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Sample records for space radiations annual

  1. Space Radiation

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  2. Protection from space radiation

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods

  3. Space radiation effects

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  4. The space radiation environment

    Robbins, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u -1 to over a GeV u -1 . These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d -1 depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d -1 . In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d -1 . Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h -1 . For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y -1 at solar maximum and 580 mSv y -1 at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv

  5. Space Radiation Dosimetry

    Deme, S.

    2003-01-01

    Although partly protected from galactic and solar cosmic radiation by the Earth's magnetosphere in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) astronauts exposure levels during long-term missions (90 days to 180 days) by far exceed with exposures of up to more than 100 mSv the annual exposure limits set for workers in the nuclear industry, but are still below the yearly exposure limits of 500 mSv for NASA astronauts. During solar particle events the short-term limits (300 mSv) may be approached or even exceeded. In the interplanetary space, outside the Earth's magnetic field even relatively benign Solar Particle Events (SPEs) can produce 1 Sv skin-absorbed doses. Although new rocket technologies could reduce astronauts' total exposure to space radiation during a human Mars mission, the time required for the mission, which is now in the order of years. Therefore mission planners will need to consider a variety of countermeasures for the crew members including physical protection (e.g. shelters), active protection (e.g. magnetic protection), pharmacological protection, local protection (extra protection for critical areas of the body) etc. With full knowledge of these facts, accurate personal dose measurement will become increasingly important during human missions to Mars. The new dose limits for radiation workers correspond to excess lifetime risk of 3% (NCRP) and 4% (ICRP). While astronauts accept the whole variety of flight risks they are taking in mission, there is concern about risks that may occur later in life. A risk no greater than the risk of radiation workers would be acceptable. (author)

  6. Radiation effects in space

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  7. Radiation effects in space

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  8. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  9. Radiation protection in space

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  10. Radiation protection in space

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  11. Radiation environment in space

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  12. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  13. Space radiation environment

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  14. Radiation practices. Annual report 2002

    Rantanen, E.

    2003-06-01

    A total of 1820 safety licences granted for the use of radiation in Finland were current at the end of 2002. There were also 2037 undertakings for dental X-ray diagnostics (licencefree). The Safety Licence Register of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 14 120 radiation devices and 262 radionuclide laboratories. In 2002, STUK performed 401 inspections of licensed practices and 25 inspections of licence-free dental X-ray practices. Restrictions were ordered on the use of one device. Repairs were ordered in 116 cases and recommended in 55 cases. No remarks were given in 254 cases. Imports of radioactive substances amounted to 110 157 GBq and exports totalled 22 359 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 42 487 GBq. The STUK interim storage for radioactive wastes received 65 batches of low-level wastes. A total of 11 190 workers were individually monitored for radiation exposure at 1176 workplaces. Of these workers, some 32% were category A workers and 67% category B workers. In no case were annual dose limits exceeded. The total dose in the use of radiation and nuclear energy recorded in the STUK Dose Register was 6.35 Sv. The mean doses in typical diagnostic X-ray procedures based on phantom measurements were below the reference levels issued by the European Community, the IAEA and STUK. Accuracy of the therapeutic doses underlying good therapeutic results in radiotherapy has remained within acceptable limits, and no excessive doses jeopardizing the safety of therapy have occurred. In the regulatory control of natural radiation, inspection reports requesting performance of radon repairs or measurements of radon concentrations were sent to 145 enterprises. Underground radon inspections were performed in 4 mines and 7 excavation sites. The mean effective dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation was 1.6 mSv. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health Decree on the Limitation of Public Exposure to Non-Ionizing Radiation

  15. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Li Huhou

    1988-01-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned

  16. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Huhou, Li [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Archaeology

    1988-11-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned.

  17. Modeling Space Radiation with Bleomycin

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is a mixed field of solar particle events (proton) and particles of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with different energy levels. These radiation events...

  18. Radiations and space flight

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  19. Space Radiation Research at NASA

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of space radiation on astronauts is one of the most important limiting factors for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit, including a journey to Mars. This talk will present an overview of space radiation issues that arise throughout the solar system and will describe research efforts at NASA aimed at studying space radiation effects on astronauts, including the experimental program at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent work on galactic cosmic ray simulation at ground based accelerators will also be presented. The three major sources of space radiation, namely geomagnetically trapped particles, solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays will be discussed as well as recent discoveries of the harmful effects of space radiation on the human body. Some suggestions will also be given for developing a space radiation program in the Republic of Korea.

  20. Radiation biophysics in space

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1983-01-01

    In a demonstration experiment bacterium sporules have been exposed to the space vacuum and to the solar radiation field at 254 nm, with the following results: 1) a short vacuum exposition of 1.3 h does not affect the vitality of the sporules, 2) the survival rate of humid sporules after UV-irradiation is consistent with terrestrial control samples, 3) after a simultaneous exposition to vacuum and solar UV-radiation the effect on the sporules is enhanced by a factor of ten as compared to the situation without vaccum exposition. Additional studies in biophysical simulation systems revealed, that the enhanced UV sensitivity is caused by the dehydration of the sporules. By this process the structure of the essential macromolecules in cell, such as DNA and proteins, is modified such that new photo-products can be formed. For these products the cells have no effective repair systems. (AJ) [de

  1. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  2. Radiation: behavioral implications in space

    Bogo, V.

    1988-01-01

    Since future space missions are likely to be beyond Earth's protective atmosphere, a potentially significant hazard is radiation. The following behavioural situations are addressed in this paper: (1) space radiations are more effective at disrupting behaviour; (2) task demands can aggravate the radiation-disruption; (3) efforts to mitigate disruption with drugs or shielding are not satisfactory and the drugs can be behaviourally toxic; and (4) space- and radiation-induced emesis combined may be synergistic. Thus future space travel will be a demanding, exciting time for behavioral toxicologists, and while the circumstances may seem insurmountable at first, creative application of scientific expertise should illicit solutions, similar to demanding situations confronted before. (author)

  3. Radiation Practices. Annual report 2004

    Rantanen, E.

    2005-06-01

    A total of 1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2004. There were 1924 responsible parties engaged in licence-exempt dental X-ray practices, made notifiable to STUK. Regulatory control of the use of radiation was carried out through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of a Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted to support the regulatory control. In 2004, STUK conducted 438 inspections of licensed practices and 38 inspections of notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices. Restrictions were imposed on the use of five appliances. Repairs were ordered in 150 inspections and recommended in 85 inspections. No remarks were given in 229 inspections. A total of 11 082 workers engaged in radiation work were subject to individual monitoring in 2004. 135 000 dose entries were made in the register maintained by STUK. In no case did the individual dose of any worker exceed the dose limits stipulated in the Radiation Decree. Regulatory control of natural radiation concentrated on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. At the end of 2004, 55 workplaces including a total of 74 work areas were subject to radon monitoring. A total of 2540 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation focused particularly on mobile phones and sunbeds. Radiation safety assessments were also made for public broadcasting equipment, radars, 'artificial sun' aboard a cruise liner, UVC bactericide lamps in a bakery and show laser lights. A recommendation on radiation safety for sunbeds was prepared in association with other Nordic countries. Most research and development work was done in jointly financed research projects and

  4. Radiation practices. Annual report 2011

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2012-09-15

    1791 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2011. 1702 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 575 inspections of licensed practices in 2011. 633 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 11 700 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2011 and about 143 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 166 workplaces including a total of 288 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2011. Just over 3600 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK was involved in four ionizing radiation research projects, and also took part in an international expert group evaluation of STUK research activities. New alpha and beta sources were procured for metrological activities and a Co-60 irradiation device procured in 2010 was installed and taken into use. Calibration and testing services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2011 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Orders were issued to 5 responsible parties to discontinue the use of tattoo removal lasers. 7 sunbed facilities were inspected and 10 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Five mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. Non-ionizing radiation research activities were also subjected to the evaluation of STUK research activities

  5. Radiation practices. Annual report 2008

    Rantanen, E.

    2009-09-01

    1775 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2008. 1831 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. STUK conducted 424 inspections of licensed practices and 18 inspections of notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices in 2008. 209 repair orders and recommendations were issued. Use of one appliance was prohibited. A total of just over 11 500 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2008, and about 140 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 89 workplaces including a total of 201 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2008. Some 3700 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2008 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Ten mobile phone types and five baby monitors were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. 25 sunbed facilities were inspected and nine laser display inspections were performed. There were 22 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2008. Seventeen of these incidents concerned the use of radiation in industry, research or transportation, four concerned the use of radiation in health care, and one concerned the use of non-ionizing radiation. None of these incidents had serious consequences. (orig.)

  6. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)

    Hoefert, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  7. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)

    Hoefert, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  8. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)

    Hoefert, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  9. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1996)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1997-03-25

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1996. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  10. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1998)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1999-04-15

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1998. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  11. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1997)

    Hoefert, M [ed.

    1998-04-10

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1997. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group.

  12. Radiation Protection Group annual report (1995)

    Hoefert, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Radiation Protection Group is intended to inform the Host State Authorities, as well as the CERN Management and staff, about the radiological situation at CERN during the year 1995. The structure of the present report follows that of previous years and has five sections. It presents the results of environmental radiation monitoring, gives information about the radiation control on the sites of the Organization, describes the radiation protection activities around the CERN accelerators, reports on personnel dosimetry, calibration and instrumentation, and briefly comments on the non-routine activities of the Radiation Protection Group

  13. Radiation Practices. Annual Report 2003

    Rantanen, E.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 1811 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2003. There were 1962 responsible parties engaged in licence-exempt dental X-ray practices, made notifiable to STUK. Regulatory control of the use of radiation was carried out through regular inspections performed at places of use, postal control, guidance, maintenance of a Dose Register and research intended to support the regulatory control. A total of 10 900 workers engaged in radiation work were subject to individual monitoring in 2003. 135 000 dose entries were made in the register maintained by STUK. In no case did the individual dose of any worker exceed the dose limits stipulated in the Radiation Decree. Regulatory control of natural radiation concentrated on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. At the end of 2003, 90 workplaces including a total of 141 work areas were subject to ongoing radon monitoring. A total of 2485 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. The DOS Laboratory of STO joined the international MRA agreement on the 'self declaration principle'. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation focused particularly on mobile phones and sun-beds. Mobile phone market control began by measuring the radiation produced by a range of 12 mobile phones of varying type. Spot check inspections were conducted at tanning facilities and a report was completed on radiation safety improvements at such establishments. A method of measurement based on commercial CCD spectroradiometers was developed for spectral measurements of UV phototherapy appliances and sunbeds. The said method is also suitable for measurements at places of use. A new type of magnetometer, which measures peak values over a wide frequency band weighted according to exposure limits, was developed for measuring low frequency magnetic fields. In

  14. Radiation practices. Annual report 2009

    Rantanen, E.

    2010-08-01

    1 742 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2009. 1 820 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 414 inspections of licensed practices in 2009. 392 repair orders and recommendations were issued. A total of nearly 11 600 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2009. Just under 160 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 108 workplaces including a total of 219 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2009. 3655 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK took part in three major ionizing radiation research projects. An IAEA research project tested IAEA/WHO diagnostic dosimetry guidelines. The accuracy and reliability of internal and external radiotherapy dosimetric methods in modern radiotherapy technology was studied as part of a European metrology research programme. In metrological activities the calibration procedure for radiotherapy accelerator electron beam dosemeters was modified by changing from meter calibration in hospitals to laboratory calibration. Some irradiation appliances were also replaced. Calibration services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2009 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. Fifteen mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of wireless communication devices. 19 sunbed facilities were inspected and ten laser display inspections were

  15. Radiation practices. Annual report 2010

    Rantanen, E. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    1760 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2010. 1789 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray activities. Use of radiation was controlled through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) conducted 384 inspections of licensed practices in 2010. 447 repair orders and recommendations were issued in the course of inspections. A total of nearly 12 100 workers were subject to individual monitoring in 2010. Just under 160 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register maintained by STUK. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 140 workplaces including a total of 348 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2010. 3428 cockpit and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. STUK took part in three major ionizing radiation research projects. An IAEA research project tested diagnostic dosimetry guidelines. The accuracy and reliability of internal and external radiotherapy dosimetric methods in modern radiotherapy technology were studied as part of a European metrology research programme. In metrological activities the dosemeter calibration procedure for radiotherapy accelerator electron beams was modified by changing from meter calibrations in hospitals to laboratory calibrations. Some irradiation appliances were also replaced. Calibration services continued as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2010 focused particularly on mobile phones, sunbeds and lasers. 16 sunbed facilities were inspected and 8 on-site laser display inspections were performed. Ten mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of

  16. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  17. Radiation Practices. Annual Report 2005

    Rantanen, E.

    2006-06-01

    1764 safety licences for the use of radiation were current at the end of 2005. 1907 responsible parties were engaged in notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices. Regulatory control of the use of radiation was performed through regular inspections performed at places of use, test packages sent by post to dental X-ray facilities and maintenance of the Dose Register. Radiation safety guides were also published and research was conducted in support of regulatory control. STUK conducted 458 inspections of licensed practices and 62 inspections of notifiable licence-exempt dental X-ray practices in 2005. 273 remedial orders and recommendations were issued. Use of one appliance was prohibited. A total of 11 698 workers engaged in radiation work were subject to individual monitoring in 2005. 137 000 dose entries were made in the Dose Register. In no case did the individual dose of any worker exceed the dose limits stipulated in the Radiation Decree. Regulatory control of natural radiation focused on radon at workplaces and exposure of aircrews to cosmic radiation. 90 workplaces including a total of 233 work areas were subject to radon monitoring during 2005. 2600 pilots and cabin crew members were monitored for exposure to cosmic radiation. Metrological activities continued with calibration and development work as in previous years. Regulatory control of the use of non-ionizing radiation in 2005 continued to focus particularly on mobile phones and sunbeds. 15 mobile phone types were tested in market surveillance of mobile phones. A total of 44 sunbed appliances were inspected at 36 sunbed facilities. Most research and development work took place within jointly financed research projects. This work focused especially on developing testing and measuring methods for determining exposure to electromagnetic fields caused by mobile phones and their base stations. There were 13 abnormal incidents involving the use of radiation in 2005. Eight of these incidents concerned

  18. Radiation risk in space exploration

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M.H.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Humans living and working in space are exposed to energetic charged particle radiation due to galactic cosmic rays and solar particle emissions. In order to keep the risk due to radiation exposure of astronauts below acceptable levels, the physical interaction of these particles with space structures and the biological consequences for crew members need to be understood. Such knowledge is, to a large extent, very sparse when it is available at all. Radiation limits established for space radiation protection purposes are based on extrapolation of risk from Japanese survivor data, and have been found to have large uncertainties. In space, attempting to account for large uncertainties by worst-case design results in excessive costs and accurate risk prediction is essential. It is best developed at ground-based laboratories, using particle accelerator beams to simulate individual components of space radiation. Development of mechanistic models of the action of space radiation is expected to lead to the required improvements in the accuracy of predictions, to optimization of space structures for radiation protection and, eventually, to the development of biological methods of prevention and intervention against radiation injury. (author)

  19. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  20. Space radiation and astronaut safety

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This brief explores the biological effects of long-term radiation on astronauts in deep space. As missions progress beyond Earth's orbit and away from the protection of its magnetic shielding, astronauts risk constant exposure to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. The text concisely addresses the full spectrum of biomedical consequences from exposure to space radiation and goes on to present possible ways to mitigate such dangers and protect astronauts within the limitations of existing technologies.

  1. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  2. Surviving radiation in space

    Coates, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation damage to communications, navigation and weather satellites is common and caused by high energy charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, from the Earth's Van Allen belts. The combined release and radiation effects satellite (CRRES), recently launched by the United States, will allow scientists to create far more realistic computer models of satellite radiation damage than has been the case to date. It is hoped that information thus received will allow satellite builders to protect these essential structures in future. The second aim of the CCRES mission is to study the effect of releasing artificially charged particles into the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Spacecraft design engineers will benefit from the results produced by the CCRES mission. (UK)

  3. Space radiation dosimetry

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.; Kopp, J.; Strauch, K.; Heinrich, W.

    1996-01-01

    Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emusions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed at different locations inside the space laboratory Spacelab and at the astronauts' body and in different sections of the MIR space station. Total dose measurements, particle fluence rate and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of heavy ions, number of nuclear disintegrations and fast neutron fluence rate from this exposure are given in this report. The dose equivalent received by the PSs were calculated from the measurements and range from 190 μSv d -1 to 770 μSv d -3 . (orig.) [de

  4. Eighth annual occupational radiation exposure report, 1975

    Brooks, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    This is a report by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the operation of the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. Annual reports were received from 387 covered licensees indicating that some 78,713 individuals, having an average exposure of 0.36 rems, were monitored for exposure to radiation during 1975 and that 21,601 individuals terminated their employment or work assignment with covered licensees in 1975. The number of personnel overexposures reported in 1975 decreased from previous years. The most significant overexposures which occurred in 1975 are summarized

  5. Monitoring of radiation exposure. Annual report 2000

    Rantanen, E.

    2001-03-01

    At the end of 2000, there were 1,779 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,038 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) listed 13,754 radiation sources and 270 radionuclide laboratories. In the year 2000 360 inspections were made concerning the safety licences and 53 concerning dental x-ray diagnostics. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 175,836 GBq and export to 74,420 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 55,527 GBq. In the year 2000 there were 10,846 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,171 work sites. Of these employees, 27% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry(sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 6.5 Sv in 2000

  6. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  8. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  9. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  10. Space Program Annual Report, For Approval

    TM Schaefer

    2004-01-01

    Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) (lead) has been requested by the Reference to create an unclassified report on the Prometheus Program's Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. This report is expected to be issued annually and be similar in level of content and scope to the NR Program's annual report ''The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program'' (referred to as the Grey Book). The attachment to this letter provides a draft of the Prometheus Program report for NR review and approval. As stated in the Reference, a March 2005 issuance is planned following a coordinated NR Headquarter's review. The information contained in the attached report was obtained from open literature sources, NASA documents and Naval Reactors Program literature. The photographs contained in the report are drafts and their quality will be improved in the final version of the report. This report has been reviewed by the KAPL and Bettis Space Power Plant Staff and has been concurred with by the Manager of Space Power Plant (MJ Wollman) and the Manager of Bettis Reactor Engineering (C Eshelman)

  11. Occupational radiation exposure. Twelfth annual report, 1979

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1982-08-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that is maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Radiation Exposure Information and Reports System (REIRS). This report is usually published on an annual basis and is available at all NRC public document rooms. The bulk of the information contained in the report was extracted from annual statistical reports submitted by all NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.407. Four categories of licensees - operating nuclear power reactors, fuel fabricators and reprocessors, industrial radiographers, and manufacturers and distributors of specified quantities of byproduct materials - also submit personal identification and exposure information for terminating employees pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408, and some analysis of this data is also presented in this report

  12. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  13. Radiation in space: risk estimates

    Fry, R.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of radiation environments in space makes estimation of risks more difficult than for the protection of terrestrial population. In deep space the duration of the mission, position of the solar cycle, number and size of solar particle events (SPE) and the spacecraft shielding are the major determinants of risk. In low-earth orbit missions there are the added factors of altitude and orbital inclination. Different radiation qualities such as protons and heavy ions and secondary radiations inside the spacecraft such as neutrons of various energies, have to be considered. Radiation dose rates in space are low except for short periods during very large SPEs. Risk estimation for space activities is based on the human experience of exposure to gamma rays and to a lesser extent X rays. The doses of protons, heavy ions and neutrons are adjusted to take into account the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the different radiation types and thus derive equivalent doses. RBE values and factors to adjust for the effect of dose rate have to be obtained from experimental data. The influence of age and gender on the cancer risk is estimated from the data from atomic bomb survivors. Because of the large number of variables the uncertainties in the probability of the effects are large. Information needed to improve the risk estimates includes: (1) risk of cancer induction by protons, heavy ions and neutrons; (2) influence of dose rate and protraction, particularly on potential tissue effects such as reduced fertility and cataracts; and (3) possible effects of heavy ions on the central nervous system. Risk cannot be eliminated and thus there must be a consensus on what level of risk is acceptable. (author)

  14. Biology relevant to space radiation

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration

  15. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    1980-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation was established in April, 1975, as a private nonprofit Japanese Foundation supported equally by the Government of Japan through the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the Government of the United States through the National Academy of Sciences under contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. First, the messages from the chairman and the vice-chairman are described. In the annual report, the review of ABCC-RERF studies of atomic bomb survivors, the summary of research activities, the research projects, the technical report abstracts, the research papers published in Japanese and foreign journals, and the oral presentation and lectures, all from April 1, 1978, to March 31, 1979, are reported. Also the report from the Secretariat and the appendixes are given. The surveys and researches carried out in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have offered very valuable informations to the atomic bomb survivors. Many fears were eliminated, medical interests were given to the serious effects of the exposure to atomic bombs, and many things concerning the cancer induced by radiation were elucidated. The knowledges obtained will save many human lives in future by utilizing them for setting up the health and safety standard in the case of handling ionizing radiation. The progress in researches such as life span study, adult health study, pathology study, genetics program, special cancer program and so on is reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings for the Center for Advanced Space Propulsion Second Annual Technical Symposium are divided as follows: Chemical Propulsion, CFD; Space Propulsion; Electric Propulsion; Artificial Intelligence; Low-G Fluid Management; and Rocket Engine Materials.

  17. Radiation Protection Group Annual Report 2003

    Silari, M

    2004-01-01

    The RP Annual Report summarises the activities carried out by CERN’s Radiation Protection Group in the year 2003. It includes contribution from the EN section of the TIS/IE Group on environmental monitoring. Chapter 1 reports on the measurements and estimations of the impact on the environment and public exposure due to the Organisation’s activities. Chapter 2 provides the results of the monitoring of CERN’s staff, users and contractors to occupational exposure. Chapter 3 deals with operational radiation protection around the accelerators and in the experimental areas. Chapter 4 reports on RP design studies for the LHC and CNGS projects. Chapter 5 addresses the various services provided by the RP Group to other Groups and Divisions at CERN, which include managing radioactive waste, high-level dosimetry, lending radioactive test sources and shipping radioactive materials. Chapter 6 describes activities other than the routine and service tasks, i.e. development work in the field of instrumentation and res...

  18. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  19. Dosimetric radiation measurements in space

    Benton, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    In reviewing radiation exposures recorded during spaceflights of the United States and the Soviet Union, this paper examines absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as inclination, altitude, spacecraft type and shielding. Complete shielding from galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. Preliminary data on neutron and HZE-particle components and LET spectra are available. Most of the data in this paper are from manned missions; for low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence on inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System (STS) No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  1. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2009

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2010-12-01

    The annual report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2009 consists of two parts. Part A: General information: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B includes current data and their evaluation for natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation.

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2011

    Bernhard-Stroel, Claudia; Hachenburger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Peter, Josef

    2013-07-01

    The annual report 2011 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following issues: Part A: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. Part B; Current data and their evaluation: Natural environmental radioactivity, artificial radioactivity in the environment, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. The Appendix includes Explanations of terms, radiation doses and related units, external and internal radiation exposure, stochastic and deterministic radiation effects, genetic radiation effects, induction of malignant neoplasm, risk assessment, physical units and glossary, laws, ordinances, guidelines, recommendations and other regulations concerning radiation protection, list of selected radionuclides.

  4. Research progress on space radiation biology

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  5. Annual radiation background in Isfahan city

    Tavakoli, Mohammad B.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of environmental exposure is very important from different points of view. It is especially important for human health. It has been measured accurately in many countries. In Iran, it is also measured in some cities especially in high background areas such as Ramsar, but there is not any measurement in Isfahan. Measurement of background radiation in this study is performed using TLD method. The TLDs used are made from CaSO 4 :Dy, which is very sensitive. The locations under investigations in this research were 52 health centers distributed all around Isfahan city. Each TLD badge was put in a special plastic bag and left over the roofs of the selected health center for a month. The procedure was repeated for all 12 months of the year 1379(21 st March 2000 to 20 th March 2001). The results were used to obtain mean and SD in each month and at different places. The maximum and the minimum of obtained results for dose equivalent in different months and locations were 15.9x10 -2 and 6.5x10 -2 mSv. Obtained maximum and minimum of the means between all the locations were 10.5x10 -2 and 8.6x10 2 mSv for the whole year. Monthly mean and SD for Isfahan city for the whole year were 9.7x10 -2 and 1.5x10 -2 respectively therefore mean annual dose equivalent in Isfahan city is 1.16mSv. The results do not show any high background radiation area

  6. Dose estimation for space radiation protection

    Xu Feng; Xu Zhenhua; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong

    2007-01-01

    For evaluating the effect of space radiation on human health, the dose was estimated using the models of space radiation environment, models of distribution of the spacecraft's or space suit's mass thickness and models of human body. The article describes these models and calculation methods. (authors)

  7. Annual individual doses for personnel dealing with ionizing radiation sources

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Data on annual individual doses for personnel of national economy enterprises, research institutes, high schools, medical establishments dealing with ionizing radiation sources are presented. It is shown that radiation dose for the personnel constitutes only shares of standards established by sanitary legislation. Numeral values of individual doses of the personnel are determined by the type, character and scope of using ionizing radiation sources

  8. Space Radiation Intelligence System (SPRINTS), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Federal Systems proposes an innovative SPace Radiation INTelligence System (SPRINTS) which provides an interactive and web-delivered capability that...

  9. Mean annual and collective radiation doses of Perm' province personnel

    Poplavskij, K.K.; Rotenberg, L.I.

    1978-01-01

    The average annual and collective doses of radiation received by personnel of radiologic facilities and by the population of the region under study as a whole are estimated. Tabular data on radiation loads are presented according to the age and sex of personnel and to the type of radiation sources used. The procedure employed in this study allows one to evaluate objectively the conditions of work with sources of ionizing radiation

  10. Project Radiation protection, Annual report 1994

    Ninkovic, M.M.

    1994-12-01

    According to the action plan for the period 1991-1995, the main objective of this project during 1994 was to provide operational basis, methods and procedures for solving the radiation protection problems that might appear under routine working conditions and handling of radiation sources. The aim was also to provide special methods for action in case of accidents that could affect the employed staff and the population. Overall activity was directed to maintaining and providing personnel, instrumentation, and methods for the following special radiation protection measures: operational control of the radiation field and contamination; calibration of the radiation and dosimetry instruments-secondary dosimetry metrology laboratory; instrumentation and measuring systems for radiation protection; control of environmental transfer of radioactive material; medical radiation protection [sr

  11. Guidance on radiation received in space activities

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report, therefore, are to: re-examine the current guidelines and the philosophy adopted by NASA, estimate the risks to both men and women exposed to radiation in space, re-examine the estimates of radiation risks in outer space with special attention to SPE and to exposure to HZE particles, and examine what information may still be required and what research is needed. This report incorporates the changes in estimates of terrestrial radiation risks made since 1970 that appear to be acceptable and appropriate to the particular case of space missions. Since plans for a space station have been established and are a priority for NASA, this space mission will be used as one example for reference. The likely altitude and orbit for the proposed space station are 450 km and 28.5 degree, respectively. Therefore, estimates of the radiation environment for this mission can be made with more confidence than for some of the other missions. In this report, we have chosen to write more fully about certain subjects, for example, the eye, because they are of concern and because they have not been dealt with in such detail in other reports on radiation risks and protection. Since this report covers a number of different disciplines and specialized areas of research, a glossary is included. Radiation protection in space is as international a task as is the protection of radiation workers and the general population on earth. Kovalev, 1983, has noted that radiation protection in space is a pressing but complex problem. The recommendations in this report will require modifications as we learn more about the radiation environment in space and how to estimate radiation risks with greater precision. 450 refs

  12. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  13. Radiation Protection Institute - Annual Report 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to provide the scientific and technical support for executing the operational functions of the Radiation Protection Board. The operational activities of the Institute are listed. Also included in the report are the various research projects, training programmes and publications for the year 2015.

  14. Radiation Research Department annual report 2002

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer. A.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2003-06-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Radiation Research Department in 2002. The departments research and development activities are organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Physics' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. In addition the department is responsible for the task 'Dosimetry'. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  15. On the radiation dosimetry in space

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The radiation dosimetry in space is considerably different from that on the earth surface, because, on the earth surface, the quality factor for radiation is roughly given for its energy but, in space, it is defined as a continuous function of LET. Thus, the contribution to the dose equivalent from heavy charged particles included in galactic cosmic rays is more than 50%, because of their high LET values. To evaluate such dose equivalent within an uncertainty of 30%, we must determine the true LET distribution. This paper describes the essence of such a new radiation dosimetry in space. (author)

  16. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  17. Radiation Research Department annual report 2003

    Majborn, Benny; Damkjær, A.; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work of the Radiation Research Department in 2003. The main research areas were dosimetry, nuclear emergency preparedness, radioecology, and radioanalytical techniques. List of publications, committee memberships andstaff members are included....

  18. Radiation Research Department annual report 2003

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, S.P. (eds.)

    2004-06-01

    This report presents a summary of the work of the Radiation Research Department in 2003. The main research areas were dosimetry, nuclear emergency preparedness, radioecology, and radioanalytical techniques. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  19. Radiation Research Department annual report 2002

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, S.P. (eds.)

