antibody responses in asymptomatic and chronic human filariasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurniawan, A.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R.; Selkirk, M. E.; Partono, F.; Maizels, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    A population of 164 adult individuals resident in an area endemic for Brugia malayi lymphatic filariasis has been studied for humoral immune responses to filarial parasites. Antibody levels to Ag extracted from adult worms were determined for each of the IgG subclasses, for IgM and for IgE. The

  6. A radiolabeled antiglobulin assay to identify human cervical mucus immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antisperm antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.G. Jr.; D'Cruz, O.J.

    1989-01-01

    Antisperm immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antibodies in human cervical mucus (CM) were identified by a radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Cervical mucus samples from fertile and infertile women were exposed to a 1:3,200 dilution of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), and 5 micrograms of the solubilized CM protein were assayed for the presence of IgA and IgG antisperm and anti-Candida activity by the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay. Purified human secretory IgA and IgG exposed to 2-ME retained the molecular integrity and functional activity of the untreated antibody molecules. CM aliquots collected after high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation were assessed for antisperm antibody activity; antisperm antibody activity was retained in the appropriate IgA or IgG CM fractions. The incidence of CM antisperm antibodies was minimally affected when the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay was performed with a motile sperm population. Approximately 70% of the CM IgA antisperm antibodies were of the IgA1 subclass; CM IgG was primarily of the IgG4 subclass. When Candida antigen was substituted for sperm in the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay, the CM antisperm antibodies were found to be exclusively sperm-specific. These data indicate that the radiolabeled antiglobulin assay using 2-ME to extract CM antibodies is a specific method for the assay of antisperm antibodies in CM

  7. Kekerabatan Genetik Caplak Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus Asal IndonesiaBerdasarkan Sekuen Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (GENETIC RELATIONSHIP INDONESIAN RHIPHICEPHALUS (BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS TICK BASED ON INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-2 SEQUENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rhiphicephalus (Boophilus microplus is important obligatory blood feeding ectoparasites transmittingmany different viral, bacterial and protozoan and plays a role as a vector of Babesia sp., The leria sp. andAnaplasma sp. in cattle. The accuracy in identifying and distinguishing interspecies and intraspeciesdiversity among parasites is needed to understand the epidemiology, biology and capacity as a vector.Variations in the DNA base sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region2 (ITS 2 has been used asa molecular marker for identification in an effort to determine phylogenetic relationships. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the ITS 2 gene nucleotide sequence of R. microplus, which was expected to beuseful for accurate identification the parasite diversity and phylogenetic relationship among many differentspecies. DNA amplification was conducted using BOO2 forward dan BOO2 reverse primers. The DNAsamples containing ITS2 region fragment of 1099 nt were derived from the nucleotide sequence multiplealignments of R.microplus and other ticks genes obtained from Gene bank using Clustal W software, andthen analyzed using the MEGA program version 6. Genetic distances based on nucleotide sequence weredetermined with Kimura 2-parameter method producing the smallest genetic distance of 0 % and 1.2 %.Construction of phylogenetic trees using the Neighbor joining method showed that ticks from variousregions in Indonesia was species complex which have a closer with R.microplus isolates from India, Laos,South Africa, China and Australia R.australis origin.

  8. Measurement and model development of the droplet diameter in rod bundles with spacer grids in the reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, Hee Cheon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoo, Seung Hun; Jin, Hyung Gon; Kim, In Hun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    To understand and to predict the heat transfer between superheated steam and droplets properly during reflood phase of LBLOCA of APR1400, it is very important to measure broken droplet sizes by spacer grids. A study, therefore, has been performed to investigate droplet size in rod bundles with spacer grids and to develop a spacer grid droplet size model for safety analysis codes. Experiments were conducted with liquid droplets (SMD of 300{approx}700 {mu}m) impacting on various spacer grids at air superficial velocity of 10 and 20 m/s based on FLECHT SEASET. The test channel and the grids were heated to 150 .deg. C to prevent the formation of liquid film during tests. The spacer grids were designed refer to the Korean fuel rod bundles (Korean Standard Fuel, Plus 7) of APR1400 with various blockage area ratio and grid geometries (strap thickness, mixing vane) and about 15,000 droplets were measured at upstream and downstream of the grids in 16 tests. As a result, the measurement of broken droplet size by spacer grids with photography method is presented and the droplet size model related to spacer grids as a function of blockage area ratio is suggested in this report

