WorldWideScience

Sample records for space shuttle earth

  1. Earth observations during Space Shuttle mission STS-45 Mission to Planet Earth - March 24-April 2, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, David E.; Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mckay, Mary F.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey; Ackleson, Steven G.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is presented of the activities and results of the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, known as the Mission to Planet Earth. Observations of Mount St. Helens, Manila Bay and Mt. Pinatubo, the Great Salt Lake, the Aral Sea, and the Siberian cities of Troitsk and Kuybyshev are examined. The geological features and effects of human activity seen in photographs of these areas are pointed out.

  2. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.

  3. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-41 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.; Amsbury, David L.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Richards, Richard N.; Cabana, Robert D.; Shepherd, William M.; Akers, Thomas D.; Melnick, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of space flight STS-41 is presented, including personal observations and comments by the mission astronauts. The crew deployed the Ulysses spacecraft to study the polar regions of the sun and the interplanetary space above the poles. Environmental observations, including those of Lake Turkana, Lake Chad, biomass burning in Madagascar and Argentina, and circular features in Yucatan are described. Observations that include landforms and geology, continental sedimentation, desert landscapes, and river morphology are discussed.

  4. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  5. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  6. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  7. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  8. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  9. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  10. Space Shuttle - A personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A typical flight profile for the Space Shuttle is reviewed, and the operation of the Spacelab, as well as deployment of a satellite from the Shuttle, is considered. Selection of crews for a Space Shuttle mission, which may include as many as four payload specialists, is also discussed. Since medical requirements and flight training standards need not be as high for payload specialists as for the three members of the flight crew, the Shuttle may provide an opportunity for many scientists to perform experiments in space. Investigations of the critical opalescence of fluids and laser holography are proposed for Shuttle missions; X-ray astronomy is another likely candidate for inclusion in the program.

  11. Upgrading the Space Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Motors, Honda , Toyota , and Nissan ). By learning from and applying the technologies developed elsewhere, NASA could greatly leverage its funding for...assessing risks to the shuttle. The committee believes that this tool has the potential to be very helpful in assessing and comparing the impact of...environmental regulations). Figure 2-2 shows how the S&PU budget compared to the total shuttle budget during four different years since 1985

  12. Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...

  13. Space Shuttle critical function audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ivan J.; Dipol, John; Su, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A large fault-tolerance model of the main propulsion system of the US space shuttle has been developed. This model is being used to identify single components and pairs of components that will cause loss of shuttle critical functions. In addition, this model is the basis for risk quantification of the shuttle. The process used to develop and analyze the model is digraph matrix analysis (DMA). The DMA modeling and analysis process is accessed via a graphics-based computer user interface. This interface provides coupled display of the integrated system schematics, the digraph models, the component database, and the results of the fault tolerance and risk analyses.

  14. Space Shuttle Status News Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Richard Gilbech, External Tank "Tiger Team" Lead, begins this space shuttle news conference with detailing the two major objectives of the team. The objectives include: 1) Finding the root cause of the foam loss on STS-114; and 2) Near and long term improvements for the external tank. Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Manager, presents a chart to explain the external tank foam loss during STS-114. He gives a possible launch date for STS-121 after there has been a repair to the foam on the External Tank. He further discusses the changes that need to be made to the surrounding areas of the plant in New Orleans, due to Hurricane Katrina. Bill Gerstemaier, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Operations, elaborates on the testing of the external tank foam loss. The discussion ends with questions from the news media about a fix for the foam, replacement of the tiles, foam loss avoidance, the root cause of foam loss and a possible date for a new external tank to be shipped to NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  15. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.

  16. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  17. A numerical model of the electrodynamics of plasma within the contaminant gas cloud of the space shuttle orbiter at low Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, J.V.; Raitt, W.J.; Banks, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results from a two-dimensional, finite-difference model used to solve for the time evolution of low beta plasma within the neutral contaminant cloud in the vicinity of space platforms in low earth orbit. The model of the ambient and contaminant plasma dynamics takes into account the effects of the geomagnetic field, electric fields, background ionosphere, ion-neutral collisions, chemistry, and both Pederson and Hall currents. Net ionization and charge exchange source terms are included in the fluid equations to study electrodynamic effects of chemistry within a moving neutral cloud in the low earth orbit ionosphere. The model is then used with complete water cloud chemistry to simulate the known outgassing situation of the space shuttle Orbiter. A comparison is made of the model results with plasma observations made during daytime on OSS-1/STS-3 mission. The reported density enhancements of the OSS-1 mission are unattainable with normal photoionization and charge exchange rates of simple water cloud chemistry used in the two-dimensional model. The enhanced densities are only attained by a generic chemistry model if a net ionization rate 1,000 times higher than the photoionization rate of water is used. It is also shown that significant plasma buildup at the front of the contaminant neutral cloud can occur due to momentum transfer from the neutral outgas cloud to the plasma through elastic collisions and charge exchange. The currents caused by elastic and reactive collisions result in the generation of a small polarization electric field within the outgas cloud

  18. Space Shuttle solid rocket booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, G. B.

    1979-01-01

    Details of the design, operation, testing and recovery procedures of the reusable solid rocket boosters (SRB) are given. Using a composite PBAN propellant, they will provide the primary thrust (six million pounds maximum at 20 s after ignition) within a 3 g acceleration constraint, as well as thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle. The drogues were tested to a load of 305,000 pounds, and the main parachutes to 205,000. Insulation in the solid rocket motor (SRM) will be provided by asbestos-silica dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber ('asbestos filled NBR') except in high erosion areas (principally in the aft dome), where a carbon-filled ethylene propylene diene monomer-neopreme rubber will be utilized. Furthermore, twenty uses for the SRM nozzle will be allowed by its ablative materials, which are principally carbon cloth and silica cloth phenolics.

  19. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  20. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  1. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 1: Summary report. [cryogenic storage and fuel flow regulation system for space shuttle orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Design, construction, and quality control tests on a dual screen liner device for the space shuttle orbiter cryogenic fuel tank and feedliner system are summarized. The dual stainless steel mesh of the device encloses eight liquid fuel channels and provides the liquid/vapor interface stability required for low gravity orbits.

  2. The space shuttle program technologies and accomplishments

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Space Shuttle in its many different roles as orbital launch platform, orbital workshop, and science and technology laboratory. It focuses on the technology designed and developed to support the missions of the Space Shuttle program. Each mission is examined, from both the technical and managerial viewpoints. Although outwardly identical, the capabilities of the orbiters in the late years of the program were quite different from those in 1981. Sivolella traces the various improvements and modifications made to the shuttle over the years as part of each mission story. Technically accurate but with a pleasing narrative style and simple explanations of complex engineering concepts, the book provides details of many lesser known concepts, some developed but never flown, and commemorates the ingenuity of NASA and its partners in making each Space Shuttle mission push the boundaries of what we can accomplish in space. Using press kits, original papers, newspaper and magazine articles...

  3. Linking the space shuttle and space stations early docking technologies from concept to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    How could the newly authorized space shuttle help in the U.S. quest to build a large research station in Earth orbit? As a means of transporting goods, the shuttle could help supply the parts to the station. But how would the two entitles be physically linked? Docking technologies had to constantly evolve as the designs of the early space stations changed. It was hoped the shuttle would make missions to the Russian Salyut and American Skylab stations, but these were postponed until the Mir station became available, while plans for getting a new U. S. space station underway were stalled. In Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations, the author delves into the rich history of the Space Shuttle and its connection to these early space stations, culminating in the nine missions to dock the shuttle to Mir. By 1998, after nearly three decades of planning and operations, shuttle missions to Mir had resulted in: • A proven system to link up the space shuttle to a space station • Equipment and hands-on experienc...

  4. Space shuttle operations integration plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Operations Integration Plan is presented, which is to provide functional definition of the activities necessary to develop and integrate shuttle operating plans and facilities to support flight, flight control, and operations. It identifies the major tasks, the organizations responsible, their interrelationships, the sequence of activities and interfaces, and the resultant products related to operations integration.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour STS-47 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke on September 12, 1992. The primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was the Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  6. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  7. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  8. Space exercise and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Brandon R; Groppo, Eli R; Eastlack, Robert K; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Smith, Scott M; Cutuk, Adnan; Pedowitz, Robert A; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2005-08-01

    The detrimental impact of long duration space flight on physiological systems necessitates the development of exercise countermeasures to protect work capabilities in gravity fields of Earth, Moon and Mars. The respective rates of physiological deconditioning for different organ systems during space flight has been described as a result of data collected during and after missions on the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Mir, and bed rest studies on Earth. An integrated countermeasure that simulates the body's hydrostatic pressure gradient, provides mechanical stress to the bones and muscles, and stimulates the neurovestibular system may be critical for maintaining health and well being of crew during long-duration space travel, such as a mission to Mars. Here we review the results of our studies to date of an integrated exercise countermeasure for space flight, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) treadmill exercise, and potential benefits of its application to athletic training on Earth. Additionally, we review the benefits of Lower Body Positive Pressure (LBPP) exercise for rehabilitation of postoperative patients. Presented first are preliminary data from a 30-day bed rest study evaluating the efficacy of LBNP exercise as an integrated exercise countermeasure for the deconditioning effects of microgravity. Next, we review upright LBNP exercise as a training modality for athletes by evaluating effects on the cardiovascular system and gait mechanics. Finally, LBPP exercise as a rehabilitation device is examined with reference to gait mechanics and safety in two groups of postoperative patients.

  9. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  10. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  11. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  12. EARTH FROM SPACE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. EARTH FROM SPACE · Slide 2 · Earth System · Slide 4 · Global water cycle · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Direct Observations of Recent Climate Change · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Snow cover and Arctic sea ice are decreasing · Polar Melting & Global Heat Transport · Antarctica: Melting and Thickening · Slide 14 · Slide 15.

  13. Earth study from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, A. V.

    1981-01-01

    The significance that space studies are making to all Earth sciences in the areas of geography, geodesy, cartography, geology, meteorology, oceanology, agronomy, and ecology is discussed. It is predicted that cosmonautics will result in a revolution in science and technology.

  14. Holography on the NASA Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerker, R. F.; Heflinger, L. O.; Flannery, J. V.; Kassel, A.; Rollauer, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    The SL-3 flight on the Space Shuttle will carry a 25 mW He-Ne laser holographic recorder for recording the solution growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals under low-zero gravity conditions. Three hundred holograms (two orthogonal views) will be taken (on SO-253 film) of each growth experiment. Processing and analysis (i.e., reconstructed imagery, holographic schlieren, reverse reference beam microscopy, and stored beam interferometry) of the holographic records will be done at NASA/MSFC. Other uses of the recorder on the Shuttle have been proposed.

  15. Photometric analysis of a space shuttle water venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.; Murad, E.; Pike, C. P.; Kofsky, I. L.; Trowbridge, C. A.; Rall, D. L. A.; Satayesh, A.; Berk, A.; Elgin, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is a preliminary interpretation of a recent experiment conducted on Space Shuttle Discovery (Mission STS 29) in which a stream of liquid supply water was vented into space at twilight. The data consist of video images of the sunlight-scattering water/ice particle cloud that formed, taken by visible light-sensitive intensified cameras both onboard the spacecraft and at the AMOS ground station near the trajectory's nadir. This experiment was undertaken to study the phenomenology of water columns injected into the low-Earth orbital environment, and to provide information about the lifetime of ice particles that may recontact Space Shuttle orbits later. The findings about the composition of the cloud have relevance to ionospheric plasma depletion experiments and to the dynamics of the interaction of orbiting spacecraft with the environment.

  16. Aerospace News: Space Shuttle Commemoration. Volume 2, No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The complex space shuttle design was comprised of four components: the external tank, two solid rocket boosters (SRB), and the orbiter vehicle. Six orbiters were used during the life of the program. In order of introduction into the fleet, they were: Enterprise (a test vehicle), Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The space shuttle had the unique ability to launch into orbit, perform on-orbit tasks, return to earth and land on a runway. It was an orbiting laboratory, International Space Station crew delivery and supply replenisher, satellite launcher and payload delivery vehicle, all in one. Except for the external tank, all components of the space shuttle were designed to be reusable for many flights. ATK s reusable solid rocket motors (RSRM) were designed to be flown, recovered, and the metal components reused 20 times. Following each space shuttle launch, the SRBs would parachute into the ocean and be recovered by the Liberty Star and Freedom Star recovery ships. The recovered boosters would then be received at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Hangar AF facility for disassembly and engineering post-flight evaluation. At Hangar AF, the RSRM field joints were demated and the segments prepared to be returned to Utah by railcar. The segments were then shipped to ATK s facilities in Clearfield for additional evaluation prior to washout, disassembly and refurbishment. Later the refurbished metal components would be transported to ATK s Promontory facilities to begin a new cycle. ATK s RSRMs were manufactured in Promontory, Utah. During the Space Shuttle Program, ATK supported NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center whose responsibility was for all propulsion elements on the program, including the main engines and solid rocket motors. On launch day for the space shuttle, ATK s Launch Site Operations employees at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) provided lead engineering support for ground operations and NASA s chief engineer. It was ATK s responsibility

  17. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  18. Space Shuttle main engine product improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucci, A. D.; Klatt, F. P.

    1985-01-01

    The current design of the Space Shuttle Main Engine has passed 11 certification cycles, amassed approximately a quarter million seconds of engine test time in 1200 tests and successfully launched the Space Shuttle 17 times of 51 engine launches through May 1985. Building on this extensive background, two development programs are underway at Rocketdyne to improve the flow of hot gas through the powerhead and evaluate the changes to increase the performance margins in the engine. These two programs, called Phase II+ and Technology Test Bed Precursor program are described. Phase II+ develops a two-tube hot-gas manifold that improves the component environment. The Precursor program will evaluate a larger throat main combustion chamber, conduct combustion stability testing of a baffleless main injector, fabricate an experimental weld-free heat exchanger tube, fabricate and test a high pressure oxidizer turbopump with an improved inlet, and develop and test methods for reducing temperature transients at start and shutdown.

  19. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  20. Space shuttle main engine vibration data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Pat

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.

  1. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  2. A Comparison Between Orion Automated and Space Shuttle Rendezvous Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jose O,; Hart, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft will replace the space shuttle and will be the first human spacecraft since the Apollo program to leave low earth orbit. This vehicle will serve as the cornerstone of a complete space transportation system with a myriad of mission requirements necessitating rendezvous to multiple vehicles in earth orbit, around the moon and eventually beyond . These goals will require a complex and robust vehicle that is, significantly different from both the space shuttle and the command module of the Apollo program. Historically, orbit operations have been accomplished with heavy reliance on ground support and manual crew reconfiguration and monitoring. One major difference with Orion is that automation will be incorporated as a key element of the man-vehicle system. The automated system will consist of software devoted to transitioning between events based on a master timeline. This effectively adds a layer of high level sequencing that moves control of the vehicle from one phase to the next. This type of automated control is not entirely new to spacecraft since the shuttle uses a version of this during ascent and entry operations. During shuttle orbit operations however many of the software modes and hardware switches must be manually configured through the use of printed procedures and instructions voiced from the ground. The goal of the automation scheme on Orion is to extend high level automation to all flight phases. The move towards automation represents a large shift from current space shuttle operations, and so these new systems will be adopted gradually via various safeguards. These include features such as authority-to-proceed, manual down modes, and functional inhibits. This paper describes the contrast between the manual and ground approach of the space shuttle and the proposed automation of the Orion vehicle. I will introduce typical orbit operations that are common to all rendezvous missions and go on to describe the current Orion automation

  3. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  4. To orbit and back again how the space shuttle flew in space

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, Davide

    2014-01-01

    The question may be simple, but the answer is not as easy to give. This book describes the structures and systems used each time the Shuttle was launched, and then follows an imaginary mission, explaining how those structures and systems were used in orbital operations and the return to Earth. Details of how anomalous events were dealt with on individual missions are also provided, as are the recollections of those who built and flew the Shuttle. Highly illustrated with many diagrams, photographs and technical drawings, To Orbit and Back Again • focuses on the engineering aspects of the Shuttle • describes the systems and subsystems in clear, non-technical terms • brings to the fore the design work behind the Space Shuttle and the mission itself.    .

  5. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  6. 2009 Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.; Canga, Michael A.; Boyer, Roger L.; Thigpen, Eric B.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of a Space Shuttle during flight has severe consequences, including loss of a significant national asset; loss of national confidence and pride; and, most importantly, loss of human life. The Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) is used to identify risk contributors and their significance; thus, assisting management in determining how to reduce risk. In 2006, an overview of the SPRA Iteration 2.1 was presented at PSAM 8 [1]. Like all successful PRAs, the SPRA is a living PRA and has undergone revisions since PSAM 8. The latest revision to the SPRA is Iteration 3. 1, and it will not be the last as the Shuttle program progresses and more is learned. This paper discusses the SPRA scope, overall methodology, and results, as well as provides risk insights. The scope, assumptions, uncertainties, and limitations of this assessment provide risk-informed perspective to aid management s decision-making process. In addition, this paper compares the Iteration 3.1 analysis and results to the Iteration 2.1 analysis and results presented at PSAM 8.

  7. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  8. Launch Processing System. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F.; Doolittle, G. V.; Hockenberger, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a functional description of the Launch Processing System, which provides automatic ground checkout and control of the Space Shuttle launch site and airborne systems, with emphasis placed on the Checkout, Control, and Monitor Subsystem. Hardware and software modular design concepts for the distributed computer system are reviewed relative to performing system tests, launch operations control, and status monitoring during ground operations. The communication network design, which uses a Common Data Buffer interface to all computers to allow computer-to-computer communication, is discussed in detail.

  9. Stennis Holds Last Planned Space Shuttle Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With 520 seconds of shake, rattle and roar on July 29, 2009 NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center marked the end of an era for testing the space shuttle main engines that have powered the nation's Space Shuttle Program for nearly three decades.

  10. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  11. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  12. Space sickness on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooij, S. A. E.; Bos, J. E.; Groen, E. L.; Bles, W.; Ockels, W. J.

    2007-09-01

    During the first days in space, i.e., after a transition from 1G to 0G, more than 50% of the astro- (and cosmonauts) suffer from the Space Adaptation Syndrome (SAS).The symptoms of SAS, like nausea and dizziness, are especially provoked by head movements. Astronauts have mentioned close similarities between the symptoms of SAS and the symptoms they experienced after a 1 hour centrifuge run on Earth, i.e., after a transition from 3G to 1G (denoted by Sickness Induced by Centrifugation, SIC). During several space missions, we related susceptibility to SAS and to SIC in 11 astronauts and found 4 of them being susceptible to both SIC and SAS, and 7 being not susceptible to SIC nor to SAS. This correspondence in susceptibility suggests that SIC and SAS share the same underlying mechanism. To further study this mechanism, several vestibular parameters have been investigated (e.g. postural stability, vestibularly driven eye movements, subjective vertical). We found some striking changes in individual cases that are possibly due to the centrifuge run. However, the variability between subjects generally is very large, making physiological links to SIC and SAS still hard to find.

  13. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  14. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  15. The use of the Space Shuttle for land remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, P. G.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the Space Shuttle for land remote sensing will grow significantly during the 1980's. The main use will be for general land cover and geological mapping purposes by worldwide users employing specialized sensors such as: high resolution film systems, synthetic aperture radars, and multispectral visible/IR electronic linear array scanners. Because these type sensors have low Space Shuttle load factors, the user's preference will be for shared flights. With this strong preference and given the present prognosis for Space Shuttle flight frequency as a function of orbit inclination, the strongest demand will be for 57 deg orbits. However, significant use will be made of lower inclination orbits. Compared with freeflying satellites, Space Shuttle mission investment requirements will be significantly lower. The use of the Space Shuttle for testing R and D land remote sensors will replace the free-flying satellites for most test programs.

  16. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  17. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  18. Liquid Hydrogen Consumption During Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issue of liquid hydrogen consumption and the points of its loss in prior to the shuttle launch. It traces the movement of the fuel from the purchase to the on-board quantity and the loss that results in 54.6 of the purchased quantity being on board the Shuttle.

  19. Space shuttle SRM field joint: Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Gharouni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to Challenger space shuttle accident in 1986, significant research has been done concerning structural behavior of field joints in solid rocket boosters (SRB. The structural deformations between the clevis inner leg and the tang (male-to-female parts of joint, the sealing of the O-ring to prevent the hot gas in joints, has been neglected causing the failure of the vehicle. Redesigning the field joint in SRB engine by accurate analysis of dynamic and thermal loads and by design of insulator and good O-ring, the leakiness of combustion hot gases was eliminated. Some parts of field joint such as capture feature (CF and its third O-ring, J-leg insulator and shim were added to redesigned field joint. Also, some adjustments in sealing system and pins were done to promote the efficiency of the field joint. Due to different experimental analysis on assembled field joints with default imperfections, redesigned joints operated well. These redesigned field joints are commonly used in aerospace and mechanical structures. This paper investigates the original and the redesigned field joints with additional explanations of different parts of the redesigned joints.

  20. Space shuttle prototype check valve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Contaminant-resistant seal designs and a dynamically stable prototype check valve for the orbital maneuvering and reaction control helium pressurization systems of the space shuttle were developed. Polymer and carbide seal models were designed and tested. Perfluoroelastomers compatible with N2O4 and N2H4 types were evaluated and compared with Teflon in flat and captive seal models. Low load sealing and contamination resistance tests demonstrated cutter seal superiority over polymer seals. Ceramic and carbide materials were evaluated for N2O4 service using exposure to RFNA as a worst case screen; chemically vapor deposited tungsten carbide was shown to be impervious to the acid after 6 months immersion. A unique carbide shell poppet/cutter seat check valve was designed and tested to demonstrate low cracking pressure ( 2.0 psid), dynamic stability under all test bench flow conditions, contamination resistance (0.001 inch CRES wires cut with 1.5 pound seat load) and long life of 100,000 cycles (leakage 1.0 scc/hr helium from 0.1 to 400 psig).

  1. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  2. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  3. Social and Cultural Issues During Shuttle/Mir Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2000-07-01

    A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were signficantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions.

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for the four actuators on one shuttle, each with a 2-bearing shaft assembly, established a reliability level of 96.9 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  5. Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

  6. Grooming the Shuttle for cost-effective access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment is made of the performance of the Space Shuttle-based Space Transportation System (STS) from the initial flights in 1981 to the present, which has involved the launching of 12 satellites and the retrieval of two. It is expected that the STS will soon be able to schedule 24 routine missions/year, upon the achievement of full operational status for the full fleet of four Space Shuttles and the completion of support facilities at both the Kennedy Space Center and Vandenberg Air Force Base. The prospects for space industrialization efforts based on STS are noted.

  7. Area Students Get a Call from Orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2010-01-01

    More than 1,000 students, parents and members of the NPS community packed King Auditorium Saturday morning where they received a call from the Space Shuttle Discovery orbiting more than 200 miles into space — part of the NPS Centennial’s Education Downlink STS-131, Teaching from Space event.

  8. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  9. Meals in orbit. [Space Shuttle food service planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Space foods which will be available to the Space Shuttle crew are discussed in view of the research and development of proper nutrition in space that began with the pastelike tube meals of the Mercury and Gemini astronauts. The variety of food types proposed for the Space Shuttle crew which include thermostabilized, intermediate moisture, rehydratable, irradiated, freeze-dried and natural forms are shown to be a result of the successive improvements in the Apollo, Skylab and Apollo Soyuz test project flights. The Space Shuttle crew will also benefit from an increase of caloric content (3,000 cal./day), the convenience of a real oven and a comfortable dining and kitchen area.

  10. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  11. Psychosocial issues in space: results from Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Bostrom, A.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    Important psychosocial issues involving tension, cohesion, leader support, and displacement of negative emotions were evaluated in a 4 1/2-year study involving five U.S. and four Russian Shuttle/Mir space missions. Weekly mood and group climate questionnaires were completed by five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control subjects. There were few findings that supported our hypothesized changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support in crew and ground subjects using various time models, although crewmembers reported decreasing leader support in the 2nd half of the missions, and astronauts showed some evidence of a novelty effect in the first few weeks. There was no evidence suggesting a 3rd quarter effect among crewmembers on any of the 21 subscales evaluated. In contrast, there was strong evidence to support the hypothesized displacement of tension and negative emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There were several significant differences in response between Americans vs. Russians, crewmembers vs. mission control personnel, and subjects in this study vs. people in comparable groups on Earth. Subject responses before, during, and after the missions were similar, and we did not find evidence for asthenia in space. Critical incidents that were reported generally dealt with events on-board the Mir and interpersonal conflicts, although most of the responses were from a relatively small number of subjects. Our findings have implications for future training and lead to a number of countermeasures.

  12. Thermal stresses in the space shuttle orbiter: Analysis versus test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, H.R.; Gibson, W.F. Jr.; Benson, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    Significant temperature differences occur between the internal structure and the outer skin of the Space Shuttle Orbiter as it returns from space. These temperature differences cause important thermal stresses. A finite element model containing thousands of degrees of freedom is used to predict these stresses. A ground test was performed to verify the prediction method. The analysis and test results compare favorably. (orig.)

  13. Space Shuttle Communications Coverage Analysis for Thermal Tile Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Quin D.; Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Boster, John P.; Chavez, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    The space shuttle ultra-high frequency Space-to-Space Communication System has to provide adequate communication coverage for astronauts who are performing thermal tile inspection and repair on the underside of the space shuttle orbiter (SSO). Careful planning and quantitative assessment are necessary to ensure successful system operations and mission safety in this work environment. This study assesses communication systems performance for astronauts who are working in the underside, non-line-of-sight shadow region on the space shuttle. All of the space shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) transmitting antennas are blocked by the SSO structure. To ensure communication coverage at planned inspection worksites, the signal strength and link margin between the SSO/ISS antennas and the extravehicular activity astronauts, whose line-of-sight is blocked by vehicle structure, was analyzed. Investigations were performed using rigorous computational electromagnetic modeling techniques. Signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the signal propagation paths between transmitting and receiving antennas. Radio frequency (RF) coverage was determined for thermal tile inspection and repair missions using the results of this computation. Analysis results from this paper are important in formulating the limits on reliable communication range and RF coverage at planned underside inspection and repair worksites.

  14. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  15. Surface chloride salt formation on Space Shuttle exhaust alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, W. R., III; Pellett, G. L.; Sebacher, D. I.; Wakelyn, N. T.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum oxide samples from the exhaust of Space Shuttle launches STS-1, STS-4, STS-5, and STS-6 were collected from surfaces on or around the launch pad complex and chemically analyzed. The results indicate that the particulate solid-propellant rocket motor (SRM) alumina was heavily chlorided. Concentrations of water-soluble aluminum (III) ion were large, suggesting that the surface of the SRM alumina particles was rendered soluble by prior reactions with HCl and H2O in the SRM exhaust cloud. These results suggest that Space Shuttle exhaust alumina particles are good sites for nucleation and condensation of atmospheric water. Laboratory experiments conducted at 220 C suggest that partial surface chloriding of alumina may occur in hot Space Shuttle exhaust plumes.

  16. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  17. Behavioral Health and Performance Operations During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beven, G.; Holland, A.; Moomaw, R.; Sipes, W.; Vander Ark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the Columbia STS 107 disaster in 2003, the Johnson Space Center s Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) became involved in Space Shuttle Operations on an as needed basis, occasionally acting as a consultant and primarily addressing crew-crew personality conflicts. The BHP group also assisted with astronaut selection at every selection cycle beginning in 1991. Following STS 107, an event that spawned an increased need of behavioral health support to STS crew members and their dependents, BHP services to the Space Shuttle Program were enhanced beginning with the STS 114 Return to Flight mission in 2005. These services included the presence of BHP personnel at STS launches and landings for contingency support, a BHP briefing to the entire STS crew at L-11 months, a private preflight meeting with the STS Commander at L-9 months, and the presence of a BHP consultant at the L-1.5 month Family Support Office briefing to crew and family members. The later development of an annual behavioral health assessment of all active astronauts also augmented BHP s Space Shuttle Program specific services, allowing for private meetings with all STS crew members before and after each mission. The components of each facet of these BHP Space Shuttle Program support services will be presented, along with valuable lessons learned, and with recommendations for BHP involvement in future short duration space missions

  18. HAL/S programmer's guide. [for space shuttle program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    This programming language was developed for the flight software of the NASA space shuttle program. HAL/S is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, HAL/s incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. As the name indicates, HAL/S is a dialect of the original HAL language previously developed. Changes have been incorporated to simplify syntax, curb excessive generality, or facilitate flight code emission.

  19. Structural Continuum Modeling of Space Shuttle External Tank Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Brian; Ayala, Sam; Purlee, T. Eric; Shaw, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation reporting on work in modeling the foam insulation of the Space Shuttle External Tank. An analytical understanding of foam mechanics is required to design against structural failure. The Space Shuttle External Tank is covered primarily with closed cell foam to: Prevent ice, Protect structure from ascent aerodynamic and engine plume heating, and Delay break-up during re-entry. It is important that the foam does not shed unacceptable debris during ascent environment. Therefore a modeling of the foam insulation was undertaken.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter logistics - Managing in a dynamic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfroe, Michael B.; Bradshaw, Kimberly

    1990-01-01

    The importance and methods of monitoring logistics vital signs, logistics data sources and acquisition, and converting data into useful management information are presented. With the launch and landing site for the Shuttle Orbiter project at the Kennedy Space Center now totally responsible for its own supportability posture, it is imperative that logistics resource requirements and management be continually monitored and reassessed. Detailed graphs and data concerning various aspects of logistics activities including objectives, inventory operating levels, customer environment, and data sources are provided. Finally, some lessons learned from the Shuttle Orbiter project and logistics options which should be considered by other space programs are discussed.

  1. Studying the Earth from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Space age technology contains a key to increased knowledge about the Earth's resources; this key is remote sensing detecting the nature or condition of something without actually touching it. An early and still most useful form of remote sensing is photography which records the

  2. Microparticle impacts in space: Results from Solar Max and shuttle witness plate inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, David S.

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Satellite developed electronic problems after operating successfully in space for several years. Astronauts on Space Shuttle mission STS-41C retrieved the satellite into the orbiter cargo bay, replaced defective components, and re-deployed the repaired satellite into orbit. The defective components were returned to Earth for study. The space-exposed surfaces were examined. The approach and objectives were to: document morphology of impact; find and analyze projectile residue; classify impact by origin; determine flux distribution; and determine implications for space exposure. The purpose of the shuttle witness plate experiment was to detect impacts from PAM D2 solid rocket motor; determine flux and size distribution of particles; and determine abrasion effects on various conditions. Results are given for aluminum surfaces, copper surfaces, stainless steel surfaces, Inconel surfaces, and quartz glass surfaces.

  3. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  4. An advanced regulator for the helium pressurization systems of the Space Shuttle OMS and RCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System are pressure-fed rocket propulsion systems utilizing earth storable hypergolic propellants and featuring engines of 6000 lbs and 900 lbs thrust, respectively. The helium pressurization system requirements for these propulsion systems are defined and the current baseline pressurization systems are described. An advanced helium pressure regulator capable of meeting both OMS and RCS helium pressurization system requirements is presented and its operating characteristics and predicted performance characteristics are discussed.

  5. Report of the Space Shuttle Management Independent Review Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At the request of the NASA Administrator a team was formed to review the Space Shuttle Program and propose a new management system that could significantly reduce operating costs. Composed of a group of people with broad and extensive experience in spaceflight and related areas, the team received briefings from the NASA organizations and most of the supporting contractors involved in the Shuttle Program. In addition, a number of chief executives from the supporting contractors provided advice and suggestions. The team found that the present management system has functioned reasonably well despite its diffuse structure. The team also determined that the shuttle has become a mature and reliable system, and--in terms of a manned rocket-propelled space launch system--is about as safe as today's technology will provide. In addition, NASA has reduced shuttle operating costs by about 25 percent over the past 3 years. The program, however, remains in a quasi-development mode and yearly costs remain higher than required. Given the current NASA-contractor structure and incentives, it is difficult to establish cost reduction as a primary goal and implement changes to achieve efficiencies. As a result, the team sought to create a management structure and associated environment that enables and motivates the Program to further reduce operational costs. Accordingly, the review team concluded that the NASA Space Shuttle Program should (1) establish a clear set of program goals, placing a greater emphasis on cost-efficient operations and user-friendly payload integration; (2) redefine the management structure, separating development and operations and disengaging NASA from the daily operation of the space shuttle; and (3) provide the necessary environment and conditions within the program to pursue these goals.

  6. HAL/S programmer's guide. [for space shuttle project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The structure and symbology of the HAL/S programming language are described; this language is to be used among the flight software for the space shuttle project. The data declaration, input/output statements, and replace statements are also discussed.

  7. HAL/S programmer's guide. [space shuttle flight software language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a programming language developed to satisfy the flight software requirements for the space shuttle program. The user's guide explains pertinent language operating procedures and described the various HAL/S facilities for manipulating integer, scalar, vector, and matrix data types.

  8. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  9. Space Shuttle dosimetry measurements with RME-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, K.A.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Atwell, W.; Quam, W.

    1991-10-01

    A description of the radiation monitoring equipment (RME-III) dosimetry instrument and the results obtained from six Space Shuttle flights are presented. The RME-III is a self-contained, active (real-time), portable dosimeter system developed for the USAF and adapted for utilization in measuring the ionizing radiation environment on the Space Shuttle. This instrument was developed to incorporate the capabilities of two earlier radiation instruments into a single unit and to minimize crew interaction times with longer battery life and expanded memory capacity. Flight data has demonstrated that the RME-III can be used to accurately assess dose from various sources of exposure, such as that encountered in the complex radiation environment of space

  10. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  11. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  12. Biological and Medical Experiments on the Space Shuttle, 1981 - 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Thora W. (Editor); Dufour, Patricia A. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the first in a planned series of reports intended to provide a comprehensive record of all the biological and medical experiments and samples flown on the Space Shuttle. Experiments described have been conducted over a five-year period, beginning with the first plant studies conducted on STS-2 in November 1981, and extending through STS 61-C, the last mission to fly before the tragic Challenger accident of January 1986. Experiments were sponsored within NASA not only by the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Science and Applications, but also by the Shuttle Student Involvement Program (SSIP) and the Get Away Special (GAS) Program. Independent medical studies were conducted as well on the Shuttle crew under the auspices of the Space Biomedical Research Institute at Johnson Space Center. In addition, cooperative agreements between NASA and foreign government agencies led to a number of independent experiments and also paved the way for the joint US/ESA Spacelab 1 mission and the German (DFVLR) Spacelab D-1. Experiments included: (1) medically oriented studies of the crew aimed at identifying, preventing, or treating health problems due to space travel; (2) projects to study morphological, physiological, or behavioral effects of microgravity on animals and plants; (3) studies of the effects of microgravity on cells and tissues; and (4) radiation experiments monitoring the spacecraft environment with chemical or biological dosimeters or testing radiation effects on simple organisms and seeds.

  13. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  14. Space Shuttle Atlantis is on Launch Pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Atop the mobile launcher platform, Space Shuttle Atlantis arrives on Launch Pad 39B after rollout from the Vehicle Assembly Building. Seen on either side of the orbiters tail are the tail service masts. They support the fluid, gas and electrical requirements of the orbiters liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen aft umbilicals. The Shuttle is targeted for launch no earlier than July 12 on mission STS-104, the 10th flight to the International Space Station. The payload on the 11- day mission is the Joint Airlock Module, which will allow astronauts and cosmonauts in residence on the Station to perform future spacewalks without the presence of a Space Shuttle. The module, which comprises a crew lock and an equipment lock, will be connected to the starboard (right) side of Node 1 Unity. Atlantis will also carry oxygen and nitrogen storage tanks, vital to operation of the Joint Airlock, on a Spacelab Logistics Double Pallet in the payload bay. The tanks, to be installed on the perimeter of the Joint Module during the missions spacewalks, will support future spacewalk operations and experiments plus augment the resupply system for the Stations Service Module.

  15. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  16. Proceedings of the Space Shuttle Environmental Assessment Workshop on Stratospheric Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Various aspects of the potential environmental impact of space shuttle exhaust are explored. Topics include: (1) increased ultraviolet radiation levels in the biosphere due to destruction of atmospheric ozone; (2) climatic changes due to aerosol particles affecting the planetary albedo; (3) space shuttle propellants (including alternate formulations); and (4) measurement of space shuttle exhaust products.