    2003-06-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Radiation Research Department in 2002. The departments research and development activities are organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Physics' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. In addition the department is responsible for the task 'Dosimetry'. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  20. Deep space test bed for radiation studies

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Milton, Martha; Myers, Jeremy; O'Brien, Sue; Seaquist, Jim; Smith, Edward A.; Smith, Guy; Warden, Lance; Watts, John

    2007-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation, flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status

  1. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  2. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  3. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  4. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  5. Influence of space radiation on satellite magnetics

    Mukherjee, M K [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India)

    1978-12-01

    The magnetic circuits and devices used in space-borne systems such as satellites are naturally exposed to space environments having among others, hazardous radiations. Such radiations, in turn, may be of solar, cosmic or nuclear origin depending upon the altitude as well as the propulsion/power systems involving mini atomic reactors when utilised. The influence of such radiations on the magnetic components of the satellite have been analysed revealing the critical hazards in the latter circuits system. Remedial measures by appropriate shielding, etc. necessary for maintaining optimum performance of the satellite have been discussed.

  6. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  7. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  8. Radiation Protection Institute Annual Report for 2013

    2013-01-01

    The report covers the activities of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2013. The report is grouped under the following headings: establishment, vision and mission; personnel and organization; major activities and research projects; IAEA, Technical Cooperation and AFRA projects; ongoing research projects and programs; income and expenditure statements, physical development and human resource development, training courses, meetings and conferences. (A. B.)

  9. Radiation Protection Institute Annual Report for 2012

    2012-01-01

    The report covers the activities of the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2012. It is grouped under the following topics: vision and mission; personnel, major activities, research projects, IAEA Technical Cooperation and AFRA projects; ongoing research projects and programs. Also included are income and expenditure statements, physical and human resource development; IAEA training courses, national and IAEA training courses and meetings hosted; and publications. (A. B.)

  10. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  12. Radiation investigations during space flight

    Akatov, A.Yu.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Fekher, I.; Deme, Sh.; Khashchegan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of radiation investigations during ''Salyut-6'' orbital station flight are presented. The program of studying the environmental radioactivity at the station included ''Integral'' and ''Pille'' experiments. In the course of the ''Integral'' experiment absorbed dose distributions of cosmic radiation and heavy charged particle fluence for long time intervals were studied. Method, allowing one to study dose distributions and determine individual doses for any time interval rapidity and directly on board the station was tested in the course of ''Pille'' experiment for the first time. Attention is paid to measuring equipment. Effect of heavy charged particles on the cellular structure of air-dry Lactuca sativa lettuce seeds was studied in the course of radiobiological experiments conducted at ''Salyut-6'' station. It is shown, that with the increase of flight duration the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations increases

  13. Radiation Protection Board. Annual report for the year 1998

    1999-05-01

    The annual report of the Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 1998 is presented. The report presents a summary of the RPB's activities grouped under the following headings: regulatory activities; technical services; income and expenditure frame work; research and publications; education and training; problems and conclusion

  14. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  15. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  16. Radiation protection, 1975. Annual EPA review of radiation protection activities

    1976-06-01

    The EPA, under its Federal Guidance authorities, is responsible for advising the President on all matters pertaining to radiation and, through this mechanism, to provide guidance to other Federal agencies on radiation protection matters. Highlights are presented of significant radiation protection activities of all Federal agencies which were completed in 1975, or in which noteworthy progress was made during that period, and those events affecting members of the public. State or local activities are also presented where the effects of those events may be more far-reaching. At the Federal level significant strides have been made in reducing unnecessary radiation exposure through the efforts of the responsible agencies. These efforts have resulted in the promulgation of certain standards, criteria and guides. Improved control technologies in many areas make it feasible to reduce emissions at a reasonable cost to levels below current standards and guides. This report provides information on the significant activities leading to the establishment of the necessary controls for protection of public health and the environment. Radiation protection activities have been undertaken in other areas such as medical, occupational and consumer product radiation. In the context of radiation protection, ancillary activities are included in this report in order to present a comprehensive overview of the events that took place in 1975 that could have an effect on public health, either directly or indirectly. Reports of routine or continuing radiation protection operations may be found in publications of the sponsoring Federal agencies, as can more detailed information about activities reported in this document. A list of some of these reports is included

  17. On static and radiative space-times

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Graphite epoxy composite degradation by space radiation

    Taheri, M.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Bennion, J.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation environment in space is a critical consideration for successful operation in space. All manned space missions with a duration of more than a few days are subjected to elevated ionizing radiation exposures, which are a threat to both personnel and structures in space. The increasing demands for high-performance materials as structural components in the aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries have led to the development of materials such as graphite fiber-reinforced, epoxy resin matrix composites (Gr/Ep). These materials provide important advantages over conventional structural materials, such as ultrahigh specific strength, enhanced specific moduli, and better fatigue resistance. The fact that most advanced composite materials under cyclic fatigue loading evidence little or no observable crack growth prior to rapid fracture suggests that for fail-safe considerations of parts subject to catastrophic failure, a detailed evaluation of radiation damage from very energetic particle is crucial. The Gr/Ep components are believed to suffer severe degradation in space due to highly penetrating secondary radiation, mainly from neutrons and protons. Investigation into the performance and stability of Gr/Ep materials are planned

  19. Rotating film radiators for space applications

    Koenig, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new class of light-weight radiators is described. This radiator consists of a thin rotating envelope that contains the working fluid. The envelope can have many shapes including redundant, foldable configurations. The working fluid, which may be a liquid or a condensable vapor, impinges on the inside surface of the radiator and is driven as a film to the periphery by centrifugal force. Heat is radiated to space by the outer surface of the envelope. Pumps located on the periphery then return the liquid to the power converter. For a 100-MW radiator operating at 800 K, specific mass approx.0.1 kg/kW and mass density approx.2 kg/m 2 may be achievable. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Annual cycle of solar radiation in a deciduous forest

    Hutchison, B.A.; Matt, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Periodic solar radiation measurements within and above an east Tennessee Liriodendron forest and continuous records of insolation from a nearby NOAA weather station were used to derive an approximation of the animal radiation regime within and above the deciduous forest. The interaction of changing solar elevations, insolation, and forest phenology are shown to control the radiation climate within the forest. Maximum radiation penetrates the forest in early spring as solar paths rise higher in the sky each day just prior to leaf expansion. After leaf expansion begins, average radiation received within the forest decreases rapidly despite continued increases in solar elevations and daily insolation. This forest attains full leaf in early June and from then until the advent of leaf abscission near the autumnal equinox, forest structure remains relatively static. Solar elevations and daily insolation decline following the summer solstice, however, and as a result, average radiation penetrating the forest slowly declines throughout the summer reaching an annual minimum in early autumn. With leaf fall, slightly increased amounts of radiation penetrate the forest but as within-forest solar paths continue to lengthen, radiation within the forest again declines. Minimum amounts of solar radiation penetrate the leafless forest around the winter solstice

  1. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  2. Conceptual designs for 100-MW space radiators

    Prenger, F.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description and comparison of heat rejection systems for multimegawatt space-based power supplies is given. Current concepts are described, and through a common performance parameter, these are compared with three advanced radiator concepts. The comparison is based on a power system that rejects 100 MW of heat while generating 10 MW of electrical power

  3. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem)

  4. Radiation protection considerations in space station missions

    Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit

  5. 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 8 - 9, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Radiation Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plan for the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis Cancer Risk. The SRP also reviewed the newly revised Evidence Reports for the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs) (Acute Risk), the Risk of Acute (In-flight) and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation (Degen Risk), as well as a status update on these Risks. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Simonsen, Dr. Huff, Dr. Nelson, and Dr. Patel for their detailed presentations. The Space Radiation Element did a great job presenting a very large volume of material. The SRP considers it to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data. The SRP commended the tissue sharing protocols, working groups, systems biology analysis, and standardization of models. In several of the discussed areas the SRP suggested improvements of the research plans in the future. These include the following: It is important that the team has expanded efforts examining immunology and inflammation as important components of the space radiation biological response. This is an overarching and important focus that is likely to apply to all aspects of the program including acute, CVD, CNS, cancer and others. Given that the area of immunology/inflammation is highly complex (and especially so as it relates to radiation), it warrants the expansion of investigators expertise in immunology and inflammation to work with the individual research projects and also the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCORs). Historical data on radiation injury to be entered into the Watson

  6. Sixth Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery; Howell, Steve; Fonda, Mark; Dateo, Chris; Martinez, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Welcome to the Sixth Annual NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The Space Science and Astrobiology Division consists of over 60 Civil Servants, with more than 120 Cooperative Agreement Research Scientists, Post-Doctoral Fellows, Science Support Contractors, Visiting Scientists, and many other Research Associates. Within the Division there is engagement in scientific investigations over a breadth of disciplines including Astrobiology, Astrophysics, Exobiology, Exoplanets, Planetary Systems Science, and many more. The Division's personnel support NASA spacecraft missions (current and planned), including SOFIA, K2, MSL, New Horizons, JWST, WFIRST, and others. Our top-notch science research staff is spread amongst three branches in five buildings at ARC. Naturally, it can thus be difficult to remain abreast of what fellow scientific researchers pursue actively, and then what may present and/or offer regarding inter-Branch, intra-Division future collaborative efforts. In organizing this annual jamboree, the goals are to offer a wholesome, one-venue opportunity to sense the active scientific research and spacecraft mission involvement within the Division; and to facilitate communication and collaboration amongst our research scientists. Annually, the Division honors one senior research scientist with a Pollack Lecture, and one early career research scientist with an Outstanding Early Career Space Scientist Lecture. For the Pollack Lecture, the honor is bestowed upon a senior researcher who has made significant contributions within any area of research aligned with space science and/or astrobiology. This year we are pleased to honor Linda Jahnke. With the Early Career Lecture, the honor is bestowed upon an early-career researcher who has substantially demonstrated great promise for significant contributions within space science, astrobiology, and/or, in support of spacecraft missions addressing such

  7. Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code

    Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation

  8. A model investigation of annual surface ultraviolet radiation in Iran

    Sabziparvar, A.-A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been some concern regarding solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth,s surface because of its biological hazards affecting living organisms. Although the geographical distribution of ground-based UV network is relatively good in some continents,but over Asia, the number of UV instruments are not sufficient for meteorological and biological purposes. Iran, as an Asian country, is also suffering from the lack of UV monitoring network with the exception of one ground-based UV spectrophotometer site (Brower III) at Esfahan. Using a complex radiative transfer model and various meteorological data (for 8 years) such as total column ozone, cloudiness, surface albedo, surface air pressure, relative humidity, visibility and daily total solar radiation (TSR), the geographical distribution of annual integrated biological surface UV irradiances such as UVB, erythema and cataracts are calculated. The comparison is made for cloud-free and all-sky conditions for eight selected cities distributed from the southern tip of the country (25 N-60 E) to the northern border (39 N-48 E). It is shown that the difference between the annual UV at south and north in all-sky condition is larger than the differences in cloud-free condition. The ratio of some biological UV irradiances at southern cities to the same component at northern cities shows a factor of two and more which is quite significant. The possible reasons which might cause such differences are discussed

  9. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  10. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. The current career limit is 400 rem to the blood forming organs. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation effects and this will be taken into account. In 1973 a committee of the National Research Council made a separate study of HZE particle effects and it was concluded that the attendant risks did not pose a hazard for low inclination near-earth orbit missions. Since that time work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 26 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  12. Optimization of a space based radiator

    Sam, Kien Fan Cesar Hung; Deng Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increased demand in satellite weight reduction for the reduction of costs. Thermal control system designers have to face the challenge of reducing both the weight of the system and required heater power while maintaining the components temperature within their design ranges. The main purpose of this paper is to present an optimization of a heat pipe radiator applied to a practical engineering design application. For this study, a communications satellite payload panel was considered. Four radiator areas were defined instead of a centralized one in order to improve the heat rejection into space; the radiator's dimensions were determined considering worst hot scenario, solar fluxes, heat dissipation and the component's design temperature upper limit. Dimensions, thermal properties of the structural panel, optical properties and degradation/contamination on thermal control coatings were also considered. A thermal model was constructed for thermal analysis and two heat pipe network designs were evaluated and compared. The model that allowed better radiator efficiency was selected for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. This pursues finding the minimum size of the heat pipe network while keeping complying with thermal control requirements without increasing power consumption. - Highlights: →Heat pipe radiator optimization applied to a practical engineering design application. →The heat pipe radiator of a communications satellite panel is optimized. →A thermal model was built for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. →Optimal heat pipe network size is determined for the optimal weight solution. →The thermal compliance was verified by transient thermal analysis.

  13. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  14. Radiation applications in NDT in space program

    Viswanathan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation play an important role in the qualification of sub-systems and components in space programme. NDT is carried out at various stages of manufacturing of components and also prior to end use to ensure a high degree of reliability. Penetrating radiations such as X-rays, γ-rays and neutrons are extensively used for the radiographic inspection of components, sub-systems and assemblies in both the launch vehicles and satellites. Both low and high energy radiations are employed for the evaluation of the above components depending on their size and nature. Real time radiography (RTR) and computed tomography (CT) are also used in certain specific applications where more detailed information is needed. Neutron radiography is employed for the inspection of pyro-devices used in separation, destruct and satellite deployment systems. Besides their use for non-destructive testing purposes, the radiation sources are also used for various special applications like solid propellant slurry flow measurement simulation of radiation environment on components used in the satellites and also for studying migration of ingredients in solid rocket motor. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  15. DNA Damage Signals and Space Radiation Risk

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei and protons. The initial DNA damage from HZE nuclei is qualitatively different from X-rays or gamma rays due to the clustering of damage sites which increases their complexity. Clustering of DNA damage occurs on several scales. First there is clustering of single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB), and base damage within a few to several hundred base pairs (bp). A second form of damage clustering occurs on the scale of a few kbp where several DSB?s may be induced by single HZE nuclei. These forms of damage clusters do not occur at low to moderate doses of X-rays or gamma rays thus presenting new challenges to DNA repair systems. We review current knowledge of differences that occur in DNA repair pathways for different types of radiation and possible relationships to mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cancer risks.

  16. ADVANCED RADIATION THEORY SUPPORT ANNUAL REPORT 2002, FINAL REPORT

    DAVIS, J.; APRUZESE, J.; CHONG, Y.; CLARK, R.; DASGUPTA, A.; GIULIANI, J.; KEPPLE, P.; TERRY, R.; THORNHILL, J.; VELIKOVICH, A.

    2003-01-01

    Z-PINCH PHYSICS RADIATION FROM WIRE ARRAYS. This report describes the theory support of DTRA's Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) program carried out by NRL's Radiation Hydrodynamics Branch (Code 6720) in FY 2002. Included is work called for in DTRA MIPR 02-2045M - ''Plasma Radiation Theory Support'' and in DOE's Interagency Agreement DE-AI03-02SF22562 - ''Spectroscopic and Plasma Theory Support for Sandia National Laboratories High Energy Density Physics Campaign''. Some of this year's work was presented at the Dense Z-Pinches 5th International Conference held June 23-28 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A common theme of many of these presentations was a demonstration of the importance of correctly treating the radiation physics for simulating Plasma Radiation Source (PRS) load behavior and diagnosing load properties, e.g, stagnation temperatures and densities. These presentations are published in the AIP Conference Proceedings and, for reference, they are included in Section 1 of this report. Rather than describe each of these papers in the Executive Summary, they refer to the abstracts that accompany each paper. As a testament to the level of involvement and expertise that the Branch brings to DTRA as well as the general Z-Pinch community, eight first-authored presentations were contributed at this conference as well as a Plenary and an Invited Talk. The remaining four sections of this report discuss subjects either not presented at the conference or requiring more space than allotted in the Proceedings

  17. Space storms and radiation causes and effects

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. The Sun is a magnetically variable star and for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences. This 2010 volume, the second in this series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them - from causes on the Sun to effects in planetary environments. It reviews t

  18. DEGRO 2012. 18. annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the contributions and posters of the 18th annual congress of the German Radiation Oncology Society DEGRO 2012. The lectures covered the following topics: Radiation physics, therapy planning; gastrointestinal tumors; radiation biology; stererotactic radiotherapy/breast carcinomas; quality management - life quality; head-neck-tumors/lymphomas; NSCL (non-small cell lung carcinomas); pelvic tumors; brain tumors/pediatric tumors. The poster sessions included the following topics: quality management, recurrent tumor therapy; brachytherapy; breast carcinomas and gynecological tumors; pelvis tumors; brain tumors; stereotactic radiotherapy; head-neck carcinomas; NSCL, proton therapy, supporting therapy; clinical radio-oncology, radiation biology, IGRT/IMRT.

  19. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  20. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  1. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  2. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  3. Occupational radiation exposure. Annual report No. 11 for 1978

    Brooks, B.; McDonald, S.; Richardson, E.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the information reported for calendar year 1978 by all NRC licensees to the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. The bulk of the information in the report is derived from annual reports that were required to be submitted by all NRC licensees pursuant to 10CFR 20.407. Previously only certain categories - commercial nuclear power reactors, industrial radiographers, fuel fabricators and processors and commercial distributors of byproduct materials - of NRC licensees had submitted such reports. The requirement of 10CFR 20.408 for the submission of termination reports continued to apply to only these four categories, and some analysis of the data contained in these reports is also presented. A brief description of personnel overexposures reported by NRC licensees is included as well

  4. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  5. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  6. NASA space radiation transport code development consortium

    Townsend, L. W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the Univ. of Tennessee (lead institution), the Univ. of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking. (authors)

  7. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  8. Radiation -- A Cosmic Hazard to Human Habitation in Space

    Lewis, Ruthan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Radiation exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats to the performance and success of human and robotic space missions. Radiation permeates all space and aeronautical systems, challenges optimal and reliable performance, and tests survival and survivability. We will discuss the broad scope of research, technological, and operational considerations to forecast and mitigate the effects of the radiation environment for deep space and planetary exploration.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007

    LR Roeder

    2007-12-01

    This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: • Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. • Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. • Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. • Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. • Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. • Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

  10. 12th Quadrennial Congress of the International Association for Radiation Research incorporating the 50th Annual Meeting of Radiation Research Society, RANZCR Radiation Oncology Annual Scientific Meeting and AINSE Radiation Science Conference

    2003-01-01

    The 12th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR2003), for the first time held in the Southern Hemisphere under the auspices of the International Association of Radiation Research (IARR). The Australian affiliate of IARR is the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE). As with recent Congresses, the annual scientific meeting of the Radiation Research Society will be incorporated into the program. The Congress will be further enhanced by the integration of the annual scientific meeting of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, and the AINSE Radiation Science Conference. An exciting programme was presented with the main threads being radiation oncology, radiation biology, radiation chemistry/physics, radiation protection and the environment. Items in INIS scope have been separately indexed

  11. Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...

  12. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation hardened nonvolatile memories for space is still primarily confined to EEPROM. There is high density effective or cost effective NVM solution available to...

  13. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  14. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2014; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbericht 2014

    Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The annual report 2014 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following topics: (1) Actual data and their evaluation: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial environmental radioactivity, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. (2) Fundamentals and general information: legal basis and explanations, basic information on natural environmental radioactivity, basic information on artificial radioactivity in the environment, basic information on occupational radiation exposure, basic information on radiation exposures from medical applications, basic information on the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, basic information on non-ionizing radiation. (3) Tables.

  15. The Nasa space radiation school, an excellent training in radiobiology and space radiation protection

    Vogin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The astronauts have to spend more time in space and the colonization of the moon and Mars are in the cross hairs of international agencies. The cosmic radiation from which we are protected on ground by atmosphere and by the terrestrial magnetosphere (.4 mSv/year according to Who) become really threatening since 20 km altitude, delivering an average radiation dose of a therapeutic kind to astronauts with peaks related to solar events. It is composed in majority of hadrons: protons (85%) and heavy ions (13%), but also photons (2%) of high energy (GeV/n)). the incurred risks are multiple: early ones(cataract, central nervous system damages, whole body irradiation) but especially delayed ones (carcinogenesis). The astronauts radiation protection turns poor and the rate of death risk by cancer returning from a mission on Mars has been estimated at 5%. The Nasa created in 2004 a summer school aiming to awareness young researchers to the space radiobiology specificities. Areas concerned as follow: radioinduced DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, bystander effect, genome instability, neuro degeneration, delayed effects and carcinogenesis in relation with radiation exposure. (N.C.)

  16. Radiation Measured for Chinese Satellite SJ-10 Space Mission

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Shenyi; Sun, Yueqiang; Liang, Jinbao; Zhu, Guangwu; Jing, Tao; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Space biological effects are mainly a result of space radiation particles with high linear energy transfer (LET); therefore, accurate measurement of high LET space radiation is vital. The radiation in low Earth orbits is composed mainly of high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles, particles of radiation belts, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the albedo neutrons and protons scattered from the Earth's atmosphere. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors sensitive to high LET are the best passive detectors to measure space radiation. The LET method that employs CR-39 can measure all the radiation LET spectra and quantities. CR-39 detectors can also record the incident directions and coordinates of GCR heavy ions that pass through both CR-39 and biosamples, and the impact parameter, the distance between the particle's incident point and the seed's spore, can then be determined. The radiation characteristics and impact parameter of GCR heavy ions are especially beneficial for in-depth research regarding space radiation biological effects. The payload returnable satellite SJ-10 provided an excellent opportunity to investigate space radiation biological effects with CR-39 detectors. The space bio-effects experiment was successfully conducted on board the SJ-10 satellite. This paper introduces space radiation in low Earth orbits and the LET method in radiation-related research and presents the results of nuclear tracks and biosamples hitting distributions of GCR heavy ions, the radiation LET spectra, and the quantities measured for the SJ-10 space mission. The SJ-10 bio-experiment indicated that radiation may produce significant bio-effects.

  17. Estimation of annual radiation dose received by some industrial workers

    Garg, Ajay; Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Sushil

    2013-01-01

    Radon and its progeny in the atmosphere, soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, enhanced interest exhibited in tracking its concentration is thus fundamental for radiation protection. The combustion of coal in various industrial units like thermal power plants. National fertilizer plants, paper mill etc. results in the release of some natural radioactivity to the atmosphere through formation of fly ash and bottom ash or slag. This consequent increases the radioactivity in soil, water and atmosphere around thermal power plants. Keeping this in mind the measurements of radon, thoron and their progeny concentration in the environment of some industrial units has been carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The specially designed twin cup dosimeter used here consists two chambers of cylindrical geometry separated by a wall in the middle with each having length of 4.5 cm and radius of 3.1 cm. This dosimeter employs three SSNTDs out of which two detectors were placed in each chamber and a third one was placed on the outer surface of the dosimeter. One chamber is fitted with glass fiber filter so that radon and thoron both can diffuse into the chamber while in other chamber, a semi permeable membrane is used. The membrane mode measures the radon concentration alone as it can diffuse through the membrane but suppresses the thoron. The twin cup dosimeter also has a provision for bare mode enabling it to register tracks due to radon, thoron and their progeny in total. Therefore, using this dosimeter we can measure the individual concentration of radon, thoron, and their progeny at the same time. The annual effective doses received by the workers in some industrial units has been calculated. The results indicate some higher levels in coal handling and fly ash area of the plants. (author)

  18. Passive radiation shielding considerations for the proposed space elevator

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Patamia, S. E.; Gassend, B.

    2007-02-01

    The Earth's natural van Allen radiation belts present a serious hazard to space travel in general, and to travel on the space elevator in particular. The average radiation level is sufficiently high that it can cause radiation sickness, and perhaps death, for humans spending more than a brief period of time in the belts without shielding. The exact dose and the level of the related hazard depends on the type or radiation, the intensity of the radiation, the length of exposure, and on any shielding introduced. For the space elevator the radiation concern is particularly critical since it passes through the most intense regions of the radiation belts. The only humans who have ever traveled through the radiation belts have been the Apollo astronauts. They received radiation doses up to approximately 1 rem over a time interval less than an hour. A vehicle climbing the space elevator travels approximately 200 times slower than the moon rockets did, which would result in an extremely high dose up to approximately 200 rem under similar conditions, in a timespan of a few days. Technological systems on the space elevator, which spend prolonged periods of time in the radiation belts, may also be affected by the high radiation levels. In this paper we will give an overview of the radiation belts in terms relevant to space elevator studies. We will then compute the expected radiation doses, and evaluate the required level of shielding. We concentrate on passive shielding using aluminum, but also look briefly at active shielding using magnetic fields. We also look at the effect of moving the space elevator anchor point and increasing the speed of the climber. Each of these mitigation mechanisms will result in a performance decrease, cost increase, and technical complications for the space elevator.

  19. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and policy coordination - first annual report, June 30, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This is the first annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, by Dr. George A. Keyworth, II, Science Advisor to the President and Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). CIRRPC replaced the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET). Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy

  20. An Overview of Effects of Space Radiation on the Electronics

    Hwang, Sun Tae; Shin, Dong Kwan; Son, Young Jong; Kim Jin Hong

    2009-01-01

    The first Korean astronaut successfully carried out the scientific experiments at International Space Station (ISS) in April 2008. Due to the government's strong will and support for the field of space, Korea has enhanced its space technology based on the accomplishments in space development. On October 12∼16, 2009 the 60 th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) was held in Daejeon. IAC 2009 must serve as a place for the extensive exchange of global space technology and information in order to speed up the development of space technology in Korea. With regard for space research and development, the radiation effects in space have been reviewed from the viewpoint of electronics

  1. Characterization of Outer Space Radiation Induced Changes in Extremophiles Utilizing Deep Space Gateway Opportunities

    Venkateswaran, K.; Wang, C.; Smith, D.; Mason, C.; Landry, K.; Rettberg, P.

    2018-02-01

    Extremophilic microbial survival, adaptation, biological functions, and molecular mechanisms associated with outer space radiation can be tested by exposing them onto Deep Space Gateway hardware (inside/outside) using microbiology and molecular biology techniques.

  2. Black sea annual and inter-annual water mass variations from space

    Yildiz, H.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Simav, M.

    2011-01-01

    influenced by the leakage of hydrological signals from the surrounding land. After applying the corresponding correction, we found a good agreement with water mass variations derived from steric-corrected satellite altimetry observations. Both GRACE and altimetry show significant annual water mass variations......This study evaluates the performance of two widely used GRACE solutions (CNES/GRGS RL02 and CSR RL04) in deriving annual and inter-annual water mass variations in the Black Sea for the period 2003–2007. It is demonstrated that the GRACE derived water mass variations in the Black Sea are heavily...

  3. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  4. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  5. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  6. Abstracts from the fourth annual meeting of the council on ionizing radiation measurements and standards (CIRMS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards held its fourth annual meeting at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland on November 28-30, 1995. The organization represents thousands of users of ionizing radiation and radioactive sources engaged in industrial radiation processing and sterilization, medical radiation diagnostics and therapy, nuclear power, and worker radiation protection programs. CIRMS provides a forum for discussing ionizing radiation issues; identifying, defining and prioritizing needed work; disseminating information on standards; and organizing workshops and meetings to advance ionizing radiation technology. Over 100 participants attended the meeting, which highlighted advanced techniques in radiation dosimetry and radioactivity measurements for the different ionizing radiation communities. Representatives attended from 28 corporations, 10 federal agencies, 8 national laboratories, 12 universities, and 1 state. Advanced techniques and future measurement needs were discussed in four sessions: (I) Medical Dosimetry, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, (II) Occupational and Radiation Protection Dosimetry, (III) Measurement Techniques for Public and Environmental Radiation Protection, and (IV) Measurement Techniques for Radiation Effects on Materials. An additional session (Session V) was added to this annual meeting on the implementation of ISO 9000 for those CIRMS members involved in instrument and product manufacturing, and those providing radiation measurement services. Abstracts are also included from the poster session (Session VI) held on the final day of the meeting. The 4th Annual Meeting was organized by the Chairman of the Science and Technology Committee, Mr. Joseph C. McDonald of the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  7. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  8. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  9. Role of radiations in assuring quality in space programme

    Viswanathan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Penetrating radiations such as x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons are extensively used for radiographic inspection of various components used in space programmes. Some of these are rocket motor segments, assembled motors, composite nozzles, igniters, pyro devices, and various critical sub systems. These components employ advanced materials like composites, propellants, insulation materials, alloy steels, maraging steel, pyro techniques etc. Often they are in complex geometrical shapes and assemblies. Simulation of radiation environment on a number of components used in satellites is also carried out using radiation sources. This will help in assessing the effect of terrestrial radiation on the components that work in space. Future trends in the exploitation of radiation for space applications include automated radiography and development of expert systems, computed tomography, improvement in realtime radiography, Compton back scatter tomography etc. Adapting some of the advancements in medical radiology to industrial environment is also a welcome step in future. (author). 2 figs

  10. Dose limits for cosmic radiation during space flights

    Draaisma, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to raised levels of ionizing radiation, which may cause biologic effects during space flights. Insights in these effects should lead to doselimits for astronauts during their full career. (author). 4 refs.; 4 tabs

  11. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  12. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  13. Annual dose distribution of Nuclear Malaysia radiation workers for monitoring period from year 2003 to 2007

    Hairul Nizam Idris; Azimawati Ahmad; Norain Ab Rahman

    2008-08-01

    Estimation of radiation dose (external exposure) received by Nuklear Malaysia's radiation workers are measured by using personal dosimetry device which are provided by SSDL-Nuklear Malaysia. Dose assessment report for monitoring period from year 2003 - 2007 shows that almost all radiation workers received annual doses less than 20 mSv, only in very small percentage of radiation workers received annual doses between 20.1 to 50 mSv and none of the workers received doses higher than 50 mSv/year. Exposure dose below 20 mSv/year (the new annual dose limit to be used in Malaysia soon) could be fully achieved by improving the compliance with the safety regulations and enhancing the awareness about radiation safety among the workers. (Author)

  14. Radiation resistance of polymer materials for space

    Miyauchi, Masahiko; Iwata, Minoru; Yokota, Rikio

    2011-01-01

    The thin film of thermoplastic polyimide with a new asymmetric structure is used in the solar sail 'IKAROS'. Here, the relation of its chemical structure to its thermodynamic properties and radiation resistance is introduced. (M.H.)

