WorldWideScience

Sample records for spaced vertical levels

  1. Vertical integration from the large Hilbert space

    Erler, Theodore; Konopka, Sebastian

    2017-12-01

    We develop an alternative description of the procedure of vertical integration based on the observation that amplitudes can be written in BRST exact form in the large Hilbert space. We relate this approach to the description of vertical integration given by Sen and Witten.

  2. Greater vertical spot spacing to improve femtosecond laser capsulotomy quality.

    Schultz, Tim; Joachim, Stephanie C; Noristani, Rozina; Scott, Wendell; Dick, H Burkhard

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of adapted capsulotomy laser settings on the cutting quality in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Ruhr-University Eye Clinic, Bochum, Germany. Prospective randomized case series. Eyes were treated with 1 of 2 laser settings. In Group 1, the regular standard settings were used (incisional depth 600 μm, pulse energy 4 μJ, horizontal spot spacing 5 μm, vertical spot spacing 10 μm, treatment time 1.2 seconds). In Group 2, vertical spot spacing was increased to 15 μm and the treatment time was 1.0 seconds. Light microscopy was used to evaluate the cut quality of the capsule edge. The size and number of tags (misplaced laser spots, which form a second cut of the capsule with high tear risk) were evaluated in a blinded manner. Groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The study comprised 100 eyes (50 eyes in each group). Cataract surgery was successfully completed in all eyes, and no anterior capsule tear occurred during the treatment. Histologically, significant fewer tags were observed with the new capsulotomy laser setting. The mean score for the number and size of free tags was significantly lower in this group than with the standard settings (P laser settings improved cut quality and reduced the number of tags. The modification has the potential to reduce the risk for radial capsule tears in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. With the new settings, no tags and no capsule tears were observed under the operating microscope in any eye. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subjective Vertical Conflict Theory and Space Motion Sickness.

    Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jin-Kun; Chen, Xue-Wen; Tan, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) remains a troublesome problem during spaceflight. The subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the SV sensed from gravity and visual and idiotropic cues differs from the expected vertical. This theory has been successfully used to predict motion sickness in different vehicles on Earth. We have summarized the most outstanding and recent studies on the illusions and characteristics associated with spatial disorientation and SMS during weightlessness, such as cognitive map and mental rotation, the visual reorientation and inversion illusions, and orientation preferences between visual scenes and the internal z-axis of the body. The relationships between the SV and the incidence of and susceptibility to SMS as well as spatial disorientation were addressed. A consistent framework was presented to understand and explain SMS characteristics in more detail on the basis of the SV conflict theory, which is expected to be more advantageous in SMS prediction, prevention, and training.

  4. Evaluations of average level spacings

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of 168 Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables

  5. Vertical Integration at Junior and Intermediate Levels. School Research Newsletter.

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in Sweden in vertically integrated classes in compulsory schools, especially at junior high school and intermediate grade levels. This development is supported in various ways by the curriculum, partly because it puts more emphasis than previous curricula on the occurrence of teaching…

  6. Determining the optimal spacing of deepening of vertical mine

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Light is shed on a technique for determining the optimal spacing of shafts for deepening for the examined parameters of operational and deepening operations. The presented results of studies may be used in designing new shafts, in preparing levels and in reconstruction of existing shafts with slanted and steep stratum bedding.

  7. Digital Levelling in Subterranean Spaces

    Tomáš Jiřikovský

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For precision levelling works are now more often used digital levels and code-scale staffs. Advantages in (and problems with their application to the regular line-levelling are well known and described. However, when using the digital levelling for measurements in specific local geodetic networks, monitoring networks and inside of buildings and underground spaces, new problems appear with the signalisation of the observed points, readability of the code (non-uniform illumination, temperature changes etc. The article informs about the application of two types of digital levels (Sokkia SDL-2, Trimble Zeiss DiNi 12T in the experimental subterranean levelling network for the basement settlement monitoring of a ten-floor building; the solution of marking of the points, field calibration and the system calibration of digital levels.

  8. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  9. Thermally optimum spacing of vertical, natural convection cooled, parallel plates

    Bar-Cohen, A.; Rohsenow, W. M.

    Vertical two-dimensional channels formed by parallel plates or fins are a frequently encountered configuration in natural convection cooling in air of electronic equipment. In connection with the complexity of heat dissipation in vertical parallel plate arrays, little theoretical effort is devoted to thermal optimization of the relevant packaging configurations. The present investigation is concerned with the establishment of an analytical structure for analyses of such arrays, giving attention to useful relations for heat distribution patterns. The limiting relations for fully-developed laminar flow, in a symmetric isothermal or isoflux channel as well as in a channel with an insulated wall, are derived by use of a straightforward integral formulation.

  10. New Search Space Reduction Algorithm for Vertical Reference Trajectory Optimization

    Alejandro MURRIETA-MENDOZA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning the fuel required to sustain a given flight releases pollution such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, and the amount of fuel consumed is also a significant expense for airlines. It is desirable to reduce fuel consumption to reduce both pollution and flight costs. To increase fuel savings in a given flight, one option is to compute the most economical vertical reference trajectory (or flight plan. A deterministic algorithm was developed using a numerical aircraft performance model to determine the most economical vertical flight profile considering take-off weight, flight distance, step climb and weather conditions. This algorithm is based on linear interpolations of the performance model using the Lagrange interpolation method. The algorithm downloads the latest available forecast from Environment Canada according to the departure date and flight coordinates, and calculates the optimal trajectory taking into account the effects of wind and temperature. Techniques to avoid unnecessary calculations are implemented to reduce the computation time. The costs of the reference trajectories proposed by the algorithm are compared with the costs of the reference trajectories proposed by a commercial flight management system using the fuel consumption estimated by the FlightSim® simulator made by Presagis®.

  11. LIMS/Nimbus-7 Level 2 Vertical Profiles of O3, NO2, H2O, HNO3, Geopotential Height, and Temperature V006

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) version 6 Level-2 data product consists of daily, geolocated, vertical profiles of temperature, geopotential...

  12. Modal Analysis on Fluid-Structure Interaction of MW-Level Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    Tan Jiqiu; Zhong Dingqing; Wang Qiong

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid resonance problem of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine induced by wind, a flow field model of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine is established by using the fluid flow control equations, calculate flow’s velocity and pressure of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine and load onto tower’s before and after surface, study the Modal analysis of fluid-structure interaction of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower. The results show that fluid-structure interaction fie...

  13. Growing Food for Space and Earth: NASA's Contributions to Vertical Agriculture

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980s with NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program and later the 1990s and early 2000s with the Advanced Life Support Project, NASA conducted extensive testing with crops in controlled environment conditions. One series of tests conducted at Kennedy Space Center used a large chamber with vertically stacked shelves to support hydroponic growing trays, with a bank of electric lamps above each shelf. This is essentially the same approach that has become popular for use in so-called vertical agriculture systems, which attempts to optimize plant production in a fixed volume. Some of the findings and commonalities of NASA's work during this period and how it overlaps with current interests in vertical agriculture will be presented in the talk.

  14. Modal Analysis on Fluid-Structure Interaction of MW-Level Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower

    Tan Jiqiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid resonance problem of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine induced by wind, a flow field model of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine is established by using the fluid flow control equations, calculate flow’s velocity and pressure of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine and load onto tower’s before and after surface, study the Modal analysis of fluid-structure interaction of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower. The results show that fluid-structure interaction field of MW- level vertical axis wind turbine tower has little effect on the modal vibration mode, but has a great effect on its natural frequency and the maximum deformation, and the influence will decrease with increasing of modal order; MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower needs to be raised the stiffness and strength, its structure also needs to be optimized; In the case of satisfy the intensity, the larger the ratio of the tower height and wind turbines diameter, the more soft the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower, the lower its frequency.

  15. Investigations of Digital Levels at the SLAC Vertical Comparator

    Gassner, G.

    2005-01-01

    Digital levels deliver highly accurate and fast measurements in an automated measuring process. A shortcoming is that they give less accurate measurements in some cases. There are several sources which are known to have a systematic effect on the height reading and therefore have to be investigated for our equipment. One parameter is the scale factor which has to be determined on a regular basis. Other sources for inaccurate height readings are measurements at critical distances and at the end sections of the rod, a defocused set-up and artificial illumination. With the findings of the experiments investigating the aforementioned error sources, rules for our fieldwork were established. The experiments were carried out with our instruments, a Trimble (formerly Zeiss) DiNi 12 (SW Version 1.21) and a Leica DNA--03 (SW Version 3.40). In some cases, when it is not possible to avoid a critical set-up with the digital leveling system, we use the analog level Wild NA3. Therefore the analog rods have to be also controlled. The calibration is performed with a CCD camera which automatically detects the edges in the image and compares them with the interferometer readings. The CCD camera system is also used to determine the height offset between rods

  16. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    WANG Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  17. Inferring regional vertical crustal velocities from averaged relative sea level trends: A proof of concept

    Bâki Iz H.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of −1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.

  18. All tree-level MHV form factors in N=4 SYM from twistor space

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2016-06-28

    We incorporate all gauge-invariant local composite operators into the twistor-space formulation of N=4 SYM theory, detailing and expanding on ideas we presented recently in http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.04471. The vertices for these operators contain infinitely many terms and we show how they can be constructed by taking suitable derivatives of a light-like Wilson loop in twistor space and shrinking it down to a point. In particular, these vertices directly yield the tree-level MHV super form factors of all composite operators in N=4 SYM theory.

  19. Aspects of the affine superalgebra sl(2-vertical bar-1) at fractional level

    Johnstone, Gavin Balfour

    2001-04-01

    In this thesis we study the affine superalgebra s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) at fractional levels of the form k = 1/u - 1, u is an element of N-back slash {1}. It is for these levels that admissible representations exist, which transform into each other under modular transformations. In the second chapter we review background material on conformal field theory, particularly the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the connection with modular transformations. The superalgebra sl(2-vertical bar-1; C) is introduced, as is its affine version. The next chapter studies the modular transformation properties of s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) characters. We derive formulae for these transformations for all levels of the form k = 1/u - 1, u is an element of N-back slash {1}. We also investigate some modular invariant combinations of characters and find two series of modular invariants, analogous to the A- and D-series of the classification of s-tilde-l(2) modular invariants. In chapter 4 we turn to the study of fusion rules. We concentrate on the case k = -1/2. By considering the decoupling of singular vectors, we are able to find consistent fusion rules for this particular level. These fusion rules correspond to a modular invariant found in chapter 3. This study suggests that one may consistently define a conformal field theory based on s-tilde-l(2-vertical bar-1; C) at fractional level. (author)

  20. Missing level corrections using neutron spacings

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    2009-11-01

    Nuclear level densities are very important for a wide variety of pure and applied neutron physics. Most of the relevant information is obtained from neutron resonance data. The key correction to the raw experimental data is for missing levels. All of the standard correction methods assume that the neutron resonances obey the predictions of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble version of Random Matrix Theory (RMT) and utilize comparison with the Porter-Thomas distribution of reduced widths in order to determine the fraction of missing levels. Here we adopt an alternate approach, comparing the neutron data with the predictions of RMT for eigenvalue statistics. Since in RMT the widths and eigenvalues are independent, analysis of the eigenvalues provides an independent analysis of the same data set. We summarize recent work in this area using the nearest neighbour spacing distribution, and we also develop tests that utilize several other eigenvalue statistics to provide additional estimates of the missing fraction of levels. These additional statistics include the key test for long range order - the Dyson-Mehta Δ 3 statistic - as well as the thermodynamic energy (that arises from Dyson's Circular Orthogonal Ensemble), the linear correlation coefficient of adjacent spacings (a measure of short range anti-correlation), and a statistic related to the Q statistic defined by Dyson and Mehta in the early 1960s. Developed FORTRAN code is available at http://www-nds.iaea.org/missing-levels/. These tests are applied to the s-wave neutron resonances in n + 238 U and n + 232 Th. The results for 238 U are consistent with each other and raise some issues concerning data purity. For the 232 Th data, all of the tests are in excellent agreement. (author)

  1. The Impact of Sea Level Rise on Geodetic Vertical Datum of Peninsular Malaysia

    Din, A. H. M.; Abazu, I. C.; Pa'suya, M. F.; Omar, K. M.; Hamid, A. I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise is rapidly turning into major issues among our community and all levels of the government are working to develop responses to ensure these matters are given the uttermost attention in all facets of planning. It is more interesting to understand and investigate the present day sea level variation due its potential impact, particularly on our national geodetic vertical datum. To determine present day sea level variation, it is vital to consider both in-situ tide gauge and remote sensing measurements. This study presents an effort to quantify the sea level rise rate and magnitude over Peninsular Malaysia using tide gauge and multi-mission satellite altimeter. The time periods taken for both techniques are 32 years (from 1984 to 2015) for tidal data and 23 years (from 1993 to 2015) for altimetry data. Subsequently, the impact of sea level rise on Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD) is evaluated in this study. the difference between MSL computed from 10 years (1984 - 1993) and 32 years (1984 - 2015) tidal data at Port Kelang showed that the increment of sea level is about 27mm. The computed magnitude showed an estimate of the long-term effect a change in MSL has on the geodetic vertical datum of Port Kelang tide gauge station. This will help give a new insight on the establishment of national geodetic vertical datum based on mean sea level data. Besides, this information can be used for a wide variety of climatic applications to study environmental issues related to flood and global warming in Malaysia.

  2. THE IMPACT OF SEA LEVEL RISE ON GEODETIC VERTICAL DATUM OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    A. H. M. Din

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is rapidly turning into major issues among our community and all levels of the government are working to develop responses to ensure these matters are given the uttermost attention in all facets of planning. It is more interesting to understand and investigate the present day sea level variation due its potential impact, particularly on our national geodetic vertical datum. To determine present day sea level variation, it is vital to consider both in-situ tide gauge and remote sensing measurements. This study presents an effort to quantify the sea level rise rate and magnitude over Peninsular Malaysia using tide gauge and multi-mission satellite altimeter. The time periods taken for both techniques are 32 years (from 1984 to 2015 for tidal data and 23 years (from 1993 to 2015 for altimetry data. Subsequently, the impact of sea level rise on Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD is evaluated in this study. the difference between MSL computed from 10 years (1984 – 1993 and 32 years (1984 – 2015 tidal data at Port Kelang showed that the increment of sea level is about 27mm. The computed magnitude showed an estimate of the long-term effect a change in MSL has on the geodetic vertical datum of Port Kelang tide gauge station. This will help give a new insight on the establishment of national geodetic vertical datum based on mean sea level data. Besides, this information can be used for a wide variety of climatic applications to study environmental issues related to flood and global warming in Malaysia.

  3. Discrete space structure of the sl(1 vertical bar 3) Wigner quantum oscillator

    King, R.C.; Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    2002-09-01

    The properties of a noncanonical 3D Wigner quantum oscillator, whose position and momentum operators generate the Lie superalgebra sl(1 vertical bar 3), are further investigated. Within each state space W(p), p=1,2,..., the energy E q , q=0,1,2,3, takes no more than 4 different values. If the oscillator is in a stationary state ψ q is an element of W(p) then measurements of the non-commuting Cartesian coordinates of the particle are such that their allowed values are consistent with it being found at a finite number of sites, called 'nests'. These lie on a sphere centered on the origin of fixed, finite radius p q . The nests themselves are at the vertices of a rectangular parallelepiped. In the typical cases (p>2) the number of nests is 8 for q=0 and 3, and varies from 8 to 24, depending on the state, for q=1 and 2. The number of nests is less in the atypical cases (p=1,2), but it is never less than two. In certain states in W(2) (resp. in W(1)) the oscillator is 'polarized' so that all the nests lie on a plane (resp. on a line). The particle cannot be localized in any one of the available nests alone since the coordinates do not commute. The probabilities of measuring particular values of the coordinates are discussed. The mean trajectories and the standard deviations of the coordinates and momenta are computed, and conclusions are drawn about uncertainty relations. The rotational invariance of the system is also discussed. (author)

  4. Analysing the impact of reflectance distributions and well geometries on vertical surface daylight levels in atria for overcast skies

    Du, Jiangtao; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Crookesmoor Building, Conduit Road, Sheffield S10 1FL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    This study investigated the impacts of different diffuse reflectance distributions and well geometries on vertical daylight factors and vertical internally reflected components in atria. Two forms of reflectance distribution patterns of wall surface were examined: horizontal and vertical reflectance band variation. The square atrium models studied have a broader WI range of 0.25-2.0, which represent shallow, medium and high atria. Radiance, a powerful package based on backward ray tracing technique, was used for the simulations of vertical daylight levels. The results show that different reflectance distributions of square atrium walls do have an impact on the vertical daylight factors and vertical internally reflected components under overcast sky condition. The impact relates to the orientation of the band with different reflectance distributions on the wall. Compared with the vertical band surface, the horizontal band surface has a much more complicated effect. The horizontal distributions of the reflectances significantly affects the vertical daylight levels at the locations more than 30% atrium height on the wall. For an atrium with a height more than 1/2 the width, the effect tends to increase with the increasing well index. The vertical distributions of the reflectance, nevertheless, do not substantially take effect on the vertical daylight levels in atria except for some special reflectance distribution patterns. (author)

  5. Vertical ground motion and historical sea-level records in Dakar (Senegal)

    Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Raucoules, Daniel; Garcin, Manuel; Lavigne, Franck; Wöppelmann, Guy; Gravelle, Médéric; Da Sylva, Sylvestre; Meyssignac, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    With growing concerns regarding future impacts of sea-level in major coastal cities, the most accurate information is required regarding local sea-level changes with respect to the coast. Besides global and regional sea-level changes, local coastal vertical ground motions can substantially contribute to local changes in sea-level. In some cases, such ground motions can also limit the usefulness of tide-gauge records, which are a unique source of information to evaluate global sea-level changes before the altimetry era. Using satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry, this study aims at characterizing vertical coastal ground motion in Dakar (Senegal), where a unique century-long record in Africa has been rediscovered. Given the limited number of available images, we use a stacking procedure to compute ground motion velocities in the line of sight over 1992–2010. Despite a complex geology and a rapid population growth and development, we show that the city as a whole is unaffected by differential ground motions larger than 1 mm year −1 . Only the northern part of the harbor displays subsidence patterns after 2000, probably as a consequence of land reclamation works. However, these ground motions do not affect the historical tide gauge. Our results highlight the value of the historical sea-level records of Dakar, which cover a 100 year time-span in a tropical oceanic region of Africa, where little data are available for past sea-level reconstructions. (letter)

  6. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions

  7. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap

  8. Application of Bayesian approach to estimate average level spacing

    Huang Zhongfu; Zhao Zhixiang

    1991-01-01

    A method to estimate average level spacing from a set of resolved resonance parameters by using Bayesian approach is given. Using the information given in the distributions of both levels spacing and neutron width, the level missing in measured sample can be corrected more precisely so that better estimate for average level spacing can be obtained by this method. The calculation of s-wave resonance has been done and comparison with other work was carried out

  9. Direct current electric potential in an anisotropic half-space with vertical contact containing a conductive 3D body

    Li Ping

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of anomalous conductors in otherwise homogeneous media have been modelled. Vertical contacts form common geometries in galvanic studies when describing geological formations with different electrical conductivities on either side. However, previous studies of vertical discontinuities have been mainly concerned with isotropic environments. In this paper, we deal with the effect on the electric potentials, such as mise-à-la-masse anomalies, due to a conductor near a vertical contact between two anisotropic regions. We also demonstrate the interactive effects when the conductive body is placed across the vertical contact. This problem is normally very difficult to solve by the traditional numerical methods. The integral equations for the electric potential in anisotropic half-spaces are established. Green's function is obtained using the reflection and transmission image method in which five images are needed to fit the boundary conditions on the vertical interface and the air-earth surface. The effects of the anisotropy of the environments and the conductive body on the electric potential are illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples.

  10. A Method of Function Space for Vertical Impedance Function of a Circular Rigid Foundation on a Transversely Isotropic Ground

    Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.

  11. BCFT moduli space in level truncation

    Kudrna, Matěj; Maccaferri, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 4 (2016), 1-33, č. článku 057. ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31689S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : deformation: marginal * field theory: string * tachyon: potential * string: open * moduli space * effective potential * nonperturbative * toy model Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 6.063, year: 2016

  12. What's "up" with God? Vertical space as a representation of the divine.

    Meier, Brian P; Hauser, David J; Robinson, Michael D; Friesen, Chris Kelland; Schjeldahl, Katie

    2007-11-01

    "God" and "Devil" are abstract concepts often linked to vertical metaphors (e.g., "glory to God in the highest," "the Devil lives down in hell"). It is unknown, however, whether these metaphors simply aid communication or implicate a deeper mode of concept representation. In 6 experiments, the authors examined the extent to which the vertical dimension is used in noncommunication contexts involving God and the Devil. Experiment 1 established that people have implicit associations between God-Devil and up-down. Experiment 2 revealed that people encode God-related concepts faster if presented in a high (vs. low) vertical position. Experiment 3 found that people's memory for the vertical location of God- and Devil-like images showed a metaphor-consistent bias (up for God; down for Devil). Experiments 4, 5a, and 5b revealed that people rated strangers as more likely to believe in God when their images appeared in a high versus low vertical position, and this effect was independent of inferences related to power and likability. These robust results reveal that vertical perceptions are invoked when people access divinity-related cognitions. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Top Level Space Cost Methodology (TLSCM)

    1997-12-02

    Software 7 6. ACEIT . 7 C. Ground Rules and Assumptions 7 D. Typical Life Cycle Cost Distribution 7 E. Methodologies 7 1. Cost/budget Threshold 9 2. Analogy...which is based on real-time Air Force and space programs. Ref.(25:2- 8, 2-9) 6. ACEIT : Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools( ACEIT ), Tecolote...Research, Inc. There is a way to use the ACEIT cost program to get a print-out of an expanded WBS. Therefore, find someone that has ACEIT experience and

  14. Assessment of vertical transfer in problem solving: Mapping the problem design space

    Von Korff, Joshua; Hu, Dehui; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    In schema-based theories of cognition, vertical transfer occurs when a learner constructs a new schema to solve a transfer task or chooses between several possible schemas. Vertical transfer is interesting to study, but difficult to measure. Did the student solve the problem using the desired schema or by an alternative method? Perhaps the problem cued the student to use certain resources without knowing why? In this paper, we consider some of the threats to validity in problem design. We provide a theoretical framework to explain the challenges faced in designing vertical transfer problems, and we contrast these challenges with horizontal transfer problem design. We have developed this framework from a set of problems that we tested on introductory mechanics students, and we illustrate the framework using one of the problems.

  15. Shnirelman peak in the level spacing statistics

    Chirikov, B.V.; Shepelyanskij, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first results on the statistical properties of the quantum quasidegeneracy are presented. A physical interpretation of the Shnirelman theorem predicted the bulk quasidegeneracy is given. The conditions for the strong impact of the degeneracy on the quantum level statistics are formulated which allows to extend the application of the Shnirelman theorem into a broad class of quantum systems. 14 refs., 3 figs

  16. Numerical simulation of overflow at vertical weirs using a hybrid level set/VOF method

    Lv, Xin; Zou, Qingping; Reeve, Dominic

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the applications of a newly developed free surface flow model to the practical, while challenging overflow problems for weirs. Since the model takes advantage of the strengths of both the level set and volume of fluid methods and solves the Navier-Stokes equations on an unstructured mesh, it is capable of resolving the time evolution of very complex vortical motions, air entrainment and pressure variations due to violent deformations following overflow of the weir crest. In the present study, two different types of vertical weir, namely broad-crested and sharp-crested, are considered for validation purposes. The calculated overflow parameters such as pressure head distributions, velocity distributions, and water surface profiles are compared against experimental data as well as numerical results available in literature. A very good quantitative agreement has been obtained. The numerical model, thus, offers a good alternative to traditional experimental methods in the study of weir problems.

  17. The State of GPS Vertical Positioning Precision : Separation of Earth Processes by Space Geodesy

    2003-01-01

    Observed signals in GPS data are the sum of noise and real crustal motions. Interpretation of the data depends on our ability to extract a signal of interest from the total signal. This workshop will highlight the difficulties associated with extracting a signal such as post-glacial rebound, plate tectonics or loading, from vertical geodetic data.

  18. Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

  19. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  20. Evaluation of stress distribution of implant-retained mandibular overdenture with different vertical restorative spaces: A finite element analysis

    Ebadian, Behnaz; Farzin, Mahmoud; Talebi, Saeid; Khodaeian, Niloufar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Available restorative space and bar height is an important factor in stress distribution of implant-supported overdentures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different vertical restorative spaces and different bar heights on the stress distribution around implants by 3D finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: 3D finite element models were developed from mandibular overdentures with two implants in the interforaminal region. In these models, four different bar heights from gingival crest (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mm) with 15 mm occlusal plane height and three different occlusal plane heights from gingival crest (9, 12, 15 mm) with 2 mm bar height were analyzed. A vertical unilateral and a bilateral load of 150 N were applied to the central occlusal fossa of the first molar and the stress of bone around implant was analyzed by finite element analysis. Results: By increasing vertical restorative space, the maximum stress values around implants were found to be decreased in unilateral loading models but slightly increased in bilateral loading cases. By increasing bar height from gingival crest, the maximum stress values around implants were found to be increased in unilateral loading models but slightly decreased in bilateral loading cases. In unilateral loading models, maximum stress was found in a model with 9 mm occlusal plane height and 1.5 mm bar height (6.254 MPa), but in bilateral loading cases, maximum stress was found in a model with 15 mm occlusal plane height and 0.5 mm bar height (3.482 MPa). Conclusion: The reduction of bar height and increase in the thickness of acrylic resin base in implant-supported overdentures are biomechanically favorable and may result in less stress in periimplant bone. PMID:23559952

  1. Uncertainty of the 20th century sea-level rise due to vertical land motion errors

    Santamaría-Gómez, Alvaro; Gravelle, Médéric; Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Spada, Giorgio; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    Assessing the vertical land motion (VLM) at tide gauges (TG) is crucial to understanding global and regional mean sea-level changes (SLC) over the last century. However, estimating VLM with accuracy better than a few tenths of a millimeter per year is not a trivial undertaking and many factors, including the reference frame uncertainty, must be considered. Using a novel reconstruction approach and updated geodetic VLM corrections, we found the terrestrial reference frame and the estimated VLM uncertainty may contribute to the global SLC rate error by ± 0.2 mmyr-1. In addition, a spurious global SLC acceleration may be introduced up to ± 4.8 ×10-3 mmyr-2. Regional SLC rate and acceleration errors may be inflated by a factor 3 compared to the global. The difference of VLM from two independent Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models introduces global SLC rate and acceleration biases at the level of ± 0.1 mmyr-1 and 2.8 ×10-3 mmyr-2, increasing up to 0.5 mm yr-1 and 9 ×10-3 mmyr-2 for the regional SLC. Errors in VLM corrections need to be budgeted when considering past and future SLC scenarios.

  2. New particle formation at ground level and in the vertical column over the Barcelona area

    Minguillón, M. C.; Brines, M.; Pérez, N.; Reche, C.; Pandolfi, M.; Fonseca, A. S.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Lyasota, A.; Codina, B.; Lee, H.-K.; Eun, H.-R.; Ahn, K.-H.; Querol, X.

    2015-10-01

    The vertical profiles (up to 975 m a.s.l.) of ultrafine and micronic particles across the planetary boundary layer and the free troposphere over a Mediterranean urban environment were investigated. Measurements were carried out using a tethered balloon equipped with a miniaturized condensation particle counter, a miniaturized optical particle counter, a micro-aethalometer, a rotating impactor, and meteorological instrumentation. Simultaneous ground measurements were carried out at an urban and a regional background site. New particle formation episodes initiating in the urban area were observed under high insolation conditions. The precursors were emitted by the city and urban photochemically-activated nucleation occurred both at high atmospheric levels (tens to hundreds of meters) and at ground level. The new particle formation at ground level was limited by the high particulate matter concentrations recorded during the morning traffic rush hours that increase the condensation sink and prevent new particle formation, and therefore restricted to midday and early afternoon. The aloft new particle formation occurred earlier as the thermally ascending polluted air mass was diluted. The regional background was only affected from midday and early afternoon when sea and mountain breezes transported the urban air mass after particle growth. These events are different from most new particle formation events described in literature, characterized by a regionally originated nucleation, starting early in the morning in the regional background and persisting with a subsequent growth during a long period. An idealized and simplified model of the spatial and time occurrence of these two types of new particle formation episodes into, around and over the city was elaborated.

  3. Universality in level spacing fluctuations of a chaotic optical billiard

    Laprise, J.F.; Hosseinizadeh, A.; Lamy-Poirier, J. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Zomorrodi, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [Physics Department and Center for Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Kroeger, H., E-mail: hkroger@phy.ulaval.c [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Functional Neurobiology, University of Utrecht, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-19

    We study chaotic behavior of a classical optical stadium billiard model. We construct a matrix of time-of-travel along trajectories corresponding to a set of boundary points. We carry out a level spacing fluctuation analysis and compute the Dyson-Mehta spectral rigidity. The distribution of time-of-travel is approximately described by a Gaussian. The results for level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity show universal behavior.

  4. Modular transformations and invariants in the context of fractional level sl-circumflex(2 vertical bar 1;C)

    Johnstone, Gavin

    2000-01-01

    The modular transformation properties of admissible characters of the affine superalgebra sl-circumflex(2 vertical bar 1;C) at fractional level k=1/u-1, u is a subset of N/1 are presented. All modular invariants for u=2 and u=3 are calculated explicitly and an A-series and D-series of modular invariants emerge

  5. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of ethanol aqueous solutions in vertical annulus space

    Sarafraz M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subcooled flow boiling heat-transfer characteristics of water and ethanol solutions in a vertical annulus have been investigated up to heat flux 132kW/m2. The variations in the effects of heat flux and fluid velocity, and concentration of ethanol on the observed heat-transfer coefficients over a range of ethanol concentrations implied an enhanced contribution of nucleate boiling heat transfer in flow boiling, where both forced convection and nucleate boiling heat transfer occurred. Increasing the ethanol concentration led to a significant deterioration in the observed heat-transfer coefficient because of a mixture effect, that resulted in a local rise in the saturation temperature of ethanol/water solution at the vapor-liquid interface. The reduction in the heat-transfer coefficient with increasing ethanol concentration is also attributed to changes in the fluid properties (for example, viscosity and heat capacity of tested solutions with different ethanol content. The experimental data were compared with some well-established existing correlations. Results of comparisons indicate existing correlations are unable to obtain the acceptable values. Therefore a modified correlation based on Gnielinski correlation has been proposed that predicts the heat transfer coefficient for ethanol/water solution with uncertainty about 8% that is the least in comparison to other well-known existing correlations.

  6. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predicability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed

  7. Vertical land motion controls regional sea level rise patterns on the United States east coast since 1900

    Piecuch, C. G.; Huybers, P. J.; Hay, C.; Mitrovica, J. X.; Little, C. M.; Ponte, R. M.; Tingley, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding observed spatial variations in centennial relative sea level trends on the United States east coast has important scientific and societal applications. Past studies based on models and proxies variously suggest roles for crustal displacement, ocean dynamics, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Here we perform joint Bayesian inference on regional relative sea level, vertical land motion, and absolute sea level fields based on tide gauge records and GPS data. Posterior solutions show that regional vertical land motion explains most (80% median estimate) of the spatial variance in the large-scale relative sea level trend field on the east coast over 1900-2016. The posterior estimate for coastal absolute sea level rise is remarkably spatially uniform compared to previous studies, with a spatial average of 1.4-2.3 mm/yr (95% credible interval). Results corroborate glacial isostatic adjustment models and reveal that meaningful long-period, large-scale vertical velocity signals can be extracted from short GPS records.

  8. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  9. Visual space perception at different levels of depth description

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2015), 2098–2107 ISSN 1943-3921 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28709S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : visual space perception * Depth scales * Level of description Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2015

  10. Determination of Vertical Velocity Field of Southernmost Longitudinal Valley in Eastern Taiwan: A Joint Analysis of Leveling and GPS Measurements

    Horng-Yue Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide a detailed vertical velocity field in southernmost Longitudinal Valley where shows a complex three-fault system at the plate suture between Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia, we conducted leveling and GPS measurements, compiled data from previous surveys and combined them into a single data set. We compiled precise leveling results from 1984 to 2009, include 5 E-W trending and one N-S trending routes. We calculated the GPS vertical component from 10 continuous stations and from 89 campaign-mode stations from 1995 to 2010. The interseismic vertical rates are estimated by removing the co- and post-seismic effects of major large regional and nearby earthquakes. A stable continuous station S104 in the study area was adopted as the common reference station. We finally establish a map of the interseismic vertical velocity field. The interseismic vertical deformation was mainly accommodated by creeping/thrusting along two east-dipping strands of the three-fault system: the Luyeh and Lichi faults. The most dominant uplift of 30 mm yr-1 occurs at the hanging wall of the Lichi fault on the western Coastal Range. However the rate diminishes away from the fault in the hanging wall. The Quaternary tablelands inside of the Longitudinal Valley reveals uplift with a rate of 5 - 10 mm yr-1. Outside of the tablelands, the rest of the Longitudinal Valley flat area indicates substantial subsidence of -10 to -20 mm yr-1. Finally, it appears that the west-dipping blind fault under the eastern side of the Central Range does not play a significant role on interseismic deformation with subsidence rate of -5 to -10 mm yr-1.

  11. HPC in Basin Modeling: Simulating Mechanical Compaction through Vertical Effective Stress using Level Sets

    McGovern, S.; Kollet, S. J.; Buerger, C. M.; Schwede, R. L.; Podlaha, O. G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of sedimentary basins, we present a model for the simulation of the movement of ageological formation (layers) during the evolution of the basin through sedimentation and compactionprocesses. Assuming a single phase saturated porous medium for the sedimentary layers, the modelfocuses on the tracking of the layer interfaces, through the use of the level set method, as sedimentationdrives fluid-flow and reduction of pore space by compaction. On the assumption of Terzaghi's effectivestress concept, the coupling of the pore fluid pressure to the motion of interfaces in 1-D is presented inMcGovern, et.al (2017) [1] .The current work extends the spatial domain to 3-D, though we maintain the assumption ofvertical effective stress to drive the compaction. The idealized geological evolution is conceptualized asthe motion of interfaces between rock layers, whose paths are determined by the magnitude of a speedfunction in the direction normal to the evolving layer interface. The speeds normal to the interface aredependent on the change in porosity, determined through an effective stress-based compaction law,such as the exponential Athy's law. Provided with the speeds normal to the interface, the level setmethod uses an advection equation to evolve a potential function, whose zero level set defines theinterface. Thus, the moving layer geometry influences the pore pressure distribution which couplesback to the interface speeds. The flexible construction of the speed function allows extension, in thefuture, to other terms to represent different physical processes, analogous to how the compaction rulerepresents material deformation.The 3-D model is implemented using the generic finite element method framework Deal II,which provides tools, building on p4est and interfacing to PETSc, for the massively parallel distributedsolution to the model equations [2]. Experiments are being run on the Juelich Supercomputing Center'sJureca cluster. [1] McGovern, et.al. (2017

  12. Two-level method with coarse space size independent convergence

    Vanek, P.; Brezina, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States); Tezaur, R.; Krizkova, J. [UWB, Plzen (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The basic disadvantage of the standard two-level method is the strong dependence of its convergence rate on the size of the coarse-level problem. In order to obtain the optimal convergence result, one is limited to using a coarse space which is only a few times smaller than the size of the fine-level one. Consequently, the asymptotic cost of the resulting method is the same as in the case of using a coarse-level solver for the original problem. Today`s two-level domain decomposition methods typically offer an improvement by yielding a rate of convergence which depends on the ratio of fine and coarse level only polylogarithmically. However, these methods require the use of local subdomain solvers for which straightforward application of iterative methods is problematic, while the usual application of direct solvers is expensive. We suggest a method diminishing significantly these difficulties.

  13. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  14. Characteristics of level-spacing statistics in chaotic graphene billiards.

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2011-03-01

    A fundamental result in nonrelativistic quantum nonlinear dynamics is that the spectral statistics of quantum systems that possess no geometric symmetry, but whose classical dynamics are chaotic, are described by those of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) or the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), in the presence or absence of time-reversal symmetry, respectively. For massless spin-half particles such as neutrinos in relativistic quantum mechanics in a chaotic billiard, the seminal work of Berry and Mondragon established the GUE nature of the level-spacing statistics, due to the combination of the chirality of Dirac particles and the confinement, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. A question is whether the GOE or the GUE statistics can be observed in experimentally accessible, relativistic quantum systems. We demonstrate, using graphene confinements in which the quasiparticle motions are governed by the Dirac equation in the low-energy regime, that the level-spacing statistics are persistently those of GOE random matrices. We present extensive numerical evidence obtained from the tight-binding approach and a physical explanation for the GOE statistics. We also find that the presence of a weak magnetic field switches the statistics to those of GUE. For a strong magnetic field, Landau levels become influential, causing the level-spacing distribution to deviate markedly from the random-matrix predictions. Issues addressed also include the effects of a number of realistic factors on level-spacing statistics such as next nearest-neighbor interactions, different lattice orientations, enhanced hopping energy for atoms on the boundary, and staggered potential due to graphene-substrate interactions.

  15. A STUDY OF DISPLACEMENT-LEVEL DEPENDENCY OF VERTICAL STIFFNESS OF PILE - COMPARISONS BETWEEN STATIC LOADING TEST AND MEASUREMENTS DURING TRAIN PASSING -

    Nihei, Tatsuya; Nishioka, Hidetoshi; Kawamura, Chikara; Nishimura, Masahiro; Edamatsu, Masayuki; Koda, Masayuki

    In order to introduce the performance based design of pile foundation, vertical stiffness of pile is one of the important design factors. Although it had been es timated the vertical stiffness of pile had the displacement-level dependency, it had been not clarified. We compared the vertical stiffness of pile measured by two loading conditions at pile foundation of the railway viaduct. Firstly, we measured the vertical stiffness at static loading test under construction of the viaduct. Secondly, we measured the vertical stiffness at the time of train passing. So, we recognized that the extrapolation of the displacement level dependency in static loading test could evaluate the vertical stiffness of pile during train passing.

  16. Sea level differences between Topex/Poseidon altimetry and tide gauges: observed trends and vertical land motions

    Lombard, A.; Dominh, K.; Cazenave, A.; Calmant, S.; Cretaux, J.