  17. Space shuttle general purpose computers (GPCs) (current and future versions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Current and future versions of general purpose computers (GPCs) for space shuttle orbiters are represented in this frame. The two boxes on the left (AP101B) represent the current GPC configuration, with the input-output processor at far left and the central processing unit (CPU) at its side. The upgraded version combines both elements in a single unit (far right, AP101S).

  18. Application of regression analysis to creep of space shuttle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Metallic heat shields for Space Shuttle thermal protection systems must operate for many flight cycles at high temperatures in low-pressure air and use thin-gage (less than or equal to 0.65 mm) sheet. Available creep data for thin sheet under those conditions are inadequate. To assess the effects of oxygen partial pressure and sheet thickness on creep behavior and to develop constitutive creep equations for small sets of data, regression techniques are applied and discussed

  19. Space shuttle booster multi-engine base flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H. H.; Gardiner, C. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Navickas, J.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive review of currently available techniques pertinent to several prominent aspects of the base thermal problem of the space shuttle booster is given along with a brief review of experimental results. A tractable engineering analysis, capable of predicting the power-on base pressure, base heating, and other base thermal environmental conditions, such as base gas temperature, is presented and used for an analysis of various space shuttle booster configurations. The analysis consists of a rational combination of theoretical treatments of the prominent flow interaction phenomena in the base region. These theories consider jet mixing, plume flow, axisymmetric flow effects, base injection, recirculating flow dynamics, and various modes of heat transfer. Such effects as initial boundary layer expansion at the nozzle lip, reattachment, recompression, choked vent flow, and nonisoenergetic mixing processes are included in the analysis. A unified method was developed and programmed to numerically obtain compatible solutions for the various flow field components in both flight and ground test conditions. Preliminary prediction for a 12-engine space shuttle booster base thermal environment was obtained for a typical trajectory history. Theoretical predictions were also obtained for some clustered-engine experimental conditions. Results indicate good agreement between the data and theoretical predicitons.

  20. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John; Rodela, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, Inc., in cooperation with NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), has developed a new Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) controller for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will increase the probability of successfully placing the shuttle into the intended orbit and increase the safety of the Space Transportation System (STS) launches. The AHMS is an upgrade o the current Block II engine controller whose primary component is an improved vibration monitoring system called the Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) that can effectively and reliably monitor the state of the high pressure turbomachinery and provide engine protection through a new synchronous vibration redline which enables engine shutdown if the vibration exceeds predetermined thresholds. The introduction of this system required improvements and modification to the Block II controller such as redesigning the Digital Computer Unit (DCU) memory and the Flight Accelerometer Safety Cut-Off System (FASCOS) circuitry, eliminating the existing memory retention batteries, installation of the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology, and installation of a High Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) with accompanying outside world connectors. Test stand hot-fire testing along with lab testing have verified successful implementation and is expected to reduce the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the shuttle ascent phase and improve safely by about 23% according to the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS), leading to a safer and more reliable SSME.

  1. Platelet injectors for Space Shuttle orbit maneuvering engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, R. C.; Labotz, R. J.; Bassham, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering Subsystem Rocket Engine employs a platelet element injector concept. This injector has demonstrated 316-sec vacuum specific impulse performance under simulated altitude conditions when tested with a milled slot/electroformed nickel close-out regenerative chamber and a full 71 area ratio nozzle. To date, over 300 altitude engine tests and 300 stability bomb tests have demonstrated stable, erosion free operation with this concept to test durations of 150 seconds. The injector and chamber also meet the reusable requirements of the shuttle with a cycle life capability in excess of 1000 cycles. An extensive altitude restart program has also demonstrated OMS-engine operation over large variations in the burn and coast times with helium saturated propellants.

  2. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia lights up the night sky on its successful liftoff from Launch Pad 39-B on mission STS-93. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  3. Can molecular diffusion explain Space Shuttle plume spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R. R.; Plane, John M. C.; Stevens, Michael H.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.; Crowley, G.

    2010-04-01

    The satellite-borne Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) has produced more than 20 images of NASA Space Shuttle main engine plumes in the lower thermosphere. These reveal atomic hydrogen and, by inference, water vapor transport over hemispherical-scale distances with speeds much faster than expected from models of thermospheric wind motions. Furthermore, the hydrogen plumes expand rapidly. We find rates that exceed the horizontal diffusion speed at nominal plume altitudes of 104-112 km. Kelley et al. (2009) have proposed a 2-D turbulence mechanism to explain the observed spreading rates (and rapid advection) of the plumes. But upon further investigation, we conclude that H atom diffusion can indeed account for the observed expansion rates by recognizing that vertical diffusion quickly conveys atoms to higher altitudes where horizontal diffusion is much more rapid. We also find evidence for H atom production directly during the Shuttle's main engine burn.

  4. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  5. Lubrication of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has three main engines that are used for propulsion into orbit. These engines are fed propellants by four turbopumps on each engine. A main element in the turbopump is the bearings supporting the rotor that spins the turbine blades and the pump impeller. These bearings are required to spin at very high speeds, support radial and thrust loads, and have high wear resistance without the benefit of lubrication. The liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellants flow through the bearings to cool the surfaces. The volatile nature of the propellants excludes any conventional means of lubrication. Lubrication for these bearings is provided by the ball separator inside the bearing. The separator is a composite material that supplies a transfer film of lubrication to the rings and balls. New separator materials and lubrication schemes have been investigated at Marshall Space Flight Center in a bearing test rig with promising results. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls have also been evaluated. The use of hybrid, silicon nitride ball bearings in conjunction -with better separator materials has shown excellent results. The work that Marshall has done is being utilized in turbopumps flying on the space shuttle fleet and will be utilized in future space travel. This result of this work is valuable for all aerospace and commercial applications where high-speed bearings are used.

  6. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  7. Animals in Space From Research Rockets to the Space Shuttle

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Many readers will doubtless be astonished to learn that animals were being fired aloft in U.S. and Soviet research rockets in the late 1940s. In fact most people not only believe that the Russian space dog Laika was the first canine to be launched into space, but also that the high-profile, precursory Mercury flights of chimps Ham and Enos were the only primate flights conducted by the United States. In fact, both countries had sent literally dozens of animals aloft for many years prior to these events and continued to do so for many years after. Other latter-day space nations, such as France and China, would also begin to use animals in their own space research. Animals in Space will explain why dogs, primates, mice and other rodents were chosen and tested, at a time when dedicated scientists from both space nations were determined to establish the survivability of human subjects on both ballistic and orbital space flights. It will also recount the way this happened; the secrecy involved and the methods empl...

  8. Quantitative risk analysis of a space shuttle subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that in an attempt to investigate methods for risk management other than qualitative analysis techniques, NASA has funded pilot study quantitative risk analyses for space shuttle subsystems. The authors performed one such study of two shuttle subsystems with McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company. The subsystems were the auxiliary power units (APU) on the orbiter, and the hydraulic power units on the solid rocket booster. The technology and results of the APU study are presented in this paper. Drawing from a rich in-flight database as well as from a wealth of tests and analyses, the study quantitatively assessed the risk of APU-initiated scenarios on the shuttle during all phases of a flight mission. Damage states of interest were loss of crew/vehicle, aborted mission, and launch scrub. A quantitative risk analysis approach to deciding on important items for risk management was contrasted with the current NASA failure mode and effects analysis/critical item list approach

  9. Wings In Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, N. Wayne (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    This Space Shuttle book project reviews Wings In Orbit-scientific and engineering legacies of the Space Shuttle. The contents include: 1) Magnificent Flying Machine-A Cathedral to Technology; 2) The Historical Legacy; 3) The Shuttle and its Operations; 4) Engineering Innovations; 5) Major Scientific Discoveries; 6) Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies; 7) Commercial Aerospace Industries and Spin-offs; and 8) The Shuttle continuum, Role of Human Spaceflight.

  10. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  11. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  12. Random Vibration of Space Shuttle Weather Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Elishakoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with random vibrations of the space shuttle weather protection systems. The excitation model represents a fit to the measured experimental data. The cross-spectral density is given as a convex combination of three exponential functions. It is shown that for the type of loading considered, the Bernoulli-Euler theory cannot be used as a simplified approach, and the structure will be more properly modeled as a Timoshenko beam. Use of the simple Bernoulli-Euler theory may result in an error of about 50% in determining the mean-square value of the bending moment in the weather protection system.

  13. Food and waste management biotechnology for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R. W.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Hunt, S. R.; Sauer, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Space-crew facilities for preparation, eating, personal hygiene and waste management are contained in one small area of the Shuttle Orbiter Mid-Deck, all the functional systems being interconnected. The paper discusses three major systems: (1) the Galley, which includes the personal hygiene station and food packages; (2) the Waste Collector, which includes provisions for male and female users, urine, feces and emesis collection in both a normal and contigency mode of operation; and (3) Biowaste Monitoring, which includes mass measurement and sampling. The technology improvement continues by assuring that the Orbiter systems have sufficient design flexibility to permit later improvements in operation and in function.

  14. Space Shuttle OMS engine valve technology. [Orbital Maneuvering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Valve technology program to determine shutoff valve concepts suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine of the Space Shuttle. The tradeoff studies selected the electric torque motor operated dual poppet and ball valves as the most desirable valve concepts for the OMS Engine Shutoff Valve. A prototype of one of these concepts was built and subjected to a design verification program. A number of unique features were designed to include the required contamination insensitivity, operating fluid compatibility, decontamination capability, minimum maintenance requirement and long service life capability.

  15. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  16. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  17. The space shuttle program from challenge to achievement: Space exploration rolling on tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Transportation System is the first space program to employ the pneumatic tire as a part of space exploration. For aircraft tires, this program establishes new expectations as to what constitutes acceptable performance within a set of tough environmental and operational conditions. Tire design, stresses the usual low weight, high load, high speed, and excellent air retention features but at extremes well outside industry standards. Tires will continue to be an integral part of the Shuttle's landing phase in the immediate future since they afford a unique combination of directional control, braking traction, flotation and shock absorption not available by other systems.

  18. Introduction of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident, Investigation Details, Findings and Crew Survival Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    As the Space Shuttle Program comes to an end, it is important that the lessons learned from the Columbia accident be captured and understood by those who will be developing future aerospace programs and supporting current programs. Aeromedical lessons learned from the Accident were presented at AsMA in 2005. This Panel will update that information, closeout the lessons learned, provide additional information on the accident and provide suggestions for the future. To set the stage, an overview of the accident is required. The Space Shuttle Columbia was returning to Earth with a crew of seven astronauts on 1Feb, 2003. It disintegrated along a track extending from California to Louisiana and observers along part of the track filmed the breakup of Columbia. Debris was recovered from Littlefield, Texas to Fort Polk, Louisiana, along a 567 statute mile track; the largest ever recorded debris field. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) concluded its investigation in August 2003, and released their findings in a report published in February 2004. NASA recognized the importance of capturing the lessons learned from the loss of Columbia and her crew and the Space Shuttle Program managers commissioned the Spacecraft Crew Survival Integrated Investigation Team (SCSIIT) to accomplish this. Their task was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the accident, focusing on factors and events affecting crew survival, and to develop recommendations for improving crew survival, including the design features, equipment, training and procedures intended to protect the crew. NASA released the Columbia Crew Survival Investigation Report in December 2008. Key personnel have been assembled to give you an overview of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, the medical response, the medico-legal issues, the SCSIIT findings and recommendations and future NASA flight surgeon spacecraft accident response training. Educational Objectives: Set the stage for the Panel to address the

  19. First-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Thousands of people watch the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. The spectacular test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  20. Operating Deflection Shapes for the Space Shuttle Partial Stack Rollout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Kappus, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In November of 2003 a rollout test was performed to gain a better understanding of the dynamic environment for the Space Shuttle during transportation from the Vehicle Assembly Building to the launch pad. This was part of a study evaluating the methodology for including the rollout dynamic loads in the Space Shuttle fatigue life predictions. The rollout test was conducted with a partial stack consisting of the Crawler Transporter, Mobile Launch Platform, and the Solid Rocket Boosters with an interconnecting crossbeam. Instrumentation included over 100 accelerometers. Data was recorded for steady state speeds, start-ups and stops, and ambient wind excitations with the vehicle at idle. This paper will describe the operating deflection shape analysis performed using the measured acceleration response data. The response data for the steady state speed runs were dominated by harmonics of the forcing frequencies, which were proportional to the vehicle speed. Assuming a broadband excitation for the wind, analyses of the data sets with the vehicle at idle were used to estimate the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Comparisons of the measured modal properties with numerical predictions are presented.

  1. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  2. Looking at the earth from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the scientific accomplishments attained in observing the earth from space are discussed. A brief overview of findings concerning the atmosphere, the oceans and sea ice, the solid earth, and the terrestrial hydrosphere and biosphere is presented, and six examples are examined in which space data have provided unique information enabling new knowledge concerning the workings of the earth to be derived. These examples concern stratospheric water vapor, hemispheric differences in surface and atmosphere parameters, Seasat altimeter mesoscale variability, variability of Antarctic sea ice, variations in the length of day, and spaceborne radar imaging of ancient rivers. Future space observations of the earth are briefly addressed.

  3. Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Doug

    2006-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia's ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia's left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom

  4. Requirements for a near-earth space tug vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement for a small but powerful space tug, which will be capable of autonomous orbital rendezvous, docking and translating cargos between near-earth orbits by the end of this decade to support the growing national and international space infrastructure focused near the Space Station Freedom, is described. An aggregate of missions drives the need for a space tug including reboosting decaying satellites back to their operational altitudes, retrieving failed or exhausted satellites to Shuttle or SSF for on-orbit refueling or repair, and transporting a satellite servicer system with an FTS to ailing satellites for supervised in-place repair. It is shown that the development and operation of a space tug to perform such numerous missions is more cost effective than separate module and satellite systems to perform the same tasks.

  5. Space Shuttle RCS Oxidizer Leak Repair for STS-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, R. A.; Faget, N. M.

    1989-01-01

    Following propellant loading of the Space Shuttle's reaction control system (RCS) for mission STS 26, an oxidizer leak was detected in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod, where the RCS is located. Subsequent investigation determined that the leak was isolated at a mechanical Dynatube fitting near the RCS nitrogen tetroxide tank. An intense effort was initiated to design, fabricate, and qualify a sealing device to stop the oxidizer leak externally so that the Space Shuttle launch could proceed. It was discovered that sealing devices called clamshells were widely used throughout the petrochemical and power generation industries to stop leaks developed in large diameter pipes which carry steam or other hazardous fluids. These clamshells are available in different diameters and strengths and are placed around the pipe at the location of the leak. A sealing compound is then injected under high pressure into the clamshell to stop the leak. This technology was scaled down and applied to the problem of stopping the leak on the Orbiter, which was on a half-inch diameter line in a nearly inaccessible location. Many obstacles had to be overcome such as determining that the sealing material would be compatible with the nitrogen tetroxide and ensuring that the clamshell would actually fit around the Dynatube fitting without interfering with other lines which were in close proximity. The effort at the NASA Johnson Space Center included materials compatibility testing of several sealants, design of a clamshell to fit in the confined compartment, and manufacture and qualification of the flight hardware. A clamshell was successfully placed around the Dynatube fitting on the Orbiter and the oxidizer leak was terminated. Then it was decided to apply this technology further and design clamshells for other mechanical fittings onboard the Orbiter and develop sealing compounds which will be compatible with fuels such as monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The potential exists for

  6. Eye-Head Coordination in 31 Space Shuttle Astronauts during Visual Target Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F; Kolev, Ognyan I; Clément, Gilles

    2017-10-27

    Between 1989 and 1995, NASA evaluated how increases in flight duration of up to 17 days affected the health and performance of Space Shuttle astronauts. Thirty-one Space Shuttle pilots participating in 17 space missions were tested at 3 different times before flight and 3 different times after flight, starting within a few hours of return to Earth. The astronauts moved their head and eyes as quickly as possible from the central fixation point to a specified target located 20°, 30°, or 60° off center. Eye movements were measured with electro-oculography (EOG). Head movements were measured with a triaxial rate sensor system mounted on a headband. The mean time to visually acquire the targets immediately after landing was 7-10% (30-34 ms) slower than mean preflight values, but results returned to baseline after 48 hours. This increase in gaze latency was due to a decrease in velocity and amplitude of both the eye saccade and head movement toward the target. Results were similar after all space missions, regardless of length.

  7. Which Way is Up? Lessons Learned from Space Shuttle Sensorimotor Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    .g., sensory aids) will have both space and Earth-based applications. Early postflight field tests are recommended to provide the evidence base for best practices for future commercial flight programs. Learning Objective: Overview of the Space Shuttle Program regarding adaptive changes in sensorimotor function, including what was learned from research, what was implemented for medical operations, and what is recommended for commercial flights.

  8. Friction Plug Weld Repair for the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Paula J.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Michoud Operations in New Orleans, LA is the manufacturer of the External Fuel Tanks (ET) for the Space Transportation System (STS). The ET contains and delivers the propellants used by the Orbiters three main engines. Additionally, it also serves as the structural backbone for the Orbiter and the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), which combined, constitute the STS. In 1994, NASA established that in order to launch the International Space Station, the performance of the STS must be improved. One option was to reduce the weight of the ET, which would enable sufficient increase in performance. With the development of the Weldalite(R) series of Al-Cu-Li alloys in the late 1980's, Lockheed Martin was postured to replace the current A12219 fuel tanks with the high strength, light weight A12195 alloy. With the use of A12195 and some component redesign, the weight of the Super Lightweight (SLWT) ET was reduced by approximately 7,000 pounds, which added as much capability to the Space Shuttle. Since June 1998, seven STS missions have been successful with the use of the SLWT ET's.

  9. Dossier space travel. Nuclear fuel shuttle; Dossier ruimtevaart. Splijtstofshuttle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klomp, H.

    2011-03-11

    The space shuttle will be making its last flight this year, but a successor has not yet been arranged. All alternatives that were reviewed by the American government in the last decades have in common that they use chemical combustion as means of propulsion. A serious next step in human spaceflight requires a more sturdy propulsion system: atomic explosions. [Dutch] De spaceshuttle maakt dit jaar zijn laatste vlucht, maar een opvolger is er nog niet. Alle alternatieven die de Amerikaanse overheid de afgelopen decennia de revue heeft laten passeren, hebben gemeen dat ze als stuwmiddel gebruikmaken van chemische verbranding. Voor een serieuze stap voorwaarts in de bemande ruimtevaart is een steviger voortstuwingssysteem nodig: atoomexplosies.

  10. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  11. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  12. Ablative overlays for Space Shuttle leading edge ascent heat protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ablative overlays were evaluated via a plasma-arc simulation of the ascent pulse on the leading edge of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Overlay concepts included corkboard, polyisocyanurate foam, low-density Teflon, epoxy, and subliming salts. Their densities ranged from 4.9 to 81 lb per cu ft, and the thicknesses varied from 0.107 to 0.330 in. Swept-leading-edge models were fabricated from 30-lb per cu ft silicone-based ablators. The overlays were bonded to maintain the surface temperature of the base ablator below 500 F during ascent. Foams provided minimum-weight overlays, and subliming salts provided minimum-thickness overlays. Teflon left the most uniform surface after ascent heating.

  13. Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The workshop explored opportunities for data compression to enhance the collection and analysis of space and Earth science data. The focus was on scientists' data requirements, as well as constraints imposed by the data collection, transmission, distribution, and archival systems. The workshop consisted of several invited papers; two described information systems for space and Earth science data, four depicted analysis scenarios for extracting information of scientific interest from data collected by Earth orbiting and deep space platforms, and a final one was a general tutorial on image data compression.

  14. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C and E report: Storable propellants, RCS/OMS/APU integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, D. D.; Bruns, A. E.; Perryman, D. C.; Wieland, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Auxiliary propulsion concepts for application to the space shuttle are compared. Both monopropellant and bipropellant earth storable reaction control systems were evaluated. The fundamental concepts evaluated were: (1) monopropellant and bipropellant systems installed integrally within the vehicle, (2) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and wing tip pods, and (3) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and fuselage pods. Numerous design variations within these three concepts were evaluated. The system design analysis and methods for implementing each of the concepts are reported.

  15. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  16. Image Analysis Based on Soft Computing and Applied on Space Shuttle During the Liftoff Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve J.

    2007-01-01

    Imaging techniques based on Soft Computing (SC) and developed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been implemented on a variety of prototype applications related to the safety operation of the Space Shuttle during the liftoff process. These SC-based prototype applications include detection and tracking of moving Foreign Objects Debris (FOD) during the Space Shuttle liftoff, visual anomaly detection on slidewires used in the emergency egress system for the Space Shuttle at the laJlIlch pad, and visual detection of distant birds approaching the Space Shuttle launch pad. This SC-based image analysis capability developed at KSC was also used to analyze images acquired during the accident of the Space Shuttle Columbia and estimate the trajectory and velocity of the foam that caused the accident.

  17. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  18. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  19. Cost prediction model for various payloads and instruments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, F. E.

    1984-01-01

    The following cost parameters of the space shuttle were undertaken: (1) to develop a cost prediction model for various payload classes of instruments and experiments for the Space Shuttle Orbiter; and (2) to show the implications of various payload classes on the cost of: reliability analysis, quality assurance, environmental design requirements, documentation, parts selection, and other reliability enhancing activities.

  20. Earth and space science information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zygielbaum, A. (ed.) (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States))

    1993-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Earth and Space Science Information Systems (ESSIS) Conference. The attendees included scientists and engineers across many disciplines. New trends in information organizations were reviewed. One hundred and twenty eight papers are included in this volume, out of these two have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. The topics covered in the papers range from Earth science and technology to astronomy and space, planetary science and education. (AIP)

  1. Computerized Machine for Cutting Space Shuttle Thermal Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Luis E.; Reuter, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    A report presents the concept of a machine aboard the space shuttle that would cut oversized thermal-tile blanks to precise sizes and shapes needed to replace tiles that were damaged or lost during ascent to orbit. The machine would include a computer-controlled jigsaw enclosed in a clear acrylic shell that would prevent escape of cutting debris. A vacuum motor would collect the debris into a reservoir and would hold a tile blank securely in place. A database stored in the computer would contain the unique shape and dimensions of every tile. Once a broken or missing tile was identified, its identification number would be entered into the computer, wherein the cutting pattern associated with that number would be retrieved from the database. A tile blank would be locked into a crib in the machine, the shell would be closed (proximity sensors would prevent activation of the machine while the shell was open), and a "cut" command would be sent from the computer. A blade would be moved around the crib like a plotter, cutting the tile to the required size and shape. Once the tile was cut, an astronaut would take a space walk for installation.

  2. Man in space - A time for perspective. [crew performance on Space Shuttle-Spacelab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Factors affecting crew performances in long-term space flights are examined with emphasis on the Space Shuttle-Spacelab program. Biomedical investigations carried out during four Skylab missions indicate that initially rapid changes in certain physiological parameters, notably in cardiovascular response and red-blood-cell levels, lead to an adapted condition. Calcium loss remains a potential problem. Space Shuttle environmental control and life-support systems are described together with technology facilitating performance of mission objectives in a weightless environment. It is concluded that crew requirements are within the physical and psychological capability of astronauts, but the extent to which nonastronaut personnel will be able to participate without extensive training and pre-conditioning remains to be determined.

  3. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  4. A History of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Redline Limits Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has several "redlines", which are operational limits designated to preclude a catastrophic shutdown of the SSME. The Space Shuttle Orbiter utilizes a combination of hardware and software to enable or disable the automated redline shutdown capability. The Space Shuttle is launched with the automated SSME redline limits enabled, but there are many scenarios which may result in the manual disabling of the software by the onboard crew. The operational philosophy for manually enabling and disabling the redline limits software has evolved continuously throughout the history of the Space Shuttle Program, due to events such as SSME hardware changes and updates to Space Shuttle contingency abort software. In this paper, the evolution of SSME redline limits management will be fully reviewed, including the operational scenarios which call for manual intervention, and the events that triggered changes to the philosophy. Following this review, improvements to the management of redline limits for future spacecraft will be proposed.

  5. Spaceship earth: take your classroom into space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartevelt, S.; van den Putte, W.; Wamsteker, J.; de Vet, S.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Celton, E.; Savage, N.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Schools in Europe actively participated in the educational project "Spaceship Earth", part of ESA astronaut André Kuipers’ PromISSe mission. The initiative, conceptualized by the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Netherlands Space Office (NSO) also involved a unique collaboration of a team

  6. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  7. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  8. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Superlightweight External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Britt, Vicki O.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Results of buckling and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle external tank superlightweight liquid-oxygen (LO2) tank are presented. Modeling details and results are presented for two prelaunch loading conditions and for two full-scale structural tests that were conducted on the original external tank. The results illustrate three distinctly different types of nonlinear response for thin-walled shells subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. The nonlinear response phenomena consist of bifurcation-type buckling, short-wavelength nonlinear bending, and nonlinear collapse associated with a limit point. For each case, the results show that accurate predictions of non- linear behavior generally require a large-scale, high-fidelity finite-element model. Results are also presented that show that a fluid-filled launch-vehicle shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. In addition, results presented for two full-scale structural tests of the original standard-weight external tank suggest that the finite-element modeling approach used in the present study is sufficient for representing the nonlinear behavior of the superlightweight LO2 tank.

  9. A study of space shuttle plumes in the lower thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R. R.; Stevens, Michael H.; Plane, John M. C.; Emmert, J. T.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.; Paxton, L. J.; Christensen, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    During the space shuttle main engine burn, some 350 t of water vapor are deposited at between 100 and 115 km. Subsequent photodissociation of water produces large plumes of atomic hydrogen that can expand rapidly and extend for thousands of kilometers. From 2002 to 2007, the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) on NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite imaged many of these hydrogen plumes at Lyman α (121.567 nm) while viewing in the nadir. The images reveal rapid plume expansion and occasional very fast transport to both north and south polar regions. Some plumes persist for up to 6 d. Near-simultaneous direct detections of water vapor were made with the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, also on TIMED. We compare the spreading of the hydrogen plume with a two-dimensional model that includes photodissociation as well as both vertical and horizontal diffusion. Molecular diffusion appears to be sufficient to account for the horizontal expansion, although wind shears and turbulent mixing may also contribute. We compare the bulk motion of the observed plumes with wind climatologies derived from satellite observations. The plumes can move much faster than predictions of wind climatologies. But dynamical processes not contained in wind climatologies, such as the quasi-two-day wave, can account for at least some of the high speed observations. The plume phenomena raise a number of important questions about lower thermospheric and mesospheric processes, ranging from dynamics and chemistry to polar mesospheric cloud formation and climatology.

  10. Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calio, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

  11. Ecological Impacts of the Space Shuttle Program at John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carlton R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Breininger, David R.; Duncan, Brean W.; Drese, John H.; Scheidt, Doug A.; Lowers, Russ H.; Reyier, Eric A.; Holloway-Adkins, Karen G.; Oddy, Donna M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program was one of NASAs first major undertakings to fall under the environmental impact analysis and documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Space Shuttle Program activities at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the associated Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR) contributed directly and indirectly to both negative and positive ecological trends in the region through the long-term, stable expenditure of resources over the 40 year program life cycle. These expenditures provided support to regional growth and development in conjunction with other sources that altered land use patterns, eliminated and modified habitats, and contributed to cultural eutrophication of the Indian River Lagoon. At KSC, most Space Shuttle Program related actions were conducted in previously developed facilities and industrial areas with the exception of the construction of the shuttle landing facility (SLF) and the space station processing facility (SSPF). Launch and operations impacts were minimal as a result of the low annual launch rate. The majority of concerns identified during the NEPA process such as potential weather modification, acid rain off site, and local climate change did not occur. Launch impacts from deposition of HCl and particulates were assimilated as a result of the high buffering capacity of the system and low launch and loading rates. Metals deposition from exhaust deposition did not display acute impacts. Sub-lethal effects are being investigated as part of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulatory process. Major positive Space Shuttle Program effects were derived from the adequate resources available at the Center to implement the numerous environmental laws and regulations designed to enhance the quality of the environment and minimize impacts from human activities. This included reduced discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater, creation of stormwater management

  12. Fractional Consumption of Liquid Hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle uses the propellants, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to meet part of the propulsion requirements from ground to orbit. The Kennedy Space Center procured over 25 million kilograms of liquid hydrogen and over 250 million kilograms of liquid oxygen during the 3D-year Space Shuttle Program. Because of the cryogenic nature of the propellants, approximately 55% of the total purchased liquid hydrogen and 30% of the total purchased liquid oxygen were used in the Space Shuttle Main Engines. The balance of the propellants were vaporized during operations for various purposes. This paper dissects the total consumption of liqUid hydrogen and liqUid oxygen and determines the fraction attributable to each of the various processing and launch operations that occurred during the entire Space Shuttle Program at the Kennedy Space Center.

  13. Shuttle Ku-band bent-pipe implementation considerations. [for Space Shuttle digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.; Seyl, J. W.; Huth, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for relay of data-modulated subcarriers from Shuttle payloads through the Shuttle Ku-band communications subsystem (and subsequently through a tracking and data relay satellite system to a ground terminal). The novelty is that a channel originally provided for baseband digital data is shown to be suitable for this purpose; the resulting transmission scheme is referred to as a narrowband bent-pipe scheme. Test results demonstrating the validity of the narrowband bent-pipe mode are presented, and limitations on system performance are described.

  14. Use of Shuttle Heritage Hardware in Space Launch System (SLS) Application-Structural Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pravin; Booker, James N.

    2018-01-01

    NASA is moving forward with the development of the next generation system of human spaceflight to meet the Nation's goals of human space exploration. To meet these goals, NASA is aggressively pursuing the development of an integrated architecture and capabilities for safe crewed and cargo missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Two important tenets critical to the achievement of NASA's strategic objectives are Affordability and Safety. The Space Launch System (SLS) is a heavy-lift launch vehicle being designed/developed to meet these goals. The SLS Block 1 configuration (Figure 1) will be used for the first Exploration Mission (EM-1). It utilizes existing hardware from the Space Shuttle inventory, as much as possible, to save cost and expedite the schedule. SLS Block 1 Elements include the Core Stage, "Heritage" Boosters, Heritage Engines, and the Integrated Spacecraft and Payload Element (ISPE) consisting of the Launch Vehicle Stage Adapter (LVSA), the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Stage Adapter (MSA), and an Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) for Earth orbit escape and beyond-Earth orbit in-space propulsive maneuvers. When heritage hardware is used in a new application, it requires a systematic evaluation of its qualification. In addition, there are previously-documented Lessons Learned (Table -1) in this area cautioning the need of a rigorous evaluation in any new application. This paper will exemplify the systematic qualification/assessment efforts made to qualify the application of Heritage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) hardware in SLS. This paper describes the testing and structural assessment performed to ensure the application is acceptable for intended use without having any adverse impact to Safety. It will further address elements such as Loads, Material Properties and Manufacturing, Testing, Analysis, Failure Criterion and Factor of Safety (FS) considerations made to reach the conclusion and recommendation.

  15. A Dynamic Risk Model for Evaluation of Space Shuttle Abort Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Maggio, Gaspare; Elrada, Hassan A.; Yazdpour, Sabrina J.

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an advanced manned launch system with a respectable history of service and a demonstrated level of safety. Recent studies have shown that the Space Shuttle has a relatively low probability of having a failure that is instantaneously catastrophic during nominal flight as compared with many US and international launch systems. However, since the Space Shuttle is a manned. system, a number of mission abort contingencies exist to primarily ensure the safety of the crew during off-nominal situations and to attempt to maintain the integrity of the Orbiter. As the Space Shuttle ascends to orbit it transverses various intact abort regions evaluated and planned before the flight to ensure that the Space Shuttle Orbiter, along with its crew, may be returned intact either to the original launch site, a transoceanic landing site, or returned from a substandard orbit. An intact abort may be initiated due to a number of system failures but the highest likelihood and most challenging abort scenarios are initiated by a premature shutdown of a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The potential consequences of such a shutdown vary as a function of a number of mission parameters but all of them may be related to mission time for a specific mission profile. This paper focuses on the Dynamic Abort Risk Evaluation (DARE) model process, applications, and its capability to evaluate the risk of Loss Of Vehicle (LOV) due to the complex systems interactions that occur during Space Shuttle intact abort scenarios. In addition, the paper will examine which of the Space Shuttle subsystems are critical to ensuring a successful return of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and crew from such a situation.

  16. Space shuttle program: Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory. Volume 7: Logistics management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The logistics management plan for the shuttle avionics integration laboratory defines the organization, disciplines, and methodology for managing and controlling logistics support. Those elements requiring management include maintainability and reliability, maintenance planning, support and test equipment, supply support, transportation and handling, technical data, facilities, personnel and training, funding, and management data.

  17. Space Shuttle: Human Capital Challenges Require Management Attention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... NASA budget data shows that, since 1995, shuttle workforce levels have decreased from about 3,000 to about 1,800 full time equivalent employees NASA based its downsizing efforts on optimistic programmatic assumptions...

  18. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  19. Harvesting space for a greener earth

    CERN Document Server

    Matloff, Greg; Johnson, Les

    2014-01-01

    What was our planet like in years past? How has our civilization affected Earth and its ecology? Harvesting Space for a Greener Planet, the Second Edition of Paradise Regained: The Regreening of the Earth, begins by discussing these questions, and then generates a scenario for the restoration of Earth. It introduces new and innovative ideas on how we could use the Solar System and its resources for terrestrial benefit. The environmental challenges that face us today cannot be resolved by conservation and current technologies alone. Harvesting Space highlights the risk of humankind’s future extinction from environmental degradation. Population growth, global climate change, and maintaining sustainability of habitats for wildlife are all considered, among other issues. Rather than losing heart, we need to realize that the solutions to these problems lie in being good stewards of the planet and in the development of space. Not only will the solutions offered here avert a crisis, they will also provide the basi...

  20. Humans in Space: Summarizing the Medico-Biological Results of the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risin, Diana; Stepaniak, P. C.; Grounds, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Gagarin's flight that opened the era of Humans in Space we also commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) which was triumphantly completed by the flight of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. These were great milestones in the history of Human Space Exploration. Many important questions regarding the ability of humans to adapt and function in space were answered for the past 50 years and many lessons have been learned. Significant contribution to answering these questions was made by the SSP. To ensure the availability of the Shuttle Program experiences to the international space community NASA has made a decision to summarize the medico-biological results of the SSP in a fundamental edition that is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2011 beginning 2012. The goal of this edition is to define the normal responses of the major physiological systems to short-duration space flights and provide a comprehensive source of information for planning, ensuring successful operational activities and for management of potential medical problems that might arise during future long-term space missions. The book includes the following sections: 1. History of Shuttle Biomedical Research and Operations; 2. Medical Operations Overview Systems, Monitoring, and Care; 3. Biomedical Research Overview; 4. System-specific Adaptations/Responses, Issues, and Countermeasures; 5. Multisystem Issues and Countermeasures. In addition, selected operational documents will be presented in the appendices. The chapters are written by well-recognized experts in appropriate fields, peer reviewed, and edited by physicians and scientists with extensive expertise in space medical operations and space-related biomedical research. As Space Exploration continues the major question whether humans are capable of adapting to long term presence and adequate functioning in space habitats remains to be answered We expect that the comprehensive review of

  1. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  2. Space Shuttle Launch Probability Analysis: Understanding History so We Can Predict the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant R.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Shuttle was launched 135 times and nearly half of those launches required 2 or more launch attempts. The Space Shuttle launch countdown historical data of 250 launch attempts provides a wealth of data that is important to analyze for strictly historical purposes as well as for use in predicting future launch vehicle launch countdown performance. This paper provides a statistical analysis of all Space Shuttle launch attempts including the empirical probability of launch on any given attempt and the cumulative probability of launch relative to the planned launch date at the start of the initial launch countdown. This information can be used to facilitate launch probability predictions of future launch vehicles such as NASA's Space Shuttle derived SLS. Understanding the cumulative probability of launch is particularly important for missions to Mars since the launch opportunities are relatively short in duration and one must wait for 2 years before a subsequent attempt can begin.