  15. Radiations in space and global environment

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  16. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  17. The Second Annual International Space University Alumni Conference

    Johnson, Les (Compiler); Robinson, Paul A. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the conference reflect the multidisciplinary nature of the International Space University (ISU) and its alumni. The first papers presented hold special relevance to the design projects, and cover such topics as lunar-based astronomical instrumentation, solar lunar power generation, habitation on the moon, and the legal issues governing multinational astronauts conducting research in space. The next set of papers cover various technical issues such as project success assessment, satellite networks and space station dynamics, thus reflecting the diverse backgrounds of the ISU alumni.

  18. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1985

    1986-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed at the named institute concerning theoretical physics, nuclear reactions, hyperfine structure, atomic collisions, and developments of the VICKSI accelerator together with a list of publications and talks. (HSI) [de

  19. Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) - Annual Report 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Space Science and Technology Institute (GSSTI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to exploit space science and technology for socio-economic development of Ghana. The report gives the structure of GSSTI and the detailed activities of the year. Various activities include: training and seminars, projects and workshops. Publications and their abstracts are also listed. The report also highlights some of the challenges, provides some recommendations and points to some expectation for the following year.

  20. Radiation Protection Institute,Ghana Atomic Energy Commission: Annual Report 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was established to provide scientific and technical support for executing the operational functions of the Radiation Protection Board. The 2014 Annual Report highlights the operational activities of Institutes. Also presented is a list of research projects, publications and abstracts of technical reports.

  1. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  2. NDT using ionising radiation in the Indian space programme

    Viswanathan, K.

    1997-01-01

    Ionising radiations continue to play a vital role in the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of various components used in space vehicles and satellites. The different Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods which are useful to the Indian space programme are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs

  3. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    1997-01-01

    This one of NASA's sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  4. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    NONE

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. Canadian space agency discipline working group for space dosimetry and radiation science

    Waker, Anthony; Waller, Edward; Lewis, Brent; Bennett, Leslie; Conroy, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the great technical challenges in the human and robotic exploration of space is the deleterious effect of radiation on humans and physical systems. The magnitude of this challenge is broadly understood in terms of the sources of radiation, however, a great deal remains to be done in the development of instrumentation, suitable for the space environment, which can provide real-time monitoring of the complex radiation fields encountered in space and a quantitative measure of potential biological risk. In order to meet these research requirements collaboration is needed between experimental nuclear instrumentation scientists, theoretical scientists working on numerical modeling techniques and radiation biologists. Under the auspices of the Canadian Space Agency such a collaborative body has been established as one of a number of Discipline Working Groups. Members of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science working group form a collaborative network across Canada including universities, government laboratories and the industrial sector. Three central activities form the core of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science DWG. An instrument sub-group is engaged in the development of instruments capable of gamma ray, energetic charged particle and neutron dosimetry including the ability to provide dosimetric information in real-time. A second sub-group is focused on computer modeling of space radiation fields in order to assess the performance of conceptual designs of detectors and dosimeters or the impact of radiation on cellular and sub-cellular biological targets and a third sub-group is engaged in the study of the biological effects of space radiation and the potential of biomarkers as a method of assessing radiation impact on humans. Many working group members are active in more than one sub-group facilitating communication throughout the whole network. A summary progress-report will be given of the activities of the Discipline Working Group and the

  6. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  7. Radiation dose assessment in space missions. The MATROSHKA experiment

    Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The exact determination of radiation dose in space is a demanding and challenging task. Since January 2004, the International Space Station is equipped with a human phantom which is a key part of the MATROSHKA Experiment. The phantom is furnished with thousands of radiation sensors for the measurement of depth dose distribution, which has enabled the organ dose calculation and has demonstrated that personal dosemeter at the body surface overestimates the effective dose during extra-vehicular activity by more than a factor two. The MATROSHKA results serve to benchmark models and have therefore a large impact on the extrapolation of models to outer space. (author)

  8. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1988. Annual publication

    Sutherland, J K

    1989-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1988 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,700 analyses were made on 1,200 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  9. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1987. Annual publication

    Sutherland, J K

    1988-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1987 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,800 analyses were made on 1,300 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air filters, airborne water vapour, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops and periwinkles. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry.

  10. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees - 1991. Twenty-fourth annual report

    Smith, M.H.; Hui, T.E.; Millet, W.H.; Scholes, V.A.

    1994-11-01

    This is the 24th annual radiation exposure report published by US DOE and its predecessor agencies. This report summarizes the radiation exposures received by both employees and visitors at DOE and COE contractor facilities during 1991. Trends in radiations exposures are evaluated. The significance of the doses is addressed by comparing them to the DOE limits and by correlating the doses to health risks based on risk estimates from expert groups

  11. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  12. Annual and semiannual variations of the cosmic radiation

    Khor, H.P.; Kwok, W.K.; Owens, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    We determine the annual and semiannual harmonics in the Deep River Neutron Monitor counting rate for the years 1960--1975. A new Fourier analysis technique is used to eliminate solar cycle variations, an we discuss the statistical errors in the determination of the harmonics. The annual and semiannual waves changed markedly from year to year. The yearly harmonic has an average amplitude approx.0.6% with a maximum in early March, corresponding to a southward anisotropy of approx.5%/AU perpendicular to the solar equatorial plane. The semiannual harmonic shows no phase coherence and its average amplitude is only marginally significant, < or approx. =0.2%

  13. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  14. Applications of Radiative Heating for Space Exploration

    Brandis, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speeds (6 - 12 kms) experience intense heating by flows with temperatures of the order 10 000K. The flow around the vehicle experiences significant dissociation and ionization and is characterized by thermal and chemical non-equilibrium near the shock front, relaxing toward equilibrium. Emission from the plasma is intense enough to impart a significant heat flux on the entering spacecraft, making it necessary to predict the magnitude of radiative heating. Shock tubes represent a unique method capable of characterizing these processes in a flight-similar environment. The Electric Arc Shock tube (EAST) facility is one of the only facilities in its class, able to produce hypersonic flows at speeds up to Mach 50. This talk will review the characterization of radiation measured in EAST with simulations by the codes DPLR and NEQAIR, and in particular, focus on the impact these analyses have on recent missions to explore the solar system.

  15. PAMELA Space Mission: The Transition Radiation Detector

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2003-07-01

    PAMELA telescope is a satellite-b orne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific objectives of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) in the cosmic rays, and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is currently under integration and is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time of flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD detector is composed of 9 sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD detector characteristics will be described along with its performance studied exposing the detector to particle beams of electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities.

  16. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  17. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1988

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts about the work performed in the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The work concerns nuclear and atomic theory, heavy ion reactions, hyperfine-structure studies, ion collisions with atoms and solids, and developments on the VICKSI accelerator. (HSI)

  18. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1987

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the scientific work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The scientific work is concerned with the theory of nuclear and atomic processes with heavy ions, the experimental study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure studies, nuclear solid-state physics, atomic collisions, and the operation of VICKSI. (HSI)

  19. 3rd Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    Dotson, Jessie

    2015-01-01

    The Space Science and Astrobiology Division at NASA Ames Research Center consists of over 50 civil servants and more than 110 contractors, co-­-ops, post-­-docs and associates. Researchers in the division are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology and astrophysics. In addition, division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions including (but not limited to) Kepler, SOFIA, LADEE, JWST, and New Horizons. With such a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among three branches in at least 5 different buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientists within the division, and to give center management and other ARC researchers and engineers an opportunity to see what scientific research and science mission work is being done in the division. We are also continuing the tradition within the Space Science and Astrobiology Division to honor one senior and one early career scientist with the Pollack Lecture and the Early Career Lecture, respectively. With the Pollack Lecture, our intent is to select a senior researcher who has made significant contributions to any area of research within the space sciences, and we are pleased to honor Dr. William Borucki this year. With the Early Career Lecture, our intent is to select a young researcher within the division who, by their published scientific papers, shows great promise for the future in any area of space science research, and we are pleased to honor Dr. Melinda Kahre this year

  20. Swedish Institute of Space Physics. Annual report 1987

    1988-01-01

    The main task of the institute is to conduct research and perform observatory measurements in the field of space physics. It shall also provide postgraduate education in space physics. IRF consists of four divisions. The largest division as well as the main office is situated in Kiruna. The other divisions are the Laboratory of Mechanical Waves in Soerfors, the Umeaa Division and the Uppsala Division. Lycksele Ionospheric Observatory belongs to the Kiruna Division. The different divisions have independent research programmes and separate research grants. The field of study taking up most resources at IRF in Kiruna today is the in situ hot plasma investigations. We develop and build various types of plasma spectrometers for the energy range from 1 eV to several hundred keV. To date instruments constructed in Kiruna have been flown on eight satellites and more than 40 sounding rockets. We have also developed ground support equipment for a plasma experiment on board the Giotto spacecraft. (authors) The laboratory of Mechanical Waves concentrates on applied and basic research concerning infrasound and low frequency vibration; Development of methods for detection and signal processing of mechanical waves, and Investigation of the middle atmosphere through measurements of the propagation of infra-acoustic waves. The Umeaa and Uppsala divisions have their main interests in the areas of space plasma physics, e.g. wave-particle interactions and high latitude ionospheric phenomena. (L.E.)

  1. Development of space foods using radiation technology

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk; Choi, Jong-IL; Park, Jin-Kyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Four Korean food items (Kimchi, ready-to-eat fermented vegetable; Ramen, ready-to-cook noodles; Nutrition bar, ready-to-eat raw grain bar; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods by the application of high-dose gamma irradiation. All Korean space foods were certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. Establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. Reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate were monitored after HIT injection to mice was conducted. Development of Korean astronaut preferred flavoring for space food was conducted to reduced atherogenic index (AI) than butter fat. The spread added honey and pineapple essence was preferred spreadability and overall flavor by sensory evaluation. Flavor was affected by irradiation source (γ-ray or electron beam) or irradiation dosage (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) using electronic nose system an space foods using gamma irradiation pH of porridge was mostly stable and pH increased. Most of TBARS value was generally low, and there wasn't any significant difference. Consistency, viscosity, and firmness was higher in round rice porridge and half rice porridge than in rice powder porridge, and increase in added water amount led to decrease of all textural properties

  2. Development of space foods using radiation technology

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk; Choi, Jong-IL; Park, Jin-Kyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun

    2008-07-15

    Four Korean food items (Kimchi, ready-to-eat fermented vegetable; Ramen, ready-to-cook noodles; Nutrition bar, ready-to-eat raw grain bar; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods by the application of high-dose gamma irradiation. All Korean space foods were certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. Establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. Reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate were monitored after HIT injection to mice was conducted. Development of Korean astronaut preferred flavoring for space food was conducted to reduced atherogenic index (AI) than butter fat. The spread added honey and pineapple essence was preferred spreadability and overall flavor by sensory evaluation. Flavor was affected by irradiation source ({gamma}-ray or electron beam) or irradiation dosage (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) using electronic nose system an space foods using gamma irradiation pH of porridge was mostly stable and pH increased. Most of TBARS value was generally low, and there wasn't any significant difference. Consistency, viscosity, and firmness was higher in round rice porridge and half rice porridge than in rice powder porridge, and increase in added water amount led to decrease of all textural properties.

  3. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will he reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to he effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat. (orig.)

  4. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Second Annual NASA Ames Space Science and Astrobiology Jamboree

    Dotson, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    The Space Science and Astrobiology Division's researchers are pursuing investigations in a variety of fields, including exoplanets, planetary science, astrobiology, and astrophysics. In addition division personnel support a wide variety of NASA missions. With a wide variety of interesting research going on, distributed among the three branches in at least 5 buildings, it can be difficult to stay abreast of what one's fellow researchers are doing. Our goal in organizing this symposium is to facilitate communication and collaboration among the scientist within the division and to give center management and other ARC researchers and Engineers an opportunity to see what scientific missions work is being done in the division.

  6. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  7. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  8. The analysis of annual dose distributions for radiation workers

    Mill, A.J.

    1984-05-01

    The system of dose limitation recommended by the ICRP includes the requirement that no worker shall exceed the current dose limit of 50mSv/a. Continuous exposure at this limit corresponds to an annual death rate comparable with 'high risk' industries if all workers are continuously exposed at the dose limit. In practice, there is a distribution of doses with an arithmetic mean lower than the dose limit. In its 1977 report UNSCEAR defined a reference dose distribution for the purposes of comparison. However, this two parameter distribution does not show the departure from log-normality normally observed for actual distributions at doses which are a significant proportion of the annual limit. In this report an alternative model is suggested, based on a three parameter log-normal distribution. The third parameter is an ''effective dose limit'' and such a model fits very well the departure from log-normality observed in actual dose distributions. (author)

  9. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  10. Some comments on space flight and radiation limits

    Thornton, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Setting limits on human exposure to space-related radiation involves two very different processes - the appropriate hard science, and certain emotional aspects and expectations of the groups involved. These groups include the general public and their elected politicians, the astronauts and flight crews, and NASA managers, each group with different expectations and concerns. Public and political views of human space flight and human radiation exposures are often poorly informed and are often based on emotional reactions to current events which may be distorted by 'experts' and the media. Career astronauts' and cosmonauts' views are much more realistic about the risks involved and there is a willingness on their part to accept increased necessary risks. However, there is a concern on their part about career-threatening dose limits, the potential for overexposures, and the health effects from all sources of radiation. There is special concern over radiation from medical studies. This last concern continues to raise the question of 'voluntary' participation in studies involving radiation exposure. There is greatly diversity in spaceflight crews and their expectations; and 'official' Astronaut Office positions will reflect strong management direction. NASA management has its own priorities and concerns and this fact will be reflected in their crucial influence on radiation limits. NASA, and especially spaceflight crews, might be best served by exposure limits which address all sources of spaceflight radiation and all potential effects from such exposure. radiation and all potential effects from such exposure

  11. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  12. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  13. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-01-01

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  14. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-02-12

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  15. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  16. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  17. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  18. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence

  19. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  20. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  1. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  2. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2011-12-01

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  3. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  4. Radiation and Photochemistry Section annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    1992-11-01

    A survey is presented of research on reactive intermediates in the condensed phase and chemistry induced by energetic radiation. The survey is presented in two major parts: (1) ions, excited states, and other transients in condensed phase; and (2) role of solvents in chemical reactivity. Accelerator activities (20-MeV linac, 3-MeV Van de Graaff) are summarized

  5. 14. annual meeting of the European Society of Radiation Biology

    1978-01-01

    Under the aspect of clinical application, findings of fundamental experiments on animals and cells are reported in which highly different radiation sources and doses were used. Novel and interesting results were obtained, in particular, with the application of pions and fast neutrons in the irradiation of tumour cells. (AJ) [de

  6. Gamma radiation in ceramic capacitors: a study for space missions

    dos Santos Ferreira, Eduardo; Sarango Souza, Juliana

    2017-10-01

    We studied the real time effects of the gamma radiation in ceramic capacitors, in order to evaluate the effects of cosmic radiation on these devices. Space missions have electronic circuits with various types of devices, many studies have been done on semiconductor devices exposed to gamma radiation, but almost no studies for passive components, in particular ceramic capacitors. Commercially sold ceramic capacitors were exposed to gamma radiation, and the capacitance was measured before and after exposure. The results clearly show that the capacitance decreases with exposure to gamma radiation. We confirmed this observation in a real time capacitance measurement, obtained using a data logging system developed by us using the open source Arduino platform.

  7. Electromagnetic radiation in a semi-compact space

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yokoo, Sumito

    2018-02-01

    In this note, we investigate the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a revolving point charge in a compact space. If the point charge is circulating with an angular frequency ω0 on the (x , y)-plane at z = 0 with boundary conditions, x ∼ x + 2 πR and y ∼ y + 2 πR, it emits radiation into the z-direction of z ∈ [ - ∞ , + ∞ ]. We find that the radiation shows discontinuities as a function of ω0 R at which a new propagating mode with a different Fourier component appears. For a small radius limit ω0 R ≪ 1, all the Fourier modes except the zero mode on (x , y)-plane are killed, but an effect of squeezing the electric field totally enhances the radiation. In the large volume limit ω0 R → ∞, the energy flux of the radiation reduces to the expected Larmor formula.

  8. Validation of elastic cross section models for space radiation applications

    Werneth, C.M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Xu, X. [National Institute of Aerospace (United States); Norman, R.B. [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Ford, W.P. [The University of Tennessee (United States); Maung, K.M. [The University of Southern Mississippi (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The space radiation field is composed of energetic particles that pose both acute and long-term risks for astronauts in low earth orbit and beyond. In order to estimate radiation risk to crew members, the fluence of particles and biological response to the radiation must be known at tissue sites. Given that the spectral fluence at the boundary of the shielding material is characterized, radiation transport algorithms may be used to find the fluence of particles inside the shield and body, and the radio-biological response is estimated from experiments and models. The fidelity of the radiation spectrum inside the shield and body depends on radiation transport algorithms and the accuracy of the nuclear cross sections. In a recent study, self-consistent nuclear models based on multiple scattering theory that include the option to study relativistic kinematics were developed for the prediction of nuclear cross sections for space radiation applications. The aim of the current work is to use uncertainty quantification to ascertain the validity of the models as compared to a nuclear reaction database and to identify components of the models that can be improved in future efforts.

  9. Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research Fifth Annual Technical Symposium Proceedings

    1993-01-01

    This Fifth Annual Technical Symposium, sponsored by the UT-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research (CSTAR), is organized to provide an overview of the technical accomplishments of the Center's five Research and Technology focus areas during the past year. These areas include chemical propulsion, electric propulsion, commerical space transportation, computational methods, and laser materials processing. Papers in the area of artificial intelligence/expert systems are also presented.

  10. Third Annual Workshop on Space Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR 1989)

    Griffin, Sandy (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the Third Annual Workshop on Space Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR '89), hosted by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center at Houston, Texas, on July 25 to 27, 1989, are given. Approximately 100 technical papers were presented by experts from NASA, the USAF, universities, and technical companies. Also held were panel discussions on Air Force/NASA Artificial Intelligence Overview and Expert System Verification and Validation.

  11. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  12. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  13. Space radiation interaction mechanisms in materials

    Wilson, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Models of charged-particle impact under conditions typical of the space environment are reported, with a focus on impact excitation and nuclear reactions, especially for heavy ions. Impact excitation is studied by using a global model for electronic excitation based on formal relations through the classical dielectric function to derive an approximation related to the local plasma (electron density distribution) within the atoms and molecules and corrections to the model resulting from the nonfluid nature of this plasma are discussed. Nuclear reactions are studied by reducing quantum-mechanical treatment of this general N-body problem to an equivalent two-body problem that is solvable, and by comparing the results with experimental data. The equations for heavy-charged-particle transport are derived and solution techniques demonstrated. Finally, these methods of analysis are applied to study the change in the electrical properties of a GaAs semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. Proton damage to GaAs crystals is found to arise from stable replacement defects and to be nonannealable, in contrast to electron-induced damage. 17 references

  14. Radiation Protection and Safety Department - annual report 1977

    Kiefer, H.; Koelzer, W.

    1978-03-01

    The duties cover tasks relative to radiation protection and safety on behalf of the institutes and departments of Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and environmental monitoring for the whole Nuclear Research Center as well as own research and development work, mainly performed under the Nuclear Research Center and the Nuclear Safeguards Project. The centers of interest of R and D activities were: investigation of the atmospheric diffusion in the micro- and meso-scale, study of the radiological consequences of accidents in reactors under probabilistic aspects, implementation of nuclear fuel safeguarding systems, improvements in radiation protection measurement technology. This report gives details of the different duties, indicates the results of 1977 routine measurements, and reports about new results of investigations and developments of the working groups of the department. (orig.) [de

  15. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2000

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. (author)

  16. Annual Report: Hydrodynamics and Radiative Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications

    R. Paul Drake

    2005-12-01

    We report the ongoing work of our group in hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical applications. During the period of the existing grant, we have carried out two types of experiments at the Omega laser. One set of experiments has studied radiatively collapsing shocks, obtaining high-quality scaling data using a backlit pinhole and obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) Thomson-scattering data from a radiative shock. Other experiments have studied the deeply nonlinear development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability from complex initial conditions, obtaining the first (ever, anywhere) dual-axis radiographic data using backlit pinholes and ungated detectors. All these experiments have applications to astrophysics, discussed in the corresponding papers either in print or in preparation. We also have obtained preliminary radiographs of experimental targets using our x-ray source. The targets for the experiments have been assembled at Michigan, where we also prepare many of the simple components. The above activities, in addition to a variety of data analysis and design projects, provide good experience for graduate and undergraduates students. In the process of doing this research we have built a research group that uses such work to train junior scientists.

  17. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  18. NASA FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION EFFECTS

    Johnson, David R.

    1963-04-15

    Information on the energies andd fluxes of trapped electrons and protons in space is summarized, and the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory being constructed to simulate most of the space particulate-energy spectrum is described. A 600-Mev proton synchrocyclotron of variable energy and electron accelerators of 1 to 10 Mev will be included. The accelerator characteristics and the arrangement of the experimental and support buildings, particularly the beam facilities, are discussed; and the planned activities of the laboratory are given. (D.C.W.)

  19. Reducing Human Radiation Risks on Deep Space Missions

    2017-09-01

    101 Figure 49. Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation System...2013). These same studies reveal that for astronauts returning home, this may result in significant loss of lifespan and quality of life due to...warnings to the satellites in orbit at either planet , or to spacecraft in transit (Phys.org 2010). C. IMPROVEMENTS TO MEASUREMENTS OF SPACE RADIATION

  20. NASA Space Radiation Risk Project: Overview and Recent Results

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Chappell, Lori J.; George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Hu, Shaowen; Kidane, Yared H.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Kovyrshina, Tatiana; Norman, Ryan B.; Nounu, Hatem N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Risk project is responsible for integrating new experimental and computational results into models to predict risk of cancer and acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for use in mission planning and systems design, as well as current space operations. The project has several parallel efforts focused on proving NASA's radiation risk projection capability in both the near and long term. This presentation will give an overview, with select results from these efforts including the following topics: verification, validation, and streamlining the transition of models to use in decision making; relative biological effectiveness and dose rate effect estimation using a combination of stochastic track structure simulations, DNA damage model calculations and experimental data; ARS model improvements; pathway analysis from gene expression data sets; solar particle event probabilistic exposure calculation including correlated uncertainties for use in design optimization.

  1. A radiation hardened digital fluxgate magnetometer for space applications

    Miles, D. M.; Bennest, J. R.; Mann, I. R.; Millling, D. K.

    2013-09-01

    Space-based measurements of Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes responsible for energising particles in the Van Allen radiation belts and influencing space weather. This paper describes a prototype fluxgate magnetometer instrument developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission and which has applications in other space and suborbital applications. The magnetometer is designed to survive and operate in the harsh environment of Earth's radiation belts and measure low-frequency magnetic waves, the magnetic signatures of current systems, and the static background magnetic field. The new instrument offers improved science data compared to its predecessors through two key design changes: direct digitisation of the sensor and digital feedback from two cascaded pulse-width modulators combined with analog temperature compensation. These provide an increase in measurement bandwidth up to 450 Hz with the potential to extend to at least 1500 Hz. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65 000 nT field with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz. This performance is comparable with other recent digital fluxgates for space applications, most of which use some form of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation for feedback and omit analog temperature compensation. The prototype instrument was successfully tested and calibrated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory.

  2. The Effect of Topography on the Exposure of Airless Bodies to Space Radiation: Phobos Case Study

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwadron, N.; Cooper, J. F.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Spence, H. E.; Jordan, A.; Sturner, S. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wilson, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    , will be used to estimate the average, annual radiation dose at the orbit of Phobos. These three elements will be combined to produce a map of radiation exposure on the surface of Phobos, which will be used to assess the implications for space weathering and future human exploration.

  3. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 1997

    1998-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 17 chapters. (author)

  4. Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

  5. Proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2006 Nagoya

    2006-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 5th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 29th through December 1st of 2006. The sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement 1, (2) Education Method, (3) Radiation Control, (4) Waste Handling, Contamination Inspection, and Renewal, (5) Exposure Reduction, Radiation Evaluation, and Radioactivity Control (6) Radiation Measurement 2, (7) Operation Environment, (8) Medical Exposure, (9) Radiation Measurement 3, (10) Software, IT Technology, and Data Processing, (11) Emission and Drainage Handling, and (12) Radiation Effect and Contamination Countermeasure. The poster sessions held are: (1) Radiation Measurement, (2) Environmental Radiation, (3) Scattering Rate, Penetration Rate, and Contamination Inspection, (4) Education Method, (5) Medical Exposure, (6) Access Control and Software, and (7) Radiation Control Method and Monitoring. The symposia held are: (1) 'Toward Establishment of Guideline for Safe X-ray Handling Education' and 'International Situation of Radiation Safety'. 2 keynote lectures were also held. (S.K.)

  6. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, (No. 26)

    1994-03-01

    The annual research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993) are described. The research activities were conducted under the two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: laser-induced organic synthesis, modification of polymer surface by laser irradiation, radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine particles by gamma ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facilities is also included. (author)

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring data for Point Lepreau Generating Station, 1990. Annual publication

    Sutherland, J K

    1991-01-01

    Annual report presenting a compilation of the 1990 environmental radiation monitoring program data from samples collected around the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station (PLNGS) and at reference stations remote from PLNGS. About 1,500 analyses were made on 1,100 samples to monitor environmental radiation, including air particulates, airborne water vapour, carbon dioxide in air, sea water, well water, milk, beach sediments, clams, fish, lobster, dulse, crabs, scallops, periwinkles, sea plants and lichen. Background radiation is measured by thermoluminescence dosimetry. Radon is not assessed.

  8. Radiation and Photochemistry Section annual report, October 1992--November 1993

    1993-11-01

    The research described in this survey is a study of transient intermediates and chemistry induced by energetic radiation in the condensed phase. The survey is presented in two major parts: the first one studies ions, excited states, and other transients in the condensed phase; the second one studies the role of solvents in chemical reactivity. Some highlights of the past year were observations of ion-molecule reactions of excited aromatic cations via flash photolysis and transient dc conductivity; anion solvation study revealing role of solvent molecular structure; zeolite matrix study of C 7 H 8 radical cation chemistry; and H atom reaction with O 2 , I - , and comparison of diffusion of H, D, and muonium in ice. Refs, 25 figs, 5 tabs

  9. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2001

    Janzekovic, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia for 2001 as a regular form of reporting to the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia on the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and the use of the ionising sources. The report has been prepared in collaboration with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS), the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR), the Pool for Assurance and Reinsurance of Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Pool for Decommissioning of the NPP Krsko and for the Radwaste Disposal from the NPP Krsko. The reports of the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ARAO), the Institute of Oncology, the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Centre Ljubljana and the technical support organisations are also included. The SNSA made no crucial modifications to the reports of the above mentioned institutions. The modifications were made just facilitate a reading of the reports. (author)

  10. Radiation and Photochemistry Section annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of reactive intermediates in the condensed phase. The section on the chemistry of ions treats condensed-phase reactions of radical cations, radical cations in zeolite matrices, high energy chemistry, ions and excited states in radiolysis, and photochemistry of the polymer imaging systems. The section on the role of solvent in chemical reactivity describes a study of atomic hydrogen and deuterium in water radiolysis, solvated electron thermodynamics and transport properties, solvent relaxation dynamics, and solvation of an excess electron in an aqueous solution of LiCl. A separate section outlines activities at the 20-MeV linac and the 3-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator

  11. Synchrotron radiation: appendix to the Daresbury annual report 1990/91

    1991-01-01

    This Appendix to the Annual Report of the Daresbury Laboratory of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council contains the 1990 Annual Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Facilities Committee, specifications for the beamlines and stations, the index for the synchrotron radiation user reports, the reports themselves and the list of publications detailing work performed on the Synchrotron Radiation Source. By far the largest part of the Appendix is taken up with the user reports for the period 1990 to 1991. They include reports on structural determination of sodium methyl, an investigation of DNA-Binding Proteins, monitoring of vital processes in live cells, the structure of semiconductor interfaces, the structure and properties of glasses and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy of liquid samples. (author)

  12. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  13. Blackbody radiation from light cone in flat space time

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1983-01-01

    Blackbody radiation in flat space-time is not necessarily associated with the flat event horizon of a single accelerated observer. The author considers a spherical bubble which expands in a uniformly accelerating fashion. Its history traces out a time-like hyperboloid. Suppose the bubble membrane has a spatially isotropic and homogeneous (surface) stress energy tensor i.e. the membrane is made out of the stiffest possible material permitted by causality considerations. It follows that this bubble membrane is in equilibrium even though it is expanding. Such an expanding bubble membrane may serve as a detector of electromagnetic radiation if the membrane can interact with the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  14. Array element of a space-based synchrotron radiation detector

    Lee, M.W.; Commichau, S.C.; Kim, G.N.; Son, D.; Viertel, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) has been proposed as part of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station to study cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the TeV energy range. The SRD will identify these particles by detecting their emission of synchrotron radiation in the Earth's magnetic field. This article reports on the study of key technical parameters for the array elements which form the SRD, including the choice of the detecting medium, the sensor and the readout system

  15. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  16. SOA based intensive support system for space radiation data

    Goranova, M.; Shishedjiev, B.; Genova, S.; Semkova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Modern data intensive science involves heterogeneous and structured data sets in sophisticated data formats. Scientists need access to distributed computing and data sources and support for remote access to expensive, multinational specialized instruments. Scientists need effective software for data analysis, querying, accessing and visualization. The interaction between computer science and science and engineering becomes essential for the automation of data manipulation. The key solution uses the Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) in the field of science and Grid computing. The goal of this paper is managing the scientific data received by the Lyulin-5 particle telescope used in MATROSHKA-R experiment performed at the International Space Station (ISS). The dynamics of radiation characteristics and their dependency on the time and the orbital parameters have been established. The experiment helps the accurate estimation of the impact of space radiation on human health in long-duration manned missions

  17. Radiative hazard of solar flares in the nearterrestrial cosmic space

    Kolomenskij, A.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Zil', M.V.; Eremkina, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of radiation enviroment due to solar cosmic rays was carried out in the near-terrestrial space. Systematized are the data on cosmic ray flux and spectra detected during 19-th and 20-th cycles of solar activity. 127 flares are considered with proton fluxes of more than 10 proton/cm 2 at energies higher than 30 MeV. Obtained are distribution functions of intervals between flares, flux distribution of flares and characteristic rigidity, and also distribution of magnetic disturbances over Dsub(st)-variation amplitude. The totality of these distributions presents the statistic model of radiation enviroment caused by solar flare protons for the period of maximum solar .activity. This model is intended for estimation of radiation hazard at manned cosmic flights

  18. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  19. Lightweight Radiator for in Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Craven, Paul; Tomboulian, Briana; SanSoucie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies may require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow advances in operational efficiency and high temperature feasibility. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities making use of constrained input parameter space. A description of this effort is presented.