    2002-12-01

    Nine year-long (1993-2001) sea level difference time series have been constructed by comparing sea level recorded by tide gauges and Topex/Poseidon altimetry. Although the primary goal of such an analysis is to define a sub network of good quality tide gauges for calibration of satellite altimetry systems, in particular Jason-1. The difference time series displaying large positive or negative trends may give evidence of vertical land motion at the tide gauge site. We have analyzed 98 tide gauge records from the UHSLC. Among them, 42 sites mainly located on open ocean islands, give very good agreement (better than 2 mm/year) with Topex/Poseidon-derived sea level trends. 22 other sites, mainly located along the continental coastlines of the Pacific Ocean, present sea level trends differing by more than 5 mm/year with Topex/Poseidon. Many of these sites are located in active tectonic areas (either in the vicinity of subduction zones or in active volcanic areas), where vertical land motions (either transient or long-term) are expected. For example, this is the case at Kushimoto, Ofunato, Kushiro (Japan), Kodiak Island and Yakutat (Alaska), La Libertad, Callao, Caldera (western south America), and Rabaul (western Pacific). When possible, we compare these observed trends in sea level differences with GPS and/or DORIS observations.

  17. Policy Integration and Multi-Level Governance: Dealing with the Vertical Dimension of Policy Mix Designs

    Michael Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multifaceted problems such as sustainable development typically involve complex arrangements of institutions and instruments and the subject of how best to design and operate such ‘mixes’, ‘bundles’ or ‘portfolios’ of policy tools is an ongoing issue in this area. One aspect of this question is that some mixes are more difficult to design and operate than others. The paper argues that, ceteris paribus, complex policy-making faces substantial risks of failure when horizontal or vertical dimensions of policy-making are not well integrated. The paper outlines a model of policy mix types which highlights the design problems associated with more complex arrangements and presents two case studies of similarly structured mixes in the areas of marine parks in Australia and coastal zone management in Europe—one a failure and the other a successful case of integration—to illustrate how such mixes can be better designed and managed more effectively.

  18. Geographic differences in vertical connectivity in the Caribbean coral Montastraea cavernosa despite high levels of horizontal connectivity at shallow depths.

    Serrano, X; Baums, I B; O'Reilly, K; Smith, T B; Jones, R J; Shearer, T L; Nunes, F L D; Baker, A C

    2014-09-01

    The deep reef refugia hypothesis proposes that deep reefs can act as local recruitment sources for shallow reefs following disturbance. To test this hypothesis, nine polymorphic DNA microsatellite loci were developed and used to assess vertical connectivity in 583 coral colonies of the Caribbean depth-generalist coral Montastraea cavernosa. Samples were collected from three depth zones (≤10, 15-20 and ≥25 m) at sites in Florida (within the Upper Keys, Lower Keys and Dry Tortugas), Bermuda, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Migration rates were estimated to determine the probability of coral larval migration from shallow to deep and from deep to shallow. Finally, algal symbiont (Symbiodinium spp.) diversity and distribution were assessed in a subset of corals to test whether symbiont depth zonation might indicate limited vertical connectivity. Overall, analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation by depth in Florida, but not in Bermuda or the U.S. Virgin Islands, despite high levels of horizontal connectivity between these geographic locations at shallow depths. Within Florida, greater vertical connectivity was observed in the Dry Tortugas compared to the Lower or Upper Keys. However, at all sites, and regardless of the extent of vertical connectivity, migration occurred asymmetrically, with greater likelihood of migration from shallow to intermediate/deep habitats. Finally, most colonies hosted a single Symbiodinium type (C3), ruling out symbiont depth zonation of the dominant symbiont type as a structuring factor. Together, these findings suggest that the potential for shallow reefs to recover from deep-water refugia in M. cavernosa is location-specific, varying among and within geographic locations likely as a consequence of local hydrology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. GEODESIC MONITORING OF VERTICAL MOVEMENT OF JSC «GRODNO AZOT» BUILDINGS USING DIGITAL DNA 03 LEVEL

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents peculiar features and methodology pertaining to application of digital DNA 03 level for monitoring vertical movement of load-carrying structures in the workshops and foundations of various capacities, exhaust pipes and granulation towers having height from 100 to150 meters. The proposed methods presuppose usage of the results of engineering and geological investigations and highly accurate geodesic measurements considered in the process of hydro- and pneumatic tests of an isothermic storage of liquid ammonia and a production “Ammonia” shop taken as an example. 

  20. Differences in vertical jumping and mae-geri kicking velocity between international and national level karateka

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Lower limb explosive strength and mae-geri kicking velocity are fundamental in karate competition; although it is unclear whether these variables could differentiate the high-level athletes. The objective of this research is to analyze the differences in the mae-geri kicking velocity and the counter-movement jump (CMJ between a group of international top level karateka and another group of national-level karateka.Methods: Thirteen international-level karateka and eleven national-level karateka participated in the study. After a standard warm-up, CMJ height (in cm and mae-geri kicking velocity (in m/s was measured using an IR-platform and a high-speed camera, respectively.Results: Proceeding with MANCOVA to analyze the differences between groups controlling the effect of age, the results show that the international-level karateka demonstrated significantly higher levels of CMJ than national-level competitors (+22.1%, F = 9.47, p = 0.006, η2 = 0.311. There were no significant differences between groups in the mae-geri kicking velocity (+5,7%, F=0.80; p=0.38; η2=0.03.Conclusion: Our data shows, first, the importance of CMJ assessment as a tool to detect talent in karate and, second, that to achieve international-level in karate it may be important to increase CMJ levels to values ​​similar to those offered here.

  1. Designing vertical shafts for mines with deepening and outlet of rock to the operating level

    Durov, Ye.M.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements for designing the cross sections of central shafts are examined, as well as those for determining the productivity of lifts and equipment of the shafts with a condition of use in a subsequent technological layout of their deepening with outlet of the rock to the operating level. Typical cross sections of skip and cellular shafts are given.

  2. A review of vertical coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere system: Effects of waves, sudden stratospheric warmings, space weather, and of solar activity

    Yigit, E.; Koucká Knížová, Petra; Georgieva, K.; Ward, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 141, April (2016), s. 1-12 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24688S; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13042 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmosphere–ionosphere * vertical coupling * gravity waves * tides * space weather * solar activity Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616300426

  3. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  4. Near Real Time Vertical Profiles of Clouds and Aerosols from the Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) on the International Space Station

    Yorks, J. E.; McGill, M. J.; Nowottnick, E. P.

    2015-12-01

    Plumes from hazardous events, such as ash from volcanic eruptions and smoke from wildfires, can have a profound impact on the climate system, human health and the economy. Global aerosol transport models are very useful for tracking hazardous plumes and predicting the transport of these plumes. However aerosol vertical distributions and optical properties are a major weakness of global aerosol transport models, yet a key component of tracking and forecasting smoke and ash. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is an elastic backscatter lidar designed to provide vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols while also demonstrating new in-space technologies for future Earth Science missions. CATS has been operating on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station (ISS) since early February 2015. The ISS orbit provides more comprehensive coverage of the tropics and mid-latitudes than sun-synchronous orbiting sensors, with nearly a three-day repeat cycle. The ISS orbit also provides CATS with excellent coverage over the primary aerosol transport tracks, mid-latitude storm tracks, and tropical convection. Data from CATS is used to derive properties of clouds and aerosols including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The measurements of atmospheric clouds and aerosols provided by the CATS payload have demonstrated several science benefits. CATS provides near-real-time observations of cloud and aerosol vertical distributions that can be used as inputs to global models. The infrastructure of the ISS allows CATS data to be captured, transmitted, and received at the CATS ground station within several minutes of data collection. The CATS backscatter and vertical feature mask are part of a customized near real time (NRT) product that the CATS processing team produces within 6 hours of collection. The continuous near real time CATS data

  5. Contribution of vertical land motions to coastal sea level variations: a global synthesis of multisatellite altimetry, tide gauge and GPS measurements

    Pfeffer, Julia; Allemand, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Coastal sea level variations result from a complex mix of climatic, oceanic and geodynamical processes driven by natural and anthropogenic constraints. Combining data from multiple sources is one solution to identify particular processes and progress towards a better understanding of the sea level variations and the assessment of their impacts at coast. Here, we present a global database merging multisatellite altimetry with tide gauges and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Vertical land motions and sea level variations are estimated simultaneously for a network of 886 ground stations with median errors lower than 1 mm/yr. The contribution of vertical land motions to relative sea level variations is explored to better understand the natural hazards associated with sea level rise in coastal areas. Worldwide, vertical land motions dominate 30 % of observed coastal trends. The role of the crust is highly heterogeneous: it can amplify, restrict or counter the effects of climate-induced sea level change. A set of 182 potential vulnerable localities are identified by large coastal subsidence which increases by several times the effects of sea level rise. Though regional behaviours exist, principally caused by GIA (Glacial Isostatic Adjustment), the local variability in vertical land motion prevails. An accurate determination of the vertical motions observed at the coast is fundamental to understand the local processes which contribute to sea level rise, to appraise its impacts on coastal populations and make future predictions.

  6. Numerical analysis of thermal process in the near field around vertical disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    H.G. Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW in granite, the temperature on the HLW canisters is commonly designed to be lower than 100 °C. This criterion dictates the dimension of the repository. Based on the concept of HLW disposal in vertical boreholes, thermal process in the near field (host rock and buffer surrounding HLW canisters has been simulated by using different methods. The results are drawn as follows: (a the initial heat power of HLW canisters is the most important and sensitive parameter for evolution of temperature field; (b the thermal properties and variations of the host rock, the engineered buffer, and possible gaps between canister and buffer and host rock are the additional key factors governing the heat transformation; (c the gaps width and the filling by water or air determine the temperature offsets between them.

  7. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  8. Interannual variability in water storage over 2003-2008 in the Amazon Basin from GRACE space gravimetry, in situ river level and precipitation data

    Xavier , L.; Becker , M.; Cazenave , A.; Longuevergne , L.; Llovel , W.; Rotunno Filho , Otto Correa

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We investigate the interannual variability over 2003-2008 of different hydrological parameters in the Amazon river basin: (1) vertically-integrated water storage from the GRACE space gravimetry mission, (2) surface water level of the Amazon River and its tributaries from in situ gauge stations, and (3) precipitation. We analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of total water storage from GRACE and in situ river level along the Amazon River and its main tributaries and not...

  9. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.

  10. Assessing Sea Level Rise Impacts on the Surficial Aquifer in the Kennedy Space Center Region

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Warnock, A. M.; Hall, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise in the past century due to climate change has been seen at an average rate of approximately 1.7-2.2 mm per year, with an increasing rate over the next century. The increasing SLR rate poses a severe threat to the low-lying land surface and the shallow groundwater system in the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, resulting in saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding. A three-dimensional groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented to investigate and evaluate the extent of floods due to rising water table as well as saltwater intrusion. The SEAWAT model is chosen to solve the variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport governing equations and simulate the regional-scale spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater level and chloride concentration. The horizontal resolution of the model is 50 m, and the vertical domain includes both the Surficial Aquifer and the Floridan Aquifer. The numerical model is calibrated based on the observed hydraulic head and chloride concentration. The potential impacts of sea level rise on saltwater intrusion and groundwater induced flooding are assessed under various sea level rise scenarios. Based on the simulation results, the potential landward movement of saltwater and freshwater fringe is projected. The existing water supply wells are examined overlaid with the projected salinity distribution map. The projected Surficial Aquifer water tables are overlaid with data of high resolution land surface elevation, land use and land cover, and infrastructure to assess the potential impacts of sea level rise. This study provides useful tools for decision making on ecosystem management, water supply planning, and facility management.

  11. A Wide-Range Tunable Level-Keeper Using Vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for Current-Reuse Systems

    Tanoi, Satoru; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    A wide-range tunable level-keeper using vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proposed for current-reuse analog systems. The design keys for widening tunable range of the operation are a two-path feed-back and a vertical MOSFET with back-bias-effect free. The proposed circuit with the vertical MOSFETs shows the 1.23-V tunable-range of the input level with the 2.4-V internal-supply voltage (VDD) in the simulation. This tunable-range of the proposed circuit is 4.7 times wider than that of the conventional. The achieved current efficiency of the proposed level-keeper is 66% at the 1.2-V output with the 2.4-V VDD. This efficiency of the proposed circuit is twice higher than that of the traditional voltage down converter.

  12. Numerical simulations of natural or mixed convection in vertical channels: comparisons of level-set numerical schemes for the modeling of immiscible incompressible fluid flows

    Li, R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research dissertation is at studying natural and mixed convections of fluid flows, and to develop and validate numerical schemes for interface tracking in order to treat incompressible and immiscible fluid flows, later. In a first step, an original numerical method, based on Finite Volume discretizations, is developed for modeling low Mach number flows with large temperature gaps. Three physical applications on air flowing through vertical heated parallel plates were investigated. We showed that the optimum spacing corresponding to the peak heat flux transferred from an array of isothermal parallel plates cooled by mixed convection is smaller than those for natural or forced convections when the pressure drop at the outlet keeps constant. We also proved that mixed convection flows resulting from an imposed flow rate may exhibit unexpected physical solutions; alternative model based on prescribed total pressure at inlet and fixed pressure at outlet sections gives more realistic results. For channels heated by heat flux on one wall only, surface radiation tends to suppress the onset of re-circulations at the outlet and to unify the walls temperature. In a second step, the mathematical model coupling the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the Level-Set method for interface tracking is derived. Improvements in fluid volume conservation by using high order discretization (ENO-WENO) schemes for the transport equation and variants of the signed distance equation are discussed. (author)

  13. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  14. Vertical jump performance of professional male and female volleyball players: effects of playing position and competition level.

    Sattler, Tine; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin; Markovic, Goran

    2015-06-01

    Vertical jump (VJ) performance is an important element for successful volleyball practice. The aims of the study were (a) to explore the overall VJ performance of elite volleyball players of both sexes, (b) to explore the differences in VJ performance among different competition levels and different playing positions, and (c) to evaluate the sex-related differences in the role of the arm swing and 3-step approach with arm swing on the jump height. We assessed the VJ capacity in 253 volleyball players (113 males and 140 females) from Slovenian first and second Volleyball Division. The height of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump, block jump, and attack jump was tested using an Optojump system. We observed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in VJ height between different levels of play that were most pronounced in the SJ. Position-related differences in VJ performance were observed in male players between receivers and setters (p ≤ 0.05), whereas in females, VJ performance across different playing positions seems equal. Finally, we found that male players significantly better use the arm swing during VJ than females (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the use of eccentric part of the jump and approach before the spike to improve VJ performance seem to be equally mastered activity in both sexes. These results could assist coaches in the development of jumping performance in volleyball players. Furthermore, presented normative data for jump heights of elite male and female volleyball players could be useful in selection and profiling of young volleyball players.

  15. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode ...

    Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation of a Multi-Level Diode Clamped ... of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector pulse-width modulation and the ... two adjacent active vectors in determining the switching process of the multilevel ...

  16. Integrating Space Systems Operations at the Marine Expeditionary Force Level

    2015-06-01

    Operation ARSST Army Space Support Team BCT Brigade Combat Team BDA Battle Damage Assessment BLOS Beyond Line of Site C2 Command and Control CMCC-CP...accurate imagery of known target locations. Additionally, ISR systems provide a convenient battle damage assessment ( BDA ) option necessary to determine

  17. Space weather monitoring and forecasting in South America: products from the user requests to the development of regional magnetic indices and GNSS vertical error maps

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; Souza, Jonas; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Costa, D. Joaquim

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is kwon by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement “Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial” Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The main purpose of the Embrace Program is to monitor the space climate and weather from sun, interplanetary space, magnetosphere and ionosphere-atmosphere, and to provide useful information to space related communities, technological, industrial and academic areas. Since then we have being visiting several different space weather costumers and we have host two workshops of Brazilian space weather users at the Embrace facilities. From the inputs and requests collected from the users the Embrace Program decided to monitored several physical parameters of the sun-earth environment through a large ground base network of scientific sensors and under collaboration with space weather centers partners. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. A comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under development to allow an easy and direct access to the useful information. Nowadays, the users will count on products derived from a GNSS monitor network that covers most of the South American territory; a digisonde network that monitors the ionospheric profiles in two equatorial sites and in one low latitude site; several solar radio telescopes to monitor solar activity, and a magnetometer network, besides a global ionospheric physical model. Regarding outreach, we publish a daily bulletin in Portuguese with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, in the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus

  18. Exergy analysis of a two-stage ground source heat pump with a vertical bore for residential space conditioning under simulated occupancy

    Ally, Moonis R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Baxter, Van D.; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy and energy analysis of a vertical-bore ground source heat pump over a 12-month period is presented. • The ground provided more than 75% of the heating energy. • Performance metrics are presented. • Sources of systemic inefficiency are identified and prioritized using Exergy analysis. • Understanding performance metrics is vital for judicial use of renewable energy. - Abstract: This twelve-month field study analyzes the performance of a 7.56 W (2.16-ton) water-to-air-ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) to satisfy domestic space conditioning loads in a 253 m 2 house in a mixed-humid climate in the United States. The practical feasibility of using the ground as a source of renewable energy is clearly demonstrated. Better than 75% of the energy needed for space heating was extracted from the ground. The average monthly electricity consumption for space conditioning was only 40 kW h at summer and winter thermostat set points of 24.4 °C and 21.7 °C, respectively. The WA-GSHP shared the same 94.5 m vertical bore ground loop with a separate water-to-water ground-source heat pump (WW-GSHP) for meeting domestic hot water needs in the same house. Sources of systemic irreversibility, the main cause of lost work, are identified using Exergy and energy analysis. Quantifying the sources of Exergy and energy losses is essential for further systemic improvements. The research findings suggest that the WA-GSHPs are a practical and viable technology to reduce primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions under the IECC 2012 Standard, as well as the European Union (EU) 2020 targets of using renewable energy resources

  19. Impact and Suggestion of Column-to-Surface Vertical Correction Scheme on the Relationship between Satellite AOD and Ground-Level PM2.5 in China

    Wei Gong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As China is suffering from severe fine particle pollution from dense industrialization and urbanization, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD has been widely used for estimating particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5. However, the correlation between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 could be influenced by aerosol vertical distribution, as satellite AOD represents the entire column, rather than just ground-level concentration. Here, a new column-to-surface vertical correction scheme is proposed to improve separation of the near-surface and elevated aerosol layers, based on the ratio of the integrated extinction coefficient within 200–500 m above ground level (AGL, using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP aerosol profile products. There are distinct differences in climate, meteorology, terrain, and aerosol transmission throughout China, so comparisons between vertical correction via CALIOP ratio and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH were conducted in different regions from 2014 to 2015, combined with the original Pearson coefficient between satellite AOD and ground-level PM2.5 for reference. Furthermore, the best vertical correction scheme was suggested for different regions to achieve optimal correlation with PM2.5, based on the analysis and discussion of regional and seasonal characteristics of aerosol vertical distribution. According to our results and discussions, vertical correction via PBLH is recommended in northwestern China, where the PBLH varies dramatically, stretching or compressing the surface aerosol layer; vertical correction via the CALIOP ratio is recommended in northeastern China, southwestern China, Central China (excluding summer, North China Plain (excluding Beijing, and the spring in the southeast coast, areas that are susceptible to exogenous aerosols and exhibit the elevated aerosol layer; and original AOD without vertical correction is

  20. Nearest neighbor spacing distributions of low-lying levels of vibrational nuclei

    Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Simbel, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy-level statistics are considered for nuclei whose Hamiltonian is divided into intrinsic and collective-vibrational terms. The levels are described as a random superposition of independent sequences, each corresponding to a given number of phonons. The intrinsic motion is assumed chaotic. The level spacing distribution is found to be intermediate between the Wigner and Poisson distributions and similar in form to the spacing distribution of a system with classical phase space divided into separate regular and chaotic domains. We have obtained approximate expressions for the nearest neighbor spacing and cumulative spacing distribution valid when the level density is described by a constant-temperature formula and not involving additional free parameters. These expressions have been able to achieve good agreement with the experimental spacing distributions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. dSPACE real time implementation of fuzzy PID position controller for vertical rotating single link arm robot using four-quadrant BLDC drive

    Manikandan Ramasamy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation has been growing in recent years for the manufacturing industries to increase productivity. Multiple robotic arms are used to handle materials for lifting in flexible directions. The vertical rotation of a 360 degree single arm is considered in this research on a position servo drive with brushless DC motor. The load torque of an arm varies depending upon the angular displacement due to gravity, so it requires four-quadrant operation of the drive with a robust feedback controller. This paper deals with the design and performance comparison of a conventional PID feedback controller with a fuzzy-based PID controller and suggests the most suitable controller. The design was implemented in real time through the dSPACE DS1104 controller environment to verify the dynamic behaviors of the arm.

  2. space vector pulse width modulation of a multi-level diode clamped

    ES Obe

    step by step development of MATLAB /SIMULINK modeling of the space vector ..... Pulse Width Mod. of Multi-Level Diode Clamped Converter 119 powergui. Discrete, .... Load. Figure 22: Block diagram of the three level DCC design. 3 LEVEL ...

  3. Radon levels in dwelling shielded spaces (DSS) in Israel

    Haquin, G.; Margaliot, M.; Riemer, T.; Shamash, S.; Even, O.; Shamai, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to radon gas is known as the major contributor to the general public exposure to ionizing radiation. The typical radon concentration in Israeli houses with a direct ground contact is about 50 Bq/m 3 , attributed mainly to soil gas penetration into the house. All newly constructed buildings (since 1991) must include Dwelling Shielded Spaces (DSS) which are rooms made of massive solid concrete, equipped with air-tight steel door and window. The DSS serve as shelters against both explosive and chemical warfare. In normal practice, the DSS serves as a conventional room in the household. Standard size DSS contain a mass of around 35 tons of concrete with typical 2 26R a activity concentration of 30 Bq/kg. This mass of concrete is expected to increase the radon concentration in the DSS room due to exhalation from the building material. Published exhalation rate values from concrete in the US and Europe vary from 0.1 to 8 mBq/m 2 sec. (0.5 - 30 Bq/m 2 h). This work presents short and long-term radon measurements performed in high-rise building DSS's. Measurements of the free exhalation rate and wall exhalation rate as well as ventilation rate in DSS are also presented and the relation between these quantities is analyzed

  4. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  5. Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ≥8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ≤1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ≤3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in δ13C, δ15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched δ13C, δ15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal

  6. Adaptive Backstepping Controller Design for Leveling Control of an Underwater Platform Based on Joint Space

    Zhi-Lin Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on high precision leveling control of an underwater heavy load platform, which is viewed as an underwater parallel robot on the basis of its work pattern. The kinematic of platform with deformation is analyzed and the dynamics model of joint space is established. An adaptive backstepping controller according to Lyapunov's function is proposed for leveling control of platform based on joint space. Furthermore, the “lowest point fixed angle error” leveling scheme called “chase” is chosen for leveling control of platform. The digital simulation and practical experiment of single joint space actuator are carried out, and the results show high precision servo control of joint space. On the basis of this, the platform leveling control simulation relies on the hardware-in-loop system. The results indicate that the proposed controller can effectively restrain the influence from system parameter uncertainties and external disturbance to realize high precision leveling control of the underwater platform.

  7. Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking it to the Next Level

    2013-10-01

    Power Journal | 52 Baird The Importance of Maintaining Space Situational Awareness and Taking It to the Next Level FeatureSpace Focus junction ...Communications (BMC3) infrastructure. We must build a new space superiority enterprise around SSA sensors that utilize com- mon data models to...vehicle, a modified version of China’s DF-21 medium-range ballistic missile, and launcher system en- gaged the satellite at a closing velocity of

  8. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs

  9. Site characterization plan conceptual design report for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt, vertical emplacement mode: Volume 1

    1987-12-01

    This Conceptual Design Report describes the conceptual design of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Waste receipt, processing, packing, and other surface facility operations are described. Operations in the shafts underground are described, including waste hoisting, transfer, and vertical emplacement. This report specifically addresses the vertical emplacement mode, the reference design for the repository. Waste retrieval capability is described. The report includes a description of the layout of the surface, shafts, and underground. Major equipment items are identified. The report includes plans for decommissioning and sealing of the facility. The report discusses how the repository will satisfy performance objectives. Chapters are included on basis for design, design analyses, and data requirements for completion of future design efforts. 105 figs., 52 tabs.

  10. Ray space 'Riccati' evolution and geometric phases for N-level ...

    evolution of an N-level quantum system to the various coset spaces and Grassmanian ... glement in the context of quantum information and quantum computation [1]. Per- ... the base manifold of a fiber bundle, the total space being SU(N).

  11. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  12. A comparison of radiosity with current methods of sound level prediction in commercial spaces

    Beamer, C. Walter, IV; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2002-11-01

    The ray tracing and image methods (and variations thereof) are widely used for the computation of sound fields in architectural spaces. The ray tracing and image methods are best suited for spaces with mostly specular reflecting surfaces. The radiosity method, a method based on solving a system of energy balance equations, is best applied to spaces with mainly diffusely reflective surfaces. Because very few spaces are either purely specular or purely diffuse, all methods must deal with both types of reflecting surfaces. A comparison of the radiosity method to other methods for the prediction of sound levels in commercial environments is presented. [Work supported by NSF.

  13. Classification system on the selection of number of implants and superstructure design on the basis available vertical restorative space and interforaminal distance for implant supported mandibular overdenture

    Akshay Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible is a challenge due to various limiting factors, of which the available vertical restorative space (AVRS has been well understood in the literature. However, other anatomic variations such as arch form, arch size, and also the interforaminal distance (IFD (due to the presence of mandibular nerve are influential in the selection of size and position of implants, and thereby the prosthetic design. Materials and Method: In the present study, 30 edentulous patients from a group of 300 edentulous patients, representing all the three jaw relations (Class I, II, and III were evaluated for designing a classification that could help in a comprehensive treatment plan for the edentulous mandible. Dental panoramic radiographs of each individual with a trial or final prosthesis were made. The horizontal IFD and AVRS values were calculated. Results: One-way analysis of variance followed by post-hoc test (multiple comparison and Bonferroni method having P < 0.05 as significant value showed an overall mean of 38.9 mm for horizontal distance and 13.69 mm for the AVRS in 30 edentulous patients. Conclusion: The results showed that in the majority of cases (90% there is insufficient space to place a bar attachment supported by five implants for mandibular overdentures. This suggests that a universal treatment plan cannot be followed due to varying anatomic factors. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a set of clinical guidelines based on the AVRS and IFD, for the selection of implant number and type of attachment. The article proposes a simple classification system based on the AVRS and IFD for establishing guidelines in the treatment planning of the edentulous mandible, to aid in selection of implant size, number, and position along with the associated prosthetic design.

  14. Vertical integration

    Antill, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the trend in international energy companies towards vertical integration in the gas chain from wellhead to power generation, horizontal integration in refining and marketing businesses, and the search for larger projects with lower upstream costs. The shape of the petroleum industry in the next millennium, the creation of super-major oil companies, and the relationship between size and risk are discussed. The dynamics of vertical integration, present events and future developments are considered. (UK)

  15. Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Y-Type S-SRC Column in a Large-Space Vertical Hybrid Structure Using Local Fine Numerical Simulation Method

    Jianguang Yue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large spatial structure, normally the important members are of special type and are the safety key for the global structure. In order to study the mechanical behavior details of the local member, it is difficult for the common test method to realize the complex spatial loading state of the local member. Therefore, a local-fine finite element model was proposed and a large-space vertical hybrid structure was numerically simulated. The seismic responses of the global structure and the Y-type S-SRC column were analyzed under El Centro seismic motions with the peak acceleration of 35 gal and 220 gal. The numerical model was verified with the results of the seismic shaking table test of the structure model. The failure mechanism and stiffness damage evolution of the Y-type S-SRC column were analyzed. The calculated results agreed well with the test results. It indicates that the local-fine FEM could reflect the mechanical details of the local members in a large spatial structure.

  16. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  17. Microscopic description of average level spacing in even-even nuclei

    Huong, Le Thi Quynh; Hung, Nguyen Quang; Phuc, Le Tan

    2017-01-01

    A microscopic theoretical approach to the average level spacing at the neutron binding energy in even-even nuclei is proposed. The approach is derived based on the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory at finite temperature and projection M of the total angular momentum J , which is often used to describe the superfluid properties of hot rotating nuclei. The exact relation of the J -dependent total level density to the M -dependent state densities, based on which the average level spacing is calculated, was employed. The numerical calculations carried out for several even-even nuclei have shown that in order to reproduce the experimental average level spacing, the M -dependent pairing gaps as well as the exact relation of the J -dependent total level density formula should be simultaneously used. (paper)

  18. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering

    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  19. Vertical market participation

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra......Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids...

  20. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  1. Exploiting Domain Knowledge in System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration

    Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded multimedia systems. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, and the mapping of

  2. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    2012-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  3. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    Piscitelli, R.

    2014-01-01

    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  4. The identification of van Hiele level students on the topic of space analytic geometry

    Yudianto, E.; Sunardi; Sugiarti, T.; Susanto; Suharto; Trapsilasiwi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry topics are still considered difficult by most students. Therefore, this study focused on the identification of students related to van Hiele levels. The task used from result of the development of questions related to analytical geometry of space. The results of the work involving 78 students who worked on these questions covered 11.54% (nine students) classified on a visual level; 5.13% (four students) on analysis level; 1.28% (one student) on informal deduction level; 2.56% (two students) on deduction and 2.56% (two students) on rigor level, and 76.93% (sixty students) classified on the pre-visualization level.

  5. EFFECT OF FLOOR SPACE ON SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL OF OSMANABADI KIDS IN MUMBAI REGION OF INDIA

    Rameswar Panda; P.P.Ghorpade; S.S.Chopade; A.H.Kodape; M.B.A Siddiqui; H.Y.Palampalle; N.R.Dagli

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid), Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid) and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid). The feedi...

  6. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  7. Serum vaspin level as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Zong-Fan; Cheng, Yun-Sheng; Jia, Ben-Li; Yu, Gang; Yin, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study is all about predicting the value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (LVBG). A total of 164 patients (from January 2012 to May 2015) with severe obesity were chosen and performed LVBG. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the serum vaspin level. The patients were given a biochemical automatic analyzer to measure the biochemical indicators. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) helps in the calculation of fasting insulin level (FINS) and insulin resistance (IR). The changes in fatty liver were examined by computed tomography (CT). Receiver operating characteristic curve is used to increase the predictive value of serum vaspin level in the amelioration of liver function and disturbances in the metabolism. Weight, BMI, waist circumference, serum vaspin level, and triglyceride (TG) decreased, but CT value of liver increased at 4th, 7th, and 12th month after surgery. After the 7th and 12th month period of surgery, the alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, FINS, and HOMA-IR reduced in the patients (P fatty liver and metabolic disturbance. This study proves that the serum vaspin level serves as a predictive indicator in the amelioration of fatty liver and metabolic disturbance in patients with severe obesity after LVBG.

  8. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  9. Research on Earth's rotation and the effect of atmospheric pressure on vertical deformation and sea level variability

    Wahr, John

    1993-01-01

    The work done under NASA grant NAG5-485 included modelling the deformation of the earth caused by variations in atmospheric pressure. The amount of deformation near coasts is sensitive to the nature of the oceanic response to the pressure. The PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) data suggest the response is inverted barometer at periods greater than a couple months. Green's functions were constructed to describe the perturbation of the geoid caused by atmospheric and oceanic loading and by the accompanying load-induced deformation. It was found that perturbation of up to 2 cm are possible. Ice mass balance data was used for continental glaciers to look at the glacial contributions to time-dependent changes in polar motion, the lod, the earth's gravitational field, the position of the earth's center-of-mass, and global sea level. It was found that there can be lateral, non-hydrostatic structure inside the fluid core caused by gravitational forcing from the mantle, from the inner core, or from topography at the core/mantle or inner core/outer core boundaries. The nutational and tidal response of a non-hydrostatic earth with a solid inner core was modeled. Monthly, global tide gauge data from PSMSL was used to look at the 18.6-year ocean tide, the 14-month pole tide, the oceanic response to pressure, the linear trend and inter-annual variability in the earth's gravity field, the global sea level rise, and the effects of post glacial rebound. The effects of mantle anelasticity on nutations, earth tides, and tidal variation in the lod was modeled. Results of this model can be used with Crustal Dynamics observations to look at the anelastic dissipation and dispersion at tidal periods. The effects of surface topography on various components of crustal deformation was also modeled, and numerical models were developed of post glacial rebound.

  10. Designing vertical mine shafts under conditions of increasing shaft depth with rock hoisting to the operating mining level

    Durov, E.M.

    1983-05-01

    A system for shaft excavation in deep coal mines with mining depth exceeding 1,000 m is discussed. During mine sinking rocks are removed to the ground surface. When depth of a deep mine shaft is increased rocks are removed to the operating mining level, causing lower investment costs than the system with rock hoisting to the ground surface. The Yuzhgiproshakht design firm carries out investigations on the optimum methods for increasing shaft depth in coal mines. Coal mines with the following coal output are included in evaluations: 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8 Mt/year. Mine shaft depth of 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400 and 1600 m is analyzed. Shaft depth is increased by 100, 200, 300 or 400 m. Shaft sinking rate ranges from 10 to 70 m/month. Effects of rock hoisting from the shaft bottom on the hoisting scheme in a mine shaft are analyzed. Position of hoisting bucket in relation to cages or skips moving in a shaft is investigated. Investigation results are given in 5 schemes. Analyses show that use of a shaft sinking system with rock hoisting to the ground surface during shaft excavation and with rock hoisting to the operating mining level during shaft depth increasing is economical when a shaft with skips is from 7 to 8 m in diameter or when a cage shaft is 6 m, 7 m or 8 m in diameter. Use of standardized shaft excavation systems is recommended. (In Russian)

  11. A Radiographic Measurement of the Anterior Epidural Space at L4-5 Disc Level.

    Xu, Rui-Sheng; Wu, Jie-Shi; Lu, Hai-Dan; Zhu, Hao-Gang; Li, Xia; Dong, Jian; Yuan, Feng-Lai

    2017-05-01

    To observe the morphology character of the anterior epidural space at the L 4-5 disc level and to provide an anatomical basis for safely and accurately performing a percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD). Fifty-five cases with L 5 S 1 lumbar disc herniation were included in this study, and cases with L 4-5 disease were excluded. When the puncture needle reached the epidural space at the L 5 S 1 level, iohexol was injected at the pressure of 50 cm H 2 O during the PELD, then C-Arm fluoroscopy was used to obtain standard lumbar frontal and lateral images. The widths of epidural space at the level of the L 4 lower endplate, the L 5 upper endplate, as well as the middle point of the L 4-5 disc were measured from the lumbar lateral X-ray film. Epidural space at the L 4-5 disc plane performs like a trapezium chart with a short side at the head end and a long side at the tail end in the lumbar lateral X-ray radiograph, while the average widths of epidural space were 10.2 ± 2.5, 12.3 ± 2.3, and 13.8 ± 2.6 mm at the upper, middle, and lower level of the L 4-5 disc. Understanding the morphological characteristics of epidural space will contribute to improving the safety of the tranforaminal percutaneous endoscopy technique. © 2017 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. MHV Vertices And Tree Amplitudes In Gauge Theory

    Cachazo, Freddy; Svrcek, Peter; Witten, Edward

    2004-01-01

    As an alternative to the usual Feynman graphs, tree amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be constructed from tree graphs in which the vertices are tree level MHV scattering amplitudes, continued off shell in a particular fashion. The formalism leads to new and relatively simple formulas for many amplitudes, and can be heuristically derived from twistor space. (author)

  13. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-11-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed.

  14. A novel multi-level IC-compatible surface microfabrication technology for MEMS with independently controlled lateral and vertical submicron transduction gaps

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Elsayed, Mohannad; Nabki, Frederic; El-Gamal, Mourad

    2017-01-01

    An above-IC compatible multi-level MEMS surface microfabrication technology based on a silicon carbide structural layer is presented. The fabrication process flow provides optimal electrostatic transduction by allowing the creation of independently controlled submicron vertical and lateral gaps without the need for high resolution lithography. Adopting silicon carbide as the structural material, the technology ensures material, chemical and thermal compatibility with modern semiconductor nodes, reporting the lowest peak processing temperature (i.e. 200 °C) of all comparable works. This makes this process ideally suited for integrating capacitive-based MEMS directly above standard CMOS substrates. Process flow design and optimization are presented in the context of bulk-mode disk resonators, devices that are shown to exhibit improved performance with respect to previous generation flexural beam resonators, and that represent relatively complex MEMS structures. The impact of impending improvements to the fabrication technology is discussed. (paper)

  15. Implementation of vertical multistage centrifugal pump system for villages at an altitude of ± 1200m above sea level in Sipahutar - North Sumatera area

    Parde de, Marincan; Simangunsong, Riyanto; Hedwig, Rinda

    2017-12-01

    Clean water supply is rare in most villages at an altitude of ±1200m above the sea level in North Sumatera due to the topography of the village. The idea to help villagers fulfilling their basic needs in the situation makes this research important. Many experiments had been done previously, such as implementing drilled well but none was successful until we developed a vertical multistage centrifugal pump system. The natural water spring in the area targeted was found in 86 meters depth and would be distributed as far as 500m with area of 1.5km2 from the water tank. The main problem happened was the electric supplies which was always lower than it was expected in that area. Therefore, the successful of the system was happily accepted by the villagers and this research is highly expected to be developed and implemented to other villages, not only in Sipahutar area but also in all Tarutung area.

  16. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  17. On the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model and its statistical mechanics applications

    Saleur, H [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schomerus, V [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Motivated by a careful analysis of the Laplacian on the supergroup SU(2 vertical stroke 1) we formulate a proposal for the state space of the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model. We then use properties of sl(2 vertical stroke 1) characters to compute the partition function of the theory. In the special case of level k=1 the latter is found to agree with the properly regularized partition function for the continuum limit of the integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1)3- anti 3 super-spin chain. Some general conclusions applicable to other WZNW models (in particular the case k=-1/2) are also drawn. (orig.)