  3. Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) Iteration 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle is a very reliable vehicle in comparison with other launch systems. Much of the risk posed by Shuttle operations is related to fundamental aspects of the spacecraft design and the environments in which it operates. It is unlikely that significant design improvements can be implemented to address these risks prior to the end of the Shuttle program. The model will continue to be used to identify possible emerging risk drivers and allow management to make risk-informed decisions on future missions. Potential uses of the SPRA in the future include: - Calculate risk impact of various mission contingencies (e.g. late inspection, crew rescue, etc.). - Assessing the risk impact of various trade studies (e.g. flow control valves). - Support risk analysis on mission specific events, such as in flight anomalies. - Serve as a guiding star and data source for future NASA programs.

  4. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  5. Modal survey testing of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) - A Space Shuttle payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Lindell, M. C.

    This paper presents the results of the modal survey test of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE), a Space Shuttle payload mounted in a Spacelab flight single pallet. The test was performed by the Dynamics Test Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL and run in two phases. In the first phase, an unloaded orthogrid connected to the pallet with 52 tension struts was tested. This test included 73 measurement points in three directions. In the second phase, the pallet was integrated with mass simulators mounted on the flight support structure to represent the dynamics (weight and center of gravity) of the various components comprising the LITE experiment and instrumented at 213 points in 3 directions. The test article was suspended by an air bag system to simulate a free-free boundary condition. This paper presents the results obtained from the testing and analytical model correlation efforts. The effect of the suspension system on the test article is also discussed.

  6. A Mobile Communications Space Link Between the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick; Arndt, G. D.; Bondyopadhyay, P.; Shaw, Roland

    1994-01-01

    A communications experiment is described as a link between the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) and the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Breadboarding for this experiment has led to two items with potential for commercial application: a 1-Watt Ka-band amplifier and a Ka-band, circularly polarized microstrip antenna. Results of the hybrid Ka-band amplifier show gain at 30 dB and a saturated output power of 28.5 dBm. A second version comprised of MMIC amplifiers is discussed. Test results of the microstrip antenna subarray show a gain of approximately 13 dB and excellent circular polarization.

  7. Early Earth(s) Across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzsis, S.

    2014-04-01

    The geochemical and cosmochemical record of our solar system is the baseline for exploring the question: "when could life appear on a world similar to our own?" Data arising from direct analysis of the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals from the first 500 Myr of Earth history - termed the Hadean Eon - inform us about the timing for the establishment of a habitable silicate world. Liquid water is the key medium for life. The origin of water, and its interaction with the crust as revealed in the geologic record, guides our exploration for a cosmochemically Earth-like planets. From the time of primary planetary accretion to the start of the continuous rock record on Earth at ca. 3850 million years ago, our planet experienced a waning bolide flux that partially or entirely wiped out surface rocks, vaporized oceans, and created transient serpentinizing atmospheres. Arguably, "Early Earths" across the galaxy may start off as ice planets due to feeble insolation from their young stars, occasionally punctuated by steam atmospheres generated by cataclysmic impacts. Alternatively, early global environments conducive to life spanned from a benign surface zone to deep into crustal rocks and sediments. In some scenarios, nascent biospheres benefit from the exogenous delivery of essential bio-elements via leftovers of accretion, and the subsequent establishment of planetary-scale hydrothermal systems. If what is now known about the early dynamical regime of the Earth serves as any measure of the potential habitability of worlds across space and time, several key boundary conditions emerge. These are: (i) availability and long-term stability of liquid water; (ii) presence of energy resources; (iii) accessibility of organic raw materials; (iv) adequate inventory of radioisotopes to drive internal heating; (v) gross compositional parameters such as mantle/core mass ratio, and (vi) P-T conditions at or near the surface suitable for sustaining biological activity. Life could

  8. The Digital Space Shuttle, 3D Graphics, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Julian E.; Keller, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Shuttle is a knowledge management project that seeks to define symbiotic relationships between 3D graphics and formal knowledge representations (ontologies). 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content, in 2D and 3D CAD forms, and the capability to display systems knowledge. Because the data is so heterogeneous, and the interrelated data structures are complex, 3D graphics combined with ontologies provides mechanisms for navigating the data and visualizing relationships.

  9. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  10. Space Shuttle Rudder Speed Brake Actuator-A Case Study Probabilistic Fatigue Life and Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Savage, Michael; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet was originally intended to have a life of 100 flights for each vehicle, lasting over a 10-year period, with minimal scheduled maintenance or inspection. The first space shuttle flight was that of the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102), launched April 12, 1981. The disaster that destroyed Columbia occurred on its 28th flight, February 1, 2003, nearly 22 years after its first launch. In order to minimize risk of losing another Space Shuttle, a probabilistic life and reliability analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuators to determine the number of flights the actuators could sustain. A life and reliability assessment of the actuator gears was performed in two stages: a contact stress fatigue model and a gear tooth bending fatigue model. For the contact stress analysis, the Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory was expanded to include gear-surface pitting for the actuator as a system. The mission spectrum of the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuator was combined into equivalent effective hinge moment loads including an actuator input preload for the contact stress fatigue and tooth bending fatigue models. Gear system reliabilities are reported for both models and their combination. Reliability of the actuator bearings was analyzed separately, based on data provided by the actuator manufacturer. As a result of the analysis, the reliability of one half of a single actuator was calculated to be 98.6 percent for 12 flights. Accordingly, each actuator was subsequently limited to 12 flights before removal from service in the Space Shuttle.

  11. Depolarization on Earth-space paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Sources of depolarization effects on the propagation paths of orthogonally-polarized information channels are considered. The main sources of depolarization at millimeter wave frequencies are hydrometeor absorption and scattering in the troposphere. Terms are defined. Mathematical formulations for the effects of the propagation medium characteristics and antenna performance on signals in dual polarization Earth-space links are presented. Techniques for modeling rain and ice depolarization are discussed.

  12. Bringing Space Weather Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.

    2005-05-01

    Most of the public has no idea what Space Weather is, but a number of innovative programs, web sites, magazine articles, TV shows and planetarium shows have taken space weather from an unknown quantity to a much more visible field. This paper reviews new developments, including the new Space Weather journal, the very popular spaceweather.com website, new immersive planetarium shows that can go "on the road", and well-publicized Sun-Earth Day activities. Real-time data and reasonably accurate spaceweather forecasts are available from several websites, with many subscribers. Even the renaissance of amateur radio because of Homeland Security brings a new generation of learners to wonder what is going on in the Sun today. The NSF Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling has a dedicated team to reach both the public and a greater diversity of new scientists.

  13. Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbrough, Larry (Technical Monitor); French, George

    2003-01-01

    The Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project successfilly met its objectives of creating a comprehensive online portfolio of science education curricular resources and providing a professional development program to increase educator competency with Earth and Space science content and teaching pedagogy. Overall, 97% of participants stated that their experience was either good or excellent. The favorable response of participant reactions to the professional development opportunities highlights the high quality of the professional development opportunity. The enthusiasm generated for using the curricular material in classroom settings was overwhelmingly positive at 92%. This enthusiasm carried over into actual classroom implementation of resources from the curricular portfolio, with 90% using the resources between 1-6 times during the school year. The project has had a positive impact on student learning in Wisconsin. Although direct measurement of student performance is not possible in a project of this kind, nearly 75% of participating teachers stated that they saw an increase in student performance in math and science as a result of using project resources. Additionally, nearly 75% of participants saw an increase in the enthusiasm of students towards math and science. Finally, some evidence exists that the professional development academies and curricular portfolio have been effective in changing educator behavior. More than half of all participants indicated that they have used more hands-on activities as a result of the Wisconsin Earth and Space Science Education project.

  14. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study. [for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    The results of several studies Space Shuttle communication system are summarized. These tasks can be divided into the following categories: (1) phase multiplexing for two- and three-channel data transmission, (2) effects of phase noise on the performance of coherent communication links, (3) analysis of command system performance, (4) error correcting code tradeoffs, (5) signal detection and angular search procedure for the shuttle Ku-band communication system, and (6) false lock performance of Costas loop receivers.

  15. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program (Overview of the Evolution and Success Stories from MOD During the Space Shuttle program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. This paper provides specific examples that illustrate how MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. This paper will discuss specific examples for the Plan, Train, Fly, and Facilities aspects within MOD. This paper also provides a discussion of the joint civil servant/contractor environment and the relative badge-less society within MOD. Several Shuttle mission related examples have also been included that encompass all of the aforementioned MOD elements and attributes, and are used to show significant MOD successes within the Shuttle Program. These examples include the STS-49 Intelsat recovery and repair, the (post-Columbia accident) TPS inspection process and the associated R-Bar Pitch Maneuver for ISS missions, and the STS-400 rescue mission preparation efforts for the Hubble Space Telescope repair mission. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  16. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  17. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  18. The Evolution of the Rendezvous Profile During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The rendezvous and proximity operations approach design techniques for space shuttle missions has changed significantly during the life of the program in response to new requirements that were not part of the original mission design. The flexibility of the shuttle onboard systems design and the mission planning process has allowed the program to meet these requirements. The design of the space shuttle and the shift from docking to grappling with a robotic ann prevented use of legacy Apollo rendezvous techniques. Over the life of the shuttle program the rendezvous profile has evolved due to several factors, including lowering propellant consumption and increasing flexibility in mission planning. Many of the spacecraft that the shuttle rendezvoused with had unique requirements that drove the creation of mission-unique proximity operations. The dockings to the Russian Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) required further evolution of rendezvous and proximity operations techniques and additional sensors to enhance crew situational awareness. After the Columbia accident, a Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver (RPM) was added to allow tile photography from ISS. Lessons learned from these rendezvous design changes are applicable to future vehicle designs and operations concepts.

  19. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  20. Observation of the exhaust plume from the space shuttle main engines using the microwave limb sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Pumphrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A space shuttle launch deposits 700 tonnes of water in the atmosphere. Some of this water is released into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere where it may be directly detected by a limb sounding satellite instrument. We report measurements of water vapour plumes from shuttle launches made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS on the Aura satellite. Approximately 50%–65% of shuttle launches are detected by MLS. The signal appears at a similar level across the upper 10 km of the MLS limb scan, suggesting that the bulk of the observed water is above the top of the scan. Only a small fraction at best of smaller launches (Ariane 5, Proton are detected. We conclude that the sensitivity of MLS is only just great enough to detect a shuttle sized launch, but that a suitably designed instrument of the same general type could detect the exhausts from a large proportion of heavy-lift launches.

  1. NASTRAN analysis of the 1/8-scale space shuttle dynamic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M.; Mason, P. W.; Zalesak, J.; Gregory, D. J.; Levy, A.

    1973-01-01

    The space shuttle configuration has more complex structural dynamic characteristics than previous launch vehicles primarily because of the high model density at low frequencies and the high degree of coupling between the lateral and longitudinal motions. An accurate analytical representation of these characteristics is a primary means for treating structural dynamics problems during the design phase of the shuttle program. The 1/8-scale model program was developed to explore the adequacy of available analytical modeling technology and to provide the means for investigating problems which are more readily treated experimentally. The basic objectives of the 1/8-scale model program are: (1) to provide early verification of analytical modeling procedures on a shuttle-like structure, (2) to demonstrate important vehicle dynamic characteristics of a typical shuttle design, (3) to disclose any previously unanticipated structural dynamic characteristics, and (4) to provide for development and demonstration of cost effective prototype testing procedures.

  2. Earth-Space Propagation Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ernest K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper, designed for the newcomer rather than the expert, will take a rather broad view of what is meant by 'propagation data bases' in that it will take the term to mean both the actual measurements and models of Earth-space paths. The text will largely be drawn from International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) reports, now annexed to the Recommendations of the International Telecommunications Union-R Study Group 3, plus some experience with a course taught at the University of Colorado.

  3. The new Space Shuttle Transportation System (STS) - Problem, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, J. L.; Rodney, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the NASA Space Shuttle Trend Analysis program. The four main areas of the program - problem/reliability, performance, supportability, and programmatic trending - are defined, along with motivation for these areas, the statistical methods used, and illustrative Space Shuttle applications. Also described is the NASA Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance (SRM&QA) Management Information Center, used to focus management attention on key near-term launch concerns and long-range mission trend issues. Finally, the computer data bases used to support the program and future program enhancements are discussed.

  4. Use of tissue equivalent proportional counters to characterize radiation quality on the space shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J.; Elegy, D.C.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1992-04-01

    Tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are essentially cavity ionization chambers operating at low pressure and with gas gain. A small, battery powered, TEPC spectrometer, which records lineal energy spectra at one minute intervals, has been used on several space shuttle missions. The data it has collected clearly show the South Atlantic anomaly and indicate a mean quality factor somewhat higher than expected. An improved type of instrument has been developed with sufficient memory to record spectra at 10 second intervals, and with increased resolution for low LET events. This type of instrument will be used on most future space shuttle flights and in some international experiments

  5. Distributed Space Missions for Earth System Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    A key addition to Springer's Space Technology Library series, this edited volume features the work of dozens of authors and offers a wealth of perspectives on distributed Earth observation missions. In sum, it is an eloquent synthesis of the fullest possible range of current approaches to a fast-developing field characterized by growing membership of the 'space club' to include nations formerly regarded as part of the Third World. The volume's four discrete sections focus on the topic's various aspects, including the key theoretical and technical issues arising from the division of payloads onto different satellites. The first is devoted to analyzing distributed synthetic aperture radars, with bi- and multi-static radars receiving separate treatment. This is followed by a full discussion of relative dynamics, guidance, navigation and control. Here, the separate topics of design; establishment, maintenance and control; and measurements are developed with relative trajectory as a reference point, while the dis...

  6. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Baraer, L.; Naury, S.; Linet, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs

  7. Preliminary investigations on a NTP cargo shuttle for earth to moon orbit payload transfer based on a particle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X; Proust, E; Gervaise, F; Baraer, L; Naury, S; Linet, F L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Bresson, C F; Coriolis, C.C. de; Bergeron, I T.A.; Bourquin, L V; Clech, L V; Devaux, L V; Chevillot, L V; Augier, E V [EAMEA, 50 - Cherbourg (France)

    1995-12-01

    MAPS, a 3-year study program on NTP has recently been launched at CEA following the conclusions of a preliminary scoping study of an NTP system for earth to moon orbit cargo shuttle missions. This paper presents the main results of this scoping study, and gives an outline of the MAPS program. (authors). 5 figs., 11 tabs., 7 refs.

  8. Space shuttle main propulsion pressurization system probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastiras, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that, in post-Challenger discussions with Congressional Committees and the National Research Council Risk Management Oversight Panel, criticism was levied against NASA because of the inability to prioritize the 1300+ single point failures. In the absence of a ranking it was difficult to determine where special effort was needed in failure evaluation, in design improvement, in management review of problems, and in flight readiness reviews. The belief was that the management system was overwhelmed by the quantity of critical hardware items that were on the Critical Items List (CIL) and that insufficient attention was paid to the items that required it. Congressional staff members from Congressman Markey's committee who have oversight responsibilities in the nuclear industry, and specifically over the nuclear power supplies for NASA's Galileo and Ulysses missions, felt very strongly that the addition of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to the existing Failure Mode Effects Analysis/Hazard Analysis (FMEA/HA) methods was exceedingly important. Specifically, the Markey committee recognized that the inductive, qualitative component-oriented FMEA could be supplemented by the deductive, quantitative systems-oriented PRA. Furthermore, they felt that the PRA approach had matured to the extent that it could be used to assess risk, even with limited shuttle-specific failure data. NASA responded with arguments that the FMEA/HA had illuminated all significant failure modes satisfactorily and that no failure rate data base was available to support the PRA approach

  9. Experiments with suspended cells on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.; Chapes, S. K.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S.; Lewis, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    Spaceflight experiments since 1981 have demonstrated that certain cell functions are altered by micro-g. Biophysical models suggest that cell membranes and organelles should not be affected directly by gravity, however, the chemical microenvironment surrounding the cell and molecular transport could be altered by reduced gravity. Most experiments have used suspended live cells in small chambers without stirring or medium exchange. Flight results include increased attachment of anchorage-dependent human cells to collagen coated microcarriers, reduced secretion of growth hormone from pituitary cells, decreased mitogenic response of lymphocytes, increased Interferon-alpha by lymphocytes, increased Interleukin-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor secretion by macrophages. Related experiments on cells immediately postflight and on procaryotic cells have shown significant changes in secretory capacity, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. Postulated mechanism include altered cell-cell interactions, altered calcium ion transport, effects on cell cytoskeleton, transport of transmitters and interactions with receptors. The discussion includes use of new molecular methods, considerations for cell environmental control and a preview of several experiments planned for the Shuttle and Spacelab flights to study the basic effects of microgravity on cellular physiology and potential interactions of spaceflight with radiation damage and cellular repair mechanisms.

  10. Review of Issues Associated with Safe Operation and Management of the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Paul M.; Blomberg, Richard D.; Gleghorn, George J.; Krone, Norris J.; Voltz, Richard A.; Dunn, Robert F.; Donlan, Charles J.; Kauderer, Bernard M.; Brill, Yvonne C.; Englar, Kenneth G.; hide

    1996-01-01

    At the request of the President of the United States through the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the NASA Administrator tasked the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel with the responsibility to identify and review issues associated with the safe operation and management of the Space Shuttle program arising from ongoing efforts to improve and streamline operations. These efforts include the consolidation of operations under a single Space Flight Operations Contract (SFOC), downsizing the Space Shuttle workforce and reducing costs of operations and management. The Panel formed five teams to address the potentially significant safety impacts of the seven specific topic areas listed in the study Terms of Reference. These areas were (in the order in which they are presented in this report): Maintenance of independent safety oversight; implementation plan for the transition of Shuttle program management to the Lead Center; communications among NASA Centers and Headquarters; transition plan for downsizing to anticipated workforce levels; implementation of a phased transition to a prime contractor for operations; Shuttle flight rate for Space Station assembly; and planned safety and performance upgrades for Space Station assembly. The study teams collected information through briefings, interviews, telephone conversations and from reviewing applicable documentation. These inputs were distilled by each team into observations and recommendations which were then reviewed by the entire Panel.

  11. Structural Design and Analysis of a Rigidizable Space Shuttle Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holstein

    2004-01-01

    .... Once in space, the experiment will inflate and rigidize three composite structures and perform a vibration analysis on each by exciting the tubes using piezoelectric patches and collecting data via an accelerometer...

  12. Microdosimetry measurements with the RME-III on the space shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, K.; Golightly, M.J.; Atwell, W.; Quam, W.

    1994-01-01

    Since December 1988 (STS-27) the USAF Armstrong Laboratory, in conjunction with the NASA Space Radiation Analysis Group, has been conducting microdosimetry measurements on selected high-altitude, high-inclination Space Shuttle mission with the RME-III. The RME-III is a portable, self-contained, active dosimeter system featuring a three-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) which measures particle fluence and computes dose and dose equivalent at operator selected time intervals. The total accumulated absorbed dose and dose equivalent are displayed real time, while the data and the time of the interval dose readings are stored in memory modules for later analysis. Analysis of the time-resolved data permits correlation of the radiation exposure with geographic position, altitude, and spacecraft shielding and orientation. The RME-III has flown on 15 Shuttle missions to date and measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made on the Shuttle

  13. Space Product Development: Bringing the Benefits of Space Down to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rosalie W.; Tygielski, Andrew; Gabris, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    The newly developed microgravity Research Program Office was created to consolidate and integrate NASA's microgravity research efforts, comprised of the microgravity Science and Applications Program and Space Product Development Program. This resulted in an integrated agency program serving the science and industrial research communities, providing leadership, management, direction and overview of all agency microgravity research activities. This paper provides an overview of NASA's microgravity Research Program, with particular emphasis on the Space Product Development Program activities, the potential economic impact and quality of life improvements resulting from this research, and future plans for commercial microgravity research in space. The goal of the Space Product Development Program is to facilitate the use of space for commercial products and services. The unique attributes of space are exploited to conduct industry driven research in the areas of crystallography, bio-systems, agriculture, electronic and non-electronic materials. Industry uses the knowledge gained from focused space research to create new products and processes, to gain economic competitive advantages, to create new jobs and improve the quality of life on earth. The objectives of the program are implemented through NASA's Commercial Space Centers, non-profit consortia of industry, academia and government, that provide the mechanism for communication and technical expert exchange between NASA and industry. Over 200 commercial research activities have been conducted by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial affiliates over the last four and one-half years during Space Shuttle mission, as well as sounding rocket flights. The results of this research will have a significant impact on competitive products, jobs and quality of life improvements.

  14. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. J.; Johnson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the utilization of silicon piezoresistive strain sensing technology for space shuttle main engine applications is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  15. Research pressure instrumentation for NASA Space Shuttle main engine, modification no. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. J.; Nussbaum, P.; Gustafson, G.

    1984-01-01

    Research concerning the development of pressure instrumentation for the space shuttle main engine is reported. The following specific topics were addressed: (1) transducer design and materials, (2) silicon piezoresistor characterization at cryogenic temperatures, (3) chip mounting characterization, and (4) frequency response optimization.

  16. On the performance of the HAL/S-FC compiler. [for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    The HAL/S compilers which will be used in the space shuttles are described. Acceptance test objectives and procedures are described, the raw results are presented and analyzed, and conclusions and observations are drawn. An appendix is included containing an illustrative set of compiler listings and results for one of the test cases.

  17. Use of personal, real time in-cabin dosimetry on space shuttle flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Madonna, R.G.; Quam, W.; Warren, J.; Dockter, M.

    1984-01-01

    The use of real time dosimeters onboard the Space Shuttle is described. Data taken during STS-8 with a small gamma ray counter (HRM-III) and a neutron/proton dosimeter (the Pocket Rem Meter [PRM]) are presented. The data agree with NASA predictions for gamma ray background and neutron-proton dosage received for the STS-8 mission. 1 figure, 1 table

  18. Space shuttle launch vehicle performance trajectory, exchange ratios, and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelle, R. G.; Blackwell, D. L.; Lott, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline space shuttle performance trajectory for Mission 3A launched from WTR has been generated. Design constraints of maximum dynamic pressure, longitudinal acceleration, and delivered payload were satisfied. Payload exchange ratios are presented with explanation on use. Design envelopes of dynamic pressure, SRB staging point, aerodynamic heating and flight performance reserves are calculated and included.

  19. Forecast of space shuttle flight requirements for launch of commercial communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The number of communication satellites required over the next 25 years to support domestic and regional communication systems for telephony, telegraphy and other low speed data; video teleconferencing, new data services, direct TV broadcasting; INTELSAT; and maritime and aeronautical services was estimated to determine the number of space shuttle flights necessary for orbital launching.

  20. Application of the Chimera overlapped grid scheme to simulation of Space Shuttle ascent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Parks, Steven J.; Chan, William M.; Renze, Kevin J.

    1992-01-01

    Several issues relating to the application of Chimera overlapped grids to complex geometries and flowfields are discussed. These include the addition of geometric components with different grid topologies, gridding for intersecting pieces of geometry, and turbulence modeling in grid overlap regions. Sample results are presented for transonic flow about the Space Shuttle launch vehicle. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight measured pressures are shown.

  1. Space Shuttle Guidance, Navigation, and Rendezvous Knowledge Capture Reports. Revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This document is a catalog and readers guide to lessons learned, experience, and technical history reports, as well as compilation volumes prepared by United Space Alliance personnel for the NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Dynamics Division.1 It is intended to make it easier for future generations of engineers to locate knowledge capture documentation from the Shuttle Program. The first chapter covers observations on documentation quality and research challenges encountered during the Space Shuttle and Orion programs. The second chapter covers the knowledge capture approach used to create many of the reports covered in this document. These chapters are intended to provide future flight programs with insight that could be used to formulate knowledge capture and management strategies. The following chapters contain descriptions of each knowledge capture report. The majority of the reports concern the Space Shuttle. Three are included that were written in support of the Orion Program. Most of the reports were written from the years 2001 to 2011. Lessons learned reports concern primarily the shuttle Global Positioning System (GPS) upgrade and the knowledge capture process. Experience reports on navigation and rendezvous provide examples of how challenges were overcome and how best practices were identified and applied. Some reports are of a more technical history nature covering navigation and rendezvous. They provide an overview of mission activities and the evolution of operations concepts and trajectory design. The lessons learned, experience, and history reports would be considered secondary sources by historians and archivists.

  2. Functional Requirements for Onboard Management of Space Shuttle Consumables. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    This report documents the results of the study "Functional Requirements for Onboard Management of Space Shuttle Consumables." The study was conducted for the Mission Planning and Analysis Division of the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, between 3 July 1972 and 16 November 1973. The overall study program objective was two-fold. The first objective was to define a generalized consumable management concept which is applicable to advanced spacecraft. The second objective was to develop a specific consumables management concept for the Space Shuttle vehicle and to generate the functional requirements for the onboard portion of that concept. Consumables management is the process of controlling or influencing the usage of expendable materials involved in vehicle subsystem operation. The report consists of two volumes. Volume I presents a description of the study activities related to general approaches for developing consumable management, concepts for advanced spacecraft applications, and functional requirements for a Shuttle consumables management concept. Volume II presents a detailed description of the onboard consumables management concept proposed for use on the Space Shuttle.

  3. Functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P. J.; Herwig, H. A.; Neel, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the functional requirements for onboard management of space shuttle consumables. A generalized consumable management concept was developed for application to advanced spacecraft. The subsystems and related consumables selected for inclusion in the consumables management system are: (1) propulsion, (2) power generation, and (3) environmental and life support.

  4. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix F: Flight food and primary packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.

  5. Incipient failure detection of space shuttle main engine turbopump bearings using vibration envelope detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an analysis performed on seven successive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) static test firings, utilizing envelope detection of external accelerometer data are discussed. The results clearly show the great potential for using envelope detection techniques in SSME incipient failure detection.

  6. Study of solid rocket motor for space shuttle booster, volume 2, book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The technical requirements for the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle orbiter are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) propulsion system definition, (2) solid rocket engine stage design, (3) solid rocket engine stage recovery, (4) environmental effects, (5) manrating of the solid rocket engine stage, (6) system safety analysis, and (7) ground support equipment.

  7. Duque and Parazynski in slidewire exercise from Space Shuttle Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain (left), representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski (right) signal they are ready to leave Launch Pad 39B in the slidewire basket during an emergency egress exercise. Duque and Parazynski, along with other crew members, are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated main engine cutoff. Not shown are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialists John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Chiaki Mukai (M.D., Ph.D.), representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Following the TCDT, the crew will be returning to Houston for final flight preparations.

  8. Leadership issues with multicultural crews on the international space station: Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Ritsher, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    In isolated and confined environments, two important leadership roles have been identified: the task/instrumental role (which focuses on work goals and operational needs), and the supportive/expressive role (which focuses on morale goals and emotional needs). On the International Space Station, the mission commander should be familiar with both of these aspects of leadership. In previous research involving a 135-day Mir space station simulation in Moscow and a series of on-orbit Mir space station missions during the Shuttle/Mir program, both these leadership roles were studied. In new analyses of the Shuttle/Mir data, we found that for crewmembers, the supportive role of the commander (but not the task role) related positively with crew cohesion. For mission control personnel on the ground, both the task and supportive roles of their leader were related positively to mission control cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of leadership on board the International Space Station.

  9. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  10. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  11. Total Quality Management in Space Shuttle Main Engine manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy developed in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is briefly reviewed and the ongoing TQM implementation effort which is being pursued through the continuous improvement (CI) process is discussed. TQM is based on organizational excellence which integrates the new supportive culture with the technical tools necessary to identify, assess, and correct manufacturing processes. Particular attention is given to the prime contractor's change to the organizational excellence management philosophy in SSME manufacturing facilities.

  12. Folic acid content in thermostabilized and freeze-dried space shuttle foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Nillen, J. L.; Kloeris, V. L.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether freeze-dried and thermostabilized foods on a space shuttle contain adequate folate and to investigate any effects of freeze-drying on folacin. Frozen vegetables were analyzed after three states of processing: thawed; cooked; and rehydrated. Thermostabilized items were analyzed as supplied with no further processing. Measurable folate decreased in some freeze-dried vegetables and increased in others. Folacin content of thermostabilized food items was comparable with published values. We concluded that although the folacin content of some freeze-dried foods was low, adequate folate is available from the shuttle menu to meet RDA guidelines.

  13. Proceedings of the NASA/Florida Institute of Technology Environmental Engineering Conference on Nitrogen Tetroxide. [with emphasis on space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of reducing the user hazards of nitrogen tetroxide, a hypergolic oxidizer are discussed. Kennedy Space Center developments in N2O4 control for the space shuttle are featured. Other areas covered are life support equipment and transportation.

  14. The Space Shuttle and expendable launch systems - A U.S. commercial customer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Chagnon, R.

    1985-10-01

    The development of space transportation systems for commercial satellite launches is reviewed. A comparison of the Ariane system with the Space Shuttle is presented. The performance capability, reliability, and availability of the two systems are analyzed; the Ariane 4 is capable of launching payloads of 1900-4200 kg into transfer orbits and is better positioned than the Shuttle to handle commercial payloads greater than 1900 kg. The insurance costs, and spacecraft and launcher integration complexity for the two systems are discussed. The launch cost and postponement penalties are studied. NASA's launch cost is based on the length or mass of the payload multiplied by the fixed Shuttle cost, with Ariane attempting to keep prices $1-3 million lower, in order to be competitive with the Shuttle. NASA offers one free postponement and penalties as high as 55 percent; Ariane's penalties range from 6-18 percent of the launch price. The need for lower prices, an easier integration process, customer convience, and less severe postponement and reflight policies in order for the space transportation systems to be commercially useful, is discussed.

  15. Actuation and system design and evaluation OMS engine shutoff valve, Volume 1. [space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technology program was conducted to identify and verify the optimum valve and actuation system concept for the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System engine. Of major importance to the valve and actuation system selection was the ten-year, 100-mission, 10,000-cycle life requirement, while maintaining high reliability, low leakage, and low weight. Valve and actuation system concepts were comparatively evaluated against past valve failure reports and potential failure modes due to the shuttle mission profile to aid in the selection of the most optimum concept for design, manufacture and verification testing. Two valve concepts were considered during the preliminary design stage; i.e., the moving seat and lifting ball. Two actuation systems were manufactured and tested. Test results demonstrate the viability of a lifting ball concept as well as the applicability of an ac motor actuation system to best meet the requirements of the shuttle mission.

  16. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a pcorrelations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  17. Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.

  18. From Space to Earth – Spaceflight for new Knowledge and Innovations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    In his presentation, titled "From Space to Earth – Spaceflight for new Knowledge and Innovations", Prof. Ernst Messerschmid will begin with his own spaceflight experience on the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1985 for the German Spacelab D1 Mission. With a few examples he will illustrate the relevance of using the microgravity environment for a wide range of multidisciplinary experiments. This is followed by a description of the International Space Station, the European contribution to the ISS, and how astronauts live and work over several months in space. In the next two decades, humanity will strive to fly back to the Moon, to asteroids and later on to Mars. New systems for transportation and infrastructure will form a complex mission scenario, operated by robotic systems and later by astronauts. Today a wide range of scientific or technological objectives are carried out in space, mostly through international cooperation. Commercial missions are funded by the private sector. Space is now a scienti...

  19. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  20. Space Shuttle 750 psi Helium Regulator Application on Mars Science Laboratory Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Yankura, George; Rust, Thomas; Anderson, John R.; Dien, Anthony; Garda, Hoshang; Bezer, Mary Ann; Johnson, David; Arndt, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is NASA's next major mission to Mars, to be launched in September 2009. It is a nuclear powered rover designed for a long duration mission, with an extensive suite of science instruments. The descent and landing uses a unique 'skycrane' concept, where a rocket-powered descent stage decelerates the vehicle, hovers over the ground, lowers the rover to the ground on a bridle, then flies a safe distance away for disposal. This descent stage uses a regulated hydrazine propulsion system. Performance requirements for the pressure regulator were very demanding, with a wide range of flow rates and tight regulated pressure band. These indicated that a piloted regulator would be needed, which are notoriously complex, and time available for development was short. Coincidentally, it was found that the helium regulator used in the Space Shuttle Orbiter main propulsion system came very close to meeting MSL requirements. However, the type was out of production, and fabricating new units would incur long lead times and technical risk. Therefore, the Space Shuttle program graciously furnished three units for use by MSL. Minor modifications were made, and the units were carefully tuned to MSL requirements. Some of the personnel involved had built and tested the original shuttle units. Delta qualification for MSL application was successfully conducted on one of the units. A pyrovalve slam start and shock test was conducted. Dynamic performance analyses for the new application were conducted, using sophisticated tools developed for Shuttle. Because the MSL regulator is a refurbished Shuttle flight regulator, it will be the only part of MSL which has physically already been in space.

  1. Life on Earth: From Chemicals in Space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses experimental evidence for the existence of organic material in the solar system prior to the earth's formation. Indicates that the earth could have received much of its organic compounds from meteors falling on its primitive surface. (CC)

  2. Orbital Fitness: An Overview of Space Shuttle Cardiopulmonary Exercise Physiology Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Limited observations regarding the cardiopulmonary responses to aerobic exercise had been conducted during short-duration spaceflight before the Space Shuttle program. This presentation focuses on the findings regarding changes observed in the cardiopulmonary exercise responses during and following Shuttle flights. During flight, maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) remained unchanged as did the maximum work rate achievable during cycle exercise testing conducted during the last full flight day. Immediately following flight, the ubiquitous finding, confirmed by investigations conducted during the Spacelab Life Sciences missions 1 and 2 and by NASA Detailed Supplemental Objective studies, indicated that VO2max was reduced; however, the reduction in VO2max was transient and returned to preflight levels within 7 days following return. Studies regarding the influence of aerobic exercise countermeasures performed during flight on postflight performance were mostly limited to the examination of the heart rate (HR) response to submaximal exercise testing on landing day. These studies revealed that exercise HR was elevated in individuals who performed little to no exercise during their missions as compared to individuals who performed regular exercise. In addition, astronauts who performed little to no aerobic exercise during flight demonstrated an increased HR and lowered pulse pressure response to the standard stand test on landing day, indicating a decrease in orthostatic function in these individuals. With regard to exercise modality, four devices were examined during the Shuttle era: two treadmills, a cycle ergometer, and a rowing device. Although there were limited investigations regarding the use of these devices for exercise training aboard the Shuttle, there was no clear consensus reached regarding which proved to be a "superior" device. Each device had a unique operational or physiologic limitation associated with its use. In conclusion, exercise research conducted

  3. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  4. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D. L.; Blacklock, K.; Langhenry, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The recertification of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) and Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) has included an extensive rewriting of the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL). The evolution of the groundrules and methodology used in the analysis is discussed and compared to standard FMEA techniques. Especially highlighted are aspects of the FMEA/CIL which are unique to the analysis of an SRM. The criticality category definitions are presented and the rationale for assigning criticality is presented. The various data required by the CIL and contribution of this data to the retention rationale is also presented. As an example, the FMEA and CIL for the SRM nozzle assembly is discussed in detail. This highlights some of the difficulties associated with the analysis of a system with the unique mission requirements of the Space Shuttle.

  5. Thrust imbalance of solid rocket motor pairs on Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shu, P. H.; Sforzini, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    This analysis extends the investigation presented at the 17th Joint Propulsion Conference in 1981 to include fifteen sets of Space Shuttle flight data. The previous report dealt only with static test data and the first flight pair. The objective is to compare the authors' previous theoretical analysis of thrust imbalance with actual Space Shuttle performance. The theoretical prediction method, which involves a Monte Carlo technique, is reviewed briefly as are salient features of the flight instrumentation system and the statistical analysis. A scheme for smoothing flight data is discussed. The effects of changes in design parameters are discussed with special emphasis on the filament wound motor case being developed to replace the steel case. Good agreement between the predictions and the flight data is demonstrated.