  20. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  1. Second Annual Workshop on Space Operations Automation and Robotics (SOAR 1988)

    Griffin, Sandy (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the Second Annual Workshop on Space Operation Automation and Robotics (SOAR '88), hosted by Wright State University at Dayton, Ohio, on July 20, 21, 22, and 23, 1988, are documented herein. During the 4 days, approximately 100 technical papers were presented by experts from NASA, the USAF, universities, and technical companies. Panel discussions on Human Factors, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Space Systems were held but are not documented herein. Technical topics addressed included knowledge-based systems, human factors, and robotics.

  2. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  3. Radiation hygienic annual report 2012. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    Pfau, T.; Bernkopf, J.; Klement, R.; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg

    2013-01-01

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2012 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  4. Cytogenetic examination of cosmonauts for space radiation exposure estimation

    Snigiryova, G. P.; Novitskaya, N. N.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    2012-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate radiation induced chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS (International Space Station). Materials and methodsCytogenetic examination which has been performed in the period 1992-2008 included the analysis of chromosome aberrations using conventional Giemsa staining method in 202 blood samples from 48 cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS. ResultsSpace flights led to an increase of chromosome aberration frequency. Frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings (Dic+Rc) depend on the space flight duration and accumulated dose value. After the change of space stations (from Mir Orbital Station to ISS) the radiation load of cosmonauts based on data of cytogenetic examination decreased. Extravehicular activity also adds to chromosome aberration frequency in cosmonauts' blood lymphocytes. Average doses after the first flight, estimated by the frequency of Dic+Rc, were 227 and 113 mGy Eq for long-term flights (LTF) and 107 and 53 mGy Eq for short-term flights (STF). ConclusionCytogenetic examination of cosmonauts can be applied to assess equivalent doses.

  5. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1988 - March 31, 1989

    1990-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year 1988. Outcome of the work is presented, covering the two major workshops for 'immunology' and for 'radiation-induced carcinogenesis' which were held in Hiroshima on November 28-29, 1988, and on March 16-18, 1989, respectively. Study meeting of 'medical radiation research program' and Japan-the U.S. joint meeting of 'DS 86' are reported, as well as the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. Included are research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. The bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the details of the aforementioned workshops, the continuing research issues, and the personnel list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  6. Proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2005 Kyoto

    2005-01-01

    This is the program and the proceedings of the 4th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management held from November 23rd through the 25th of 2005. The sessions held were: (1) Medical Exposure, (2) Environmental Measurement and Radiation Source Handling, (3) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (4) Utilization of Irradiation, (5) Countermeasures against Contamination and Inspection of Contamination, (6) Imaging Plate, (7) Controlled Measurement and Dose Evaluation, (8) Working Environment Measurement 1, (9) Working Environment Measurement 2, (10) Establishment of Software and System, (11) Radiation Education 1, (12) Radiation Education 2, and (13) Exposure Reduction and Safety Control. The poster sessions held were: (1) Exposure Reduction and Radiation Evaluation, (2) Radiation Measurement and Influence of Electromagnetic Waves, (3) Education Training, (4) Safety Control, (5) Software, Data Handling, and Shielding Calculation, and (6) Environmental Radioactivity. The keynote lectures held were: (1) 'Situation of Medical Exposure' and (2) 'Cosmic Radiation While Boarding on Airplanes'. The symposia held were: (1) 'Food Irradiation' and (2) 'Life Science'. (S.K.)

  7. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater

  8. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999

    Ristonmaa, S.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  9. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998

    Ristonmaa, S.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  10. Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation: Annual report 2011

    Svendby, T.M.; Myhre, C.L.; Stebel, K.; Edvardsen, K; Orsolini, Y.; Dahlback, A.

    2012-07-01

    This is an annual report describing the activities and main results of the monitoring programme: Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation for 2011. 2011 was a year with generally low ozone values above Norway. A clear decrease in the ozone layer above Norway during the period 1979-1997 stopped after 1998 and the ozone layer above Norway seems now to have stabilized.(Author)

  11. BioSentinel: Biosensors for Deep-Space Radiation Study

    Lokugamage, Melissa P.; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission will be deployed on NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. We will use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biosensor to study the effect of deep-space radiation on living cells. The BioSentinel mission will be the first investigation of a biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. Radiation can cause damage such as double stand breaks (DSBs) on DNA. The yeast cell was chosen for this mission because it is genetically controllable, shares homology with human cells in its DNA repair pathways, and can be stored in a desiccated state for long durations. Three yeast strains will be stored dry in multiple microfluidic cards: a wild type control strain, a mutant defective strain that cannot repair DSBs, and a biosensor strain that can only grow if it gets DSB-and-repair events occurring near a specific gene. Growth and metabolic activity of each strain will be measured by a 3-color LED optical detection system. Parallel experiments will be done on the International Space Station and on Earth so that we can compare the results to that of deep space. One of our main objectives is to characterize the microfluidic card activation sequence before the mission. To increase the sensitivity of yeast cells as biosensors, desiccated yeast in each card will be resuspended in a rehydration buffer. After several weeks, the rehydration buffer will be exchanged with a growth medium in order to measure yeast growth and metabolic activity. We are currently working on a time-course experiment to better understand the effects of the rehydration buffer on the response to ionizing radiation. We will resuspend the dried yeast in our rehydration medium over a period of time; then each week, we will measure the viability and ionizing radiation sensitivity of different yeast strains taken from this rehydration buffer. The data obtained in this study will be useful in finalizing the card activation sequence for

  12. Preliminary analysis of accelerated space flight ionizing radiation testing

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.

  13. Genetic risks associated with radiation exposures during space flight

    Grahn, D.

    1983-01-01

    Although the genetic risks of space radiation do not pose a significant hazard to the general population, the risks may be very important to the individual astronaut. The present paper summarizes some experimental results on the induction of dominant lethal mutations and chromosomal damage in the first generation which may be used in the prediction of the genetic risks of radiation exposures of space crews. Young adult male mice were exposed to single, weekly and continuous doses of gamma rays, neutrons in single doses and weekly exposures and continuous doses of Pu-239 alpha particles. Evaluation of fetal survival rates in females mated to the exposed males shows the mutation rate in individuals exposed to gamma rays to decline as the exposure period is prolonged and the dose rate is reduced, while the response to neutrons is in the opposite direction. Cytological determinations show the rate of balanced chromosomal translocations to drop as gamma ray exposures change from one-time to continuous, however little or no dose rate effect is seen with neutron radiation and alpha particle exposure shows no regular dose-response. Based on the above results, it is predicted that the rate of dominant mutations and transmissible chromosome aberrations in astronauts on a 100-day mission will increase by 4.5 to 41.25 percent over the spontaneous rate. 35 references

  14. Research and technology: 1994 annual report of the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    1994-01-01

    As the NASA Center responsible for assembly, checkout, servicing, launch, recovery, and operational support of Space Transportation System elements and payloads, the John F. Kennedy Space Center is placing increasing emphasis on its advanced technology development program. This program encompasses the efforts of the Engineering Development Directorate laboratories, most of the KSC operations contractors, academia, and selected commercial industries - all working in a team effort within their own areas of expertise. This edition of the Kennedy Space Center Research and Technology 1994 Annual Report covers efforts of all these contributors to the KSC advanced technology development program, as well as our technology transfer activities. The Technology Programs and Commercialization Office (DE-TPO), (407) 867-3017, is responsible for publication of this report and should be contacted for any desired information regarding the advanced technology program.

  15. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  16. Radiation safety standards: space hazards vs. terrestrial hazards

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Policies regarding the setting of standards for radiation exposure for astronauts and other workers in space are discussed. The first recommendations for dose limitation and the underlying philosophy of these recommendations, which were put out in 1970, are examined, and consequences for the standards if the same philosophy of allowing a doubling in overall cancer risk for males aged 30-35 over a 20-year period were applied to more recent risk estimates are calculated, leading to values about a factor of 4 below the 1970 recommendation. Standards set since 1930 for terrestrial occupational exposures, which lead to a maximum lifetime risk of about 2.3 percent, are then considered, and the space and terrestrial exposure risks for fatal cancers at maximum lifetime dose are compared with industrial accidental death rates. Attention is also given to the question of the potential effects of HZE particles in space and to the possibility that HZE particle effects, rather than radiation carcinogenesis, might be the limiting factor. 17 references

  17. SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT MONITORED BY KITSAT-1 AND KITSAT-2

    Y. H. Shin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of space radiation experiments carried out on board the first two Korean technology demonstration microsatellites are presented in this paper. The first satellite, KITSAT-1, launched in August 1992, carries a radiation monitoring payload called cosmic ray experiment(CRE for characterizing the low-earth orbit(LEO radiation environment. The CRE consists of two sub-systems: the cosmic particle experiment (CPE and the total dose experiment(TDE. In addition, single event upset(SEUrates of the program memory and the RAM disk are also monitored. The second satellite, KITSAT-2, launched in September 1993, carries a newly developed 32-bit on-board computer(OBC, KASCOM(KAIST satellite computer in addition to OBC186. SEUs ocurred in the KASCOM, as well as in the program memory and RAM disk memory, have been monitored since the beginning of the satellite operation. These two satellites, which are very similar in structures but different in orbits, provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of the radiation environment characterized by the orbit.

  18. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  19. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-04-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta.

  20. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta

  1. Annual report on activities of Radiation Protection Division at JNC Tokai Works in fiscal year of 2001

    Shinohara, Kunihiko

    2002-08-01

    This annual report is summary of the activities of Radiation Protection Division at JNC Tokai Works in fiscal year of 2001. This report consists of the introduction of the radiation control in working area of the reprocessing plant, the MOX fuel fabrication facilities and laboratories, the discharges control of these facilities, the personal dosimetry, the environmental monitoring, the control of radiation standards and calibration, the maintenance of radiation measurement instruments, the safety study, the technical support for outside organizations and other activities. (author)

  2. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    1989-07-01

    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  3. A new system for the measurement of the space radiation

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation from space mainly consists of charged heavy particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact, the effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. Current measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both of the quantities simultaneously. A combined device for measurement of the mentioned values consists of an on-board thermoluminescence dosimeter reader and a three-axis silicon detector linear energy transfer spectrometer. This paper deals with the main characteristic of the new system. This system can be, applied for dosimetry of air crew as well. (authors)

  4. A new system for measurement of the space radiation

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2001-01-01

    The space radiation mainly consists of heavy charged particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact its effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. The recently used measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both quantities simultaneously. The combined device for measurement of mentioned values consists of an on board thermoluminescent dosimeter reader and a three axis silicon telescope as a linear energy transfer spectrometer. The paper deals with the main characteristics of the new system. This system can be applied for dosimetry of air-crew as well. (authors)

  5. Radiation retinopathy following treatment of posterior nasal space carcinoma

    Thompson, G.M.; Migdal, C.S.; Whittle, R.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Posterior nasal space carcinoma has a high mortality and most patents are treated with radiotherapy. Radiation retinopathy was encountered in 7 out of 10 survivors included in this study. Five of the affected patients lost vision as a result of the retinopathy. One patient required laser photocoagulation and responded well to this treatment. There was a variation in the severity of the retinopathy among the patients studied despite the fact that all patients received a similar dose of radiotherapy. We suspect that previously unrecognised factors in the planning of radiotherapy fields may explain this difference. (author)

  6. Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume

  7. Annual report for FY 2011 on the activities of radiation safety in J-PARC

    2013-02-01

    This annual report describes the activities of radiation safety of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) for FY 2011. The activities described are radiation protection in workplaces, environmental monitoring, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and the technological developments of radiation protection. Occupational exposures have not exceeded the prescribed dose limit. No effluent releases were recorded exceeding the prescribed limits on the amount and concentration of radioactivity for gaseous release and liquid waste. J-PARC was suffered from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The report also covers the activities for the recovery of J-PARC and the environmental monitoring of radioactivity from the accident. (author)

  8. Annual report for FY 2011 on the activities of radiation safety in J-PARC

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    This annual report describes the activities of radiation safety of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) for FY 2011. The activities described are radiation protection in workplaces, environmental monitoring, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and the technological developments of radiation protection. Occupational exposures have not exceeded the prescribed dose limit. No effluent releases were recorded exceeding the prescribed limits on the amount and concentration of radioactivity for gaseous release and liquid waste. J-PARC was suffered from the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The report also covers the activities for the recovery of J-PARC and the environmental monitoring of radioactivity from the accident. (author)

  9. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2001

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  10. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2000

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2001-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an unsignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1999

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    2000-01-01

    The measuring activities for radiological monitoring in the mine and the surrounding area have been continued as usual, in compliance with the relevant programmes. As in previous years, low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210 and Rn 222, including Rn 220, and the short-life radon daughter products have been detected. In some cases, the nuclide-specific concentrations in ambient air derived from the annual average were below the mean natural concentrations of those nuclides. The relevant exposure data at the most affected measuring points remained far below the maximum permissible doses given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. As compared to the natural and anthropogenic ambient radiation levels, the radiation exposure of the population in the area and the personnel on site, emanating from radioactive waste storage and performance of research projects in the Asse mine, represent an insignificant contribution. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990

    1991-01-01

    This annual report summarizes the research activities of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in the fiscal year, 1989. Outcome of the work is presented, covering epidemiology, Adult Health Survey Program, cytogenetics, genetic biochemical survey, immunology, cytobiology, and statistics. Symposium entitled 'update information on effects of radiation', held on October 8, 1989, and the final workshop on 'aging', held on March 29-31, 1990, are outlined, accompanied by the other scientific lectures and campus study seminars. The report also includes research abstracts published by the Research Foundation staff. Bibliography of papers, published in scientific journals and presented in scientific meetings, is provided. Appendices give the proceedings of the aforementioned workshop on 'aging', the continuing research issues, and the personal list of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. (N.K.)

  13. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse shaft plant. Annual report 1987

    Mueller-Lyda, I.; Meyer, H.

    1988-07-01

    Personnel monitoring has been carried through in compliance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Environmental monitoring including measurement of local doses, local dose rates, and airborne radioactivity in the shaft has been made according to the provisions for radiation protection at the place of work. Maximum permissible personal doses or activity levels for occupationally exposed persons have not been exceeded in the reporting period. Exhaust air monitoring detected the nuclides H-3, C-14, Pb-210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The activity concentrations in the environment, determined from the measured annual release values, for some part have been lower than the average of natural concentrations of said nuclides. The radiation exposure due to emissions, measured at the least favourable point in the environment, has been far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In conclusion: The radiation exposure of the personnel and of the population in the area of the Asse shaft plant due to the storage of radioactive is low, compared to the natural radiation exposure. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiation doses to Norwegian heart-transplanted patients undergoing annual coronary angiography

    Seierstad, T.; Friberg, E. G.; Lervag, C.; Widmark, A.; Wilhelmsen, N.; Stranden, E.

    2012-01-01

    Heart-transplanted patients in Norway undergo annual coronary angiography (CA). The aims of this study were to establish a conversion factor between dose-area product and effective dose for these examinations and to use this to evaluate the accumulated radiation dose and risks associated with annual CA. An experienced cardiac interventionist performed a simulated examination on an Alderson phantom loaded with thermoluminescence dosemeters. The simulated CA examination yielded a dose-area product of 17 Gy cm 2 and an effective dose of 3.4 mSv: the conversion factor between dose-area product and effective dose was 0.20 mSv Gy cm -2 . Dose-area product values from 200 heart-transplanted patients that had undergone 906 CA examinations between 2001 and 2008 were retrieved from the institutional database. Mean dose-area product from annual CA was 25 Gy cm 2 , ranging from 2 to 140 Gy cm 2 . Mean number of CA procedure was 8 (range, 1-23). Mean accumulated effective dose for Norwegian heart-transplanted patients between 2001 and 2008 was 34 mSv (range, 5-113 mSv). Doses and radiation risks for heart-transplanted patients are generally low, because most heart transplantations are performed on middle-aged patients with limited life expectancy. Special concern should however be taken to reduce doses for young heart-transplanted patients who are committed to lifelong follow-up of their transplanted heart. (authors)

  15. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  16. Hawking radiation from black holes in de Sitter spaces

    Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation has been treated, by Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), as a compensating flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel a gravitational anomaly at the event horizon (EH) of a Schwarzschild-type black hole. In this paper, motivated by this work, Hawking radiation from the event horizon (EH) and the de Sitter cosmological horizon (CH) of black holes in de Sitter spaces, specifically including the purely de Sitter black hole and the static, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as the rotating Kerr-de Sitter black hole, have been studied by anomalies. The results show that the gauge-current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, required to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the EH and the CH, are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from the EH and the CH, respectively. It should be noted that gauge and gravitational anomalies taking place at the CH arise from the fact that the effective field theory is formulated inside the CH to integrate out the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, which are different from those at the black hole horizon

  17. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  18. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  19. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  20. Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications

    Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.

  1. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1997

    Meyer, H.; Stippler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The number of annual sampling and measurements performed in compliance with the operator's monitoring duties have been the same as last year: 364. All measured radioactivity values were at the level of natural environmental radioactivity. Some samples and measurements reflected the fallout from former atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and the accident at the Chernobyl reactor. Personnel dosimetry was performed according to legal requirements of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, as were measurements for the monitoring of ambient doses, dose rates and radioactivity levels in the air of the mine structures. All measured values were below the maximum permissible personal doses and occupational dose limits. Ambient air measurements in the salt mine as in the preceding years detected low amounts of the nuclides H 3, C 14, Pb 210, and the short-lived daughter products of Rn 222 and Rn 220. The calculated radioactivity concentrations in the vicinity of the mine, derived from averaged annual effluents, to some part were below the average natural concentrations of the nuclides. The effluent-induced radiation dose at the most affected location was far below the limits set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Change of annual collective dose equivalent of radiation workers at KURRI

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1994-01-01

    The change of exposure dose equivalent of radiation workers at KURRI (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute) in the past 30 years is reported together with the operational accomplishments. The reactor achieved criticality on June 24, 1964 and reached the normal power of 1000 kW on August 17 of the same year, and the normal power was elevated to 5000 kW on July 16, 1968 until today. The change of the annual effective dose equivalent, the collective dose equivalent, the average annual dose equivalent and the maximum dose equivalent are indicated in the table and the figure. The chronological table on the activities of the reactor is added. (T.H.)

  3. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1993

    Meyer, H.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel at the site has been monitored in accordance with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In addition, ambient dose, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity levels of the air in the mine have been measured pursuant to the health physics provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. None of the measured results indicated any dose received by the persons, or ambient radioactivity levels, exceeding the maximum permissible values determined for occupational exposure. Continuous monitoring of the mine off-gas has shown a minor accumulation of the nuclides. H-3, C-14, Pb-210 and of the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The average annual emission values serving as input data, the concentration levels computed for the environment of the mine for some part have been below the levels of the naturally occurring concentrations of these nuclides. The emission-induced radiation dose measured at the least favourable place in the plant's vicinity has been far below the maximum permissible dose defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. All activities carried out in the Asse salt mine for the purpose of research work and storage of radioactive waste in the period under review have been contributing only a negligible amount to the radiation exposure of the population or personnel, as compared to the natural or other man-made radioactivity levels in that area. (orig.) [de

  4. Eleventh annual report of radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees

    1978-01-01

    In 1968, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established a program for reporting certain occupationa radiation exposure information to a central radiation records repository maintained at the Union Carbide Computing Technology Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Annual summaries (WASH-1350-R1 through WASH-1350-R6) were reported for the years 1968-1973 and included data on AEC contracter employees as well as employees of companies in the private sector licensed by the AEC. In January 1975, the operational functions of the AEC, including the maintenance of records on the occupational radiation exposure on contractor employees, were transferred to the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the AEC's regulatory functions, including the reporting of information on the occupational radiation exposure of licenses, were transferred to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Previous AEC licenses then reported to NRC while the contractors reported to ERDA. On October 1, 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) was formed and assumed the responsibilities of ERDA. This report contains the 1978 radiation exposure data for DOE and DOE contractors

  5. Radiation protection and environmental monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 1994

    Meyer, H.; Mueller-Lyda, I.

    1995-01-01

    The personnel at the site has been monitored in accordance with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In addition, ambient dose, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity levels of the air in the mine have been measured pursuant to the health physics provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. None of the measured results indicated any dose received by the persons, or ambient radioactivity levels, exceeding the maximum permissible values determined for occupational exposure. Continuous monitoring of the mine off-gas has shown a minor accumulation of the nuclides. H-3, C-14, Pb-210 and of the short-lived daughter products of Rn-222 and Rn-220. The average annual emission values serving as input data, the concentration levels computed for the environment of the mine for some part have been below the levels of the naturally occurring concentrations of these nuclides. The emission-induced radiation dose measured at the least favourable place in the plant's vicinity has been far below the maximum permissible dose defined in the Radiation Protection Ordinance. All activities carried out in the Asse salt mine for the purpose of research work and storage of radioactive waste in the period under review have been contributing only a negligible amount to the radiation exposure of the population or personnel, as compared to the natural or other man-made radioactivity levels in that area. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation protection and ambient radioactivity monitoring in the area of the Asse mine. Annual report 2005

    Meyer, H.; Wanka, T.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation protection measurements in the Asse mine and its environment were continued. Programmes for monitoring off-air and the environment more or less summarize monitoring measures and measurements so far. 358 measurements were made, i.e. as many as in the year before. All values recorded were in the range of natural background activity. In some cases, also long-term effects of early nuclear weapons tests and of the Chernobyl accident were identified. All staff members were monitored in accordance with the Radiation Protection Ordinance, and local doses, local dose rates and mine air activity were recorded in the framework of occupational radiation protection. None of the measurements exceeded the permissible personal doses and activities for occulpationally exposed persons. In the off-air of the salt mine, low concentrations of H-3, C-14, Pb-10 and Rn-222 including Rn-220 as well as short-lived radon decay products were measured. Concentrations in the environment of the shaft as calculated from the annual measurements were lower in some instances than the average natural concentrations of these nuclides. Radiation exposure from emissions in the most unfavourable site in the vicinity was far below the limiting values set by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. Storage of radioactive waste and research activities in the Asse salt mine resulted in no significantly higher population exposure in the surrounding villages. (orig.)

  7. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  8. 21. Annual meeting of the German radiation Oncology Society. Abstracts; 21. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie. Abstractband

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The volume includes the abstracts o the 21. annual meeting of the German radiation oncology society covering the following topics: gastrointestinal carcinoma; prostate carcinoma; supportive therapies, quality assurance and benign lesions; innovative therapy concepts; dosimetry, irradiation technology and planning; NSCLC, SCLC; radiation biology; head and neck carcinoma, particle therapy; brain carcinoma and metastases, mamma carcinoma and gynecologic tumors.

  9. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  10. Annual report 2002 on the radiation and nuclear safety in the Republic of Slovenia

    Janzekovic, H.; Stritar, A.

    2003-06-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared Annual Report on the Radiation and Nuclear Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2002. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. This report is different from the previous ones. The main part was shortened so that it can be easily read and understood. All details and numerous data are put into the extended report, which is available in the electronic form on an CD or at the home page of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration. (author)

  11. Annual report 2002 on the radiation and nuclear safety in the Republic of Slovenia

    Janzekovic, H.; Stritar, A.

    2003-06-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared Annual Report on the Radiation and Nuclear Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2002. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. This report is different from the previous ones. The main part was shortened so that it can be easily read and understood. All details and numerous data are put into the extended report, which is available in the electronic form on an CD or at the home page of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration.

  12. Radiations and space flight; Quand les radiations font partie du voyage

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N. [Groupe de Radiobiologie, Inserm U836, Institut des Neurosciences, 38 - Grenoble (France); Maalouf [CNES, Dept. des Sciences de la Vie, 75 - Paris (France); Vogin, G. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, EA3738, Faculte de Medecine de Lyon Sud, 69- Oullins (France)

    2011-02-15

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm{sup 2}/s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), solar radiation (10{sup 8} protons/cm{sup 2}/s in the solar wind), the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm{sup 2}/s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 {mu}Gray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 {mu}Gray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  13. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency 2005-06

    2005-01-01

    This report satisfies the annual reporting requirements of the ARPANS Act in addition to the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet requirements for annual reporting by Agencies. The report includes: details of the operations of the CEO and details of directions given by the Minister under section 16 at Part 1; details of the operations of ARPANSA at Part 3; details of the operations of the Radiation Health Advisory Council, the Radiation Health Committee and the Nuclear Safety Committee and details of all reports received from the Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council on matters related to radiation protection and nuclear safety or the Nuclear Safety Committee on matters related to nuclear safety and the safety of controlled facilities at Part 4; details of any breach of licence conditions by a licensee at Appendix 4; an index of compliance with the annual reporting requirements at Appendix 8

  14. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions.

    Cucinotta, Francis A; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR

  15. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff-Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices.

  16. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff–Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices. (paper)

  17. Mechanism on radiation degradation of Si space solar cells

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Taylor, S.J.; Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Matsuda, Sumio

    1998-01-01

    Radiation testing of Si n + -p-p + structure space solar cells has revealed an anomalous increase in short-circuit current Isc, followed by an abrupt decrease and cell failure, induced by high fluence electron and proton irradiations. A model to explain these phenomena by expressing the change in carrier concentration p of the base region is proposed in addition to the well-known model where Isc is decreased by minority-carrier lifetime reduction with irradiation. Change in carrier concentration causes broadening the depletion layer to contribute increase in the generated photocurrent and increase in recombination-generation current in the depletion layer, and increase in the resistivity of the base layer to result in the abrupt decrease of Isc and failure of the solar cell. Type conversion from p-type to n-type in base layer has been confirmed by EBIC (electron-beam induced current) and spectral response measurements. Moreover, origins of radiation-induced defects in heavily irradiated Si and generation of deep donor defects have also been examined by using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) analysis. (author)

  18. Reporting of Uncertainty at the 2013 Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology

    Lee, W. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The annual meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is designed to disseminate new scientific findings and technical advances to professionals. Best practices of scientific dissemination require that some level of uncertainty (or imprecision) is provided. Methods and Materials: A total of 279 scientific abstracts were selected for oral presentation in a clinical session at the 2013 ASTRO Annual Meeting. A random sample of these abstracts was reviewed to determine whether a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) or analogous measure of precision was provided for time-to-event analyses. Results: A sample of 140 abstracts was reviewed. Of the 65 abstracts with Kaplan-Meier or cumulative incidence analyses, 6 included some measure of precision (6 of 65 = 9%; 95% CI, 2-16). Of the 43 abstracts reporting ratios for time-to-event analyses (eg, hazard ratio, risk ratio), 22 included some measure of precision (22 of 43 = 51%; 95% CI, 36-66). Conclusions: Measures of precision are not provided in a significant percentage of abstracts selected for oral presentation at the Annual Meeting of ASTRO

  19. Guide for preparing annual reports on radiation-safety testing of electronic products (general)

    1987-10-01

    For manufacturers of electronic products other than those for which a specific guide has been issued, the guide replaces the Guide for the Filing of Annual Reports (21 CFR Subchapter J, Section 1002.11), HHS Publication FDA 82-8127. The electronic product (general) annual reporting guide is applicable to the following products: products intended to produce x radiation (accelerators, analytical devices, therapy x-ray machines); microwave diathermy machines; cold-cathode discharge tubes; and vacuum switches and tubes operating at or above 15,000 volts. To carry out its responsibilities under Public Law 90-602, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) has issued a series of regulations contained in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Part 1002 of 21 CFR deals with records and reports. Section 1002.61 categorizes electronic products into Groups A through C. Section 1002.30 requires manufacturers of products in Groups B and C to establish and maintain certain records, while Section 1002.11 requires such manufacturers to submit an Annual Report summarizing the contents of the required records. Section 1002.7 requires that reports conform to reporting guides issued by CDRH unless an acceptable justification for an alternate format is provided

  20. Impact of Inter-Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of several Annual Medics Species

    Mahnaz BAGHERI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran to evaluate the effects of three within-row spacing treatments (20, 30 and 40 cm on forage and seed production of five species of annual medics (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava; M. littoralis cv. Herald; M. polymorpha cv. Santiago; M. minima cv. Orion and M. truncatula cv. Mogul. The experiment was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The results of the experiment indicated that M. polymorpha had the highest forage yield out of the highest plant population. Latter with average 443.09 Kg ha-1 and M. scutellata with average 409.99 Kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield. Also, the last species with 1306.78 Kg ha-1 had the highest pod yields. The highest seed yield and pod yield were produced at 20 cm within-row spacing because there were not adequate plants for maximum seed and pod yields in 30 and 40 cm within-row spacing. The tested plant densities did not affect on seeds number per pod, 1000 seeds weight and seeds to burr pod weight ratio. The M. truncatula and M. minima have the highest seeds number per pod. In addition, M. scutellata had the highest 1000 seeds weight with an average of 12.57 g. The highest seeds to burr pod ratio was observed in M. polymorpha. The most pod numbers were obtained in 20 and 30 cm within-row spacing and M. polymorpha while, the least pod numbers was observed in M. scutellata. Plant densities did not affect on pod numbers of the mentioned species. The highest dry forage yield was produced in 20 cm within-row spacing. Among the tested tested species, M. truncatula had the highest forage yield with average 870.07 Kg ha-1. This experiment indicated that there is possibility for seed and forage production of tested annual medics in the mentioned zone with the considering suitable plant densities.