  18. A study of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space

    Li Xiaoyan; Wang Yan; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Zheng Baoshan; Wang Xue

    2005-01-01

    Using Model 1027 continuous radon monitor, a test of reducing radon level by ventilation in underground space was done. Four different types of ventilation, i.e. by air pump (P), by air intake blower (B), by air pump and air intake blower simultaneously (PBS), and by air pump and air intake blower in turn (PBT), were examined. The authors found that efficiency of PBS is the highest among these ventilation type. Having ventilated the underground space with PBS for 1, 2 or 3 hours in three different days, and having observed the radon concentration change in the following 24 hours, the authors can conclude that it is safe for people to stay there during the eight working hours if the underground space is ventilated for 2 hours everyday in the morning. (authors)

  19. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    Mioche, Guillaume; Jourdan, Olivier; Delanoë, Julien; Gourbeyre, Christophe; Febvre, Guy; Dupuy, Régis; Monier, Marie; Szczap, Frédéric; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons; Gayet, Jean-François

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs). We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs) over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm-3 on average) of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm), with an averaged liquid water content (LWC) of 0.2 g m-3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L-1 and 0.025 g m-3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC), respectively). The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined, such as IWC (and LWC) - extinction

  20. Vertical distribution of microphysical properties of Arctic springtime low-level mixed-phase clouds over the Greenland and Norwegian seas

    G. Mioche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the microphysical and optical properties of ice crystals and supercooled liquid droplets within low-level Arctic mixed-phase clouds (MPCs. We compiled and analyzed cloud in situ measurements from four airborne spring campaigns (representing 18 flights and 71 vertical profiles in MPCs over the Greenland and Norwegian seas mainly in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago. Cloud phase discrimination and representative vertical profiles of the number, size, mass and shape of ice crystals and liquid droplets are established. The results show that the liquid phase dominates the upper part of the MPCs. High concentrations (120 cm−3 on average of small droplets (mean values of 15 µm, with an averaged liquid water content (LWC of 0.2 g m−3 are measured at cloud top. The ice phase dominates the microphysical properties in the lower part of the cloud and beneath it in the precipitation region (mean values of 100 µm, 3 L−1 and 0.025 g m−3 for diameter, particle concentration and ice water content (IWC, respectively. The analysis of the ice crystal morphology shows that the majority of ice particles are irregularly shaped or rimed particles; the prevailing regular habits found are stellars and plates. We hypothesize that riming and diffusional growth processes, including the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen (WBF mechanism, are the main growth mechanisms involved in the observed MPCs. The impact of larger-scale meteorological conditions on the vertical profiles of MPC properties was also investigated. Large values of LWC and high concentration of smaller droplets are possibly linked to polluted situations and air mass origins from the south, which can lead to very low values of ice crystal size and IWC. On the contrary, clean situations with low temperatures exhibit larger values of ice crystal size and IWC. Several parameterizations relevant for remote sensing or modeling studies are also determined

  1. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  2. First Vertical Land Movement Estimates on South Georgia Island: An Impact Study on Sea Level Change from Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry Measurements

    Abraha, K. E.; Teferle, F. N.; Hunegnaw, A.; Woodworth, P. L.; Williams, S. D. P.; Hibbert, A.; Smalley, R., Jr.; Dalziel, I.; Lawver, L.

    2017-12-01

    South Georgia Island in the Southern Atlantic Ocean has been a key location for the seismic, geomagnetic and oceanic global monitoring networks. However, no permanent geodetic monitoring station had been established there despite the lack of observations from this region within, for example, the International GNSS Service (IGS) network of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations. Then, in 2013 the King Edward Point (KEP) Geodetic Observatory was established with a focus on sea level studies and in support of general geoscience applications. Currently, this observatory located roughly half-way along the main island along its northern coastline, consists of two GNSS stations (KEPA and KRSA) with local benchmark networks, allowing the height determinations from the GNSS antennas to be transferred to the KEP tide gauge (GLOSS ID 187) and forming a height reference within the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. In late 2014, three additional GNSS stations (SG01, SG02 and SG03) were established, all located on small islands at the perimeter of the main island. Together the stations provide the best possible geographic distribution to study various geophysical processes in the region. With the GNSS-derived position time series now partly reaching over 4.5 years in length, it has become possible to provide first estimates of vertical land movements for the island and, in particular, KEP with its surrounding area. Together with four precise levelling campaigns of the benchmark network in 2013, 2014 and two in 2017, it has also been possible to investigate the very local character of the vertical motions, ie. the stability of the jetty upon which the tide gauge is mounted. Our measurements show that while South Georgia Island and the area around KEP are rising, the jetty and tide gauge are subsiding. In this study, we will present the preliminary results from the GNSS and levelling measurements and will discuss their impact on the sea level record from the

  3. A BHR Composite Network-Based Visualization Method for Deformation Risk Level of Underground Space.

    Wei Zheng

    Full Text Available This study proposes a visualization processing method for the deformation risk level of underground space. The proposed method is based on a BP-Hopfield-RGB (BHR composite network. Complex environmental factors are integrated in the BP neural network. Dynamic monitoring data are then automatically classified in the Hopfield network. The deformation risk level is combined with the RGB color space model and is displayed visually in real time, after which experiments are conducted with the use of an ultrasonic omnidirectional sensor device for structural deformation monitoring. The proposed method is also compared with some typical methods using a benchmark dataset. Results show that the BHR composite network visualizes the deformation monitoring process in real time and can dynamically indicate dangerous zones.

  4. Islam, Modernity, and the Liminal Space Between: A Vertical Case Study of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan

    Meehan, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the development and function of the Institute of Traditional Islamic Art and Architecture in Amman, Jordan. A vertical case study using grounded theory methodology, the research attempts to create a rich and holistic understanding of the Institute. Specific areas of study include the factors involved in the founding…

  5. Forecasting the Global Mean Sea Level, a Continuous-Time State-Space Approach

    Boldrini, Lorenzo

    In this paper we propose a continuous-time, Gaussian, linear, state-space system to model the relation between global mean sea level (GMSL) and the global mean temperature (GMT), with the aim of making long-term projections for the GMSL. We provide a justification for the model specification based......) and the temperature reconstruction from Hansen et al. (2010). We compare the forecasting performance of the proposed specification to the procedures developed in Rahmstorf (2007b) and Vermeer and Rahmstorf (2009). Finally, we compute projections for the sea-level rise conditional on the 21st century SRES temperature...

  6. 41 CFR 102-79.65 - May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of...

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access levels, courtyards and rooftops of public buildings? 102-79.65... Utilization of Space Outleasing § 102-79.65 May Executive agencies outlease space on major public access...

  7. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  8. EFFECT OF FLOOR SPACE ON SERUM CORTISOL LEVEL OF OSMANABADI KIDS IN MUMBAI REGION OF INDIA

    Rameswar Panda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different floor space allowance on serum cortisol level of Osmanabadi kids. For this study, eighteen Osmanabadi kids between the age group of 3-4 months were randomly selected irrespective of sex. The selected kids were divided and kept into three different groups with different floor space comprising of 6 kids in each group. GroupT0 (0.8m2 floor space/kid, Group T1 (0.7m2 /kid and Group T2 (0.6m2 /kid. The feeding and other management practices for all the three groups were similar. The blood sample was collected from each goat in fifteen days interval and the serum cortisol concentration (nM/l was determined with the help of Radio Immuno Assay (RIA kit. The average serum cortisol concentration were 12.66 ± 3.08, 10.85 ± 3.51 and 15.18 ± 3.88 nM/l in Group T0, T1 and T2 kids respectively. There was no significant effect (P<0.05 of floor space on cortisol concentration as a stress indicator in Osmanabadi kids.

  9. Coma Berenices: The First Evidence for Incomplete Vertical Phase-mixing in Local Velocity Space with RAVE—Confirmed with Gaia DR2

    Monari, G.; Famaey, B.; Minchev, I.; Antoja, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; McMillan, P.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Quillen, A. C.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.

    2018-05-01

    Before the publication of the Gaia DR2 we confirmed with RAVE and TGAS an observation recently made with the GALAH survey by Quillen ey al. concerning the Coma Berenices moving group in the Solar neighbourhood, namely that it is only present at negative Galactic latitudes. This allowed us to show that it is coherent in vertical velocity, providing a first evidence for incomplete vertical phase-mixing. We estimated for the first time from dynamical arguments that the moving group must have formed at most ~ 1.5 Gyr ago, and related this to a pericentric passage of the Sagittarius dwarf satellite galaxy. The present note is a rewritten version of the original arXiv post on this result now also including a confirmation of our finding with Gaia DR2.

  10. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches:A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results.

    Ganesan, P.

    vertical heights along profiles from M.S.L.? is given below: The reduced level over the bench mark pillar (BP:1 in this case, from where the profile starts) should be added with the first staff reading taken over it, which forms the height... of collimation (H.C.) of the instrument. From this H.C., all the successive staff readings (taken at regular distance interval, along the profile) should be deducted to get the vertical heights (called reduced level (R.L.) in survey terms). i) R...

  11. Differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nanomolar levels of atorvastatin calcium in pharmaceutical and biological samples using a vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide electrode.

    Silva, Tiago Almeida; Zanin, Hudson; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Corat, Evaldo José; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-06-07

    A novel vertically aligned carbon nanotube/graphene oxide (VACNT-GO) electrode is proposed, and its ability to determine atorvastatin calcium (ATOR) in pharmaceutical and biological samples by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry (DPAdSV) is evaluated. VACNT films were prepared on a Ti substrate by a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition method and then treated with oxygen plasma to produce the VACNT-GO electrode. The oxygen plasma treatment exfoliates the carbon nanotube tips exposing graphene foils and inserting oxygen functional groups, these effects improved the VACNT wettability (super-hydrophobic) which is crucial for its electrochemical application. The electrochemical behaviour of ATOR on the VACNT-GO electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry, which showed that it underwent an irreversible oxidation process at a potential of +1.08 V in pHcond 2.0 (0.2 mol L(-1) buffer phosphate solution). By applying DPAdSV under optimized experimental conditions the analytical curve was found to be linear in the ATOR concentration range of 90 to 3.81 × 10(3) nmol L(-1) with a limit of detection of 9.4 nmol L(-1). The proposed DPAdSV method was successfully applied in the determination of ATOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, and the results were in close agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method at a confidence level of 95%.

  12. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study).

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva

    2018-02-05

    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  13. The Effects of a Maximal Power Training Cycle on the Strength, Maximum Power, Vertical Jump Height and Acceleration of High-Level 400-Meter Hurdlers

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Tejero-González, Carlos Mª; del Campo-Vecino, Juan; Alonso-Curiel, Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a power training cycle on maximum strength, maximum power, vertical jump height and acceleration in seven high-level 400-meter hurdlers subjected to a specific training program twice a week for 10 weeks. Each training session consisted of five sets of eight jump-squats with the load at which each athlete produced his maximum power. The repetition maximum in the half squat position (RM), maximum power in the jump-squat (W), a squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CSJ), and a 30-meter sprint from a standing position were measured before and after the training program using an accelerometer, an infra-red platform and photo-cells. The results indicated the following statistically significant improvements: a 7.9% increase in RM (Z=−2.03, p=0.021, δc=0.39), a 2.3% improvement in SJ (Z=−1.69, p=0.045, δc=0.29), a 1.43% decrease in the 30-meter sprint (Z=−1.70, p=0.044, δc=0.12), and, where maximum power was produced, a change in the RM percentage from 56 to 62% (Z=−1.75, p=0.039, δc=0.54). As such, it can be concluded that strength training with a maximum power load is an effective means of increasing strength and acceleration in high-level hurdlers. PMID:23717361

  14. New results on order and spacing of levels for two- and three-body systems

    Grosse, H.; Martin, A.; Richard, J.M.; Taxil, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose sufficient conditions on the potential binding a two-body system to compare; the energy of a state with angular momentum iota+1 to the average of the energies of the neighbouring states with angular momentum iota, the spacings of the successive iota = O excitations. Applications to quarkonium physics are given. The authors also find a condition giving the sign of the parameter Δ controlling the pattern of levels obtained by perturbing the lowest positive parity excitation of a three-body system bound by harmonic oscillator two body forces

  15. Space vector modulation strategy for neutral-point voltage balancing in three-level inverter systems

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a space vector modulation (SVM) strategy to balance the neutral-point voltage of three-level inverter systems. The proposed method is implemented by combining conventional symmetric SVM with nearest three-vector (NTV) modulation. The conventional SVM is converted to NTV...... modulation by properly adding or subtracting a minimum gate-on time. In addition, using this method, the switching frequency is reduced and a decrease of switching loss would be yielded. The neutral-point voltage is balanced by the proposed SVM strategy without additional hardware or complex calculations....... Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed SVM strategy....

  16. Lack of correlation between vertical distribution and carrier frequency, and preference for open spaces in arboreal katydids that use extreme ultrasound, in Gorgona, Colombia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae

    Fernando Montealegre-Z

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Los machos de Tettigoniidae producen sonido frotando las alas anteriores para atraer a sus hembras coespecíficas con fines reproductivos (mecanismo conocido como estridulación. Un borde esclerotizado (o raspador en el ala derecha es frotado sobre una vena modificada con dientecillos en el ala izquierda. Durante la estridulación las alas abren y cierran, pero es durante el cierre que el raspador contacta los dientecillos de la lima y produce vibraciones que son amplificadas por celdas adyacentes especializadas para radiar sonido. Sonidos que superen los 20 000Hz, se consideran ultrasónicos, en los Tettigoniidae, la mayoría de los cantos superan el umbral sónico y pueden ocurrir a más de 40 000Hz, con casos extremos de hasta 148 000Hz. La esencia de este trabajo es el estudio de esta gama espectacular de frecuencias de la familia Tettigoniidae y su relación con la distribución vertical de los individuos en las especies que habitan en Gorgona. Se muestrearon 16 árboles a cuatro niveles diferentes de altitud entre 1 y ~20m sobre el sotobosque, instalando sabanas colectoras a intervalos de 4-5m. Los insectos se colectaron mediante el método de nebulización térmica. El análisis indica que no hay correlación entre la distribución vertical de las especies y la frecuencia del canto. Sin embargo se observó una preferencia por espacios abiertos en especies que cantan a frecuencias extremas. Este estudio representa la primera descripción cuantitativa de la distribución vertical de Tettigoniidae Neotropicales y su relación con la frecuencia del canto.

  17. ML-Space: Hybrid Spatial Gillespie and Particle Simulation of Multi-Level Rule-Based Models in Cell Biology.

    Bittig, Arne T; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M

    2017-01-01

    Spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular processes can be simulated at different levels of detail, from (deterministic) partial differential equations via the spatial Stochastic Simulation algorithm to tracking Brownian trajectories of individual particles. We present a spatial simulation approach for multi-level rule-based models, which includes dynamically hierarchically nested cellular compartments and entities. Our approach ML-Space combines discrete compartmental dynamics, stochastic spatial approaches in discrete space, and particles moving in continuous space. The rule-based specification language of ML-Space supports concise and compact descriptions of models and to adapt the spatial resolution of models easily.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING IN VIRTUAL SPACES, USING ORDERS OF COMPLEXITY IN LEVELS OF THINKING

    Jose CAPACHO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at showing a new methodology to assess student learning in virtual spaces supported by Information and Communications Technology-ICT. The methodology is based on the Conceptual Pedagogy Theory, and is supported both on knowledge instruments (KI and intelectual operations (IO. KI are made up of teaching materials embedded in the virtual environment. The student carries out IO in his/her virtual formation process based on KI. Both instruments of knowledge and intellectual operations can be mathematically modelled by using functions of increasing complexity order. These functions represent the student’s learning change. This paper main contribution is to show that these functions let the student go from a concrete thinking to a formal one in his/her virtual learning process. The research showed that 47% of the students moved from a concrete thinking level to the formal thinking level.

  19. Testing for Level Shifts in Fractionally Integrated Processes: a State Space Approach

    Monache, Davide Delle; Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based on the autocorrela......Short memory models contaminated by level shifts have similar long-memory features as fractionally integrated processes. This makes hard to verify whether the true data generating process is a pure fractionally integrated process when employing standard estimation methods based...... on the autocorrelation function or the periodogram. In this paper, we propose a robust testing procedure, based on an encompassing parametric specification that allows to disentangle the level shifts from the fractionally integrated component. The estimation is carried out on the basis of a state-space methodology...... and it leads to a robust estimate of the fractional integration parameter also in presence of level shifts. Once the memory parameter is correctly estimated, we use the KPSS test for presence of level shift. The Monte Carlo simulations show how this approach produces unbiased estimates of the memory parameter...

  20. Programs to obtain vertical heights from mean sea level and for computing volume of sand/mineral along beaches: A case study with Kalbadevi beach profiling data and results

    Ganesan, P.

    Two programs have been developed to process profile data, for obtaining vertical heights with respect to mean sea level (M.S.L.) and for computation of volume of heavy mineral / sand accumulation or erosion along the beaches. The final output...

  1. BAYESZ, S-Wave, P-Wave Resonance Level Spacing and Strength Functions

    Moore, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A - Description of problem or function: BAYESZ calculates average s- and p-wave level spacings, strength functions, and average radiation widths of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances whose parameters are supplied as input. The code is based on two physical assumptions: 1) The neutron reduced width distribution for each open channel is a chi-squared distribution with one degree of freedom, i.e. Porter-Thomas. 2) The spacing distribution follows the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. This property is used, however, only to fix the s- to p-wave level density ratio as proportional to (2J+1) with a spin cut-off correction. B - Method of solution: The method used is an extension of that described by Moore et al. in reference (1), and is based on the method of moments of a truncated Porter-Thomas distribution. C - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Parameters for a maximum of 500 individual resonances can be specified. This restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  2. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  3. MERRA IAU 2D Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Instantaneous Monthly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAIMNXINT or instM_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  4. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXINT or tavgU_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  5. MERRA IAU 2D Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Instantaneous Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAIUNXINT or instU_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  6. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Instantaneous 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAI1NXINT or inst1_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is Instantaneous single-level at the native...

  7. Choosing channel quantization levels and viterbi decoding for space diversity reception over the additive white Guassian noise channel

    Kalson, S.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work in the area of choosing channel quantization levels for a additive white Gaussian noise channel composed of one receiver-demodulator is reviewed, and how this applies to the Deep Space Network composed of several receiver-demodulators (space diversity reception) is shown. Viterbi decoding for the resulting quantized channel is discussed.

  8. Trade Study of System Level Ranked Radiation Protection Concepts for Deep Space Exploration

    Cerro, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    A strategic focus area for NASA is to pursue the development of technologies which support exploration in space beyond the current inhabited region of low earth orbit. An unresolved issue for crewed deep space exploration involves limiting crew radiation exposure to below acceptable levels, considering both solar particle events and galactic cosmic ray contributions to dosage. Galactic cosmic ray mitigation is not addressed in this paper, but by addressing credible, easily implemented, and mass efficient solutions for the possibility of solar particle events, additional margin is provided that can be used for cosmic ray dose accumulation. As a result, NASA s Advanced Engineering Systems project office initiated this Radiation Storm Shelter design activity. This paper reports on the first year results of an expected 3 year Storm Shelter study effort which will mature concepts and operational scenarios that protect exploration astronauts from solar particle radiation events. Large trade space definition, candidate concept ranking, and a planned demonstration comprised the majority of FY12 activities. A system key performance parameter is minimization of the required increase in mass needed to provide a safe environment. Total system mass along with operational assessments and other defined protection system metrics provide the guiding metrics to proceed with concept developments. After a downselect to four primary methods, the concepts were analyzed for dosage severity and the amount of shielding mass necessary to bring dosage to acceptable values. Besides analytical assessments, subscale models of several concepts and one full scale concept demonstrator were created. FY12 work terminated with a plan to demonstrate test articles of two selected approaches. The process of arriving at these selections and their current envisioned implementation are presented in this paper.

  9. Earned Value Management Considering Technical Readiness Level and Its Application to New Space Launcher Program

    Choi, Young-In; Ahn, Jaemyung

    2018-04-01

    Earned value management (EVM) is a methodology for monitoring and controlling the performance of a project based on a comparison between planned and actual cost/schedule. This study proposes a concept of hybrid earned value management (H-EVM) that integrates the traditional EVM metrics with information on the technology readiness level. The proposed concept can reflect the progress of a project in a sensitive way and provides short-term perspective complementary to the traditional EVM metrics. A two-dimensional visualization on the cost/schedule status of a project reflecting both of the traditional EVM (long-term perspective) and the proposed H-EVM (short-term perspective) indices is introduced. A case study on the management of a new space launch vehicle development program is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed H-EVM concept, associated metrics, and the visualization technique.

  10. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  11. Raetrad model extensions for radon entry into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces.

    Nielson, K K; Rogers, V C; Rogers, V; Holt, R B

    1997-10-01

    The RAETRAD model was generalized to characterize radon generation and movement from soils and building materials into multi-level buildings with basements or crawl spaces. With the generalization, the model retains its original simplicity and ease of use. The model calculates radon entry rates that are consistent with measurements published for basement test structures at Colorado State University, confirming approximately equal contributions from diffusion and pressure-driven air flow at indoor-outdoor air pressure differences of deltaP(i-o) = -3.5 Pa. About one-fourth of the diffusive radon entry comes from concrete slabs and three-fourths comes from the surrounding soils. Calculated radon entry rates with and without a barrier over floor-wall shrinkage cracks generally agree with Colorado State University measurements when a sustained pressure of deltaP(i-o) = -2 Pa is used to represent calm wind (<1 m s(-1)) conditions. Calculated radon distributions in a 2-level house also are consistent with published measurements and equations.

  12. Progress towards vertical transport study of proton-irradiated InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice materials for space-based infrared detectors using magnetoresistance measurements

    Malone, Mitchell C.; Morath, Christian P.; Fahey, Stephen; Klein, Brianna; Cowan, Vincent M.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    InAs/GaSb type-II strained-layer superlattice (T2SLS) materials are being considered for space-based infrared detector applications. However, an inadequate understanding of the role of carrier transport, specifically the vertical mobility, in the radiation tolerance of T2SLS detectors remains. Here, progress towards a vertical transport study of proton-irradiated, p-type InAs/GaSb T2SLS materials using magnetoresistance measurements is reported. Measurements in the growth direction of square mesas formed from InAs/GaSb superlattice material were performed using two distinct contact geometries in a Kelvin mode setup at variable magnetic fields, ranging from -9 T to 9 T, and temperatures, ranging from 5 K and 300 K. The results here suggested multi-carrier conduction and a field-dependent series resistance from the contact layer were present. The implications of these results and the plans for future magnetoresistance measurements on proton-irradiated T2SLS materials are discussed.

  13. A System-level Infrastructure for Multi-dimensional MP-SoC Design Space Co-exploration

    Jia, Z.J.; Bautista, T.; Nunez, A.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a flexible and extensible system-level MP-SoC design space exploration (DSE) infrastructure, called NASA. This highly modular framework uses well-defined interfaces to easily integrate different system-level simulation tools as well as different combinations of search

  14. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  15. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  16. UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) Level 3TP V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) Level 3TP data product consists of daily, 65.536 second and 2.048 interval time-ordered, vertical profiles of electron and...

  17. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on International Space Station

    Murdoch, Karen; Smith, Fred; Perry, Jay; Green, Steve

    2004-01-01

    When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.

  18. Characteristics and prediction of sound level in extra-large spaces

    Wang, C.; Ma, H.; Wu, Y.; Kang, J.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to examine sound fields in extra-large spaces, which are defined in this paper as spaces used by people, with a volume approximately larger than 125,000m 3 and absorption coefficient less than 0.7. In such spaces inhomogeneous reverberant energy caused by uneven early reflections with increasing volume has a significant effect on sound fields. Measurements were conducted in four spaces to examine the attenuation of the total and reverberant energy with increasing source-receiv...

  19. The Measurement of Urbanization Level Based on Entity Space: A Case Study of JingJinJi Region, China

    Wen Fenghua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analyzing the pros and cons of different urbanization level measurement methods, this paper puts forward urbanization level measurement method based on entity space and then uses entity space data to describe the urbanization rate of various districts and counties of JingJinJi Region in 2005 and 2009. According to the analysis of time and space differences on such basis, JingJinJi may be divided from high to low order according to the urbanization rate of the entity space: central urban area, urban development area and suburb, which respectively bear different functions. According to the comparison of entity space urbanization rate and population urbanization rate in the aspects of sequence, primacy ratio, zipf index, etc., we find the non-intensive land use status quo of urban development area of JingJinJi and the feature that the distribution of entity space urbanization scale is much uniform than distribution of population urbanization scale. Accordingly, the paper puts forward the following suggestions : (1 The space construction should depend upon function division; (2 The urban development area should pay attention to the construction of the supporting facilities and meanwhile enhance land use rate; (3 The urban construction should be enhanced in small and middle regions and counties surrounding Beijing and Tianjin.

  20. Enabling the MLSpOC (Multi-Level Space Operations Center) of the Future

    Missal, D.

    2012-09-01

    accredited today at multiple sites both CONUS and OCONUS. It is designed to assist information systems developers achieve DCID 6/3 Protection Level 4 or 5 (PL4 or PL5) or DoD SABI C&A for SECRET-to-UNCLASSIFIED systems (PL3). The product is on the DoD/DNI Unified Cross-domain Management Office's (UCDMO) Baseline of accredited solutions, and is the only solution on the Baseline which the Government considers to be an "All-in-One" approach to the Cross-domain Security challenge. Our solution is also the only PL-4 Cloud in existence and that is deployed and operational in the entire world today (at DIA). The Space marketplace is a very unique cross-domain challenge, as a need exists for Unclassified SSA Data Sharing at a deeper and more fundamental level than anywhere else in the IC or DoD. For instance, certain Agencies and/or Programs have a requirement to share information with Partner Nations that are not considered to be "friendly" (e.g. China). Our Solution is the ONLY solution in the world today that's achieved C&A, and that is uniquely positioned to enable the Multi-level Space Operations Center (MLSpOC) of the Future.

  1. Level of Abstraction and Feelings of Presence in Virtual Space: Business English Negotiation in Open Wonderland

    Chen, Judy F.; Warden, Clyde A.; Tai, David Wen-Shung; Chen, Farn-Shing; Chao, Chich-Yang

    2011-01-01

    Virtual spaces allow abstract representations of reality that not only encourage student self-directed learning but also reinforce core content of the learning objective through visual metaphors not reproducible in the physical world. One of the advantages of such a space is the ability to escape the restrictions of the physical classroom, yet…

  2. Investigation of role of cultural spaces to promote level of quality of ...

    Culture is the root of all changes in past and modern communities, which is the foundation and base of civilization of the people of each country. ... and (84.2%) created effects of cultural spaces to fill leisure times of youth, and (84.5%) spatial diversity to attract different age groups by (making space multipurpose) and ...

  3. Level crossing and the space of operators commuting with the Hamiltonian

    Valkering, T.P.; Caspers, W.J.

    1973-01-01

    The space of n-dimensional hermitean matrices that commute with a given hermitean matrix A + hB, h being a real parameter, is discussed. In particular a basis in this space is constructed consisting of polynomials in h of the lowest possible total degree. The sum of the degrees of the elements of

  4. Combined effects of chemical reaction and temperature dependent heat source on MHD mixed convective flow of a couple-stress fluid in a vertical wavy porous space with travelling thermal waves

    Muthuraj R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to examine the effect of chemical reaction on MHD mixed convective heat and mass transfer flow of a couple-stress fluid in vertical porous space in the presence of temperature dependent heat source with travelling thermal waves. The dimensionless governing equations are assumed to be made up of two parts: a mean part corresponding to the fully developed mean flow, and a small perturbed part, using amplitude as a small parameter. The analytical solution of perturbed part have been carried out by using the long-wave approximation. The expressions for the zeroth-order and the first order solutions are obtained and the results of the heat and mass transfer characteristics are presented graphically for various values of parameters entering into the problem. It is noted that velocity of the fluid increases with the increase of the couple stress parameter and increasing the chemical reaction parameter leads suppress the velocity of the fluid. Cross velocity decreases with an increase of the phase angle. The increase of the chemical reaction parameter and Schmidt number lead to decrease the fluid concentration. The hydrodynamic case for a non-porous space in the absence of the temperature dependent heat source for Newtonian fluid can be captured as a limiting case of our analysis by taking, and α1→0, Da→∞, a→∞.

  5. MERRA IAU 2d Vertical integrals V5.2.0

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXINT or tavg1_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  6. Kinetic energy spectra, vertical resolution and dissipation in high-resolution atmospheric simulations.

    Skamarock, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have performed week-long full-physics simulations with the MPAS global model at 15 km cell spacing using vertical mesh spacings of 800, 400, 200 and 100 meters in the mid-troposphere through the mid-stratosphere. We find that the horizontal kinetic energy spectra in the upper troposphere and stratosphere does not converge with increasing vertical resolution until we reach 200 meter level spacing. Examination of the solutions indicates that significant inertia-gravity waves are not vertically resolved at the lower vertical resolutions. Diagnostics from the simulations indicate that the primary kinetic energy dissipation results from the vertical mixing within the PBL parameterization and from the gravity-wave drag parameterization, with smaller but significant contributions from damping in the vertical transport scheme and from the horizontal filters in the dynamical core. Most of the kinetic energy dissipation in the free atmosphere occurs within breaking mid-latitude baroclinic waves. We will briefly review these results and their implications for atmospheric model configuration and for atmospheric dynamics, specifically that related to the dynamics associated with the mesoscale kinetic energy spectrum.

  7. Radon and its decay products in living spaces: estimation of radiation exposure and risks for radon levels measured in Switzerland

    Burkart, W.

    1984-03-01

    After a general introduction to radiation levels, radon and its daughter products are considered. Radon in living spaces is discussed, in particular the radon concentration in family houses. The influence of energy saving characteristics on the radon concentration in the indoor air includes a 'matched pair' analysis and ventilation installations and dwell duration of indoor air noxious agents. Estimation of the radiation risks are determined, including risks of lung cancer, human epidemiological investigations (miners and radiation levels in living spaces), and possible results of energy saving characteristics. Finally characteristics and recommendations in general are given. (A.N.K.)

  8. Effects of space allocations and energy levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs.

    Lei, X J; Yan, L; Kim, Y M; Kim, I H

    2018-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of different space allocations and different dietary metabolizable energy (ME) levels on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing and finishing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 84 growing pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] with an initial body weight (BW) of 27.10 ± 1.60 kg were used in a 5-week trial. Pigs were blocked based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.60 or 0.80 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,400 or 3,550 kcal/kg ME of diets. In experiment 2, a total of 84 finishing pigs with an initial BW of 67.43 ± 1.97 kg were used in a 10-week trial. Pigs were allotted based on initial BW into a 2 × 2 factorial design with the following factors: (i) 0.81 or 1.08 m 2 /pig space allocations; and (ii) 3,300 or 3,450 kcal/kg ME of diet. In experiment 1, high ME diet improved gain-to-feed ratio (G:F) in pigs with low space allocation but not in pigs in high space allocation (p space allocation but decreased ATTD of nitrogen in high space allocation (p space allocation but not in pigs with high space allocation (p space allocation but can improve feed efficiency in growing pigs and daily gain and feed efficiency early-finishing pigs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. tavgM_2d_int_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXINT) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXINT or tavgM_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  10. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2004), s. 404-407 ISSN 1436-3445 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotential WO * vertical systems * global vertical frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. PSCAD modeling of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm for power electronics education

    Ahmet Mete Vural

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design details of a two-level space vector pulse width modulation algorithm in PSCAD that is able to generate pulses for three-phase two-level DC/AC converters with two different switching patterns. The presented FORTRAN code is generic and can be easily modified to meet many other kinds of space vector modulation strategies. The code is also editable for hardware programming. The new component is tested and verified by comparing its output as six gating signals with those of a similar component in MATLAB library. Moreover the component is used to generate digital signals for closed-loop control of STATCOM for reactive power compensation in PSCAD. This add-on can be an effective tool to give students better understanding of the space vector modulation algorithm for different control tasks in power electronics area, and can motivate them for learning.

  12. An acceleration of the characteristics by a space-angle two-level method using surface discontinuity factors

    Grassi, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA de Saclay, DM2S/SERMA/LENR, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-07-01

    We present a non-linear space-angle two-level acceleration scheme for the method of the characteristics (MOC). To the fine level on which the MOC transport calculation is performed, we associate a more coarsely discretized phase space in which a low-order problem is solved as an acceleration step. Cross sections on the coarse level are obtained by a flux-volume homogenisation technique, which entails the non-linearity of the acceleration. Discontinuity factors per surface are introduced as additional degrees of freedom on the coarse level in order to ensure the equivalence of the heterogeneous and the homogenised problem. After each fine transport iteration, a low-order transport problem is iteratively solved on the homogenised grid. The solution of this problem is then used to correct the angular moments of the flux resulting from the previous free transport sweep. Numerical tests for a given benchmark have been performed. Results are discussed. (authors)

  13. An acceleration of the characteristics by a space-angle two-level method using surface discontinuity factors

    Grassi, G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a non-linear space-angle two-level acceleration scheme for the method of the characteristics (MOC). To the fine level on which the MOC transport calculation is performed, we associate a more coarsely discretized phase space in which a low-order problem is solved as an acceleration step. Cross sections on the coarse level are obtained by a flux-volume homogenisation technique, which entails the non-linearity of the acceleration. Discontinuity factors per surface are introduced as additional degrees of freedom on the coarse level in order to ensure the equivalence of the heterogeneous and the homogenised problem. After each fine transport iteration, a low-order transport problem is iteratively solved on the homogenised grid. The solution of this problem is then used to correct the angular moments of the flux resulting from the previous free transport sweep. Numerical tests for a given benchmark have been performed. Results are discussed. (authors)

  14. Interannual variability: a crucial component of space use at the territory level.

    Uboni, Alessia; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability in space use and how that variation is influenced by density-dependent and density-independent factors are important processes in population ecology. Nevertheless, interannual variability has been neglected by the majority of space use studies. We assessed that variation for wolves living in 15 different packs within Yellowstone National Park during a 13-year period (1996-2008). We estimated utilization distributions to quantify the intensity of space use within each pack's territory each year in summer and winter. Then, we used the volume of intersection index (VI) to quantify the extent to which space use varied from year to year. This index accounts for both the area of overlap and differences in the intensity of use throughout a territory and ranges between 0 and 1. The mean VI index was 0.49, and varied considerably, with approximately 20% of observations (n = 230) being 0.7. In summer, 42% of the variation was attributable to differences between packs. These differences can be attributable to learned behaviors and had never been thought to have such an influence on space use. In winter, 34% of the variation in overlap between years was attributable to interannual differences in precipitation and pack size. This result reveals the strong influence of climate on predator space use and underlies the importance of understanding how climatic factors are going to affect predator populations in the occurrence of climate change. We did not find any significant association between overlap and variables representing density-dependent processes (elk and wolf densities) or intraspecific competition (ratio of wolves to elk). This last result poses a challenge to the classic view of predator-prey systems. On a small spatial scale, predator space use may be driven by factors other than prey distribution.

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The

  17. Large model-space calculation of the nuclear level density parameter

    Agrawal, B.K.; Samaddar, S.K.; De, J.N.; Shlomo, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to obtain nuclear level density (ρ) and level density parameter (α) within the microscopic approaches based on path integral representation of the partition function. The results for the inverse level density parameter K es and the level density as a function of excitation energy are presented

  18. Community-level and individual-level influences of intimate partner violence on birth spacing in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Hung, Kristin J; Scott, Jennifer; Ricciotti, Hope A; Johnson, Timothy R; Tsai, Alexander C

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the extent to which intimate partner violence (IPV), at the levels of the individual and the community, is associated with shortened interbirth intervals among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We analyzed demographic and health survey data from 11 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Only multiparous women were included in the analysis. Interbirth interval was the primary outcome. Personal history of IPV was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale. Community prevalence of IPV was measured as the proportion of women in each village reporting a personal history of IPV. We used multilevel modeling to account for the hierarchical structure of the data, allowing us to partition the variation in birth intervals to the four different levels (births, individuals, villages, and countries). Among the 46,697 women in the sample, 11,730 (25.1%) reported a personal history of physical violence and 4,935 (10.6%) reported a personal history of sexual violence. In the multivariable regression model, interbirth intervals were inversely associated with personal history of physical violence (regression coefficient b=-0.60, 95% confidence interval -0.91 to -0.28) and the community prevalence of physical violence (b=-1.41, 95% confidence interval -2.41 to -0.40). Estimated associations with sexual violence were of similar statistical significance and magnitude. Both personal history of IPV and the community prevalence of IPV have independent and statistically significant associations with shorter interbirth intervals. II.

  19. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  20. Effects of a Green Space Layout on the Outdoor Thermal Environment at the Neighborhood Level

    Chi-Ming Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to address the existing urban design needs and computer-aided thermal engineering and explore the optimal green space layout to obtain an acceptable thermal environment at the neighborhood scale through a series of building energy and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The building-energy analysis software eQUEST and weather database TMY2 were adopted to analyze the electric energy consumed by air conditioners and the analysis results were incorporated to derive the heat dissipated from air conditioners. Then, the PHOENICS CFD software was used to analyze how the green space layout influences outdoor thermal environment based on the heat dissipated from air conditioners and the solar heat reemitted from the built surfaces. The results show that a green space located in the center of this investigated area and at the far side of the downstream of a summer monsoon is the recommended layout. The layouts, with green space in the center, can decrease the highest temperature by 0.36 °C.

  1. Association between increase in vertical ground reaction force loading rate and pain level in women with patellofemoral pain after a patellofemoral joint loading protocol.

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Waiteman, Marina Cabral; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; de Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis

    2018-04-11

    The etiology of patellofemoral pain (PFP) is thought to be the result of increased patellofemoral joint (PFJ) load and aberrant lower extremity mechanics, including altered vertical ground reaction forces (VGRF). However, few studies have investigated the association between an increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in the context of PFP. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of PFJ loading on pain and VGRF loading rate, and to see if there is a link between modification of both pain and VGRF loading rate during stair negotiation. Thirty-four women with PFP underwent VGRF analysis during stair negotiation under two conditions: with (condition 2) and without (condition 1) being previously submitted to a PFJ loading protocol in order to or not to exacerbate their knee pain, respectively. The VGRF loading rates were significantly higher in condition 2 (Mean ± standard deviation (SD)=4.0±0.6N/s) compared to condition 1 (Mean±SD=3.6±0.5N/s) during stair ascent and during stair descent (Mean±SD: condition 1=6.3±1.1N/s; condition 2=7.0±1.4N/s). In addition, VGRF loading rates were higher during stair descent compared to stair ascent in both conditions. There were significant correlations between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rate during both tasks. There seemed to be an important relation between the increase in pain and VGRF loading rates in women with PFP. Based on these findings, interventions aimed at reducing VGRF loading rates are important in the context of PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Glucose Levels in Diabetic Patients Following Corticosteroid Injections into the Subacromial Space of the Shoulder.