  6. Investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers. [space shuttle payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D. A.; Dobrowolny, M.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm for using electric currents to control pendular oscillations induced by various perturbing forces on the Skyhook wire is considered. Transverse and vertical forces on the tether; tether instability modes and causes during retrieval by space shuttle; simple and spherical pendulum motion and vector damping; and current generation and control are discussed. A computer program for numerical integration of the in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of the tether vs time was developed for heuristic study. Some techniques for controlling instabilities during payload retrieval and methods for employing the tether for launching satellites from the space shuttle are considered. Derivations and analyses of a general nature used in all of the areas studied are included.

  7. The Revolution in Earth and Space Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, Daniel; Geary, Ed; Yazijian, Harvey

    2002-01-01

    Explains the changing nature of earth and space science education such as using inquiry-based teaching, how technology allows students to use satellite images in inquiry-based investigations, the consideration of earth and space as a whole system rather than a sequence of topics, and increased student participation in learning opportunities. (YDS)

  8. Wings in Orbit: Scientific and Engineering Legacies of the Space Shuttle, 1971-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Wayne (Editor); Lane, Helen (Editor); Chapline, Gail (Editor); Lulla, Kamlesh (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is an engineering marvel perhaps only exceeded by the station itself. The shuttle was based on the technology of the 1960s and early 1970s. It had to overcome significant challenges to make it reusable. Perhaps the greatest challenges were the main engines and the Thermal Protection System. The program has seen terrible tragedy in its 3 decades of operation, yet it has also seen marvelous success. One of the most notable successes is the Hubble Space Telescope, a program that would have been a failure without the shuttle's capability to rendezvous, capture, repair, as well as upgrade. Now Hubble is a shining example of success admired by people around the world. As the program comes to a close, it is important to capture the legacy of the shuttle for future generations. That is what "Wings In Orbit" does for space fans, students, engineers, and scientists. This book, written by the men and women who made the program possible, will serve as an excellent reference for building future space vehicles. We are proud to have played a small part in making it happen. Our journey to document the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this magnificent winged vehicle began with an audacious proposal: to capture the passion of those who devoted their energies to its success while answering the question "What are the most significant accomplishments?" of the longestoperating human spaceflight program in our nation s history. This is intended to be an honest, accurate, and easily understandable account of the research and innovation accomplished during the era.

  9. Space shuttle solid rocket booster cost-per-flight analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A cost per flight computer model is described which considers: traffic model, component attrition, hardware useful life, turnaround time for refurbishment, manufacturing rates, learning curves on the time to perform tasks, cost improvement curves on quantity hardware buys, inflation, spares philosophy, long lead, hardware funding requirements, and other logistics and scheduling constraints. Additional uses of the model include assessing the cost per flight impact of changing major space shuttle program parameters and searching for opportunities to make cost effective management decisions.

  10. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, appendix E: Alternate flight systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.

  11. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement Space Shuttle Program Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    MAIMIEOIR, NATIUM L FEATURES TO BE ALTERED: Nost applicable. EMISSIONS: .• Operational: Space Shuttle main eagin. and SolidRocket Roast r exhaust. 414...symptom. (50) (2) From animal studies" (a) Bobwhite quail and domestic chicken eggs displayed a 50 percent mortality rate upon a single 15-minute exposure...t In another planned study (as opposed to casual observation) chicken eggs were exposed to about 30 sonic booms per day during incubation; median

  12. Application of Digital Radiography to Weld Inspection for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussery, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of digital radiography to inspect the welds of the external tanks used to hold the cryogenic fuels for the Space Shuttle Main Engines. NASA has had a goal of replacing a significant portion of film used to inspect the welds, with digital radiography. The presentation reviews the objectives for converting to a digital system from film, the characteristics of the digital system, the Probability of detection study, the qualification and implementation of the system.

  13. The HYTHIRM Project: Flight Thermography of the Space Shuttle During the Hypersonic Re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Berger, Karen T.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Splinter, Scott C.; Krasa, Paul W.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Gibson, David M.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Tack, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. A background and an overview of several multidisciplinary efforts that culminated in the acquisition of high resolution calibrated infrared imagery of the Space Shuttle during hypervelocity atmospheric entry is presented. The successful collection of thermal data has demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining remote high-resolution infrared imagery during hypersonic flight for the accurate measurement of surface temperature. To maximize science and engineering return, the acquisition of quantitative thermal imagery and capability demonstration was targeted towards three recent Shuttle flights - two of which involved flight experiments flown on Discovery. In coordination with these two Shuttle flight experiments, a US Navy NP-3D aircraft was flown between 26-41 nautical miles below Discovery and remotely monitored surface temperature of the Orbiter at Mach 8.4 (STS-119) and Mach 14.7 (STS-128) using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. This same Navy aircraft successfully monitored the Orbiter Atlantis traveling at approximately Mach 14.3 during its return from the successful Hubble repair mission (STS-125). The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic approach used by the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements team to develop and implement a set of mission planning tools designed to establish confidence in the ability of an imaging platform to reliably acquire, track and return global quantitative surface temperatures of the Shuttle during entry. The mission planning tools included a pre-flight capability to predict the infrared signature of the Shuttle. Such tools permitted optimization of the hardware configuration to increase signal-to-noise and to maximize the available

  14. Precipitation from Space: Advancing Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Ebert, Elizabeth E.; Turk, F. Joseph; Levizzani, Vicenzo; Kirschbaum, Dalia; Tapiador, Francisco J.; Loew, Alexander; Borsche, M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the three primary sources of spatially contiguous precipitation observations (surface networks, ground-based radar, and satellite-based radar/radiometers), only the last is a viable source over ocean and much of the Earth's land. As recently as 15 years ago, users needing quantitative detail of precipitation on anything under a monthly time scale relied upon products derived from geostationary satellite thermal infrared (IR) indices. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) passive microwave (PMW) imagers originated in 1987 and continue today with the SSMI sounder (SSMIS) sensor. The fortunate longevity of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is providing the environmental science community a nearly unbroken data record (as of April 2012, over 14 years) of tropical and sub-tropical precipitation processes. TRMM was originally conceived in the mid-1980s as a climate mission with relatively modest goals, including monthly averaged precipitation. TRMM data were quickly exploited for model data assimilation and, beginning in 1999 with the availability of near real time data, for tropical cyclone warnings. To overcome the intermittently spaced revisit from these and other low Earth-orbiting satellites, many methods to merge PMW-based precipitation data and geostationary satellite observations have been developed, such as the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Product and the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) morphing method (CMORPH. The purpose of this article is not to provide a survey or assessment of these and other satellite-based precipitation datasets, which are well summarized in several recent articles. Rather, the intent is to demonstrate how the availability and continuity of satellite-based precipitation data records is transforming the ways that scientific and societal issues related to precipitation are addressed, in ways that would not be

  15. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  16. The international earth observing system: a cultural debate about earth sciences from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the International Earth Observing System, i.e. the combined earth observation programmes of space agencies worldwide and of the relevance of advanced space-borne sensor systems to the study and understanding of interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The

  17. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  18. A review and assessment of crack case problems in pressurized systems on the space shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patin, R.M.; Forman, R.G.; Horiuchi, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    The principal effort for fracture control during development of the Space Shuttle was concentrated on primary structure, pressure vessels, and the main engines. The real occurrence of crack problems leading to safety-of-flight reviews, however, have been primarily affiliated with pressurized subsystems in the vehicle. The cracking of components in pressurized subsystems has occurred mostly from lack of weld penetration, porosity, and joint design oversight where mode 2 loading accelerated the crack initiation process. This paper provides a synopsis of several crack cases that have occurred, and points out the importance of applying a comprehensive fracture control plan to pressurized systems in space programs

  19. Utilization of Space Shuttle External Tank materials by melting and powder metallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Crucible Melt Extraction Process was demonstrated to convert scraps of aluminum alloy 2219, used in the Space Shuttle External Tank, into fibers. The cast fibers were then consolidated by cold welding. The X-ray diffraction test of the cast fibers was done to examine the crystallinity and oxide content of the fibers. The compressive stress-strain behavior of the consolidated materials was also examined. Two conceptual schemes which would adapt the as-developed Crucible Melt Extraction Process to the microgravity condition in space were finally proposed.

  20. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  1. Feasibility study of a pressure fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster Volume 2: Technical, phase A effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Design and systems considerations are presented on an engine concept selection for further preliminary design and program evaluation. These data have been prepared from a feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for the water recoverable space shuttle booster.

  2. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 1: Background and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the space shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of space shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the space shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers evolution of space shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  3. Control of an experiment to measure acoustic noise in the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Charles B.

    1989-06-01

    The potential use of a general-purpose controller to measure acoustic vibration autonomously in the Space Shuttle Cargo Bay during launch is described. The experimental package will be housed in a Shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister. The control functions were implemented with software written largely in the C programming language. An IBM MS DOS computer and C cross-compiler were used to generate Z-80 assembly language code, assemble and link this code, and then transfer it to EPROM for use in the experiment's controller. The software is written in a modular fashion to permit adapting it easily to other applications. The software combines the experimental control functions with a menu-driven, diagnostic subsystem to ensure that the software will operate in practice as it does in theory and under test. The experiment uses many peripheral devices controlled by the software described here. These devices include: (1) a solid-state data recorder; (2) a bubble memory storage module; (3) a real-time clock; (4) an RS-232C serial interface; (5) a power control subsystem; (6) a matched filter subsystem to detect activation of the Space Shuttle's auxillary power units five minutes prior to launch; (7) a launch detection subsystem based on vibrational and barometric sensors; (8) analog-to-digital converters; and (9) a heater subsystem. The matched filter design is discussed in detail and the results of a computer simulation of the performance of its most critical sub-circuit are presented.

  4. Accommodation of practical constraints by a linear programming jet select. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, E.; Weiler, P.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental spacecraft control system will be incorporated into the Space Shuttle flight software and exercised during a forthcoming mission to evaluate its performance and handling qualities. The control system incorporates a 'phase space' control law to generate rate change requests and a linear programming jet select to compute jet firings. Posed as a linear programming problem, jet selection must represent the rate change request as a linear combination of jet acceleration vectors where the coefficients are the jet firing times, while minimizing the fuel expended in satisfying that request. This problem is solved in real time using a revised Simplex algorithm. In order to implement the jet selection algorithm in the Shuttle flight control computer, it was modified to accommodate certain practical features of the Shuttle such as limited computer throughput, lengthy firing times, and a large number of control jets. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such application of linear programming. It was made possible by careful consideration of the jet selection problem in terms of the properties of linear programming and the Simplex algorithm. These modifications to the jet select algorithm may by useful for the design of reaction controlled spacecraft.

  5. Test and Analysis Correlation of Form Impact onto Space Shuttle Wing Leading Edge RCC Panel 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Gabrys, Jonathan; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) began their study of the space shuttle Columbia accident, "physics-based" analyses using LS-DYNA were applied to characterize the expected damage to the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) leading edge from high-speed foam impacts. Forensic evidence quickly led CAIB investigators to concentrate on the left wing leading edge RCC panels. This paper will concentrate on the test of the left-wing RCC panel 8 conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and the correlation with an LS-DYNA analysis. The successful correlation of the LS-DYNA model has resulted in the use of LS-DYNA as a predictive tool for characterizing the threshold of damage for impacts of various debris such as foam, ice, and ablators onto the RCC leading edge for shuttle return-to-flight.

  6. Astronauts in Outer Space Teaching Students Science: Comparing Chinese and American Implementations of Space-to-Earth Virtual Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Zhang, Meilan; Tillman, Daniel A.; Robertson, William; Siemssen, Annette; Paez, Carlos R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between science lessons taught by Chinese astronauts in a space shuttle and those taught by American astronauts in a space shuttle, both of whom conducted experiments and demonstrations of science activities in a microgravity space environment. The study examined the instructional structure…

  7. RFI and Remote Sensing of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Johnson, J. T.; Piepmeier, J.

    2016-01-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space provides information essential for understanding the Earth's environment and its evolution. Parameters such as soil moisture, sea surface temperature and salinity, and profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity are measured at frequencies determined by the physics (e.g. sensitivity to changes in desired parameters) and by the availability of suitable spectrum free from interference. Interference from manmade sources (radio frequency interference) is an impediment that in many cases limits the potential for accurate measurements from space. A review is presented here of the frequencies employed in passive microwave remote sensing of the Earth from space and the associated experience with RFI.

  8. Photogrammetry Measurements During a Tanking Test on the Space Shuttle External Tank, ET-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Schmidt, Tim; Tyson, John; Oliver, Stanley T.; Melis, Matthew E.; Ruggeri, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On November 5, 2010, a significant foam liberation threat was observed as the Space Shuttle STS-133 launch effort was scrubbed because of a hydrogen leak at the ground umbilical carrier plate. Further investigation revealed the presence of multiple cracks at the tops of stringers in the intertank region of the Space Shuttle External Tank. As part of an instrumented tanking test conducted on December 17, 2010, a three dimensional digital image correlation photogrammetry system was used to measure radial deflections and overall deformations of a section of the intertank region. This paper will describe the experimental challenges that were overcome in order to implement the photogrammetry measurements for the tanking test in support of STS-133. The technique consisted of configuring and installing two pairs of custom stereo camera bars containing calibrated cameras on the 215-ft level of the fixed service structure of Launch Pad 39-A. The cameras were remotely operated from the Launch Control Center 3.5 miles away during the 8 hour duration test, which began before sunrise and lasted through sunset. The complete deformation time history was successfully computed from the acquired images and would prove to play a crucial role in the computer modeling validation efforts supporting the successful completion of the root cause analysis of the cracked stringer problem by the Space Shuttle Program. The resulting data generated included full field fringe plots, data extraction time history analysis, section line spatial analyses and differential stringer peak ]valley motion. Some of the sample results are included with discussion. The resulting data showed that new stringer crack formation did not occur for the panel examined, and that large amounts of displacement in the external tank occurred because of the loads derived from its filling. The measurements acquired were also used to validate computer modeling efforts completed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Targeting Absolute Salinity for Earth and Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of a grant through a NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) 2011 Innovation Charge Account (ICA), a novel optical sensor was developed and early feasibility...

  10. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A rare rain allowed this reflection of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it was towed 16 Nov. 1982, to the Shuttle Processing Area at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (from 1976 to 1981 and after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, following its fifth flight in space. Columbia was launched on mission STS-5 11 Nov. 1982, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on concrete runway 22. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines withtwo solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials

  11. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  12. Near Earth space sporadic radio emission busts occurring during sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, A. V.; Zaljubovsky, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Lasarev, A. V.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of low solar activity at sunrise the effect of sporadic high frequency near Earth space radio emission was experimentally discovered at middle latitudes. The possible mechanism of its origin is discussed.

  13. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  14. New Millennium Program: Servicing Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has exciting plans for space science and Earth observations during the next decade. A broad range of advanced spacecraft and measurement technologies will be needed to support these plans within the existing budget and schedule constraints.

  15. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  16. Development of Lead Free Energy Absorber for Space Shuttle Blast Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balles, Donald; Ingram, Thomas; Novak, Howard; Schricker, Albert

    1999-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is connected to the mobile launch platform (MLP) by four aft skirt hold down studs on each solid rocket booster (SRB). Prior to lift-off, the frangible nuts inside the aft skirt blast containers are severed into two nut halves by two pyrotechnic booster cartridges. This action releases the Space Shuttle and allows the hold down studs to eject through the aft skirt bore and then down into the MLP. USBI has been tasked to upgrade the blast container for two specific reasons: (1) To eliminate lead for environmental concerns, and (2) To reduce the chance of nut recontact with the holddown stud. Nut recontact with the stud has been identified as a likely contributor to stud hang-ups. This upgrade will replace the lead liner with a unique open cell aluminum foam material, that has commercial and military uses. The aluminum foam used as an energy absorber is a proven design in many other aerospace/defense applications. Additional benefits of using the open cell, energy absorbent aluminum foam in place of the solid lead liner are: (1) Lead handling / exposure and possible contamination, along with hazardous waste disposal, will be eliminated; (2) Approximately 200 lbs. weight savings will be contributed to each Space Shuttle flight by using aluminum foam instead of lead; (3) The new aluminum liner is designed to catch all shrapnel from frangible nuts, thus virtually eliminating chance of debris exiting the HDP and causing potential damage to the vehicle; (4) Using the lighter aluminum liner instead of lead, allows for easier assembly and disassembly of blast container elements, which also improves safety, operator handling, and the efficiency of operations.

  17. Developing Earth and Space Scientists for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Cathryn A.; Cifuentes, Inés

    2007-09-01

    As the world's largest organization of Earth and space scientists, AGU safeguards the future of pioneering research by ensuring that ``the number and diversity of Earth and space scientists continue to grow through the flow of young talent into the field'' (AGU Strategic Plan 2008, Goal IV). Achieving this goal is the focus of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR), one of the Union's three outreach committees.

  18. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  19. Use of MSC/NASTRAN for the thermal analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, James; Mccann, David

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the thermal modeling and analysis effort being conducted to investigate the transient temperature and thermal stress characteristics of the Space Shuttle Orbiter brake components and subsystems. Models are constructed of the brake stator as well as of the entire brake assembly to analyze the temperature distribution and thermal stress during the landing and braking process. These investigations are carried out on a UNIVAC computer system with MSC/NASTRAN Version 63. Analytical results and solution methods are presented and comparisons are made with SINDA results.

  20. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  1. Analysis of launch site processing effectiveness for the Space Shuttle 26R payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Carlos A.; Heuser, Robert E.; Pepper, Richard E., Jr.; Smith, Anthony M.

    1991-01-01

    A trend analysis study has been performed on problem reports recorded during the Space Shuttle 26R payload's processing cycle at NASA-Kennedy, using the defect-flow analysis (DFA) methodology; DFA gives attention to the characteristics of the problem-report 'population' as a whole. It is established that the problem reports contain data which distract from pressing problems, and that fully 60 percent of such reports were caused during processing at NASA-Kennedy. The second major cause of problem reports was design defects.

  2. Object oriented fault diagnosis system for space shuttle main engine redlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John S.; Mohapatra, Saroj Kumar

    1990-01-01

    A great deal of attention has recently been given to Artificial Intelligence research in the area of computer aided diagnostics. Due to the dynamic and complex nature of space shuttle red-line parameters, a research effort is under way to develop a real time diagnostic tool that will employ historical and engineering rulebases as well as a sensor validity checking. The capability of AI software development tools (KEE and G2) will be explored by applying object oriented programming techniques in accomplishing the diagnostic evaluation.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  4. Thin film heat flux sensor for Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine environment stresses engine components to their design limits and beyond. The extremely high temperatures and rapid temperature cycling can easily cause parts to fail if they are not properly designed. Thin film heat flux sensors can provide heat loading information with almost no disturbance of gas flows or of the blade. These sensors can provide steady state and transient heat flux information. A thin film heat flux sensor is described which makes it easier to measure small temperature differences across very thin insulating layers.

  5. Stability test and analysis of the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, John; Hurlbert, Eric; Krohn, Douglas; Arndt, Scott; Clark, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The results are reported of a test program conducted on the Space Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem thruster in order to investigate the effects of trapped helium bubbles and saturated propellants on stability, determine if thruster-to-thruster stability variations are significant, and determine stability under STS-representative conditions. It is concluded that the thruster design is highly reliable in flight and that burn-through has not occurred. Significantly unstable thrusters are screened out, and wire wrap is found to protect against chamber burn-throughs and to provide a fail-safe thruster for this situation.

  6. Design criteria and candidate electrical power systems for a reusable Space Shuttle booster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, D. V.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to establish electrical power requirements, investigate candidate power sources, and select a representative power generation concept for the NASA Space Shuttle booster stage. Design guidelines and system performance requirements are established. Candidate power sources and combinations thereof are defined and weight estimates made. The selected power source concept utilizes secondary silver-zinc batteries, engine-driven alternators with constant speed drive, and an airbreathing gas turbine. The need for cost optimization, within safety, reliability, and performance constraints, is emphasized as being the most important criteria in design of the final system.

  7. A study of space shuttle energy management, approach and landing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morth, R.

    1973-01-01

    The steering system of the space shuttle vehicle is presented for the several hundred miles of flight preceding landing. The guidance scheme is characterized by a spiral turn to dissipate excess potential energy (altitude) prior to a standard straight-in final approach. In addition, the system features pilot oriented control, drag brakes, phugoid damping, and a navigational capacity founded upon an inertial measurement unit and an on-board computer. Analytic formulas are used to calculate, represent, and insure the workability of the system's specifications

  8. Design considerations for a Space Shuttle Main Engine turbine blade made of single crystal material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; August, R.; Nagpal, V.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear finite-element structural analyses were performed on the first stage high-pressure fuel turbopump blade of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The analyses examined the structural response and the dynamic characteristics at typical operating conditions. Single crystal material PWA-1480 was considered for the analyses. Structural response and the blade natural frequencies with respect to the crystal orientation were investigated. The analyses were conducted based on typical test stand engine cycle. Influence of combined thermal, aerodynamic, and centrifugal loadings was considered. Results obtained showed that the single crystal secondary orientation effects on the maximum principal stresses are not highly significant.

  9. Life science payloads planning study. [for space shuttle orbiters and spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Preferred approaches and procedures were defined for integrating the space shuttle life sciences payload from experiment solicitation through final data dissemination at mission completion. The payloads operations plan was refined and expended to include current information. The NASA-JSC facility accommodations were assessed, and modifications recommended to improve payload processing capability. Standard format worksheets were developed to permit rapid location of experiment requirements and a Spacelab mission handbook was developed to assist potential life sciences investigators at academic, industrial, health research, and NASA centers. Practical, cost effective methods were determined for accommodating various categories of live specimens during all mission phases.

  10. Development of an automated processing and screening system for the space shuttle orbiter flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccutchen, D. K.; Brose, J. F.; Palm, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    One nemesis of the structural dynamist is the tedious task of reviewing large quantities of data. This data, obtained from various types of instrumentation, may be represented by oscillogram records, root-mean-squared (rms) time histories, power spectral densities, shock spectra, 1/3 octave band analyses, and various statistical distributions. In an attempt to reduce the laborious task of manually reviewing all of the space shuttle orbiter wideband frequency-modulated (FM) analog data, an automated processing system was developed to perform the screening process based upon predefined or predicted threshold criteria.

  11. Phased Array Ultrasonic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Nozzle Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Steve; Engel, J.; Kimbrough, D.; Suits, M.; Hopson, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the phased array ultrasonic evaluation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) nozzle weld. Details are given on the nondestructive testing evaluation approach, conventional shear wave and phased array techniques, and an x-ray versus phased array risk analysis. The field set-up was duplicated to the greatest extent possible in the laboratory and the phased array ultrasonic technique was developed and validated prior to weld evaluation. Results are shown for the phased array ultrasonic evaluation and conventional ultrasonic evaluation results.

  12. Continuous Improvements to East Coast Abort Landings for Space Shuttle Aborts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin D.

    2003-01-01

    Improvement initiatives in the areas of guidance, flight control, and mission operations provide increased capability for successful East Coast Abort Landings (ECAL). Automating manual crew procedures in the Space Shuttle's onboard guidance allows faster and more precise commanding of flight control parameters needed for successful ECALs. Automation also provides additional capability in areas not possible with manual control. Operational changes in the mission concept allow for the addition of new landing sites and different ascent trajectories that increase the regions of a successful landing. The larger regions of ECAL capability increase the safety of the crew and Orbiter.

  13. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  14. Study of solid rocket motors for a space shuttle booster. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, production, and launch support analysis for determining the solid propellant rocket engine to be used with the space shuttle are discussed. Specific program objectives considered were: (1) definition of engine designs to satisfy the performance and configuration requirements of the various vehicle/booster concepts, (2) definition of requirements to produce booster stages at rates of 60, 40, 20, and 10 launches per year in a man-rated system, and (3) estimation of costs for the defined SRM booster stages.

  15. The Ascent Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2002-01-01

    The ASCENT Study - Understanding the Market Environment for the Follow-on to NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, awarded a contract (base plus option amounting to twenty months of analysis) to Futron Corporation in June 2001 to investigate the market environment, and explore the price elasticity attributes, relevant for the introduction of the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (the follow-on to the Space Shuttle) in the second decade of this century. This work is known as the ASCENT Study (Analysis of Space Concepts Enabled by New Transportation) and data collection covering a total of 42 different sectors took place during 2001. Modeling and forecasting activities for 26 of these markets (all of them international in nature) have been taking place throughout 2002, and the final results of the ASCENT Study, which include 20 year forecasts, are due by the end of January, 2003. This paper describes the markets being analyzed for the ASCENT Study, and includes some preliminary findings in terms of launch vehicle demand during the next 20 years, broken down by mass class and mission type. Amongst these markets are the potential public space travel opportunities. When completed, the final report of the ASCENT Study is expected to represent a significant reference document for all business development, financing and planning activities in the space industry for some time to come. One immediate use will be as a key factor in determining the cargo capability and launch rates to be used for designing the follow-on to the Space Shuttle. The Study will also provide NASA with a quantified indication of the extent to which the lower cost to orbit, made possible by a new class of launch vehicle, will bring into being new markets.

  16. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 3: Equipment development resource requirements. [instrument packages and the space shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Facilities are described on which detailed preliminary design was undertaken and which may be used on early space shuttle missions in the 1979-1982 time-frame. The major hardware components making up each facility are identified, and development schedules for the major hardware items and the payload buildup are included. Cost data for the facilities, and the assumptions and ground rules supporting these data are given along with a recommended listing of supporting research and technology needed to ensure confidence in the ability to achieve successful development of the equipment and technology.

  17. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 1: Space transportation and destination considerations for extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. [feasibility of using space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Ramler, J. R.; Stevenson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.

  18. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  19. Robotics in near-earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The areas of space exploration in which robotic devices will play a part are identified, and progress to date in the space agency plans to acquire this capability is briefly reviewed. Roles and functions on orbit for robotic devices include well known activities, such as inspection and maintenance, assembly, docking, berthing, deployment, retrieval, materials handling, orbital replacement unit exchange, and repairs. Missions that could benefit from a robotic capability are discussed.

  20. A History of Welding on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (1975 to 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Russell, Carolyn K.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a high performance, throttleable, liquid hydrogen fueled rocket engine. High thrust and specific impulse (Isp) are achieved through a staged combustion engine cycle, combined with high combustion pressure (approx.3000psi) generated by the two-stage pump and combustion process. The SSME is continuously throttleable from 67% to 109% of design thrust level. The design criteria for this engine maximize performance and weight, resulting in a 7,800 pound rocket engine that produces over a half million pounds of thrust in vacuum with a specific impulse of 452/sec. It is the most reliable rocket engine in the world, accumulating over one million seconds of hot-fire time and achieving 100% flight success in the Space Shuttle program. A rocket engine with the unique combination of high reliability, performance, and reusability comes at the expense of manufacturing simplicity. Several innovative design features and fabrication techniques are unique to this engine. This is as true for welding as any other manufacturing process. For many of the weld joints it seemed mean cheating physics and metallurgy to meet the requirements. This paper will present a history of the welding used to produce the world s highest performance throttleable rocket engine.

  1. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  2. Hydrogen disposal investigation for the Space Shuttle launch complex at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Terry J.; Elliott, George

    1987-01-01

    The concern of an overpressure condition on the aft end of the Space Shuttle caused by ignition of unburned hydrogen being trapped in the Space Shuttle Main Engine exhaust duct at the Vandenberg AFB launch complex has been investigated for fifteen months. Approximately twenty-five concepts have been reviewed, with four concepts being thoroughly investigated. The four concepts investigated were hydrogen burnoff ignitors (ignitors located throughout the exhaust duct to continuously ignite any unburned hydrogen), jet mixing (utilizing large volumes of high pressure air to ensure complete combustion of the hydrogen), steam inert (utilizing flashing hot water to inert the duct with steam) and open duct concept (design an open duct or above grade J-deflector to avoid trapping hydrogen gas). Extensive studies, analyses and testing were performed at six test sites with technical support from twenty-two major organizations. In December 1986, the Air Force selected the steam inert concept to be utilized at the Vandenberg launch complex and authorized the design effort.

  3. Acoustic Modeling and Analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Liner Crack Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Matthew J.; Zoladz, Tom F.

    2004-01-01

    Cracks were found on bellows flow liners in the liquid hydrogen feedlines of several space shuttle orbiters in 2002. An effort to characterize the fluid environment upstream of the space shuttle main engine low-pressure fuel pump was undertaken to help identify the cause of the cracks and also provide quantitative environments and loads of the region. Part of this effort was to determine the duct acoustics several inches upstream of the low-pressure fuel pump in the region of a bellows joint. A finite element model of the complicated geometry was made using three-dimensional fluid elements. The model was used to describe acoustics in the complex geometry and played an important role in the investigation. Acoustic mode shapes and natural frequencies of the liquid hydrogen in the duct and in the cavity behind the flow liner were determined. Forced response results were generated also by applying an edgetone-like forcing to the liner slots. Studies were conducted for state conditions and also conditions assuming two-phase entrapment in the backing cavity. Highly instrumented single-engine hot fire data confirms the presence of some of the predicted acoustic modes.

  4. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  5. Probabilistic risk analysis for the NASA space shuttle: a brief history and current work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate-Cornell, Elisabeth; Dillon, Robin

    2001-01-01

    While NASA managers have always relied on risk analysis tools for the development and maintenance of space projects, quantitative and especially probabilistic techniques have been gaining acceptance in recent years. In some cases, the studies have been required, for example, to launch the Galileo spacecraft with plutonium fuel, but these successful applications have helped to demonstrate the benefits of these tools. This paper reviews the history of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) by NASA for the space shuttle program and discusses the status of the on-going development of the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) software that performs PRA. The goal is to have within NASA a tool that can be used when needed to update previous risk estimates and to assess the benefits of possible upgrades to the system

  6. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Shock Test and Specification Experience for Reusable Flight Hardware Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.

    2012-01-01

    As commercial companies are nearing a preliminary design review level of design maturity, several companies are identifying the process for qualifying their multi-use electrical and mechanical components for various shock environments, including pyrotechnic, mortar firing, and water impact. The experience in quantifying the environments consists primarily of recommendations from Military Standard-1540, Product Verification Requirement for Launch, Upper Stage, and Space Vehicles. Therefore, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) formed a team of NASA shock experts to share the NASA experience with qualifying hardware for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and other applicable programs and projects. Several team teleconferences were held to discuss past experience and to share ideas of possible methods for qualifying components for multiple missions. This document contains the information compiled from the discussions

  7. Planetarium Inversum -- a space vision for Earth education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsch, B

    2003-01-01

    In a planetarium, the visitor is sitting on Earth and looking into an imaginary space. The Planetarium Inversum is the opposite: visitors are sitting in a space station, looking down on Mother Earth. It is a scientifically-based information show with visitors involvement, its elements being partially virtual (Earth in space has to be projected with highest possible resolution) but also containing real structures, such as the visitors' Earth observatory with adjacent biological systems (plant cultures and other ecological life support components). Its main message concerns the limits and the vulnerability of our home planet, its uniqueness, beauty and above all, its irreplaceableness: Earth does not have an emergency exit. The Earth observatory is part of a ring shaped, rotating space station of the type designed by Wernher von Braun decades ago. Visitors are told that gravity is being substituted by centrifugal force. Both types of life support systems are being demonstrated--self regenerative life based ones and technical ones as a backup (solar electric splitting of water and chemical absorption of respiratory CO2). c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Engineering and Safety Partnership Enhances Safety of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Project Management must use the risk assessment documents (RADs) as tools to support their decision making process. Therefore, these documents have to be initiated, developed, and evolved parallel to the life of the project. Technical preparation and safety compliance of these documents require a great deal of resources. Updating these documents after-the-fact not only requires substantial increase in resources - Project Cost -, but this task is also not useful and perhaps an unnecessary expense. Hazard Reports (HRs), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEAs), Critical Item Lists (CILs), Risk Management process are, among others, within this category. A positive action resulting from a strong partnership between interested parties is one way to get these documents and related processes and requirements, released and updated in useful time. The Space Shuttle Program (SSP) at the Marshall Space Flight Center has implemented a process which is having positive results and gaining acceptance within the Agency. A hybrid Panel, with equal interest and responsibilities for the two larger organizations, Safety and Engineering, is the focal point of this process. Called the Marshall Safety and Engineering Review Panel (MSERP), its charter (Space Shuttle Program Directive 110 F, April 15, 2005), and its Operating Control Plan emphasizes the technical and safety responsibilities over the program risk documents: HRs; FMEA/CILs; Engineering Changes; anomalies/problem resolutions and corrective action implementations, and trend analysis. The MSERP has undertaken its responsibilities with objectivity, assertiveness, dedication, has operated with focus, and has shown significant results and promising perspectives. The MSERP has been deeply involved in propulsion systems and integration, real time technical issues and other relevant reviews, since its conception. These activities have transformed the propulsion MSERP in a truly participative and value added panel, making a

  9. A brief scenario about the ''space pollution'' around the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, T P; Celestino, C C; Moraes, R V

    2013-01-01

    In this work is presented a brief review about the main events generating of space debris around the Earth, occurred up to the present day. How the clouds of debris ''polluted'' the neighborhood of orbits in which the bodies were initially allocated is here analyzed. The implications of the growth of space debris existing on space missions as well as safety rules to control sources of debris are discussed

  10. Measuring the quality of public open space using Google Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bronwen T; Fernando, Peter; Bauman, Adrian E; Williamson, Anna; Craig, Jonathan C; Redman, Sally

    2011-02-01

    Proximity to public open space, such as parks and other green spaces, has considerable health benefits, and people have been shown to be more likely to use such space for physical activity if it is of high quality. This paper describes a new remote-assessment approach that makes use of Google Earth Pro (the free version of this program is Google Earth) to provide rapid and inexpensive measurement of the quality of public open space. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between assessments of the quality of public open space using (1) the remote method (making use of Google Earth Pro) and (2) direct observation with a well-established measure of quality, the Public Open Space Tool (POST). Fifty parks selected from the southwest part of Sydney, Australia, were assessed in 2009 with the remote method (using Google Earth Pro), and scores were compared with those obtained from direct observation of the same parks using POST. The time taken to conduct the assessments using each method was also recorded. Raters for each method were blind to scores obtained from using the other method. Analyses were conducted in 2009. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the quality scores obtained for the 50 parks using the remote method and direct observation was 0.9 (pspaces without the need for in-person visits, dramatically reducing the time required for environmental audits of public open space. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preservation of Near-Earth Space for Future Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John A.

    2007-05-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction J. A. Simpson; Part II. Defining the Problem: 2. The Earth satellite population: official growth and constituents Nicholas L. Johnson; 3. The current and future environment: an overall assessment Donald J. Kessler; 4. The current and future space debris environment as assessed in Europe Dietrich Rex; 5. Human survivability issues in the low Earth orbit space debris environment Bernard Bloom; 6. Protecting the space environment for astronomy Joel R. Primack; 7. Effects of space debris on commercial spacecraft - the RADARSAT example H. Robert Warren and M. J. Yelle; 8. Potential effects of the space debris environment on military space systems Albert E. Reinhardt; Part III. Mitigation of and Adaptation to the Space Environment: Techniques and Practices: 9. Precluding post-launch fragmentation of delta stages Irvin J. Webster and T. Y. Kawamura; 10. US international and interagency cooperation in orbital debris Daniel V. Jacobs; 11. ESA concepts for space debris mitigation and risk reduction Heiner Klinkrad; 12. Space debris: how France handles mitigation and adaptation Jean-Louis Marcé; 13. Facing seriously the issue of protection of the outer space environment Qi Yong Liang; 14. Space debris - mitigation and adaptation U. R. Rao; 15. Near Earth space contamination and counteractions Vladimir F. Utkin and S. V. Chekalin; 16. The current and future space debris environment as assessed in Japan Susumu Toda; 17. Orbital debris minimization and mitigation techniques Joseph P. Loftus Jr, Philip D. Anz-Meador and Robert Reynolds; Part IV. Economic Issues: 18. In pursuit of a sustainable space environment: economic issues in regulating space debris Molly K. Macauley; 19. The economics of space operations: insurance aspects Christopher T. W. Kunstadter; Part V. Legal Issues: 20. Environmental treatymaking: lessons learned for controlling pollution of outer space Winfried Lang; 21. Regulation of orbital

  12. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  13. The Space Launch System -The Biggest, Most Capable Rocket Ever Built, for Entirely New Human Exploration Missions Beyond Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herb

    2012-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new capability for human exploration beyond Earth's orbit. The Space Launch System will provide a safe, affordable and sustainable means of reaching beyond our current limits and opening up new discoveries from the unique vantage point of space. The first developmental flight, or mission, is targeted for the end of 2017. The Space Launch System, or SLS, will be designed to carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, as well as important cargo, equipment and science experiments to Earth's orbit and destinations beyond. Additionally, the SLS will serve as a backup for commercial and international partner transportation services to the International Space Station. The SLS rocket will incorporate technological investments from the Space Shuttle Program and the Constellation Program in order to take advantage of proven hardware and cutting-edge tooling and manufacturing technology that will significantly reduce development and operations costs. The rocket will use a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propulsion system, which will include the RS-25D/E from the Space Shuttle Program for the core stage and the J-2X engine for the upper stage. SLS will also use solid rocket boosters for the initial development flights, while follow-on boosters will be competed based on performance requirements and affordability considerations.