  9. Recombinant human B7.2 IgV-like domain expressed in bacteria maintains its co-stimulatory activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaocai; Ma, Jun; Zheng, Jin; Lai, Baochang; Geng, Yiping; Wang, Yili; Si, Lüsheng

    2002-07-01

    To investigate which of the two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, the immunoglobulin variable region homologous domain IgV (hB7.2 IgV) and the immunoglobulin constant region homologous domain IgC (hB7.2 IgC) on the human B7.2 molecule contains receptor binding sites, and to evaluate whether the B7.2 protein expressed in bacteria has biological activity in vitro. Three fragments of hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and the complete extracellular region of human B7.2 containing both the IgV and IgC domains,hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pGEM-Teasy. Three recombinants,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgV,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgC and pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were generated by cloning the fragments into a prokaryote expression plasmid (pGEX-4T-3) and transformed into the host strain E. coli DH5alpha. The relevant target fusion proteins consisting of GST and hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. With the presence of the first signal imitated by anti-CD3 antibody, T cell activation was observed by exposing purified T lymphocytes to each soluble form of the three bacterially-produced human B7.2 fusion proteins by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation. Three recombinant fusion proteins of human B7.2, GST-hB7.2 IgV, GST-hB7.2 IgC and GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) were produced and detected in inclusion body form from engineered bacteria. With the first signal present,T lymphocytes proliferated when co-stimulated by bacterially-produced either GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) or GST-hB7.2 IgV fusion proteins, but not by GST-hB7.2 IgC. Functional human B7.2 fusion protein can be produced in bacteria. The IgV-like domain of human B7.2 is sufficient for B7.2 to interact with its counter-receptors and co-stimulate T lymphocytes.

  10. Genome-wide association study for levels of total serum IgE identifies HLA-C in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Yatagai

    Full Text Available Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13∶60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n = 1110 and 1364, respectively. SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P = 1.07×10(-10. Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups.

  11. Enhancement of nuclear heat transfer in a typical pressurized water reactor by new spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazifi, M.; Nematollahi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The fuel element geometry typically used in nuclear reactor is rod bundle whose rod-to-rod clearance is maintained by grid spacer. The heat generated in the rod by nuclear reaction is removed by coolant, usually in turbulent flow. The coolant moves axially through the subchannels. Fuel spacer grid affects the coolant flow distribution in a fuel rod bundle, and so spacer geometry has a strong influence on a bundle's thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as critical heat flux and pressure drop. An understanding of the detailed structure of the turbulent flow and heat transfer in the rod bundle, used especially as nuclear fuel elements, is of major interest to the nuclear power industry for their safe and reliable operation. The flow mixing devices on grid spacer would enhance the mixing rate between sub-channels and promote the turbulence in subchannel. The present study evaluates the effects of mixing vane shape on flow structure and heat transfer downstream of mixing vane in a sub-channel of fuel assembly, by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity, flow mixing factors, heat transfer coefficient and friction factor using three-dimensional RANS analysis. Six new shapes mixing vane designed by the authors, are simulated numerically to evaluate the performance in enhancing the heat transfer, in comparison with commercialized split vane. Standard K-epsilon model are used as a turbulence closure model and periodic and symmetry condition are set as boundary conditions. The capability of the model to predict the coolant flow distribution inside rod bundles is shown and discussed on the base of comparison with experimental data for a variety of geometrical and Reynolds number conditions. It is conformed that the turbulence in the sub-channel was significantly promoted by spacer and mixing devices but rapidly decreased to a fully developed level approximately 10 time of hydraulic diameter downstream of the top of spacer. Ring type mixer showed a high