    Aleem, Alexander W; Syed, Usman Ali M; Nicholson, Thema; Getz, Charles L; Namdari, Surena; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Abboud, Joseph A

    2017-09-01

    Corticosteroid injections are used to treat a variety of orthopedic conditions with the goal of decreasing pain and inflammation. Administration of systemic or local corticosteroids risks temporarily increasing blood glucose levels, especially diabetic patients. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of corticosteroid injections on blood glucose levels in diabetic patients with shoulder pathology. Diabetic patients who regularly monitored their blood glucose levels and were indicated for a subacromial corticosteroid injection were included in this prospective investigation. The typical normal morning fasting glucose and most recent hemoglobin A1c level was recorded for each patient. After injection, patients were contacted daily to confirm their fasting morning glucose level for 10 days post-injection. Seventeen consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients with hemoglobin A1c of patients' glucose levels returned to near baseline levels around post-injection day 8, while poorly controlled patients levels remained elevated. Similarly, insulin-dependent diabetic patients had an average increase in fasting glucose level of 99 mg/dL versus 50 mg/dL in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients ( P patients with well-controlled diabetes experience smaller elevations and faster return to baseline glucose levels than patients with poor control. Insulin dependent diabetics experienced similar findings as patients with poor control. Future studies are needed to evaluate dosing to optimize the risks of blood glucose elevation while maintaining therapeutic benefit.

  3. Semiempirical theory of level spacing distribution beyond the Berry-Robnik regime: modeling the localization and the tunneling effects

    Batistic, Benjamin; Robnik, Marko

    2010-01-01

    In this work we study the level spacing distribution in the classically mixed-type quantum systems (which are generic), exhibiting regular motion on invariant tori for some initial conditions and chaotic motion for the complementary initial conditions. In the asymptotic regime of the sufficiently deep semiclassical limit (sufficiently small effective Planck constant) the Berry and Robnik (1984 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 17 2413) picture applies, which is very well established. We present a new quasi-universal semiempirical theory of the level spacing distribution in a regime away from the Berry-Robnik regime (the near semiclassical limit), by describing both the dynamical localization effects of chaotic eigenstates, and the tunneling effects which couple regular and chaotic eigenstates. The theory works extremely well in the 2D mixed-type billiard system introduced by Robnik (1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 3971) and is also tested in other systems (mushroom billiard and Prosen billiard).

  4. Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Strategy for Single-Phase Three-Level CIC T-source Inverter

    Shults, Tatiana E.; Husev, Oleksandr O.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance of the inver......This paper presents a novel space vector pulse-width modulation strategy for a single-phase three-level buck-boost inverter based on an impedance-source network. The case study system is based on T-source inverter with continuous input current. To demonstrate the improved performance...... of the inverter, the strategy was compared the traditional pulse-width modulation. It is shown that the approach proposed has fewer switching states and does not suffer from neutral point misbalance....

  5. SPACE PHYSICS: Developing resources for astrophysics at A-level: the TRUMP Astrophysics project

    Swinbank, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    After outlining the astrophysical options now available in A-level physics syllabuses, this paper notes some of the particular challenges facing A-level teachers and students who chose these options and describes a project designed to support them. The paper highlights some key features of the project that could readily be incorporated into other areas of physics curriculum development.

  6. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  7. Alternative way to dispose of high-level waste in outer space

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Chen, Xinyi.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new approach to dispose of Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFPs) of type II such as 99 T c and 129 I into outer solar space by providing an escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/sec from a parking orbit or the moon's surface using a electrostatic accelerator and neutralizing the charged ions. LLFPs disposed uniformly in outer solar space pose no hazard as do LLFPs packages in Earth orbit, and have no effects on astronomical observations. This mode of disposition requires energy in the order of 1 keV for each nucleus, which is far smaller than the propulsion energy needed for launching a LLFPs package by rocket. Further, the power required of an accelerator ejecting most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR is 2.2 kW, which is much smaller than a medium-energy proton accelerator, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons

  8. Alternative way to dispose of high-level waste in outer space

    Takahasi, H.; Chen, X.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new approach to dispose of Long-Lived Fission Products (LLFPs) of type II such as 99 Tc and 129 I into outer solar space by providing an escape velocity from the solar system of 42 km/sec from a parking orbit or the moon's surface using a electrostatic accelerator and neutralizing the charged ions. LLFPs disposed uniformly in outer solar space pose no hazard as do LLFPs packages in Earth orbit, and have no effects on astronomical observations. This mode of disposition requires energy in the order of 1 keV for each nucleus, which is far smaller than the propulsion energy needed for launching a LLFPs package by rocket. Further, the power required of an accelerator ejecting most of the LLFPs generated by one LWR is 2.2 kW, which is much smaller than a medium-energy proton accelerator, a few tens of MW, which would be necessary to transmute these LLFPs using spallation neutrons created by protons. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  10. UARS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AL V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of...

  11. UARS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AT V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of...

  12. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  13. Vertical pump assembly

    Dohnal, M.; Rosel, J.; Skarka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mounting is described of the drive assembly of a vertical pump for nuclear power plants in areas with seismic risk. The assembly is attached to the building floor using flexible and damping elements. The design allows producing seismically resistant pumps without major design changes in the existing types of vertical pumps. (E.S.). 1 fig

  14. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station and automated software techniques: High level robot command language

    Mckee, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to develop a system that will allow a person not necessarily skilled in the art of programming robots to quickly and naturally create the necessary data and commands to enable a robot to perform a desired task. The system will use a menu driven graphical user interface. This interface will allow the user to input data to select objects to be moved. There will be an imbedded expert system to process the knowledge about objects and the robot to determine how they are to be moved. There will be automatic path planning to avoid obstacles in the work space and to create a near optimum path. The system will contain the software to generate the required robot instructions.

  15. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator employing a dielectrically-isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity-gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  16. Semi-custom integrated circuit amplifier and level discriminator for nuclear and space instruments

    Hahn, S.F.; Cafferty, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports an extra fast current feedback amplifier and a level discriminator developed employing a dielectrically isolated bipolar, semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) process. These devices are specifically designed for instruments aboard spacecrafts or in portable packages requiring low power and weight. The amplifier adopts current feedback for a unity- gain bandwidth of 90 MHz while consuming 50 mW. The level discriminator uses a complementary output driver for balanced positive and negative response times. The power consumption of these devices can be programmed by external resistors for optimal speed and power trade-off

  17. Análise da ocorrência dos fluxos e Jatos de Nível Baixo no perfil vertical do vento na baixa atmosfera em Manaus (AM Analysis of the occurrence of streams and Low Level Jets in the vertical wind profile at the lower-atmosphere of Manaus city

    Cleber Souza Corrêa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta uma análise sobre as estruturas verticais nos baixos níveis da atmosfera tropical, região norte do Brasil, utilizando dados de radiossondagem realizadas na cidade de Manaus. Foi descrito um modelo dinâmico que envolve fluxos/Jatos de Nível Baixo (JNB entre os níveis de 950 hPa e 926 hPa, entre 860 hPa e 880 hPa (correspondendo aproximadamente ao nível intermediário de 850 hPa e ao terceira camada mais alta entre 800 hPa e 700 hPa (níveis médios. Esses fluxos e Jatos caracterizam um processo dinâmico de intenso transporte de energia e massa, criando uma estrutura estratificada turbulenta muito eficiente na geração de convecção na região tropical, demonstrando a influência da Camada Limite Planetária Tropical (CLPT na geração de convecção em meso escala.This study presents an analysis of the vertical structure of the low level tropical atmosphere, north region of Brazil, using radiosonde data at Manaus. A dynamical model involving flow/Low Level Jet (LLJ between the 950hPa and 926 hPa levels, between 860 hPa and 880 hPa levels (correspounding to 850 hPa intermediary level and in the third higher layer between 800 hPa and 700 hPa levels (middle levels is described. These streams and jets characterise a dynamical process of intense energy and mass transport, creating a turbulent stratified structure which is very efficient in producing convection at tropical region, demonstrating the influence of the Tropical Planetary Boundary Layer (TPLB, in the mesoscale convection generation.

  18. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown

    Li, Zuqun

    2011-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  19. Thermodynamic approach to rheological modeling and simulations at the configuration space level of description

    Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Conrads, W.

    1997-01-01

    The so-called matrix model is a general thermodynamic framework for microrheological modeling. This model has already been proven to be applicable for a wide class of systems, in particular to models formulated at the configuration tensor level of description. For models formulated at the

  20. Evidences of the expanding Earth from space-geodetic data over solid land and sea level rise in recent two decades

    Wenbin Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the space-geodetic data recorded at globally distributed stations over solid land spanning a period of more than 20-years under the International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2008, our previous estimate of the average-weighted vertical variation of the Earth's solid surface suggests that the Earth's solid part is expanding at a rate of 0.24 ± 0.05 mm/a in recent two decades. In another aspect, the satellite altimetry observations spanning recent two decades demonstrate the sea level rise (SLR rate 3.2 ± 0.4 mm/a, of which 1.8 ± 0.5 mm/a is contributed by the ice melting over land. This study shows that the oceanic thermal expansion is 1.0 ± 0.1 mm/a due to the temperature increase in recent half century, which coincides with the estimate provided by previous authors. The SLR observation by altimetry is not balanced by the ice melting and thermal expansion, which is an open problem before this study. However, in this study we infer that the oceanic part of the Earth is expanding at a rate about 0.4 mm/a. Combining the expansion rates of land part and oceanic part, we conclude that the Earth is expanding at a rate of 0.35 ± 0.47 mm/a in recent two decades. If the Earth expands at this rate, then the altimetry-observed SLR can be well explained.

  1. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  2. History and Benefits of Engine Level Testing Throughout the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program

    VanHooser, Katherine; Kan, Kenneth; Maddux, Lewis; Runkle, Everett

    2010-01-01

    Rocket engine testing is important throughout a program s life and is essential to the overall success of the program. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing can be divided into three phases: development, certification, and operational. Development tests are conducted on the basic design and are used to develop safe start and shutdown transients and to demonstrate mainstage operation. This phase helps form the foundation of the program, demands navigation of a very steep learning curve, and yields results that shape the final engine design. Certification testing involves multiple engine samples and more aggressive test profiles that explore the boundaries of the engine to vehicle interface requirements. The hardware being tested may have evolved slightly from that in the development phase. Operational testing is conducted with mature hardware and includes acceptance testing of flight assets, resolving anomalies that occur in flight, continuing to expand the performance envelope, and implementing design upgrades. This paper will examine these phases of testing and their importance to the SSME program. Examples of tests conducted in each phase will also be presented.

  3. TanDEM-X the Earth surface observation project from space level - basis and mission status

    Jerzy Wiśniowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TanDEM-X is DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt the Earth surface observation project using high-resolution SAR interferometry. It opens a new era in space borne radar remote sensing. The system is based on two satellites: TerraSAR-X (TSX and TanDEM-X (TDX flying on the very close, strictly controlled orbits. This paper gives an overview of the radar technology and overview of the TanDEM-X mission concept which is based on several innovative technologies. The primary objective of the mission is to deliver a global digital elevation model (DEM with an unprecedented accuracy, which is equal to or surpass the HRTI-3 specifications (12 m posting, relative height accuracy ±2 m for slope < 20% and ±4 m for slope > 20% [8]. Beyond that, TanDEM-X provides a highly reconfigurable platform for the demonstration of new radar imaging techniques and applications.[b]Keywords[/b]: remote sensing, Bistatic SAR, digital elevation model (DEM, Helix formation, SAR interferomery, HRTI-3, synchronization

  4. Minimum deltaV Burn Planning for the International Space Station Using a Hybrid Optimization Technique, Level 1

    Brown, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) trajectory is coordinated and executed by the Trajectory Operations and Planning (TOPO) group at NASA's Johnson Space Center. TOPO group personnel routinely generate look-ahead trajectories for the ISS that incorporate translation burns needed to maintain its orbit over the next three to twelve months. The burns are modeled as in-plane, horizontal burns, and must meet operational trajectory constraints imposed by both NASA and the Russian Space Agency. In generating these trajectories, TOPO personnel must determine the number of burns to model, each burn's Time of Ignition (TIG), and magnitude (i.e. deltaV) that meet these constraints. The current process for targeting these burns is manually intensive, and does not take advantage of more modern techniques that can reduce the workload needed to find feasible burn solutions, i.e. solutions that simply meet the constraints, or provide optimal burn solutions that minimize the total DeltaV while simultaneously meeting the constraints. A two-level, hybrid optimization technique is proposed to find both feasible and globally optimal burn solutions for ISS trajectory planning. For optimal solutions, the technique breaks the optimization problem into two distinct sub-problems, one for choosing the optimal number of burns and each burn's optimal TIG, and the other for computing the minimum total deltaV burn solution that satisfies the trajectory constraints. Each of the two aforementioned levels uses a different optimization algorithm to solve one of the sub-problems, giving rise to a hybrid technique. Level 2, or the outer level, uses a genetic algorithm to select the number of burns and each burn's TIG. Level 1, or the inner level, uses the burn TIGs from Level 2 in a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm to compute a minimum total deltaV burn solution subject to the trajectory constraints. The total deltaV from Level 1 is then used as a fitness function by the genetic

  5. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  6. A State-Space Approach to Optimal Level-Crossing Prediction for Linear Gaussian Processes

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In many complex engineered systems, the ability to give an alarm prior to impending critical events is of great importance. These critical events may have varying degrees of severity, and in fact they may occur during normal system operation. In this article, we investigate approximations to theoretically optimal methods of designing alarm systems for the prediction of level-crossings by a zero-mean stationary linear dynamic system driven by Gaussian noise. An optimal alarm system is designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. This work introduces the use of Kalman filtering in tandem with the optimal level-crossing problem. It is shown that there is a negligible loss in overall accuracy when using approximations to the theoretically optimal predictor, at the advantage of greatly reduced computational complexity. I

  7. Modeling tides and vertical tidal mixing: A reality check

    Robertson, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Recently, there has been a great interest in the tidal contribution to vertical mixing in the ocean. In models, vertical mixing is estimated using parameterization of the sub-grid scale processes. Estimates of the vertical mixing varied widely depending on which vertical mixing parameterization was used. This study investigated the performance of ten different vertical mixing parameterizations in a terrain-following ocean model when simulating internal tides. The vertical mixing parameterization was found to have minor effects on the velocity fields at the tidal frequencies, but large effects on the estimates of vertical diffusivity of temperature. Although there was no definitive best performer for the vertical mixing parameterization, several parameterizations were eliminated based on comparison of the vertical diffusivity estimates with observations. The best performers were the new generic coefficients for the generic length scale schemes and Mellor-Yamada's 2.5 level closure scheme.

  8. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  9. Interactomes to Biological Phase Space: a call to begin thinking at a new level in computational biology.

    Davidson, George S.; Brown, William Michael

    2007-09-01

    Techniques for high throughput determinations of interactomes, together with high resolution protein collocalizations maps within organelles and through membranes will soon create a vast resource. With these data, biological descriptions, akin to the high dimensional phase spaces familiar to physicists, will become possible. These descriptions will capture sufficient information to make possible realistic, system-level models of cells. The descriptions and the computational models they enable will require powerful computing techniques. This report is offered as a call to the computational biology community to begin thinking at this scale and as a challenge to develop the required algorithms and codes to make use of the new data.3

  10. Robust space-time extraction of ventricular surface evolution using multiphase level sets

    Drapaca, Corina S.; Cardenas, Valerie; Studholme, Colin

    2004-05-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of accurately extracting the CSF-tissue boundary, particularly around the ventricular surface, from serial structural MRI of the brain acquired in imaging studies of aging and dementia. This is a challenging problem because of the common occurrence of peri-ventricular lesions which locally alter the appearance of white matter. We examine a level set approach which evolves a four dimensional description of the ventricular surface over time. This has the advantage of allowing constraints on the contour in the temporal dimension, improving the consistency of the extracted object over time. We follow the approach proposed by Chan and Vese which is based on the Mumford and Shah model and implemented using the Osher and Sethian level set method. We have extended this to the 4 dimensional case to propagate a 4D contour toward the tissue boundaries through the evolution of a 5D implicit function. For convergence we use region-based information provided by the image rather than the gradient of the image. This is adapted to allow intensity contrast changes between time frames in the MRI sequence. Results on time sequences of 3D brain MR images are presented and discussed.

  11. Coordination in vertical jumping

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Ingen Schenau, Gerrit Jan

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate for vertical jumping the relationships between muscle actions, movement pattern and jumping achievement. Ten skilled jumpers performed jumps with preparatory countermovement. Ground reaction forces and cinematographic data were recorded. In addition,

  12. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  13. Two different carbon-hydrogen complexes in silicon with closely spaced energy levels

    Stübner, R., E-mail: ronald.stuebner@physik.tu-dresden.de, E-mail: kolkov@ifpan.edu.pl; Kolkovsky, Vl., E-mail: ronald.stuebner@physik.tu-dresden.de, E-mail: kolkov@ifpan.edu.pl; Weber, J. [Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Angewandte Physik, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-08-07

    An acceptor and a single donor state of carbon-hydrogen defects (CH{sub A} and CH{sub B}) are observed by Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy at 90 K. CH{sub A} appears directly after hydrogenation by wet chemical etching or hydrogen plasma treatment, whereas CH{sub B} can be observed only after a successive annealing under reverse bias at about 320 K. The activation enthalpies of these states are 0.16 eV for CH{sub A} and 0.14 eV for CH{sub B}. Our results reconcile previous controversial experimental results. We attribute CH{sub A} to the configuration where substitutional carbon binds a hydrogen atom on a bond centered position between carbon and the neighboring silicon and CH{sub B} to another carbon-hydrogen defect.

  14. Synchronised Voltage Space Vector Modulation for Three-level Inverters with Common-mode Voltage Elimination

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulse-width modulation (PWM) is disseminated to three-level voltage source inverters with control algorithms with elimination of the common-mode voltages in three-phase drive systems with PWM. It provides smooth pulses-ratio changing and a quarter-wave symmetry...... of the voltage waveforms during the whole control range including overmodulation. Continuous, discontinuous and "direct-direct" schemes of synchronous PWM with both algebraic and trigonometric control functions have been analysed and compared. Simulations give the behaviour of the proposed methods and show some...... advantages of synchronous PWM in comparison with asynchronous at low ratios between the switching frequency and fundamental frequency....

  15. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  16. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  17. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  18. Verifying the transition from low levels of nuclear weapons to a nuclear weapon-free world. VERTIC research report no. 2

    Milne, T.; Wilson, H.

    1999-01-01

    The process of verifying the complete elimination of nuclear warheads in national stockpiles can be divided, conceptually, into four stages: first, comprehensive declarations of warhead and material inventories, as a base-line from which verified disarmament can proceed; second, the transfer of all nuclear weapons and weapons-grade fissile material into bonded store; third, demilitarisation measures, such as to render warheads unusable without disassembly and refabrication; fourth, dismantlement of warheads and disposition of fissile material. Many of the technologies and technologies and techniques needed for verifying the elimination of nuclear warheads have been worked out at a general level, largely in US studies. While it is essential that these techniques are refined and improved, what is most important now, if disarmament is to proceed expeditiously, is for each of the nuclear weapon states (NWS) themselves to study the central verification problems and requirements in order to identify particular techniques and approaches that meet their needs. As yet there is no system of integrated data exchange and verification that any of the NWS is willing to endorse. Each of the NWS should give detailed consideration to the logistics of dismantling the warheads in their respective stockpiles, including, for example, the practicalities of accommodating international verification at their potential dismantlement facilities. Each of the NWS might usefully review exactly which details of warhead design and construction have to remain secret in the course of the disarmament process, in the first place from one another, and second from the IAEA or any other international body that might be involved in international disarmament arrangements. Introducing transparency and verification into national nuclear weapons programmes might have a significant financial cost. Research and ingenuity might reduce this cost, however, and early investments in these fields, with sharing of

  19. Prototype architecture for a VLSI level zero processing system. [Space Station Freedom

    Shi, Jianfei; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Horner, Ward P.; Chesney, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype architecture and implementation of a high-speed level zero processing (LZP) system are discussed. Due to the new processing algorithm and VLSI technology, the prototype LZP system features compact size, low cost, high processing throughput, and easy maintainability and increased reliability. Though extensive control functions have been done by hardware, the programmability of processing tasks makes it possible to adapt the system to different data formats and processing requirements. It is noted that the LZP system can handle up to 8 virtual channels and 24 sources with combined data volume of 15 Gbytes per orbit. For greater demands, multiple LZP systems can be configured in parallel, each called a processing channel and assigned a subset of virtual channels. The telemetry data stream will be steered into different processing channels in accordance with their virtual channel IDs. This super system can cope with a virtually unlimited number of virtual channels and sources. In the near future, it is expected that new disk farms with data rate exceeding 150 Mbps will be available from commercial vendors due to the advance in disk drive technology.

  20. Tolerances for the vertical emittance in damping rings

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1991-11-01

    Future damping rings for linear colliders will need to have very small vertical emittances. In the limit of low beam current, the vertical emittance is primarily determined by the vertical dispersion and the betatron coupling. In this paper, the contributions to these effects from random misalignments are calculated and tolerances are derived to limit the vertical emittance with a 95% confidence level. 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. Determination of Functional Capabilities, the Level of Physical Performance and the State of Main Physiological Body Systems in the First Hours after the Accomplishment of Long-term Space Flights ("Field Test")

    Kozlovskaya, Inesa; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Kitov, Vladimir; Reschke, Millard; Kofman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stay in weightlessness is accompanied by alterations in the activity of main physiological body systems including sensory-motor, skeletal-muscular disturbances and cardiovascular deconditioning. However, up to now, there are no data on the state and level of functional performance of cosmonauts/astronauts directly after flight, nor are there data to help define the dynamic recovery of functional characteristics and work efficiency which are greatly needed to provide the safety and planning of their activity once they reach space objects. The Russian and American scientists are currently engaged in a joint experiment known as the "Field Test" with the goal of studying the functional performance and the state of main physiological body systems directly after landing and their temporal recovery dynamics. The functional performance is identified during the test by temporal characteristics of the movements of spatial translation, the stability of the vertical stance for 3.5 min, and the kinematic characteristics of walking - non-complicated and complicated. The following characteristics are identified as physiological characteristics of the test: a) orthostatic tolerance during stand test, b) back muscle tone; c) vertical stability - by characteristics of the correction responses to unexpected perturbations of the vertical stance, and d) support reactions during the performance of the full battery of tests. To date, a pilot version of the "Field Test" has been conducted with participation from four Russian cosmonauts. The results of studies have shown that in 1 - 5 hours after landing the functional abilities of the cosmonauts are considerably reduced. All the test movements at this time are considerably slower than preflight and the more complicated the task is, the greater significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance: during the first test that occurs 1 - 5 hours after landing. two of four cosmonauts declined to continue the task after the orthostatic test

  2. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL V009 (UARCL3AL) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  3. UARS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AL V010 (UARIS3AL) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AL data product consists of daily, 4 degree increment latitude-ordered vertical profiles of...

  4. UARS Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AT V010 (UARIS3AT) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of...

  5. UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT V009 (UARCL3AT) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Level 3AT data product consists of daily, 65.536 second interval time-ordered vertical profiles of temperature...

  6. Possible links between extreme levels of space weather changes and human health state in middle latitudes: direct and indirect indicators

    Safaraly-Oghlu Babayev, Elchin

    The Sun is the main driver of space weather. The possibility that solar activity variations and related changes in the Earth's magnetosphere can affect human life and health has been debated for many decades. This problem is being studied extensively in the late 20th and early 21st centuries and it is still being contradictory in some cases. The relations between space weather changes and the human health have global implications, but they are especially significant for habitants living at high geomagnetic latitudes where the geomagnetic disturbances have larger amplitudes. Nevertheless, the relevant researches are also important for humans living at any geomagnetic latitudes with different levels of geomagnetic activity; recent researches show that weak geomagnetic disturbances can also have adverse effects. Unfortunately, limited comparison of results of investigations on possible effects to humans from geomagnetic activity exists between studies conducted in high, middle and low latitudes. Knowledge about the relationship between solar and geomagnetic activity and the human health would allow to get better prepared beforehand for any future geomagnetic event and its impacts anywhere. For these purposes there are conducted collaborative (jointly with scientists from Israel, Bulgaria, Russia and Belgium) and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences for revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems in different phases of solar cycle 23. This paper describes some recently obtained results of the complex (theoretical, experimental and statistical) studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray activities upon human cardio-health state as well as human physiological and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe

  7. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  8. CAMEX-3 AIRBORNE VERTICAL ATMOSPHERE PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-3 DC-8 Airborne Vertical Atmosphere Profiling System (AVAPS) uses dropwindsonde and Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers to measure the atmospheric...

  9. Vertical Lift by Series Hybrid Power, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major market for vertical lift aircraft is in urban operations, primarily for police and electronic news gathering (typically a Bell 206 or a Eurocopter AS350)....

  10. Ultra-Low Noise Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A unique type of vertical lift propulsor is being designed/analyzed/ developed to push blade passage frequency harmonics above the human audible range, while also...

  11. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  12. [Duane vertical surgical treatment].

    Merino, M L; Gómez de Liaño, P; Merino, P; Franco, G

    2014-04-01

    We report 3 cases with a vertical incomitance in upgaze, narrowing of palpebral fissure, and pseudo-overaction of both inferior oblique muscles. Surgery consisted of an elevation of both lateral rectus muscles with an asymmetrical weakening. A satisfactory result was achieved in 2 cases, whereas a Lambda syndrome appeared in the other case. The surgical technique of upper-insertion with a recession of both lateral rectus muscles improved vertical incomitance in 2 of the 3 patients; however, a residual deviation remains in the majority of cases. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Vertical Protocol Composition

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  14. Vertical Search Engines

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  15. Vertical cavity laser

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index...

  16. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63 ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  18. Vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields

    Hagyard, M. J.; Teuber, D.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Henze, W., Jr.; Beckers, J. M.; Bruner, M.; Hyder, C. L.; Woodgate, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) guest investigation to determine the vertical gradients of sunspot magnetic fields for the first time from coordinated observations of photospheric and transition-region fields are described. Descriptions are given of both the photospheric vector field of a sunspot, derived from observations using the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph, and of the line-of-sight component in the transition region, obtained from the SMM Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter instrument. On the basis of these data, vertical gradients of the line-of-sight magnetic field component are calculated using three methods. It is found that the vertical gradient of Bz is lower than values from previous studies and that the transition-region field occurs at a height of approximately 4000-6000 km above the photosphere.

  19. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  20. A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels

    Elliott P. Flowers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of physical activity (PA is a growing public health concern. There is a growing body of literature that suggests a positive relationship may exist between the amount of local green space near one’s home and PA levels. For instance, park proximity has been shown to predict PA levels amongst certain populations. However, there is little evidence for the role of relatedness towards nature and perceptions of local green space on this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine, in a National UK sample, whether subjective indices associated with local green space were better predictors of visit frequency to local green space and PA levels compared to objectively measured quantity of local green space. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. From a random sample, 2079 working age adults responded to an online survey in September 2011. Demographics, self-reported PA, objective measures of the local environment (including local green space, road coverage, and environmental deprivation, were assessed in conjunction with perceptions of local green space and nature relatedness. Quantity of local green space was assessed by cross-referencing respondents’ home postcodes with general land use databases. Regression models were conducted to assess which of our independent variables best predicted visit frequency to local green space and/or meeting PA guidelines. In addition, an ordinal regression was run to examine the relationship between visit frequency to local green space and the likelihood of meeting national PA guidelines. Results Nature relatedness was the strongest predictor for both visit frequency to local green space and meeting PA guidelines. Results show that perceived quality is a better predictor of visit frequency to local green space than objective quantity of local green space. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of PA was over four times greater for people who visited local green space once

  1. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  2. Vertical Integration: Teachers' Knowledge and Teachers' Voice.

    Corrie, L.

    1995-01-01

    Traces the theoretical basis for vertical integration in early school years. Contrasts transmission-based pedagogy with a higher level of teacher control, and acquirer-based pedagogy with a higher level of student control. Suggests that early childhood pedagogy will be maintained when teachers are able to articulate their pedagogical knowledge and…

  3. Vertical steam generator

    Cuda, F.; Kondr, M.; Kresta, M.; Kusak, V.; Manek, O.; Turon, S.

    1982-01-01

    A vertical steam generator for nuclear power plants and dual purpose power plants consists of a cylindrical vessel in which are placed heating tubes in the form upside-down U. The heating tubes lead to the jacket of the cylindrical collector placed in the lower part of the steam generator perpendicularly to its vertical axis. The cylindrical collector is divided by a longitudinal partition into the inlet and outlet primary water sections of the heating tubes. One ends of the heating tube leads to the jacket of the collector for primary water feeding and the second ends of the heating tubes into the jacket of the collector which feeds and offtakes primary water from the heating tubes. (B.S.)

  4. Vertical organic transistors.

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  5. Mobility Engineering in Vertical Field Effect Transistors Based on Van der Waals Heterostructures.

    Shin, Yong Seon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young Rae; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, I Min; Kang, Won Tae; Lee, Boo Heung; Kim, Kunnyun; Heo, Jinseong; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Young Hee; Yu, Woo Jong

    2018-03-01

    Vertical integration of 2D layered materials to form van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) offers new functional electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the mobility in vertical carrier transport in vdWHs of vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) is not yet investigated in spite of the importance of mobility for the successful application of VFETs in integrated circuits. Here, the mobility in VFET of vdWHs under different drain biases, gate biases, and metal work functions is first investigated and engineered. The traps in WSe 2 are the main source of scattering, which influences the vertical mobility and three distinct transport mechanisms: Ohmic transport, trap-limited transport, and space-charge-limited transport. The vertical mobility in VFET can be improved by suppressing the trap states by raising the Fermi level of WSe 2 . This is achieved by increasing the injected carrier density by applying a high drain voltage, or decreasing the Schottky barrier at the graphene/WSe 2 and metal/WSe 2 junctions by applying a gate bias and reducing the metal work function, respectively. Consequently, the mobility in Mn vdWH at +50 V gate voltage is about 76 times higher than the initial mobility of Au vdWH. This work enables further improvements in the VFET for successful application in integrated circuits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  7. Evaluation of vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms in the HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    Halliwell, George R.

    Vertical coordinate and vertical mixing algorithms included in the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) are evaluated in low-resolution climatological simulations of the Atlantic Ocean. The hybrid vertical coordinates are isopycnic in the deep ocean interior, but smoothly transition to level (pressure) coordinates near the ocean surface, to sigma coordinates in shallow water regions, and back again to level coordinates in very shallow water. By comparing simulations to climatology, the best model performance is realized using hybrid coordinates in conjunction with one of the three available differential vertical mixing models: the nonlocal K-Profile Parameterization, the NASA GISS level 2 turbulence closure, and the Mellor-Yamada level 2.5 turbulence closure. Good performance is also achieved using the quasi-slab Price-Weller-Pinkel dynamical instability model. Differences among these simulations are too small relative to other errors and biases to identify the "best" vertical mixing model for low-resolution climate simulations. Model performance deteriorates slightly when the Kraus-Turner slab mixed layer model is used with hybrid coordinates. This deterioration is smallest when solar radiation penetrates beneath the mixed layer and when shear instability mixing is included. A simulation performed using isopycnic coordinates to emulate the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM), which uses Kraus-Turner mixing without penetrating shortwave radiation and shear instability mixing, demonstrates that the advantages of switching from isopycnic to hybrid coordinates and including more sophisticated turbulence closures outweigh the negative numerical effects of maintaining hybrid vertical coordinates.

  8. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    Unverdorben, Christopher Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb -1 . The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W + W - b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 . To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K 0 s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 <1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 , provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke V ts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  9. Space-time clustering of childhood malaria at the household level: a dynamic cohort in a Mali village

    Ouattara Amed

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the risk of malaria have led the WHO to recommend fine-scale stratification of the epidemiological situation, making it possible to set up actions and clinical or basic researches targeting high-risk zones. Before initiating such studies it is necessary to define local patterns of malaria transmission and infection (in time and in space in order to facilitate selection of the appropriate study population and the intervention allocation. The aim of this study was to identify, spatially and temporally, high-risk zones of malaria, at the household level (resolution of 1 to 3 m. Methods This study took place in a Malian village with hyperendemic seasonal transmission as part of Mali-Tulane Tropical Medicine Research Center (NIAID/NIH. The study design was a dynamic cohort (22 surveys, from June 1996 to June 2001 on about 1300 children (Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale infection and P. falciparum gametocyte carriage by means of time series and Kulldorff's scan statistic for space-time cluster detection. Results The time series analysis determined that malaria parasitemia (primarily P. falciparum was persistently present throughout the population with the expected seasonal variability pattern and a downward temporal trend. We identified six high-risk clusters of P. falciparum infection, some of which persisted despite an overall tendency towards a decrease in risk. The first high-risk cluster of P. falciparum infection (rate ratio = 14.161 was detected from September 1996 to October 1996, in the north of the village. Conclusion This study showed that, although infection proportions tended to decrease, high-risk zones persisted in the village particularly near temporal backwaters. Analysis of this heterogeneity at the household scale by GIS methods lead to target preventive actions more accurately on the high-risk zones identified. This mapping of malaria risk makes it possible

  10. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  11. Influence of chemical disorder on the electronic level spacing distribution of the Ag{sub 5083} nanoparticle: A tight-binding study

    Medrano, L.R., E-mail: leonardoms20@gmail.com [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14 (Peru); Landauro, C.V., E-mail: clandauros@unmsm.edu.pe [Faculty of Physical Sciences, National University of San Marcos, P.O. Box 14-0149, Lima 14 (Peru)

    2013-03-01

    In the present work we study, employing a tight-binding Hamiltonian, the influence of chemical disorder on the electronic level spacing distribution of a silver nanoparticle containing 5083 atoms (∼ 5.5 nm). This nanoparticle was obtained by molecular dynamics simulations with a tight-binding atomic potential. The results indicate that in the absence of disorder the level spacing distributions are similar to those expected for systems belonging to the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. Whereas, after increasing the chemical disorder, the electronic level spacing distribution and the Σ{sub 2} statistics tend to the corresponding form for the Poisson Ensemble, i.e., the silver nanoparticle acquires an insulating character which is expected for strongly disordered systems. Hence, this kind of disorder produces the localization of the electronic states of the nanoparticle.

  12. Vertical axis wind turbine

    Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

  13. Vertical vector face lift.

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vertical organic transistors

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  15. Sobolev spaces

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  16. A Comparison of Methods of Vertical Equating.

    Loyd, Brenda H.; Hoover, H. D.

    Rasch model vertical equating procedures were applied to three mathematics computation tests for grades six, seven, and eight. Each level of the test was composed of 45 items in three sets of 15 items, arranged in such a way that tests for adjacent grades had two sets (30 items) in common, and the sixth and eighth grades had 15 items in common. In…

  17. Vertical integration as organizational strategy formation

    Romme, A.G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper contributes to research into the strategy—environment relationship, especially looking at the issue of vertical integration. It aims at a synthesis of process and content approaches to strategic change on the level of the organization’s dominant group. The key factor is uncertainty, which

  18. Vertical integration of HRD policy within companies

    Wognum, Ida

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns HRD policy making in companies. More specifically, it explores whether so-called vertical integration of HRD policy at different organizational levels occurs within companies. The study involved forty-four large companies in the industrial and the financial and commercial

  19. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  20. Characterization of System Level Single Event Upset (SEU) Responses using SEU Data, Classical Reliability Models, and Space Environment Data

    Berg, Melanie; Label, Kenneth; Campola, Michael; Xapsos, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method for the application of single event upset (SEU) data towards the analysis of complex systems using transformed reliability models (from the time domain to the particle fluence domain) and space environment data.

  1. Vertical designs and agriculture joined for food production in the modules for urban vertical gardens.

    Fritz Hammerling Navas Navarro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modules for Vertical Urban Gardens (MHUG are a hybrid of vertical gardens and urban agriculture. Vertical gardens have been recognized for the past 2500 years, mainly in the form of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, while urban agriculture is being practiced today by more than 700 million people worldwide. The benefits that MHUV offers are multiple, but perhaps the most significant is the consumption of foods free of chemicals, free of GMO’s, irrigated with potable water, and that are 100% organic. It is presented a “culinary and medicinal module” that can be implemented in the kitchen area, on roofs, terraces, balconies or patios, where species such as thyme, mint, peppermint, parsley, lemon balm and rosemary can be at hand when preparing dishes. The module consists of three plastic baskets that are recyclable and resistant to decay. Each basket has four rows with space for fourteen seedlings. The baskets are first lined on the interior with a black geotextile, and then are covered with a mesh (polisombra which helps support the substrate and seedlings. Each basket rests on a structure made of recycled wood (from pallets or crates that both holds the basket vertically and serves as a rain cover. The cages measure 0.33m by 0.55m by 0.14m. Each module comes with hosing and connectors for a drip irrigation system, and an instructional manual. The modules demonstrate the benefits of urban agriculture combined with the beauty and modality of vertical gardens, leading to useful applications for food production and decoration in the spaces where vertical urban gardens are possible.

  2. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  3. Wind tower with vertical rotors

    Dietz, A

    1978-08-03

    The invention concerns a wind tower with vertical rotors. A characteristic is that the useful output of the rotors is increased by the wind pressure, which is guided to the rotors at the central opening and over the whole height of the structure by duct slots in the inner cells. These duct slots start behind the front nose of the inner cell and lead via the transverse axis of the pillar at an angle into the space between the inner cells and the cell body. This measure appreciably increases the useful output of the rotors, as the rotors do not have to provide any displacement work from their output, but receive additional thrust. The wind pressure pressing from inside the rotor and accelerating from the outside produces a better outflow of the wind from the power plant pillar with only small tendency to turbulence, which appreciably improves the effect of the adjustable turbulence smoothers, which are situated below the rotors over the whole height.