  14. Darwin 101 (Enhanced): From Earth to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin was a modest man, yet one of the great revolutionaries of intellectual history. Born into a culture wedded to Genesis, he brought biology into the realm of natural world. The implications range from of the "why" questions of biology, to our view societies to our ability to combat AIDS. In our era of genomics and space exploration, these insights are being applied to the age-old question: are we alone?

  15. The Tethered Balloon Current Generator - A space shuttle-tethered subsatellite for plasma studies and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, P. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Tethered Balloon Current Generator experiment are to: (1) generate relatively large regions of thermalized, field-aligned currents, (2) produce controlled-amplitude Alfven waves, (3) study current-driven electrostatic plasma instabilities, and (4) generate substantial amounts of power or propulsion through the MHD interaction. A large balloon (a diameter of about 30 m) will be deployed with a conducting surface above the space shuttle at a distance of about 10 km. For a generally eastward directed orbit at an altitude near 400 km, the balloon, connected to the shuttle by a conducting wire, will be positive with respect to the shuttle, enabling it to collect electrons. At the same time, the shuttle will collect positive ions and, upon command, emit an electron beam to vary current flow in the system.

  16. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  17. A densitometric analysis of IIaO film flown aboard the space shuttle transportation system STS #3, 7, and 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since the United States of America is moving into an age of reusable space vehicles, both electronic and photographic materials will continue to be an integral part of the recording techniques available. Film as a scientifically viable recording technique in astronomy is well documented. There is a real need to expose various types of films to the Shuttle environment. Thus, the main objective was to look at the subtle densitometric changes of canisters of IIaO film that was placed aboard the Space Shuttle 3 (STS-3).

  18. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  19. Redesigned Gas Mass Flow Sensors for Space Shuttle Pressure Control System and Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if a state of the art micro-machined silicon solid state flow sensor could be used to replace the existing space shuttle orbiter flow sensors. The rather aggressive goal was to obtain a new sensor which would also be a multi-gas sensor and operate over a much wider flow range and with a higher degree of accuracy than the existing sensors. Two types of sensors were tested. The first type was a venturi throat design and the second was a bypass design. The accuracy of venturi design was found to be marginally acceptable. The bypass sensor was much better although it still did not fully reach the accuracy goal. Two main problems were identified which would require further work.

  20. Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor nozzle natural frequency variations with burn time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, C. Y.; Mason, D. R.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of erosion and thermal degradation on the Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle's structural dynamic characteristics were analytically evaluated. Also considered was stiffening of the structure due to internal pressurization. A detailed NASTRAN finite element model of the nozzle was developed and used to evaluate the influence of these effects at several discrete times during motor burn. Methods were developed for treating erosion and thermal degradation, and a procedure was developed to account for internal pressure stiffening using differential stiffness matrix techniques. Results were verified using static firing test accelerometer data. Fast Fourier Transform and Maximum Entropy Method techniques were applied to the data to generate waterfall plots which track modal frequencies with burn time. Results indicate that the lower frequency nozzle 'vectoring' modes are only slightly affected by erosion, thermal effects and internal pressurization. The higher frequency shell modes of the nozzle are, however, significantly reduced.

  1. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  2. Development of a large scale Chimera grid system for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel G.; Stanley, Scott A.; Martin, Fred W., Jr.; Gomez, Ray J.; Le Beau, Gerald J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat

    1993-01-01

    The application of CFD techniques to large problems has dictated the need for large team efforts. This paper offers an opportunity to examine the motivations, goals, needs, problems, as well as the methods, tools, and constraints that defined NASA's development of a 111 grid/16 million point grid system model for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The Chimera approach used for domain decomposition encouraged separation of the complex geometry into several major components each of which was modeled by an autonomous team. ICEM-CFD, a CAD based grid generation package, simplified the geometry and grid topology definition by provoding mature CAD tools and patch independent meshing. The resulting grid system has, on average, a four inch resolution along the surface.

  3. Lightweight structural design of a bolted case joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.

    1988-01-01

    The structural design of a bolted joint with a static face seal which can be used to join Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments is given. Results from numerous finite element parametric studies indicate that the bolted joint meets the design requirement of preventing joint opening at the O-ring locations during SRM pressurization. A final design recommended for further development has the following parameters: 180 one-in.-diam. studs, stud centerline offset of 0.5 in radially inward from the shell wall center line, flange thickness of 0.75 in, bearing plate thickness of 0.25 in, studs prestressed to 70 percent of ultimate load, and the intermediate alcove. The design has a mass penalty of 1096 lbm, which is 164 lbm greater than the currently proposed capture tang redesign.

  4. A model for the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump shaft seal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1990-01-01

    A model of the High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP) shaft seal system on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is described. The model predicts the fluid properties and flow rates throughout this system for a number of conditions simulating failed seals. The results agree well with qualitative expectations and redline values but cannot be verified with actual data due to the lack thereof. The results indicate that each failure mode results in a unique distribution of properties throughout the seal system and can therefore be individually identified given the proper instrumentation. Furthermore, the detection process can be built on the principle of qualitative reasoning without the use of exact fluid property values. A simplified implementation of the model which does not include the slinger/labyrinth seal combination has been developed and will be useful for inclusion in a real-time diagnostic system.

  5. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System Polyurethane Foam Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Wells, Doug; Morgan, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evaluation of the basic fracture properties of Thermal Protection System (TPS) polyurethane foam insulation materials was conducted to validate the methodology used in estimating critical defect sizes in TPS applications on the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank. The polyurethane foam found on the External Tank (ET) is manufactured by mixing liquid constituents and allowing them to react and expand upwards - a process which creates component cells that are generally elongated in the foam rise direction and gives rise to mechanical anisotropy. Similarly, the application of successive foam layers to the ET produces cohesive foam interfaces (knitlines) which may lead to local variations in mechanical properties. This study reports the fracture toughness of BX-265, NCFI 24-124, and PDL-1034 closed-cell polyurethane foam as a function of ambient and cryogenic temperatures and knitline/cellular orientation at ambient pressure.

  6. The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

    2006-01-01

    Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

  7. Use of an expert system data analysis manager for space shuttle main engine test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Ken

    1988-01-01

    The ability to articulate, collect, and automate the application of the expertise needed for the analysis of space shuttle main engine (SSME) test data would be of great benefit to NASA liquid rocket engine experts. This paper describes a project whose goal is to build a rule-based expert system which incorporates such expertise. Experiential expertise, collected directly from the experts currently involved in SSME data analysis, is used to build a rule base to identify engine anomalies similar to those analyzed previously. Additionally, an alternate method of expertise capture is being explored. This method would generate rules inductively based on calculations made using a theoretical model of the SSME's operation. The latter rules would be capable of diagnosing anomalies which may not have appeared before, but whose effects can be predicted by the theoretical model.

  8. Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.

  9. An automated data management/analysis system for space shuttle orbiter tiles. [stress analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, G. L.; Ballas, M.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering data management system was combined with a nonlinear stress analysis program to provide a capability for analyzing a large number of tiles on the space shuttle orbiter. Tile geometry data and all data necessary of define the tile loads environment accessed automatically as needed for the analysis of a particular tile or a set of tiles. User documentation provided includes: (1) description of computer programs and data files contained in the system; (2) definitions of all engineering data stored in the data base; (3) characteristics of the tile anaytical model; (4) instructions for preparation of user input; and (5) a sample problem to illustrate use of the system. Description of data, computer programs, and analytical models of the tile are sufficiently detailed to guide extension of the system to include additional zones of tiles and/or additional types of analyses

  10. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  11. A method for the dynamic and thermal stress analysis of space shuttle surface insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojalvo, I. U.; Levy, A.; Austin, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal protection system of the space shuttle consists of thousands of separate insulation tiles bonded to the orbiter's surface through a soft strain-isolation layer. The individual tiles are relatively thick and possess nonuniform properties. Therefore, each is idealized by finite-element assemblages containing up to 2500 degrees of freedom. Since the tiles affixed to a given structural panel will, in general, interact with one another, application of the standard direct-stiffness method would require equation systems involving excessive numbers of unknowns. This paper presents a method which overcomes this problem through an efficient iterative procedure which requires treatment of only a single tile at any given time. Results of associated static, dynamic, and thermal stress analyses and sufficient conditions for convergence of the iterative solution method are given.

  12. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  13. Tactile display landing safety and precision improvements for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John M.

    A tactile display belt using 24 electro-mechanical tactile transducers (tactors) was used to determine if a modified tactile display system, known as the Tactile Situation Awareness System (TSAS) improved the safety and precision of a complex spacecraft (i.e. the Space Shuttle Orbiter) in guided precision approaches and landings. The goal was to determine if tactile cues enhance safety and mission performance through reduced workload, increased situational awareness (SA), and an improved operational capability by increasing secondary cognitive workload capacity and human-machine interface efficiency and effectiveness. Using both qualitative and quantitative measures such as NASA's Justiz Numerical Measure and Synwork1 scores, an Overall Workload (OW) measure, the Cooper-Harper rating scale, and the China Lake Situational Awareness scale, plus Pre- and Post-Flight Surveys, the data show that tactile displays decrease OW, improve SA, counteract fatigue, and provide superior warning and monitoring capacity for dynamic, off-nominal, high concurrent workload scenarios involving complex, cognitive, and multi-sensory critical scenarios. Use of TSAS for maintaining guided precision approaches and landings was generally intuitive, reduced training times, and improved task learning effects. Ultimately, the use of a homogeneous, experienced, and statistically robust population of test pilots demonstrated that the use of tactile displays for Space Shuttle approaches and landings with degraded vehicle systems, weather, and environmental conditions produced substantial improvements in safety, consistency, reliability, and ease of operations under demanding conditions. Recommendations for further analysis and study are provided in order to leverage the results from this research and further explore the potential to reduce the risk of spaceflight and aerospace operations in general.

  14. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in Two Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, B. B.; Ewing, M. E.; Bolton, D. E.; Albrechtsen, K. U.; Earnest, T. E.; Noble, T. C.; Longaker, M.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time internal motor insulation char line recession measurements have been evaluated for two full-scale static tests of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). These char line recession measurements were recorded on the forward facing propellant grain inhibitors to better understand the thermal performance of these inhibitors. The RSRM propellant grain inhibitors are designed to erode away during motor operation, thus making it difficult to use post-fire observations to determine inhibitor thermal performance. Therefore, this new internal motor instrumentation is invaluable in establishing an accurate understanding of inhibitor recession versus motor operation time. The data for the first test was presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (AIAA 2001-3280) in July 2001. Since that time, a second full scale static test has delivered additional real-time data on inhibitor thermal performance. The evaluation of this data is presented in this paper. The second static test, in contrast to the first test, used a slightly different arrangement of instrumentation in the inhibitors. This instrumentation has yielded a better understanding of the inhibitor time dependent inboard tip recession. Graphs of inhibitor recession profiles with time are presented. Inhibitor thermal ablation models have been created from theoretical principals. The model predictions compare favorably with data from both tests. This verified modeling effort is important to support new inhibitor designs for a five segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. The internal instrumentation project on RSRM static tests is providing unique opportunities for other real-time internal motor measurements that could not otherwise be directly quantified.

  15. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution calibrated near infrared (NIR) imagery was obtained of the Space Shuttle s reentry during STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128 missions. The infrared imagery was collected using a US Navy NP-3D Orion aircraft using a long-range infrared optical package referred to as Cast Glance. The slant ranges between the Space Shuttle and Cast Glance were approximately 26-41 nautical miles at point of closest approach. The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project was a NASA Langley led endeavor sponsored by the NASA Engineering Safety Center, the Space Shuttle Program Office and the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to demonstrate a quantitative thermal imaging capability. HYTHIRM required several mission tools to acquire the imagery. These tools include pre-mission acquisition simulations of the Shuttle trajectory in relationship to the Cast Glance aircraft flight path, radiance modeling to predict the infrared response of the Shuttle, and post mission analysis tools to process the infrared imagery to quantitative temperature maps. The spatially resolved global thermal measurements made during the Shuttle s hypersonic reentry provides valuable flight data for reducing the uncertainty associated with present day ground-to-flight extrapolation techniques and current state-of-the-art empirical boundary-layer transition or turbulent heating prediction methods. Laminar and turbulent flight data is considered critical for the development of turbulence models supporting NASA s next-generation spacecraft. This paper will provide the motivation and details behind the use of an upgraded NIR imaging system used onboard a Navy Cast Glance aircraft and describe the characterizations and procedures performed to obtain quantitative temperature maps. A brief description and assessment will be provided of the previously used analog NIR camera along with image examples from Shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and solar tower test. These thermal

  16. Down to Earth with an electric hazard from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Schultz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    In reaching across traditional disciplinary boundaries, solid-Earth geophysicists and space physicists are forging new collaborations to map magnetic-storm hazards for electric-power grids. Future progress in evaluation storm time geoelectric hazards will come primarily through monitoring, surveys, and modeling of related data.

  17. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  18. Space environment effects on polymers in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, E.; Gouzman, I.

    2003-01-01

    Polymers are widely used in space vehicles and systems as structural materials, thermal blankets, thermal control coatings, conformal coatings, adhesives, lubricants, etc. The low earth orbit (LEO) space environment includes hazards such as atomic oxygen, UV radiation, ionizing radiation (electrons, protons), high vacuum, plasma, micrometeoroids and debris, as well as severe temperature cycles. Exposure of polymers and composites to the space environment may result in different detrimental effects via modification of their chemical, electrical, thermal, optical and mechanical properties as well as surface erosion. The high vacuum induces material outgassing (e.g. low-molecular weight residues, plasticizers and additives) and consequent contamination of nearby surfaces. The present work reviews the LEO space environment constituents and their interactions with polymers. Examples of degradation of materials exposed in ground simulation facilities are presented. The issues discussed include the erosion mechanisms of polymers, formation of contaminants and their interaction with the space environment, and protection of materials from the harsh space environment

  19. Space shuttle/food system study. Package feasibility study, modifications 3S, 4C and 5S

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An optimum feeding system for the space shuttle was presented. This system consisted of all rehydratable type foods which were enclosed in a 4 in. x 4 in. x 1 in. flexible package. A feasibility follow-on study was conducted, and two acceptable, feasible prototypes for this package are described.

  20. Mentoring Undergraduate Students through the Space Shuttle Hitchhiker GoldHELOX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. Ward; Barnes, Jonathan; Roming, Peter; Durfee, Dallin; Campbell, Branton; Turley, Steve; Eastman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1980s a team of four BYU undergraduate students designed a space-based telescope to image the sun in soft x-rays from 171-181 Angstroms to gain information on microflares and their relation to the corona-chromosphere transition region. The telescope used a near-normal incidence multi-layered mirror imaging onto film through a micro-channel plate. The system was capable of 1.0 sec time resolution and 2.5 arcsec spatial resolution. Aided by a NASA grant in 1991, a system was built and successfully tested in 1998 at Marshall Space Flight Center. Originally designed to be deployed from a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the bay of a space shuttle, the good results of this test elevated GoldHelox to greater-priority Hitchhiker status. Even so technical and procedural difficulties delayed a launch until after 2003. Unfortunately after the Columbia re-entry break-up in February 2003, the Hitchhiker program was cancelled and the GoldHelox project ended.Well over 200 undergraduate students worked on GoldHelox. Many of these have since earned advanced degrees in a variety of technical fields. Several have gone on to work in the space industry, becoming NASA scientists and engineers with one becoming a PI on the Swift satellite. The broad range of talent on the team has included students majoring in physics, astronomy, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, design engineering, business and even English majors who have written technical and public relations documents. We report on lessons learned and the pitfalls and successes of this unique mentoring experience.

  1. NASDA next-generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Takamatsu, T.; Sakimura, T.

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. These include the Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU), Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) and another VFEU for marine fish. Each facility had functions such as life support for up to 15 days, water quality control system, gas exchange by artificial lung, video observation through a window by a crewmember, day/night cycle control, feeding system for medaka (AAEU only), and more. We are now studying the next -generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and Space Station use. AQH will have many new capabilities missing in earlier facilities. The following functions are of particular importance: long-term life support for up to 90 days, multigeneration breeding (for medaka and zebrafish), automatic feeding system adaptable for young of fish and amphibians, water quality control for long-term experiments, air-water interface, a computer-driven specimen-monitoring system housed in the facilities, and a specimen sampling system including eggs. A prototype breeding system and the specimen-monitoring system were designed and tested. The prototype breeding system consists of a closed water loop, two 700ml fish chambers with LED lighting, a small artificial lung, and a nitrification bacteria filter. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this small breeding system, and the young could grow to adult fish. The water quality control system also worked successfully. For amphibians, the breeding test using tadpoles of xenopus is also starting. We have many difficult technological problems to resolve, but development of AQH is going well. In this paper, we will introduce the results of the component-level test and the concept of AQH. In the future, many space biological experiments will be conducted, especially in the areas of developmental biology, neurophisiology, and

  2. Space Shuttle main engine OPAD: The search for a hardware enhanced plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, Tim L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K. W.

    1993-01-01

    The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This team continues to lead and guide efforts in the plume diagnostics arena. The process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), formed the basis for various activities in the development of ground-based systems as well as the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy. OPAD currently provides and will continue to provide valuable information relative to future systems definitions, instrumentation development, code validation, and data diagnostic processing. OPAD is based on the detection of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the SSME plume using two complete, stand-alone optical spectrometers. To-date OPAD has acquired data on 44 test firings of the SSME at the Technology Test Bed (TTB) at MSFC. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data. It will encompass such issues as selection of instrumentation correlation of data to nominal engine operation, investigation of SSME component erosion via OPAD spectral data, necessity and benefits of plume seeding, application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to data analysis, and the present status of efforts to quantify specie erosion utilizing standard plume and chemistry codes as well as radiative models currently under development.

  3. Space Shuttle main engine OPAD: The search for a hardware enhanced plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W. T.; Cooper, A. E.; Wallace, Tim L.; Buntine, W. L.; Whitaker, K. W.

    1993-11-01

    The process of applying spectroscopy to the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) for plume diagnostics, as it exists today, originated at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and its implementation was assured largely through the efforts of Sverdrup AEDC, in Tullahoma, Tennessee. This team continues to lead and guide efforts in the plume diagnostics arena. The process, Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD), formed the basis for various activities in the development of ground-based systems as well as the development of in-flight plume spectroscopy. OPAD currently provides and will continue to provide valuable information relative to future systems definitions, instrumentation development, code validation, and data diagnostic processing. OPAD is based on the detection of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the SSME plume using two complete, stand-alone optical spectrometers. To-date OPAD has acquired data on 44 test firings of the SSME at the Technology Test Bed (TTB) at MSFC. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an introduction to the OPAD system by discussing the process of obtaining data as well as the methods of examining and interpreting the data. It will encompass such issues as selection of instrumentation correlation of data to nominal engine operation, investigation of SSME component erosion via OPAD spectral data, necessity and benefits of plume seeding, application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to data analysis, and the present status of efforts to quantify specie erosion utilizing standard plume and chemistry codes as well as radiative models currently under development.

  4. Model-Based Trade Space Exploration for Near-Earth Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ronald H.; Boncyk, Wayne; Brutocao, James; Beveridge, Iain

    2005-01-01

    We developed a capability for model-based trade space exploration to be used in the conceptual design of Earth-orbiting space missions. We have created a set of reusable software components to model various subsystems and aspects of space missions. Several example mission models were created to test the tools and process. This technique and toolset has demonstrated itself to be valuable for space mission architectural design.

  5. Evolution of telemedicine in the space program and earth applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pober, D. F.; Roy, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Remote monitoring of crew, spacecraft, and environmental health has always been an integral part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) operations. Crew safety and mission success face a number of challenges in outerspace, including physiological adaptations to microgravity, radiation exposure, extreme temperatures and vacuum, and psychosocial reactions to space flight. The NASA effort to monitor and maintain crew health, system performance, and environmental integrity in space flight is a sophisticated and coordinated program of telemedicine combining cutting-edge engineering with medical expertise. As missions have increased in complexity, NASA telemedicine capabilities have grown apace, underlying its role in the field. At the same time, the terrestrial validation of telemedicine technologies to bring healthcare to remote locations provides feedback, improvement, and enhancement of the space program. As NASA progresses in its space exploration program, astronauts will join missions lasting months, even years, that take them millions of miles from home. These long-duration missions necessitate further technological breakthroughs in tele-operations and autonomous technology. Earth-based monitoring will no longer be real-time, requiring telemedicine capabilities to advance with future explorers as they travel deeper into space. The International Space Station will serve as a testbed for the telemedicine technologies to enable future missions as well as improve the quality of healthcare delivery on Earth.

  6. From the Shuttle to the Lab, NPS Alumni Look for Solutions to Today’s Space Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2011-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School alumni and former astronauts Kent Rominger and Ken Reightler have seen time change a lot of things. The shuttle program is at its end, their days as astronauts with NASA are behind them, and they are now part of the ever-evolving commercial space industry. But the thing that hasn’t changed – the one certainty of space travel and exploration – there will always be challenges that need solutions.

  7. The Sun/Earth System and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Arthur I.; Fox, Nicola; Lucid, Shannon

    2003-01-01

    Solar variability and solar activity are now seen as significant drivers with respect to the Earth and human technology systems. Observations over the last 10 years have significantly advanced our understanding of causes and effects in the Sun/Earth system. On a practical level the interactions between the Sun and Earth dictate how we build our systems in space (communications satellites, GPS, etc), and some of our ground systems (power grids). This talk will be about the Sun/Earth system: how it changes with time, its magnetic interactions, flares, the solar wind, and how the Sun effects human systems. Data will be presented from some current spacecraft which show, for example, how we are able to currently give warnings to the scientific community, the Government and industry about space storms and how this data has improved our physical understanding of processes on the Sun and in the magnetosphere. The scientific advances provided by our current spacecraft has led to a new program in NASA to develop a 'Space Weather' system called 'Living With a Star'. The current plan for the 'Living With a Star' program will also be presented.

  8. KOVEC studies of radioisotope thermoelectric generator response (In connection with possible NASA space shuttle accident explosion scenarios)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.; Weston, A.; Lee, E.

    1984-06-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study leading to a final report (NUS-4543, Report of the Shuttle Transportation System (STS) Explosion Working Group (EWG), June 8, 1984), concerned with PuO/sub 2/ dispersal should the NASA space shuttle explode during the proposed Galileo and ISPN launches planned for 1986. At DOE's request, LLNL furnished appendices that describe hydrocode KOVEC calculations of potential damage to the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators, fueled by PuO/sub 2/, should certain explosion scenarios occur. These appendices are contained in this report.

  9. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  10. When Earth Songs Filled the Void of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Before the late 50's we had the planets, our Sun, the stars, galaxies, spectacular clouds of dust and very little else in our universe. There was evidence for a highly tenuous "sea" of dust in interstellar space, but little else. Space was empty above the ionized gases of our upper atmosphere, a little like there was no color in the world before the 40's. The clues were there to think otherwise, however, and in the late 50's and early 60's a few researchers dared to challenge the conventional ideas about space. It was a time of discovery and, with our new ability to fly in space, a time that launched a new science. Today that science makes it possible to literally see some of the plasmas that populate near-Earth space, which are now known to exist everywhere.

  11. Bone Loss in Space: Shuttle/MIR Experience and Bed Rest Countermeasure Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, L. C.; LeBlanc, A.; Feiveson, A.; Oganov, V.

    1999-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral during space flight was documented in the 1970's Skylab missions. The USSR space program made similar observations in the 1980's. The Institute of Biomedical Problems in Moscow and NASA JSC in 1989 began to collect pre- and post-flight bone mineral density (BMD) using Hologic QDR 1000 DEXA scanners transferred from JSC to Moscow and Star City. DEXA whole body, hip, and lumbar spine scans were performed prior to and during the first week after return from 4- to 6-month missions (plus one 8-month mission and one 14- month mission) on the Mir space station. These data documented the extent and regional nature of bone loss during long duration space flight. Of the 18 cosmonauts participating in this study between 1990 and 1995, seven flew two missions. BMD scans prior to the second flight compared to the first mission preflight scans indicated that recovery was possibly delayed or incomplete. Because of these findings, NASA and IBMP initiated the study "Bone Mineral Loss and Recovery After Shuttle/Mir Flights" in 1995 to evaluate bone recovery during a 3-year post-flight period. All of the 14 participants thus far evaluated lost bone in at least one region of the spine and lower extremities during flight. Of the 14, only one to date has exhibited full return to baseline BNM values in all regions. The current study will continue until the last participant has reached full bone recovery in all regions, has reached a plateau, or until three years after the flight (2001 for the last mission of the program). Bone mineral density losses in space and difficulty in returning to baseline indicate a need for countermeasure development. In late 1996 NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine were approved to conduct two countermeasure studies during 17 weeks of bed rest. In 1997 the studies were begun in the bed rest facility established by NASA, Baylor College of Medicine, and The Methodist Hospital in Houston. To date, three bed rest controls, five resistive

  12. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the shuttle: Using the Spartan carrier as a magnetic survey tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The shuttle-deployed and recovered Spartan shows promise as an inexpensive and simple support module for potential field measurements. The results of a preliminary engineering study on the applications of the Spartan carrier to magnetic measurements shows: (1) Extension of the mission duration to as long as 7 days is feasible but requires more reconfiguration of the internal systems; (2) On-board recording of Global Positioning System signals will provide position determination with an accuracy consistent with the most severe requirements; and (3) Making Spartan a magnetically clean spacecraft is straight forward but requires labor-intensive modifications to both the data and power systems. As a magnetic survey tool, Spartan would allow surveys at regularly spaced intervals and could make quick-reaction surveys at times of instability in the secular variation.

  13. Fluid Phase Separation (FPS) experiment for flight on a space shuttle Get Away Special (GAS) canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bruce; Wingo, Dennis; Bower, Mark; Amborski, Robert; Blount, Laura; Daniel, Alan; Hagood, Bob; Handley, James; Hediger, Donald; Jimmerson, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    The separation of fluid phases in microgravity environments is of importance to environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) and materials processing in space. A successful fluid phase separation experiment will demonstrate a proof of concept for the separation technique and add to the knowledge base of material behavior. The phase separation experiment will contain a premixed fluid which will be exposed to a microgravity environment. After the phase separation of the compound has occurred, small samples of each of the species will be taken for analysis on the Earth. By correlating the time of separation and the temperature history of the fluid, it will be possible to characterize the process. The experiment has been integrated into space available on a manifested Get Away Special (GAS) experiment, CONCAP 2, part of the Consortium for Materials Complex Autonomous Payload (CAP) Program, scheduled for STS-42. The design and the production of a fluid phase separation experiment for rapid implementation at low cost is presented.

  14. Space shuttle orbiter guidance, naviagation and control software functional requirements: Horizontal flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The shuttle GN&C software functions for horizontal flight operations are defined. Software functional requirements are grouped into two categories: first horizontal flight requirements and full mission horizontal flight requirements. The document privides the intial step in the shuttle GN&C software design process. It also serves as a management tool to identify analyses which are required to define requirements.

  15. Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude Reference and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude reference and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude reference from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude reference errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude reference from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.

  16. Earth and Space Science PhD Employment Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    A recent report by the American Geophysical Union and the American Geological Institute, "Earth and Space Science PhDs, Class of 1999" looked at employment trends of recent graduates. Demographically, our graduates are, as a population, older than those who graduated in any other physical science. While almost one-third of graduates are employed in a different subfield than that of their degree, more than 80% of Earth and space science PhDs secure initial employment in the geosciences. Graduates are finding employment in less than 6 months and the unemployment rate has dropped significantly below that of two years ago. The PhD classes of 1996, 1997, and 1998 had ~ 50% of their graduates taking postdoctoral appointments. In 1999, this declined to only 38% postdocs with an increase in permanent employment in both the education and government sectors. Perception of the job market is improving as well. Respondents are considerably happier than they were in 1996.

  17. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  18. History and Benefits of Engine Level Testing Throughout the Space Shuttle Main Engine Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanHooser, Katherine; Kan, Kenneth; Maddux, Lewis; Runkle, Everett

    2010-01-01

    Rocket engine testing is important throughout a program s life and is essential to the overall success of the program. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) testing can be divided into three phases: development, certification, and operational. Development tests are conducted on the basic design and are used to develop safe start and shutdown transients and to demonstrate mainstage operation. This phase helps form the foundation of the program, demands navigation of a very steep learning curve, and yields results that shape the final engine design. Certification testing involves multiple engine samples and more aggressive test profiles that explore the boundaries of the engine to vehicle interface requirements. The hardware being tested may have evolved slightly from that in the development phase. Operational testing is conducted with mature hardware and includes acceptance testing of flight assets, resolving anomalies that occur in flight, continuing to expand the performance envelope, and implementing design upgrades. This paper will examine these phases of testing and their importance to the SSME program. Examples of tests conducted in each phase will also be presented.

  19. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.

  20. A large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbance excited by the space shuttle during launch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ionosphere was monitored during the fourth space shuttle (STS 4) launch in June 1982 by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. A long-lived, large-amplitude, traveling ionospheric disturbance with dominant wave moles of ∼ 15 and 75 min was observed shortly after the launch. The disturbance wave train is likely the product of a variety of wave modes. The disturbance front traveled with an average group speed of >628 m/s. Such speeds are typical of fast moving shock waves and ducted gravity waves. Either one or both could be responsible for the signatures observed near the leading edge of the STS 4 wave train. Later arriving waves, with their inherently lower propagation speeds, are attributed to additional gravity wave modes. These waves, however, were not explicitly identified in this study. Although atmospheric waves are excited along the entire flight path, the most intense region of excitation is located along a relatively short flight segment (∼70 km) near the launch site where all primary thrusters are firing and over 70% of the propellants are expended. Not since the nuclear bomb tests of the late 1950s and early 1960s has an artificial source of atmospheric gravity waves been more available for upper atmospheric studies. The routine launching of high thrust vehicles provides an excellent opportunity to observe the propagation characteristics of atmospheric waves under controlled conditions and to acquire information on the nature of the upper atmosphere

  1. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laclair, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter Wing-Leading-Edge Panel Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for Entry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2010-01-01

    Linear elastic, thermo-mechanical stress analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels is presented for entry heating conditions. The wing-leading-edge panels are made from reinforced carbon-carbon and serve as a part of the overall thermal protection system. Three-dimensional finite element models are described for three configurations: integrated configuration, an independent single-panel configuration, and a local lower-apex joggle segment. Entry temperature conditions are imposed and the through-the-thickness response is examined. From the integrated model, it was concluded that individual panels can be analyzed independently since minimal interaction between adjacent components occurred. From the independent single-panel model, it was concluded that increased through-the-thickness stress levels developed all along the chord of a panel s slip-side joggle region, and hence isolated local joggle sections will exhibit the same trend. From the local joggle models, it was concluded that two-dimensional plane-strain models can be used to study the influence of subsurface defects along the slip-side joggle region of these panels.

  3. Assessment of CFD Hypersonic Turbulent Heating Rates for Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.; Oliver, A. Brandon

    2011-01-01

    Turbulent CFD codes are assessed for the prediction of convective heat transfer rates at turbulent, hypersonic conditions. Algebraic turbulence models are used within the DPLR and LAURA CFD codes. The benchmark heat transfer rates are derived from thermocouple measurements of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery windward tiles during the STS-119 and STS-128 entries. The thermocouples were located underneath the reaction-cured glass coating on the thermal protection tiles. Boundary layer transition flight experiments conducted during both of those entries promoted turbulent flow at unusually high Mach numbers, with the present analysis considering Mach 10{15. Similar prior comparisons of CFD predictions directly to the flight temperature measurements were unsatisfactory, showing diverging trends between prediction and measurement for Mach numbers greater than 11. In the prior work, surface temperatures and convective heat transfer rates had been assumed to be in radiative equilibrium. The present work employs a one-dimensional time-accurate conduction analysis to relate measured temperatures to surface heat transfer rates, removing heat soak lag from the flight data, in order to better assess the predictive accuracy of the numerical models. The turbulent CFD shows good agreement for turbulent fuselage flow up to Mach 13. But on the wing in the wake of the boundary layer trip, the inclusion of tile conduction effects does not explain the prior observed discrepancy in trends between simulation and experiment; the flight heat transfer measurements are roughly constant over Mach 11-15, versus an increasing trend with Mach number from the CFD.

  4. Nonlinear Analysis of the Space Shuttle Super-Lightweight External Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Michael P.; Britt, Vicki O.; Collins, Timothy J.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The results of buckling and nonlinear analyses of the Space Shuttle External Tank super-lightweight liquid oxygen (LOX) tank are presented. Modeling details and results are presented for two prelaunch loading conditions and for two full-scale structural tests conducted on the original external tank. These results illustrate three distinctly different types of nonlinear responses for thin-walled shells subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads. These nonlinear response phenomena consist of bifurcation-type buckling, short-wavelength nonlinear bending, and nonlinear collapse associated with a limit point. For each case, the results show that accurate predictions of nonlinear behavior generally require a large scale high-fidelity finite element model. Results are also presented that show that a fluid filled launch vehicle shell can be highly sensitive to initial geometric imperfections. In addition, results presented for two full scale structural tests of the original standard weight external tank suggest that the finite element modeling approach used in the present study is sufficient for representing the nonlinear behavior of the super lightweight LOX tank.

  5. A Monte Carlo study of Weibull reliability analysis for space shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, K.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of a number of additional capabilities into an existing Weibull analysis computer program and the results of Monte Carlo computer simulation study to evaluate the usefulness of the Weibull methods using samples with a very small number of failures and extensive censoring are discussed. Since the censoring mechanism inherent in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data is hard to analyze, it was decided to use a random censoring model, generating censoring times from a uniform probability distribution. Some of the statistical techniques and computer programs that are used in the SSME Weibull analysis are described. The methods documented in were supplemented by adding computer calculations of approximate (using iteractive methods) confidence intervals for several parameters of interest. These calculations are based on a likelihood ratio statistic which is asymptotically a chisquared statistic with one degree of freedom. The assumptions built into the computer simulations are described. The simulation program and the techniques used in it are described there also. Simulation results are tabulated for various combinations of Weibull shape parameters and the numbers of failures in the samples.

  6. Fracture tolerance analysis of the solid rocket booster servo-actuator for the space shuttle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.H.; Ghadiali, N.D.; Zahoor, A.; Wilson, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of the fracture tolerance of three components of the thrust vector control servo-actuator for the solid rocket booster of the space shuttle are described. These components were considered as being potentially fracture critical and therefore having the potential to fall short of a desired service life of 80 missions (that is, a service life factor of 4.0 on a basic service life of 20 missions). Detailed stress analysis of the rod end, cylinder, and feedback link components was accomplished by three-dimensional finite-element stress analysis methods. A dynamic structural model of the feedback system was used to determine the dynamic inertia loads and reactions to apply to the finite-element model of the feedback link. Twenty mission stress spectra consisting of lift-off, boost, re-entry, and water impact mission segments were developed for each component based on dynamic loadings. Most components were determined to have the potential of reaching a service life of 80 missions or service life factor of 4.0. 22 refs.