  12. Influence of spacer length on heparin coupling efficiency and fibrinogen adsorption of modified titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbureck Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical bonding of the drug onto surfaces by means of spacer molecules is accompanied with a reduction of the biological activity of the drug due to a constricted mobility since normally only short spacer molecule like aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APMS are used for drug coupling. This work aimed to study covalent attachment of heparin to titanium(oxide surfaces by varying the length of the silane coupling agent, which should affect the biological potency of the drug due to a higher mobility with longer spacer chains. Methods Covalent attachment of heparin to titanium metal and TiO2 powder was carried out using the coupling agents 3-(Trimethoxysilyl-propylamine (APMS, N- [3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine (Diamino-APMS and N1- [3-(Trimethoxy-silyl-propyl]diethylenetriamine (Triamino-APMS. The amount of bound coupling agent and heparin was quantified photometrically by the ninhydrin reaction and the tolidine-blue test. The biological potency of heparin was determined photometrically by the chromogenic substrate Chromozym TH and fibrinogen adsorption to the modified surfaces was researched using the QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring technique. Results Zeta-potential measurements confirmed the successful coupling reaction; the potential of the unmodified anatase surface (approx. -26 mV shifted into the positive range (> + 40 mV after silanisation. Binding of heparin results in a strongly negatively charged surface with zeta-potentials of approx. -39 mV. The retaining biological activity of heparin was highest for the spacer molecule Triamino-APMS. QCM-D measurements showed a lower viscosity for adsorbed fibrinogen films on heparinised surfaces by means of Triamino-APMS. Conclusion The remaining activity of heparin was found to be highest for the covalent attachment with Triamino-APMS as coupling agent due to the long chain of this spacer molecule and therefore the highest mobility of the drug

  13. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires

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    Sukrit Silas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains. Nearly all such RTs are present within type III CRISPR-Cas loci, but their phylogeny does not parallel the CRISPR-Cas type classification, indicating that RT-Cas1 is an autonomous functional module that is disseminated by horizontal gene transfer and can function with diverse type III systems. To compare the sequence pools sampled by RT-Cas1-associated and RT-lacking CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained samples of a commercially grown cyanobacterium—Arthrospira platensis. Sequencing of the CRISPR arrays uncovered a highly diverse population of spacers. Spacer diversity was particularly striking for the RT-Cas1-containing type III-B system, where no saturation was evident even with millions of sequences analyzed. In contrast, analysis of the RT-lacking type III-D system yielded a highly diverse pool but reached a point where fewer novel spacers were recovered as sequencing depth was increased. Matches could be identified for a small fraction of the non-RT-Cas1-associated spacers, and for only a single RT-Cas1-associated spacer. Thus, the principal source(s of the spacers, particularly the hypervariable spacer repertoire of the RT-associated arrays, remains unknown.

  14. Similar Results in Children with Asthma for Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Ciclesonide Inhaled with or without Spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid administered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI to treat bronchial asthma. After inhalation, the inactive ciclesonide is converted by esterases in the airways to active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC. Aim To compare the pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of des-CIC in children after administration of therapeutic dose of ciclesonide with and without spacer (AeroChamber Plus™. Methods Open-label, 3 period, cross over, repeated dose, PK study in 37 children with mild to moderate stable asthma (age: 6–11 y; body weight: 20–53 kg. During each 7-day treatment period, ciclesonide was inhaled once in the morning: A 160 μg MDI with spacer, B 80 μg MDI with spacer, and C 160 μg MDI without spacer. Serum PK parameters of ciclesonide and des-CIC were determined on Day 7 of each period. The primary PK parameters were the AUC τ and C max for des-CIC. Results Inhaling ciclesonide with spacer led to a dose proportional systemic exposure (AUC τ of des-CIC (0.316 μg*h/L for 80 μg and 0.663 μg*h/L for 160 μg. The dose-normalized systemic exposure for des-CIC (based on AUC τ was 27% higher after inhalation of ciclesonide 80 μg or 160 μg with spacer than without spacer; the corresponding C max values for des-CIC were, respectively, 63% and 55% higher with spacer. No clinically relevant abnormalities or adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions Inhalation of therapeutic ciclesonide dose with spacer led to a slight increase in the systemic exposure of des-CIC, which does not warrant dose adjustment.