  1. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  2. Radiation dose to technologists per nuclear medicine examination and estimation of annual dose.

    Bayram, Tuncay; Yilmaz, A Hakan; Demir, Mustafa; Sonmez, Bircan

    2011-03-01

    Conventional diagnostic nuclear medicine applications have been continuously increasing in most nuclear medicine departments in Turkey, but to our knowledge no one has studied the doses to technologists who perform nuclear medicine procedures. Most nuclear medicine laboratories do not have separate control rooms for technologists, who are quite close to the patient during data acquisition. Technologists must therefore stay behind lead shields while performing their task if they are to reduce the radiation dose received. The aim of this study was to determine external radiation doses to technologists during nuclear medicine procedures with and without a lead shield. Another aim was to investigate the occupational annual external radiation doses to Turkish technologists. This study used a Geiger-Müller detector to measure dose rates to technologists at various distances from patients (0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 m and behind a lead shield) and determined the average time spent by technologists at these distances. Deep-dose equivalents to technologists were obtained. The following conventional nuclear medicine procedures were considered: thyroid scintigraphy performed using (99m)Tc pertechnetate, whole-body bone scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate, myocardial perfusion scanning performed using (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile, and (201)Tl (thallous chloride) and renal scanning performed using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid. The measured deep-dose equivalent to technologists per procedure was within the range of 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.43 ± 0.17 μSv using a lead shield and 0.21 ± 0.07 to 1.01 ± 0.46 μSv without a lead shield. Also, the annual individual dose to a technologist performing only a particular scintigraphic procedure throughout a year was estimated. For a total of 95 clinical cases (71 patients), effective external radiation doses to technologists were found to be within the permissible levels. This study showed that a 2-mm lead shield

  3. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  4. Annual report on the present state and activities of the radiation protection division, JNC Tokai Works in fiscal 2004

    2005-09-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities on radiation control in the radiation facilities, personnel monitoring, monitoring of gas and liquid waste effluents, environmental monitoring, instrumentation, safety research, and technical support, undertaken by the Radiation Protection Division at JNC Tokai Works in fiscal 2004. The major radiation facilities in the Tokai Works are the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), three MOX fuel fabrication facilities, the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF), and various other radioisotope and uranium research laboratories. The Radiation Protection Division is responsible for radiation control in and around these radiation facilities, including personnel monitoring, workplace monitoring, consultation on radiological work planning and evaluation, monitoring of gas and liquid waste effluents, environmental monitoring, instrumentation, calibration, quality assurance, and safety research. The Division also provides technical support and cooperation to other international and domestic institutes in the radiation protection field. In fiscal 2004, the results of radiological monitoring showed the situation to be normal, and no radiological incident or accident occurred. The maximum annual effective dose to radiation workers was 6.1 mSv and the mean annual effective dose was 0.1 mSv. Individual doses were kept within the annual dose limit specified in the safety regulations. The estimated effective dose caused by gas and liquid effluents from the TRP to members of the public around the Tokai Works was 4.4x10 -4 mSv. Environmental monitoring and effluent control were performed appropriately in compliance with safety regulation and standards. Research and development on radiation protection in nuclear fuel cycle are also performed actively. Safety audit and Nuclear Safety Inspection were made in accordance with the quality assurance system which had been introduced to safety regulation since fiscal 2004. (author)

  5. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    Surzhikov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  6. What can the annual 10Be solar activity reconstructions tell us about historic space weather?

    Barnard, Luke; McCracken, Ken G.; Owens, Mat J.; Lockwood, Mike

    2018-04-01

    Context: Cosmogenic isotopes provide useful estimates of past solar magnetic activity, constraining past space climate with reasonable uncertainty. Much less is known about past space weather conditions. Recent advances in the analysis of 10Be by McCracken & Beer (2015, Sol Phys 290: 305-3069) (MB15) suggest that annually resolved 10Be can be significantly affected by solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. This poses a problem, and presents an opportunity, as the accurate quantification of past solar magnetic activity requires the SEP effects to be determined and isolated, whilst doing so might provide a valuable record of past SEP fluxes. Aims: We compare the MB15 reconstruction of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), with two independent estimates of the HMF derived from sunspot records and geomagnetic variability. We aim to quantify the differences between the HMF reconstructions, and speculate on the origin of these differences. We test whether the differences between the reconstructions appear to depend on known significant space weather events. Methods: We analyse the distributions of the differences between the HMF reconstructions. We consider how the differences vary as a function of solar cycle phase, and, using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we compare the distributions under the two conditions of whether or not large space weather events were known to have occurred. Results: We find that the MB15 reconstructions are generally marginally smaller in magnitude than the sunspot and geomagnetic HMF reconstructions. This bias varies as a function of solar cycle phase, and is largest in the declining phase of the solar cycle. We find that MB15's excision of the years with very large ground level enhancement (GLE) improves the agreement of the 10Be HMF estimate with the sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions. We find no statistical evidence that GLEs, in general, affect the MB15 reconstruction, but this analysis is limited by having too few samples. We do find

  7. Annual report on the environmental radiation monitoring around Tokai Reprocessing Plant. FY 2001. Document on present state of affairs

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Takeishi, Minoru; Miyagawa, Naoto

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been performed since 1975, based on ''Safety Regulations for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant, Chapter IV - Environmental Monitoring''. This annual report presents the results of the environmental monitoring and the dose estimation to the hypothetical inhabitant due to the radioactivity discharged from the plant during April 2001 to March 2002. Appendices present comprehensive information, such as monitoring program, monitoring results, meteorological data and annual discharges from the plant. (author)

  8. What Reliability Engineers Should Know about Space Radiation Effects

    DiBari, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Space radiation in space systems present unique failure modes and considerations for reliability engineers. Radiation effects is not a one size fits all field. Threat conditions that must be addressed for a given mission depend on the mission orbital profile, the technologies of parts used in critical functions and on application considerations, such as supply voltages, temperature, duty cycle, and redundancy. In general, the threats that must be addressed are of two types-the cumulative degradation mechanisms of total ionizing dose (TID) and displacement damage (DD). and the prompt responses of components to ionizing particles (protons and heavy ions) falling under the heading of single-event effects. Generally degradation mechanisms behave like wear-out mechanisms on any active components in a system: Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Displacement Damage: (1) TID affects all active devices over time. Devices can fail either because of parametric shifts that prevent the device from fulfilling its application or due to device failures where the device stops functioning altogether. Since this failure mode varies from part to part and lot to lot, lot qualification testing with sufficient statistics is vital. Displacement damage failures are caused by the displacement of semiconductor atoms from their lattice positions. As with TID, failures can be either parametric or catastrophic, although parametric degradation is more common for displacement damage. Lot testing is critical not just to assure proper device fi.mctionality throughout the mission. It can also suggest remediation strategies when a device fails. This paper will look at these effects on a variety of devices in a variety of applications. This paper will look at these effects on a variety of devices in a variety of applications. (2) On the NEAR mission a functional failure was traced to a PIN diode failure caused by TID induced high leakage currents. NEAR was able to recover from the failure by reversing the

  9. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  10. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  11. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    Young, A.L.

    1996-06-30

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC`s second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks.

  12. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination second annual report, July 1, 1985--June 30, 1986

    Young, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is the second annual report of the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). CIRRPC was established on April 9, 1984, to replace the Committee on Interagency Radiation Policy and was assigned responsibilities of the former Interagency Radiation Research Committee and former Radiation Policy Council. CIRRPC is chartered under the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology (FCCSET) and reports to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Executive Office of the President. Its overall charge is to coordinate radiation matters between agencies, evaluate radiation research, and provide advice on the formulation of radiation policy. During CIRRPC's second year, the member agencies have called upon this interagency resource to assist in coordinating science and policy issues and to provide a vehicle to accomplish multiagency tasks

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  14. Annual report on the present state and activities of the radiation protection division, JNC Tokai Works in fiscal 2003

    2004-10-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities, such as radiation control in the radiation facilities, personnel monitoring, monitoring of gas and liquid waste effluents, environmental monitoring, instrumentation, safety research, and technical support, undertaken by the Radiation Protection Division at JNC Tokai Works in fiscal 2003. The major radiation facilities in the Tokai Works are the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), three MOX fuel fabrication facilities, the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF), and various other radioisotope and uranium research laboratories. The Radiation Protection Division is responsible for radiation control in and around these radiation facilities, including personnel monitoring, workplace monitoring, consultation on radiological work planning and evaluation, monitoring of gas and liquid waste effluents, environmental monitoring, instrumentation, calibration, quality assurance, and safety research. The Division also provides technical support and cooperation to other international and domestic institutes in the radiation protection field. In fiscal 2003, the results of radiological monitoring showed the situation to be normal, and no radiological incident or accident occurred. The maximum annual effective dose to radiation workers was 6.2 mSv and the mean annual effective dose was 0.1 mSv. Individual doses were kept within the annual dose limit specified in the safety regulations. The estimated effective dose caused by gas and liquid effluents form the TRP to members of the public around the Tokai Works was 4.2 x 10 -4 mSv. Environmental monitoring and effluent control were performed appropriately in compliance with safety regulation and standards. In addition, the various preparations were made for introduction of the quality assurance to regulation since fiscal 2004. (author)

  15. Radiation: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Stonebarger, Bill

    This discussion of radiation considers the spectrum of electromagnetic energy including light, x-rays, radioactivity, and other waves. Radiation is considered from three aspects; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and concepts…

  16. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  17. Radiation exposures for DOE and DOE contractor employees Eighteenth annual report, 1985

    1986-12-01

    All US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors are required to submit occupational radiation exposure records to a central repository. The data required include a summary of whole-body exposures to ionizing radiation, a summary of internal depositions of radioactive materials above specified limits, and occupational exposure reports for terminating employees. This report is a summary of the data submitted by DOE and DOE contractors for 1985. A total of 95,806 DOE and DOE contractor employees were monitored for whole-body ionizing radiation exposures in 1985. In addition to the employees, 96,665 visitors were monitored. Of all employees monitored, 58.4% received a dose equivalent that was less than measurable, 39.8% a measurable exposure less than 1 rem, and 1.9% an exposure greater than 1 rem. One employee received a dose equivalent greater than 5 rem (8.66 rem). The exposure received by 91.9% of the visitors to DOE facilities was less than measurable. No visitors received a dose equivalent greater than 2 rem. The collective dose equivalent for DOE and DOE contractor employees was 8223 person-rem. The collective dose equivalent for visitors was 461 person-rem. These averages are significantly less than the DOE 5-rem/year radiation protection standard for whole-body exposures. Ten new cases of internal depositions were reported in 1985 that exceeded 50% of the pertinent annual dose-equivalent standard. Of these ten cases, eight occurred in a previous year and are reported now because recent revisions in the dose calculations established these cases as reportable depositions. Twenty-six cases reported during 1985 were considered to be the continued tracking of previous depositions. 5 figs., 32 tabs

  18. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993

    1994-01-01

    This is an annual report concerning research activities and achievement in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan during the period April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993. Twenty-nine reports, including integrated report on the incidence of solid tumors (surveyed during the period 1958-1987) and the report on the incidence of leukemia (surveyed during the period 1950-1987), were approved in the fiscal year 1992. The present report deals with scientific achievement of each division of RERF; various activities including international cooperation programs, disease monitoring workshop, lectures, and in-house seminars; abstracts of new research topics, achievement reports, and review reports; a list of publications and presentations by staff members in academic meetings; and RERF organization affairs including activities, financial aspects, and a list of visitors to RERF. An Appendix gives the proceedings; a brief summary of disease monitoring workshop; ongoing and completed research topics; and a list of RERF personnel. (N.K.)

  19. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  20. Calibration and application of medical particle accelerators to space radiation experiments

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Park, Miyoung; Chae, Jangsoo; Yoon, Sangpil; Shin, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce radioisotope facilities and medical particle accelerators that can be applied to space radiation experiments and the experimental conditions required by the space radiation experiments. Space radiation experiments on the ground are critical in determining the lifetimes of satellites and in choosing or preparing the appropriate electrical parts to assure the designated mission lifetime. Before the completion of building the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator in Gyeongju, or even after the completion, the currently existing proton accelerators for medical purposes could suggest an alternative plan. We have performed experiments to calibrate medical proton beam accelerators to investigate whether the beam conditions are suitable for applications to space radiation experiments. Based on the calibration results, we propose reference beam operation conditions for space radiation experiments.

  1. Occupational radiation exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power reactors 1983. Volume 5. Annual report

    Brooks, B.G.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents an updated compilation of occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors for the years 1969 through 1983. The summary based on information received from the 75 light-water-cooled reactors (LWRs) and one high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The total number of personnel monitored at LWRs in 1983 was 136,700. The number of workers that received measurable doses during 1983 and 85,600 which is about 1000 more than that found in 1982. The total collective dose at LWRs for 1983 is estimated to be 56,500 man-rems (man-cSv), which is about 4000 more man-rems (man-cSv) than that reported in 1982. This resulted in the average annual dose for each worker who received a measurable dose increasing slightly to 0.66 rems (cSv), and the average collective dose per reactor increasing by about 50 man-rems (man-cSv), and the average collective dose per reactor increasing by about 50 man-rems (man-cSv) to a value of 753 man-rems (man-cSv). The collective dose per megawatt of electricity generated by each reactor also increased slightly to an average value of 1.7 man-rems (man-cSv) per megawatt-year. Health implications of these annual occupational doses are discussed

  2. [The model of radiation shielding of the service module of the International space station].

    Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Kuznetsov, V G; Laĭko, Iu A; Bengin, V V; Shurshakov, V A

    2001-01-01

    Compared and contrasted were models of radiation shielding of habitable compartments of the basal Mir module that had been used to calculate crew absorbed doses from space radiation. Developed was a model of the ISS Service module radiation shielding. It was stated that there is a good agreement between experimental shielding function and the one calculated from this model.

  3. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  4. 76 FR 26931 - Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    2011-05-10

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Second Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL... temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Second... Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats will be participating...

  5. 77 FR 15006 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa...

    2012-03-14

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa... proposes to establish special local regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach... waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high- speed power boats are...

  6. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa... establishing a special local regulation on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during... event will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30...

  7. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments.

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in Ireland (1996-2005)

    Colgan, P. A.; Currivan, L.; Fenton, D.

    2008-01-01

    Whole-body occupational exposure to artificial radiation sources in Ireland for the years 1996-2005 has been reviewed. Dose data have been extracted from the database of the Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland, which contains data on >95% of monitored workers. The data have been divided into three sectors: medical, industrial and education/ research. Data on exposure to radon in underground mines and show caves for the years 2001-05 are also presented. There has been a continuous increase in the number of exposed workers from 5980 in 1996 to 9892 in 2005. Over the same time period, the number of exposed workers receiving measurable doses has decreased from 676 in 1996 to 189 in 2005 and the collective dose has also decreased from 227.1 to 110.3 man milli-sievert (man mSv). The collective dose to workers in the medical sector has consistently declined over the 10-y period of the study while that attributable to the industrial sector has remained reasonably static. In the education/research sector, the collective dose typically represents 5% or less of the total collective dose from all practices. Over the 10 y of the study, a total of 77914 annual dose records have been accumulated, but only 4040 ( 1 mSv and 21 of these exceeded 5 mSv. Most of the doses >1 mSv were received by individuals working in diagnostic radiology (which also includes interventional radiology) in hospitals and site industrial radiography. There has been only one instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Evaluating the data for the period 2001-05 separately, the average annual collective dose from the medical, industrial and educational/research sectors are ∼60, 70 and 2 man mSv with the average dose per exposed worker who received a measurable dose being 0.32, 0.79 and 0.24 mSv, respectively. Diagnostic radiology and site industrial radiography each represents >60% of the collective dose in their respective sectors. Available data on radon exposure in one underground

  9. 46{sup th} Annual meeting on nuclear technology (AMNT 2015). Key Topic / Enhanced safety and operation excellence / Radiation protection

    Baumann, Erik [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Radiation Protection; Bohnsted, Angelika [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Safety Research for Nuclear Waste Management, Radiation Protection

    2015-10-15

    Summary report on the Focus Session 'Radiation Protection' of the 46{sup th} Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2015) held in Berlin, 5 to 7 May 2015. Other Sessions of AMNT 2015 have been covered in atw 7 and 8 (2015) and will be covered in further issues of atw.

  10. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B.; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk.

  11. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  12. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  13. The issue concerning the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limit for internal radiation protection

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Alexander, E.L.; French, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    The scientific, technical, practical, and ethical considerations that relate to the use of an annual as opposed to a committed dose limitation system for internal radiation protection are evaluated and presented. The concerns about problems associated with the more recent ICRP committed dose recommendations that have been expressed by persons who are currently operating under an annual dose limitation system are reviewed and discussed in terms of the radiation protection programme elements that are required for an effective ALARA programme. We include in this and a follow-up article a comparison of how these alternative dose limitation systems affect the economic and professional livelihood of radiation workers and the requirements that they impose upon employers. Finally, we recommend the use of an ICRP based committed dose limitation system that provides protection of workers over an entire occupational lifetime without undue impact on their livelihood and without undue requirements for employers. (author)

  14. The All Terrain Bio nano Gear for Space Radiation Detection System

    Ummat, Ajay; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses about the relevance of detecting space radiations which are very harmful and pose numerous health issues for astronauts. There are many ways to detect radiations, but we present a non-invasive way of detecting them in real-time while an astronaut is in the mission. All Terrain Bio-nano (ATB) gear system is one such concept where we propose to detect various levels of space radiations depending on their intensity and warn the astronaut of probable biological damage. A basic framework for radiation detection system which utilizes bio-nano machines is discussed. This radiation detection system is termed as 'radiation-responsive molecular assembly' (RMA) for the detection of space radiations. Our objective is to create a device which could detect space radiations by creating an environment equivalent to human cells within its structure and bio-chemically sensing the effects induced therein. For creating such an environment and further bio-chemically sensing space radiations bio-nano systems could be potentially used. These bio-nano systems could interact with radiations and signal based on the intensity of the radiations their relative biological effectiveness. Based on the energy and kind of radiation encountered, a matrix of signals has to be created which corresponds to a particular biological effect. The key advantage of such a design is its ability to interact with the radiation at e molecular scale; characterize its intensity based on energy deposition and relate it to the relative biological effectiveness based on the correspondence established through molecular structures and bond strengths of the bio-nano system

  15. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  16. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AT AVIATION ALTITUDES AND IN SPACE

    Sihver, L.; Ploc, Ondřej; Puchalska, M.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Kyselová, Dagmar; Shurshakov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 477-483 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cosmic radiation * radiation field * on-board spacecraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  17. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies.

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G; Costes, Sylvain V

    2018-04-13

    Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The NASA GeneLab project ( https://genelab.nasa.gov/ ) aims to provide a detailed library of omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information on radiation exposure for ground-based studies, GeneLab is adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight experiments. GeneLab is the first comprehensive omics database for space-related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments, utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. The GLDS is continually expanding as omics-related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of the space radiation-related data available at GeneLab.

  18. Innovative, Lightweight Thoraeus RubberTM for MMOD and Space Radiation Shielding, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic offers an innovative manufacturing process to yield ultra-lightweight radiation shielding nanocomposites by exploiting the concept of the Thoraeus filter...

  19. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  20. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube/Polyethylene Complex Composites for Space Radiation Shielding, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polyethylene (PE), due to its high hydrogen content relative to its weight, has been identified by NASA as a promising radiation shielding material against galactic...

  1. LGM2605 as a mitigator of space radiation-induced vascular damage, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LignaMed, LLC is a drug development company with a fast track strategy to approval of LGM2605, an oral small molecule for use as a radiation mitigating agent that...

  2. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  3. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  4. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  5. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1991 - March 31, 1992

    1993-01-01

    This is an annual report concerning research activities and achievement in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Japan during the period April 1, 1991-March 31, 1992. During this period, 25 publications were approved, including some epoch studies (such as the life span study that revealed a significant increase of cardiovascular disease of A-bomb survivors and the study on thyroid cancer). The present report deals with scientific achievement of each division of RERF; various activities including international cooperation programs, workshop, lectures, and in-house seminars; abstracts of new research topics, achievement reports, and review reports; a list of publications and presentations by staff members in academic meetings; and RERF organization affairs including activities, financial aspects, a list of visitors to RERF. An Appendix gives the proceedings; a brief summary of the workshop on 'the application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of A-bomb survivors' held in November 12-14, 1991; both ongoing and completed research topics as of March 31, 1992; and a list of RERF personnel. (N.K.)

  6. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described.

  7. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.

  8. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  9. Space Weather Action Plan Ionizing Radiation Benchmarks: Phase 1 update and plans for Phase 2

    Talaat, E. R.; Kozyra, J.; Onsager, T. G.; Posner, A.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Black, C.; Christian, E. R.; Copeland, K.; Fry, D. J.; Johnston, W. R.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mertens, C. J.; Minow, J. I.; Pierson, J.; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Xapsos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the near-Earth radiation environment can affect satellite operations, astronauts in space, commercial space activities, and the radiation environment on aircraft at relevant latitudes or altitudes. Understanding the diverse effects of increased radiation is challenging, but producing ionizing radiation benchmarks will help address these effects. The following areas have been considered in addressing the near-Earth radiation environment: the Earth's trapped radiation belts, the galactic cosmic ray background, and solar energetic-particle events. The radiation benchmarks attempt to account for any change in the near-Earth radiation environment, which, under extreme cases, could present a significant risk to critical infrastructure operations or human health. The goal of these ionizing radiation benchmarks and associated confidence levels will define at least the radiation intensity as a function of time, particle type, and energy for an occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and an intensity level at the theoretical maximum for the event. In this paper, we present the benchmarks that address radiation levels at all applicable altitudes and latitudes in the near-Earth environment, the assumptions made and the associated uncertainties, and the next steps planned for updating the benchmarks.

  10. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared H.; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G.; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of risk factors for long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration: therefore it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) is one of the major risk factors factor that will impact health of astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low dose, low dose rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The GeneLab project (genelab.nasa.gov) aims to provide a detailed library of Omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) currently includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information for ground-based studies, we are in the process of adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight missions. GeneLab is the first comprehensive Omics database for space related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. In addition to previously acquired data, the GLDS is continually expanding as Omics related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of space radiation related data available at GeneLab.

  11. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions ( 180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  12. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1998; Valmiustapahtumat ja valtakunnallinen saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1998

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  13. Emergency preparedness incident response and radiation monitoring in Finland. Annual report 1999; Valmiustapahtumat ja saeteilyvalvonta. Vuosiraportti 1999

    Ristonmaa, S. [ed.

    2000-04-01

    The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) publishes annually a report about STUK's preparedness measures. The report describes notifications received by STUK's on duty system and further measures carried out after receiving a message. In addition, the emergence exercises STUK participated in during the year are described. The radiation situation in Finland is continuously monitored. STUK is the authority who carries out a wide range of environmental measurements, sampling and sensitive laboratory analyses. The measurement results are presented in the form of tables and graphically. (editor)

  14. Radiation shielding estimates for manned Mars space flight

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Kolomensky, A.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Semenov, V.F.; Demin, V.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the analysis of the required radiation shielding for spacecraft during a Mars flight, the specific effects of solar activity (SA) on the intensity of galactic and solar cosmic rays were taken into consideration. Three spaceflight periods were considered: (1) maximum SA; (2) minimum SA; and (3) intermediate SA, when intensities of both galactic and solar cosmic rays are moderately high. Scenarios of spaceflights utilizing liquid-propellant rocket engines, low-and intermediate-thrust nuclear electrojet engines, and nuclear rocket engines, all of which have been designed in the Soviet Union, are reviewed. Calculations were performed on the basis of a set of standards for radiation protection approved by the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Standards. It was found that the lowest estimated mass of a Mars spacecraft, including the radiation shielding mass, obtained using a combination of a liquid propellant engine with low and intermediate thrust nuclear electrojet engines, would be 500-550 metric tons. (author)

  15. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator for Space Propulsion

    Hyers, R. W.; Tomboulian, B. N.; Crave, Paul D.; Rogers, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    For high-power nuclear-electric spacecraft, the radiator can account for 40% or more of the power system mass and a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. Improvements in the heat rejection per unit mass rely on lower-density and higher-thermal conductivity materials. Current radiators achieve near-ideal surface radiation through high-emissivity coatings, so improvements in heat rejection per unit area can be accomplished only by raising the temperature at which heat is rejected. We have been investigating materials that have the potential to deliver significant reductions in mass density and significant improvements in thermal conductivity, while expanding the feasible range of temperature for heat rejection up to 1000 K and higher. The presentation will discuss the experimental results and models of the heat transfer in matrix-free carbon fiber fins. Thermal testing of other carbon-based fin materials including carbon nanotube cloth and a carbon nanotube composite will also be presented.

  16. ICRP PUBLICATION 123: Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space

    Dietze, G.; Bartlett, D.T.; Cool, D.A.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Jia, X.; McAulay, I.R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Petrov, V.; Reitz, G.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    During their occupational activities in space, astronauts are exposed to ionising radiation from natural radiation sources present in this environment. They are, however, not usually classified as being occupationally exposed in the sense of the general ICRP system for radiation protection of workers applied on Earth. The exposure assessment and risk-related approach described in this report is clearly restricted to the special situation in space, and should not be applied to any other exposure situation on Earth. The report describes the terms and methods used to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts, and provides data for the assessment of organ doses. Chapter 1 describes the specific situation of astronauts in space, and the differences in the radiation fields compared with those on Earth. In Chapter 2, the radiation fields in space are described in detail, including galactic cosmic radiation, radiation from the Sun and its special solar particle events, and the radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Chapter 3 deals with the quantities used in radiological protection, describing the Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) system of dose quantities, and subsequently presenting the special approach for applications in space; due to the strong contribution of heavy ions in the radiation field, radiation weighting is based on the radiation quality factor, Q, instead of the radiation weighting factor, w R . In Chapter 4, the methods of fluence and dose measurement in space are described, including instrumentation for fluence measurements, radiation spectrometry, and area and individual monitoring. The use of biomarkers for the assessment of mission doses is also described. The methods of determining quantities describing the radiation fields within a spacecraft are given in Chapter 5. Radiation transport calculations are the most important tool. Some physical data used in radiation transport codes are presented, and the various codes used for calculations in high

  17. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  18. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  19. Space-type radiation induces multimodal responses in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome.