  4. El deseo por alcanzar un espacio acogedor: experiencias de mujeres como sujeto erguido en la construcción de vivienda; O desejo de alcançar um espaço acolhedor: experiências de mulheres como sujeito vertical na construção da moradia; The desire to reach a refuge space: experiences of women as a vertical subject in the construction of housing

    Sylvia Almeida Leñero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Lograr un cobijo propio, es un reto, por lo general, difícil de cumplir. Con grandes esfuerzos construimos un espacio que no siempre se adapta a nuestro ser y cultura; lugares que no siempre nos cobija, ni permite desenvolvernos. La urgencia nos lleva a considerar que el problema es personal y de ser las culpables de nuestra desgracia; al excluirnos, separarnos; anulando la posibilidad. Una forma de pensamiento dividida, que no incluye; más si desgasta, enferma, cansa. El tan sólo desear un cambio produce movimiento, un quiebre, una posibilidad, paradigma que nos lleva a donde nos corresponde estar. Es la construcción de uno mismo, más allá quede una casa, es construirnos como sujetos erguidos, conscientes.   Palabras clave: sujeto erguido, deseo, acogida.     Resumo: Alcançar um abrigo próprio, é um desafio, em geral, difícil de cumprir. Com grandes esforços construímos um espaço que nem sempre se adapta a nós e a nossa cultura; lugares que nem sempre nos abrigam, nem permite nosso desenvolvimento. A urgência nos leva a considerar que o problema é pessoal e de que somos culpados por nossa desgraça; ao excluirmos, separamos, anulando a possibilidade. Uma forma de pensamento dividido, que não incluí; mas se desgasta, adoenta, cansa. Apenas desejar uma mudança produz um movimento, uma quebra, uma possibilidade, paradigma que nos leva a onde nos corresponde estar. Na construção de si mesmo, mais além de uma casa, está a construção de sujeitos verticais, conscientes.   Palavras-chave: sujeito vertical; desejo; acolhida     Abstract: Reaching a shelter of their own is a challenge that is often difficult to meet. With great efforts we build a space that does not always suit us and our culture; Places that do not always shelter us, nor does it allow our development. Urgency leads us to consider that the problem is personal and that we are guilty of our misfortune; By excluding, separating, nullifying possibility

  5. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-10-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  6. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  7. Solar heat gain through vertical cylindrical glass

    Kassem, M.A.; Kaseb, S.; El-Refaie, M.F. [Cairo Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-07-01

    Spaces with nonplanar glazed envelopes are frequently encountered in contemporary buildings. Such spaces represent a problem when calculating the solar heat gain in the course of estimating the cooling or heating load; and hence, sizing of cooling or heating systems. The calculation, using the information currently available in the literature, is tedious and/or approximate. In the present work, the computational procedure for evaluating the solar heat gain to a space having a vertical cylindrical glass envelope is established, and, a computer program is coded to carry out the necessary computations and yield the results in a detailed usable form. The program is versatile and allows for the arbitrary variation of all pertinent parameters. (Author)

  8. Equilibrium vertical field in the TBR Tokamak

    Ueta, A.Y.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental study on the influence of the vertical magnetic field of the TBR tokamak on the stability and equilibrium of plasma column, was done. Magnetic pick-up coils were built to measure plasma current and position, together with active networks, necessary fo the electronic processing of signals. Some measurements were on the space configuration of the vertical field, and on the influence due to the toroidal vessel. From the data obtained it was possible to discuss the influence of the currents induced on the vessel surface, on plasma equilibrium. Theoretical and experimental results of the vertica field, as a function of plasma current were compared, and allowed an evaluation of the plasma kinetic pressure and temperature. (Author) [pt

  9. Defining the limits of outer space for regulatory purposes

    Bittencourt Neto, Olavo de Oliviera

    2015-01-01

    With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international Law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best ...

  10. Understanding the Primary School Students' Van Hiele Levels of Geometry Thinking in Learning Shapes and Spaces: A Q-Methodology

    Hock, Tan Tong; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted using a new hybrid method of research which combined qualitative and quantitative designs to investigate the viewpoints of primary school students' conceptual understanding in learning geometry from the aspect of shapes and spaces according to van Hiele theory. Q-methodology is used in this research to find out what…

  11. An implementation of core level spectroscopies in a real space Projector Augmented Wave density functional theory code

    Ljungberg, M.P.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Pettersson, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    computation of unoccupied states. The absolute energy scale is computed with the Delta Kohn–Sham method which is possible using specific PAW setups for the core-hole states. We show computed spectra for selected test cases (gas phase H2O and bulk diamond) and discuss the dependence on grid spacing and box...

  12. Estimation of exposure to atmospheric pollutants during pregnancy integrating space-time activity and indoor air levels: does it make a difference?

    Marion, OUIDIR; Lise, GIORGIS-ALLEMAND; Sarah, LYON-CAEN; Xavier, MORELLI; Claire, CRACOWSKI; Sabrina, PONTET; Isabelle, PIN; Johanna, LEPEULE; Valérie, SIROUX; Rémy, SLAMA

    2016-01-01

    Studies of air pollution effects during pregnancy generally only consider exposure in the outdoor air at the home address. We aimed to compare exposure models differing in their ability to account for the spatial resolution of pollutants, space-time activity and indoor air pollution levels. We recruited 40 pregnant women in the Grenoble urban area, France, who carried a Global Positioning System (GPS) during up to 3 weeks; in a subgroup, indoor measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) were conducted at home (n=9) and personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was assessed using passive air samplers (n=10). Outdoor concentrations of NO2, and PM2.5 were estimated from a dispersion model with a fine spatial resolution. Women spent on average 16 h per day at home. Considering only outdoor levels, for estimates at the home address, the correlation between the estimate using the nearest background air monitoring station and the estimate from the dispersion model was high (r=0.93) for PM2.5 and moderate (r=0.67) for NO2. The model incorporating clean GPS data was less correlated with the estimate relying on raw GPS data (r=0.77) than the model ignoring space-time activity (r=0.93). PM2.5 outdoor levels were not to moderately correlated with estimates from the model incorporating indoor measurements and space-time activity (r=−0.10 to 0.47), while NO2 personal levels were not correlated with outdoor levels (r=−0.42 to 0.03). In this urban area, accounting for space-time activity little influenced exposure estimates; in a subgroup of subjects (n=9), incorporating indoor pollution levels seemed to strongly modify them. PMID:26300245

  13. Appraisal of space words and allocation of emotion words in bodily space.

    Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos

    Full Text Available The body-specificity hypothesis (BSH predicts that right-handers and left-handers allocate positive and negative concepts differently on the horizontal plane, i.e., while left-handers allocate negative concepts on the right-hand side of their bodily space, right-handers allocate such concepts to the left-hand side. Similar research shows that people, in general, tend to allocate positive and negative concepts in upper and lower areas, respectively, in relation to the vertical plane. Further research shows a higher salience of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the performance of sensorimotor tasks. The aim of the paper is to examine whether there should be a dominance of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane, not only at a sensorimotor level but also at a conceptual level. In Experiment 1, various participants from diverse linguistic backgrounds were asked to rate the words "up", "down", "left", and "right". In Experiment 2, right-handed participants from two linguistic backgrounds were asked to allocate emotion words into a square grid divided into four boxes of equal areas. Results suggest that the vertical plane is more salient than the horizontal plane regarding the allocation of emotion words and positively-valenced words were placed in upper locations whereas negatively-valenced words were placed in lower locations. Together, the results lend support to the BSH while also suggesting a higher saliency of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the allocation of valenced words.

  14. Appraisal of space words and allocation of emotion words in bodily space.

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Elosúa, María Rosa; Yamada, Yuki; Hamm, Nicholas Francis; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The body-specificity hypothesis (BSH) predicts that right-handers and left-handers allocate positive and negative concepts differently on the horizontal plane, i.e., while left-handers allocate negative concepts on the right-hand side of their bodily space, right-handers allocate such concepts to the left-hand side. Similar research shows that people, in general, tend to allocate positive and negative concepts in upper and lower areas, respectively, in relation to the vertical plane. Further research shows a higher salience of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the performance of sensorimotor tasks. The aim of the paper is to examine whether there should be a dominance of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane, not only at a sensorimotor level but also at a conceptual level. In Experiment 1, various participants from diverse linguistic backgrounds were asked to rate the words "up", "down", "left", and "right". In Experiment 2, right-handed participants from two linguistic backgrounds were asked to allocate emotion words into a square grid divided into four boxes of equal areas. Results suggest that the vertical plane is more salient than the horizontal plane regarding the allocation of emotion words and positively-valenced words were placed in upper locations whereas negatively-valenced words were placed in lower locations. Together, the results lend support to the BSH while also suggesting a higher saliency of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the allocation of valenced words.

  15. Vertical guidance of shearers

    Pocock, J.

    1985-01-01

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  16. Non-perturbative renormalization in coordinate space for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action

    Cichy, Krzysztof [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Korcyl, Piotr [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). M. Smoluchowski Inst. of Physics

    2012-07-15

    We present results of a lattice QCD application of a coordinate space renormalization scheme for the extraction of renormalization constants for flavour non-singlet bilinear quark operators. The method consists in the analysis of the small-distance behaviour of correlation functions in Euclidean space and has several theoretical and practical advantages, in particular: it is gauge invariant, easy to implement and has relatively low computational cost. The values of renormalization constants in the X-space scheme can be converted to the MS scheme via 4-loop continuum perturbative formulae. Our results for N{sub f}=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action are compared to the ones from the RI-MOM scheme and show full agreement with this method. (orig.)

  17. Non-perturbative renormalization in coordinate space for Nf=2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan; Jansen, Karl; Korcyl, Piotr; Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow

    2012-07-01

    We present results of a lattice QCD application of a coordinate space renormalization scheme for the extraction of renormalization constants for flavour non-singlet bilinear quark operators. The method consists in the analysis of the small-distance behaviour of correlation functions in Euclidean space and has several theoretical and practical advantages, in particular: it is gauge invariant, easy to implement and has relatively low computational cost. The values of renormalization constants in the X-space scheme can be converted to the MS scheme via 4-loop continuum perturbative formulae. Our results for N f =2 maximally twisted mass fermions with tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action are compared to the ones from the RI-MOM scheme and show full agreement with this method. (orig.)

  18. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA Climate Change Initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    Legeais, Jean-Francois; Cazenave, Anny; Larnicol, Gille

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition...... to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV...... validation, performed by several groups of the ocean and climate modeling community. At last, the main improvements derived from the algorithms development dedicated to the 2016 full reprocessing of the dataset are described. Efforts have also focused on the improvement of the sea level estimation...

  19. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  20. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  1. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  2. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  3. Fock representations of the superalgebra sl(n+1 vertical bar m), its quantum analogue Uq[sl(n+1 vertical bar m)] and related quantum statistics

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.; Jeugt, J. van der

    1999-12-01

    Fock space representations of the Lie superalgebra sl(n + 1 vertical bar m) and of its quantum analogue U q [sl(n + 1 vertical bar m)] are written down. The results are based on a description of these superalgebras via creation and annihilation operators. The properties of the underlying statistics are briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Inservice testing of vertical pumps

    Cornman, R.E. Jr.; Schumann, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problems that may occur with vertical pumps while inservice tests are conducted in accordance with existing American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code, Section XI, standards. The vertical pump types discussed include single stage, multistage, free surface, and canned mixed flow pumps. Primary emphasis is placed on the hydraulic performance of the pump and the internal and external factors to the pump that impact hydraulic performance. In addition, the paper considers the mechanical design features that can affect the mechanical performance of vertical pumps. The conclusion shows how two recommended changes in the Code standards may increase the quality of the pump's operational readiness assessment during its service life

  5. Accurately measuring sea level change from space: an ESA climate change initiative for MSL closure budget studies

    Legeais, JeanFrancois; Benveniste, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. Sea level integrates the ocean warming, mountain glaciers and ice sheet melting. Understanding the sea level variability and changes implies an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales, in addition to understanding the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere. That is why Sea Level is one of the Essential Climate Variables (ECV) selected in the frame of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. It aims at providing long-term monitoring of the sea level ECV with regular updates, as required for climate studies. The program is now in its second phase of 3 year (following phase I during 2011-2013). The objectives are firstly to involve the climate research community, to refine their needs and collect their feedbacks on product quality. And secondly to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate an updated climate time series and to produce and validate the Sea Level ECV product. This will better answer the climate user needs by improving the quality of the Sea Level products and maintain a sustain service for an up-to-date production. This has led to the production of a first version of the Sea Level ECV which has benefited from yearly extensions and now covers the period 1993-2014. Within phase II, new altimeter standards have been developed and tested in order to reprocess the dataset with the best standards for climate studies. The reprocessed ECV will be released in summer 2016. We will present the main achievements of the ESA CCI Sea Level Project. On the one hand, the major steps required to produce the 22 years climate time series are briefly described: collect and refine the user requirements, development of adapted algorithms for climate applications and specification of the production system. On the other hand, the product characteristics are described as well as the results from product

  6. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  7. Is power-space a continuum? Distance effect during power judgments.

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Zhu, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Despite the increasing evidence suggesting that power processing can activate vertical space schema, it still remains unclear whether this power-space is dichotomic or continuous. Here we tested the nature of the power-space by the distance effect, a continuous property of space cognition. In two experiments, participants were required to judge the power of one single word (Experiment 1) or compare the power of two words presented in pairs (Experiment 2). The power distance was indexed by the absolute difference of power ratings. Results demonstrated that reaction time decreased with the power distance, whereas accuracy increased with the power distance. The findings indicated that different levels of power were presented as different vertical heights, implying that there was a common mechanism underlying space and power cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  9. Rapid Ice-Sheet Changes and Mechanical Coupling to Solid-Earth/Sea-Level and Space Geodetic Observation

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations in gravitational and rotational potentials caused by climate driven mass redistribution on the earth's surface, such as ice sheet melting and terrestrial water storage, affect the spatiotemporal variability in global and regional sea level. Here we present a numerically accurate, computationally efficient, high-resolution model for sea level. Unlike contemporary models that are based on spherical-harmonic formulation, the model can operate efficiently in a flexible embedded finite-element mesh system, thus capturing the physics operating at km-scale yet capable of simulating geophysical quantities that are inherently of global scale with minimal computational cost. One obvious application is to compute evolution of sea level fingerprints and associated geodetic and astronomical observables (e.g., geoid height, gravity anomaly, solid-earth deformation, polar motion, and geocentric motion) as a companion to a numerical 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet simulation, thus capturing global signatures of climate driven mass redistribution. We evaluate some important time-varying signatures of GRACE inferred ice sheet mass balance and continental hydrological budget; for example, we identify dominant sources of ongoing sea-level change at the selected tide gauge stations, and explain the relative contribution of different sources to the observed polar drift. We also report our progress on ice-sheet/solid-earth/sea-level model coupling efforts toward realistic simulation of Pine Island Glacier over the past several hundred years.

  10. A Balancing Act in the Third Space: Graduate-Level Earth Science in an Urban Teacher-Residency Program

    Zirakparvar, N. Alex

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a museum-based urban teacher-residency (UTR) program's approach to building subject-specific content knowledge and research experience in Earth Science teacher candidates. In the museum-based program, graduate-level science courses and research experiences are designed and implemented specifically for the UTR by active Earth…

  11. Data driven modelling of vertical atmospheric radiation

    Antoch, Jaromir; Hlubinka, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) there exists a unique set of meteorological measurements consisting of the values of vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. In this paper a stochastic data-driven model based on nonlinear regression and on nonhomogeneous Poisson process is suggested. In the first part of the paper, growth curves were used to establish an appropriate nonlinear regression model. For comparison we considered a nonhomogeneous Poisson process with its intensity based on growth curves. In the second part both approaches were applied to the real data and compared. Computational aspects are briefly discussed as well. The primary goal of this paper is to present an improved understanding of the distribution of environmental radiation as obtained from the measurements of the vertical radioactivity profiles by the radioactivity sonde system. - Highlights: → We model vertical atmospheric levels of beta and gamma radiation. → We suggest appropriate nonlinear regression model based on growth curves. → We compare nonlinear regression modelling with Poisson process based modeling. → We apply both models to the real data.

  12. Non-state security governances and the implications for local-level citizenship in Danish semi-public city spaces

    Jensen, Thomas Søgaard

    directed at promoting peace and restoring the feel good factor - in public city space in Denmark. What precisely "security" is, what it should mean, and what should be done to guarantee it, has always been contested on an empirically level. The reason for this is that security often deals with social order......, being both the ontological condition of order, in the sense of absence of "real" and culturally constructed dangers, risks, and anxieties, and the political means to ensure this order. Based on a 5 month ethnographic field work among private security guards policing new kinds of public city spaces...... the globalisation and privatisation/commercialisation of security provision and how this development can be explained. Drawing on my own empirical data I hereafter argue that commercial security governance and local understandings of threats to (feelings of) security are not so much shaped by imaginaries...

  13. Interaction vertices in reduced string field theories

    Embacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to previous expectations, covariant overlap vertices are not always suitable for gauge-covariant formulations of bosonic string field theory with a reduced supplementary field content. This is demonstrated for the version of the theory suggested by Neveu, Schwarz and West. The method to construct the interaction, as formulated by Neveu and West, fails at one level higher than these authors have considered. The condition for a general vertex to describe formally a local gauge-invariant interaction is derived. The solution for the action functional and the gauge transformation law is exhibited for all fields at once, to the first order in the coupling constant. However, all these vertices seem to be unphysical. 21 refs. (Author)

  14. The Current Status of the Space Station Biological Research Project: a Core Facility Enabling Multi-Generational Studies under Slectable Gravity Levels

    Santos, O.

    2002-01-01

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) has developed a new plan which greatly reduces the development costs required to complete the facility. This new plan retains core capabilities while allowing for future growth. The most important piece of equipment required for quality biological research, the 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge capable of accommodating research specimen habitats at simulated gravity levels ranging from microgravity to 2.0 g, is being developed by NASDA, the Japanese space agency, for the SSBRP. This is scheduled for flight to the ISS in 2007. The project is also developing a multi-purpose incubator, an automated cell culture unit, and two microgravity habitat holding racks, currently scheduled for launch in 2005. In addition the Canadian Space Agency is developing for the project an insect habitat, which houses Drosophila melanogaster, and provides an internal centrifuge for 1 g controls. NASDA is also developing for the project a glovebox for the contained manipulation and analysis of biological specimens, scheduled for launch in 2006. This core facility will allow for experimentation on small plants (Arabidopsis species), nematode worms (C. elegans), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and a variety of microorganisms, bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. We propose a plan for early utilization which focuses on surveys of changes in gene expression and protein structure due to the space flight environment. In the future, the project is looking to continue development of a rodent habitat and a plant habitat that can be accommodated on the 2.5 meter centrifuge. By utilizing the early phases of the ISS to broadly answer what changes occur at the genetic and protein level of cells and organisms exposed to the ISS low earth orbit environment, we can generate interest for future experiments when the ISS capabilities allow for direct manipulation and intervention of experiments. The ISS continues to hold promise for high quality, long

  15. Hypothesis Tests for Bernoulli Experiments: Ordering the Sample Space by Bayes Factors and Using Adaptive Significance Levels for Decisions

    Carlos A. de B. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to find the relation between the adaptive significance level presented here and the sample size. We statisticians know of the inconsistency, or paradox, in the current classical tests of significance that are based on p-value statistics that are compared to the canonical significance levels (10%, 5%, and 1%: “Raise the sample to reject the null hypothesis” is the recommendation of some ill-advised scientists! This paper will show that it is possible to eliminate this problem of significance tests. We present here the beginning of a larger research project. The intention is to extend its use to more complex applications such as survival analysis, reliability tests, and other areas. The main tools used here are the Bayes factor and the extended Neyman–Pearson Lemma.

  16. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Goetz, G.

    2006-10-01

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 . Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  17. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  18. Vertical Wave Impacts on Offshore Wind Turbine Inspection Platforms

    Bredmose, Henrik; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    Breaking wave impacts on a monopile at 20 m depth are computed with a VOF (Volume Of Fluid) method. The impacting waves are generated by the second-order focused wave group technique, to obtain waves that break at the position of the monopile. The subsequent impact from the vertical run-up flow...... on a horizontal inspection platform is computed for five different platform levels. The computational results show details of monopile impact such as slamming pressures from the overturning wave front and the formation of run-up flow. The results show that vertical platform impacts can occur at 20 m water depth....... The dependence of the vertical platform load to the platform level is discussed. Attention is given to the significant downward force that occur after the upward force associated with the vertical impact. The effect of the numerical resolution on the results is assessed. The position of wave overturning is found...

  19. High Source Levels and Small Active Space of High-Pitched Song in Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus)

    Tervo, Outi M.; Christoffersen, Mads F.; Simon, Malene

    2012-01-01

    The low frequency, powerful vocalizations of blue and fin whales may potentially be detected by conspecifics across entire ocean basins. In contrast, humpback and bowhead whales produce equally loud, but more complex broadband vocalizations composed of higher frequencies that suffer from higher...... notes is between 40 and 130 km, an order of magnitude smaller than the estimated active space of low frequency blue and fin whale songs produced at similar source levels and for similar noise conditions. We propose that bowhead whales spatially compensate for their smaller communication range through...

  20. Gemini Space Program emblem

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  1. Refining geoid and vertical gradient of gravity anomaly

    Zhang Chijun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We have derived and tested several relations between geoid (N and quasi-geoid (ζ with model validation. The elevation correction consists of the first-term (Bouguer anomaly and second-term (vertical gradient of gravity anomaly. The vertical gradient was obtained from direct measurement and terrain calculation. The test results demonstrated that the precision of geoid can reach centimeter-level in mountains less than 5000 meters high.

  2. A note on unionized firms' incentive to integrate vertically

    Grandner, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I analyze a vertically structured monopolized market with unionized firms. I compare two types of contracts: vertical integration and franchising. With franchising and wage bargaining at the firm level the union in the downstream firm is either very powerful or has no bargaining power at all, depending on the specific time structure of the model. These arguments could make integration preferable for the profit owners even if integration is accompanied by small transaction costs....

  3. Vertical distribution of pelagic photosynthesis

    Lyngsgaard, Maren Moltke

    chlorophyll maxima (DCM) to be a general feature in the ocean. Today, it is generally accepted that DCMs occur in most of our oceans still, despite this empirical knowledge, subsurface primary production is still largely ignored in marine science. The work included in this PhD examines the vertical...... each of the three regions combined with 15 years of survey data for the Baltic Sea transition zone. Overall, the results of this PhD work show that the vertical distribution of phytoplankton and their activity is important for the understanding, dynamics and functioning of pelagic ecosystems. It, thus......, emphasizes that future research and modelling exercises aimed at improving understanding of pelagic ecosystems and their role in the global ocean should include a consideration of the vertical heterogeneity in phytoplankton distributions and activity....

  4. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Gupta, Vinay; Sangwan, Sukhbir Singh; Kamboj, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge. PMID:23162154

  5. Neglected locked vertical patellar dislocation

    Rakesh Kumar Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patellar dislocations occurring about the vertical and horizontal axis are rare and irreducible. The neglected patellar dislocation is still rarer. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of neglected vertical patellar dislocation in a 6 year-old boy who sustained an external rotational strain with a laterally directed force to his knee. Initially the diagnosis was missed and 2 months later open reduction was done. The increased tension generated by the rotation of the lateral extensor retinaculum kept the patella locked in the lateral gutter even with the knee in full extension. Traumatic patellar dislocation with rotation around a vertical axis has been described earlier, but no such neglected case has been reported to the best of our knowledge.

  6. Building a progressive vertical integration

    Charette, D.

    2008-01-01

    AAER Inc. is a Quebec-based company that manufactures turbines using proven European designs. This presentation discussed the company's business model. The company places an emphasis on identifying strategic and key components currently available for its turbines. Market analyses are performed in order to determine ideal suppliers and define business strategies and needs. The company invests in long-term relationships with its suppliers. Business partners for AAER are of a similar size and have a mutual understanding and respect for the company's business practices. Long-term agreements with suppliers are signed in order to ensure reliability and control over costs. Progressive vertical integration has been achieved by progressively manufacturing key components and integrating a North American supply chain. The company's secure supply chain and progressive vertical integration has significantly reduced financial costs and provided better quality control. It was concluded that vertical integration has also allowed AAER to provide better customer service and reduce transportation costs. tabs., figs

  7. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers. During launch operations, the payload/launch team sometimes asks the LWOs if they expect the upper-level winds to change during the countdown. The LWOs used numerical weather prediction model point forecasts to provide the information, but did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or adequately display the upper-level observations and compare them directly in the same display to the model point forecasts to help them determine which model performed the best. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) rawinsondes with point forecast wind profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM), Rapid Refresh (RAP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models to assess the performance of these models. The AMU suggested adding observations from the NASA 50 MHz wind profiler and one of the US Air Force 915 MHz wind profilers, both located near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, to supplement the AMPS observations with more frequent upper-level profiles. Figure 1 shows a map of KSC/CCAFS with the locations of the observation sites and the model point forecasts.

  8. Hybrid Vertical-Cavity Laser

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source (2) for light circuits on a silicon platform (3). A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region (101) arranged between a top mirror (4) and a bottom grating-mirror (12) in a grating region (11) in a silicon layer (10) on a substrate. A waveguide...... (18, 19) for receiving light from the grating region (11) is formed within or to be connected to the grating region, and functions as an 5 output coupler for the VCL. Thereby, vertical lasing modes (16) are coupled to lateral in-plane modes (17, 20) of the in-plane waveguide formed in the silicon...

  9. High-Level Design Space and Flexibility Exploration for Adaptive, Energy-Efficient WCDMA Channel Estimation Architectures

    Zoltán Endre Rákossy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast changing wireless communication standards coupled with strict performance constraints, the demand for flexible yet high-performance architectures is increasing. To tackle the flexibility requirement, software-defined radio (SDR is emerging as an obvious solution, where the underlying hardware implementation is tuned via software layers to the varied standards depending on power-performance and quality requirements leading to adaptable, cognitive radio. In this paper, we conduct a case study for representatives of two complexity classes of WCDMA channel estimation algorithms and explore the effect of flexibility on energy efficiency using different implementation options. Furthermore, we propose new design guidelines for both highly specialized architectures and highly flexible architectures using high-level synthesis, to enable the required performance and flexibility to support multiple applications. Our experiments with various design points show that the resulting architectures meet the performance constraints of WCDMA and a wide range of options are offered for tuning such architectures depending on power/performance/area constraints of SDR.

  10. Target-space duality between simple compact Lie groups and Lie algebras under the Hamiltonian formalism. Pt. 1. Remnants of duality at the classic level

    Alvarez, O.; Liu Chienhao

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that a possible classical remnant of the phenomenon of target-space duality (T-duality) would be the equivalence of the classical string Hamiltonian systems. Given a simple compact Lie group G with a bi-invariant metric and a generating function Γ suggested in the physics literature, we follow the above line of thought and work out the canonical transformation Φ generated by Γ together with an Ad-invariant metric and a B-field on the associated Lie algebra g of G so that G and g form a string target-space dual pair at the classical level under the Hamiltonian formalism. In this article, some general features of this Hamiltonian setting are discussed. We study properties of the canonical transformation Φ including a careful analysis of its domain and image. The geometry of the T-dual structure on g is lightly touched. We leave the task of tracing back the Hamiltonian formalism at the quantum level to the sequel of this paper. (orig.). With 4 figs

  11. Back-to-back three-level converter controlled by a novel space-vector hysteresis current control for wind conversion systems

    Ghennam, Tarak [Laboratoire d' Electronique de Puissance (LEP), UER: Electrotechnique, Ecole Militaire Polytechnique d' Alger, BP 17, Bordj EL Bahri, Alger (Algeria); Berkouk, El-Madjid [Laboratoire de Commande des Processus (LCP), Ecole Nationale Polytechnique d' Alger, BP 182, 10 avenue Hassen Badi, 16200 el Harrach (Algeria)

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, a novel space-vector hysteresis current control (SVHCC) is proposed for a back-to-back three-level converter which is used as an electronic interface in a wind conversion system. The proposed SVHCC controls the active and reactive powers delivered to the grid by the doubly fed induction machine (DFIM) through the control of its rotor currents. In addition, it controls the neutral point voltage by using the redundant inverter switching states. The three rotor current errors are gathered into a single space-vector quantity. The magnitude of the error vector is limited within boundary areas of a square shape. The control scheme is based firstly on the detection of the area and sector in which the vector tip of the current error can be located. Then, an appropriate voltage vector among the 27 voltage vectors of the three-level voltage source inverter (VSI) is applied to push the error vector towards the hysteresis boundaries. Simple look-up tables are required for the area and sector detection, and also for vector selection. The performance of the proposed control technique has been verified by simulations. (author)

  12. Knowledge spaces

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  13. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    lasting a few hundred thousand years as the island migrates over a broad flexural arch related to isostatic compensation of a nearby active volcano. The arch is located about 190±30 km away from the center of volcanic activity and is also related to the rejuvenated volcanic stage on the islands. Reefs on Oahu that are uplifted several tens of m above sea level are the primary evidence for uplift as the islands over-ride the flexural arch. At the other end of the movement spectrum, both in terms of magnitude and length of response, are the rapid uplift and subsidence that occurs as magma is accumulated within or erupted from active submarine volcanoes. These changes are measured in days to years and are of cm to m variation; they are measured using leveling surveys, tiltmeters, EDM and GPS above sea level and pressure gauges and tiltmeters below sea level. Other acoustic techniques to measure such vertical movement are under development. Elsewhere, evidence for subsidence of volcanoes is also widespread, ranging from shallow water carbonates on drowned Cretaceous guyots, to mapped shoreline features, to the presence of subaerially-erupted (degassed) lavas on now submerged volcanoes. Evidence for uplift is more limited, but includes makatea islands with uplifted coral reefs surrounding low volcanic islands. These are formed due to flexural uplift associated with isostatic loading of nearby islands or seamounts. In sum, oceanic volcanoes display a long history of subsidence, rapid at first and then slow, sometimes punctuated by brief periods of uplift due to lithospheric loading by subsequently formed nearby volcanoes.

  14. Numerical Analysis and Geometry Optimisation of Vertical Vane of Room Air-conditioner

    Al-Obaidi Abdulkareem Sh. Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical vanes of room air-conditioners are used to control and direct cold air. This paper aims to study vertical vane as one of the parameters that affect the efficiency of dissipating cold air to a given space. The vertical vane geometry is analysed and optimised for lower production cost using CFD. The optimised geometry of the vertical vane should have the same or increased efficiency of dissipating cold air and have lesser mass compared to the existing original design. The existing original design of vertical vane is simplified and analysed by using ANSYS Fluent. Efficiency of wind direction is define as how accurate the direction of airflow coming out from vertical vane. In order to calculate the efficiency of wind direction, 15° and 30° rotation of vertical vane inside room air-conditioner are simulated. The efficiency of wind direction for 15° rotation of vertical vane is 57.81% while efficiency of wind direction for 30° rotation of vertical vane is 47.54%. The results of the efficiency of wind direction are used as base reference for parametric study. The parameters investigated for optimisation of vertical vane are focused at length of long span, tip chord and short span. The design of 15% decreased in vane surface area at tip chord is the best optimised design of vertical vane because the efficiency of wind direction is the highest as 60.32%.

  15. Evaluation of Aesthetic Function and Thermal Modification of Vertical Greenery at Bogor City, Indonesia

    Sulistyantara, B.; Sesara, R.

    2017-10-01

    Bogor city currently develops vertical greenery due to counter the decreasing of green space quantity. Vertical greenery is a planting method using vertical structure similar to retaining walls. There are some benefits of vertical greenery, such as providing aesthetics value of the landscape, to protect from the heat, to reduce noise, and to reduce pollution. The purpose of this study were to identify thermal modification by vertical greenery in Bogor city, to assess the aesthetics value from vertical greenery, and to provide a recommendation in attempt to manage and improve the quality of vertical greenery in Bogor city. The study was conducted using Scenic Beauty Estimation method, and was done by providing questionnaires to the respondents in order to assess the aesthetics value of vertical greenery. Infrared thermometer was also used to measure the surface’s temperature to evaluate thermal modification function of the vertical greenery. The result of study proved that vertical greenery in the Bogor city has considerably good aesthetic. It also showed that there is a decreasing in surface temperature of the vertical greenery structure.

  16. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet™ Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  17. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa.

    Kawonga, Mary; Fonn, Sharon; Blaauw, Duane

    2013-01-24

    In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal) managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E) function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of 'exercised decision-space' - traditionally used to measure local level managers' exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority - classified as 'low', 'medium' or 'high' - over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use). We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical) was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience), and M&E knowledge. Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4), and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84). A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49). There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system planning and management under the leadership of horizontal managers.

  18. Space Microbiology

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  19. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  20. Dissociation of Vertical Semiconductor Diatomic Artificial Molecules

    Pi, M.; Emperador, A.; Barranco, M.; Garcias, F.; Muraki, K.; Tarucha, S.; Austing, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the dissociation of few-electron circular vertical semiconductor double quantum dot artificial molecules at 0T as a function of interdot distance. A slight mismatch introduced in the fabrication of the artificial molecules from nominally identical constituent quantum wells induces localization by offsetting the energy levels in the quantum dots by up to 2meV, and this plays a crucial role in the appearance of the addition energy spectra as a function of coupling strength particularly in the weak coupling limit

  1. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    Jones, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corractive measures taken are also described

  2. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  3. Space Van system update

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  4. Vertical orbit excursion fixed field alternating gradient accelerators

    Stephen Brooks

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG accelerators with vertical orbit excursion (VFFAGs provide a promising alternative design for rings with fixed-field superconducting magnets. They have a vertical magnetic field component that increases with height in the vertical aperture, yielding a skew quadrupole focusing structure. Scaling-type VFFAGs are found with fixed tunes and no intrinsic limitation on momentum range. This paper presents the first multiparticle tracking of such machines. Proton driver rings to accelerate the 800 MeV beam from the ISIS synchrotron are presented, in terms of both magnet field geometry and longitudinal behavior during acceleration with space charge. The 12 GeV ring produces an output power of at least 2.18 MW. Possible applications of VFFAGs to waste transmutation, hadron therapy, and energy-recovery electron accelerators are also discussed.

  5. A study of rotor and platform design trade-offs for large-scale floating vertical axis wind turbines

    Griffith, D. Todd; Paquette, Joshua; Barone, Matthew; Goupee, Andrew J.; Fowler, Matthew J.; Bull, Diana; Owens, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines are receiving significant attention for offshore siting. In general, offshore wind offers proximity to large populations centers, a vast & more consistent wind resource, and a scale-up opportunity, to name a few beneficial characteristics. On the other hand, offshore wind suffers from high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and in particular high balance of system (BoS) costs owing to accessibility challenges and limited project experience. To address these challenges associated with offshore wind, Sandia National Laboratories is researching large-scale (MW class) offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). The motivation for this work is that floating VAWTs are a potential transformative technology solution to reduce offshore wind LCOE in deep-water locations. This paper explores performance and cost trade-offs within the design space for floating VAWTs between the configurations for the rotor and platform.

  6. Assisted extraction of the energy level spacings and lever arms in direct current bias measurements of one-dimensional quantum wires, using an image recognition routine

    Lesage, A. A. J.; Smith, L. W.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Al-Taie, H.; Kelly, M. J.; See, P.

    2015-01-01

    A multiplexer technique is used to individually measure an array of 256 split gates on a single GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This results in the generation of large volumes of data, which requires the development of automated data analysis routines. An algorithm is developed to find the spacing between discrete energy levels, which form due to transverse confinement from the split gate. The lever arm, which relates split gate voltage to energy, is also found from the measured data. This reduces the time spent on the analysis. Comparison with estimates obtained visually shows that the algorithm returns reliable results for subband spacing of split gates measured at 1.4 K. The routine is also used to assess direct current bias spectroscopy measurements at lower temperatures (50 mK). This technique is versatile and can be extended to other types of measurements. For example, it is used to extract the magnetic field at which Zeeman-split 1D subbands cross one another

  7. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  8. Coexistence of Strategic Vertical Separation and Integration

    Jansen, Jos

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives conditions under which vertical separation is chosen by some upstream firms, while vertical integration is chosen by others in the equilibrium of a symmetric model. A vertically separating firm trades off fixed contracting costs against the strategic benefit of writing a (two......-part tariff, exclusive dealing) contract with its retailer. Coexistence emerges when more than two vertical Cournot oligopolists supply close substitutes. When vertical integration and separation coexist, welfare could be improved by reducing the number of vertically separating firms. The scope...

  9. Interference Lithography for Vertical Photovoltaics

    Balls, Amy; Pei, Lei; Kvavle, Joshua; Sieler, Andrew; Schultz, Stephen; Linford, Matthew; Vanfleet, Richard; Davis, Robert

    2009-10-01

    We are exploring low cost approaches for fabricating three dimensional nanoscale structures. These vertical structures could significantly improve the efficiency of devices made from low cost photovoltaic materials. The nanoscale vertical structure provides a way to increase optical absorption in thin photovoltaic films without increasing the electronic carrier separation distance. The target structure is a high temperature transparent template with a dense array of holes on a 400 - 600 nm pitch fabricated by a combination of interference lithography and nanoembossing. First a master was fabricated using ultraviolet light interference lithography and the pattern was transferred into a silicon wafer master by silicon reactive ion etching. Embossing studies were performed with the master on several high temperature polymers.