  7. Thermal stress analysis of space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jenkins, Jerald M.

    1987-01-01

    Preflight thermal stress analysis of the space shuttle orbiter wing skin panel and the thermal protection system (TPS) was performed. The heated skin panel analyzed was rectangular in shape and contained a small square cool region at its center. The wing skin immediately outside the cool region was found to be close to the state of elastic instability in the chordwise direction based on the conservative temperature distribution. The wing skin was found to be quite stable in the spanwise direction. The potential wing skin thermal instability was not severe enough to tear apart the strain isolation pad (SIP) layer. Also, the preflight thermal stress analysis was performed on the TPS tile under the most severe temperature gradient during the simulated reentry heating. The tensile thermal stress induced in the TPS tile was found to be much lower than the tensile strength of the TPS material. The thermal bending of the TPS tile was not severe enough to cause tearing of the SIP layer.

  8. State-of-the-art of the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    The designation, structure and environment of the External Tank (ET) of the Space Shuttle as well as plans for increasing the facilities and tooling to meet the required production rate capability of 40 or more ETs per year in 1992 are described. Special attention is given to the weight reduction of ET, since 1.0 lb of weight saved on the empty structure translates into about 0.9 lb of additional payload. To determine the potentiality of the weight reduction, structural tests were conducted. It was found that the tank could function properly with interior support structures reduced, and selected stringers eliminated. It is reported that an alternate sprayable polyisocyanurate foam capable of replacing a foam insulation over ablator bilayer thermoprotective composite on the aft-dome of the tank was developed: a commercially available material was modified to adhere to the -423 F aluminum substrate in the 2000 F engine-plume radiant-heat environment. It is mentioned that the weight savings program which started in Oct. 1975 saved 6000 lb by Jan. 1979. To reduce weld testing time and gain 100 times the accuracy, an electromechanical check system was developed. Problems of using robots are discussed.

  9. Development of polyisocyanurate pour foam formulation for space shuttle external tank thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James A.; Butler, John M.; Chartoff, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    Four commercially available polyisocyanurate polyurethane spray-foam insulation formulations are used to coat the external tank of the space shuttle. There are several problems associated with these formulations. For example, some do not perform well as pourable closeout/repair systems. Some do not perform well at cryogenic temperatures (poor adhesion to aluminum at liquid nitrogen temperatures). Their thermal stability at elevated temperatures is not adequate. A major defect in all the systems is the lack of detailed chemical information. The formulations are simply supplied to NASA and Martin Marietta, the primary contractor, as components; Part A (isocyanate) and Part B (poly(s) and additives). Because of the lack of chemical information the performance behavior data for the current system, NASA sought the development of a non-proprietary room temperature curable foam insulation. Requirements for the developed system were that it should exhibit equal or better thermal stability both at elevated and cryogenic temperatures with better adhesion to aluminum as compared to the current system. Several formulations were developed that met these requirements, i.e., thermal stability, good pourability, and good bonding to aluminum.

  10. Geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, M.A. (Alexandria, Egypt)

    1983-04-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal.

  11. A geocosmos: mapping outer space into a hollow earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkader, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The authors regards the earth's surface as a sphere and applies a purely mathematical mapping taking outer space in the Copernican universe (C) into a hollow earth, Geocosmos (G). The enormous galaxies and other remote objects are mapped inside as microscopic objects, and the moon as by far the largest of the celestial objects, all of which revolve daily around the earth's axis. Straight rays of light are mapped as arcs of circles, so that all celestial phenomena appear to inside observers in G just as they do to outside observers in C. He next considers the hypothesis that, conversely, the actual universe is this finite G. Then there seems to be no way of testing this, except by drilling a hole right through the earth's centre. However, in C the origin of cosmic rays of super-high energies is very controversial, whereas in G it is unequivocal. The idea of G was first conceived qualitatively by Karl E. Neupert in 1900; this revival is somewhat different. The main appeal of G stems from the very grave difficulty of believing in the fantastic vastness of C, and the consequent reduction of the earth to an infinitesimal. (Auth.)

  12. Space-Efficient Approximation Scheme for Circular Earth Mover Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Liang, Hongyu; Sun, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Mover Distance (EMD) between point sets A and B is the minimum cost of a bipartite matching between A and B. EMD is an important measure for estimating similarities between objects with quantifiable features and has important applications in several areas including computer vision...... to computer vision [13] and can be seen as a special case of computing EMD on a discretized grid. We achieve a (1 ±ε) approximation for EMD in $\\tilde O(\\varepsilon^{-3})$ space, for every 0 ... that matches the space bound asked in [9]....

  13. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communication and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Dave J.; Heckler, Greg; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a Space Mobile Network architecture, the result of a recently completed NASA study exploring architectural concepts to produce a vision for the future Near Earth communications and navigation systems. The Space Mobile Network (SMN) incorporates technologies, such as Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, and new operations concepts, such as User Initiated Services, to provide user services analogous to a terrestrial smartphone user. The paper will describe the SMN Architecture, envisioned future operations concepts, opportunities for industry and international collaboration and interoperability, and technology development areas and goals.

  14. Emigrating Beyond Earth Human Adaptation and Space Colonization

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Cameron M

    2012-01-01

    For four million years humankind has been actively expanding geographically and in doing so has adapted to a wide variety of hostile environments. Now we are looking towards the ultimate adaptation - the colonization of space. Emigrating Beyond Earth illustrates that this is not a technocratic endeavor, but a natural continuation of human evolution; a journey not just for the engineer and rocket scientist, but for everyman. Based on the most current understanding of our universe, human adaptation and evolution, the authors explain why space colonization must be planned as an adaptation to, rather than the conquest of, space. Emigrating Beyond Earth argues that space colonization is an insurance policy for our species, and that it isn't about rockets and robots, it's about humans doing what we've been doing for four million years: finding new places and new ways to live. Applying a unique anthropological approach, the authors outline a framework for continued human space exploration and offer a glimpse of a po...

  15. A shuttle and space station manipulator system for assembly, docking, maintenance, cargo handling and spacecraft retrieval (preliminary design). Volume 3: Concept analysis. Part 1: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Information backing up the key features of the manipulator system concept and detailed technical information on the subsystems are presented. Space station assembly and shuttle cargo handling tasks are emphasized in the concept analysis because they involve shuttle berthing, transferring the manipulator boom between shuttle and station, station assembly, and cargo handling. Emphasis is also placed on maximizing commonality in the system areas of manipulator booms, general purpose end effectors, control and display, data processing, telemetry, dedicated computers, and control station design.

  16. Ergonomic Evaluation of Space Shuttle Light-Weight Seat Lever Position and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, J.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During a Shuttle flight in the early part of 1999, one of the crewmembers was unable to operate the backrest lever for the light-weight seat in microgravity. It is essential that the crewmembers are able to adjust this back-rest lever, which is titled forward 2 degrees from vertical during launch and then moved backwards to 10 degrees aft of vertical upon reaching orbit. This adjustment is needed to cushion the crewmembers during an inadvertent crash landing situation. The original Shuttle seats, which had seat controls located on the front left and right sides of the seat, were replaced recently with the new light-weight seats. The controls for these new, seats were moved to the night side with one control at the front and the other at the back. While it was uncertain whether the problem encountered was unique to that crewmember or not it was clear to the personnel responsible for maintaining the Shuttle seats that not knowing the cause of the problem posed a safety concern for NASA. Hence the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) of the Johnson Space Center was requested to perform an evaluation of the seat controls and provide NASA with appropriate recommendations on whether the seat lever positions and operations should be modified. The ABF designed an experiment to investigate the amount of pull force exerted by subjects, wearing an unpressurized or pressurized crew launch escape suit, when controls were placed in the front and back (on the right side) of the light-weight seat. Single-axis load cells were attached to the seat levers, which measured the maximum static pull forces that were exerted by the subjects. Twelve subjects, six male and six female, participated in this study. Each subject was asked to perform the pull test at least three times for each combination of lever position and suit pressure conditions. The results from this study showed that as a whole (or in general), the subjects were able to pull on the lever at the back position with

  17. An overview of Space Shuttle anthropometry and biomechanics research with emphasis on STS/Mir recumbent seat system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klute, Glenn K.; Stoycos, Lara E.

    1994-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) at JSC conducts multi-disciplinary research focusing on maximizing astronaut intravehicular (IVA) and extravehicular (EVA) capabilities to provide the most effective work conditions for manned space flight and exploration missions. Biomechanics involves the measurement and modeling of the strength characteristics of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of torque wrench capability during weightlessness, optimization of foot restraint, and hand hold placement, measurements of the strength and dexterity of the pressure gloved hand to improve glove design, quantification of the ability to move and manipulate heavy masses (6672 N or 1500 lb) in weightlessness, and verification of the capability of EVA crewmembers to perform Hubble Space Telescope repair tasks. Anthropometry is the measurement and modeling of the dimensions of the human body. Current research for the Space Shuttle Program includes the measurement of 14 anthropometric parameters of every astronaut candidate, identification of EVA finger entrapment hazards by measuring the dimensions of the gloved hand, definition of flight deck reach envelopes during launch and landing accelerations, and measurement of anthropometric design parameters for the recumbent seat system required for the Shuttle/Mir mission (STS-71, Spacelab M) scheduled for Jun. 1995.

  18. Modelling the near-Earth space environment using LDEF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dale R.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Crowell, Lawrence B.; Watts, Alan J.

    1992-01-01

    Near-Earth space is a dynamic environment, that is currently not well understood. In an effort to better characterize the near-Earth space environment, this study compares the results of actual impact crater measurement data and the Space Environment (SPENV) Program developed in-house at POD, to theoretical models established by Kessler (NASA TM-100471, 1987) and Cour-Palais (NASA SP-8013, 1969). With the continuing escalation of debris there will exist a definite hazard to unmanned satellites as well as manned operations. Since the smaller non-trackable debris has the highest impact rate, it is clearly necessary to establish the true debris environment for all particle sizes. Proper comprehension of the near-Earth space environment and its origin will permit improvement in spacecraft design and mission planning, thereby reducing potential disasters and extreme costs. Results of this study directly relate to the survivability of future spacecraft and satellites that are to travel through and/or reside in low Earth orbit (LEO). More specifically, these data are being used to: (1) characterize the effects of the LEO micrometeoroid an debris environment on satellite designs and components; (2) update the current theoretical micrometeoroid and debris models for LEO; (3) help assess the survivability of spacecraft and satellites that must travel through or reside in LEO, and the probability of their collision with already resident debris; and (4) help define and evaluate future debris mitigation and disposal methods. Combined model predictions match relatively well with the LDEF data for impact craters larger than approximately 0.05 cm, diameter; however, for smaller impact craters, the combined predictions diverge and do not reflect the sporadic clouds identified by the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) aboard LDEF. The divergences cannot currently be explained by the authors or model developers. The mean flux of small craters (approximately 0.05 cm diameter) is

  19. Development of an Electromechanical Ground Support System for NASA's Payload Transfer Operations: A Case Study of Multidisciplinary Work in the Space Shuttle Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. Soto Toro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Space shuttle Atlantis was launched from Kennedy Space Center on July 8, 2011 and landed on July 21, 2011, the final flight of the 30-year Shuttle Program. The development and support of the Space Transportation System (STS had required intensive coordination by scientists and engineers from multiple program disciplines. This paper presents a case study of a typical multidisciplinary effort that was proposed in the late 1990

  20. Neurovestibular and sensorimotor studies in space and Earth benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott

    2005-08-01

    This review summarizes what has been learned from studies of human neurovestibular system in weightless conditions, including balance and locomotion, gaze control, vestibular-autonomic function and spatial orientation, and gives some examples of the potential Earth benefits of this research. Results show that when astronauts and cosmonauts return from space flight both the peripheral and central neural processes are physiologically and functionally altered. There are clear distinctions between the virtually immediate adaptive compensations to weightlessness and those that require longer periods of time to adapt. However, little is known to date about the adaptation of sensory-motor functions to long-duration space missions in weightlessness and to the transitions between various reduced gravitational levels, such as on the Moon and Mars. Results from neurovestibular research in space have substantially enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms and characteristics of postural, gaze, and spatial orientation deficits, analogous to clinical cases of labyrinthine-defective function. Also, space neurosciences research has participated in the development and application of significant new technologies, such as video recording and processing of three-dimensional eye movements and posture, hardware for the unencumbered measurement of head and body movement, and procedures for investigating otolith function on Earth. In particular, devices such as centrifugation or off-vertical axis rotation could enhance clinical neurological testing because it provides linear acceleration which specifically stimulates the otolith organs in a frequency range close to natural head and body movement.

  1. 20 Plus Years of Chimera Grid Development for the Space Shuttle. STS-107, Return to Flight, End of the Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress in grid development for the space shuttle, with particular focus on the development from the los of STS-107 and the return to flight, to the end of the program. Included are views from the current Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) grid system, containing 1.8 million surface points, and 95+ million volume points. Charts showing wind tunnel tests comparisons, and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) vs 1A613B wing pressures, wind tunnel test comparison with CFD of the proposed ice/frost ramp configuration are shown. The use of pressure sensitive paint and particle imaging velocimetry was used to support debris transport tools, The actual creation of the grids and the use of overset CFD to assess the external tank redesign was also reviewed. It also asks was the use of the overset tool the right choice. The presentation ends with a review of the work to be done still.

  2. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  3. Experimental determination of convective heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, R. Harold; Majumdar, Alok K.; Jenkins, Susan L.; Bacchus, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A series of cold flow heat transfer tests was conducted with a 7.5-percent scale model of the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor (SRM) to measure the heat transfer coefficients in the separated flow region around the nose of the submerged nozzle. Modifications were made to an existing 7.5 percent scale model of the internal geometry of the aft end of the SRM, including the gimballed nozzle in order to accomplish the measurements. The model nozzle nose was fitted with a stainless steel shell with numerous thermocouples welded to the backside of the thin wall. A transient 'thin skin' experimental technique was used to measure the local heat transfer coefficients. The effects of Reynolds number, nozzle gimbal angle, and model location were correlated with a Stanton number versus Reynolds number correlation which may be used to determine the convective heating rates for the full scale Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor nozzle.

  4. Experimental Space Shuttle Orbiter Studies to Acquire Data for Code and Flight Heating Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, T. P.; Holden, M. S.; MacLean, M. G.; Campbell, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In an experimental study to obtain detailed heating data over the Space Shuttle Orbiter, CUBRC has completed an extensive matrix of experiments using three distinct models and two unique hypervelocity wind tunnel facilities. This detailed data will be employed to assess heating augmentation due to boundary layer transition on the Orbiter wing leading edge and wind side acreage with comparisons to computational methods and flight data obtained during the Orbiter Entry Boundary Layer Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM during STS-119 reentry. These comparisons will facilitate critical updates to be made to the engineering tools employed to make assessments about natural and tripped boundary layer transition during Orbiter reentry. To achieve the goals of this study data was obtained over a range of Mach numbers from 10 to 18, with flight scaled Reynolds numbers and model attitudes representing key points on the Orbiter reentry trajectory. The first of these studies were performed as an integral part of Return to Flight activities following the accident that occurred during the reentry of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) in February of 2003. This accident was caused by debris, which originated from the foam covering the external tank bipod fitting ramps, striking and damaging critical wing leading edge heating tiles that reside in the Orbiter bow shock/wing interaction region. During investigation of the accident aeroheating team members discovered that only a limited amount of experimental wing leading edge data existed in this critical peak heating area and a need arose to acquire a detailed dataset of heating in this region. This new dataset was acquired in three phases consisting of a risk mitigation phase employing a 1.8% scale Orbiter model with special temperature sensitive paint covering the wing leading edge, a 0.9% scale Orbiter model with high resolution thin-film instrumentation in the span direction, and the primary 1.8% scale Orbiter model with detailed

  5. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  6. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C report: Oxygen-hydrogen RCS/OMS integration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, A. E.; Regnier, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison of the concepts of auxiliary propulsion systems proposed for the space shuttle vehicle is discussed. An evaluation of the potential of integration between the reaction control system and the orbit maneuvering system was conducted. Numerous methods of implementing the various levels of integration were evaluated. Preferred methods were selected and design points were developed for two fully integrated systems, one partially integrated system, and one separate system.

  7. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-07-02

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of {approx} 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods.

  8. Earth-Space Link Attenuation Estimation via Ground Radar Kdp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steven M.; Benjamin, Andrew L.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2003-01-01

    A method of predicting attenuation on microwave Earth/spacecraft communication links, over wide areas and under various atmospheric conditions, has been developed. In the area around the ground station locations, a nearly horizontally aimed polarimetric S-band ground radar measures the specific differential phase (Kdp) along the Earth-space path. The specific attenuation along a path of interest is then computed by use of a theoretical model of the relationship between the measured S-band specific differential phase and the specific attenuation at the frequency to be used on the communication link. The model includes effects of rain, wet ice, and other forms of precipitation. The attenuation on the path of interest is then computed by integrating the specific attenuation over the length of the path. This method can be used to determine statistics of signal degradation on Earth/spacecraft communication links. It can also be used to obtain real-time estimates of attenuation along multiple Earth/spacecraft links that are parts of a communication network operating within the radar coverage area, thereby enabling better management of the network through appropriate dynamic routing along the best combination of links.

  9. Magnetically levitated space elevator to low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, J. R.; Mulcahy, T. M.

    2001-01-01

    The properties of currently available NbTi superconductor and carbon-fiber structural materials enable the possibility of constructing a magnetically levitated space elevator from the earth's surface up to an altitude of(approx) 200 km. The magnetic part of the elevator consists of a long loop of current-carrying NbTi, composed of one length that is attached to the earth's surface in an east-west direction and a levitated-arch portion. The critical current density of NbTi is sufficiently high that these conductors will stably levitate in the earth's magnetic field. The magnetic self-field from the loop increases the levitational force and for some geometries assists levitational stability. The 200-km maximum height of the levitated arch is limited by the allowable stresses of the structural material. The loop is cryogenically cooled with helium, and the system utilizes intermediate pumping and cooling stations along both the ground and the levitated portion of the loop, similar to other large terrestrial cryogenic systems. Mechanically suspended from the basic loop is an elevator structure, upon which mass can be moved between the earth's surface and the top of the loop by a linear electric motor or other mechanical or electrical means. At the top of the loop, vehicles may be accelerated to orbital velocity or higher by rocket motors, electromagnetic propulsion, or hybrid methods

  10. The magnetic field of the earth - Performance considerations for space-based observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Taylor, P. T.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Langel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems inherent in carrying out observations of the earth magnetic field from space are reviewed. It is shown that while useful observations of the core and crustal fields are possible at the peak of the solar cycle, the greatest useful data volume is obtained during solar minimum. During the last three solar cycles, the proportion of data with a planetary disturbance index of less than 2 at solar maximum was in the range 0.4-0.8 in comparison with solar minimum. It is found that current state of the art orbit determination techniques should eliminate orbit error as a problem in gravitational field measurements from space. The spatial resolution obtained for crustal field anomalies during the major satellite observation programs of the last 30 years are compared in a table. The relationship between observing altitude and the spatial resolution of magnetic field structures is discussed. Reference is made to data obtained using the Magsat, the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), and instruments on board the Space Shuttle.

  11. Flight results of attitude matching between Space Shuttle and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Alfred J.; Meldahl, Keith L.

    The recorded histories of Shuttle/Orbiter attitude and Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) attitude have been analyzed for all joint flights of the IUS in the Orbiter. This database was studied to determine the behavior of relative alignment between the IUS and Shuttle navigation systems. It is found that the overall accuracy of physical alignment has a Shuttle Orbiter bias component less than 5 arcmin/axis and a short-term stability upper bound of 0.5 arcmin/axis, both at 1 sigma. Summaries of the experienced physical and inertial alginment offsets are shown in this paper, together with alignment variation data, illustrated with some flight histories. Also included is a table of candidate values for some error source groups in an Orbiter/IUS attitude errror model. Experience indicates that the Shuttle is much more accurate and stable as an orbiting launch platform than has so far been advertised. This information will be valuable for future Shuttle payloads, especially those (such as the Aeroassisted Flight Experiment) which carry their own inertial navigation systems, and which could update or initialize their attitude determination systems using the Shuttle as the reference.

  12. Cryogenic explosion environment modeling and testing of space shuttle and light-weight radioisotope heater unit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    In order to assess the risk to the world's populace in the event of a Space Shuttle accident when radioisotope-containing heat sources are on board, testing of that system must be performed to determine release point, environments required, and the size distribution of the released fuel. To evaluate the performance of the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) (101 of these 1-W items are placed on the Galileo spacecraft which will be launched from the Space Shuttle), some high-velocity impact and flyer plate testing was carried out. The results showed that a bare urania-fueled LWRHU clad (approximately 1-mm thick platinum-30 wt % rhodium alloy) will withstand 1100 m/s flyer plate (3.5-mm thick aluminum) impacts and 330 m/s impacts upon the Space Shuttle floor (approximately 12-mm thick aluminum) without rupture or fuel release. Velocities in the order of 600 m/s on a steel surface will cause clad failure with fuel release. The fuel breakup patterns were characterized as to quantity in a specific size range. These data were employed in the formal Safety Analysis Report for the LWRHU to support the planned 1986 Galileo launch. 19 figs

  13. A neural network-based estimator for the mixture ratio of the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T. H.; Musgrave, J.

    1992-11-01

    In order to properly utilize the available fuel and oxidizer of a liquid propellant rocket engine, the mixture ratio is closed loop controlled during main stage (65 percent - 109 percent power) operation. However, because of the lack of flight-capable instrumentation for measuring mixture ratio, the value of mixture ratio in the control loop is estimated using available sensor measurements such as the combustion chamber pressure and the volumetric flow, and the temperature and pressure at the exit duct on the low pressure fuel pump. This estimation scheme has two limitations. First, the estimation formula is based on an empirical curve fitting which is accurate only within a narrow operating range. Second, the mixture ratio estimate relies on a few sensor measurements and loss of any of these measurements will make the estimate invalid. In this paper, we propose a neural network-based estimator for the mixture ratio of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The estimator is an extension of a previously developed neural network based sensor failure detection and recovery algorithm (sensor validation). This neural network uses an auto associative structure which utilizes the redundant information of dissimilar sensors to detect inconsistent measurements. Two approaches have been identified for synthesizing mixture ratio from measurement data using a neural network. The first approach uses an auto associative neural network for sensor validation which is modified to include the mixture ratio as an additional output. The second uses a new network for the mixture ratio estimation in addition to the sensor validation network. Although mixture ratio is not directly measured in flight, it is generally available in simulation and in test bed firing data from facility measurements of fuel and oxidizer volumetric flows. The pros and cons of these two approaches will be discussed in terms of robustness to sensor failures and accuracy of the estimate during typical transients using

  14. Specification of the near-Earth space environment with SHIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Henderson, Michael Gerard; Godinez, Humberto C.; Jeffery, Christopher Andrew Munn

    2017-01-01

    Here, predicting variations in the near-Earth space environment that can lead to spacecraft damage and failure is one example of “space weather” and a big space physics challenge. A project recently funded through the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program aims at developing a new capability to understand, model, and predict Space Hazards Induced near Earth by Large Dynamic Storms, the SHIELDS framework. The project goals are to understand the dynamics of the surface charging environment (SCE), the hot (keV) electrons representing the source and seed populations for the radiation belts, on both macro- and micro-scale. Important physics questions related to particle injection and acceleration associated with magnetospheric storms and substorms, as well as plasma waves, are investigated. These challenging problems are addressed using a team of world-class experts in the fields of space science and computational plasma physics, and state-of-the-art models and computational facilities. A full two-way coupling of physics-based models across multiple scales, including a global MHD (BATS-R-US) embedding a particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) and an inner magnetosphere (RAM-SCB) codes, is achieved. New data assimilation techniques employing in situ satellite data are developed; these provide an order of magnitude improvement in the accuracy in the simulation of the SCE. SHIELDS also includes a post-processing tool designed to calculate the surface charging for specific spacecraft geometry using the Curvilinear Particle-In-Cell (CPIC) code that can be used for reanalysis of satellite failures or for satellite design.

  15. New Center Links Earth, Space, and Information Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    Broad-based geoscience instruction melding the Earth, space, and information technology sciences has been identified as an effective way to take advantage of the new jobs created by technological innovations in natural resources management. Based on this paradigm, the University of Hyderabad in India is developing a Centre of Earth and Space Sciences that will be linked to the university's super-computing facility. The proposed center will provide the basic science underpinnings for the Earth, space, and information technology sciences; develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources such as water, soils, sediments, minerals, and biota; mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards; and design innovative ways of incorporating scientific information into the legislative and administrative processes. For these reasons, the ethos and the innovatively designed management structure of the center would be of particular relevance to the developing countries. India holds 17% of the world's human population, and 30% of its farm animals, but only about 2% of the planet's water resources. Water will hence constitute the core concern of the center, because ecologically sustainable, socially equitable, and economically viable management of water resources of the country holds the key to the quality of life (drinking water, sanitation, and health), food security, and industrial development of the country. The center will be focused on interdisciplinary basic and pure applied research that is relevant to the practical needs of India as a developing country. These include, for example, climate prediction, since India is heavily dependent on the monsoon system, and satellite remote sensing of soil moisture, since agriculture is still a principal source of livelihood in India. The center will perform research and development in areas such as data assimilation and validation, and identification of new sensors to be mounted on the Indian meteorological

  16. External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.

  17. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  18. Documentation and archiving of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel test data base. Volume 2: User's Guide to the Archived Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romere, Paul O.; Brown, Steve Wesley

    1995-01-01

    Development of the Space Shuttle necessitated an extensive wind tunnel test program, with the cooperation of all the major wind tunnels in the United States. The result was approximately 100,000 hours of Space Shuttle wind tunnel testing conducted for aerodynamics, heat transfer, and structural dynamics. The test results were converted into Chrysler DATAMAN computer program format to facilitate use by analysts, a very cost effective method of collecting the wind tunnel test results from many test facilities into one centralized location. This report provides final documentation of the Space Shuttle wind tunnel program. The two-volume set covers the evolution of Space Shuttle aerodynamic configurations and gives wind tunnel test data, titles of wind tunnel data reports, sample data sets, and instructions for accessing the digital data base.

  19. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  20. Do Inner Planets Modulate the Space Environment of the Earth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Variabilities in the solar wind cause disturbances throughout the heliosphere on all temporal and spatial scales, which leads to changeable space weather. As a view of space weather forecasting, in particular, it is important to know direct and indirect causes modulating the space environment near the Earth in advance. Recently, there are discussions on a role of the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury in affecting the solar wind velocity in the Earth’s neighborhood during its inferior conjunctions. In this study we investigate a question of whether other parameters describing the space environment near the Earth are modulated by the inner planets’ wake, by examining whether the interplanetary magnetic field and the proton density in the solar wind observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft, and the geomagnetic field via the Dst index and Auroral Electrojet index (AE index are dependent upon the relative position of the inner planets. We find there are indeed apparent variations. For example, the mean variations of the geomagnetic fields measured in the Earth’s neighborhood apparently have varied with a timescale of about 10 to 25 days. Those variations in the parameters we have studied, however, turn out to be a part of random fluctuations and have nothing to do with the relative position of inner planets. Moreover, it is found that variations of the proton density in the solar wind, the Dst index, and the AE index are distributed with the Gaussian distribution. Finally, we point out that some of properties in the behavior of the random fluctuation are to be studied.

  1. A waning of technocratic faith - NASA and the politics of the Space Shuttle decision, 1967-1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launius, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision to build the Space Shuttle as part of a broader public policy trend away from a deference to technical experts and toward greater politicization of traditionally apolitical issues. At the beginning of the 1960s U.S. leaders had a strong faith in the ability of technology to solve most problems. By 1970 this commitment to technological answers had waned and a resurgence of the right of elected officials to control technical matters was gaining currency. The lengthy and bitter Shuttle decision-making process was part of a much broader shift in the formation of public policy, played out in other arenas as well, aimed at the reemergence of direct political management of technological and scientific affairs by politicians.

  2. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  3. The Effect of Acoustic Disturbances on the Operation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Fuel Flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Bogdan; Szabo, Roland; Dorney, Dan; Zoladz, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) uses a turbine fuel flowmeter (FFM) in its Low Pressure Fuel Duct (LPFD) to measure liquid hydrogen flowrates during engine operation. The flowmeter is required to provide accurate and robust measurements of flow rates ranging from 10000 to 18000 GPM in an environment contaminated by duct vibration and duct internal acoustic disturbances. Errors exceeding 0.5% can have a significant impact on engine operation and mission completion. The accuracy of each sensor is monitored during hot-fire engine tests on the ground. Flow meters which do not meet requirements are not flown. Among other parameters, the device is screened for a specific behavior in which a small shift in the flow rate reading is registered during a period in which the actual fuel flow as measured by a facility meter does not change. Such behavior has been observed over the years for specific builds of the FFM and must be avoided or limited in magnitude in flight. Various analyses of the recorded data have been made prior to this report in an effort to understand the cause of the phenomenon; however, no conclusive cause for the shift in the instrument behavior has been found. The present report proposes an explanation of the phenomenon based on interactions between acoustic pressure disturbances in the duct and the wakes produced by the FFM flow straightener. Physical insight into the effects of acoustic plane wave disturbances was obtained using a simple analytical model. Based on that model, a series of three-dimensional unsteady viscous flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the MSFC PHANTOM turbomachinery code. The code was customized to allow the FFM rotor speed to change at every time step according to the instantaneous fluid forces on the rotor, that, in turn, are affected by acoustic plane pressure waves propagating through the device. The results of the simulations show the variation in the rotation rate of the flowmeter

  4. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 2: Literature surveys of critical Space Shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code development is summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis. Volume 2 is a summary of critical SSME components.

  5. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  6. Proposed School of Earth And Space Sciences, Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2004-05-01

    The hallmarks of the proposed school in the University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad,India, would be synergy, inclusivity and globalism. The School will use the synergy between the earth (including oceanic and atmospheric realms), space and information sciences to bridge the digital divide, and promote knowledge-driven and job-led economic development of the country. It will endeavour to (i) provide the basic science underpinnings for Space and Information Technologies, (ii) develop new methodologies for the utilization of natural resources (water, soils, sediments, minerals, biota, etc.)in ecologically-sustainable, employment-generating and economically-viable ways, (iii) mitigate the adverse consequences of natural hazards through preparedness systems,etc. The School will undertake research in the inter-disciplinary areas of earth and space sciences (e.g. climate predictability, satellite remote sensing of soil moisture) and linking integrative science with the needs of the decision makers. It will offer a two-year M.Tech. (four semesters, devoted to Theory, Tools, Applications and Dissertation, respectively ) course in Earth and Space Sciences. The Applications will initially cover eight course clusters devoted to Water Resources Management, Agriculture, Ocean studies, Energy Resources, Urban studies, Environment, Natural Hazards and Mineral Resources Management. The School will also offer a number of highly focused short-term refresher courses / supplementary courses to enable cadres to update their knowledge and skills. The graduates of the School would be able to find employment in macro-projects, such as inter-basin water transfers, and Operational crop condition assessment over large areas, etc. as well as in micro-projects, such as rainwater harvesting, and marketing of remote sensing products to stake-holders (e.g. precision agricultural advice to the farmers, using the large bandwidth of thousands of kilometres of unlit optical fibres). As the School is highly

  7. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John

    2011-01-01

    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  8. Preparing for the High Frontier: The Role and Training of NASA Astronauts in the Post- Space Shuttle Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In May 2010, the National Research Council (NRC) was asked by NASA to address several questions related to the Astronaut Corps. The NRC s Committee on Human Spaceflight Crew Operations was tasked to answer several questions: 1. How should the role and size of the activities managed by the Johnson Space Center Flight Crew Operations Directorate change after space shuttle retirement and completion of the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS)? 2. What are the requirements for crew-related ground-based facilities after the Space Shuttle program ends? 3. Is the fleet of aircraft used for training the Astronaut Corps a cost-effective means of preparing astronauts to meet the requirements of NASA s human spaceflight program? Are there more cost-effective means of meeting these training requirements? Although the future of NASA s human spaceflight program has garnered considerable discussion in recent years and there is considerable uncertainty about what the program will involve in the coming years, the committee was not tasked to address whether human spaceflight should continue or what form it should take. The committee s task restricted it to studying activities managed by the Flight Crew Operations Directorate or those closely related to its activities, such as crew-related ground-based facilities and the training aircraft.

  9. Test procedures, AN/AIC-27 system and component units. [for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiff, F. H.

    1975-01-01

    The AN/AIC-27 (v) intercommunication system is a 30-channel audio distribution which consists of: air crew station units, maintenance station units, and a central control unit. A test procedure for each of the above units and also a test procedure for the system are presented. The intent of the test is to provide data for use in shuttle audio subsystem design.

  10. Study on Chinese space mutation breeding by integrating the earth with the space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Zhang Long; Dai Weixu; Li Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the status of space mutation breeding in China. It emphasized that since 1978 Chinese Space scientists and agricultural biologists have send 50 kg seeds of more than 70 crops including cereals, cotton, oil, vegetable, fruit and pasture to the space using the facilities such as reture satellite 9 times, Shenzhou aircraft twice and high balloon 4 times, and 19 new varieties with high yield, high quality and disease-resistance, including five rice varieties, two wheat varieties, two cotton varieties, one sweat pepper, one tomato variety, one sesame variety, three water melon varieties, one lotus varieties and one ganaderma lucidum variety, have been bred though years of breeding at the Earth at more than 70 Chinese research institutes in 22 provinces. In addition more than 50 new lines and many other germ plasma resources have been obtained. Study on space breeding mechanism, such as biological effect of space induction, genetic variation by cell and molecular techniques and simulated study at the earth, has been conducted and some progresses have been achieved. Many space-breeding bases have been established in some provinces. Space varieties have been extended up to 270000 hectares, and some useful scientific achievements and social economic benefit had been made. The study of Chinese space mutation breading is going ahead in the world. The paper also introduced the contribution and results made by former three reture satellites in space science. Some basic parameters listed involved in study on space mutation breeding and the former three reture satellites. We also prospected the future of space mutation breeding. (authors)

  11. Artificial Neural Network Test Support Development for the Space Shuttle PRCS Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A significant anomaly, Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion, is affecting the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters, and has caused 79 to fail. To help address this problem, a Shuttle PRCS Thruster Process Evaluation Team (TPET) was formed. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Boeing members of the TPET have identified many discrete valve current trace characteristics that are predictive of the problem. However, these are difficult and time consuming to identify and trend by manual analysis. Based on this exhaustive analysis over months, 22 thrusters previously delivered by the Depot were identified as high risk for flight failures. Although these had only recently been installed, they had to be removed from Shuttles OV103 and OV104 for reprocessing, by directive of the Shuttle Project Office. The resulting impact of the thruster removal, replacement, and valve replacement was significant (months of work and hundreds of thousands of dollars). Much of this could have been saved had the proposed Neural Network (NN) tool described in this paper been in place. In addition to the significant benefits to the Shuttle indicated above, the development and implementation of this type of testing will be the genesis for potential Quality improvements across many areas of WSTF test data analysis and will be shared with other NASA centers. Future tests can be designed to incorporate engineering experience via Artificial Neural Nets (ANN) into depot level acceptance of hardware. Additionally, results were shared with a NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Super Problem Response Team (SPRT). There was extensive interest voiced among many different personnel from several centers. There are potential spin-offs of this effort that can be directly applied to other data acquisition systems as well as vehicle health management for current and future flight vehicles.