    Casero, David; Gill, Kirandeep; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Nelson, Gregory; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Boerma, Marjan; Braun, Jonathan; Cheema, Amrita K

    2017-08-18

    Space travel is associated with continuous low dose rate exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low dose radiation exposure are strongly influenced by non-cytocidal radiation effects, including changes in the microbiome and host gene expression. Although the importance of the gut microbiome in the maintenance of human health is well established, little is known about the role of radiation in altering the microbiome during deep-space travel. Using a mouse model for exposure to high LET radiation, we observed substantial changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiome. These were accompanied by changes in the abundance of multiple metabolites, which were related to the enzymatic activity of the predicted metagenome by means of metabolic network modeling. There was a complex dynamic in microbial and metabolic composition at different radiation doses, suggestive of transient, dose-dependent interactions between microbial ecology and signals from the host's cellular damage repair processes. The observed radiation-induced changes in microbiota diversity and composition were analyzed at the functional level. A constitutive change in activity was found for several pathways dominated by microbiome-specific enzymatic reactions like carbohydrate digestion and absorption and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, while the activity in other radiation-responsive pathways like phosphatidylinositol signaling could be linked to dose-dependent changes in the abundance of specific taxa. The implication of microbiome-mediated pathophysiology after low dose ionizing radiation may be an unappreciated biologic hazard of space travel and deserves experimental validation. This study provides a conceptual and analytical basis of further investigations to increase our understanding of the chronic effects of space radiation on human health, and points to potential new targets for intervention in adverse radiation

  20. Space radiation measurement of plant seeds boarding on the Shijian-8 satellite

    Lv Duicai; Huang Zengxin; Zhao Yali; Wang Genliang; Jia Xianghong; Guo Huijun; Liu Luxiang; Li Chunhua; Zhang Long

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify cause of mutagenesis of plant seeds induced by space flight, especially to ascertain the interrelation between space radiation and mutagenesis, a 'photograph location' experimental setup was designed in this study. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to detect space heavy particles. The plant seeds and their position hit by space heavy ions were checked based on relative position between track and seeds in the setup. The low LET part of the spectrum was also measured by thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD, LiF). The results showed that the 'photograph location' experimental method was convenient, practicable and economical. This new method also greatly saved time for microscopical analysis. On Shijian-8 satellite, the average ion flux of space heavy ions was 4.44 ions/cm 2 ·d and the average dosage of low LET space radiation to the plant seeds was 4.79 mGy. (authors)

  1. BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS

    Carmen Arena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.

  2. Gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere

    Rocchia, R.

    1966-01-01

    We have shown that the γ radiation existing in the atmosphere is caused mainly by the Bremsstrahlung of the electrons of the electromagnetic cascades (∼ 50 per cent of the measured radiation), by the 511 keV radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons created in cascades (8 per cent of the measured intensity) and by the Compton γ degradation of this line (30 per cent of the measured intensity). The rest, slightly over 10 per cent, must be attributed to secondary causes such as the nuclear de-excitation γ to the internal Bremsstrahlung of charged particles created in nuclear stars, and to charged particles crossing our detector, since the latter was not fitted with a device for rejecting these particles. Experiments carried out in rockets at Colomb-Bechar confirm these results and have made it possible to detect and measure a primary γ radiation having an intensity of ∼ 2 γ cm 2 s -1 above 100 keV. The primary spectrum obeys an approximate E -2 law. (author) [fr

  3. [Anthropogenic sources of radiation hazard in the near-Earth space].

    Fedoseev, G A

    2004-01-01

    All plausible artificial radioactive sources entering the near-Earth space (NES) were systematized and consequences of various large radiation accidents and catastrophes to Earth and NES were analyzed. Aggressive "population" of near-Earth orbits by space stations with rotating crews, unmanned research platforms and observatories extends "borderlines" of the noosphere raising at the same time concerns about the noosphere radiation safety and global radioecology. Specifically, consideration is given to the facts of negative effects of space power reactor facilities on results of orbital astrophysical investigations.

  4. Concept of space NPP radiation safety and its realization in the Kosmos-1900 satellite

    Gryaznov, G.M.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Serbin, V.I.; Tyugin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A standard NPP for a space vehicle, radioactivity composition and radiation safety systems are considered. Plausible accidents on board the space vehicle and requirements to system operation reliability are discussed. The main reactor characteristics situation on board the Kosmos-1900 satellite and completion of its flight are described. The experience in providing radiation safety of space NPP has shown that it is sufficient to use two independent systems: a drift system and a reactor dispersion system based on separation of its structure by active means

  5. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  6. Characteristic of the radiation field in low earth orbit and in deep space

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60 latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  7. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  8. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-01

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  9. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-15

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  10. Radiation durability and functional reliability of polymeric materials in space systems

    Haruvy, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials are preferred for the light-weight construction of space-systems. Materials in space systems are required to fulfill a complete set of specifications, at utmost reliability, throughout the whole period of service in space, while being exposed to the hazardous influence of the space environment. The major threats of the space environment in orbits at the geostationary altitude (GSO) arise from ionizing radiations, the main constituents of which are highly energetic protons (affecting mainly the surface) and fast electrons (which produce the main threat to the electronic components). The maximum dose of ionizing radiation (within the limits of uncertainty of the calculations) at the surface of a material mounted on a space system, namely the ''Skin-Dose'', is ca. 2500 Mrads/yr. Space systems such as telecommunication satellites are planned to serve for prolonged periods of 30 years and longer. The cumulative predicted dose of ionizing-radiation over such periods presents a severe threat of chemical degradation to most of the polymeric construction materials commonly utilized in space systems. The reliability of each of the polymeric materials must be evaluated in detail, considering each of the relevant typical threats, such as ionizing-radiation, UV radiation, meteoroides flux, thermal cycling and ultra-high vacuum. For each of the exposed materials, conservation of the set of functional characteristics such as mechanical integrity, electrical and thermo-optical properties, electrical conductivity, surface charging and outgassing properties, which may cause contamination of neighboring systems, is evaluated. The reliability of functioning of the materials exposed to the space environment can thus be predicted, utilizing data from the literature, experimental results reported from space flights and laboratory simulations, and by chemical similarity of untested polymers to others. (author)

  11. The Nasa space radiation school, an excellent training in radiobiology and space radiation protection; La NASA space radiation summer school, une formation d'excellence en radiobiologie et radioprotection spatiale

    Vogin, G. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2009-10-15

    The astronauts have to spend more time in space and the colonization of the moon and Mars are in the cross hairs of international agencies. The cosmic radiation from which we are protected on ground by atmosphere and by the terrestrial magnetosphere (.4 mSv/year according to Who) become really threatening since 20 km altitude, delivering an average radiation dose of a therapeutic kind to astronauts with peaks related to solar events. It is composed in majority of hadrons: protons (85%) and heavy ions (13%), but also photons (2%) of high energy (GeV/n)). the incurred risks are multiple: early ones(cataract, central nervous system damages, whole body irradiation) but especially delayed ones (carcinogenesis). The astronauts radiation protection turns poor and the rate of death risk by cancer returning from a mission on Mars has been estimated at 5%. The Nasa created in 2004 a summer school aiming to awareness young researchers to the space radiobiology specificities. Areas concerned as follow: radioinduced DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, bystander effect, genome instability, neuro degeneration, delayed effects and carcinogenesis in relation with radiation exposure. (N.C.)

  12. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  13. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe-Bloch model

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Calders, Stijn; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe-Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most important

  14. Web-based description of the space radiation environment using the Bethe–Bloch model

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Calders, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    Space weather is a rapidly growing area of research not only in scientific and engineering applications but also in physics education and in the interest of the public. We focus especially on space radiation and its impact on space exploration. The topic is highly interdisciplinary, bringing together fundamental concepts of nuclear physics with aspects of radiation protection and space science. We give a new approach to presenting the topic by developing a web-based application that combines some of the fundamental concepts from these two fields into a single tool that can be used in the context of advanced secondary or undergraduate university education. We present DREADCode, an outreach or teaching tool to rapidly assess the current conditions of the radiation field in space. DREADCode uses the available data feeds from a number of ongoing space missions (ACE, GOES-13, GOES-15) to produce a first order approximation of the radiation dose an astronaut would receive during a mission of exploration in deep space (i.e. far from the Earth’s shielding magnetic field and from the radiation belts). DREADCode is based on an easy-to-use GUI interface available online from the European Space Weather Portal (www.spaceweather.eu/dreadcode). The core of the radiation transport computation to produce the radiation dose from the observed fluence of radiation observed by the spacecraft fleet considered is based on a relatively simple approximation: the Bethe–Bloch equation. DREADCode also assumes a simplified geometry and material configuration for the shields used to compute the dose. The approach is approximate and sacrifices some important physics on the altar of rapid execution time, which allows a real-time operation scenario. There is no intention here to produce an operational tool for use in space science and engineering. Rather, we present an educational tool at undergraduate level that uses modern web-based and programming methods to learn some of the most

  15. Assessment of annual whole-body occupational radiation exposure in education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana (2000-09)

    Hasford, F.; Owusu-banahene, J.; Otoo, F.; Adu, S.; Sosu, E. K.; Amoako, J. K.; Darko, E. O.; Emi-reynolds, G.; Nani, E. K.; Boadu, M.; Arwui, C. C.; Yeboah, J.

    2008-01-01

    Institutions in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana are quite few in comparison to the medical sector. Occupational exposure to radiation in the education, research and industrial sectors in Ghana have been analysed for a 10 y period between 2000 and 2009, by extracting dose data from the database of the Radiation Protection Inst. (Ghana)) Atomic Energy Commission. Thirty-four institutions belonging to the three sectors were monitored out of which ∼65 % were in the industrial sector. During the 10 y study period, monitored institutions ranged from 18 to 23 while the exposed workers ranged from 246 to 156 between 2000 and 2009. Annual collective doses received by all the exposed workers reduced by a factor of 2 between 2000 and 2009. This is seen as a reduction in annual collective doses in education/research and industrial sectors by ∼39 and ∼62 %, respectively, for the 10 y period. Highest and least annual collective doses of 182.0 man mSv and 68.5 man mSv were all recorded in the industrial sector in 2000 and 2009, respectively. Annual average values for dose per institution and dose per exposed worker decreased by 49 and 42.9 %, respectively, between 2000 and 2009. Average dose per exposed worker for the 10 y period was least in the industrial sector and highest in the education/research sector with values 0.6 and 3.7 mSv, respectively. The mean of the ratio of annual occupationally exposed worker (OEW) doses for the industrial sector to the annual OEW doses for the education/research sector was 0.67, a suggestion that radiation protection practices are better in the industrial sector than they are in the education/research sector. Range of institutional average effective doses within the education/research and industrial sectors were 0.059-6.029, and 0.110-2.945 mSv, respectively. An average dose per all three sectors of 11.87 mSv and an average dose per exposed worker of 1.12 mSv were realised for the entire study period. The entire

  16. Proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2011 Kanagawa

    2011-11-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from November 30th through December 2nd of 2011. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, radiation contamination, radiation exposure and its measures, risk communication, accident management, biological radiation effects, radioactive waste handling, effective use of radioisotopes, radiation measurement, education on radiation, radioactivity in environment. (J.P.N)

  17. Thermal radiation in gas core nuclear reactors for space propulsion

    Slutz, S.A.; Gauntt, R.O.; Harms, G.A.; Latham, T.; Roman, W.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive model of the radial transport of thermal radiation out of a cylindrical core of fissioning plasma is presented. The diffusion approximation is appropriate because the opacity of uranium is very high at the temperatures of interest (greater than 3000 K). We make one additional simplification of assuming constant opacity throughout the fuel. This allows the complete set of solutions to be expressed as a single function. This function is approximated analytically to facilitate parametric studies of the performance of a test module of the nuclear light bulb gas-core nuclear-rocket-engine concept, in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. Our findings indicate that radiation temperatures in range of 4000-6000 K are attainable, which is sufficient to test the high specific impulse potential (approximately 2000 s) of this concept. 15 refs

  18. Experimental Studies of Carbon Nanotube Materials for Space Radiators

    SanSoucie, MIchael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Craven, Paul D.; Hyers, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Game ]changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in thermal conductivity and mass properties. A test apparatus was developed to test advanced radiator designs. This test apparatus uses a resistance heater inside a graphite tube. Metallic tubes can be slipped over the graphite tube to simulate a heat pipe. Several sub ]scale test articles were fabricated using CNT cloth and pitch ]based carbon fibers, which were bonded to a metallic tube using an active braze material. The test articles were heated up to 600 C and an infrared (IR) camera captured the results. The test apparatus and experimental results are presented here.

  19. Space elevator radiation hazards and how to mitigate them.

    Jorgensen, A. M. (Anders M.); Gassend, B.; Friedel, R. H. W. (Reiner H. W.); Cayton, T. E. (Thomas E.); Patamia, S. E. (Steven E.)

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of this paper are: (1) the radiation field is severe; (2) shielding with aluminium is not economical; (3) shielding with a magnetic field may be feasible; (4) reducing dose by going gaster is not very effective; (5) larger/heavier climbers are more efficient when shielding with a heavy material (contrary requirement to talk by Ben Shelef); (6) climber mass and cost to orbit are impacted; and (7) power requirement could be impacted.

  20. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1990: Twenty-third annual report

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1990. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1990 annual reports submitted by about 443 licensees indicated that approximately 214,568 individuals were monitored, 110,204 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.19 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.36 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 113,361 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 443 covered licensees during 1990. Some 77,633 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 11,083 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.67 rem (cSv)

  1. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1992. Twenty-fifth annual report, Volume 14

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1992. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10CFR20.408. The 1992 annual reports submitted by about 364 licensees indicated that approximately 204,365 individuals were monitored, 183,927 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.30 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 74,566 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 364 covered licensees during 1992. Some 71,846 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 9,724 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.50 rem (cSv)

  2. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities, 1993. Volume 15, Twenty-six annual report

    Raddatz, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    This report the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC's Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1993. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10 CFR 20.408. The 1993 annual reports submitted by about 360 licensees indicated that approximately 189,711 individuals were monitored, 169,872 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measured dose of about 0.31 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 99,749 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 360 covered licensees during 1993. Some 91,000 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 12,685 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.49 rem (cSv)

  3. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry and photochemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 16. 1983

    Carmichael, I.C.; Helman, W.P.; Hug, G.L.; Ross, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry is a current-awareness service published by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center (RCDC), with special emphasis on the kinetics and other properties of transient ions, radicals, and excited species. Papers are included on the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of organic and inorganic systems, biological molecules and polymers, with references to ESR and luminescence studies. Complete coverage is attempted only for those studies which are initiated by light or ionizing radiation, and which provide quantitative physical chemical data such as quantum yields, specific rates, G values, etc. No attempt is made to cover topics such as mechanistic and preparative photochemistry, photosynthesis, photography, and irradiation of metals. The references listed herein are obtained from scanning about 60 current journals as well as Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex and several other publications listing current references. The reference lists, which are issued biweekly, are cumulated annually with the addition of keyword and author indexes. Indexed cumulations were published semiannually for Vol. 4-6 (1971-73) and are published annually for Vol. 7+ (1974+); back copies are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

  4. Calibration and Evaluation of Different Estimation Models of Daily Solar Radiation in Seasonally and Annual Time Steps in Shiraz Region

    Hamid Reza Fooladmand

    2017-06-01

    2006 to 2008 were used for calibrating fourteen estimated models of solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps and the measured data of years 2009 and 2010 were used for evaluating the obtained results. The equations were used in this study divided into three groups contains: 1 The equations based on only sunshine hours. 2 The equations based on only air temperature. 3 The equations based on sunshine hours and air temperature together. On the other hand, statistical comparison must be done to select the best equation for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps. For this purpose, in validation stage the combination of statistical equations and linear correlation was used, and then the value of mean square deviation (MSD was calculated to evaluate the different models for estimating solar radiation in mentioned time steps. Results and Discussion: The mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of fourteen models for estimating solar radiation were equal to 24.16, 20.42, 4.08 and 16.19 for spring to winter respectively, and 15.40 in annual time step. Therefore, the results showed that using the equations for autumn enjoyed high accuracy, however for other seasons had low accuracy. So, using the equations for annual time step were appropriate more than the equations for seasonally time steps. Also, the mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of the equations based on only sunshine hours, the equations based on only air temperature, and the equations based on the combination of sunshine hours and air temperature for estimating solar radiation were equal to 14.82, 17.40 and 14.88, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the models based on only air temperature were the worst conditions for estimating solar radiation in Shiraz region, and therefore, using the sunshine hours for estimating solar radiation is necessary. Conclusions: In this study for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps in Shiraz region

  5. Exposure of space electronics and materials to ionizing radiation

    Korsbech, Uffe C C

    1996-01-01

    Describes the methods and sources available for irradiation of space instruments developed at the Department of Automation. Methods for calculations and measurements of fluences and doses are also described. The sources are gamma-rays from iridium-192 and cobalt-60, 30 MeV protons, 10 MeV electrons...

  6. NASA Space Radiation Protection Strategies: Risk Assessment and Permissible Exposure Limits

    Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.; Simonsen, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Permissible exposure limits (PELs) for short-term and career astronaut exposures to space radiation have been set and approved by NASA with the goal of protecting astronauts against health risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure. Short term PELs are intended to prevent clinically significant deterministic health effects, including performance decrements, which could threaten astronaut health and jeopardize mission success. Career PELs are implemented to control late occurring health effects, including a 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) from cancer, and dose limits are used to prevent cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. For radiation protection, meeting the cancer PEL is currently the design driver for galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event shielding, mission duration, and crew certification (e.g., 1-year ISS missions). The risk of cancer development is the largest known long-term health consequence following radiation exposure, and current estimates for long-term health risks due to cardiovascular diseases are approximately 30% to 40% of the cancer risk for exposures above an estimated threshold (Deep Space one-year and Mars missions). Large uncertainties currently exist in estimating the health risks of space radiation exposure. Improved understanding through radiobiology and physics research allows increased accuracy in risk estimation and is essential for ensuring astronaut health as well as for controlling mission costs, optimization of mission operations, vehicle design, and countermeasure assessment. We will review the Space Radiation Program Element's research strategies to increase accuracy in risk models and to inform development and validation of the permissible exposure limits.

  7. Space Radiation Measurement on the Polar Route onboard the Korean Commercial Flights

    Junga Hwang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed by the policy research project of Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs, which title is “Developing safety standards and management of space radiation on the polar route”. In this research, total six experiments were performed using Korean commercial flights (B747. Three of those are on the polar route and the other three are on the north pacific route. Space radiation exposure measured on the polar route is the average 84.7 uSv. The simulation result using CARI-6M program gives 84.9 uSv, which is very similar to measured value. For the departure flight using the north pacific route, the measured space radiation is the average 74.4 uSv. It seems that is not so different to use the polar route or not for the return flight because the higher latitude effect causing the increase of space radiation is compensated by the shortened flight time effect causing decreasing space radiation exposure.

  8. Quantum Signature of Analog Hawking Radiation in Momentum Space.

    Boiron, D; Fabbri, A; Larré, P-É; Pavloff, N; Westbrook, C I; Ziń, P

    2015-07-10

    We consider a sonic analog of a black hole realized in the one-dimensional flow of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our theoretical analysis demonstrates that one- and two-body momentum distributions accessible by present-day experimental techniques provide clear direct evidence (i) of the occurrence of a sonic horizon, (ii) of the associated acoustic Hawking radiation, and (iii) of the quantum nature of the Hawking process. The signature of the quantum behavior persists even at temperatures larger than the chemical potential.

  9. Predictions of integrated circuit serviceability in space radiation fields

    Khamidullina, N.M.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Pichkhadze, K.M.; Popov, V.D

    1999-10-01

    The present paper suggests an approach to estimating and predicting the serviceability of on-board electronic equipment. It is based on the postulates of the reliability theory and accounts for total-dose and single-event radiation effects as well as other exterior destabilizing factors. The methods of determination of failure and upset rates for CMOS devices are considered. The probability of non-failure operation of a two CMOS RAM is calculated along the whole trajectory of the 'Solar Probe' spacecraft.

  10. Possible application of an imaging plate to space radiation dosimetry

    Ohuchi, Hiroko; Yamadera, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Fading correction plays an important role in the application of commercially available BaBrF:Eu 2+ phosphors: imaging plates (IP) to dosimetry. We successfully determined a fading correction equation, which is a function of elapsed time and absolute temperature, as the sum of several exponentially decaying components having different half-lives. In this work, a new method was developed to eliminate a short half-life component by annealing the IP and estimating the radiation dose with the long half-life components. Annealing decreases the effect of fading on the estimated dose, however, it also causes the loss of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL). Considering an IP as an integral detector for a specific period of up to one month, the practically optimum conditions for quantitative measurement with two types of IP (BAS-TR and BAS-MS) were evaluated by using the fading correction equation, which was obtained after irradiation with a 244 Cm source as the alpha-ray source having a specific radioactivity of 1,638.5 Bq/cm 2 including beta and gamma-ray (alpha energy of 5.763 and 5.805 MeV). Annealing at 80 deg C for 24 hours after irradiation for one month using BAS-MS should minimize the effect of the elapsed time, resulting in sufficient sensitivity. The results demonstrate new possibilities for radiation dosimetry offered by the use of an IP. (author)

  11. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 21

    1990-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1987 through March 31, 1988. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: (i) studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  12. Proceedings of the 13th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2014 Tokushima

    2014-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 3rd through 5th of 2014. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are education on radiation, radiation measurement, risk communication, dose level evaluation, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection, decontamination, management of radiation emission equipment and its effective use. (J.P.N)

  13. Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory annual report 1987: health effects of prenatal and postnatal whole-body exposure to ionizing radiation in the beagle dog. Annual report

    1988-09-01

    The Collaborative Radiological Health Laboratory (CRHL) was established in 1962 by the U.S. Public Health Service and Colorado State University for the purpose of determining in a carefully controlled animal experiment the lifetime hazards associated with prenatal and early postnatal exposure to ionizing radiation. The CRHL study is designed to provide information that will facilitate the evaluation of risks to human beings from medical exposure during early development. It is a long-term (life span) study of a moderately large and long-lived mammal exposed at one of several times during development to a relatively small and discrete dose of external radiation. Ages-at-irradiation selected for comparison reflect the primary concern with medical exposures during the developmental period. The basic experiment under the contract contains 1,680 beagles that will be maintained and evaluated for most of their natural lives. The annual report summarizes the current status of the study for the reporting period of November 21, 1986 through November 20, 1987

  14. Annual report on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-602, (1988), April 1, 1989. Annual report

    1989-01-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services is required by Subpart 3, Part F of Title III of the Public Health Service Act; 42 USC 263b et seq. (Public Law 90-602) to submit an annual report to the President for transmittal to the Congress on or before April 1 on the administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act. The detailed information required in the report is outlined in Section 360D of the Public Health Service Act. The Food and Drug Administration, through its Center for Devices and Radiological Health, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the Radiation Control for Health and Safety Act of 1968. The report provides a summary of the operations of the Center in carrying out that responsibility for calendar year 1988. In reviewing the operations of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health as reported in the document, it should be kept in mind that the day-to-day administration of the Act is only part of the Center's function. Other responsibilities include the administration and enforcement of the 1976 Medical Device Amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (not covered in the report)

  15. Dosimetry and radiation shielding at the RA reactor, Annual report 1975, Annex 5

    Ninkovic, M.

    1976-01-01

    In the working environment at the RA reactor, the level of gamma radiation is measured continuously by the built-in stationary system. According to the needs, measurement are done in the reactor hall every day. The level of gamma radiation is measured separately in typical points when the reactor is operated at nominal power and during intervals between two operating campaigns. The level of neutron radiation is measured according to the needs by means of a mobile spherical neutron detector. These measurements are done in the reactor hall around the horizontal experimental channels. Measured values of neutron radiation are three times lower than the relevant levels of gamma radiation [sr

  16. Monte Carlo simulations for the space radiation superconducting shield project (SR2S).

    Vuolo, M; Giraudo, M; Musenich, R; Calvelli, V; Ambroglini, F; Burger, W J; Battiston, R

    2016-02-01

    Astronauts on deep-space long-duration missions will be exposed for long time to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE). The exposure to space radiation could lead to both acute and late effects in the crew members and well defined countermeasures do not exist nowadays. The simplest solution given by optimized passive shielding is not able to reduce the dose deposited by GCRs below the actual dose limits, therefore other solutions, such as active shielding employing superconducting magnetic fields, are under study. In the framework of the EU FP7 SR2S Project - Space Radiation Superconducting Shield--a toroidal magnetic system based on MgB2 superconductors has been analyzed through detailed Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 interface GRAS. Spacecraft and magnets were modeled together with a simplified mechanical structure supporting the coils. Radiation transport through magnetic fields and materials was simulated for a deep-space mission scenario, considering for the first time the effect of secondary particles produced in the passage of space radiation through the active shielding and spacecraft structures. When modeling the structures supporting the active shielding systems and the habitat, the radiation protection efficiency of the magnetic field is severely decreasing compared to the one reported in previous studies, when only the magnetic field was modeled around the crew. This is due to the large production of secondary radiation taking place in the material surrounding the habitat. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Future of the South Atlantic Anomaly and Implications for Radiation Damage in Space

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    South Atlantic Anomaly of the geomagnetic field plays a dominant role in where radiation damage occurs in near Earth orbits. The historic and recent variations of the geomagnetic field in the South Atlantic are used to estimate the extent of the South Atlantic Anomaly until the year 2000. This projection indicates that radiation damage to spacecraft and humans in space will greatly increase and cover a much larger geographic area than present.

  18. Biological effects of space radiation on human cells. History, advances and outcomes

    Maalouf, M.; Foray, N.; Durante, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to radiation is one of the main concerns for space exploration by humans. By focusing deliberately on the works performed on human cells, we endeavored to review, decade by decade, the technological developments and conceptual advances of space radiation biology. Despite considerable efforts, the cancer and the toxicity risks remain to be quantified: the nature and the frequency of secondary heavy ions need to be better characterized in order to estimate their contribution to the dose and to the final biological response; the diversity of radiation history of each astronaut and the impact of individual susceptibility make very difficult any epidemiological analysis for estimating hazards specifically due to space radiation exposure. Cytogenetic data undoubtedly revealed that space radiation exposure produce significant damage in cells. However, our knowledge of the basic mechanisms specific to low-dose, to repeated doses and to adaptive response is still poor. The application of new radiobiological techniques, like immunofluorescence, and the use of human tissue models different from blood, like skin fibroblasts, may help in clarifying all the above items. (author)

  19. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding

    2012-08-01

    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  20. Persistence of Space Radiation Induced Cytogenetic Damage in the Blood Lymphocytes of Astronauts

    George, Kerry

    Cytogenetic damage in astronaut's peripheral blood lymphocytes is a useful in vivo marker of space radiation induced damage. Moreover, if radiation induced chromosome translocations persist in peripheral blood lymphocytes for many years, as has been assumed, they could potentially be used to measure retrospective doses or prolonged low dose rate exposures. However, as more data becomes available, evidence suggests that the yield of translocations may decline with time after irradiation, at least for space radiation exposures. We present our latest follow-up measurements of chromosome aberrations in astronauts' blood lymphocytes assessed by FISH painting and collected at various times beginning directly after return from space to several years after flight. For most individuals the analysis of individual time-courses for translocations revealed a temporal decline of yields with different half-lives. Since the level of stable aberrations depends on the interplay between natural loss of circulating T-lymphocytes and replenishment from the stem or progenitor cells, the differences in the rates of decay could be explained by inter-individual variation in lymphocyte turn over. Biodosimetry estimates derived from cytogenetic analysis of samples collected a few days after return to earth lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry. However, a temporal decline in yields may indicate complications with the use of stable aberrations for retrospective dose reconstruction, and the differences in the decay time may reflect individual variability in risk from space radiation exposure. In addition, limited data on multiple flights show a lack of correlation between time in space and translocation yields. Data from one crewmember who has participated in two separate long-duration space missions and has been followed up for over 10 years provide limited information on the effect of repeat flights and show a possible adaptive response to space radiation exposure.

  1. Assessment of the Radiation Enclosure Models in SPACE and RELAP5 with GOTA Test 27

    Lee, T. B.; Lee, G. W.; Choi, T. S. [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code) for nuclear power plant has been developed to calculate the transient thermal-hydraulic response of PWRs that can contain multiple types of fluids. Without explaining 3-D effects such as the change of fuel rod/guide tube thermal behavior as a result of the radiation heat transfer, the 1-D code could predict an unrealistically high peak clad temperature. A useful function to simulate the wall-to-wall radiation heat transfer is implemented in the SPACE and RELAP5 codes. This paper discusses the assessment results of the radiation enclosure model of SPACE and RELAP5. The capability of handling wall-to-wall radiation problem of the SPACE and the RELAP5 codes has been evaluated using the experimental data from the GOTA test facility. At the top of the bundle, the maximum errors of SPACE and RELAP5 are less than 1.6% and 2.3%, respectively. As noted, there is a small discrepancy between the calculated results and experimental data except for the predictions near the top of the test section. The SPACE code is based on the version 2.16 distributed by KHNP. In order to perform the simulation of the GOTA test 27, it was necessary to modify the SPACE code. There was the subroutine for an input process corresponding to the radiation model, the inp{sub c}heck function of the RadEncData Class, contained in a vulnerable algorithm to figure out the reciprocity rule of the view factor.

  2. Inter-annual Variability in Global Suspended Particulate Inorganic Carbon Inventory Using Space-based Measurements

    Hopkins, J.; Balch, W. M.; Henson, S.; Poulton, A. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.; Lubelczyk, L.

    2016-02-01

    Coccolithophores, the single celled phytoplankton that produce an outer covering of calcium carbonate coccoliths, are considered to be the greatest contributors to the global oceanic particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) pool. The reflective coccoliths scatter light back out from the ocean surface, enabling PIC concentration to be quantitatively estimated from ocean color satellites. Here we use datasets of AQUA MODIS PIC concentration from 2003-2014 (using the recently-revised PIC algorithm), as well as statistics on coccolithophore vertical distribution derived from cruises throughout the world ocean, to estimate the average global (surface and integrated) PIC standing stock and its associated inter-annual variability. In addition, we divide the global ocean into Longhurst biogeochemical provinces, update the PIC biomass statistics and identify those regions that have the greatest inter-annual variability and thus may exert the greatest influence on global PIC standing stock and the alkalinity pump.