  10. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  11. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    2015-03-01

    United States Navy USS United States’ Ship VBA Visual Basic for Applications VLP VLS Loadout Planner VLS Vertical Launch System...with 32 gigabytes of random access memory and eight processors, General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) CPLEX version 24 (GAMS, 2015) solves this...problem in ten minutes to an integer tolerance of 10%. The GAMS interpreter and CPLEX solver require 75 Megabytes of random access memory for this

  12. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  13. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  14. Appraisal of Space Words and Allocation of Emotion Words in Bodily Space

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Elosúa, María Rosa; Yamada, Yuki; Hamm, Nicholas Francis; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The body-specificity hypothesis (BSH) predicts that right-handers and left-handers allocate positive and negative concepts differently on the horizontal plane, i.e., while left-handers allocate negative concepts on the right-hand side of their bodily space, right-handers allocate such concepts to the left-hand side. Similar research shows that people, in general, tend to allocate positive and negative concepts in upper and lower areas, respectively, in relation to the vertical plane. Further research shows a higher salience of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the performance of sensorimotor tasks. The aim of the paper is to examine whether there should be a dominance of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane, not only at a sensorimotor level but also at a conceptual level. In Experiment 1, various participants from diverse linguistic backgrounds were asked to rate the words “up”, “down”, “left”, and “right”. In Experiment 2, right-handed participants from two linguistic backgrounds were asked to allocate emotion words into a square grid divided into four boxes of equal areas. Results suggest that the vertical plane is more salient than the horizontal plane regarding the allocation of emotion words and positively-valenced words were placed in upper locations whereas negatively-valenced words were placed in lower locations. Together, the results lend support to the BSH while also suggesting a higher saliency of the vertical plane over the horizontal plane in the allocation of valenced words. PMID:24349112

  15. tavg1_2d_int_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Time Average 1-hourly 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MAT1NXINT) at GES DISC

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXINT or tavg1_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  16. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent 100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  17. Comparison of different hip prosthesis shapes considering micro-level bone remodeling and stress-shielding criteria using three-dimensional design space topology optimization.

    Boyle, Christopher; Kim, Il Yong

    2011-06-03

    Since the late 1980s, computational analysis of total hip arthroplasty (THA) prosthesis components has been completed using macro-level bone remodeling algorithms. The utilization of macro-sized elements requires apparent bone densities to predict cancellous bone strength, thereby, preventing visualization and analysis of realistic trabecular architecture. In this study, we utilized a recently developed structural optimization algorithm, design space optimization (DSO), to perform a micro-level three-dimensional finite element bone remodeling simulation on the human proximal femur pre- and post-THA. The computational simulation facilitated direct performance comparison between two commercially available prosthetic implant stems from Zimmer Inc.: the Alloclassic and the Mayo conservative. The novel micro-level approach allowed the unique ability to visualize the trabecular bone adaption post-operation and to quantify the changes in bone mineral content by region. Stress-shielding and strain energy distribution were also quantified for the immediate post-operation and the stably fixated, post-remodeling conditions. Stress-shielding was highest in the proximal region and remained unchanged post-remodeling; conversely, the mid and distal portions show large increases in stress, suggesting a distal shift in the loadpath. The Mayo design conserves bone mass, while simultaneously reducing the incidence of stress-shielding compared to the Alloclassic, revealing a key benefit of the distinctive geometry. Several important factors for stable fixation, determined in clinical evaluations from the literature, were evident in both designs: high levels of proximal bone loss and distal bone densification. The results suggest this novel computational framework can be utilized for comparative hip prosthesis shape, uniquely considering the post-operation bone remodeling as a design criterion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gamma radiation effects in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Lubkowski, Grzegorz; Kuhnhenn, Jochen; Suhrke, Michael; Weinand, Udo; Endler, Ingolf; Meißner, Frank; Richter, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of gamma radiation effects in low-density arrays of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. These arrays are characterized by excellent anti-reflective and absorbing properties for wavelengths from UV to IR, which makes them an interesting option for stray light control in optical space applications. Gamma irradiation equivalent to an estimated surface lifetime exposition in geostationary orbit does not affect the reflectivity of the structures. First h...

  19. Vertical ascending electrophoresis of cells with a minimal stabilizing medium

    Omenyi, S. N.; Snyder, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical fractionation of a mixture of fixed horse and human red blood cells layered over a stabilizing support medium was done to give a valid comparison with proposed space experiments. In particular, the effects of sample thickness and concentration on zone migration rate were investigated. Electrophoretic mobilities of horse and human cells calculated from zone migration rates were compatible with those obtained by microelectrophoresis. Complete cell separation was observed when low power and effective cooling were employed.

  20. Vertical Transport by Coastal Mesoscale Convective Systems

    Lombardo, K.; Kading, T.

    2016-12-01

    This work is part of an ongoing investigation of coastal mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), including changes in vertical transport of boundary layer air by storms moving from inland to offshore. The density of a storm's cold pool versus that of the offshore marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), in part, determines the ability of the storm to successfully cross the coast, the mechanism driving storm propagation, and the ability of the storm to lift air from the boundary layer aloft. The ability of an MCS to overturn boundary layer air can be especially important over the eastern US seaboard, where warm season coastal MCSs are relatively common and where large coastal population centers generate concentrated regions of pollution. Recent work numerically simulating idealized MCSs in a coastal environment has provided some insight into the physical mechanisms governing MCS coastal crossing success and the impact on vertical transport of boundary layer air. Storms are simulated using a cloud resolving model initialized with atmospheric conditions representative of a Mid-Atlantic environment. Simulations are run in 2-D at 250 m horizontal resolution with a vertical resolution stretched from 100 m in the boundary layer to 250 m aloft. The left half of the 800 km domain is configured to represent land, while the right half is assigned as water. Sensitivity experiments are conducted to quantify the influence of varying MABL structure on MCS coastal crossing success and air transport, with MABL values representative of those observed over the western Mid-Atlantic during warm season. Preliminary results indicate that when the density of the cold pool is much greater than the MABL, the storm successfully crosses the coastline, with lifting of surface parcels, which ascend through the troposphere. When the density of the cold pool is similar to that of the MABL, parcels within the MABL remain at low levels, though parcels above the MABL ascend through the troposphere.

  1. Applications of the parity space technique to the validation of the water level measurement of pressurizer for steady state and transients

    Zwingelstein, G.; Bath, L.

    1983-01-01

    During the design of disturbance analysis and surveillance systems, safety parameter display systems, computerized operator support systems or advanced control rooms, sensor signal validation is commonly considered as the first task to be performed. After an introduction of the anticipated benefits of the signal validation techniques and a brief survey of the methods under current practices, a signal validation technique based upon the parity space methodology is presented. The efficiency of the method applied to the detection and the identification of five types of failures is illustrated with two examples when three water level measurements of a pressurizer of a nuclear plant are redundant. In the first example the use of the analytical redundancy technique is presented when only two identical sensors are available. A detailed description of the dynamic model of the pressurizer is given. In the second example the case of the identical water level sensors is considered. Performances of the software developed on a computer DEC PDP 11 are finally given

  2. Imaging disturbance zones ahead of a tunnel by elastic full-waveform inversion: Adjoint gradient based inversion vs. parameter space reduction using a level-set method

    Andre Lamert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present and compare two flexible and effective methodologies to predict disturbance zones ahead of underground tunnels by using elastic full-waveform inversion. One methodology uses a linearized, iterative approach based on misfit gradients computed with the adjoint method while the other uses iterative, gradient-free unscented Kalman filtering in conjunction with a level-set representation. Whereas the former does not involve a priori assumptions on the distribution of elastic properties ahead of the tunnel, the latter introduces a massive reduction in the number of explicit model parameters to be inverted for by focusing on the geometric form of potential disturbances and their average elastic properties. Both imaging methodologies are validated through successful reconstructions of simple disturbances. As an application, we consider an elastic multiple disturbance scenario. By using identical synthetic time-domain seismograms as test data, we obtain satisfactory, albeit different, reconstruction results from the two inversion methodologies. The computational costs of both approaches are of the same order of magnitude, with the gradient-based approach showing a slight advantage. The model parameter space reduction approach compensates for this by additionally providing a posteriori estimates of model parameter uncertainty. Keywords: Tunnel seismics, Full waveform inversion, Seismic waves, Level-set method, Adjoint method, Kalman filter

  3. [Vertical fractures: apropos of 2 clinical cases].

    Félix Mañes Ferrer, J; Micò Muñoz, P; Sánchez Cortés, J L; Paricio Martín, J J; Miñana Laliga, R

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study is to present a clinical review of the vertical root fractures. Two clinical cases are presented to demonstrates the criteria for obtaining a correct diagnosis of vertical root fractures.

  4. Vertical melting of a stack of membranes

    Borelli, M. E. S.; Kleinert, H.; Schakel, A. M. J.

    2001-02-01

    A stack of tensionless membranes with nonlinear curvature energy and vertical harmonic interaction is studied. At low temperatures, the system forms a lamellar phase. At a critical temperature, the stack disorders vertically in a melting-like transition.

  5. VERTICAL ACTIVITY ESTIMATION USING 2D RADAR

    hennie

    estimates on aircraft vertical behaviour from a single 2D radar track. ... Fortunately, the problem of detecting relative vertical motion using a single 2D ..... awareness tools in scenarios where aerial activity sensing is typically limited to 2D.

  6. Estimating Vertical Land Motion in the Chesapeake Bay

    Houttuijn Bloemendaal, L.; Hensel, P.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to provide a modern measurement of subsidence in the Chesapeake Bay region and establish a methodology for measuring vertical land motion using static GPS, a cheaper alternative to InSAR or classical leveling. Vertical land motion in this area is of particular concern because tide gages are showing up to 5 mm/yr of local, relative sea level rise. While a component of this rate is the actual eustatic sea level rise itself, part of the trend may also be vertical land motion, in which subsidence exacerbates the effects of actual changes in sea level. Parts of this region are already experiencing an increase in the frequency and magnitude of near-shore coastal flooding, but the last comprehensive study of vertical land motion in this area was conducted by NOAA in 1974 (Holdahl & Morrison) using repeat leveled lines. More recent measures of vertical land motion can help inform efforts on resilience to sea level rise, such as in the Hampton Roads area. This study used measured GPS-derived vertical heights in conjunction with legacy GPS data to calculate rates of vertical motion at several points in time for a selection of benchmarks scattered throughout the region. Seventeen marks in the stable Piedmont area and in the areas suspected of subsidence in the Coastal Plain were selected for the analysis. Results indicate a significant difference between the rates of vertical motion in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain, with a mean rate of -4.10 mm/yr in the Coastal Plain and 0.15 mm/yr in the Piedmont. The rates indicate particularly severe subsidence at the southern Delmarva Peninsula coast and the Hampton-Roads area, with a mean rate of -6.57 mm/yr in that region. By knowing local rates of subsidence as opposed to sea level change itself, coastal managers may make better informed decisions regarding natural resource use, such as deciding whether or not to reduce subsurface fluid withdrawals or to consider injecting treated water back into the aquifer to slow

  7. Vertical structures in vibrated wormlike micellar solutions

    Epstein, Tamir; Deegan, Robert

    2008-11-01

    Vertically vibrated shear thickening particulate suspensions can support a free-standing interfaces oriented parallel to gravity. We find that shear thickening worm-like micellar solutions also support such vertical interfaces. Above a threshold in acceleration, the solution spontaneously accumulates into a labyrinthine pattern characterized by a well-defined vertical edge. The formation of vertical structures is of interest because they are unique to shear-thickening fluids, and they indicate the existence of an unknown stress bearing mechanism.

  8. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  9. Determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke from baryonic Λ{sub b} decays

    Hsiao, Y.K. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Geng, C.Q. [Shanxi Normal University, School of Physics and Information Engineering, Linfen (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Hunan Normal University, Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications (SICQEA), Changsha (China)

    2017-10-15

    We present the first attempt to extract vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}{sup +}l anti ν{sub l} decay without relying on vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke inputs from the B meson decays. Meanwhile, the hadronic Λ{sub b} → Λ{sub c}M{sub (c)} decays with M = (π{sup -},K{sup -}) and M{sub c} =(D{sup -},D{sup -}{sub s}) measured with high precisions are involved in the extraction. Explicitly, we find that vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(44.6 ± 3.2) x 10{sup -3}, agreeing with the value of (42.11 ± 0.74) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub c}l anti ν{sub l} decays. Furthermore, based on the most recent ratio of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke from the exclusive modes, we obtain vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke = (4.3 ± 0.4) x 10{sup -3}, which is close to the value of (4.49 ± 0.24) x 10{sup -3} from the inclusive B → X{sub u}l anti ν{sub l} decays. We conclude that our determinations of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke favor the corresponding inclusive extractions in the B decays. (orig.)

  10. Intégration verticale et niveau du risque au sein des compagnies pétrolières internationales. Impact sur la volatilité des bénéfices de 15 compagnies entre 1980 et 1989 Vertical Integration and Risk Level in International Oil Companies

    Perruchet D.

    2006-11-01

    leur bénéfice global du fait d'une intégration verticale importante. Ainsi, trois facteurs agissent principalement sur la stabilité des profits des compagnies pétrolières : la taille de la firme, la diversification géographique des activités, l'intégration verticale. Cette dernière caractéristique peut compenser la faiblesse relative dans les autres domaines. Enfin, on peut noter que l'intégration verticale semble particulièrement bien adaptée en période de forte variation des prix du brut. International companies are usually active in several sectors of activity throughout petroleum operations. Different petroleum activities (exploration, production, transport, refining, distribution, etc. are grouped in two sectors that are said to be complementary, i. e. upstream and downstream. The term vertical integration is used to express the fact that the same company is present both upstream and downstream. Vertical integration is examined here for the 1980-1989 period via a sampling (representative of the diversity of sizes and situations of fifteen oil companies : Exxon, Royal Dutch-Shell, British Petroleum, Mobil, Amoco, Atlantic Richfield, Phillips, Conoco, Occidental Petroleum, Unocal, Sun, Arrierada Hess, Keer McGee, Murphy, and Tosco. Vertical integration is measured by a simple physical ratio, i. e. the ratio of the annual volume of liquid hydrocarbons produced to the annual volume of hydrocarbons refined. The volumes of activity of the two sectors considered have contrasting evolutions depending on the companies and years. Whereas in most companies the volumes of crude oil produced have been increasing, there is in particular a decrease in the volumes processed downstream. The sampling of companies retained reveals a highly contrasting situation in the levels of integration. Nonetheless, for the companies examined as a whole, vertical integration increased slightly during the period considered. Indeed, the search for more complete vertical integration

  11. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  12. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  13. Crystalline beams: The vertical zigzag

    Haffmans, A.F.; Maletic, D.; Ruggiero, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This note is the continuation of our comprehensive investigation of Crystalline Beams. After having determined the equations of motion and the conditions for the formation of the simplest configuration, i.e. the string, we study the possibility of storing an intense beam of charged particles in a storage ring where they form a vertical zigzag. We define the equilibrium configuration, and examine the confinement conditions. Subsequently, we derive the transfer matrix for motion through various elements of the storage ring. Finally we investigate the stability conditions for such a beam

  14. Vertices in the abelized picture

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  15. Assessment of the perception of verticality and horizontality with self-paced saccades.

    Pettorossi, V E; Bambagioni, D; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1998-07-01

    We investigated the ability of human subjects (Ss) to make self-paced saccades in the earth-vertical and horizontal directions (space-referenced task) and in the direction of the head-vertical and horizontal axis (self-referenced task) during whole body tilts of 0 degrees, 22.5 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees in the frontal (roll) plane. Saccades were recorded in the dark with computerised video-oculography. During space-referenced tasks, the saccade vectors did not fully counter-rotate to compensate for larger angles of body tilt. This finding is in agreement with the 'A' effect reported for the visual vertical. The error was significantly larger for saccades intended to be space-horizontal than space-vertical. This vertico-horizontal dissociation implies greater difficulty in defining horizontality than verticality with the non-visual motor task employed. In contrast, normal Ss (and an alabyrinthine subject tested) were accurate in orienting saccades to their own (cranio-centric) vertical and horizontal axes regardless of tilt indicating that cranio-centric perception is robust and apparently not affected by gravitational influences.

  16. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  17. USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNERS TO CALCULATE AND MAP VERTICAL BRIDGE CLEARANCE

    C. Zhang; D. Arditi; Z. Chen

    2013-01-01

    The vertical clearance of a bridge over a highway is important in preventing oversized vehicles from hitting the bridge. The vertical clearance of a bridge is traditionally measured by using surveying equipment such as leveling rods and total stations. Typically, measurements are taken at multiple locations in order to determine the minimum vertical clearance under the bridge. This process is time and labor consuming. Also, these measurements may not be accurate because of the traffi...

  18. Vertically stacked nanocellulose tactile sensor.

    Jung, Minhyun; Kim, Kyungkwan; Kim, Bumjin; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Kang, Jae-Wook; Jeon, Sanghun

    2017-11-16

    Paper-based electronic devices are attracting considerable attention, because the paper platform has unique attributes such as flexibility and eco-friendliness. Here we report on what is claimed to be the firstly fully integrated vertically-stacked nanocellulose-based tactile sensor, which is capable of simultaneously sensing temperature and pressure. The pressure and temperature sensors are operated using different principles and are stacked vertically, thereby minimizing the interference effect. For the pressure sensor, which utilizes the piezoresistance principle under pressure, the conducting electrode was inkjet printed on the TEMPO-oxidized-nanocellulose patterned with micro-sized pyramids, and the counter electrode was placed on the nanocellulose film. The pressure sensor has a high sensitivity over a wide range (500 Pa-3 kPa) and a high durability of 10 4 loading/unloading cycles. The temperature sensor combines various materials such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to form a thermocouple on the upper nanocellulose layer. The thermoelectric-based temperature sensors generate a thermoelectric voltage output of 1.7 mV for a temperature difference of 125 K. Our 5 × 5 tactile sensor arrays show a fast response, negligible interference, and durable sensing performance.

  19. Bulk processing of the Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ archive of the European Space Agency: an insight into the level 1 MSS processing

    Saunier, Sébastien; Northrop, Amy; Lavender, Samantha; Galli, Luca; Ferrara, Riccardo; Mica, Stefano; Biasutti, Roberto; Goryl, Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Meloni, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Whilst recent years have witnessed the development and exploitation of operational Earth Observation (EO) satellite constellation data, the valorisation of historical archives has been a challenge. The European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat Multi Spectral Scanner (MSS) products cover Greenland, Iceland, Continental Europe and North Africa represent an archive of over 600,000 processed Level 1 (L1) scenes that will accompany around 1 million ESA Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) products already available. ESA began acquiring MSS data in 1975 and it is well known that this dataset can be degraded due to missing data and a loss in accuracy. For these reasons, the content of the product format has been reviewed and the ESA Landsat processing baseline significantly updated to ensure products are fit for user purposes. This paper presents the new MSS product format including the updated metadata parameters for error traceability, and the specification of the Quality Assurance Band (BQA) engineered to allow the best pixel selection and also the application of image restoration techniques. This paper also discusses major improvements applied to the radiometric and geometric processing. For the benefits of the community, ESA is now able to maximize the number of L1 MSS products that can potentially be generated from the raw Level 0 (L0) data and ensure the highest possible data quality is reached. Also, by improving product format, processing and adding a pixel based quality band, the MSS archive becomes interoperable with recently reprocessed Landsat data and that from live missions by way of assuring product quality on a pixel basis.

  20. Vertical integration and optimal reimbursement policy.

    Afendulis, Christopher C; Kessler, Daniel P

    2011-09-01

    Health care providers may vertically integrate not only to facilitate coordination of care, but also for strategic reasons that may not be in patients' best interests. Optimal Medicare reimbursement policy depends upon the extent to which each of these explanations is correct. To investigate, we compare the consequences of the 1997 adoption of prospective payment for skilled nursing facilities (SNF PPS) in geographic areas with high versus low levels of hospital/SNF integration. We find that SNF PPS decreased spending more in high integration areas, with no measurable consequences for patient health outcomes. Our findings suggest that integrated providers should face higher-powered reimbursement incentives, i.e., less cost-sharing. More generally, we conclude that purchasers of health services (and other services subject to agency problems) should consider the organizational form of their suppliers when choosing a reimbursement mechanism.

  1. GAUGING THE VERTICAL SPECIALIZATION IN EU TRADE

    IULIA MONICA OEHLER-SINCAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, we review the mechanisms and determinants of vertical specialization (VS, as this has gradually become the dominant characteristic of international trade. Second, we underline that there is a rich literature regarding VS in EU trade, at aggregate and individual levels and research is advancing together with the instruments used to measure trade in value added. Third, our investigation brings to the forefront a classification of EU countries according to their GVC participation index, taking into consideration both upstream and downstream links. As a conclusion, the VS analyses help us better understand the interconnectedness among countries and industries by means of foreign direct investment, trade, labour migration and technology transfer.

  2. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Li, Lu; Huang, Xianjia; Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  3. An enhanced fire hazard assessment model and validation experiments for vertical cable trays

    Li, Lu [Sate Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Huang, Xianjia, E-mail: huangxianjia@gziit.ac.cn [Joint Laboratory of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants, Institute of Industry Technology Guangzhou & Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 511458 (China); Bi, Kun; Liu, Xiaoshuang [China Nuclear Power Design Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518045 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced model was developed for vertical cable fire hazard assessment in NPP. • The validated experiments on vertical cable tray fires were conducted. • The capability of the model for cable tray with different cable spacing were tested. - Abstract: The model, referred to as FLASH-CAT (Flame Spread over Horizontal Cable Trays), was developed to estimate the heat release rate for vertical cable tray fire. The focus of this work is to investigate the application of an enhanced model to the single vertical cable tray fires with different cable spacing. The experiments on vertical cable tray fires with three typical cable spacing were conducted. The histories of mass loss rate and flame length were recorded during the cable fire. From the experimental results, it is found that the space between cable lines intensifies the cable combustion and accelerates the flame spread. The predictions by the enhanced model show good agreements with the experimental data. At the same time, it is shown that the enhanced model is capable of predicting the different behaviors of cable fires with different cable spacing by adjusting the flame spread speed only.

  4. Heat and momentum transfer for magnetoconvection in a vertical external magnetic field

    Zürner, Till; Liu, Wenjun; Krasnov, Dmitry; Schumacher, Jörg

    2016-11-01

    The scaling theory of Grossmann and Lohse for the turbulent heat and momentum transfer is extended to the magnetoconvection case in the presence of a (strong) vertical magnetic field. The comparison with existing laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations in the quasistatic limit allows to restrict the parameter space to very low Prandtl and magnetic Prandtl numbers and thus to reduce the number of unknown parameters in the model. Also included is the Chandrasekhar limit for which the outer magnetic induction field B is large enough such that convective motion is suppressed and heat is transported by diffusion. Our theory identifies four distinct regimes of magnetoconvection which are distinguished by the strength of the outer magnetic field and the level of turbulence in the flow, respectively. LIMTECH Research Alliance and Research Training Group GK 1567 on Lorentz Force Velocimetry, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  5. Comparison of the inversion algorithms applied to the ozone vertical profile retrieval from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    A. Rozanov

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intercomparison of ozone vertical profiles retrieved from the measurements of scattered solar radiation performed by the SCIAMACHY instrument in the limb viewing geometry. Three different inversion algorithms including the prototype of the operational Level 1 to 2 processor to be operated by the European Space Agency are considered. Unlike usual validation studies, this comparison removes the uncertainties arising when comparing measurements made by different instruments probing slightly different air masses and focuses on the uncertainties specific to the modeling-retrieval problem only. The intercomparison was performed for 5 selected orbits of SCIAMACHY showing a good overall agreement of the results in the middle stratosphere, whereas considerable discrepancies were identified in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere altitude region. Additionally, comparisons with ground-based lidar measurements are shown for selected profiles demonstrating an overall correctness of the retrievals.

  6. Capillary holdup between vertical spheres

    S. Zeinali Heris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The maximum volume of liquid bridge left between two vertically mounted spherical particles has been theoretically determined and experimentally measured. As the gravitational effect has not been neglected in the theoretical model, the liquid interface profile is nonsymmetrical around the X-axis. Symmetry in the interface profile only occurs when either the particle size ratio or the gravitational force becomes zero. In this paper, some equations are derived as a function of the spheres' sizes, gap width, liquid density, surface tension and body force (gravity/centrifugal to estimate the maximum amount of liquid that can be held between the two solid spheres. Then a comparison is made between the result based on these equations and several experimental results.

  7. Modeling of Aerosol Vertical Profiles Using GIS and Remote Sensing

    Kwon Ho Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS by climatologists, environmentalists and urban planners for three dimensional modeling and visualization of the landscape is well established. However no previous study has implemented these techniques for 3D modeling of atmospheric aerosols because air quality data is traditionally measured at ground points, or from satellite images, with no vertical dimension. This study presents a prototype for modeling and visualizing aerosol vertical profiles over a 3D urban landscape in Hong Kong. The method uses a newly developed technique for the derivation of aerosol vertical profiles from AERONET sunphotometer measurements and surface visibility data, and links these to a 3D urban model. This permits automated modeling and visualization of aerosol concentrations at different atmospheric levels over the urban landscape in near-real time. Since the GIS platform permits presentation of the aerosol vertical distribution in 3D, it can be related to the built environment of the city. Examples are given of the applications of the model, including diagnosis of the relative contribution of vehicle emissions to pollution levels in the city, based on increased near-surface concentrations around weekday rush-hour times. The ability to model changes in air quality and visibility from ground level to the top of tall buildings is also demonstrated, and this has implications for energy use and environmental policies for the tall mega-cities of the future.

  8. Separation surgery for total vertical craniopagus twins.

    Goh, Keith Y C

    2004-08-01

    A pair of conjoined twins aged 11 months underwent investigations, followed by surgical separation in Singapore General Hospital in April 2001. They were joined at the skull vertex and facing in opposite directions. Radiological investigations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scans were performed, leading to the diagnosis of total vertical craniopagus. There were two separate brains, with separate arterial circulations, but with a common superior sagittal sinus. Tissue expanders were inserted in the subgaleal space for 6 months of scalp expansion prior to surgery. Pre-operative planning involved the use of virtual reality equipment and life-sized polymer models of the conjoined skulls and brains. Surgical separation of the twins was achieved after approximately 100 h of operating time, using intraoperative image guidance, microsurgical techniques and intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring. Reconstruction of the dura, calvarium and scalp was performed with artificial dura, absorbable plates and split skin grafts. Postoperative complications included focal cortical infarction, meningitis, and hydrocephalus. Despite these complications, the twins recovered satisfactorily and were discharged to their home country within 6 months. The 3-month outcome was minor disability in one twin and severe developmental delays in the other. Separation surgery is possible for complex cranially-conjoined twins but requires detailed planning and extensive surgical management.

  9. A demographic analysis of vertical root fractures.

    Cohen, Stephen; Berman, Louis H; Blanco, Lucia; Bakland, Leif; Kim, Jay S

    2006-12-01

    Teeth with vertical root fractures (VRFs) have complete or incomplete fractures that extends through the enamel, dentin and pulp, down the long axis of the tooth. Several different variables were investigated and statistically evaluated as to their correlation with the presence of VRFs. Specifically analyzed were gender, tooth location, age, radiographic and clinical findings, bruxism, and pulpal status. The data were collected from three different endodontists, from three different geographic locations, comprising a total of 227 teeth. Although VRFs may occur in conjunction with any of the parameters investigated, only certain factors were found to occur in a significant number of cases. The results indicate that VRFs are statistically more prevalent in mandibular molars and maxillary premolars. They are associated with periradicular bone loss, pain to percussion, extensive restorations, and seem to occur more often in females and older patients. However, VRFs are not necessarily related to periapical bone loss, a widening of the periodontal ligament space, associated periodontal pockets, a sinus tract, particular pulpal status, or bruxism.

  10. Hydrodynamics of vertical jumping in Archer fish

    Techet, Alexandra H.; Mendelson, Leah

    2017-11-01

    Vertical jumping for aerial prey from an aquatic environment requires both propulsive power and precise aim to succeed. Rapid acceleration to a ballistic velocity sufficient for reaching the prey height occurs before the fish leaves the water completely and experiences a thousandfold drop in force-producing ability. In addition to speed, accuracy and stability are crucial for successful feeding by jumping. This talk examines the physics of jumping using the archer fish as a model. Better known for their spitting abilities, archer fish will jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture, from a stationary position just below the free surface. Modulation of oscillatory body kinematics and use of multiple fins for force production are identified as methods through which the fish can meet requirements for both acceleration and stabilization in limited space. Quantitative 3D PIV wake measurements reveal how variations in tail kinematics relate to thrust production throughout the course of a jumping maneuver and over a range of jump heights. By performing measurements in 3D, the timing, interactions, and relative contributions to thrust and lateral forces from each fin can be evaluated, elucidating the complex hydrodynamics that enable archer fish water exit.

  11. Reduction in wick drain effectiveness with spacing for Utah silts and clays.

    2012-04-01

    Although decreasing the spacing of vertical drains usually decreases the time for consolidation, previous field tests have shown that there is a critical drain spacing for which tighter spacing does not decrease the time for consolidation. This...

  12. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Harris, M W [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1997-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring for vertical creep in concrete in two silos at Wivenhoe pumped storage hydro power station

    Harris, M.W. [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). School of Surveying

    1996-12-31

    The need for structural monitoring is generated by expected or unexpected (newly discovered in the life of the structure) behaviour. Due to the long vertical driveshafts involved at Wivenhoe the phenomenon of `concrete creep` which, if it is occurring, could contribute to shaft misalignment and unscheduled bearing wear or failure, was used as a motivation to establish a vertical monitoring system. The particular system developed for this site is traceable, replaceable, expandable and inexpensive. Measurements are obtained by precise levelling and the use of specially calibrated vertically suspended tapes. The analysis of the vertical loops is performed using constrained variance estimation and `robust` inter-epoch comparison. (orig.)

  14. HURRICANE AND SEVERE STORM SENTINEL (HS3) GLOBAL HAWK ADVANCED VERTICAL ATMOSPHERIC PROFILING SYSTEM (AVAPS) DROPSONDE SYSTEM V2

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) Global Hawk Advanced Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS) Dropsonde System dataset was collected by the...

  15. Variation of vertical atmospheric stability by means of radon measurements and of sodar monitoring

    Guedalia, D.; Druilhet, A.; Fontan, J.; N'tsila, A.

    1980-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon at ground level are used to infer variations in equivalent mixing height and atmospheric vertical stability. Simultaneous determinations of the height of the inversion layer, when present, permit, with the use of sodar techniques, the estimation of radon flux from the ground and of the vertical diffusion coefficient. The two sets of data often indicate similar variations in mixing height

  16. Transversing the Vertical Case Study: A Methodological Approach to Studies of Educational Policy as Practice

    Bartlett, Lesley; Vavrus, Frances

    2014-01-01

    How can scholars trace the global production and circulation of educational policies? The vertical case study incorporates three elements: "vertical" attention across micro-, meso-, and macro-levels, or scales; a "horizontal" comparison of how policies unfold in distinct locations; and a "transversal," processual…

  17. Turbulent-diffusion vertical transfer coefficient in relationship to the electrical parameters of air

    Milhau, A.

    1971-01-01

    The vertical movement of ions in the lower atmosphere is due to two main causes: the atmospheric electrical field and turbulent diffusion. The vertical current is thus the sum of a conduction current and of a diffusion current. In order to resolve the discrepancies between the theories usually adopted (which neglect the diffusion current) and the experimental results, we propose here a theoretical model which takes into account the turbulent diffusion. This model makes it possible, if it is assumed that the conductivity is independent of the altitude in the exchange layer, to calculate the diffusivity from the three basic electrical parameters: electrical field, space charge, conductivity. The diffusivity values thus obtained have been compared to those deduced from thoron determinations made at different levels, and carried out at the same point and at the same time as the measurements of the electrical parameters. When the diffusivity is greater than 0.05 m 2 s -1 (this corresponding to adiabatic or super-adiabatic conditions) the values obtained are practically equal. This theoretical model thus appears to be satisfactory. (author) [fr

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of FEL pulse

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy at a free-electron laser. Investigation of space-charge effects in angle-resolved and core-level spectroscopy and realizaton of a time-resolved core-level photoemission experiment

    Marczynski-Buehlow, Martin

    2012-01-30

    The free-electron laser (FEL) in Hamburg (FLASH) is a very interesting light source with which to perform photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiments. Its special characteristics include highly intense photon pulses (up to 100 J/pulse), a photon energy range of 30 eV to 1500 eV, transverse coherence as well as pulse durations of some ten femtoseconds. Especially in terms of time-resolved PES (TRPES), the deeper lying core levels can be reached with photon energies up to 1500 eV with acceptable intensity now and, therefore, element-specific, time-resolved core-level PES (XPS) is feasible at FLASH. During the work of this thesis various experimental setups were constructed in order to realize angle-resolved (ARPES), core-level (XPS) as well as time-resolved PES experiments at the plane grating monochromator beamline PG2 at FLASH. Existing as well as newly developed systems for online monitoring of FEL pulse intensities and generating spatial and temporal overlap of FEL and optical laser pulses for time-resolved experiments are successfully integrated into the experimental setup for PES. In order to understand space-charge effects (SCEs) in PES and, therefore, being able to handle those effects in future experiments using highly intense and pulsed photon sources, the origin of energetic broadenings and shifts in photoelectron spectra are studied by means of a molecular dynamic N-body simulation using a modified Treecode Algorithm for sufficiently fast and accurate calculations. It turned out that the most influencing parameter is the ''linear electron density'' - the ratio of the number of photoelectrons to the diameter of the illuminated spot on the sample. Furthermore, the simulations could reproduce the observations described in the literature fairly well. Some rules of thumb for XPS and ARPES measurements could be deduced from the simulations. Experimentally, SCEs are investigated by means of ARPES as well as XPS measurements as a function of

  20. Multistatic Aerosol Cloud Lidar in Space: A Theoretical Perspective

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Travis, Larry D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate aerosol and cloud retrievals from space remain quite challenging and typically involve solving a severely ill-posed inverse scattering problem. In this Perspective, we formulate in general terms an aerosol and aerosol-cloud interaction space mission concept intended to provide detailed horizontal and vertical profiles of aerosol physical characteristics as well as identify mutually induced changes in the properties of aerosols and clouds. We argue that a natural and feasible way of addressing the ill-posedness of the inverse scattering problem while having an exquisite vertical-profiling capability is to fly a multistatic (including bistatic) lidar system. We analyze theoretically the capabilities of a formation-flying constellation of a primary satellite equipped with a conventional monostatic (backscattering) lidar and one or more additional platforms each hosting a receiver of the scattered laser light. If successfully implemented, this concept would combine the measurement capabilities of a passive multi-angle multi-spectral polarimeter with the vertical profiling capability of a lidar; address the ill-posedness of the inverse problem caused by the highly limited information content of monostatic lidar measurements; address the ill-posedness of the inverse problem caused by vertical integration and surface reflection in passive photopolarimetric measurements; relax polarization accuracy requirements; eliminate the need for exquisite radiative-transfer modeling of the atmosphere-surface system in data analyses; yield the day-and-night observation capability; provide direct characterization of ground-level aerosols as atmospheric pollutants; and yield direct measurements of polarized bidirectional surface reflectance. We demonstrate, in particular, that supplementing the conventional backscattering lidar with just one additional receiver flown in formation at a scattering angle close to 170deg can dramatically increase the information content of the

  1. Space and the historian. [rocketry

    Emme, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The history of modern rocketry begins with the launching of rockets for vertical soundings in the upper atmosphere. The launchings of the first earth satellites sparked space endeavors including manned flight accomplishments largely unforeseen as to the scope and rapidity of their happening. The scope of historical inquiry should include the entire historical spectrum involving space science and technology, i.e., political, economic, and social aspects, and the international environment. The methodology of contemporary history is discussed.

  2. Development of Vertical Cable Seismic System (3)

    Asakawa, E.; Murakami, F.; Tsukahara, H.; Mizohata, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    2013-12-01

    The VCS (Vertical Cable Seismic) is one of the reflection seismic methods. It uses hydrophone arrays vertically moored from the seafloor to record acoustic waves generated by surface, deep-towed or ocean bottom sources. Analyzing the reflections from the sub-seabed, we could look into the subsurface structure. Because VCS is an efficient high-resolution 3D seismic survey method for a spatially-bounded area, we proposed the method for the hydrothermal deposit survey tool development program that the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started in 2009. We are now developing a VCS system, including not only data acquisition hardware but data processing and analysis technique. We carried out several VCS surveys combining with surface towed source, deep towed source and ocean bottom source. The water depths of the survey are from 100m up to 2100m. The target of the survey includes not only hydrothermal deposit but oil and gas exploration. Through these experiments, our VCS data acquisition system has been completed. But the data processing techniques are still on the way. One of the most critical issues is the positioning in the water. The uncertainty in the positions of the source and of the hydrophones in water degraded the quality of subsurface image. GPS navigation system are available on sea surface, but in case of deep-towed source or ocean bottom source, the accuracy of shot position with SSBL/USBL is not sufficient for the very high-resolution imaging. We have developed another approach to determine the positions in water using the travel time data from the source to VCS hydrophones. In the data acquisition stage, we estimate the position of VCS location with slant ranging method from the sea surface. The deep-towed source or ocean bottom source is estimated by SSBL/USBL. The water velocity profile is measured by XCTD. After the data acquisition, we pick the first break times of the VCS recorded data. The estimated positions of

  3. Variability of aerosol vertical distribution in the Sahel

    O. Cavalieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the aerosol vertical distribution over Sahelian Africa for the years 2006, 2007 and 2008, characterizing the different kind of aerosols present in the atmosphere in terms of their optical properties observed by ground-based and satellite instruments, and their sources searched for by using trajectory analysis. This study combines data acquired by three ground-based micro lidar systems located in Banizoumbou (Niger, Cinzana (Mali and M'Bour (Senegal in the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA, by the AEROsol RObotic NETwork (AERONET sun-photometers and by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP onboard the CALIPSO satellite (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Observations.

    During winter, the lower levels air masses arriving in the Sahelian region come mainly from North, North-West and from the Atlantic area, while in the upper troposphere air flow generally originates from West Africa, crossing a region characterized by the presence of large biomass burning sources. The sites of Cinzana, Banizoumbou and M'Bour, along a transect of aerosol transport from East to West, are in fact under the influence of tropical biomass burning aerosol emission during the dry season, as revealed by the seasonal pattern of the aerosol optical properties, and by back-trajectory studies.

    Aerosol produced by biomass burning are observed mainly during the dry season and are confined in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This is particularly evident for 2006, which was characterized by a large presence of biomass burning aerosols in all the three sites.

    Biomass burning aerosol is also observed during spring when air masses originating from North and East Africa pass over sparse biomass burning sources, and during summer when biomass burning aerosol is transported from the southern part of the

  4. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation for the Department of the Environment

    1981-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: vertical crustal movements - a manifestation of intraplate geological processes (reports of vertical crustal movements observed by geodetic levelling in intraplate environments; vertical crustal movements and the geological record; possible causes of vertical crustal movements); an investigation of recent crustal movements in a test area of the United Kingdom by comparison of geodetic levelling records; vertical crustal movements and the isolation of nuclear waste in intraplate geological systems (conventional methods of site appraisal - a perspective of geological hazard assessment; the role of vertical crustal movements as a tool for rationalisation of hazard assessment, site selection and the assessment of future geological change); research options. (U.K.)