  12. For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

    The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone

  13. Space tourism: from earth orbit to the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P.

    Travel to and from the lunar surface has been known to be feasible since it was first achieved 34 years ago. Since that time there has been enormous progress in related engineering fields such as rocket propulsion, materials and avionics, and about 1 billion has been spent on lunar science and engineering research. Consequently there are no fundamental technical problems facing the development of lunar tourism - only business and investment problems. The outstanding problem is to reduce the cost of launch to low Earth orbit. Recently there has been major progress towards overturning the myth that launch costs are high because of physical limits. Several "X Prize" competitor vehicles currently in test-flight are expected to be able to perform sub-orbital flights at approximately 1/1,000 of the cost of Alan Shepard's similar flight in 1961. This activity could have started 30 years ago if space agencies had had economic rather than political objectives. A further encouraging factor is that the demand for space tourism seems potentially limitless. Starting with sub-orbital flights and growing through orbital activities, travel to the Moon will offer further unique attractions. In every human culture there is immense interest in the Moon arising from millennia of myths. In addition, bird-like flying sports, first described by Robert Heinlein, will become another powerful demand factor. Roundtrips of 1 to 2 weeks are very convenient for travel companies; and the radiation environment will permit visitors several days of surface activity without significant health risks. The paper also discusses economic aspects of lunar tourism, including the benefits it will have for those on Earth. Lunar economic development based on tourism will have much in common with economic development on Earth based on tourism: starting from the fact that many people spontaneously wish to visit popular places, companies in the tourism industry invest to sell a growing range of services to ever

  14. Space Mobile Network: A Near Earth Communications and Navigation Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.; Heckler, Gregory W.; Menrad, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper shares key findings of NASA's Earth Regime Network Evolution Study (ERNESt) team resulting from its 18-month effort to define a wholly new architecture-level paradigm for the exploitation of space by civil space and commercial sector organizations. Since the launch of Sputnik in October 1957 spaceflight missions have remained highly scripted activities from launch through disposal. The utilization of computer technology has enabled dramatic increases in mission complexity; but, the underlying premise that the diverse actions necessary to meet mission goals requires minute-by-minute scripting, defined weeks in advance of execution, for the life of the mission has remained. This archetype was appropriate for a "new frontier" but now risks overtly constraining the potential market-based opportunities for the innovation considered necessary to efficiently address the complexities associated with meeting communications and navigation requirements projected to be characteristics of the next era of space exploration: a growing number of missions in simultaneous execution, increased variance of mission types and growth in location/orbital regime diversity. The resulting ERNESt architectural cornerstone - the Space Mobile Network (SMN) - was envisioned as critical to creating an environment essential to meeting these future challenges in political, programmatic, technological and budgetary terms. The SMN incorporates technologies such as: Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) and optical communications, as well as new operations concepts such as User Initiated Services (UIS) to provide user services analogous to today's terrestrial mobile network user. Results developed in collaboration with NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Division and field centers are reported on. Findings have been validated via briefings to external focus groups and initial ground-based demonstrations. The SMN opens new niches for exploitation by the marketplace of mission

  15. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  16. Analysis and test for space shuttle propellant dynamics (1/10th scale model test results). Volume 1: Technical discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R. L.; Tegart, J. R.; Demchak, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Space shuttle propellant dynamics during ET/Orbiter separation in the RTLS (return to launch site) mission abort sequence were investigated in a test program conducted in the NASA KC-135 "Zero G" aircraft using a 1/10th-scale model of the ET LOX Tank. Low-g parabolas were flown from which thirty tests were selected for evaluation. Data on the nature of low-g propellant reorientation in the ET LOX tank, and measurements of the forces exerted on the tank by the moving propellent will provide a basis for correlation with an analytical model of the slosh phenomenon.

  17. Flexible body stability analysis of Space Shuttle ascent flight control system by using lambda matrix solution techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, R. L.; Christofferson, A.; Lardas, M.; Flanders, H.

    1980-01-01

    A lambda matrix solution technique is being developed to perform an open loop frequency analysis of a high order dynamic system. The procedure evaluates the right and left latent vectors corresponding to the respective latent roots. The latent vectors are used to evaluate the partial fraction expansion formulation required to compute the flexible body open loop feedback gains for the Space Shuttle Digital Ascent Flight Control System. The algorithm is in the final stages of development and will be used to insure that the feedback gains meet the design specification.

  18. Comparison of Meteoroid Flux Models for Near Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolshagen, G.; Liou, J.-C.; Dikarev, V.; Landgraf, M.; Krag, H.; Kuiper, W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade several new models for the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux have been developed. These include the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), the Divine-Staubach model and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM). They typically cover mass ranges from 10-12 g (or lower) to 1 g and are applicable for model specific sun distance ranges between 0.2 A.U. and 10 A.U. Near 1 A.U. averaged fluxes (over direction and velocities) for all these models are tuned to the well established interplanetary model by Gr?n et. al. However, in many respects these models differ considerably. Examples are the velocity and directional distributions and the assumed meteoroid sources. In this paper flux predictions by the various models to Earth orbiting spacecraft are compared. Main differences are presented and analysed. The persisting differences even for near Earth space can be seen as surprising in view of the numerous ground based (optical, radar) and in-situ (captured IDPs, in-situ detectors and analysis of retrieved hardware) measurements and simulations. Remaining uncertainties and potential additional studies to overcome the existing model discrepancies are discussed.

  19. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Observing Earth from space over the past 50 years has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and has evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, and the exact elevation of land and ocean. Imaging Earth from space has resulted in major scientific accomplishments; these observations have led to new discoveries, transformed the Earth sciences, opened new avenues of research, and provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This report highlights the scientific achievements made possible by the first five decades of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC) entitled Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, also referred to as the "decadal survey." Recognizing the increasing need for space observations, the decadal survey identifies future directions and priorities for Earth observations from space. This companion report was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to highlight, through selected examples, important past contributions of Earth observations from space to our current understanding of the planet.

  20. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  1. Orbital Dynamics of Low-Earth Orbit Laser-Propelled Space Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories applicable to laser-propelled space vehicles with a laser station in low-Earth orbit are investigated. Laser vehicles are initially located in the vicinity of the Earth-orbiting laser station in low-earth orbit at an altitude of several hundreds kilometers, and are accelerated by laser beaming from the laser station. The laser-propelled vehicles start from low-earth orbit and finally escape from the Earth gravity well, enabling interplanetary trajectories and planetary exploration

  2. What Makes Earth and Space Science Sexy? A Model for Developing Systemic Change in Earth and Space Systems Science Curriculum and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutskin, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Earth and Space Science may be the neglected child in the family of high school sciences. In this session, we examine the strategies that Anne Arundel County Public Schools and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center used to develop a dynamic and highly engaging program which follows the vision of the National Science Education Standards, is grounded in key concepts of NASA's Earth Science Directorate, and allows students to examine and apply the current research of NASA scientists. Find out why Earth/Space Systems Science seems to have usurped biology and has made students, principals, and teachers clamor for similar instructional practices in what is traditionally thought of as the "glamorous" course.

  3. Interactive visualization of Earth and Space Science computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, William L.; Paul, Brian E.; Santek, David A.; Dyer, Charles R.; Battaiola, Andre L.; Voidrot-Martinez, Marie-Francoise

    1994-01-01

    Computers have become essential tools for scientists simulating and observing nature. Simulations are formulated as mathematical models but are implemented as computer algorithms to simulate complex events. Observations are also analyzed and understood in terms of mathematical models, but the number of these observations usually dictates that we automate analyses with computer algorithms. In spite of their essential role, computers are also barriers to scientific understanding. Unlike hand calculations, automated computations are invisible and, because of the enormous numbers of individual operations in automated computations, the relation between an algorithm's input and output is often not intuitive. This problem is illustrated by the behavior of meteorologists responsible for forecasting weather. Even in this age of computers, many meteorologists manually plot weather observations on maps, then draw isolines of temperature, pressure, and other fields by hand (special pads of maps are printed for just this purpose). Similarly, radiologists use computers to collect medical data but are notoriously reluctant to apply image-processing algorithms to that data. To these scientists with life-and-death responsibilities, computer algorithms are black boxes that increase rather than reduce risk. The barrier between scientists and their computations can be bridged by techniques that make the internal workings of algorithms visible and that allow scientists to experiment with their computations. Here we describe two interactive systems developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) that provide these capabilities to Earth and space scientists.

  4. Protection against neurodegenerative disease on Earth and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Koike, Wakako; Takenouchi, Takato; Sugama, Shuei; Wei, Jianshe; Waragai, Masaaki; Sekiyama, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms have evolutionarily adapted themselves to the Earth’s gravity, and failure to adapt to gravity changes may lead to pathological conditions. This perspective may also apply to abnormal aging observed in bedridden elderly patients with aging-associated diseases such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Given that bedridden elderly patients are partially analogous to astronauts in that both cannot experience the beneficial effects of gravity on the skeletal system and may suffer from bone loss and muscle weakness, one may wonder whether there are gravity-related mechanisms underlying diseases among the elderly. In contrast to numerous studies of the relevance of microgravity in skeletal disorders, little attention has been paid to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to discuss the possible relevance of microgravity in these diseases. We particularly noted a proteomics paper showing that levels of hippocampal proteins, including β-synuclein and carboxyl-terminal ubiquitin hydrolase L1, which have been linked to familial neurodegenerative diseases, were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of mice subjected to hindlimb suspension, a model of microgravity. We suggest that microgravity-induced neurodegeneration may be further exacerbated by diabetes and other factors. On the basis of this view, prevention of neurodegenerative diseases through ‘anti-diabetes’ and ‘hypergravity’ approaches may be important as a common therapeutic approach on Earth and in space. Collectively, neurodegenerative diseases and space medicine may be linked to each other more strongly than previously thought. PMID:28725728

  5. Possible space weather influence on the Earth wheat prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, L.; Yom Din, G.; Dorman, L.

    We present development of our study of possible influence of space weather modulated by cycle of solar activity on the price bursts in the Earth markets In our previous works 1 2 we showed that correspondent response may have place in the specific locations characterized by a high sensitivity of the weather cloudiness in particular to cosmic ray variation b risk zone agriculture c isolated wheat market with limited external supply of agriculture production We showed that in this situation we may wait specific price burst reaction on unfavorable phase of solar activity and space weather what lead to corresponding abnormalities in the local weather and next crop failure We showed that main types of manifestation of this connection are a Distribution of intervals between price bursts must be like to the distribution of intervals between correspondent extremes of solar activity minimums or maximums b price asymmetry between opposite states of solar activity price in the one type of activity state is systematically higher then in the opposite one We showed in our previous publications that this influence in interval distribution is detected with high reliability in Mediaeval England 1250-1700 both for wheat prices and price of consumables basket We showed that for period of Maunder Minimum price asymmetry of wheat prices observed all prices in minimum state of solar activity was higher the prices in the next maximum state We showed later that this price asymmetry had place in 20-th century in USA durum prices too In

  6. Public-Private Collaborations with Earth-Space Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) was established in October 2010 to promote collaborative problem solving and project development to advance human health and performance innovations benefiting life in space and on Earth. The NHHPC, which now boasts over 150 corporate, government, academic and non-profit members, has convened four successful workshops and engaged in multiple collaborative projects. The virtual center facilitates member engagement through a variety of vehicles, including annual in-person workshops, webcasts, quarterly electronic newsletters, web postings, and the new system for partner engagement. NHHPC workshops serve to bring member organizations together to share best practices, discuss common goals, and facilitate development of the collaborative projects. The most recent NHHPC workshop was conducted in November 2013 on the topic of "Accelerating Innovation: New Organizational Business Models," and focused on various collaborative approaches successfully used by organizations to achieve their goals. Past workshops have addressed smart media and health applications, connecting through collaboration, microbiology innovations, and strategies and best practices in open innovation. A fifth workshop in Houston, Texas, planned for September 18, 2014, will feature "Innovation Through Co-Development: Engaging Partners". One area of great interest to NASA is mobile health applications, including mobile laboratory analytics, health monitoring, and close loop sensing, all of which also offer ground-based health applications for remote and underserved areas. Another project being coordinated by NASA and the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute is the pursuit of one to several novel strategies to increase medication stability that would enable health care in remote terrestrial settings as well as during space flight. NASA has also funded work with corporate NHHPC partner GE, seeking to develop ultrasound methodologies that will

  7. Space headache on Earth: head-down-tilted bed rest studies simulating outer-space microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, W P J; Terwindt, G M; Vein, A A; Ferrari, M D

    2015-04-01

    Headache is a common symptom during space travel, both isolated and as part of space motion syndrome. Head-down-tilted bed rest (HDTBR) studies are used to simulate outer space microgravity on Earth, and allow countermeasure interventions such as artificial gravity and training protocols, aimed at restoring microgravity-induced physiological changes. The objectives of this article are to assess headache incidence and characteristics during HDTBR, and to evaluate the effects of countermeasures. In a randomized cross-over design by the European Space Agency (ESA), 22 healthy male subjects, without primary headache history, underwent three periods of -6-degree HDTBR. In two of these episodes countermeasure protocols were added, with either centrifugation or aerobic exercise training protocols. Headache occurrence and characteristics were daily assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. In total 14/22 (63.6%) subjects reported a headache during ≥1 of the three HDTBR periods, in 12/14 (85.7%) non-specific, and two of 14 (14.4%) migraine. The occurrence of headache did not differ between HDTBR with and without countermeasures: 12/22 (54.5%) subjects vs. eight of 22 (36.4%) subjects; p = 0.20; 13/109 (11.9%) headache days vs. 36/213 (16.9%) headache days; p = 0.24). During countermeasures headaches were, however, more often mild (p = 0.03) and had fewer associated symptoms (p = 0.008). Simulated microgravity during HDTBR induces headache episodes, mostly on the first day. Countermeasures are useful in reducing headache severity and associated symptoms. Reversible, microgravity-induced cephalic fluid shift may cause headache, also on Earth. HDTBR can be used to study space headache on Earth. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system for in-situ nondestructive inspection of Space Shuttle RCC heat shields.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Walkington, Phillip D.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    The reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) heat shield components on the Space Shuttle's wings must withstand harsh atmospheric reentry environments where the wing leading edge can reach temperatures of 3,000 F. Potential damage includes impact damage, micro cracks, oxidation in the silicon carbide-to-carbon-carbon layers, and interlaminar disbonds. Since accumulated damage in the thick, carbon-carbon and silicon-carbide layers of the heat shields can lead to catastrophic failure of the Shuttle's heat protection system, it was essential for NASA to institute an accurate health monitoring program. NASA's goal was to obtain turnkey inspection systems that could certify the integrity of the Shuttle heat shields prior to each mission. Because of the possibility of damaging the heat shields during removal, the NDI devices must be deployed without removing the leading edge panels from the wing. Recently, NASA selected a multi-method approach for inspecting the wing leading edge which includes eddy current, thermography, and ultrasonics. The complementary superposition of these three inspection techniques produces a rigorous Orbiter certification process that can reliably detect the array of flaws expected in the Shuttle's heat shields. Sandia Labs produced an in-situ ultrasonic inspection method while NASA Langley developed the eddy current and thermographic techniques. An extensive validation process, including blind inspections monitored by NASA officials, demonstrated the ability of these inspection systems to meet the accuracy, sensitivity, and reliability requirements. This report presents the ultrasonic NDI development process and the final hardware configuration. The work included the use of flight hardware and scrap heat shield panels to discover and overcome the obstacles associated with damage detection in the RCC material. Optimum combinations of custom ultrasonic probes and data analyses were merged with the inspection procedures needed to

  9. Photogrammetry and ballistic analysis of a high-flying projectile in the STS-124 space shuttle launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.; Carilli, Robert A.; Long, Jason M.; Shawn, Kathy L.

    2010-07-01

    A method combining photogrammetry with ballistic analysis is demonstrated to identify flying debris in a rocket launch environment. Debris traveling near the STS-124 Space Shuttle was captured on cameras viewing the launch pad within the first few seconds after launch. One particular piece of debris caught the attention of investigators studying the release of flame trench fire bricks because its high trajectory could indicate a flight risk to the Space Shuttle. Digitized images from two pad perimeter high-speed 16-mm film cameras were processed using photogrammetry software based on a multi-parameter optimization technique. Reference points in the image were found from 3D CAD models of the launch pad and from surveyed points on the pad. The three-dimensional reference points were matched to the equivalent two-dimensional camera projections by optimizing the camera model parameters using a gradient search optimization technique. Using this method of solving the triangulation problem, the xyz position of the object's path relative to the reference point coordinate system was found for every set of synchronized images. This trajectory was then compared to a predicted trajectory while performing regression analysis on the ballistic coefficient and other parameters. This identified, with a high degree of confidence, the object's material density and thus its probable origin within the launch pad environment. Future extensions of this methodology may make it possible to diagnose the underlying causes of debris-releasing events in near-real time, thus improving flight safety.

  10. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE), a display building tool developed by Space Shuttle flight controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvelage, Thomas A.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Mission Control Center, located at Johnson Space Center, is incrementally moving from a centralized architecture to a distributed architecture. Starting with STS-29, some host-driven console screens will be replaced with graphics terminals driven by workstations. These workstations will be supplied realtime data first by the Real Time Data System (RTDS), a system developed inhouse, and then months later (in parallel with RTDS) by interim and subsequently operational versions of the Mission Control Center Upgrade (MCCU) software package. The Real Time Interactive Display Environment (RTIDE) was built by Space Shuttle flight controllers to support the rapid development of multiple new displays to support Shuttle flights. RTIDE is a display building tool that allows non-programmers to define object-oriented, event-driven, mouseable displays. Particular emphasis was placed on upward compatibility between RTIDE versions, ability to acquire data from different data sources, realtime performance, ability to modularly upgrade RTIDE, machine portability, and a clean, powerful user interface. The operational and organizational factors that drove RTIDE to its present form, the actual design itself, simulation and flight performance, and lessons learned in the process are discussed.

  11. Solving Component Structural Dynamic Failures Due to Extremely High Frequency Structural Response on the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, Greg; Nesman, Thomas; Zoladz, Thomas; Szabo, Roland

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the capabilities to determine the root-cause failure of component failures have been limited to the analytical tools and the state of the art data acquisition systems. With this limited capability, many anomalies have been resolved by adding material to the design to increase robustness without the ability to determine if the design solution was satisfactory until after a series of expensive test programs were complete. The risk of failure and multiple design, test, and redesign cycles were high. During the Space Shuttle Program, many crack investigations in high energy density turbomachines, like the SSME turbopumps and high energy flows in the main propulsion system, have led to the discovery of numerous root-cause failures and anomalies due to the coexistences of acoustic forcing functions, structural natural modes, and a high energy excitation, such as an edge tone or shedding flow, leading the technical community to understand many of the primary contributors to extremely high frequency high cycle fatique fluid-structure interaction anomalies. These contributors have been identified using advanced analysis tools and verified using component and system tests during component ground tests, systems tests, and flight. The structural dynamics and fluid dynamics communities have developed a special sensitivity to the fluid-structure interaction problems and have been able to adjust and solve these problems in a time effective manner to meet budget and schedule deadlines of operational vehicle programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program over the years.

  12. Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Tian-Sen

    2005-01-01

    With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established...

  13. Microscopic and Metallurgical Aspects of the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia was descending for a landing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on February 1, 2003. Approximately 20 minutes prior to touchdown, the Columbia began disintegrating over the western United States; the majority of debris eventually impacted in eastern Texas and western Louisiana. A monumental effort eventually recovered approximately 84,000 pieces of debris, approximately 38% of the Orbiter's original dry weight. The debris was transported to KSC, where the items were catalogued and evaluated. Critical areas of interest, such as the left and right leading edge surfaces and the underside of the ship, were placed upon a grid to aid in the reconstruction. Items of interest included metallic structures, reinforced carbon-carbon composites, and ceramic heat insulation tiles. Many of the leading edge elements had re-solidified metallic deposits spattered on them. These deposits became known as slag and were one of the main focuses of the investigation. In order to help determine the sequence of events inside the left wing during the accident, the slag's composition, layering order, and directionality of deposition were studied. A myriad of analytical tests were performed in an attempt to ascertain the compositional and depositional characteristics of selected slag deposits, including the ordering of deposited layers within each individual slag deposit harvested. Initially, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) were performed to quickly characterize the overall composition of individual slag deposits: SEM utilizes a narrowlyfocused high-energy electron beam impinging upon a specimen. The incident beam excites and liberates lower energy secondary electrons, which are detected and analyzed, providing a visual representation of the sample's surface topography. EDX also relies on an incident electron beam, except an EDX unit measures X-ray energies generated by the impinging beam. Each element generates a

  14. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  15. Shared visions: Partnership of Rockwell International and NASA Cost Effectiveness Enhancements (CEE) for the space shuttle system integration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejmuk, Bohdan I.; Williams, Larry

    1992-01-01

    As a result of limited resources and tight fiscal constraints over the past several years, the defense and aerospace industries have experienced a downturn in business activity. The impact of fewer contracts being awarded has placed a greater emphasis for effectiveness and efficiency on industry contractors. It is clear that a reallocation of resources is required for America to continue to lead the world in space and technology. The key to technological and economic survival is the transforming of existing programs, such as the Space Shuttle Program, into more cost efficient programs so as to divert the savings to other NASA programs. The partnership between Rockwell International and NASA and their joint improvement efforts that resulted in significant streamlining and cost reduction measures to Rockwell International Space System Division's work on the Space Shuttle System Integration Contract is described. This work was a result of an established Cost Effectiveness Enhancement (CEE) Team formed initially in Fiscal Year 1991, and more recently expanded to a larger scale CEE Initiative in 1992. By working closely with the customer in agreeing to contract content, obtaining management endorsement and commitment, and involving the employees in total quality management (TQM) and continuous improvement 'teams,' the initial annual cost reduction target was exceeded significantly. The CEE Initiative helped reduce the cost of the Shuttle Systems Integration contract while establishing a stronger program based upon customer needs, teamwork, quality enhancements, and cost effectiveness. This was accomplished by systematically analyzing, challenging, and changing the established processes, practices, and systems. This examination, in nature, was work intensive due to the depth and breadth of the activity. The CEE Initiative has provided opportunities to make a difference in the way Rockwell and NASA work together - to update the methods and processes of the organizations

  16. The Effect of Microgravity on the Smallest Space Travelers: Bacterial Physiology and Virulence on Earth and in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Barry; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Since the first human flights outside of Earth's gravity, crew health and well-being have been major concerns. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to affect the human immune response, possibly making the crew members more vulnerable to infectious disease. In addition, biological experiments previously flown in space have shown that bacteria grow faster in microgravity than they do on Earth. The ability of certain antibiotics to control bacterial infections may also differ greatly in microgravity. It is therefore critical to understand how spaceflight and microgravity affect bacterial virulence, which is their ability to cause disease. By utilizing spaceflight hardware provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), Dr. Barry Pyle and his team at Montana State University, Bozeman, will be performing an experiment to study the effects of microgravity on the virulence of a common soil and water bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Importantly, these bacteria have been detected in the water supplies of previous Space Shuttle flights. The experiment will examine the effects of microgravity exposure on bacterial growth and on the bacterium's ability to form a toxin called Exotoxin A. Another goal is to evaluate the effects of microgravity on the physiology of the bacteria by analyzing their ability to respire (produce energy), by studying the condition of the plasma membrane surrounding the cell, and by determining if specific enzymes remain active. Proteins produced by the bacteria will also be assayed to see if the normal functions of the bacteria are affected. In the context of human life support in spaceflight, the results of this experiment will offer guidance in providing the highest possible water quality for the Shuttle in order to limit the risk of infection to human occupants and to minimize water system and spacecraft deterioration.

  17. The immune system in space, including Earth-based benefits of space-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    2005-08-01

    Exposure to space flight conditions has been shown to result in alterations in immune responses. Changes in immune responses of humans and experimental animals have been shown to be altered during and after space flight of humans and experimental animals or cell cultures of lymphoid cells. Exposure of subjects to ground-based models of space flight conditions, such as hindlimb unloading of rodents or chronic bed rest of humans, has also resulted in changes in the immune system. The relationship of these changes to compromised resistance to infection or tumors in space flight has not been fully established, but results from model systems suggest that alterations in the immune system that occur in space flight conditions may be related to decreases in resistance to infection. The establishment of such a relationship could lead to the development of countermeasures that could prevent or ameliorate any compromises in resistance to infection resulting from exposure to space flight conditions. An understanding of the mechanisms of space flight conditions effects on the immune response and development of countermeasures to prevent them could contribute to the development of treatments for compromised immunity on earth.

  18. Automatic thermal control switches. [for use in Space Shuttle borne Get Away Special container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two automatic, flexible connection thermal control switches have been designed and tested in a thermal vacuum facility and in the Get Away Special (GAS) container flown on the third Shuttle flight. The switches are complementary in that one switch passes heat when the plate on which it is mounted exceeds some selected temperature and the other switch will pass heat only when the mounting plate temperature is below the selected value. Both switches are driven and controlled by phase-change capsule motors and require no other power source or thermal sensors.

  19. Studies and analyses of the space shuttle main engine. Failure information propagation model data base and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, A. E.

    1987-01-01

    The failure information propagation model (FIPM) data base was developed to store and manipulate the large amount of information anticipated for the various Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) FIPMs. The organization and structure of the FIPM data base is described, including a summary of the data fields and key attributes associated with each FIPM data file. The menu-driven software developed to facilitate and control the entry, modification, and listing of data base records is also discussed. The transfer of the FIPM data base and software to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. Complete listings of all of the data base definition commands and software procedures are included in the appendixes.

  20. Detailed requirements document for Stowage List and Hardware Tracking System (SLAHTS). [computer based information management system in support of space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The stowage list and hardware tracking system, a computer based information management system, used in support of the space shuttle orbiter stowage configuration and the Johnson Space Center hardware tracking is described. The input, processing, and output requirements that serve as a baseline for system development are defined.

  1. Earth observation space programmes, SAFISY activities, strategies of international organisations, legal aspects. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in four sessions. First part is on earth observation space programmes (international earth observation projects and international collaboration, the ERS-1, SPOT and PRIRODA programmes, the first ESA earth observation polar platform and its payload, the future earth observation remote sensing techniques and concepts). The second part is on SAFISY activities (ISY programmes, education and applications, demonstrations and outreach projects). The third part is on programme and strategies of international organisations with respect to earth observation from space. The fourth part is on legal aspects of the use of satellite remote sensing data in Europe. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  2. Structural optimization of an alternate design for the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster field joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Rogers, James L., Jr.; Chang, Kwan J.

    1987-01-01

    A structural optimization procedure is used to determine the shape of an alternate design for the Shuttle's solid rocket booster field joint. In contrast to the tang and clevis design of the existing joint, this alternate design consists of two flanges bolted together. Configurations with 150 studs of 1 1/8 in diameter and 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter are considered. Using a nonlinear programming procedure, the joint weight is minimized under constraints on either von Mises or maximum normal stresses, joint opening and geometry. The procedure solves the design problem by replacing it by a sequence of approximate (convex) subproblems; the pattern of contact between the joint halves is determined every few cycles by a nonlinear displacement analysis. The minimum weight design has 135 studs of 1 3/16 in diameter and is designed under constraints on normal stresses. It weighs 1144 lb per joint more than the current tang and clevis design.

  3. An engineering evaluation of the Space Shuttle OMS engine after 5 orbital flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D.

    1983-01-01

    Design features, performances on the first five flights, and condition of the Shuttle OMS engines are summarized. The engines were designed to provide a vacuum-fed 6000 lb of thrust and a 310 sec specific impulse, fueled by a combination of N2O4 and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) at a mixture ratio of 1.65. The design lifetime is 1000 starts and 15 hr of cumulative firing duration. The engine assembly is throat gimballed and features yaw actuators. No degradation of the hot components was observed during the first five flights, and the injector pattern maintained a uniform, enduring level of performance. An increase in the take-off loads have led to enhancing the wall thickness in the nozzle in affected areas. The engine is concluded to be performing to design specifications and is considered an operational system.

  4. Slide release mechanism. [for space shuttle orbiter/external tank connection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, J. W.; Ritchie, R. S. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A releasable support device is described which is comprised of a hollow body with a sleeve extending transversely there-through for receiving the end of a support shank. A slider-latch, optionally lubricated, extends through side recesses in the sleeve to straddle the shank, respectively, in latched and released positions. The slider-latch is slid from its latched to its unlatched position by a pressure squib whereupon a spring or other pressure means pushes the shank out of the sleeve. At the same time, a follower element is lodged in and closed the hole in the body wall from which the shank was discharged. The mechanism was designed for the shuttle orbiter/external tank connection device.

  5. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Margaret Amy; Zhou, Hanying; Buehler, Martin G.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Mowrey, Victoria S.; Jackson, Shannon P.; Kisor, Adam K.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Homer, Margie L.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose (ENose) has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes. The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October-November, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck. Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  6. Public-Private Collaborations with Earth-Space Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) was established in October 2010 to promote collaborative problem solving and project development to advance human health and performance innovations benefiting life in space and on Earth. The NHHPC, which now boasts over 135 corporate, government, academic and non-profit members, has convened four successful workshops and engaged in multiple collaborative projects. The center is currently developing a streamlined partner engagement process to capture technical needs and opportunities of NHHPC members, facilitate partnership development, and establish and manage collaborative projects for NASA. The virtual center facilitates member engagement through a variety of vehicles, including annual inperson workshops, webcasts, quarterly electronic newsletters, web postings, and the new system for partner engagement. The most recent NHHPC workshop was conducted in November 2013 on the topic of "Accelerating Innovation: New Organizational Business Models," and focused on various collaborative approaches successfully used by organizations to achieve their goals. The powerful notion of collaboration across sectors to solve intractable problems was recently highlighted in Williams Eggers' book "The Solution Revolution,"i which provides numerous examples of how business, government and social enterprises partner to solve tough problems. Mr. Eggers was a keynote speaker at the workshop, along with Harvard Business School, Jump Associates, and the Conrad Foundation. The robust program also included an expert panel addressing collaboration across sectors, four interactive breakout sessions, and a concluding keynote on innovative ways to increase science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education by NASA Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin. The NHHPC forum also provides a platform for international partners to interact on many topics. Members from around the world include ISS International Partner JAXA

  7. Systems and Methods for Providing Energy to Support Missions in Near Earth Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system has a plurality of spacecraft in orbit around the earth for collecting energy from the Sun in space, using stimulated emission to configure that energy as well defined states of the optical field and delivering that energy efficiently throughout the region of space surrounding Earth.

  8. Public views evening engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past year, more than 20,000 people came to Stennis Space Center to witness the 'shake, rattle and roar' of one of the world's most sophisticated engines. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi is NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing. StenniSphere, the visitor center for Stennis Space Center, hosted more than 250,000 visitors in its first year of operation. Of those visitors, 26.4 percent were from Louisiana.

  9. Reverse Kinematic Analysis and Uncertainty Analysis of the Space Shuttle AFT Propulsion System (APS) POD Lifting Fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The space shuttle Aft Propulsion System (APS) pod requires precision alignment to be installed onto the orbiter deck. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) used to perform this task cannot be manipulated along a single Cartesian axis without causing motion along the other Cartesian axes. As a result, manipulations required to achieve a desired motion are not intuitive. My study calculated the joint angles required to align the APS pod, using reverse kinematic analysis techniques. Knowledge of these joint angles will allow the ground support team to align the APS pod more safely and efficiently. An uncertainty analysis was also performed to estimate the accuracy associated with this approach and to determine whether any inexpensive modifications can be made to further improve accuracy.

  10. Structural design of an in-line bolted joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor case segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a structural design study of an in-line bolted joint concept which can be used to assemble Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments are presented. Numerous parametric studies are performed to characterize the in-line bolted joint behavior as major design variables are altered, with the primary objective always being to keep the inside of the joint (where the O-rings are located) closed during the SRM firing. The resulting design has 180 1-inch studs, an eccentricity of -0.5 inch, a flange thickness of 3/4 inch, a bearing plate thickness of 1/4 inch, and the studs are subjected to a preload which is 70% of ultimate. The mass penalty per case segment joint for the in-line design is 346 lbm more than the weight penalty for the proposed capture tang fix.

  11. Pitting and Repair of the Space Shuttle's Inconel(Registered TradeMark) Honeycomb Conical Seal Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Miller, James B.; MacKay, Rebecca A.; Bright, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    During return to flight servicing of the rudder speed brake (RSB) for each Space Shuttle Orbiter, inspectors discovered numerous small pits on the surface of the #4 right hand side honeycomb panel that covers the rudder speed brake actuators. Shortly after detection of the problem, concurrent investigations were initiated to determine the extent of damage, the root cause, and to develop a repair plan, since fabrication of a replacement panel is impractical for cost, schedule, and sourcing considerations. This paper describes the approach, findings, conclusions and recommendations associated with the investigation of the conical seal pitting. It documents the cause and contributing factors of the pitting, the means used to isolate each contributor, and the supporting evidence for the primary cause of the pitting. Finally, the selection, development and verification of the repair procedure used to restore the conical seal panel is described with supporting process and metallurgical rationale for selection.

  12. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  13. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 1; Stringer-Feet Imperfections and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Song, Kyongchan; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Warren, Jerry E.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear stress analyses are performed for the external hat-shaped stringers (or stiffeners) on the intertank portion of the Space Shuttle s external tank. These stringers are subjected to assembly strains when the stringers are initially installed on an intertank panel. Four different stringer-feet configurations including the baseline flat-feet, the heels-up, the diving-board, and the toes-up configurations are considered. The assembly procedure is analytically simulated for each of these stringer configurations. The location, size, and amplitude of the strain field associated with the stringer assembly are sensitive to the assumed geometry and assembly procedure. The von Mises stress distributions from these simulations indicate that localized plasticity will develop around the first eight fasteners for each stringer-feet configuration examined. However, only the toes-up configuration resulted in high assembly hoop strains.

  14. Lessons learned from the development and manufacture of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials for the space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, R. P.; Elgin, D. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Nickel, K. N.; Gzowski, E. R.; Aguiler, L.

    1983-01-01

    Three ceramic, reusable surface insulation materials and two borosilicate glass coatings were used in the fabrication of tiles for the Space Shuttle orbiters. Approximately 77,000 tiles were made from these materials for the first three orbiters, Columbia, Challenger, and Discovery. Lessons learned in the development, scale up to production and manufacturing phases of these materials will benefit future production of ceramic reusable surface insulation materials. Processing of raw materials into tile blanks and coating slurries; programming and machining of tiles using numerical controlled milling machines; preparing and spraying tiles with the two coatings; and controlling material shrinkage during the high temperature (2100-2275 F) coating glazing cycles are among the topics discussed.

  15. Application of a passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots to a simplified Space Shuttle RMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A passivity approach for the control design of flexible joint robots is applied to the rate control of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The system model includes friction and elastic joint couplings modeled as nonlinear springs. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. A regulator approach with link state feedback is employed to define the desired motor state. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller to stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Simulation results show that greatly improved performance was obtained by using the proposed controller over the existing RMS controller.

  16. The integration of automated knowledge acquisition with computer-aided software engineering for space shuttle expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesitt, Kenneth L.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction was made that the terms expert systems and knowledge acquisition would begin to disappear over the next several years. This is not because they are falling into disuse; it is rather that practitioners are realizing that they are valuable adjuncts to software engineering, in terms of problem domains addressed, user acceptance, and in development methodologies. A specific problem was discussed, that of constructing an automated test analysis system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. In this domain, knowledge acquisition was part of requirements systems analysis, and was performed with the aid of a powerful inductive ESBT in conjunction with a computer aided software engineering (CASE) tool. The original prediction is not a very risky one -- it has already been accomplished.