  3. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  4. Radiation

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  5. OLTARIS: An Efficient Web-Based Tool for Analyzing Materials Exposed to Space Radiation

    Slaba, Tony; McMullen, Amelia M.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Sandridge, Chris A.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blatting, Steve R.

    2011-01-01

    The near-Earth space radiation environment includes energetic galactic cosmic rays (GCR), high intensity proton and electron belts, and the potential for solar particle events (SPE). These sources may penetrate shielding materials and deposit significant energy in sensitive electronic devices on board spacecraft and satellites. Material and design optimization methods may be used to reduce the exposure and extend the operational lifetime of individual components and systems. Since laboratory experiments are expensive and may not cover the range of particles and energies relevant for space applications, such optimization may be done computationally with efficient algorithms that include the various constraints placed on the component, system, or mission. In the present work, the web-based tool OLTARIS (On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) is presented, and the applicability of the tool for rapidly analyzing exposure levels within either complicated shielding geometries or user-defined material slabs exposed to space radiation is demonstrated. An example approach for material optimization is also presented. Slabs of various advanced multifunctional materials are defined and exposed to several space radiation environments. The materials and thicknesses defining each layer in the slab are then systematically adjusted to arrive at an optimal slab configuration.

  6. The space-time outside a source of gravitational radiation: the axially symmetric null fluid

    Herrera, L. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Universidad de Salamanca, Instituto Universitario de Fisica Fundamental y Matematicas, Salamanca (Spain); Di Prisco, A. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ospino, J. [Universidad de Salamanca, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and Instituto Universitario de Fisica Fundamental y Matematicas, Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    We carry out a study of the exterior of an axially and reflection symmetric source of gravitational radiation. The exterior of such a source is filled with a null fluid produced by the dissipative processes inherent to the emission of gravitational radiation, thereby representing a generalization of the Vaidya metric for axially and reflection symmetric space-times. The role of the vorticity, and its relationship with the presence of gravitational radiation is put in evidence. The spherically symmetric case (Vaidya) is, asymptotically, recovered within the context of the 1 + 3 formalism. (orig.)

  7. Simulation of space radiation effects on polyimide film materials for high temperature applications. Final report

    Fogdall, L.B.; Cannaday, S.S.

    1977-11-01

    Space environment effects on candidate materials for the solar sail film are determined. Polymers, including metallized polyimides that might be suitable solar radiation receivers, were exposed to combined proton and solar electromagnetic radiation. Each test sample was weighted, to simulate the tension on the polymer when it is stretched into near-planar shape while receiving solar radiation. Exposure rates up to 16 times that expected in Earth orbit were employed, to simulate near-sun solar sailing conditions. Sample appearance, elongation, and shrinkage were monitored, noted, and documented in situ. Thermosetting polyimides showed less degradation or visual change in appearance than thermoplastics

  8. A COTS-based single board radiation-hardened computer for space applications

    Stewart, S.; Hillman, R.; Layton, P.; Krawzsenek, D.

    1999-01-01

    There is great community interest in the ability to use COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) technology in radiation environments. Space Electronics, Inc. has developed a high performance COTS-based radiation hardened computer. COTS approaches were selected for both hardware and software. Through parts testing, selection and packaging, all requirements have been met without parts or process development. Reliability, total ionizing dose and single event performance are attractive. The characteristics, performance and radiation resistance of the single board computer will be presented. (authors)

  9. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M. [Gazi Univ., Teknik Eoitim Fakultesi, Ankara (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as {approx} 7 000 MW, making {approx} 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm{sup 3}. The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm{sup 3} and the peak {gamma}-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm{sup 3}. However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm{sup 3} for neutron, {gamma}-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  10. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as ∼ 7 000 MW, making ∼ 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm 3 . The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm 3 and the peak γ-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm 3 . However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm 3 for neutron, γ-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  11. Space radiation evaluation of 16Mbit DRAMs for mass memory applications

    Calvel, P.; Lamothe, P.; Barillot, C.; Ecoffet, R.; Duzellier, S.; Stassinopoulos, E.G.

    1994-01-01

    In the frame of Mass Memory Applications for space missions, 16 Mbit DRAM from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS have been evaluated to space radiation, by the CECIL heavy ions testing coordination group. This paper presents heavy ions, protons and total dose data results for 16 Mbit DRAMs from IBM and TEXAS INSTRUMENTS, including a 'built-in ECC' DRAM. Single Event Phenomena rate are calculated for low earth orbits

  12. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  13. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  14. Investigation of Lithium Metal Hydride Materials for Mitigation of Deep Space Radiation

    Rojdev, Kristina; Atwell, William

    2016-01-01

    Radiation exposure to crew, electronics, and non-metallic materials is one of many concerns with long-term, deep space travel. Mitigating this exposure is approached via a multi-faceted methodology focusing on multi-functional materials, vehicle configuration, and operational or mission constraints. In this set of research, we are focusing on new multi-functional materials that may have advantages over traditional shielding materials, such as polyethylene. Metal hydride materials are of particular interest for deep space radiation shielding due to their ability to store hydrogen, a low-Z material known to be an excellent radiation mitigator and a potential fuel source. We have previously investigated 41 different metal hydrides for their radiation mitigation potential. Of these metal hydrides, we found a set of lithium hydrides to be of particular interest due to their excellent shielding of galactic cosmic radiation. Given these results, we will continue our investigation of lithium hydrides by expanding our data set to include dose equivalent and to further understand why these materials outperformed polyethylene in a heavy ion environment. For this study, we used HZETRN 2010, a one-dimensional transport code developed by NASA Langley Research Center, to simulate radiation transport through the lithium hydrides. We focused on the 1977 solar minimum Galactic Cosmic Radiation environment and thicknesses of 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 g/cm2 to stay consistent with our previous studies. The details of this work and the subsequent results will be discussed in this paper.

  15. The Liquid Droplet Radiator - an Ultralightweight Heat Rejection System for Efficient Energy Conversion in Space

    Mattick, A. T.; Hertzberg, A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat rejection system for space is described which uses a recirculating free stream of liquid droplets in place of a solid surface to radiate waste heat. By using sufficiently small droplets ( 100 micron diameter) of low vapor pressure liquids the radiating droplet sheet can be made many times lighter than the lightest solid surface radiators (heat pipes). The liquid droplet radiator (LDR) is less vulnerable to damage by micrometeoroids than solid surface radiators, and may be transported into space far more efficiently. Analyses are presented of LDR applications in thermal and photovoltaic energy conversion which indicate that fluid handling components (droplet generator, droplet collector, heat exchanger, and pump) may comprise most of the radiator system mass. Even the unoptimized models employed yield LDR system masses less than heat pipe radiator system masses, and significant improvement is expected using design approaches that incorporate fluid handling components more efficiently. Technical problems (e.g., spacecraft contamination and electrostatic deflection of droplets) unique to this method of heat rejectioon are discussed and solutions are suggested.

  16. Improved Understanding of Space Radiation Effects on Exploration Electronics by Advanced Modeling of Nanoscale Devices and Novel Materials, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space exploration missions will use nanometer-scale electronic technologies which call for a shift in how radiation effects in such devices and materials...

  17. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    Gonon, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in

  18. 22. Annual meeting of the German Radiation Oncology Society. Abstracts; 22. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie. Abstractband

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The volume on the 22th annual meeting of the German Radiation Oncology Society includes abstracts on the following issues: Brain/ central nervous system, biology, oligo-metastases, head and neck tumors, mammary carcinoma, physics, innovations, life quality, high individual doses, lung tumors, colorectal tumors, clinical studies, young DEGRO, translational research, prostate, brachytherapy. The poster abstracts cover the following issues: prostate, mammary glands, lungs, head and neck, colorectum, brain - central nervous system, innovations concerning percutaneous and interventional radiotherapy, radiotherapy with high single doses, radioimmunotherapy, knowledge-based radiotherapy, life quality, demand planning.

  19. Calculation of the annual radiation dose to the population in the vicinity of nuclear installations due to liquid effluents

    Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1974, assessments of radiation exposure due to the emission of radioactive substances with liquid effluents have been done by the Institut fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufhygiene of the Federal Health Office and data have bee published in the annual reports in the series 'Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung'. The paper explaines the radioecological models of ABG and AVV as far as they relate to the wastewater pathway, as well as the required modifications. Individual aspects of computation are explained referring to the dose calculations for 1989. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Radiation hardening of optical fibers and fiber sensors for space applications: recent advances

    Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Pinsard, E.; Laurent, A.; Ladaci, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Mescia, L.; Boukenter, A.

    2017-11-01

    In these ICSO proceedings, we review recent advances from our group concerning the radiation hardening of optical fiber and fiber-based sensors for space applications and compare their benefits to state-of-the-art results. We focus on the various approaches we developed to enhance the radiation tolerance of two classes of optical fibers doped with rare-earths: the erbium (Er)-doped ones and the ytterbium/erbium (Er/Yb)-doped ones. As a first approach, we work at the component level, optimizing the fiber structure and composition to reduce their intrinsically high radiation sensitivities. For the Erbium-doped fibers, this has been achieved using a new structure for the fiber that is called Hole-Assisted Carbon Coated (HACC) optical fibers whereas for the Er/Ybdoped optical fibers, their hardening was successfully achieved adding to the fiber, the Cerium element, that prevents the formation of the radiation-induced point defects responsible for the radiation induced attenuation in the infrared part of the spectrum. These fibers are used as part of more complex systems like amplifiers (Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier, EDFA or Yb-EDFA) or source (Erbium-doped Fiber Source, EDFS or Yb- EDFS), we discuss the impact of using radiation-hardened fibers on the system radiation vulnerability and demonstrate the resistance of these systems to radiation constraints associated with today and future space missions. Finally, we will discuss another radiation hardening approach build in our group and based on a hardening-by-system strategy in which the amplifier is optimized during its elaboration for its future mission considering the radiation effects and not in-lab.

  1. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2013; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbreicht 2013

    Hachenberger, Claudia; Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    The report on environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure 2013 includes data concerning the following issues: sources of natural and artificial radioactivity, radon in buildings, radioactive materials in construction materials and industrial products, nuclear weapon tests, the consequences of reactor accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima, nuclear facilities, occupational exposure, radiation exposure from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials in research and technology, radioactive wastes, radiation accidents and specific incidents.

  2. Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2010 Hiroshima

    2010-12-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from December 1st through 3rd of 2010. The sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are exposure reduction and dose level evaluation, shielding design, radioactive waste handling and its effective use, radiation measurement, safety control of radiation source, radioactive waste management (aerosol, liquid), education on radiation, molecular imaging, image analysis, radioactivity in environment, contamination inspection. (J.P.N)

  3. Interference Pattern Formation between Bounded-Solitons and Radiation in Momentum Space: Possible Detection of Radiation from Bounded-Solitons with Bose-Einstein Condensate of Neutral Atoms

    Fujishima, Hironobu; Okumura, Masahiko; Mine, Makoto; Yajima, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    We propose an indirect method to observe radiation from an incomplete soliton with sufficiently large amplitude. We show that the radiation causes a notched structure on the envelope of the wave packet in the momentum space. The origin of this structure is a result of interference between the main body of oscillating solitons and the small radiation in the momentum space. We numerically integrate the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation and perform Fourier transformation to confirm that the predi...

  4. Radiation curing of inks and coatings. Annual report 1 Oct 81-30 Sep 82

    Senich, G.A.; Florin, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    The science and technology of curing organic materials with radiation is reviewed. Electron beam, ultraviolet, infrared, microwave, and high frequency radiation sources and the resin systems suitable for use with these sources are considered. Equipment necessary to affect a radiation cure is discussed and some practical problems unique to each radiation method are indicated. The application of radiation curing to industrial processes which employ inks and coatings is covered, with particular emphasis given to printing with radiation curable formulations. Included are discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of radiation curing inks, some typical ink components and formulations, the specialized machinery required, and the influence of parameters unique to radiation curing methods on the printing process. Other nonprinting but related industrial operations utilizing radiation for treating thin films and coatings are also considered. Some costs, examples, and market statistics are given for these commercial procedures. New nonconventional, but also nonradiation, alternative curing methods are discussed briefly. A bibliography of recommended further reading and a list of over two hundred fifty references are included

  5. Space radiation dose analysis for solar flare of August 1989

    Nealy, J.E.; Simonsen, L.C.; Sauer, H.H.; Wilson, J.W.; Townsend, L.W.

    1990-12-01

    Potential dose and dose rate levels to astronauts in deep space are predicted for the solar flare event which occurred during the week of August 13, 1989. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-7) monitored the temporal development and energy characteristics of the protons emitted during this event. From these data, differential fluence as a function of energy was obtained in order to analyze the flare using the Langley baryon transport code, BRYNTRN, which describes the interactions of incident protons in matter. Dose equivalent estimates for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs for 0.5 to 20 g/sq cm of aluminum shielding were predicted. For relatively light shielding (less than 2 g/sq cm), the skin and ocular lens 30-day exposure limits are exceeded within several hours of flare onset. The vital organ (5 cm depth) dose equivalent is exceeded only for the thinnest shield (0.5 g/sq cm). Dose rates (rem/hr) for the skin, ocular lens, and vital organs are also computed

  6. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  7. The annual terrestrial gamma radiation dose to the population of the urban Christchurch area

    Chapman, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Natural terrestrial gamma radiation dose rates were measured with a high pressure ionization chamber at 70 indoor (195 site measurements) and 58 outdoor locations in the metropolitan Christchurch area. Based on these site measurements, the average gonad dose rate to the population from natural terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 273+-56 microgray per annum. (auth)

  8. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Sztejnberg Manuel; Xiao Shanjie; Satvat Nader; Limón Felisa; Hopkins John; Jevremović Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On th...

  9. Determination of Dose-Equivalent Response of A Typical Diamond Microdosimeter in Space Radiation Fields

    firouz payervand

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The reasonable agreement between the dose equivalents calculated in this study and the results reported by other researchers confirmed that this type of microdosimeter could be a promising candidate suitable for the measurement of the dose equivalent in space radiation fields.

  10. Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on radiation effects on semiconductor devices for space application

    1998-10-01

    This publication is the collection of the paper presented at the title workshop. The main purpose of the workshop is to bring the chance for exchange of information between scientists and engineers who work in the field of research and development of semiconductor devices used in strong radiation environment in space. The 27 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. CIRRPC: Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination. Eighth annual report

    Young, A.L.

    1992-12-01

    CIRRPC's eighth year was marked by the completion of several CIRRPC projects, including: An independent study on the possible health effects of extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields; a report evaluating the uncertainties identified in a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and their impact on the report's application to Federal risk assessment; an analysis of the use of two reports on radiation risk assessment from NAS and the United Nations; and an update of Part 11 of ORAU's radiation protection fact sheets, a compilation of major US radiation protection standards and guides. CIRRPC also sponsored a workshop on internal dosimetry and provided financial support to the 1991 Health Physics Society Summer School on the biological basis of radiation protection practice. The program highlights are briefly described in this report

  12. General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST

    Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.

  13. Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

  14. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    Trofimov V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal contact with the microprocessor housing designed for cooler installation. On the hot surface of the module a radiator is mounted. The radiator dissipates the cumulative heat flow from both the microprocessor and the module. High density PCB layout, the requirement of free access to the jumpers and interfaces, and the presence of numerous sensors limit the space for radiator mounting and require the use of an extremely compact radiator, especially in air cooling conditions. One of the possible solutions for this problem may reduce the area of the radiator heat-transfer surfaces due to a sharp growth of the heat transfer coefficient without increasing the air flow rate. To ensure a sharp growth of heat transfer coefficient on the heat-transfer surface one should make in the surface one or more dead-end cavities into which the impact air jets would flow. CFD simulation of this type of radiator has been conducted. The heat-aerodynamic characteristics and design recommendations for removing heat from microprocessors in a limited space have been determined.

  15. Medical Implications of Space Radiation Exposure Due to Low-Altitude Polar Orbits.

    Chancellor, Jeffery C; Auñon-Chancellor, Serena M; Charles, John

    2018-01-01

    Space radiation research has progressed rapidly in recent years, but there remain large uncertainties in predicting and extrapolating biological responses to humans. Exposure to cosmic radiation and solar particle events (SPEs) may pose a critical health risk to future spaceflight crews and can have a serious impact on all biomedical aspects of space exploration. The relatively minimal shielding of the cancelled 1960s Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) program's space vehicle and the high inclination polar orbits would have left the crew susceptible to high exposures of cosmic radiation and high dose-rate SPEs that are mostly unpredictable in frequency and intensity. In this study, we have modeled the nominal and off-nominal radiation environment that a MOL-like spacecraft vehicle would be exposed to during a 30-d mission using high performance, multicore computers. Projected doses from a historically large SPE (e.g., the August 1972 solar event) have been analyzed in the context of the MOL orbit profile, providing an opportunity to study its impact to crew health and subsequent contingencies. It is reasonable to presume that future commercial, government, and military spaceflight missions in low-Earth orbit (LEO) will have vehicles with similar shielding and orbital profiles. Studying the impact of cosmic radiation to the mission's operational integrity and the health of MOL crewmembers provides an excellent surrogate and case-study for future commercial and military spaceflight missions.Chancellor JC, Auñon-Chancellor SM, Charles J. Medical implications of space radiation exposure due to low-altitude polar orbits. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):3-8.

  16. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

    Thomas, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem)

  17. Cosmic-ray-induced radiation environment and dose to man for low-orbit space applications

    Sandmeier, H.A.; Hansen, G.E.; Battat, M.E.; O'Brien, K.

    1981-09-01

    Neutrons and photons resulting from the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the material of an orbiting satellite or an orbiting space station at an altitude of some few hundreds of kilometers, and below the level of the radiation belts, have been calculated as a function of geomagnetic latitude and solar activity level. The photon and neutron leakage currents from the top of the atmosphere have been computed. The radiation dose-equivalent rate to an unshielded astronaut has also been calculated. The maximum dose-equivalent rate, near the magnetic poles, was 2 mrem/h. In deep space this would amount to 18 rem/y, indicating that for a prolonged stay in space, shielding would be needed

  18. EVENT DRIVEN AUTOMATIC STATE MODIFICATION OF BNL'S BOOSTER FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY SOLAR PARTICLE SIMULATOR

    BROWN, D.; BINELLO, S.; HARVEY, M.; MORRIS, J.; RUSEK, A.; TSOUPAS, N.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The NSRL makes use of heavy ions in the range of 0.05 to 3 GeV/n slow extracted from BNL's AGS Booster. NASA is interested in reproducing the energy spectrum from a solar flare in the space environment for a single ion species. To do this we have built and tested a set of software tools which allow the state of the Booster and the NSRL beam line to be changed automatically. In this report we will describe the system and present results of beam tests

  19. Operation of commercially-based microcomputer technology in a space radiation environment

    Yelverton, J. N.

    This paper focuses on detection and recovery techniques that should enable the reliable operation of commercially-based microprocessor technology in the harsh radiation environment of space and at high altitudes. This approach is especially significant in light of the current shift in emphasis (due to cost) from space hardened Class-S parts qualification to a more direct use of commercial parts. The method should offset some of the concern that the newer high density state-of-the-art RISC and CISC microprocessors can be used in future space applications. Also, commercial aviation, should benefit, since radiation induced transients are a new issue arising from the increased quantities of microcomputers used in aircraft avionics.

  20. A Sensitivity Study on the Radiation Shield of KSPR Space Reactor

    Cerba, S.; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lim, Hong Sik; Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The idea of a space reactor was realised some decades ago and since that time several research activities have been performed into this field. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing a small fast reactor called as fission power system (FPS) for deep space mission, where highly enriched uranium (HEU) is used as fuel. On the other hand, other researchers have also surveyed a thermal reactor concept with low enriched uranium (LEU) for space applications. One of the main concerns in terms of a space reactor is the total size and the mass of the system including the reactor itself as well as the radiation shield. Since the reactor core is a source of neutrons and gamma photons of various energies, which may cause severe damage on the electronics of the space stations, the questions related to the development of a radiation shield should be address appropriately. The proposal of a radiation shield for a small space reactor is discussed in this paper. The requirements for the radiation shield have been addressed in terms of maximal absorbed doses and neutron flounces during 10 years of operation. In this study a radiation shield design for a small space reactor was investigated. All the presented calculations were performed using the multi-purpose stochastic MCNP code with temperature dependent continuous energy ENDF/B VII.0 neutron and photon cross section libraries. The aim of this study was to design a neutron and gamma shield that can meet the requirements of 250 Gy absorbed during 10 years of reactor operation. The comparison with a fast reactor design showed that high content of {sup 238}U strongly influences the shielding mass. This phenomenon is due to the higher photon production in case of the KSPR design and therefore the use of high {sup 235}U enrichments and the operation in fast neutron spectrum may be more desirable. In case if the KSPR space reactor the best shielding performance was achieved while utilizing a multi

  1. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.1). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2009, No.8--radiation research and radiation technology

    2010-11-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 1) includes 889 articles which are communicated on the first national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the eighth one, the content is about radiation study, radiation technology, isotope and nuclear agriculture

  2. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of the effects of simulated space radiation on a polyimide

    Ferl, J. E.; Long, E. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic techniques have been used to study the effects of electron radiation on the polyimide PMDA-p,p-prime- ODA. The radiation exposures were made at various dose rates, for a total dose approximately equal to that for 30 years of exposure to electron radiation in geosynchronous earth orbit. At high dose rates the major effect was probably the formation of a polyisoimide or a charged quaternary amine, and at the low dose rates the effect was a reduction in the amount or aromatic ether linkage. In addition, the effects of dose rate for a small total dose were studied. Elevated temperatures occurred at high dose rates and were, in part, probably the cause of the radiation product. The data suggest that dose rates for accelerated simulations of the space environment should not exceed 100,000 rads/sec.

  3. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    Sun, Ke-Xun; MacNeil, Lawrence; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-01-01

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 10 15 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 10 12 protons/cm 2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2 x 10 12 protons/cm 2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have

  4. SERI Solar Radiation Resource Assessment Project: Fiscal Year 1990 Annual Progress Report

    Riordan, C; Maxwell, E; Stoffel, T; Rymes, M; Wilcox, S

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Solar Radiation Resource Project is to help meet the needs of the public, government, industry, and utilities for solar radiation data, models, and assessments as required to develop, design, deploy, and operate solar energy conversion systems. The project scientists produce information on the spatial (geographic), temporal (hourly, daily, and seasonal), and spectral (wavelength distribution) variability of solar radiation at different locations in the United States. Resources committed to the project in FY 1990 supported about four staff members, including part-time administrative support. With these resources, the staff must concentrate on solar radiation resource assessment in the United States; funds do not allow for significant efforts to respond to a common need for improved worldwide data. 34 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Denkins, Pamela; Badhwar, Gautam; Obot, Victor; Wilson, Bobby; Jejelewo, Olufisayo

    2001-08-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far, the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space, exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  6. Radiation transport modeling and assessment to better predict radiation exposure, dose, and toxicological effects to human organs on long duration space flights

    Denkins, P.; Badhwar, G.; Obot, V.; Wilson, B.; Jejelewo, O.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is very interested in improving its ability to monitor and forecast the radiation levels that pose a health risk to space-walking astronauts as they construct the International Space Station and astronauts that will participate in long-term and deep-space missions. Human exploratory missions to the moon and Mars within the next quarter century, will expose crews to transient radiation from solar particle events which include high-energy galactic cosmic rays and high-energy protons. Because the radiation levels in space are high and solar activity is presently unpredictable, adequate shielding is needed to minimize the deleterious health effects of exposure to radiation. Today, numerous models have been developed and used to predict radiation exposure. Such a model is the Space Environment Information Systems (SPENVIS) modeling program, developed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronautics. SPENVIS, which has been assessed to be an excellent tool in characterizing the radiation environment for microelectronics and investigating orbital debris, is being evaluated for its usefulness with determining the dose and dose-equivalent for human exposure. Thus far. the calculations for dose-depth relations under varying shielding conditions have been in agreement with calculations done using HZETRN and PDOSE, which are well-known and widely used models for characterizing the environments for human exploratory missions. There is disagreement when assessing the impact of secondary radiation particles since SPENVIS does a crude estimation of the secondary radiation particles when calculating LET versus Flux. SPENVIS was used to model dose-depth relations for the blood-forming organs. Radiation sickness and cancer are life-threatening consequences resulting from radiation exposure. In space. exposure to radiation generally includes all of the critical organs. Biological and toxicological impacts have been included for discussion along with alternative risk mitigation

  7. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts

  8. Proceedings of the 12th annual meeting of Japanese Society of Radiation Safety Management 2013 Hokkaido

    2013-11-01

    This is the entitled program and proceedings held from November 27th through 29th of 2013. Focusing on the issues of Fukushima Accident, the sessions including poster, invited/special speeches etc. are risk communication and dose level evaluation, radiation measurement, radioactivity in environment, radioactive cesium kinetics in environment, radioactive material management, environmental contamination and its measures, education on radiation. (J.P.N)

  9. Radiation protection at the RA Reactor in 1988, Part -2, RA reactor annual report

    Ninkovic, M.; Ajdacic, N.; Zaric, M.; Vukovic, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation protection tasks which enable safe operation of the RA reactor, and are defined according the the legal regulations and IAEA safety recommendations are sorted into four categories in this report: (1) Control of the working environment, dosimetry at the RA reactor and radiation protection; (2) Radioactivity control in the vicinity of the reactor and meteorology measurements; (3) Decontamination and relevant actions, collecting and treatment of fluid effluents; and and solid radioactive wastes [sr

  10. High Altitude Balloons as a Platform for Space Radiation Belt Science

    Mazzino, L.; Buttenschoen, A.; Farr, Q.; Hodgson, C.; Johnson, W.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB)

    2011-12-01

    The goals of the University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons Program (UA-HAB) are to i) use low cost balloons to address space radiation science, and ii) to utilise the excitement of "space mission" involvement to promote and facilitate the recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students in physics, engineering, and atmospheric sciences to pursue careers in space science and engineering. The University of Alberta High Altitude Balloons (UA-HAB) is a unique opportunity for University of Alberta students (undergraduate and graduate) to engage in the hands-on design, development, build, test and flight of a payload to operate on a high altitude balloon at around 30km altitude. The program development, including formal design and acceptance tests, reports and reviews, mirror those required in the development of an orbital satellite mission. This enables the students to gain a unique insight into how space missions are flown. UA-HAB is a one and half year program that offers a gateway into a high-altitude balloon mission through hands on experience, and builds skills for students who may be attracted to participate in future space missions in their careers. This early education will provide students with the experience necessary to better assess opportunities for pursuing a career in space science. Balloons offer a low-cost alternative to other suborbital platforms which can be used to address radiation belt science goals. In particular, the participants of this program have written grant proposal to secure funds for this project, have launched several 'weather balloon missions', and have designed, built, tested, and launched their particle detector called "Maple Leaf Particle Detector". This detector was focussed on monitoring cosmic rays and space radiation using shielded Geiger tubes, and was flown as one of the payloads from the institutions participating in the High Altitude Student Platform (HASP), organized by the Louisiana State University and the Louisiana

  11. Influence of crystal shapes on radiative fluxes in visible wavelength: ice crystals randomly oriented in space

    P. Chervet

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiative properties of cirrus clouds are one of the major unsolved problems in climate studies and global radiation budget. These clouds are generally composed of various ice-crystal shapes, so we tried to evaluate effects of the ice-crystal shape on radiative fluxes. We calculated radiative fluxes of cirrus clouds with a constant geometrical depth, composed of ice crystals with different shapes (hexagonal columns, bullets, bullet-rosettes, sizes and various concentrations. We considered ice particles randomly oriented in space (3D case and their scattering phase functions were calculated by a ray-tracing method. We calculated radiative fluxes for cirrus layers for different microphysical characteristics by using a discrete-ordinate radiative code. Results showed that the foremost effect of the ice-crystal shape on radiative properties of cirrus clouds was that on the optical thickness, while the variation of the scattering phase function with the ice shape remained less than 3% for our computations. The ice-water content may be a better choice to parameterize the optical properties of cirrus, but the shape effect must be included.