  5. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  6. Living in Space. Book 1. Levels A, B, C for Grades 1, 2, 3. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students that relate to space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 1 to 3 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  7. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  8. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  10. Vertical mixing by Langmuir circulations

    McWilliams, James C.; Sullivan, Peter P.

    2001-01-01

    Wind and surface wave frequently induce Langmuir circulations (LC) in the upper ocean, and the LC contribute to mixing materials down from the surface. In this paper we analyze large-eddy simulation (LES) cases based on surface-wave-averaged, dynamical equations and show that the effect of the LC is a great increase in the vertical mixing efficiency for both material properties and momentum. We provide new confirmation that the previously proposed K-profile parameterization (KPP) model accurately characterizes the turbulent transport in a weakly convective, wind-driven boundary layer with stable interior stratification. We also propose a modest generalization of KPP for the regime of weakly convective Langmuir turbulence. This makes the KPP turbulent flux profiles match those in the LES case with LC present fairly well, especially so for material properties being transported downwards from the ocean surface. However, some open issues remain about how well the present LES and KPP formulations represent Langmuir turbulence, in part because wave-breaking effects are not yet included. (Author)

  11. Space Toxicology

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  12. STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN THE STRATIFIED MASS CONTAINING VERTICAL ALVEOLE

    Bobileva Tatiana Nikolaevna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Almost all subsurface rocks used as foundations for various types of structures are stratified. Such heterogeneity may cause specific behaviour of the materials under strain. Differential equations describing the behaviour of such materials contain rapidly fluctuating coefficients, in view of this, solution of such equations is more time-consuming when using today’s computers. The method of asymptotic averaging leads to getting homogeneous medium under study to averaged equations with fixed factors. The present article is concerned with stratified soil mass consisting of pair-wise alternative isotropic elastic layers. In the results of elastic modules averaging, the present soil mass with horizontal rock stratification is simulated by homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space with isotropy plane perpendicular to the standing axis. Half-space is loosened by a vertical alveole of circular cross-section, and virgin ground is under its own weight. For horizontal parting planes of layers, the following two types of surface conditions are set: ideal contact and backlash without cleavage. For homogeneous transversal-isotropic half-space received with a vertical alveole, the analytical solution of S.G. Lekhnitsky, well known in scientific papers, is used. The author gives expressions for stress components and displacements in soil mass for different marginal conditions on the alveole surface. Such research problems arise when constructing and maintaining buildings and when composite materials are used.

  13. The global signature of post-1900 land ice wastage on vertical land motion

    Riva, Riccardo; Frederikse, Thomas; King, Matt; Marzeion, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    The amount of ice stored on land has strongly declined during the 20th century, and melt rates showed a significant acceleration over the last two decades. Land ice wastage is well known to be one of the main drivers of global mean sea-level rise, as widely discussed in the literature and reflected in the last assessment report of the IPCC. A less obvious effect of melting land ice is the response of the solid earth to mass redistribution on its surface, which, in the first approximation, results in land uplift where the load reduces (e.g., close to the meltwater sources) and land subsidence where the load increases (e.g., under the rising oceans). This effect is nowadays well known within the cryospheric and sea level communities. However, what is often not realized is that the solid earth response is a truly global effect: a localized mass change does cause a large deformation signal in its proximity, but also causes a change of the position of every other point on the Earth's surface. The theory of the Earth's elastic response to changing surface loads forms the basis of the 'sea-level equation', which allows sea-level fingerprints of continental mass change to be computed. In this paper, we provide the first dedicated analysis of global vertical land motion driven by land ice wastage. By means of established techniques to compute the solid earth elastic response to surface load changes and the most recent datasets of glacier and ice sheet mass change, we show that land ice loss currently leads to vertical deformation rates of several tenths of mm per year at mid-latitudes, especially over the Northern Hemisphere where most sources are located. In combination with the improved accuracy of space geodetic techniques (e.g., Global Navigation Satellite Systems), this means that the effect of ice melt is non-negligible over a large part of the continents. In particular, we show how deformation rates have been strongly varying through the last century, which implies

  14. Communication spaces.

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  15. Wind speed and direction shears with associated vertical motion during strong surface winds

    Alexander, M. B.; Camp, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Strong surface winds recorded at the NASA 150-Meter Ground Winds Tower facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, are analyzed to present occurrences representative of wind shear and vertical motion known to be hazardous to the ascent and descent of conventional aircraft and the Space Shuttle. Graphical (percentage frequency distributions) and mathematical (maximum, mean, standard deviation) descriptions of wind speed and direction shears and associated updrafts and downdrafts are included as functions of six vertical layers and one horizontal distance for twenty 5-second intervals of parameters sampled simultaneously at the rate of ten per second during a period of high surface winds.

  16. Learning styles in vertically integrated teaching.

    Brumpton, Kay; Kitchener, Scott; Sweet, Linda

    2013-10-01

    With vertical integration, registrars and medical students attend the same educational workshops. It is not known whether these learners have similar or different learning styles related to their level of education within the medical training schema. This study aims to collect information about learning styles with a view to changing teaching strategies. If a significant difference is demonstrated this will impact on required approaches to teaching. The VARK learning inventory questionnaire was administered to 36 general practice registrars and 20 medical students. The learning styles were compared as individuals and then related to their level of education within the medical training schema. Students had a greater preference for multimodal learning compared with registrars (62.5 per cent versus 33.3 per cent, respectively). More than half of the registrars preferred uni or bimodal learning modalities, compared with one-third of the medical students. The present workshop format based on visual and aural material will not match the learning needs of most learners. This small study has shown that the majority of medical students and registrars could have their learning preferences better met by the addition of written material to the workshop series. Surprisingly, a significantly larger number of medical students than registrars appeared to be broadly multimodal in their learning style, and this warrants further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Vertical Distribution of Water at Phoenix

    Tamppari, L. K.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    Phoenix results, combined with coordinated observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter of the Phoenix lander site, indicate that the water vapor is nonuniform (i.e., not well mixed) up to a calculated cloud condensation level. It is important to understand the mixing profile of water vapor because (a) the assumption of a well-mixed atmosphere up to a cloud condensation level is common in retrievals of column water abundances which are in turn used to understand the seasonal and interannual behavior of water, (b) there is a long history of observations and modeling that conclude both that water vapor is and is not well-mixed, and some studies indicate that the water vapor vertical mixing profile may, in fact, change with season and location, (c) the water vapor in the lowest part of the atmosphere is the reservoir that can exchange with the regolith and higher amounts may have an impact on the surface chemistry, and (d) greater water vapor abundances close to the surface may enhance surface exchange thereby reducing regional transport, which in turn has implications to the net transport of water vapor over seasonal and annual timescales.

  18. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  19. Safety Aspects for Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this appendix some safety aspects in relation to vertical wall breakwaters are discussed. Breakwater structures such as vertical wall breakwaters are used under quite different conditions. The expected lifetime can be from 5 years (interim structure) to 100 years (permanent structure) and the ...

  20. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  1. Plasmon Modes of Vertically Aligned Superlattices

    Filonenko, Konstantin; Duggen, Lars; Willatzen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    By using the Finite Element Method we visualize the modes of vertically aligned superlattice composed of gold and dielectric nanocylinders and investigate the emitter-plasmon interaction in approximation of weak coupling. We find that truncated vertically aligned superlattice can function...

  2. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  3. Vertical integration increases opportunities for patient flow.

    Radoccia, R A; Benvenuto, J A; Blancett, L

    1991-08-01

    New sources of patients will become more and more important in the next decade as hospitals continue to feel the squeeze of a competitive marketplace. Vertical integration, a distribution tool used in other industries, will be a significant tool for health care administrators. In the following article, the authors explain the vertical integration model that shows promise for other institutions.

  4. Vertical Integration, Monopoly, and the First Amendment.

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    This paper addresses the relationship between the First Amendment, monopoly of transmission media, and vertical integration of transmission and content provision. A survey of some of the incentives a profit-maximizing transmission monopolist may have with respect to content is followed by a discussion of how vertical integration affects those…

  5. Moving vertices to make drawings plane

    Goaoc, X.; Kratochvil, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Shin, C.S.; Wolff, A.; Hong, S.K.; Nishizeki, T.; Quan, W.

    2008-01-01

    In John Tantalo’s on-line game Planarity the player is given a non-plane straight-line drawing of a planar graph. The aim is to make the drawing plane as quickly as possible by moving vertices. In this paper we investigate the related problem MinMovedVertices which asks for the minimum number of

  6. Downwards Vertical Attention Bias in Conversion Disorder vs Controls: A Pilot Study.

    Gazit, Sivan; Elkana, Odelia; Dawidowicz, Liraz; Yeshayahu, Liel; Biran, Iftah

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a largely enigmatic disorder, one that requires a thorough ruling-out process. Prior research suggests that metaphors and conceptualization are rooted in physical experience, and that we interpret our affective world through metaphors. Spatial metaphors (interaction of affect and vertical space) are a prominent example of the grounding of metaphors. This is a relatively unpaved direction of research of CD. The present pilot study sought to explore this view by investigating the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphors (e.g., "fell ill" and "top shape") in patients with CD, examining the correlation between the processing of bodily-related words, CD, and vertical space. We hypothesized that patients with CD, who experience their bodies as ill, will demonstrate a downwards bias when processing bodily-related words; corresponding to the "healthy is up, sick is down" spatial metaphor. A total of 8 female patients (ages M-38.13 SD-10.44) and 42 female controls (ages M-36.4 SD-14.57) performed a visual attention task. Participants were asked to identify a spatial probe at the top or the bottom of a screen, following either a bodily related (e.g., arm) or non-bodily related (e.g., clock) prime word. As predicted, when processing bodily-related words, patients with CD demonstrated a downwards attention bias. Moreover, the higher the patient's level of somatization, the faster the patient detected lower (vs upper) spatial targets. This study suggests that the changed health paradigm of patients with CD is grounded in sensorimotor perception. Further research could propose new diagnostic and treatment options for CD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of a vertical MOSFET for charge sensing in a Si micro-fluidic channel

    Lyu, Hong-Kun; Kim, Dong-Sun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hey-Jung; Park, Chin-Sung; Lim, Geun-Bae

    2004-01-01

    We have formed a fluidic channel that can be used in micro-fluidic systems and fabricated a 3-dimensional vertical metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (vertical MOSFET) in the convex corner of a Si micro-fluidic channel by using an anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching solution. A Au/Cr layer was used for the gate metal and might be useful for detecting charged biomolecules. The electrical characteristics of the vertical MOSFET and its operation as a chemical sensor were investigated. At V DS = -5 V and V GS = -5 V the drain current of the device was -22.5 μA and the threshold voltage was about -1.4 V. A non-planar, non-rectangular vertical MOSFET with a trapezoidal gate was transformed into an equivalent rectangularly based one by using a Schwartz-Christoffel transformation. The LEVEL1 device parameters of the vertical MOSFET were extracted from the measured electrical device characteristics and were used in the SPICE simulation for the vertical MOSFET. The measured and the simulated results for the vertical PMOSFET showed relatively good agreement. When the vertical MOSFET was dipped into a thiol DNA solution, the drain current decreased due to charged biomolecules probably being adsorbed on the gate, which indicates that a vertical MOSFET in a Si micro-fluidic channel might be useful for sensing charged biomolecules.

  8. The Vertical Village: indigenous mixture in Rio de Janeiro city

    Camila Bevilaqua

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses upon a place called the Vertical Village, a building in the center of Rio de Janeiro inhabited exclusively by indigenous peoples from different ethnic groups belonging to different parts of the country. In this paper, we discuss questions related to the experience of being indigenous in a city, the construction of a residential space as a village, and the constitution of indigenous identity in the urban context. Following the paths of three inhabitants of the building, the questions considered emerge from their transiting between cities and villages, frontiers either real or imaginary, prejudices and expectations of indigenous identity.

  9. STS-95 Discovery undergoes vertical lift in the VAB

    1998-01-01

    In the Vehicle Assembly Building, the orbiter Discovery (viewed from below the Space Shuttle Main Engines, starboard side) is raised to a vertical position in order to be mated with the external tank. The orbiter displays the recently painted NASA logo, termed the 'meatball,' on the aft fuselage. The logo also has been painted on the left, or port, wing. Discovery (OV-103), the first of the orbiters to be launched with the new art work, is scheduled for its 25th flight, from Launch Pad 39B, on Oct. 29, 1998, for the STS-95 mission.

  10. Evaluation of vertical profiles to design continuous descent approach procedure

    Pradeep, Priyank

    The current research focuses on predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of Continuous Descent Approach (CDA), which is among the key concepts of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The idle-thrust CDA is a fuel economical, noise and emission abatement procedure, but requires increased separation to accommodate for variability and uncertainties in vertical and speed profiles of arriving aircraft. Although a considerable amount of researches have been devoted to the estimation of potential benefits of the CDA, only few have attempted to explain the predictability, variability and operational feasibility aspect of CDA. The analytical equations derived using flight dynamics and Base of Aircraft and Data (BADA) Total Energy Model (TEM) in this research gives insight into dependency of vertical profile of CDA on various factors like wind speed and gradient, weight, aircraft type and configuration, thrust settings, atmospheric factors (deviation from ISA (DISA), pressure and density of the air) and descent speed profile. Application of the derived equations to idle-thrust CDA gives an insight into sensitivity of its vertical profile to multiple factors. This suggests fixed geometric flight path angle (FPA) CDA has higher degree of predictability and lesser variability at the cost of non-idle and low thrust engine settings. However, with optimized design this impact can be overall minimized. The CDA simulations were performed using Future ATM Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) based on radar-track and aircraft type data (BADA) of the real air-traffic to some of the busiest airports in the USA (ATL, SFO and New York Metroplex (JFK, EWR and LGA)). The statistical analysis of the vertical profiles of CDA shows 1) mean geometric FPAs derived from various simulated vertical profiles are consistently shallower than 3° glideslope angle and 2) high level of variability in vertical profiles of idle-thrust CDA even in absence of

  11. Large-scale Vertical Motions, Intensity Change and Precipitation Associated with Land falling Hurricane Katrina over the Gulf of Mexico

    Reddy, S. R.; Kwembe, T.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between the large- scale heat fluxes and intensity change associated with the landfall of Hurricane Katrina. After reaching the category 5 intensity on August 28th , 2005 over the central Gulf of Mexico, Katrina weekend to category 3 before making landfall (August 29th , 2005) on the Louisiana coast with the maximum sustained winds of over 110 knots. We also examined the vertical motions associated with the intensity change of the hurricane. The data for Convective Available Potential Energy for water vapor (CAPE), sea level pressure and wind speed were obtained from the Atmospheric Soundings, and NOAA National Hurricane Center (NHC), respectively for the period August 24 to September 3, 2005. We also computed vertical motions using CAPE values. The study showed that the large-scale heat fluxes reached maximum (7960W/m2) with the central pressure 905mb. The Convective Available Potential Energy and the vertical motions peaked 3-5 days before landfall. The large atmospheric vertical motions associated with the land falling hurricane Katrina produced severe weather including thunderstorm, tornadoes, storm surge and floods Numerical model (WRF/ARW) with data assimilations have been used for this research to investigate the model's performances on hurricane tracks and intensities associated with the hurricane Katrina, which began to strengthen until reaching Category 5 on 28 August 2005. The model was run on a doubly nested domain centered over the central Gulf of Mexico, with grid spacing of 90 km and 30 km for 6 hr periods, from August 28th to August 30th. The model output was compared with the observations and is capable of simulating the surface features, intensity change and track associated with hurricane Katrina.

  12. Vertical and horizontal control dilemmas in public hospitals.

    Pettersen, Inger Johanne; Solstad, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    The hospital sector in Norway has been continuously reorganized since 2002 and the reforms have created organizations that are functionally/vertically controlled, whereas the production lines are coordinated on a process or a lateral basis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on both the perceived functional vertical control and horizontal controls within and between the local hospitals and the regional administrative levels. A national survey study, complemented with interviews of some key informants and document studies. The study shows that the functional and vertical lines of management control are perceived to be operating according to the traditional views of management control. The study indicates that the horizontal tasks are not very well implemented, and we did not find interactive and lateral uses of management control systems for managerial purposes. New control problems arise when services are to be coordinated between autonomous units. The paper focuses on the control problems found within the horizontal, flat relationship between production units in hospitals; new organizational structures have emerged where lateral relations are important, but traditional control practices follow functional, vertical lines.

  13. L1 Adaptive Control for a Vertical Rotor Orientation System

    Sijia Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-fixed vertical rotating devices are widely used in industrial and civilian fields. The free upside of the rotor will cause vibration and lead to noise and damage during operation. Meanwhile, parameter uncertainties, nonlinearities and external disturbances will further deteriorate the performance of the rotor. Therefore, in this paper, we present a rotor orientation control system based on an active magnetic bearing with L 1 adaptive control to restrain the influence of the nonlinearity and uncertainty and reduce the vibration amplitude of the vertical rotor. The boundedness and stability of the adaptive system are analyzed via a theoretical derivation. The impact of the adaptive gain is discussed through simulation. An experimental rig based on dSPACE is designed to test the validity of the rotor orientation system. The experimental results show that the relative vibration amplitude of the rotor using the L 1 adaptive controller will be reduced to ∼50% of that in the initial state, which is a 10% greater reduction than can be achieved with the nonadaptive controller. The control approach in this paper is of some significance to solve the orientation control problem in a low-speed vertical rotor with uncertainties and nonlinearities.

  14. Utilizing the Vertical Variability of Precipitation to Improve Radar QPE

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of the melting layer and raindrop size distribution can be exploited to further improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). Using dual-polarimetric radar and disdrometers, we found that the characteristic size of raindrops reaching the ground in stratiform precipitation often varies linearly with the depth of the melting layer. As a result, a radar rainfall estimator was formulated using D(sub m) that can be employed by polarimetric as well as dual-frequency radars (e.g., space-based radars such as the GPM DPR), to lower the bias and uncertainty of conventional single radar parameter rainfall estimates by as much as 20%. Polarimetric radar also suffers from issues associated with sampling the vertical distribution of precipitation. Hence, we characterized the vertical profile of polarimetric parameters (VP3)-a radar manifestation of the evolving size and shape of hydrometeors as they fall to the ground-on dual-polarimetric rainfall estimation. The VP3 revealed that the profile of ZDR in stratiform rainfall can bias dual-polarimetric rainfall estimators by as much as 50%, even after correction for the vertical profile of reflectivity (VPR). The VP3 correction technique that we developed can improve operational dual-polarimetric rainfall estimates by 13% beyond that offered by a VPR correction alone.

  15. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  16. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  17. Measurements of the vertical correlation in turbulence under broken waves

    Pedersen, Claus; Deigaard, Rolf; Sutherland, James

    1998-01-01

    Turbulence measurements have been carried out in the surf zone of a wave flume. The purpose of the measurements is to determine the length scale of the turbulence generated by the wave breaking. The length scale of the turbulence is estimated on basis of the correlation between simultaneous measu...... measurements of the vertical turbulent fluctuations, taken at different levels above the bed, (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  19. The Meaning of Terrace as Social Interaction Place in Vertical Kampung

    Sihombing, Antony; Gumay Poetri, Nurul

    2018-01-01

    The pros and cons of vertical housing development in Jakarta make me intend to raise the issue of the vertical kampung. In the kampung, there are social spaces where people interact to create a culture of rukun and gotong-royong. It is the terrace which become a container of social interaction. The purpose of this study is to reveal the meaning of the terrace in social interaction in the vertical kampung and its influence when the terrace room is not presented in the vertical kampung. The lost meaning of kampung when terrace is not presented in vertical kampung can be known through cognitive maps. Cognitive maps are the methodologies used to gain a human perception or view of life experiences in a particular place. This study involved several families in West Jatinegara Rusunawa to find out how people looked at the terrace in their life while in Kampung Pulo. Based on the cognitive maps method that has been done by the respondents, the terrace referred to by the villagers is an open space where people can see and interact with each other. Social space in the form of terraces which is needed by the kampung dweller, in fact is not a terrace house which is used as a place to receive guests and as a barrier between the fence and the body of the house.

  20. Accuracy analysis of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax in POS-supported aerial photogrammetry

    Wu, Zhenli; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2009-10-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax, especially using the orientation parameters of aerial images obtained by a POS (Positioning and Orientation System) after calibration. Firstly, based on the theory of analytical relative orientation of consecutive photo connection, the exterior orientation elements can be easily translated to relative orientation elements. Then, the formula of vertical parallax can be deduced. The results of vertical parallax in left image space coordinate system are compared with the results calculated in the image coordinate system which are parallel to those of the object coordinate system. The validity and feasibility of the mathematical model are tested using two sets of actual data at different images scales. Finally, the differences between the effects of exterior orientation parameters on vertical parallax are compared using exterior orientation parameters obtained by traditional bundle block adjustment and by a POS after calibrated. And how the single element of exterior orientation effected on vertical parallax and how they worked together are analyzed. The empirical results indicate that the effects of different elements of exterior orientation on vertical parallax are different, all exterior orientation parameters can be affected by each other, so the overall effect of vertical parallax accuracy can be restricted by all exterior orientation parameters.

  1. Branes in the GL(1 vertical stroke 1) WZNW-Model

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Inst. for Mathematics

    2007-08-15

    We initiate a systematic study of boundary conditions in conformal field theories with target space supersymmetry. The WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1) is used as a prototypical example for which we find the complete set of maximally symmetric branes. This includes a unique brane of maximal super-dimension 2 vertical stroke 2, a 2-parameter family of branes with super-dimension 0 vertical stroke 2 and an infinite set of fully localized branes possessing a single modulus. Members of the latter family can only exist along certain lines on the bosonic base, much like fractional branes at orbifold singularities. Our results establish that all essential algebraic features of Cardy-type boundary theories carry over to the non-rational logarithmic WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1). (orig.)

  2. Radon 222 and tropospheric vertical transport

    Liu, S.C.; McAfee, J.R.; Cicerone, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Radon 222 is an inert gas whose loss is due only to radioactive decay with a half life of 3.83 days (5.51-day ''exponential'' lifetime). It is a very useful tracer of continental air because only ground level continental sources are significant. Thus it is similar in several ways to many air pollutants (e.g., NO/sub x/) (NO+NO 2 ), SO 2 , and certain hydrocarbons. Previously published measured 222 Rn profiles are analyzed here by averaging for the summer, winter, and spring-fall seasons. The analysis shows that in summer, about 55% of the 222 Rn is transported above the planetary boundary layer, considerably more than during the other seasons. Similarly, in summer, about 20% rises to over 5.5 km (500 mbar). The average profiles have been used to derive vertical eddy diffusion coefficients with maximum values of 5-7 x 10 5 cm 2 s -1 in the midtroposphere and 8 x 10 3 to 5 x 10 4 cm 2 s -1 near the surface

  3. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V., E-mail: y_mitrishkin@hotmail.com [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Pavlova, Evgeniia A., E-mail: janerigoler@mail.ru [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Evgenii A., E-mail: ea.kuznetsov@mail.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Gaydamaka, Kirill I., E-mail: k.gaydamaka@gmail.com [V. A. Trapeznikov Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  4. Continuous, saturation, and discontinuous tokamak plasma vertical position control systems

    Mitrishkin, Yuri V.; Pavlova, Evgeniia A.; Kuznetsov, Evgenii A.; Gaydamaka, Kirill I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Robust new linear state feedback control system for tokamak plasma vertical position. • Plasma vertical position relay control system with voltage inverter in sliding mode. • Design of full models of multiphase rectifier and voltage inverter. • First-order unit approximation of full multiphase rectifier model with high accuracy. • Wider range of unstable plant parameters of stable control system with multiphase rectifier. - Abstract: This paper is devoted to the design and comparison of unstable plasma vertical position control systems in the T-15 tokamak with the application of two types of actuators: a multiphase thyristor rectifier and a transistor voltage inverter. An unstable dynamic element obtained by the identification of plasma-physical DINA code was used as the plasma model. The simplest static feedback state space control law was synthesized as a linear combination of signals accessible to physical measurements, namely the plasma vertical displacement, the current, and the voltage in a horizontal field coil, to solve the pole placement problem for a closed-loop system. Only one system distinctive parameter was used to optimize the performance of the feedback system, viz., a multiple real pole. A first-order inertial unit was used as the rectifier model in the feedback. A system with a complete rectifier model was investigated as well. A system with the voltage inverter model and static linear controller was brought into a sliding mode. As this takes place, real time delays were taken into account in the discontinuous voltage inverter model. The comparison of the linear and sliding mode systems showed that the linear system enjoyed an essentially wider range of the plant model parameters where the feedback system was stable.

  5. Vertical dimensional stability and rigidity of occlusal registration materials.

    Walker, Mary P; Wu, Edis; Heckman, M Elizabeth; Alderman, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Dimensionally accurate occlusal registration records are essential for restorative dentistry; moreover, since records are not used immediately or may be used more than once, the registration material should exhibit accuracy over time (a concept known as dimensional stability). It has been speculated that materials with increased hardness or rigidity should produce more accurate registration records due to an increased resistance to distortion. This study compared the rigidity and associated dimensional accuracy of a recently marketed bisacrylic occlusal registration material and a vinyl polysiloxane (VPS). Maxillary and mandibular typodont arches were mounted on a plasterless articulator from which teeth No. 3, 13, and 15 had been removed to simulate edentulous spaces. After preparing teeth No. 2, 4, 12, and 14 as bridge abutments, the remaining teeth were equilibrated selectively to produce even anterior contact. Four digital photographs were taken to make vertical interarch measurements at four locations (teeth No. 3, 7, 10, and 14). Following initial photos (controls), 10 interocclusal records were made using each registration material, with material placed only in the segments in which teeth were prepared. The records were used for mounting the maxillary arch against the mandibular arch after 48, 72, and 120 hours. There were significant effects on vertical dimensional change related to arch location, material, and mounting time. Both materials demonstrated significantly larger posterior vertical openings than anterior vertical openings, while the bisacrylate produced a larger posterior opening than VPS at 48 and 72 hours and a larger anterior opening at all mounting times. There also was a significant difference in hardness/rigidity due to material and measurement time; at all measurement times, bisacrylate exhibited a significantly higher hardness number.

  6. Vertically resolved characteristics of air pollution during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Xu, Weiqi; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Tang, Guiqian; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Xueling; Zhao, Xiujuan; Ji, Dongsheng; Han, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa

    2018-02-01

    We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction (bext), gaseous NO2, and black carbon (BC) from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes at an urban site in Beijing, China. Our results illustrated four distinct types of vertical profiles: (1) uniform vertical distributions (37 % of the time) with vertical differences less than 5 %, (2) higher values at lower altitudes (29 %), (3) higher values at higher altitudes (16 %), and (4) significant decreases at the heights of ˜ 100-150 m (14 %). Further analysis demonstrated that vertical convection as indicated by mixing layer height, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles. Particularly, the formation of type 4 was strongly associated with the stratified layer that was formed due to the interactions of different air masses and temperature inversions. Aerosol composition was substantially different below and above the transition heights with ˜ 20-30 % higher contributions of local sources (e.g., biomass burning and cooking) at lower altitudes. A more detailed evolution of vertical profiles and their relationship with the changes in source emissions, mixing layer height, and aerosol chemistry was illustrated by a case study. BC showed overall similar vertical profiles as those of bext (R2 = 0.92 and 0.69 in November and January, respectively). While NO2 was correlated with bext for most of the time, the vertical profiles of bext / NO2 varied differently for different profiles, indicating the impact of chemical transformation on vertical profiles. Our results also showed that more comprehensive vertical measurements (e.g., more aerosol and gaseous species) at higher altitudes in the megacities are needed for a better understanding of the formation mechanisms and evolution of severe haze episodes in China.

  7. Vertically resolved characteristics of air pollution during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China

    Q. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction (bext, gaseous NO2, and black carbon (BC from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes at an urban site in Beijing, China. Our results illustrated four distinct types of vertical profiles: (1 uniform vertical distributions (37 % of the time with vertical differences less than 5 %, (2 higher values at lower altitudes (29 %, (3 higher values at higher altitudes (16 %, and (4 significant decreases at the heights of ∼ 100–150 m (14 %. Further analysis demonstrated that vertical convection as indicated by mixing layer height, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles. Particularly, the formation of type 4 was strongly associated with the stratified layer that was formed due to the interactions of different air masses and temperature inversions. Aerosol composition was substantially different below and above the transition heights with ∼ 20–30 % higher contributions of local sources (e.g., biomass burning and cooking at lower altitudes. A more detailed evolution of vertical profiles and their relationship with the changes in source emissions, mixing layer height, and aerosol chemistry was illustrated by a case study. BC showed overall similar vertical profiles as those of bext (R2 = 0.92 and 0.69 in November and January, respectively. While NO2 was correlated with bext for most of the time, the vertical profiles of bext ∕ NO2 varied differently for different profiles, indicating the impact of chemical transformation on vertical profiles. Our results also showed that more comprehensive vertical measurements (e.g., more aerosol and gaseous species at higher altitudes in the megacities are needed for a better understanding of the formation mechanisms and evolution of severe haze episodes in China.

  8. Reliable avionics design for deep space

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  9. Discriminant analysis of maintaining a vertical position in the water

    Bratuša Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water polo is the only sports game that takes place in the water. During the outplay, a vertical body position with the two basic mechanisms of the leg work - a breaststroke leg kick and an eggbeater leg kick, prevails. Starting from the significance of a vertical position during the game play, the methods of assessing physical preparedness of the athletes of all the categories also include the evaluation of maintaining a vertical position and consequently the load of the leg muscles. The measurements are performed during the maintenance of a vertical position (swimming in place through one of the specified mechanisms of leg work, i.e. a vertical position technique. The aim of this paper was to determine the application of different mechanisms of the leg kicks in maintaining a vertical position with young water polo players in relation to their position. The study included 29 selected junior water polo players (age_15.8 ± 0.8 years; BH_185.2 ± 5.3cm and BW_81.7 ± 7.7kg. The measurements were performed during the tests of swimming in place at the maximum intensity lasting 10 seconds, by the breaststroke and eggbeater leg kicks. The isometric tensiometry tests were used for the measurements. The results were analysed by the application of descriptive statistics, and the kinetic selection characteristic was defined by the application of discriminant analysis. Higher average values were achieved with the breaststroke leg kick technique Fmax, ImpF and RFD (avgFmaxLEGGBK =157.46±19.93N; avgImpF_LEGGBK =45.43±10.64Ns; avgRFD_LEGGBK=337.85±80.73N/s; avgFmaxLBKICK=227.18±49.17N; avgImpF_LBKICK=55.99±14.59Ns; avgRFD_LBKICK=545.47±159.15N/s. After discriminant analysis, the results have shown that the eggbeater leg kick is a selection technique, whereas the force - Fmax is a kinetic selection variable. Based on the obtained results and the analyses performed it may be concluded that a training factor dominant for maintaining a vertical position by

  10. Measuring of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke in the forthcoming decade

    Kim, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    I first introduce the importance of measuring V ub precisely. Then, from a theoretician's point of view, I review (a) past history, (b) present trials, and (c) possible future alternatives on measuring vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke and/or vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke. As of my main topic, I introduce a model-independent method, which predicts Γ(B→X u lν)/Γ(B→X c lν)≡(γ u /γ c ) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 ≅(1.83±0.28) x vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke 2 and vertical stroke V ub /V cb vertical stroke ≡(γ c /γ u ) 1/2 x [B(B→X u lν)/B(B→ X c lν]) 1/2 ≅(0.74±0.06) x [B(B→X u lν/)B(B→X c lν)] 1/2 , based on the heavy quark effective theory I also explore the possible experimental options to separate B→X u lν from the dominant B→X c lν: the measurement of inclusive hadronic invariant mass distributions, and the 'D-π' (and 'K-π') separation conditions I also clarify the relevant experimental backgrounds. (orig.)

  11. Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Cortesi, Ugo; Del Bianco, Samuele; Raspollini, Piera

    2010-01-01

    Techniques of data fusion are presently being considered with increasing interest for application to atmospheric observations from space because of their capability to optimally exploit the complementary information provided by different instruments operating aboard on-going and future satellite missions. The task of combining measurements of the same target, when carried out at the level of the retrieved state vectors, faces with two major problems: the need to interpolate the products represented on different retrieval grids which determines a loss of information and the presence of a priori information in the products that can determine a bias in the product of the data fusion. The measurement space solution method avoids these problems. Based on this method we present a novel approach to retrieve the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements. We apply the method to retrieve the ozone column from the fusion of simulated measurements of the IASI nadir-viewing spectrometer onboard the METOP-A platform and of the MIPAS limb sounder onboard the ENVISAT satellite. The performance of the method is evaluated in terms of retrieval errors and averaging kernels of the products. The results show the evidence of improved retrieval quality when comparing the outcome of data fusion with that of the inversion process applied to spectra from either of the two instruments.

  12. Is the Classification of International Trade in Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade Usable?

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Lüthje, Teit

    2001-01-01

    with vertical intra-industry trade (between Germany and France) making up 50-60%. The high level of vertical intra-industry trade probably covers up many products shifting between e.g. vertical and horizontal intra-industry. The statement from the literature that the European integration process involves heavy......Abstract On the basis of OECD trade statistics at SITC 5 digit level for the period 1961-1999 we show the classification of international trade in (a) inter-industry trade and (b) horizontal intra-industry and (c) vertical intra-industry trade used in the empirical trade literature to be non stable...... at the individual product level. This indicates that this type of statistical classification based on unit-values is probably not very useful. On the other hand, we also show in accordance with the literature that the aggregate distribution of trade into the three categories apparently is rather stable...

  13. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Gawronek, Pelagia; Makuch, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

  14. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Gawronek Pelagia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface. The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement.

  15. determination of verticality of reservoir engineering structure

    user

    applications is 3D survey and management of oil and gas facilities and other engineering structures. This recent .... also affect ground water contamination. 2. VERTICALITY ...... The soil, water and concrete in a Reservoir at the foundation bed ...

  16. Vertical activity estimation using 2D radar

    Hakl, H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding airspace activity is essential for airspace control. Being able to detect vertical activity in aircraft allows prediction of aircraft intent, thereby allowing more accurate situation awareness and correspondingly more appropriate...

  17. HL-LHC vertical cryostat during construction

    Lanaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    7m high "Cluster D" vertical test cryostat during construction at contractor's premises, Alca Technology Srl, in Schio, Italy. The inner helium vessel with its heat exchanger are visible. To be installed in the D pit in SMA18.

  18. Prefabricated vertical drains, vol. I : engineering guidelines.

    1986-09-01

    This volume presents procedures and guidelines applicable to the design and instal : tion of prefabricated vertical drains to accelerate consolidation of soils. The : contents represent the Consultant's interpretation of the state-of-the-art as of : ...

  19. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  20. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  1. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  2. Aerodynamic Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Trailing Edge Flap

    Ertem, Sercan; Ferreira, Carlos Simao; Gaunaa, Mac

    2016-01-01

    Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) are competitive concepts for very large scale (10-20 MW)floating ofshore applications. Rotor circulation control (loading control) opens a wide design space to enhance the aerodynamic and operational features of VAWT. The modied linear derivation of the Actuator...

  3. Proton radiation effects on the optical properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Kuhnhenn, J.; Khavrus, V.; Leonhardt, A.; Eversheim, D.; Noll, C.; Hinderlich, S.; Dahl, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses proton-induced radiation effects in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNT). VACNTs exhibit extremely low optical reflectivity which makes them interesting candidates for use in spacecraft stray light suppression. Investigating their behavior in space environment is a precondition for the implementation on a satellite.

  4. Face Inversion Disproportionately Disrupts Sensitivity to Vertical over Horizontal Changes in Eye Position

    Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Presenting a face inverted (upside down) disrupts perceptual sensitivity to the spacing between the features. Recently, it has been shown that this disruption is greater for vertical than horizontal changes in eye position. One explanation for this effect proposed that inversion disrupts the processing of long-range (e.g., eye-to-mouth distance)…

  5. The effect of inclined vertical slats on natural convective heat transfer from an isothermal heated vertical plate

    Oosthuizen, P.H.; Sun, L.; Naylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    Natural convective heat transfer from a wide heated vertical isothermal plate with adiabatic surfaces above and below the heated surface has been considered. There are a series of equally spaced vertical thin, flat adiabatic surfaces (termed 'slats') near the heated surface, these surfaces being, in general, inclined to the heated surface. The slats are pivoted about their center-point and thus as their angle is changed, the distance of the tip of the slat from the plate changes. The situation considered is an approximate model of a window with a vertical blind, the particular case where the window is hotter than the room air, i.e. where air-conditioning is being used, being considered. The flow has been assumed to be laminar and steady. Fluid properties have been assumed constant except for the density change with temperature that gives rise to the buoyancy forces, this being treated by means of the Biuniqueness type approximation. Although the flow is in general three-dimensional, the flow over each slat is assumed to be the same and attention can therefore be restricted to flow over a single slat by using repeating boundary conditions. The governing equations have been written in dimensionless form and the resulting dimensionless equations have been solved using a commercial finite-element package. The solution has the following parameters: (1) the Rayleigh number (2) the Prandtl number (3) the dimensionless distance of the slat center point (the pivot point) from the surface (4) the dimensionless slat size (5) the dimensionless slat spacing (6) the angle of inclination of the slats. Because of the application that motivated the study, results have only been obtained for a Prandtl number of 0.7. The effect of the other dimensionless variables on the mean dimensionless heat transfer rate from the heated surface has been examined. (author)

  6. Measured and modelled concentrations and vertical profiles of airborne particulate matter within the boundary layer of a street canyon

    Colls, J.J.; Micallef, A.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations and vertical profiles of various fractions of airborne particulate matter (suspended particulate matter (SPM), PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) have been measured over the first three metres from ground in a street canyon. Measurements were carried out using automated near real-time apparatus called the Kinetic Sequential Sampling (KSS) system. KSS system is essentially an electronically-controlled lift carrying a real-time particle monitor for sampling air sequentially, at different heights within the breathing zone, which includes all heights within the surface layer of a street canyon at which people may breathe. Data is automatically logged at the different receptor levels, for the determination of the average vertical concentration profile of airborne particulate matter. For measuring the airborne particle concentration, a Grimm Dust Monitor 1.104/5 was used. The recorded data also allows for time series analysis of airborne particulate matter concentration at different heights. Time series data and hourly-average vertical concentration profiles in the boundary layer of the confines of a street are thought to be mainly determined by traffic emissions and traffic associated processes. Hence the measured data were compared with results of a street canyon emission-dispersion model in time and space. This Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ) model employs the plume-box technique and includes modules for simulating vehicle-generated effects such as thermally- and mechanically-generated turbulence and resuspension of road dust. Environmental processes, such as turbulence resulting from surface sensible heat and the formation of sulphate aerosol from sulphur dioxide exhaust emissions, are taken into account. The paper presents an outline description of the measuring technique and model used, and a comparison of the measured and modelled data

  7. Junior nursing students' experiences of vertical violence during clinical rotations.

    Thomas, Sandra P; Burk, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal violence is a form of workplace violence, a phenomenon that is prevalent in the nursing profession. Research has revealed a variety of negative peer-to-peer behaviors that lower morale and lead to turnover. However, little research has been conducted on "eating our young" (violence occurring between individuals with unequal power, such as staff nurse and student). We propose "vertical violence" as the appropriate term when abusive registered nurse (RN) behavior is directed towards students. We report a content analysis of stories written by junior nursing students about incidents of injustice perpetrated by staff RNs during their clinical experiences. Four levels of injustice were described. Nursing leadership, both in hospitals and educational institutions, must become engaged in efforts to eradicate vertical violence towards students.