  17. Emerging Geospatial Sharing Technologies in Earth and Space Science Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Bermudez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    Emerging Geospatial Sharing Technologies in Earth and Space Science Informatics The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) mission is to serve as a global forum for the collaboration of developers and users of spatial data products and services, and to advance the development of international standards for geospatial interoperability. The OGC coordinates with over 400 institutions in the development of geospatial standards. In the last years two main trends are making disruptions in geospatial applications: mobile and context sharing. People now have more and more mobile devices to support their work and personal life. Mobile devices are intermittently connected to the internet and have smaller computing capacity than a desktop computer. Based on this trend a new OGC file format standard called GeoPackage will enable greater geospatial data sharing on mobile devices. GeoPackage is perhaps best understood as the natural evolution of Shapefiles, which have been the predominant lightweight geodata sharing format for two decades. However the format is extremely limited. Four major shortcomings are that only vector points, lines, and polygons are supported; property names are constrained by the dBASE format; multiple files are required to encode a single data set; and multiple Shapefiles are required to encode multiple data sets. A more modern lingua franca for geospatial data is long overdue. GeoPackage fills this need with support for vector data, image tile matrices, and raster data. And it builds upon a database container - SQLite - that's self-contained, single-file, cross-platform, serverless, transactional, and open source. A GeoPackage, in essence, is a set of SQLite database tables whose content and layout is described in the candidate GeoPackage Implementation Specification available at https://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=54838&version=1. The second trend is sharing client 'contexts'. When a user is looking into an article or a product on the web

  18. Oceanographic Analysis of Sun Glint Images Taken on Space Shuttle Mission STS 41-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. ?I TITLE (Include Security Ciassification) OCEANOGRAPHIC...CONTENTS le INTRJODUCTION --- ---. m.--- --..-- --.-- -- -- -- --- -- ---.-. II. WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN OCEANOGRAPHIC OVERVIEV - --------------- 10. A...By computing the arc tangent of 128 n.m./125 n.m. a tilt angle of 45.7’ was approximated for the camera lens. Two simplifications were made. Earth

  19. First haemorheological experiment on NASA space shuttle 'Discovery' STS 51-C: aggregation of red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintenfass, L; Osman, P D; Jedrzejczyk, H

    1985-01-01

    The 'secret' D.O.D. Mission on flight STS 51-C also carried nearly 100 kg of automated instrumentation of the Australian experiment on aggregation of red cells ("ARC"). The automated Slit-Capillary Photo Viscometer contained blood samples from subjects with history of coronary heart disease, cancer of the colon, insulin-dependent diabetes, etc., as well as normals. The experiment ran for nine hours, according to the program of its microcomputers. When shuttle landed and instrumentation recovered and opened in the presence of NASA quality control officers, it was obvious that experiment was a success. Tentative and preliminary results can be summarized as follows: red cells did not change shape under zero gravity; red cells do aggregate under zero gravity, although the size of aggregates is smaller than on the ground; the morphology of aggregates of red cells appears to be of rouleaux type under zero gravity, notwithstanding the fact that pathological blood was used. These results will have to be confirmed in the future flights. The background and history of development of the project are described, and put into context of our general haemorheological studies.

  20. Engineering report. Part 1: NASA wheel air seal development for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The sealing techniques are studied for existing aircraft wheel-tire designs to meet the hard vacuum .00001 torr and cold temperature -65 F requirements of space travel. The investigation covers the use of existing wheel seal designs.

  1. Images of Earth and Space: The Role of Visualization in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Fly through the ocean at breakneck speed. Tour the moon. Even swim safely in the boiling sun. You can do these things and more in a 17 minute virtual journey through Earth and space. The trek is by way of colorful scientific visualizations developed by the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Scientific Visualization Studio and the NASA HPCC Earth and Space Science Project investigators. Various styles of electronic music and lay-level narration provide the accompaniment.

  2. Public school teachers in the U.S. evaluate the educational impact of student space experiments launched by expendable vehicles, aboard Skylab, and aboard Space Shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, B B; McLean, J E; Curtis, J P; James, G S

    1991-12-01

    Space education is a discipline that has evolved at an unprecedented rate over the past 25 years. Although program proceedings, research literature, and historical documentation have captured fragmented pieces of information about student space experiments, the field lacks a valid comprehensive study that measures the educational impact of sounding rockets, Skylab, Ariane, AMSAT, and Space Shuttle. The lack of this information is a problem for space educators worldwide which led to a national study with classroom teachers. Student flown experiments continue to offer a unique experiential approach to teach students thinking and reasoning skills that are imperative in the current international competitive environment in which they live and will work. Understanding the history as well as the current status and educational spin-offs of these experimental programs strengthens the teaching capacity of educators throughout the world to develop problem solving skills and various higher mental processes in the schools. These skills and processes enable students to use their knowledge more effectively and efficiently long after they leave the classroom. This paper focuses on student space experiments as a means of motivating students to meet this educational goal successfully.

  3. The Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution: A Model for the Delivery of Earth Science Professional Development to Minority-Serving Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Snow, E.; Olson, H. C.; Stocks, E.; Willis, M.; Olson, J.; Odell, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Earth and Space Science (TXESS) Revolution was a 5-y teacher professional development project that aimed to increase teachers' content knowledge in Earth science and preparing them to teach a 12th-grade capstone Earth and Space Science course, which is new to the Texas curriculum. The National Science Foundation-supported project was…

  4. ACTS/TOS after release from Shuttle Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) with its Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) is backdropped over the blue ocean following its release from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Discovery. ACTS/TOS deploy was the first major task performed on the almost ten-day mission.

  5. 25th Space Simulation Conference. Environmental Testing: The Earth-Space Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Edward

    2008-01-01

    to Acquire, Process, Trend Data and Produce Radiometric System Assessment Reports; Exhaustive Thresholds and Resistance Checkpoints; Reconfigurable HIL Testing of Earth Satellites; FPGA Control System for the Automated Test of MicroShutters; Ongoing Capabilities and Developments of Re-Entry Plasma Ground Tests at EADS-ASTRIUM; Operationally Responsive Space Standard Bus Battery Thermal Balance Testing and Heat Dissipation Analysis; Galileo - The Serial-Production AIT Challenge; The Space Systems Environmental Test Facility Database (SSETFD), Website Development Status; Simulated Reentry Heating by Torching; Micro-Vibration Measurements on Thermally Loaded Multi-Layer Insulation Samples in Vacuum; High Temperature Life Testing of 80Ni-20Cr Wire in a Simulated Mars Atmosphere for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument Suit Gas Processing System (GPS) Carbon Dioxide Scrubber; The Planning and Implementation of Test Facility Improvements; and Development of a Silicon Carbide Molecular Beam Nozzle for Simulation Planetary Flybys and Low-Earth Orbit.

  6. Growing Minority Student Interest in Earth and Space Science with Suborbital and Space-related Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation describes the transformative impact of student involvement in suborbital and Cubesat investigations under the MECSAT program umbrella at Medgar Evers College (MEC). The programs evolved from MUSPIN, a NASA program serving minority institutions. The MUSPIN program supported student internships for the MESSENGER and New Horizons missions at the Applied Physics Lab at John Hopkins University. The success of this program motivated the formation of smaller-scale programs at MEC to engage a wider group of minority students using an institutional context. The programs include an student-instrument BalloonSAT project, ozone investigations using sounding vehicles and a recently initiated Cubesat program involving other colleges in the City University of New York (CUNY). The science objectives range from investigations of atmospheric profiles, e.g. temperature, humidity, pressure, and CO2 to ozone profiles in rural and urban areas including comparisons with Aura instrument retrievals to ionospheric scintillation experiments for the Cubesat project. Through workshops and faculty collaborations, the evolving programs have mushroomed to include the development of parallel programs with faculty and students at other minority institutions both within and external to CUNY. The interdisciplinary context of these programs has stimulated student interest in Earth and Space Science and includes the use of best practices in retention and pipelining of underrepresented minority students in STEM disciplines. Through curriculum integration initiatives, secondary impacts are also observed supported by student blogs, social networking sites, etc.. The program continues to evolve including related student internships at Goddard Space Flight Center and the development of a CUNY-wide interdisciplinary team of faculty targeting research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in Atmospheric Science, Space Weather, Remote Sensing and Astrobiology primarily for

  7. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 4: System models and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    In this volume, volume 4 (of five volumes), the discussion is focussed on the system models and related data references and has the following subsections: space shuttle main engine, integrated solid rocket booster, orbiter auxiliary power units/hydraulics, and electrical power system.

  8. Enhancing Learning in Statistics Classes Through The Use of Concrete Historical Examples: The Space Shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor, and the RMS Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R.; Webb, Farrell J.; Castelo, Carlos S.; Akagi, Cynthia G.; Jensen, Erick J.; Ditto, Rose M.; Spencer Carver, Elaine; Brown, Beverlyn F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of historical events as examples for teaching college level statistics courses. Focuses on examples of the space shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), and the RMS Titanic. Finds real life examples can bridge a link to short term experiential learning and provide a means for long term understanding of statistics. (KDR)

  9. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very

  10. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 3: Workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A collection of blank worksheets for use on each BRAVO problem to be analyzed is supplied, for the purposes of recording the inputs for the BRAVO analysis, working out the definition of mission equipment, recording inputs to the satellite synthesis computer program, estimating satellite earth station costs, costing terrestrial systems, and cost effectiveness calculations. The group of analysts working BRAVO will normally use a set of worksheets on each problem, however, the workbook pages are of sufficiently good quality that the user can duplicate them, if more worksheet blanks are required than supplied. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  11. Duque and Parazynski in an emergency egress exercise from Space Shuttle Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialists Pedro Duque of Spain (left), representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Scott E. Parazynski (behind him) hurry toward the basket at the 195-foot level of Launch Pad 39B during an emergency egress exercise. Duque and Parazynski, along with other crew members, are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated main engine cutoff. The other crew members are Payload Specialists John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Chiaki Mukai (M.D., Ph.D.), representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Following the TCDT, the crew will be returning to Houston for final flight preparations.

  12. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepaniak, Phillip C.; Patlach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014 presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews. This poster presents an outline of Loss of Signal contents and highlights from each of five sections - the mission and mishap, the response, the investigation, the analysis and the future.

  13. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned for the STS-I07 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlach, Robert; Stepaniak, Philip C.; Lane, Helen W.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014, presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goals of this book are to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews.

  14. [Anthropogenic sources of radiation hazard in the near-Earth space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G A

    2004-01-01

    All plausible artificial radioactive sources entering the near-Earth space (NES) were systematized and consequences of various large radiation accidents and catastrophes to Earth and NES were analyzed. Aggressive "population" of near-Earth orbits by space stations with rotating crews, unmanned research platforms and observatories extends "borderlines" of the noosphere raising at the same time concerns about the noosphere radiation safety and global radioecology. Specifically, consideration is given to the facts of negative effects of space power reactor facilities on results of orbital astrophysical investigations.

  15. Cold Flow Determination of the Internal Flow Environment Around the Submerged TVC Nozzle for the Space Shuttle SRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, R. H.; Ghosh, A.; Jenkins, S. L.; Bacchus, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    A series of subscale cold flow tests was performed to quantify the gas flow characteristics at the aft end of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. This information was used to support the analyses of the redesigned nozzle/case joint. A portion of the thermal loads at the joint are due to the circumferential velocities and pressure gradients caused primarily by the gimbaling of the submerged nose TVC nozzle. When the nozzle centerline is vectored with respect to the motor centerline, asymmetries are set up in the flow field under the submerged nozzle and immediately adjacent to the nozzle/case joint. Specific program objectives included: determination of the effects of nozzle gimbal angle and propellant geometry on the circumferential flow field; measurement of the static pressure and gas velocities in the vicinity of the nozzle/case joint; use of scaling laws to apply the subscale cold flow data to the full scale SRM; and generation of data for use in validation of 3-D computational fluid dynamic, CFD, models of the SRM flow field. These tests were conducted in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Airflow Facility with a 7.5 percent scale model of the aft segment of the SRM. Static and dynamic pressures were measured in the model to quantify the flow field. Oil flow data was also acquired to obtain qualitative visual descriptions of the flow field. Nozzle gimbal angles of 0, 3.5, and 7 deg were used with propellant grain configurations corresponding to motor burn times of 0, 9, 19, and 114 seconds. This experimental program was successful in generating velocity and pressure gradient data for the flow field around the submerged nose nozzle of the Space Shuttle SRM at various burn times and gimbal angles. The nature of the flow field adjacent to the nozzle/case joint was determined with oil droplet streaks, and the velocity and pressure gradients were quantified with pitot probes and wall static pressure measurements. The data was applied to the full scale SRM thru

  16. A Summary of - An Earth-to-Deep Space Communications System with Adaptive Tilt and Scintillation Correction Using Near-Earth Relay Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Yeh, C.; Wilson, K. E.

    1998-01-01

    Optical telecommunication will be the next technology for wide-band Earth/space communication. Uncompensated propagation through the Earth's atmosphere (e.g., scintillation and wavefront tilt) fundamentally degrade communication to distant spcaecraft.

  17. Automation of vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development. [for the space shuttle and launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferebee, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablet, and a dry-silver hard copier which are all desk-top type hardware and occupy minimal space. The data bank contains data from the Saturn V and Titan III flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one-third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data was stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data was statistically analyzed and the resulting 97.5% probability levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. This automated vibroacoustic data bank system greatly enhances the speed and accuracy of formulating vibration test criteria. In the future, the data bank will be expanded to include all data acquired from the space shuttle flight test program.

  18. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis. Volume 4: Business Risk and Value of Operations in Space (BRAVO). Part 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Background information is provided which emphasizes the philosophy behind analytical techniques used in the business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO) study. The focus of the summary is on the general approach, operation of the procedures, and the status of the study. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493; for Vol. 2, see N74-14530.

  19. Correlation tracking study for meter-class solar telescope on space shuttle. [solar granulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, R. C.; Tarbell, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and expected performance level of correlation trackers used to control the pointing of a solar telescope in space using white light granulation as a target were studied. Three specific trackers were modeled and their performance levels predicted for telescopes of various apertures. The performance of the computer model trackers on computer enhanced granulation photographs was evaluated. Parametric equations for predicting tracker performance are presented.

  20. Validity of a heart rate monitor during work in the laboratory and on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. D. Jr; Lee, S. M.; Greenisen, M. C.; Bishop, P.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate heart rate measurement during work is required for many industrial hygiene and ergonomics situations. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the validity of heart rate measurements obtained by a simple, lightweight, commercially available wrist-worn heart rate monitor (HRM) during work (cycle exercise) sessions conducted in the laboratory and also during the particularly challenging work environment of space flight. Three different comparisons were made. The first compared HRM data to simultaneous electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings of varying heart rates that were generated by an ECG simulator. The second compared HRM data to ECG recordings collected during work sessions of 14 subjects in the laboratory. Finally, ECG downlink and HRM data were compared in four astronauts who performed cycle exercise during space flight. The data were analyzed using regression techniques. The results were that the HRM recorded virtually identical heart rates compared with ECG recordings for the data set generated by an ECG simulator. The regression equation for the relationship between ECG versus HRM heart rate data during work in the laboratory was: ECG HR = 0.99 x (HRM) + 0.82 (r2 = 0.99). Finally, the agreement between ECG downlink data and HRM data during space flight was also very high, with the regression equation being: Downlink ECG HR = 1.05 x (HRM) -5.71 (r2 = 0.99). The results of this study indicate that the HRM provides accurate data and may be used to reliably obtain valid data regarding heart rate responses during work.

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  2. A shuttle and space station manipulator system for assembly, docking, maintenance, cargo handling and spacecraft retrieval (preliminary design). Volume 3: Concept analysis. Part 2: Development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary estimate is presented of the resources required to develop the basic general purpose walking boom manipulator system. It is assumed that the necessary full scale zero g test facilities will be available on a no cost basis. A four year development effort is also assumed and it is phased with an estimated shuttle development program since the shuttle will be developed prior to the space station. Based on delivery of one qualification unit and one flight unit and without including any ground support equipment or flight test support it is estimated (within approximately + or - 25%) that a total of 3551 man months of effort and $17,387,000 are required.

  3. STS 131 Return Samples: Assessment of Air Quality Aboard the Shuttle (STS-131) and International Space Station (19A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 1 grab sample canister (GSC) from the Shuttle are reported in Table 1. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the Shuttle GSC were 100%, 93%, and 101%, respectively. Based on the historical experience using end-of-mission samples, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  4. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  5. Status of High Data Rate Intersatellite Laser Communication as an Enabler for Earth and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, F.; Zech, H.; Motzigemba, M.

    2017-12-01

    Space based laser communication is supporting earth observation and science missions with Gbps data download capabilities. Currently the Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 spacecrafts from the Copernicus earth observation program of the European Commission are using the Gbps laser communication links developed by Tesat Spacecom to download low latency data products via a commercial geostationary laser relay station- the European Data Relay Service- (EDRS) as a standard data path, in parallel to the conventional radio frequency links. The paper reports on the status of high bandwidth space laser communication as an enabler for small and large space science missions ranging from cube sat applications in low earth orbit to deep space missions. Space based laser communication has left the experimental phase and will support space science missions with unprecedented data rates.

  6. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  7. Advanced extravehicular protective systems for shuttle, space station, lunar base and Mars missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimlich, P. F.; Sutton, J. G.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Advances in extravehicular life support system technology will directly influence future space mission reliability and maintainability considerations. To identify required new technology areas, an appraisal of advanced portable life support system and subsystem concepts was conducted. Emphasis was placed on thermal control and combined CO2 control/O2 supply subsystems for both primary and emergency systems. A description of study methodology, concept evaluation techniques, specification requirements, and selected subsystems and systems are presented. New technology recommendations encompassing thermal control, CO2 control and O2 supply subsystems are also contained herein.

  8. Using the Global Positioning System for Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-Earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking. This paper summarizes recent results demonstrating these unique and far-ranging applications of GPS.

  9. Beyond Shape and Gravity: Children's Ideas about the Earth in Space Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John G.; Sharp, Jane C.

    2007-01-01

    Children's ideas about the Earth in space have been of interest to science educators and cognitive psychologists for some time. By focusing almost exclusively on shape and gravity alone, however, other important Earth attributes have been largely neglected or overlooked. Findings from a quasi-experimental study of knowledge acquisition and concept…

  10. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  11. Perceived Barriers and Strategies to Effective Online Earth and Space Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, James E.

    2012-01-01

    With the continual growth and demand of online courses, higher education institutions are attempting to meet the needs of today's learners by modifying and developing new student centered services and programs. As a result, faculty members are being forced into teaching online, including Earth and Space science faculty. Online Earth and Space…

  12. An improved empirical model for diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    An empirical model was generated to estimate diversity gain on Earth-space propagation paths as a function of Earth terminal separation distance, link frequency, elevation angle, and angle between the baseline and the path azimuth. The resulting model reproduces the entire experimental data set with an RMS error of 0.73 dB.

  13. Supporting a Deep Space Gateway with Free-Return Earth-Moon Periodic Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, A. L.; Dunham, D. W.; Hardgrove, C.

    2018-02-01

    Earth-Moon periodic orbits travel between the Earth and Moon via free-return circumlunar segments and can host a station that can provide architecture support to other nodes near the Moon and Mars while enabling science return from cislunar space.

  14. Specialized data analysis for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and diagnostic evaluation of advanced propulsion system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the development and management of advanced launch vehicle propulsion systems, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), which is presently operational, and the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) under development. The SSME's provide high performance within stringent constraints on size, weight, and reliability. Based on operational experience, continuous design improvement is in progress to enhance system durability and reliability. Specialized data analysis and interpretation is required in support of SSME and advanced propulsion system diagnostic evaluations. Comprehensive evaluation of the dynamic measurements obtained from test and flight operations is necessary to provide timely assessment of the vibrational characteristics indicating the operational status of turbomachinery and other critical engine components. Efficient performance of this effort is critical due to the significant impact of dynamic evaluation results on ground test and launch schedules, and requires direct familiarity with SSME and derivative systems, test data acquisition, and diagnostic software. Detailed analysis and evaluation of dynamic measurements obtained during SSME and advanced system ground test and flight operations was performed including analytical/statistical assessment of component dynamic behavior, and the development and implementation of analytical/statistical models to efficiently define nominal component dynamic characteristics, detect anomalous behavior, and assess machinery operational condition. In addition, the SSME and J-2 data will be applied to develop vibroacoustic environments for advanced propulsion system components, as required. This study will provide timely assessment of engine component operational status, identify probable causes of malfunction, and indicate feasible engineering solutions. This contract will be performed through accomplishment of negotiated task orders.

  15. Looking at Earth from space. Glossary of terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This glossary is one of a series of NASA publications designed to familiarize educators with global change issues and Mission to Planet Earth. The series enables teachers to enhance classroom studies with hands-on activities, including satellite images. Concepts and terms related to the global environment and the impact of human activities on the planet are presented.

  16. Placing outer space an earthly ethnography of other worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Messeri, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Lisa Messeri traces how planetary scientists-whether working in the Utah desert, a Chilean observatory, or the labs of MIT-transform celestial bodies into places in order to understand the universe as densely inhabited by planets, in turn telling us more about Earth, ourselves, and our place in the cosmos.

  17. Replacement for a Flex Hose Coating at the Space Shuttle Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Mary; Vinje, Rubiela; Curran, Jerome; Meneghelli, Barry; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    Aerocoat AR-7 is a coating that has been used to protect stainless steel flex hoses at NASA's Kennedy Space Center launch complex and hydraulic lines of the mobile launch platform (MLP). This coating has great corrosion control performance and low temperature application. AR-7 was developed by NASA and produced exclusively for NASA but its production has been discontinued due to its high content of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and significant environmental impact. The purpose of this project was to select and evaluate candidate coatings to find a replacement coating that is more environmentally friendly, with similar properties to AR-7. No coatings were identified that perform the same as AR-7 in all areas. Candidate coatings failed in comparison to AR-7 in salt fog, beachside atmospheric exposure, pencil hardness, Mandrel bend, chemical compatibility, adhesion, and ease of application tests. However, two coatings were selected for further evaluation.

  18. ONAV - An Expert System for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1992-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real-time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently, Oct. 1991, the entry and ascent systems have been certified for use on console as support tools, and were used for STS-48. The rendezvous system is in verification with the goal to have the system certified for STS-49, Intelsat retrieval. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real-world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only Al issues but operating environment issues. The Al issues included the maturity of Al languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  19. The problem of space nuclear power sources collisions with artificial space objects in near-earth orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafarov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Practically all space objects with onboard nuclear power sources stay in earth satellite orbits with an orbital lifetime long enough to reduce their radioactivity to levels presenting no danger for the Earth population. One of the reasons for orbit lifetime reduction can be collisions with other space objects in near-earth orbits. The possible consequence of collisions can be partial, or even complete, destruction of the spacecraft with an onboard nuclear power source; as well as delivery of additional impulse both to the spacecraft and its fragments. It is shown that collisions in orbit do not cause increase of radiation hazard for the Earth population if there is aerodynamic breakup of nuclear power sources into fragments of safe sizes during atmospheric reentry

  20. Exposure of phototrophs to 548 days in low Earth orbit: microbial selection pressures in outer space and on early earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Olsson-Francis, Karen

    2011-10-01

    An epilithic microbial community was launched into low Earth orbit, and exposed to conditions in outer space for 548 days on the European Space Agency EXPOSE-E facility outside the International Space Station. The natural phototroph biofilm was augmented with akinetes of Anabaena cylindrica and vegetative cells of Nostoc commune and Chroococcidiopsis. In space-exposed dark controls, two algae (Chlorella and Rosenvingiella spp.), a cyanobacterium (Gloeocapsa sp.) and two bacteria associated with the natural community survived. Of the augmented organisms, cells of A. cylindrica and Chroococcidiopsis survived, but no cells of N. commune. Only cells of Chroococcidiopsis were cultured from samples exposed to the unattenuated extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) spectrum (>110 nm or 200 nm). Raman spectroscopy and bright-field microscopy showed that under these conditions the surface cells were bleached and their carotenoids were destroyed, although cell morphology was preserved. These experiments demonstrate that outer space can act as a selection pressure on the composition of microbial communities. The results obtained from samples exposed to >200 nm UV (simulating the putative worst-case UV exposure on the early Earth) demonstrate the potential for epilithic colonization of land masses during that time, but that UV radiation on anoxic planets can act as a strong selection pressure on surface-dwelling organisms. Finally, these experiments have yielded new phototrophic organisms of potential use in biomass and oxygen production in space exploration.

  1. Space-Based Remote Sensing of the Earth: A Report to the Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The commercialization of the LANDSAT Satellites, remote sensing research and development as applied to the Earth and its atmosphere as studied by NASA and NOAA is presented. Major gaps in the knowledge of the Earth and its atmosphere are identified and a series of space based measurement objectives are derived. The near-term space observations programs of the United States and other countries are detailed. The start is presented of the planning process to develop an integrated national program for research and development in Earth remote sensing for the remainder of this century and the many existing and proposed satellite and sensor systems that the program may include are described.

  2. Expert system technologies for Space Shuttle decision support: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Christopher J.; Hasan, David A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of integrating the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) into distributed data acquisition environments. In particular, it presents preliminary results of some ongoing software development projects aimed at exploiting CLIPS technology in the new mission control center (MCC) being built at NASA Johnson Space Center. One interesting aspect of the control center is its distributed architecture; it consists of networked workstations which acquire and share data through the NASA/JSC-developed information sharing protocol (ISP). This paper outlines some approaches taken to integrate CLIPS and ISP in order to permit the development of intelligent data analysis applications which can be used in the MCC. Three approaches to CLIPS/IPS integration are discussed. The initial approach involves clearly separating CLIPS from ISP using user-defined functions for gathering and sending data to and from a local storage buffer. Memory and performance drawbacks of this design are summarized. The second approach involves taking full advantage of CLIPS and the CLIPS Object-Oriented Language (COOL) by using objects to directly transmit data and state changes from ISP to COOL. Any changes within the object slots eliminate the need for both a data structure and external function call thus taking advantage of the object matching capabilities within CLIPS 6.0. The final approach is to treat CLIPS and ISP as peer toolkits. Neither is embedded in the other; rather the application interweaves calls to each directly in the application source code.

  3. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) Engine Propellant Leakage Ball-Valve Shaft Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathy; Buntain, Nick; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of propellant leakage across ball-valve shaft seals has been noted during the disassembly of five flight engines and one test engine at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, White Sands Test Facility. Based on data collected during the disassembly of these five engines, the consequences of propellant leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals can be divided into four primary areas of concern: Damage to the ball-valve pinion shafts, damage to sleeved bearings inside the ball-valve and actuator assemblies, degradation of the synthetic rubber o-rings used in the actuator assemblies, and corrosion and degradation to the interior of the actuator assemblies. The exact time at which leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals occurs has not been determined, however, the leakage most likely occurs during engine firings when, depending on the specification used, ball-valve cavity pressures range as high as 453 to 550 psia. This potential pressure range for the ball-valve cavities greatly exceeds the acceptance leakage test pressure of 332 psia. Since redesign and replacement of the ball-valve shaft seals is unlikely, the near term solution to prevent damage that occurs from shaft-seal leakage is to implement a routine overhaul and maintenance program for engines in the fleet. Recommended repair, verification, and possible preventative maintenance measures are discussed in the paper.

  4. A review of ionospheric effects on Earth-space propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuchar, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A short description is given of each ionospheric total electron content (TEC) effect upon radio waves, along with a representative value of the magnitude of each of these effects under normal ionospheric conditions. A discussion is given of the important characteristics of average ionospheric TEC behavior and the temporal and spatial variability of TEC. Radio waves undergo several effects when they pass through the Earth's ionosphere. One of the most important of these effects is a retardation, or group delay, on the modulation or information carried on the radio wave that is due to its encounter with the free, thermal electrons in the Earth's ionosphere. Other effects the ionosphere has on radio waves include: radio frequency (RF) carrier phase advance; Doppler shift of the RF carrier of the radio wave; Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized waves; angular refraction or bending of the radio wave path as it travels through the ionosphere; and amplitude and phase scintillations.

  5. Programs Visualize Earth and Space for Interactive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Hussey and others at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory produced web applications to visualize all of the spacecraft in orbit around Earth and in the Solar System. Hussey worked with Milwaukee, Wisconsin-based The Elumenati to rewrite the programs, and after licensing them, the company started offering a version that can be viewed on spheres and dome theaters for schools, museums, science centers, and other institutions.

  6. The impact of earth resources exploration from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, W.

    1976-01-01

    Remote sensing of the earth from satellite systems such as Landsat, Nimbus, and Skylab has demonstrated the potential influence of such observations on a number of major human concerns. These concerns include the management of food, water and fiber resources, the exploration and management of mineral and energy resources, the protection of the environment, the protection of life and property, and improvements in shipping and navigation.

  7. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  8. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  9. A shuttle and space station manipulator system for assembly, docking, maintenance cargo handling and spacecraft retrieval (preliminary design). Volume 1: Management summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design is established for a general purpose manipulator system which can be used interchangeably on the shuttle and station and can be transferred back and forth between them. Control of the manipulator is accomplished by hard wiring from internal control stations in the shuttle or station. A variety of shuttle and station manipulator operations are considered including servicing the Large Space Telescope; however, emphasis is placed on unloading modules from the shuttle and assembling the space station. Simulation studies on foveal stereoscopic viewing and manipulator supervisory computer control have been accomplished to investigate the feasibility of their use in the manipulator system. The basic manipulator system consists of a single 18.3 m long, 7 degree of freedom (DOF), electrically acutated main boom with an auxiliary 3 DOF electrically actuated, extendible 18.3 m maximum length, lighting, and viewing boom. A 3 DOF orientor assembly is located at the tip of the viewing boom to provide camera pan, tilt, and roll.

  10. Effects of Alternate Leading Edge Cutback on the Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Pressure Fuel Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Andrew; Skelley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A higher order cavitation oscillation observed in the SSME low pressure fuel pump has been eliminated in water flow testing of a modified subscale replica of the inducer. The low pressure pump was modified by removing the outboard sections of two opposing blades of the four-bladed inducer, blending the "cutback" regions into the blades at the leading edge and tip, and removing material on the suction sides to decrease the exposed leading edge thickness. The leading edge tips of the cutback blades were moved approximately 25 degrees from their previous locations, thereby increasing one blade to blade spacing, decreasing the second, while simultaneously moving the cutback tips downstream. The test was conducted in MSFC's inducer test loop at scaled operating conditions in degassed and filtered water. In addition to eliminating HOC across the entire scaled operating regime, rotating cavitation was suppressed while the range of both alternate blade and asymmetric cavitation were increased. These latter phenomena, and more significantly, the shifts between these cavitation modes also resulted in significant changes to the head coefficient at low cavitation numbers. Reverse flow was detected at a slightly larger flow coefficient with the cutback inducer and suction capability was reduced by approximately 1 velocity head at and above approximately 90% of the reference flow coefficient. These performance changes along with more intense reverse flow are consistent with poor flow area management and increased incidence in the cutback region. Although the test demonstrated that the inducer modification was successful at eliminating the higher order cavitation across the entire scaled operating regime, different, previously unobserved, cavitation oscillations were introduced and significant performance penalties were imposed.

  11. The future of irradiation applications on earth and in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the current status of food irradiation in the United States, what needs to be done to establish food irradiation on a truly commercial basis, and prospects for the use of food irradiation in space

  12. Upper-Atmospheric Space and Earth Weather Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The USEWX project is seeking to monitor, record, and distribute atmospheric measurements of the radiation environment by installing a variety of dosimeters and other...

  13. Design Concepts for a Small Space-Based GEO Relay Satellite for Missions Between Low Earth and near Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Warner, Joseph D.; Oleson, Steven; Schier, James

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the Small Space-Based Geosynchronous Earth orbiting (GEO) satellite is to provide a space link to the user mission spacecraft for relaying data through ground networks to user Mission Control Centers. The Small Space Based Satellite (SSBS) will provide services comparable to those of a NASA Tracking Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) for the same type of links. The SSBS services will keep the user burden the same or lower than for TDRS and will support the same or higher data rates than those currently supported by TDRS. At present, TDRSS provides links and coverage below GEO; however, SSBS links and coverage capability to above GEO missions are being considered for the future, especially for Human Space Flight Missions (HSF). There is also a rising need for the capability to support high data rate links (exceeding 1 Gbps) for imaging applications. The communication payload on the SSBS will provide S/Ka-band single access links to the mission and a Ku-band link to the ground, with an optical communication payload as an option. To design the communication payload, various link budgets were analyzed and many possible operational scenarios examined. To reduce user burden, using a larger-sized antenna than is currently in use by TDRS was considered. Because of the SSBS design size, it was found that a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket could deliver three SSBSs to GEO. This will greatly reduce the launch costs per satellite. Using electric propulsion was also evaluated versus using chemical propulsion; the power system size and time to orbit for various power systems were also considered. This paper will describe how the SSBS will meet future service requirements, concept of operations, and the design to meet NASA users' needs for below and above GEO missions. These users' needs not only address the observational mission requirements but also possible HSF missions to the year 2030. We will provide the trade-off analysis of the communication payload design in terms of

  14. Our Place in Space: Exploring the Earth-Moon System and Beyond with NASA's CINDI E/PO Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Where does space begin? How far is the Moon? How far is Mars? How does our dynamic star, the Sun, affect its family of planets? All of these questions relate to exploration of our Solar System, and are also part of the Education/Public Outreach (E/PO) Program for NASA’s CINDI project, a space weather mission of opportunity. The Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation has been flying aboard the US Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite in the upper atmosphere of the Earth since April 2008. The Earth’s ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere CINDI studies, is also in space. The CINDI E/PO program uses this fact in lessons designed to help students in middle schools and introductory astronomy classes develop a sense of their place in space. In the activity "How High is Space?" students’ start by building an 8-page scale model of the Earth’s atmosphere with 100 km/page. The peak of Mount Everest, commercial airplanes, and the tops of thunderheads all appear at the bottom of the first page of the model, with astronaut altitude -where space begins- at the top of the same sheet of paper. In "Where Would CINDI Be?" the idea of scale is further developed by modeling the Earth-Moon system to scale first in size, then in distance, using half of standard containers of play dough. With a lowest altitude of about 400 km, similar to that of the International Space Station and orbiting Space Shuttle, CINDI is close to the Earth when compared with the nearly thousand times greater distance to the Moon. Comparing and combining the atmosphere and Earth-Moon system models help reinforce ideas of scale and build student understanding of how far away the Moon actually is. These scale models have also been adapted for use in Family Science Nights, and to include the planet Mars. In this presentation, we will show how we use CINDI’s scale modeling activities and others from our broader space sciences E/PO program in formal and informal

  15. Problem of short-term forecasting of near-earth space state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eselevich, V.G.; Ashmanets, V.I.; Startsev, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with actual and practically important problem of investigation and forecasting of state condition during magnetic storms. The available methods of forecasting of near-earth space state are analyzed. Forecasting of magnetic storms was conducted for control of space vehicles. Quasi-determinate method of magnetic storm forecasting is suggested. 13 refs., 3 figs

  16. Earth in Space: A CD-ROM Version for Pre-College Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedigo, P.

    2003-12-01

    Earth in Space, a magazine about the Earth and space sciences for pre-college science teachers, was published by AGU between 1987 and 2001 (9 issues each year). The goal of Earth in Space was to make research at the frontiers of the geosciences accessible to teachers and students and engage them in thinking about scientific careers. Each issue contained two or three recent research articles, rewritten for a high school level audience from the original version published in peer-reviewed AGU journals, which were supplemented with short news items and biographic information about the authors. As part of a 2003 summer internship with AGU, sponsored by the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) and the American Institute of Physics, this collection of Earth in Space magazines was converted into an easily accessible electronic resource for K-12 teachers and students. Every issue was scanned into a PDF file. The entire collection of articles was cataloged in a database indexed to key topic terms (e.g., volcanoes, global climate change, space weather). A front-page was designed in order to facilitate rapid access to articles concerning specific topics within the Earth and space sciences of particular interest to high school students. A compact CD-ROM version of this resource will be distributed to science teachers at future meetings of the National Science Teachers Association and will be made available through AGU's Outreach and Research Support program.

  17. Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement. Part 2; Structural Analysis Technologies and Modeling Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2004-01-01

    A technology review and assessment of modeling and analysis efforts underway in support of a safe return to flight of the thermal protection system (TPS) for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) are summarized. This review and assessment effort focuses on the structural modeling and analysis practices employed for ET TPS foam design and analysis and on identifying analysis capabilities needed in the short-term and long-term. The current understanding of the relationship between complex flight environments and ET TPS foam failure modes are reviewed as they relate to modeling and analysis. A literature review on modeling and analysis of TPS foam material systems is also presented. Finally, a review of modeling and analysis tools employed in the Space Shuttle Program is presented for the ET TPS acreage and close-out foam regions. This review includes existing simplified engineering analysis tools are well as finite element analysis procedures.

  18. Space shuttle/food system. Volume 2, Appendix C: Food cooling techniques analysis. Appendix D: Package and stowage: Alternate concepts analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.

  19. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for... Union. (d) Earth station applicants requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S.-licensed space... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  20. Voxel Advanced Digital-manufacturing for Earth & Regolith in Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A voxel is a discrete three-dimensional (3D) element of material that is used to construct a larger 3D object. It is the 3D equivalent of a pixel. This project will...