  12. Combining annual daylight simulation with photobiology data to assess the relative circadian efficacy of interior spaces

    Pechacek, C.S.; Andersen, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Architecture, Building Technology; Lockley, S.W. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Div. of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This paper addressed the issue of hospital design and the role of daylight in patient health care. It presented a new approach for integrating empirical data and findings in photobiology into the performance assessment of a space, thus combining both visual and health-related criteria. Previous studies have reported significant health care outcomes in daylit environments, although the mechanism and photoreceptor systems controlling these effects remain unknown. This study focused on furthering the previous studies beyond windows to describing the characteristics of daylight that may promote human health by providing daylighting for the appropriate synchronization of circadian rhythms, and then make specific daylighting recommendations, grounded in biological findings. In particular, this study investigated the use of daylight autonomy (DA) to simulate the probabilistic and temporal potential of daylight for human health needs. Results of photobiology research were used to define threshold values for lighting, which were then used as goals for simulations. These goals included spectrum, intensity and timing of light at the human eye. The study investigated the variability of key architectural decisions in hospital room design to determine their influence on achieving the goals. The simulations showed how choices in building orientation, window size, user-window position and interior finishes affect the circadian efficacy of a space. Design decisions can improve or degrade the health potential for the space considered. While the findings in this research were specific to hospitals, the results can be applied to other building types such as office buildings and residences. 33 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Ionizing radiation risks to Satellite Power Systems (SPS) workers in space

    1980-12-01

    A reference Satellite Power System (SPS) has been designed by NASA and its contractors for the purposes of evaluating the concept and carrying out assessments of the various consequences of development, including those on the health of the space workers. The Department of Energy has responsibility for directing various assessments. Present planning calls for the SPS workers to move from Earth to a low earth orbit (LEO) at an altitude of 500 kilometers; to travel by a transfer ellipse (TE) trajectory to a geosynchronous orbit (GEO) at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers; and to remain in GEO orbit for about 90 percent of the total time aloft. The radiation risks to the health of workers who will construct and maintain solar power satellites in the space environment are studied. The charge to the committee was: (a) to evaluate the radiation environment estimated for the Reference System which could represent a hazard; (b) to assess the possible somatic and genetic radiation hazards; and (c) to estimate the risks to the health of SPS workers due to space radiation exposure, and to make recommendations based on these conclusions. Details are presented. (WHK)

  14. Development of a space radiation Monte Carlo computer simulation based on the FLUKA and ROOT codes

    Pinsky, L; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Carminati, F; Brun, R

    2001-01-01

    This NASA funded project is proceeding to develop a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation of the radiation environment in space. With actual funding only initially in place at the end of May 2000, the study is still in the early stage of development. The general tasks have been identified and personnel have been selected. The code to be assembled will be based upon two major existing software packages. The radiation transport simulation will be accomplished by updating the FLUKA Monte Carlo program, and the user interface will employ the ROOT software being developed at CERN. The end-product will be a Monte Carlo-based code which will complement the existing analytic codes such as BRYNTRN/HZETRN presently used by NASA to evaluate the effects of radiation shielding in space. The planned code will possess the ability to evaluate the radiation environment for spacecraft and habitats in Earth orbit, in interplanetary space, on the lunar surface, or on a planetary surface such as Mars. Furthermore, it will be usef...

  15. A new approach to reduce uncertainties in space radiation cancer risk predictions.

    Francis A Cucinotta

    Full Text Available The prediction of space radiation induced cancer risk carries large uncertainties with two of the largest uncertainties being radiation quality and dose-rate effects. In risk models the ratio of the quality factor (QF to the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF parameter is used to scale organ doses for cosmic ray proton and high charge and energy (HZE particles to a hazard rate for γ-rays derived from human epidemiology data. In previous work, particle track structure concepts were used to formulate a space radiation QF function that is dependent on particle charge number Z, and kinetic energy per atomic mass unit, E. QF uncertainties where represented by subjective probability distribution functions (PDF for the three QF parameters that described its maximum value and shape parameters for Z and E dependences. Here I report on an analysis of a maximum QF parameter and its uncertainty using mouse tumor induction data. Because experimental data for risks at low doses of γ-rays are highly uncertain which impacts estimates of maximum values of relative biological effectiveness (RBEmax, I developed an alternate QF model, denoted QFγAcute where QFs are defined relative to higher acute γ-ray doses (0.5 to 3 Gy. The alternate model reduces the dependence of risk projections on the DDREF, however a DDREF is still needed for risk estimates for high-energy protons and other primary or secondary sparsely ionizing space radiation components. Risk projections (upper confidence levels (CL for space missions show a reduction of about 40% (CL∼50% using the QFγAcute model compared the QFs based on RBEmax and about 25% (CL∼35% compared to previous estimates. In addition, I discuss how a possible qualitative difference leading to increased tumor lethality for HZE particles compared to low LET radiation and background tumors remains a large uncertainty in risk estimates.

  16. Monitoring Space Radiation Hazards with the Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercially Hosted (REACH) Project

    Mazur, J. E.; Guild, T. B.; Crain, W.; Crain, S.; Holker, D.; Quintana, S.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Kelly, M. A.; Barnes, R. J.; Sotirelis, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Responsive Environmental Assessment Commercial Hosting (REACH) project uses radiation dosimeters on a commercial satellite constellation in low Earth orbit to provide unprecedented spatial and time sampling of space weather radiation hazards. The spatial and time scales of natural space radiation environments coupled with constraints for the hosting accommodation drove the instrumentation requirements and the plan for the final orbital constellation. The project has delivered a total of thirty two radiation dosimeter instruments for launch with each instrument containing two dosimeters with different passive shielding and electronic thresholds to address proton-induced single-event effects, vehicle charging, and total ionizing dose. There are two REACH instruments currently operating with four more planned for launch by the time of the 2017 meeting. Our aim is to field a long-lived system of highly-capable radiation detectors to monitor the hazards of single-event effects, total ionizing dose, and spacecraft charging with maximized spatial coverage and with minimal time latency. We combined a robust detection technology with a commercial satellite hosting to produce a new demonstration for satellite situational awareness and for other engineering and science applications.

  17. Assessment of space proton radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in the CCD204 for the Euclid space observatory

    Gow, J P D; Murray, N J; Holland, A D; Hall, D J; Cropper, M; Burt, D; Hopkinson, G; Duvet, L

    2012-01-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission candidate for launch in 2019 with a primary goal to study the dark universe using the weak lensing and baryonic acoustic oscillations techniques. Weak lensing depends on accurate shape measurements of distant galaxies. Therefore it is beneficial that the effects of radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) in the Euclid CCDs over the course of the 5 year mission at L2 are understood. This will allow, through experimental analysis and modelling techniques, the effects of radiation induced CTI on shape to be decoupled from those of mass inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight. This paper discusses a selection of work from the study that has been undertaken using the e2v CCD204 as part of the initial proton radiation damage assessment for Euclid. The experimental arrangement and procedure are described followed by the results obtained, thereby allowing recommendations to be made on the CCD operating temperature, to provide an insight into CTI effects using an optical background, to assess the benefits of using charge injection on CTI recovery and the effect of the use of two different methods of serial clocking on serial CTI. This work will form the basis of a comparison with a p-channel CCD204 fabricated using the same mask set as the n-channel equivalent. A custom CCD has been designed, based on this work and discussions between e2v technologies plc. and the Euclid consortium, and designated the CCD273.

  18. Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1986 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    Hille, R.; Frenkler, K.L.

    1986-02-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Nuclear Research Centre Juelich. 1987 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    Hille, R.

    1988-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig./HP) [de

  20. 1988 annual work report of the Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    Hille, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftragte). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig.) [de

  1. 1989 annual work report of the KFA Department for Safety and Radiation Protection

    Hille, R.; Frenkler, K.L.

    1990-03-01

    The Department for Safety and Radiation Protection continues to be responsible for coordinating radiation protection, safety and protection at the KFA. It supports the other institutes and departments in performing the safety tasks allotted to them. The principal tasks of the Department are in administrative and technical assistance to these organization units and in safeguards. Administrative assistance involves, for example, regulation of the radiation protection organization in the institutes, including the appointment of radiation protection officers (Strahlenschutzbeauftrage). Furthermore, this includes the central handling of the registration system with the authorities and dealing with outside firms thus considerably relieving the institutes of their administrative tasks. Handling licensing procedures and the central accountancy of radioactive materials is also to be mentioned in this context. Technical assistance largely consists of developing, maintaining and repairing radiation measuring instruments and in the monitoring of personnel by evaluating personnel dosimeters and incorporation controls for radioactive sources. The safeguards tasks of the Department concern the very staff-intensive physical protection, as well as environmental protection and industrial safety. (orig.) [de

  2. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  3. Dosimetric significance of cosmic radiation in the altitude of SST and in free space

    Allkofer, O C [Kiel Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Reine und Angewandte Kernphysik

    1977-01-01

    The integral cosmic-ray flux, and hence the dose rate, increases with altitude. At the cruising altitude of the subsonic jets, about 10 km, the dose rate is already about a factor 70 higher than at sea level. At the higher altitudes of SST the situation is different because the composition of the galactic component differs from that at the subsonic level, the solar flares are more efficient, and a small number of heavy nuclei are still present. In free space an additional radiation hazard appears when the radiation belts have to be crossed.

  4. A three-dimensional radiation image display on a real space image created via photogrammetry

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Tanifuji, Y.; Torii, T.

    2018-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the occurrence of a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. The radiation distribution measurements inside the FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction method for radioactive substances using a compact Compton camera. Moreover, we succeeded in visually recognizing the position of radioactive substances in real space by the integration of 3D radiation images and the 3D photo-model created using photogrammetry.

  5. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  6. Space radiation effects in high performance fiber optic data links for satellite data management

    Marshall, P.W.; Dale, C.J.; LaBel, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Fiber optic based technologies are relatively new to satellite applications, and are receiving considerable attention for planned applications in NASA, DOD, and commercial space sectors. The authors review various activities in recent years aimed at understanding and mitigating radiation related risk in deploying fiber based data handling systems on orbit. Before concluding that there are no critical barriers to designing survivable and reliable systems, the authors analyze several possible types of radiation effects. Particular attention is given to the subject of particle-induced bit errors in InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes, including a discussion of error mitigation and upset rate prediction methods

  7. ASN annual report 2007 - ASN report abstracts on the state of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in France in 2007

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 annual report of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) presents the highlights of the year in the domain of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France. The year 2007 was marked by the implementation of a new legislative and regulatory framework created by the 13 June 2006 Act on transparency and security in the nuclear field (TSN) and the 28 June Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. As in the previous two years, the year was relatively satisfactory from the nuclear safety viewpoint and slightly less so with regard to small-scale nuclear activities. For two years now, the medical field has been marked by the declaration to ASN of a number of serious radiotherapy accidents which have led to several deaths or the need for extensive surgery. The following main topics are reviewed in the document: 1 - the decrees implementing the 'TSN' act and the 'Waste' act; 2 - the new ASN, one year on; 3 - ASN regulatory actions in the field of radiotherapy; 4 - regulation of new installations; 5 - the key issues for regulation of existing installations; 6 - nuclear safety and radiation protection research; 7 - policy for management of the post-accident phase of a radiological emergency; 8 - sites and soils polluted by radioactive materials; 9 - international harmonization of nuclear safety and radiation protection

  8. State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-06-01

    Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

  9. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  10. Annual report 2005 on the radiation and nuclear safety in the Republic of Slovenia

    Stritar, A.; Kostadinov, V.

    2006-06-01

    The year 2005 was without major problems in the area of protection against ionizing radiation and nuclear safety in Slovenia. There were no events that would present radiological threat to the population. This report contains the essential data on the status in the areas of radiation protection and nuclear safety in the country, and is aimed at a wider group of interested public. At the same time the extended version is prepared consisting of all the details and data which would be of interest to a narrower group of professionals. It is available in electronic form on a CD-ROM or at the home page of the SNSA. (author)

  11. Radiation effects on transport and bubble formation in silicate glasses. 1998 annual progress report

    Trifunac, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    'To study the fundamental chemistry of radiation damage in silicate/borosilicate glasses and simulated high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms. Special emphasis is on delineating molecular processes crucial for understanding the aggregation of defects and formation of oxygen bubbles. The knowledge obtained will provide the needed scientific basis for extrapolating long-term behavior of stored radiative waste glass forms. This report summarizes the first 6 months of a 3-year project. The following issues have been addressed: (i) the production of radiolytic oxygen, (ii) the chemistry of hydrogenous species, and (iii) the effect of glass composition and microstructure on the formation and accumulation of metastable point defects.'

  12. Annual report 2006 on the radiation and nuclear safety in the Republic of Slovenia

    Stritar, A.; Kostadinov, V.

    2007-05-01

    In the year 2006 there were no major problems in the area of protection against ionizing radiation and nuclear safety in Slovenia. There were no events that would present a radiological threat to the population. This report contains the essential data on the status in the areas of radiation protection and nuclear safety in the country, and is aimed at a wider group of interested public. At the same time an extended version is prepared consisting of all details and data which would be of interest to a narrower group of professionals. It is available in electronic form on CD-ROM and on the homepage of the SNSA. (author)

  13. Community Radiation Monitoring Program. Annual report, December 1, 1982-March 31, 1984

    Jones, M.A.; Cooper, E.N.

    1984-01-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program is beginning its third year as part of the underground nuclear testing safety program developed by the US Department of Energy. The objectives of the program are: (1) to include local participation in the federal program to protect the health and safety of residents near the Nevada Test Site, (2) to augment the existing radiation monitoring network, and (3) to improve public understanding of the program by direct community involvement. The activities of program personnel from December 1, 1982 to March 31, 1984 are descussed and future efforts presented. 3 figures, 17 tables. (MF)

  14. Annual report 2006 on the radiation and nuclear safety in the Republic of Slovenia

    Stritar, A.; Kostadinov, V.

    2007-05-01

    In the year 2006 there were no major problems in the area of protection against ionizing radiation and nuclear safety in Slovenia. There were no events that would present a radiological threat to the population. This report contains the essential data on the status in the areas of radiation protection and nuclear safety in the country, and is aimed at a wider group of interested public. At the same time an extended version is prepared consisting of all details and data which would be of interest to a narrower group of professionals. It is available in electronic form on CD-ROM and on the homepage of the SNSA.

  15. Annual report for FY 2007 on the activities of radiation control in Nuclear Science Research Institute etc. April 1, 2007 - March 31, 2008

    2009-01-01

    This annual report describes the activities of Radiation Protection Sector in Department of Radiation Protection in Nuclear Science Research Institute, Safety Section in Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Safety Section in Kansai Photon Science Institute and Operation Safety Administration Section in Aomori Research and Development Center. The report covers environmental monitoring around the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and research and development of radiation protection technologies, which were performed at the Radiation Protection Sector. There were no occupational or public exposures exceeding the prescribed dose limits. No effluent releases were recorded exceeding the prescribed limits on the amount and concentration of radioactivity for gaseous release and liquid waste. As for the research and development activities, studies were conducted continuously focusing mainly on the following themes: technological developments on operational radiation protection and establishment of calibration fields for various energy types of neutrons. (author)

  16. Development of Space Life Supporting System Using Radiation Technology (Top Brand Project)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Lee, Yoon Jong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, Hindlimb Suspension Model was established in Gamma Phytotron. Hindlimb suspended group exposed to irradiation, non-suspended group not exposed to irradiation, and non-suspended group exposed to irradiation were experimented for 2 weeks at the dose rate of 3.2 mSV/day. The results showed that muscle weight was decreased by suspension. To develop the countermeasure to physiological changes in space environment, the peptides from soy beam was selected to evaluate the effect with the space environment simulation model. Suing the microscopic and fluorescent images, the growth of microorganisms were detected. The species were identified based on primer-targeted gene sequence analysis. Also, the radiation resistance of species was defined. To research on sustainable nutritional supply and improvement of human physiology in space environment, four kinds of new Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, and Mulberry beverage) were developed using the irradiation technology and certified as space foods by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. The contract on joint research of MARS-500 between KAERI and IBMP was made. In the experiment, crews for expedition to Mars will eat Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground. The developed technology and know-how could be spun out to the various fields, such as aircraft, automobile, military, information and communication, bio technologies. Moreover, the results obtained from this research can be used for the further development for military use or special food area such as foods for patient

  17. Development of Space Life Supporting System Using Radiation Technology (Top Brand Project)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Lee, Yoon Jong

    2010-08-01

    To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, Hindlimb Suspension Model was established in Gamma Phytotron. Hindlimb suspended group exposed to irradiation, non-suspended group not exposed to irradiation, and non-suspended group exposed to irradiation were experimented for 2 weeks at the dose rate of 3.2 mSV/day. The results showed that muscle weight was decreased by suspension. To develop the countermeasure to physiological changes in space environment, the peptides from soy beam was selected to evaluate the effect with the space environment simulation model. Suing the microscopic and fluorescent images, the growth of microorganisms were detected. The species were identified based on primer-targeted gene sequence analysis. Also, the radiation resistance of species was defined. To research on sustainable nutritional supply and improvement of human physiology in space environment, four kinds of new Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, and Mulberry beverage) were developed using the irradiation technology and certified as space foods by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. The contract on joint research of MARS-500 between KAERI and IBMP was made. In the experiment, crews for expedition to Mars will eat Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground. The developed technology and know-how could be spun out to the various fields, such as aircraft, automobile, military, information and communication, bio technologies. Moreover, the results obtained from this research can be used for the further development for military use or special food area such as foods for patient

  18. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  19. Characterization of the gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere

    Lee, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    A characterization of the gamma-ray fields found in space and in the atmosphere is given. Included are values for the energies and intensities of gamma rays as observed in several experiments and reported in the open literature. Characteristics of the diffuse gamma-ray continuum are presented along with a brief discussion of the sources of this radiation. Also given are discrete gamma-ray line energies and intensities which have been observed in space and in the atmosphere. 37 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  20. Space and military radiation effects in silicon-on-insulator devices

    Schwank, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Advantages in transient ionizing and single-event upset (SEU) radiation hardness of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology spurred much of its early development. Both of these advantages are a direct result of the reduced charge collection volume inherent to SOI technology. The fact that SOI transistor structures do not include parasitic n-p-n-p paths makes them immune to latchup. Even though considerable improvement in transient and single-event radiation hardness can be obtained by using SOI technology, there are some attributes of SOI devices and circuits that tend to limit their overall hardness. These attributes include the bipolar effect that can ultimately reduce the hardness of SOI ICs to SEU and transient ionizing radiation, and charge buildup in buried and sidewall oxides that can degrade the total-dose hardness of SOI devices. Nevertheless, high-performance SOI circuits can be fabricated that are hardened to both space and nuclear radiation environments, and radiation-hardened systems remain an active market for SOI devices. The effects of radiation on SOI MOS devices are reviewed

  1. Analysis of questionnaires carried out on the annual education and training course for radiation workers

    Hiroi, Tomoko; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Kuwabara, Rie; Masuda, Youko; Kouyama, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    Questionnaires relating to the usage of hand-foot-clothes radiation monitor and the safety handling of wastes were carried out in the education and training course for radiation workers in 2003 and 2004, in the Institute of Radioisotope Research, Graduate School of Medicine, St. Marianna University. Responses from 77 workers were analyzed. The pattern of the frequency of questionnaire of the hand-foot-clothes radiation monitor usage was almost identical between men and women and between workers in two different radiation-controlled areas. However, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.01, by the chi-square test) between the two groups of workers; that is, workers who either used radioisotopes or not. Similarly, different patterns in right/wrong responses for the handling of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes were observed between these two groups by the method of quantification 3. Therefore, it is suggested that there is a noticeable difference in the behavior between the two groups. We will take into consideration about these two groups in the future education and training courses. (author)

  2. Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Kyoto University for fiscal 1993

    1994-07-01

    This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1993 academic/fiscal year (April, 1993 - March, 1994). The 47 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Annual report of Radiation Effects Research Foundation, April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994

    1995-01-01

    The circumstances that the move of the Hiroshima facilities is in the state of reservation due to the budget reduction of USA government are reported. As to the investigation and research activities, international cooperation has increased remarkably. The council resolved to request United Nations that it designates the Radiation Effects Research Foundation to the organ for inquiring about the effect of radiation on health and gives aid. The change of directors is reported. The research works in fiscal 1993 in Departments of Epidemiology, Pathological Epidemiology, Statistics, Clinical Research (in Hiroshima and Nagasaki), Genetic Biochemical Laboratory and Cell Genetics Laboratory of Genetics Department, Radiation Biology, Radiation Biology (in Nagasaki) are reported. The trend of the research works in fiscal 1994 in respective Departments is described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1994, the abolishment of large computer, the extension of PC network, data base management and the computer processing of office works are described. As to the plan of Research Information Center in fiscal 1995, the completion of the network connection of all computers, the expansion of the data base to input major source data sets, and the introduction of software so as to utilize and retrieve data easily are expected. The abstracts of new research plan papers and the manuscripts contributed to scientific journals are collected. (K.I.)

  4. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). Seventh annual report

    Young, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990--91 CIRRPC's program included efforts to improve interagency coordination on ionizing radiation risk assessments, a review of the reported health risks to humans from exposure to extremely low- frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF/EMF), and increased coordination with national and international organizations such as NCRP and ICRP

  5. Annual report of Radiation Laboratory Department of Nuclear Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University

    1993-07-01

    This publication is the collection of the papers presented research activities of Radiation laboratory, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University during the 1992 academic/fiscal year (April, 1992 - March, 1993). The 48 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Compilation of Published Estimates of Annual Geocenter Motions Using Space Geodesy

    Elosegui, P.

    2005-01-01

    The definition of the term "geocenter motion" depends on the adopted origin of the reference frame. Common reference frames used in Space Geodesy include: the center of mass of the whole Earth (CM), the center of mass of the Solid Earth without mass load (CE), and the center of figure of the outer surface of the Solid Earth (CF). There are two established definitions of the term geocenter: one, the vector offset of CF relative to CM and, two, the reverse, the vector offset of CM relative to CF. Obviously, their amplitude is the same and their phase differs by 180 deg. Following Dong et al. [2003], we label the first X(sub CF, sup CM) and the second X(sup CF, sup CM) (i.e., the superscript represents the frame, the subscript represents any point in the frame).

  7. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  8. Development and Characterization of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter for Radiation Monitoring in International Space Station

    Uk-Won Nam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC can measure the Linear Energy Transfer (LET spectrum and calculate the equivalent dose for the complicated radiation field in space. In this paper, we developed and characterized a TEPC for radiation monitoring in International Space Station (ISS. The prototype TEPC which can simulate a 2 μm of the site diameter for micro-dosimetry has been tested with a standard alpha source (241Am, 5.5 MeV. Also, the calibration of the TEPC was performed by the 252Cf neutron standard source in Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS. The determined calibration factor was kf = 3.59×10-7 mSv/R.

  9. Implications for space radiation environment models from CREAM and CREDO measurements over half a solar cycle

    Dyer, C.S.; Truscott, P.R.; Peerless, C.L.; Watson, C.J.; Evans, H.E.; Knight, P.; Cosby, M.; Underwood, C.; Cousins, T.; Noulty, R.; Maag, C.

    1999-01-01

    Flight data obtained between 1990 and 1997 from the Cosmic Radiation Environment Monitors CREAM and CREDO carried on UoSAT-3, Space Shuttle, STRV-1a (Space Technology Research Vehicle) and APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiment Spacecraft) provide coverage over half a solar cycle. The modulation of cosmic rays and evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly are observed, the former comprising a factor of three increase at high latitudes and the latter a general increase accompanied by a north-westward drift. Comparison of particle fluxes and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra is made with improved environment and radiation transport calculations which account for shield distributions and secondary particles. While there is an encouraging convergence between predictions and observations, significant improvements are still required, particularly in the treatment of locally produced secondary particles. Solar-particle events during this time period have LET spectra significantly below the October 1989 event which has been proposed as a worst case model

  10. Big savings from small holes. [Liquid Droplet Radiator project for space vehicles

    White, Alan

    1989-01-01

    The status and results to date of the NASA-Lewis/USAF Astronautics study of technology for large spacecraft heat-dissipation by means of liquid-droplet radiation (LDR) are discussed. The LDR concept uses a droplet generator to create billions of 200-micron droplets of a heatsink fluid which will cool through radiation into deep space as they fly toward a dropet collector. This exposure to the space environment entails the maintenance of vapor pressure as low as 10 to the -7th torr; the fluid must also be very stable chemically. While certain oils are good fluids for LDR use at low temperatures, higher-temperature heatsink fluids include Li, Sn, and Ga liquid metals.

  11. Measures for minimizing radiation hazardous to the environment in the advent of large-scale space commercialization

    Murthy, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of hazardous effects from radio-frequency (RF), light, infrared, and nuclear radiation on human and other biological species in the advent of large-scale space commercialization is considered. Attention is focused on RF/microwave radiation from earth antennas and domestic picture phone communication links, exposure to microwave radiation from space solar-power satellites, and the continuous transmission of information from spacecraft as well as laser radiation from space. Measures for preventing and/or reducing these effects are suggested, including the use of interlocks for cutting off radiation toward ground, off-pointing microwave energy beams in cases of altitude failure, limiting the satellite off-axis gain data-rate product, the use of reflective materials on buildings and in personnel clothing to protect from space-borne lasers, and underwater colonies in cases of high-power lasers. For nuclear-power satellites, deposition in stable points in the solar system is proposed. 12 refs

  12. A Robust Algorithm to Determine the Topology of Space from the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2001-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the cosmic microwave back-ground radiation will soon provide an opportunity to test whether the universe is multiply connected. This paper presents a new algorithm for deducing the topology of the universe from the microwave background data. Unlike an older algorithm, the new algorithm gives the curvature of space and the radius of the last scattering surface as outputs, rather than requiring them as inputs. The new algorithm is also more tolerant of erro...

  13. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2012-01-01

    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  14. 0.25μm radiation tolerant technology for space applications

    Haddad, N.; Brady, F.; Scott, T.; Yoder, J.

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin federal systems has developed a state-of-the-art radiation tolerant 0,25 μm CMOS capability that is compatible with commercial foundries as well as radiation hardened fabrication. A technology test chip was designed, fabricated and evaluated for performance, power and radiation hardness in order to validate the methodology and evaluate the technology. Testing results show that -) the active transistor threshold shift is negligible for 0.25 μm CMOS, -) the hardened STI (shallow trench isolation) can support Mega-rad applications, and -) the holding voltage is well beyond the operating voltage of 2.5 V. This technology is intended to support high density, high performance and low power space applications

  15. Solar radiation interception of various planting space patterns of maize and its relation to yields

    Akhir, N.

    2003-01-01

    A research was carried out to study solar radiation interception and its relation to yield of maize in various plant spacing patterns at high elevation. The goal of this research was to contribute the development of crop science, especially the plant ecophysiology. A field experiment was executed from March to August 1998 at Assessment Institute of Agricultural Technology, Sukarami, West Sumatra. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design and each treatment was replicated three times. The experiment data was analyzed by ANOVA and path analysis. The results of experiment indicated that the percentage of solar radiation interception gave high contribution to the dry grain yield for Pioneer-7 cultivar, and the solar radiation interception was depend on LAI and leaf angle

  16. On The Development of Biophysical Models for Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Dicello, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental techniques in molecular biology are being applied to study biological risks from space radiation. The use of molecular assays presents a challenge to biophysical models which in the past have relied on descriptions of energy deposition and phenomenological treatments of repair. We describe a biochemical kinetics model of cell cycle control and DNA damage response proteins in order to model cellular responses to radiation exposures. Using models of cyclin-cdk, pRB, E2F's, p53, and GI inhibitors we show that simulations of cell cycle populations and GI arrest can be described by our biochemical approach. We consider radiation damaged DNA as a substrate for signal transduction processes and consider a dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF) for protein expression.

  17. Mini-magnetosphere plasma experiment for space radiation protection in manned spaceflight

    Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo

    2012-01-01

    With the development of Chinese manned spaceflight, the planetary missions will become true in the future. The protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem that should be considered. There are many revolutionary ideas for shielding including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. The concept using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field was recommended for further assessment. Magnetic field inflation was produced by the injection of plasma onto the magnetic field. The method can be used to deflect charged ions and to reduce space radiation dose. It can supply the suitable radiation protection for astronauts and spacecraft. Principle experiments demonstrated that the magnetic field was inflated by the injection of the plasma in the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field intensity strengthened with the increasing of input RF power in this paper. The mechanism should be studied in following steps. (authors)

  18. Radiation hardening of InP solar cells for space applications

    Vilela, M. F.; Freundlich, A.; Monier, C.; Newman, F.; Aguilar, L.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a radiation resistant thin InP-based solar cells for space applications on more mechanically resistant, lighter, and cheaper substrates. In this paper, we present the development of a p + /nn + InP-based solar cell structures with very thin emitter and base layers. A thin emitter helps to increase the collection of carriers generated by high energy incident photons from the solar spectrum. The use of a thin n base structure should improve the radiation resistance of this already radiation resistant technology. A remarkable improvement of high energy photons response is shown for InP solar cells with emitters 400 A thick

  19. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, No. 29. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    1997-03-01

    The annual research activities of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI, during the fiscal year 1995, are reported. The research activities were conducted under two research programs: the study on laser-induced organic chemical reactions and the study on basic radiation technology for functional materials. Detailed description of the activities are presented as reviews on the following subjects: laser-induced chemical transformation, laser-induced reaction of polymer surface, photochemical separation of stable isotopes, microprocessing by radiation-induced polymerization, preparation of fine metal particles by gamma-ray irradiation, and electron beam dosimetry. The operation report of the irradiation facility is also included. In October 1995, the Osaka Laboratory was dissolved into the Kansai Research Establishment which was newly inaugurated to promote advanced photon research. Therefore, this is the final issue of the annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry. (author)

  20. Average annual doses, lifetime doses and associated risk of cancer death for radiation workers in various fuel fabrication facilities in India

    Iyer, P.S.; Dhond, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    Lifetime doses based on average annual doses are estimated for radiation workers in various fuel fabrication facilities in India. For such cumulative doses, the risk of radiation-induced cancer death is computed. The methodology for arriving at these estimates and the assumptions made are discussed. Based on personnel monitoring records from 1966 to 1978, the average annual dose equivalent for radiation workers is estimated as 0.9 mSv (90 mrem), and the maximum risk of cancer death associated with this occupational dose as 1.35x10 -5 a -1 , as compared with the risk of death due to natural causes of 7x10 -4 a -1 and the risk of death due to background radiation alone of 1.5x10 -5 a -1 . (author)