  15. Differentiation between Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus from Pure Culture and Aflatoxin-Contaminated Grapes Using PCR-RFLP Analysis of aflR-aflJ Intergenic Spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, A.; Atoui, A.; Lebrihi, A.; Rizk, T.; Lteif, R.; Kallassy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) represent the most important single mycotoxin-related food safety problem in developed and developing countries as they have adverse effects on human and animal health. They are produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Both species have different aflatoxinogenic profile. In order to distinguish between A. flavus and A. parasiticus, gene-specific primers were designed to target the intergenic spacer (IGS) for the AF biosynthesis genes, aflJ and aflR. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subjected to restriction endonuclease analysis using BglII to look for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Our result showed that both species displayed different PCR-based RFLP (PCR-RFLP) profile. PCR products from A. flavus cleaved into 3 fragments of 362, 210, and 102 bp. However, there is only one restriction site for this enzyme in the sequence of A. parasiticus that produced only 2 fragments of 363 and 311 bp. The method was successfully applied to contaminated grapes samples. This approach of differentiating these 2 species would be simpler, less costly, and quicker than conventional sequencing of PCR products and/or morphological identification. (author)

  16. Chlamydial serum IgG, IgA and local IgA antibodies in patients with genital-tract infections measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terho, P.; Meurman, O.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IgG and IgA class antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was developed with C. trachomatis serotype L2 as antigen. The assay was sensitive, reproducible and correlated well with an immunofluorescence test (r = 0.85). Serum IgG antibodies were detected in 79% of Chlamydia isolation-positive versus 43% of isolation-negative male patients with urethritis and serum IgA antibodies in 53% and 21%, respectively. Urethral IgA antibodies, measured from specimens taken for chlamydial isolation, could be detected in 94% and 38%, respectively. From 737 male urethral and 909 female cervical secretions screened for the presence of IgA antibodies, about half were isolation and IgA negative. Only 4% (6/151) of male and 5.4% (2/37) of female isolation-positive specimens were IgA negative. The determination of local IgA antibodies may be used as a screening test in chlamydial genital infections. (author)

  17. Comparing Levels of Serum IgA, IgG, IgM and Cortisol in the Professional Bodybuilding Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hadi Naghib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bodybuilding athlete's bodies are placed under much pressure in during the exercise, which is causing changes in the immune and hormone system in the long term. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, immunoglobulin M (IgM and cortisol in the professional bodybuilding athletes (BA and the non-athletes (NA male. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic and 29 volunteer subjects in the professional BA and NA men participated. Levels of serum IgA, IgG, IgM using Single Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID and levels of serum cortisol using Radioimmunoassay (RIA were measured with blood sampling from brachial vein at rest and fasting. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (p0.05, while, the levels of serum cortisol (22.10±2.60 vs. 15.41±3.44 μg/dl, U=0.001, p=0.001 significantly greater in the BA than the NA.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that participation in training and competitions bodybuilding has no effect on serum levels of IgG, IgA, IgM, but increased levels of serum cortisol.

  18. Quantitation of sperm bindable IgA and IgG in seminal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M

    1986-05-01

    Seminal fluid and serum from 95 infertile males were assayed for sperm bindable immunoglobulins using an indirect ELISA with whole target sperm. The ELISA method was compared to seminal fluid and serum immobilization and agglutination assays (functional assays). In this infertile group, the ELISA assay was positive in 22% of seminal fluids (greater than 1.2 fg IgA/sperm and greater than 0.3 fg IgG/sperm). The seminal fluid antibodies were IgA and had an accompanying elevated IgG component in 78% of patients. There was a 96% correlation between negative seminal fluid functional assays and negative ELISA, and a 95% correlation between positive seminal fluid functional assays and positive ELISA. Positive serum sperm antibody tests were found in 71% of the infertile males with positive seminal fluid sperm antibodies, but 29% of the infertile males with strongly positive IgA seminal fluid sperm antibodies showed normal levels of serum sperm antibodies by either ELISA or functional assays. The ELISA method gives reproducible quantitation of sperm antibodies in seminal fluid and correlates well with accepted functional assays. Comparisons with serum sperm antibody assays suggests that seminal fluid sperm antibody analysis complements the serum analysis of sperm antibodies.

  19. IgG4-Related Disease of Bilateral Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lilun; Ward, Bryan; Cocks, Margaret; Kheradmand, Amir; Francis, Howard W

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that causes pseudotumor formation in single or multiple organs, including those of the head and neck. Temporal bone involvement is rare, with only 3 cases of unilateral temporal bone IgG4-RD described in the literature. We report the first known case of IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones and describe its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The patient was a 52-year-o