  8. Vertical Scope, Turbulence, and the Benefits of Commitment and Flexibility

    Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias; Stieglitz, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We address the contested state of theory and the mixed empirical evidence on the relationship between turbulence and vertical scope by studying how turbulence affects the benefits of commitment from integrated development of components and the benefits of flexibility from sourcing components...... externally. We show that increasing turbulence first increases but then decreases the relative value of vertical integration. Moderate turbulence reduces the value of flexibility by making supplier selection more difficult and increases the value of commitment by mitigating the status quo bias of integrated...... structures. Both effects improve the value of integration. Higher levels of turbulence undermine the adaptive benefits of commitment, but have a less adverse effect on flexibility, making nonintegration more attractive. We also show how complexity and uneven rates of turbulence moderate the nonmonotonic...

  9. A Space Apart

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  10. Neighborhood spaces

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  11. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...

  12. On discourse space modeling

    Казыдуб, Надежда

    2013-01-01

    Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historica...

  13. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.

    2017-06-01

    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  14. An analysis of TA-Student Interaction and the Development of Concepts in 3-d Space Through Language, Objects, and Gesture in a College-level Geoscience Laboratory

    King, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to describe how a teaching assistant (TA) in an undergraduate geology laboratory employs a multimodal system in order to mediate the students' understanding of scientific knowledge and develop a contextualization of a concept in three-dimensional space and 2) to describe how a linguistic awareness of gestural patterns can be used to inform TA training assessment of students' conceptual understanding in situ. During the study the TA aided students in developing the conceptual understanding and reconstruction of a meteoric impact, which produces shatter cone formations. The concurrent use of speech, gesture, and physical manipulation of objects is employed by the TA in order to aid the conceptual understanding of this particular phenomenon. Using the methods of gestural analysis in works by Goldin-Meadow, 2000 and McNeill, 1992, this study describes the gestures of the TA and the students as well as the purpose and motivation of the meditational strategies employed by TA in order to build the geological concept in the constructed 3-dimensional space. Through a series of increasingly complex gestures, the TA assists the students to construct the forensic concept of the imagined 3-D space, which can then be applied to a larger context. As the TA becomes more familiar with the students' meditational needs, the TA adapts teaching and gestural styles to meet their respective ZPDs (Vygotsky 1978). This study shows that in the laboratory setting language, gesture, and physical manipulation of the experimental object are all integral to the learning and demonstration of scientific concepts. Recognition of the gestural patterns of the students allows the TA the ability to dynamically assess the students understanding of a concept. Using the information from this example of student-TA interaction, a brief short course has been created to assist TAs in recognizing the mediational power as well as the assessment potential of gestural

  15. Gallium nitride vertical power devices on foreign substrates: a review and outlook

    Zhang, Yuhao; Dadgar, Armin; Palacios, Tomás

    2018-07-01

    Vertical gallium nitride (GaN) power devices have attracted increased attention due to their superior high-voltage and high-current capacity as well as easier thermal management than lateral GaN high electron mobility transistors. Vertical GaN devices are promising candidates for next-generation power electronics in electric vehicles, data centers, smart grids and renewable energy process. The use of low-cost foreign substrates such as silicon (Si) substrates, instead of the expensive free-standing GaN substrates, could greatly trim material cost and enable large-diameter wafer processing while maintaining high device performance. This review illustrates recent progress in material epitaxy, device design, device physics and processing technologies for the development of vertical GaN power devices on low-cost foreign substrates. Although the device technologies are still at the early stage of development, state-of-the-art vertical GaN-on-Si power diodes have already shown superior Baliga’s figure of merit than commercial SiC and Si power devices at the voltage classes beyond 600 V. Furthermore, we unveil the design space of vertical GaN power devices on native and different foreign substrates, from the analysis of the impact of dislocation and defects on device performance. We conclude by identifying the application space, current challenges and exciting research opportunities in this very dynamic research field.

  16. On the relation between the frequency of oscillation of a virtual cathode and injected current in one-dimensional grounded drift space

    Kumar, Raghwendra; Puri, R.R.; Biswas, D.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between the injected current density j 0 and the dominant fundamental oscillation frequency f of a virtual cathode in a one-dimensional grounded infinite planar drift space of length L is determined numerically. If the electrons, each of mass m e and charge e, are injected with velocity v 0 , it is found that for vertical bar j 0 vertical bar >>m e v 0 3 /18π vertical bar e vertical bar L 2 , f∼√(vertical bar j 0 vertical bar) which is in contrast to the relation f∼vertical bar j 0 vertical bar reported by earlier workers

  17. 3D correlation imaging of the vertical gradient of gravity data

    Guo, Lianghui; Meng, Xiaohong; Shi, Lei

    2011-01-01

    We present a new 3D correlation imaging approach for vertical gradient of gravity data for deriving a 3D equivalent mass distribution in the subsurface. In this approach, we divide the subsurface space into a 3D regular grid, and then at each grid node calculate a cross correlation between the vertical gradient of the observed gravity data and the theoretical gravity vertical gradient due to a point mass source. The resultant correlation coefficients are used to describe the equivalent mass distribution in a probability sense. We simulate a geological syncline model intruded by a dike and later broken by two vertical faults. The vertical gradient of gravity anomaly of the model is calculated and used to test the approach. The results demonstrate that the equivalent mass distribution derived by the approach reflects the basic geological structures of the model. We also test the approach on the transformed vertical gradient of real Bouguer gravity data from a geothermal survey area in Northern China. The thermal reservoirs are located in the lower portion of the sedimentary basin. From the resultant equivalent mass distribution, we produce the depth distribution of the bottom interface of the basin and predict possible hidden faults present in the basin

  18. Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Mommsen, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Vertical integration in the nuclear fuel cycle and its contribution to market power of integrated fuel suppliers were studied. The industry subdivision analyzed is the uranium raw materials sector. The hypotheses demonstrated are that (1) this sector of the industry is trending toward vertical integration between production of uranium raw materials and the manufacture of nuclear fuel elements, and (2) this vertical integration confers upon integrated firms a significant market advantage over non-integrated fuel manufacturers. Under microeconomic concepts the rationale for vertical integration is the pursuit of efficiency, and it is beneficial because it increases physical output and decreases price. The Market Advantage Model developed is an arithmetical statement of the relative market power (in terms of price) between non-integrated nuclear fuel manufacturers and integrated raw material/fuel suppliers, based on the concept of the ''squeeze.'' In operation, the model compares net profit and return on sales of nuclear fuel elements between the competitors, under different price and cost circumstances. The model shows that, if integrated and non-integrated competitors sell their final product at identical prices, the non-integrated manufacturer returns a net profit only 17% of the integrated firm. Also, the integrated supplier can price his product 35% below the non-integrated producer's price and still return the same net profit. Vertical integration confers a definite market advantage to the integrated supplier, and the basic source of that advantage is the cost-price differential of the raw material, uranium

  19. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  20. A Physician's Perspective On Vertical Integration.

    Berenson, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Vertical integration has been a central feature of health care delivery system change for more than two decades. Recent studies have demonstrated that vertically integrated health care systems raise prices and costs without observable improvements in quality, despite many theoretical reasons why cost control and improved quality might occur. Less well studied is how physicians view their newfound partnerships with hospitals. In this article I review literature findings and other observations on five aspects of vertical integration that affect physicians in their professional and personal lives: patients' access to physicians, physician compensation, autonomy versus system support, medical professionalism and culture, and lifestyle. I conclude that the movement toward physicians' alignment with and employment in vertically integrated systems seems inexorable but that policy should not promote such integration either intentionally or inadvertently. Instead, policy should address the flaws in current payment approaches that reward high prices and excessive service use-outcomes that vertical integration currently produces. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Comparison of upconing under vertical and horizontal wells in freshwater lenses: sand-box experiments and numerical modeling

    Stoeckl, Leonard; Stefan, Loeffler; Houben, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lenses on islands and in inland areas are often the primary freshwater resource there. The fragile equilibrium between saline and fresh groundwater can be disrupted by excessive pumping, leading to an upward migration of the saline water underneath the well. Sand-box experiments were conducted to compare the upconing at vertical and horizontal wells pumping from a freshwater lens. Results were then compared to numerical simulations. To simulate the cross-section of an "infinite strip island", an acrylic box with a spacing of 5 cm was filled with coarse sand. After saturating the model with degassed saltwater from bottom to top, freshwater recharge was applied from above. By coloring the infiltrating freshwater with different tracer colors using uranine and indigotine we were able to visualize flow paths during pumping. A horizontal and a vertical well were placed at the left and right side of the symmetric island. Both had equal diameter, screen length, depth of placement, and distance to shore. Three increasing pumping rates were applied to each well successively and the electrical conductivity of the abstracted water was continuously measured using a through-flow cell. Results show that no saltwater entered the wells when pumping at the lowest rate. Still, slight saltwater upconing and a shift of the freshwater divide in the island were observed. At the second rate a clear saltwater breakthrough into the vertical well occurred, while the electrical conductivity remained nearly unchanged in the horizontal well. Applying the third (highest) abstraction rate to each of the wells saltwater entered both wells, exceeding drinking water standards in the vertical well. The described behavior indicates the advantage of horizontal over vertical wells on islands and in coastal zones prone to saltwater up-coning. Numerical simulations show similar patterns, even though deviations exist between the second and the third pumping rate, which are under and

  2. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE

    Emre Serin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of different stretching exercises on vertical jump performance. A total of 14 national male athletes sporting in the elite level took part in the study. The age average of the participants was 20.25±1.03 year, the average height was 1.80±.08 m, the average body weight was 77.14±18.91 kg, average of sporting age was 9.87±3.31 year and the average number of participation in international games was 10.0±3.31. As stretching protocol: Method 1 (5 minutes of jogging and 2 minutes of active rest followed by Method 2 (static stretching for 4 different muscle groups 3 repetitions for 15 seconds of static stretching, rest for 10 seconds between groups and then consecutively, Method 3 (Dynamic stretching exercises with 3 repetitions for 15 seconds and 10 seconds rest between different muscle groups were applied in the study. The vertical jump performance before and after different stretching exercises of the participants was determined by means of the vertical jump test using the smart speed lite system. Before and after the training of all athletes, HR was recorded with a heart rate monitor (RS 800, Polar Vantage NV, Polar Electro Oy, Finland with 5 seconds intervals. Before the study, the chest band of the heartbeat monitor was placed on the chest of the athlete and the HR was recorded from the monitor. SPSS 15.0 statistical package program was used for evaluation and calculation of the data. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation paired samples t-test was used to determine the difference between the vertical jump performance of the participants before and after different stretching exercises. As a result, this study showed that; applying the dynamic and static stretching exercises consecutively affected the vertical jump performance 4.5 cm positively (p<.05. It is suggested that different dynamic and static stretching exercises should be included in the vertical jump.

  3. Sacred Space.

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  4. A fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) subsea separation and pumping system; Um controlador fuzzy para o sistema de separacao e bombeamento submarino - VASP (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System)

    Teixeira, Alex F.; Mendes, Jose Ricardo P.; Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Estevam, Valdir [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guilherme, Ivan R. [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao; Rigo, Jose Eduardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica no Espirito Santo (CEFETES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this paper the designs of a fuzzy controller for the VASPS (Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System) liquid level and separation pressure control are presented, as well as a simulation of its work to evaluate the performance of the controller designed. The VASPS is a two-phase subsea separation and pumping system, which is made up of a separation vessel, where the mixture (liquid and gas) enters and suffers the separation process through three levels, the expansion chamber, the helix and the pool. The liquid inside the pool is taken to the platform using a pump that with a choke control the pool liquid level. The pool liquid level control is necessary because if the level exceeds the maximum value allowed, the liquid can invade the space occupied by the helix and hinder the separation process. An the other hand if the level is below the minimum allowed the pump can be damaged. The separation pressure control is important for operational security and efficiency issues, because when we keep the separation pressure near an optimum value we are maximizing its efficiency. With the controller and the simulator, many simulations of the work of system were made to get results that could be used to evaluate if the designed controller solved the problem and if its performance were satisfactory. After, a PID control system was designed to be used as comparison with the results obtained with the fuzzy controller, since the PID is widely used in the industrial environment. (author)

  5. A vertically resolved, global, gap-free ozone database for assessing or constraining global climate model simulations

    G. E. Bodeker

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High vertical resolution ozone measurements from eight different satellite-based instruments have been merged with data from the global ozonesonde network to calculate monthly mean ozone values in 5° latitude zones. These ''Tier 0'' ozone number densities and ozone mixing ratios are provided on 70 altitude levels (1 to 70 km and on 70 pressure levels spaced ~ 1 km apart (878.4 hPa to 0.046 hPa. The Tier 0 data are sparse and do not cover the entire globe or altitude range. To provide a gap-free database, a least squares regression model is fitted to the Tier 0 data and then evaluated globally. The regression model fit coefficients are expanded in Legendre polynomials to account for latitudinal structure, and in Fourier series to account for seasonality. Regression model fit coefficient patterns, which are two dimensional fields indexed by latitude and month of the year, from the N-th vertical level serve as an initial guess for the fit at the N + 1-th vertical level. The initial guess field for the first fit level (20 km/58.2 hPa was derived by applying the regression model to total column ozone fields. Perturbations away from the initial guess are captured through the Legendre and Fourier expansions. By applying a single fit at each level, and using the approach of allowing the regression fits to change only slightly from one level to the next, the regression is less sensitive to measurement anomalies at individual stations or to individual satellite-based instruments. Particular attention is paid to ensuring that the low ozone abundances in the polar regions are captured. By summing different combinations of contributions from different regression model basis functions, four different ''Tier 1'' databases have been compiled for different intended uses. This database is suitable for assessing ozone fields from chemistry-climate model simulations or for providing the ozone boundary conditions for global climate model simulations that do not

  6. Toward a Theory of Industrial Development and Vertical Disintegration : The Case of the Semiconductor Industry

    末永, 啓一郎

    2007-01-01

    The semiconductor industry has accomplished surprising growth, and its production basehas extended from the United States to Japan, Europe, and other Asian economies. One of thefactors of this phenomenon is the progress of vertical disintegration in the semiconductor industry.The boundaries of firms are discussed within a transaction cost framework. However, toidentify the process of long-term vertical disintegration at an industrial level, a dynamic theoryrather than a static theory is neces...

  7. Land water storage from space and the geodetic infrastructure

    Cazenave, A.; Larson, K.; Wahr, J.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, remote sensing techniques have been increasingly used to monitor components of the water balance of large river basins. By complementing scarce in situ observations and hydrological modelling, space observations have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of hydrological processes at work in river basins and their relationship with climate variability and socio-economic life. Among the remote sensing tools used in land hydrology, several originate from space geodesy and are integral parts of the Global Geodetic Observing System. For example, satellite altimetry is used for systematic monitoring of water levels of large rivers, lakes and floodplains. InSAR allows the detection of surface water change. GRACE-based space gravity offers for the first time the possibility of directly measuring the spatio-temporal variations of the vertically integrated water storage in large river basins. GRACE is also extremely useful for measuring changes in mass of the snow pack in boreal regions. Vertical motions of the ground induced by changes in water storage in aquifers can be measured by both GPS and InSAR. These techniques can also be used to investigate water loading effects. Recently GPS has been used to measure changes in surface soil moisture, which would be important for agriculture, weather prediction, and for calibrationg satellite missions such as SMOS and SMAP. These few examples show that space and ground geodetic infrastructures are increasingly important for hydrological sciences and applications. Future missions like SWOT (Surface Waters Ocean Topography; a wide swath interferometric altimetry mission) and GRACE 2 (space gravimetry mission based on new technology) will provide a new generation of hydrological products with improved precision and resolution.

  8. Vertical cities - the new form of high-rise construction evolution

    Akristiniy, Vera A.; Boriskina, Yulia I.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the basic principles of the vertical cities formation for the creation of a comfortable urban environment in conditions of rapid population growth and limited territories. As urban growth increases, there is a need for new concepts and approaches to urban space planning through the massive introduction of high-rise construction. The authors analyzed and systematized the list of high-tech solutions for arrangement the space of vertical cities, which are an integral part of the creation of the methodology for forming a high-rise buildings. Their concept differs in scale, presence of the big areas of public spaces, tendencies to self-sufficiency and sustainability, opportunity to offer the new unique comfortable environment to the population living in them.

  9. Retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Rozanov, A.; Weigel, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Dhomse, S.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Kivi, R.; Rozanov, V.; Vömel, H.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) altitude range from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light made in limb viewing geometry. First results using measurements from SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) aboard ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) are presented here. In previous publications, the retrieval of water vapor vertical ...

  10. Modeling Space Radiation with Bleomycin

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is a mixed field of solar particle events (proton) and particles of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with different energy levels. These radiation events...

  11. Lateral and Vertical Organic Transistors

    Al-Shadeedi, Akram

    high doping concentrations. In subsequent chapters, the working mechanisms of OPBTs are discussed. OPBTs consist of two Schottky diodes (top and bottom diode), and the charge transport in these C60-based Schottky diodes is studied first. Two transport regimes can be distinguished in forward direction - injection limited currents (ILCs) and space charge limited currents (SCLCs). It is found that the current increases exponentially with applied voltage in the ILC regime and depends quadratically on the applied voltage in the SCLC regime. Furthermore, it is observed that the forward and backward currents of the Schottky diode are increased by decreasing the C60 layer thickness, increasing the active area, and increasing the temperature. Furthermore, in order to reach a high performance, various treatments have been applied. Air exposure, a variation of the thickness of the top electrode, as well as annealing of the diodes are used to optimize the diodes. OPBTs are processed by using the semiconductor C60 due its high charge carrier mobility and good film-forming properties. Again, the working mechanism of OPBTs is studied by electrical characterization (base-sweep measurements and output characteristics). To achieve a high performance of OPBTs, various treatments and techniques have been applied. The annealing of the OPBTs after fabrication changes the morphology of the base electrode. Thus, openings (pinholes) are formed in the base electrode, which enables a high current transfer from the upper to lower semiconductor layer. The formation of openings is proved by analyzing SEM and TEM image of the base electrode. Adding a doped layer at the emitter is another process to optimize the OPBTs. The doped layer ensures a high charge carrier injection at the emitter, leading to a high transmission and current gain. Furthermore, it has been observed that the ON/OFF ratio and transconductance of OPBTs increases by decreasing their active area. A very high transconductance gm of

  12. Measurement of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke at the Z energy from B mesons exclusive decays

    Marinelli, N.

    1998-01-01

    Recent ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL measurements of the form factors in the exclusive decay modes anti B 0 → D *+ l - anti ν l and anti B 0 →D + l - anti ν l are reviewed here. The values obtained allow an almost model-independent determination of vertical stroke V cb vertical stroke in the HQET framework. (orig.)

  13. Measurement of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke using b hadron semileptonic decay

    Abbiendi, G.; Aakesson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined by measuring the inclusive charmless semileptonic branching fraction of beauty hadrons at OPAL based on b → X u lν event topology and kinematics. This analysis uses OPAL data collected between 1991 and 1995, which correspond to about four million hadronic Z decays. We measure Br(b → X u lν) to be (1.63 ±0.53 +0.55 -0.62 ) x 10 -3 . The first uncertainty is the statistical error and the second is the systematic error. From this analysis, vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke is determined to be: vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke =(4.00±0.65(stat) +0.67 -0.76 (sys)±0.19(HQE)) x 10 -3 . The last error represents the theoretical uncertainties related to the extraction of vertical stroke V ub vertical stroke from Br(b→X u l ν) using the Heavy Quark Expansion. (orig.)

  14. A global vertical reference frame based on four regional vertical datums

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 493-502 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : geopotentinal * local vertical datums * global vertical reference frame Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2004

  15. Vertical Object Layout and Compression for Fixed Heaps

    Titzer, Ben L.; Palsberg, Jens

    Research into embedded sensor networks has placed increased focus on the problem of developing reliable and flexible software for microcontroller-class devices. Languages such as nesC [10] and Virgil [20] have brought higher-level programming idioms to this lowest layer of software, thereby adding expressiveness. Both languages are marked by the absence of dynamic memory allocation, which removes the need for a runtime system to manage memory. While nesC offers code modules with statically allocated fields, arrays and structs, Virgil allows the application to allocate and initialize arbitrary objects during compilation, producing a fixed object heap for runtime. This paper explores techniques for compressing fixed object heaps with the goal of reducing the RAM footprint of a program. We explore table-based compression and introduce a novel form of object layout called vertical object layout. We provide experimental results that measure the impact on RAM size, code size, and execution time for a set of Virgil programs. Our results show that compressed vertical layout has better execution time and code size than table-based compression while achieving more than 20% heap reduction on 6 of 12 benchmark programs and 2-17% heap reduction on the remaining 6. We also present a formalization of vertical object layout and prove tight relationships between three styles of object layout.

  16. Horizontal and vertical transmissions in the US oil supply chain

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Dees, Stephane; Mann, Micheal

    2009-01-01

    Oil prices, inventory levels, and utilization rates are influenced by changes that are transmitted horizontally and/or vertically through the energy supply chain. We define horizontal transmissions as changes that are generated by linkages among fuels at a similar stage of processing while vertical transmissions are changes that are generated by upstream/downstream linkages in the oil supply chain. Here, we investigate vertical and horizontal transmissions by estimating vector error correction models (VECMs) that represent relationships among the price of crude oil, US refinery utilization rates, US stocks of crude oil, US stocks of motor gasoline, the US price of motor gasoline, and the US price of a substitute fuel, natural gas. Causal relationships estimated from both weekly and quarterly observations indicate that the price of crude oil is an important gateway for disturbances to the oil supply chain. Impulse response functions indicate that disturbances to crude oil prices ripple down the oil supply chain and affect inventory behaviors, refinery utilization rates, and the price of motor gasoline, and are transmitted laterally to the natural gas market. (author)

  17. On the vertical structure of wind gusts

    Suomi, I.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The increasing size of wind turbines, their height and the area swept by their blades have revised the need for understanding the vertical structure of wind gusts. Information is needed for the whole profile. In this study, we analyzed turbulence measurements from a 100m high meteorological mast...... and the turbulence intensity, of which the turbulence intensity was found to dominate over the peak factor in determining the effects of stability and height above the surface on the gust factor. The peak factor only explained 15% or less of the vertical decrease of the gust factor, but determined the effect of gust...... duration on the gust factor. The statistical method to estimate the peak factor did not reproduce the observed vertical decrease in near-neutral and stable conditions and near-constant situation in unstable conditions. Despite this inconsistency, the theoretical method provides estimates for the peak...

  18. Vertical Footbridge Vibrations: The Response Spectrum Methodology

    Georgakis, Christos; Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, accurate and readily codifiable methodology for the prediction of vertical footbridge response is presented. The methodology is based on the well-established response spectrum approach used in the majority of the world’s current seismic design codes of practice. The concept...... of a universally applicable reference response spectrum is introduced, from which the pedestrian-induced vertical response of any footbridge may be determined, based on a defined “event” and the probability of occurrence of that event. A series of Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken for the development...... period is introduced and its implication on the calculation of footbridge response is discussed. Finally, a brief comparison is made between the theoretically predicted pedestrian-induced vertical response of an 80m long RC footbridge (as an example) and actual field measurements. The comparison shows...

  19. Certified standards and vertical coordination in aquaculture

    Trifkovic, Neda

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging the applic......This paper explores the interaction between food standards and vertical coordination in the Vietnamese pangasius sector. For farmers and processors alike, the adoption of standards is motivated by a desire to improve market access by ensuring high quality supply. Instead of encouraging...... the application of standards and contract farming, processing companies prefer to vertically integrate primary production largely due to concerns over the stable supply of pangasius with satisfactory quality and safety attributes. These tendencies increase the market dominance of industrial farming and worsen...

  20. Plasmonic Properties of Vertically Aligned Nanowire Arrays

    Hua Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs/Ag sheath composites were produced to investigate plasmonic coupling between vertically aligned NWs for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS applications. In this investigation, two types of vertical NW arrays were studied; those of ZnO NWs grown on nanosphere lithography patterned sapphire substrate via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS mechanism and Si NW arrays produced by wet chemical etching. Both types of vertical NW arrays were coated with a thin layer of silver by electroless silver plating for SERS enhancement studies. The experimental results show extremely strong SERS signals due to plasmonic coupling between the NWs, which was verified by COMSOL electric field simulations. We also compared the SERS enhancement intensity of aligned and random ZnO NWs, indicating that the aligned NWs show much stronger and repeatable SERS signal than those grown in nonaligned geometries.

  1. Study on characteristics of vertical strong motions

    Akao, Y.; Katukura, H.; Fukushima, S.; Mizutani, M.

    1993-01-01

    Statistic properties of vertical strong ground motions from near-field earthquakes are discussed in comparison with that of horizontal motions. It is a feature of this analysis that time history of each observed record is divided into direct P- and S-wave segments from a seismological viewpoint. Following results are obtained. Vertical motion energy excited by direct S-waves is about 0.6 times of horizontal ones at deep underground, and it approaches to 1.0 at shallow place. Horizontal motion energy excited by direct P-waves becomes 0.2 times (at deep) or more (at shallow) of vertical one. These results can be available in modeling of input motions for aseismic design. (author)

  2. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  3. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lister, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation κ, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q ∼1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project

    Yamauchi, Gloria K.

    2018-01-01

    The Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology (RVLT) Project is one of six projects in the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP) of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The overarching goal of the RVLT Project is to develop and validate tools, technologies, and concepts to overcome key barriers for vertical lift vehicles. The project vision is to enable the next generation of vertical lift vehicles with aggressive goals for efficiency, noise, and emissions, to expand current capabilities and develop new commercial markets. The RVLT Project invests in technologies that support conventional, non-conventional, and emerging vertical-lift aircraft in the very light to heavy vehicle classes. Research areas include acoustic, aeromechanics, drive systems, engines, icing, hybrid-electric systems, impact dynamics, experimental techniques, computational methods, and conceptual design. The project research is executed at NASA Ames, Glenn, and Langley Research Centers; the research extensively leverages partnerships with the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, and academia. The primary facilities used by the project for testing of vertical-lift technologies include the 14- by 22-Ft Wind Tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, 7- by 10-Ft Wind Tunnel, Rotor Test Cell, Landing and Impact Research facility, Compressor Test Facility, Drive System Test Facilities, Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility, Vertical Motion Simulator, Mobile Acoustic Facility, Exterior Effects Synthesis and Simulation Lab, and the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Complex. To learn more about the RVLT Project, please stop by booth #1004 or visit their website at https://www.nasa.gov/aeroresearch/programs/aavp/rvlt.

  5. Importance of A Priori Vertical Ozone Profiles for TEMPO Air Quality Retrievals

    Johnson, M. S.; Sullivan, J. T.; Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Newchurch, M.; Kuang, S.; McGee, T. J.; Leblanc, T.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone (O3) is a toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address the limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm is suggested to use a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB-Clim) O3 climatology). This study evaluates the TB-Clim dataset and model simulated O3 profiles, which could potentially serve as a priori O3 profile information in TEMPO retrievals, from near-real-time data assimilation model products (NASA GMAO's operational GEOS-5 FP model and reanalysis data from MERRA2) and a full chemical transport model (CTM), GEOS-Chem. In this study, vertical profile products are evaluated with surface (0-2 km) and tropospheric (0-10 km) TOLNet observations and the theoretical impact of individual a priori profile sources on the accuracy of TEMPO O3 retrievals in the troposphere and at the surface are presented. Results indicate that while the TB-Clim climatological dataset can replicate seasonally-averaged tropospheric O3 profiles, model-simulated profiles from a full CTM resulted in more accurate tropospheric and surface-level O3 retrievals from

  6. Thermal analysis in the near field for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch on the 2nd progress report for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Iwasa, Kengo

    1999-11-01

    For the underground facility of the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the space is needed to set the engineered barrier, and the set engineered barrier and rock-mass of near field are needed to satisfy some conditions or constraints for their performance. One of the conditions above mentioned is thermal condition arising from heat outputs of vitrified waste and initial temperature at the disposal depth. Hence, it is needed that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. Therefore, the design of engineered barrier and underground facility is conducted so that the temperature of the engineered barrier and rock mass is less degree than the constraint temperature of each other. One of these design is establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch. In this report, thermal analysis is conducted to establish the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch to satisfy the constraint temperature in the near field. Also, other conditions or constraints for establishment of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch are investigated. Then, design of the disposal tunnel spacing and waste package pitch, considering these conditions or constraints, is conducted. For the near field configuration using the results of the design above mentioned, the temperature with time dependency is studied by analysis, and then the temperature variation due to the gaps, that will occur within the engineered barrier and between the engineered barrier and rock mass in setting engineered barrier in the disposal tunnel or pit, is studied. At last, the disposal depth variation is studied to satisfy the temperature constraint in the near field. (author)

  7. Ultra-Low Noise Vertical Takeoff and Landing, or Development of an Uber Self-Flying, Helipad-Capable, Quiet V-ESTOL Personal Transporter Integrated Flight Demonstrator

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several aspects of this research are completely unique compared to prior attempts to achieve low noise vertical lift solutions, and are an artifact of the incredible...

  8. Learning Space Service Design

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  9. Vertical distribution of ozone at the terminator on Mars

    Maattanen, Anni; Lefevre, Franck; Guilbon, Sabrina; Listowski, Constantino; Montmessin, Franck

    2016-10-01

    The SPICAM/Mars Express UV solar occultation dataset gives access to the ozone vertical distribution via the ozone absorption in the Hartley band (220-280 nm). We present the retrieved ozone profiles and compare them to the LMD Mars Global Climate Model (LMD-MGCM) results.Due to the photochemical reactivity of ozone, a classical comparison of local density profiles is not appropriate for solar occultations that are acquired at the terminator, and we present here a method often used in the Earth community. The principal comparison is made via the slant profiles (integrated ozone concentration on the line-of-sight), since the spherical symmetry hypothesis made in the onion-peeling vertical inversion method is not valid for photochemically active species (e.g., ozone) around terminator. For each occultation, we model the ozone vertical and horizontal distribution with high solar zenith angle (or local time) resolution around the terminator and then integrate the model results following the lines-of-sight of the occultation to construct the modeled slant profile. We will also discuss the difference of results between the above comparison method and a comparison using the local density profiles, i.e., the observed ones inverted by using the spherical symmetry hypothesis and the modeled ones extracted from the LMD-MGCM exactly at the terminator. The method and the results will be presented together with the full dataset.SPICAM is funded by the French Space Agency CNES and this work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Programme (H2020-Compet-08-2014) under grant agreement UPWARDS-633127.

  10. Vertical bifacial solar farms: Physics, design, and global optimization

    Khan, M. Ryyan

    2017-09-04

    There have been sustained interest in bifacial solar cell technology since 1980s, with prospects of 30–50% increase in the output power from a stand-alone panel. Moreover, a vertical bifacial panel reduces dust accumulation and provides two output peaks during the day, with the second peak aligned to the peak electricity demand. Recent commercialization and anticipated growth of bifacial panel market have encouraged a closer scrutiny of the integrated power-output and economic viability of bifacial solar farms, where mutual shading will erode some of the anticipated energy gain associated with an isolated, single panel. Towards that goal, in this paper we focus on geography-specific optimization of ground-mounted vertical bifacial solar farms for the entire world. For local irradiance, we combine the measured meteorological data with the clear-sky model. In addition, we consider the effects of direct, diffuse, and albedo light. We assume the panel is configured into sub-strings with bypass-diodes. Based on calculated light collection and panel output, we analyze the optimum farm design for maximum yearly output at any given location in the world. Our results predict that, regardless of the geographical location, a vertical bifacial farm will yield 10–20% more energy than a traditional monofacial farm for a practical row-spacing of 2 m (corresponding to 1.2 m high panels). With the prospect of additional 5–20% energy gain from reduced soiling and tilt optimization, bifacial solar farm do offer a viable technology option for large-scale solar energy generation.

  11. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...

  12. Breakwaters with Vertical and Inclined Concrete Walls

    Burcharth, Hans Falk

    Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects in the de......Following the PIANC PTC II working group on Analyses of Rubble Mound Breakwaters it was, in 1991, decided to form Working Group (WG) n° 28 on "Breakwaters with vertical and inclined concrete walls" The scope of the work was to achieve a better understanding of the overall safety aspects...

  13. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  14. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Sognnes, Walter

    1999-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  15. Geophysical aspects of vertical streamer seismic data

    Sognnes, Walter

    1998-12-31

    Vertical cable acquisition is performed by deploying a certain number of vertical hydrophone arrays in the water column, and subsequently shooting a source point on top of it. The advantage of this particular geometry is that gives a data set with all azimuths included. Therefore a more complete 3-D velocity model can be derived. In this paper there are presented some results from the Fuji survey in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on these results, improved geometries and review recommendations for future surveys are discussed. 7 figs.

  16. IInvestigations of space-time variability of the sea level in the Barents Sea and the White Sea by satellite altimetry data and results of hydrodynamic modelling

    Lebedev, S. A.; Zilberstein, O. I.; Popov, S. K.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of retrieving of the sea level anomalies in the Barents and White Seas from satellite can be considered as two different problems. The first one is to calculate the anomalies of sea level along the trek taking into account all amendments including tidal heights. The second one is to obtain of fields of the sea level anomalies on the grid over one cycle of the exact repeat altimetry mission. Experience results show that there is preferable to use the regional tidal model for calculating tidal heights. To construct of the anomalies fields of the sea level during the exact repeat mission (cycle 35 days for ERS-1 and ERS-2), when a density of the coverage of the area of water of the Barents and White Seas by satellite measurements achieves maximum. It is necessary to solve the problem of the error minimum. This error is based by the temporal difference of the measurements over one cycle and by the specific of the hydrodynamic regime of the both seas (tidal, storm surge variations, tidal currents). To solve this problem it is assumed to use the results of the hydrodynamic modeling. The error minimum is preformed by the regression of the model results and satellite measurements. As a version it is considered the possibility of the utilizing of the neuronet obtained by the model results to construct maps of the sea level anomalies. The comparison of the model results and the calculation of the satellite altimetry variability of the sea level of Barents and White Seas shows a good coincidence between them. The satellite altimetry data of ERS-1/2 and TOPEX/POSEIDON of Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project (NASA/GSFC) has been used in this study. Results of the regional tidal model computations and three dimensional baroclinic model created in the Hydrometeocenter have been used as well. This study also exploited the atmosphere date of the Project REANALYSIS. The research was undertaken with partial support from the Russian Basic Research Foundation (Project No. 01-07-90106).

  17. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the...

  18. A low noise remotely controllable wireless telemetry system for single-unit recording in rats navigating in a vertical maze.

    Chen, Hsin-Yung; Wu, Jin-Shang; Hyland, Brian; Lu, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Jia Jin Jason

    2008-08-01

    The use of cables for recording neural activity limits the scope of behavioral tests used in conscious free-moving animals. Particularly, cable attachments make it impossible to record in three-dimensional (3D) mazes where levels are vertically stacked or in enclosed spaces. Such environments are of particular interest in investigations of hippocampal place cells, in which neural activity is correlated with spatial position in the environment. We developed a flexible miniaturized Bluetooth-based wireless data acquisition system. The wireless module included an 8-channel analogue front end, digital controller, and Bluetooth transceiver mounted on a backpack. Our bidirectional wireless design allowed all data channels to be previewed at 1 kHz sample rate, and one channel, selected by remote control, to be sampled at 10 kHz. Extracellular recordings of neuronal activity are highly susceptible to ambient electrical noise due to the high electrode impedance. Through careful design of appropriate shielding and hardware configuration to avoid ground loops, mains power and Bluetooth hopping frequency noise were reduced sufficiently to yield signal quality comparable to those recorded by wired systems. With this system we were able to obtain single-unit recordings of hippocampal place cells in rats running an enclosed vertical maze, over a range of 5 m.

  19. Influence of marine current on vertical migration of Pb in marine bay

    Yu, Chen; Hong, Ai; Danfeng, Yang; Huijuan, Zhao; Dongfang, Yang

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzed that vertical migration of Pb contents waters in Jiaozhou Bay, and revealed the influence of marine current on vertical migration process. Results showed that Pb contents in bottom waters of Jiaozhou Bay in April and July 1988 were 1.49-18.53 μg L-1 and 12.68/-27.64 μg L-1, respectively. The pollution level of Pb in bottom waters was moderate to heavy, and were showing temporal variations and spatial heterogeneity. The vertical migration process of Pb in April 1988 included a drifting process from the southwest to the north by means of the marine current was rapid in this region. The vertical migration process of Pb in July 1988 in the open waters included no drifting process since the flow rate of marine current was relative low in this region. The vertical migration process of Pb was jointly determined by vertical water’s effect, source input and water exchange, and the influence of marine current on the vertical migration of Pb in marine bay was significant.

  20. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    Lari, Robert J.; Praeg, Walter F.; Turner, Larry R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.