WorldWideScience

Sample records for space radiation imaging

  1. A three-dimensional radiation image display on a real space image created via photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y.; Ozawa, S.; Tanifuji, Y.; Torii, T.

    2018-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Inc., went into meltdown after the occurrence of a large tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011. The radiation distribution measurements inside the FDNPS buildings are indispensable to execute decommissioning tasks in the reactor buildings. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction method for radioactive substances using a compact Compton camera. Moreover, we succeeded in visually recognizing the position of radioactive substances in real space by the integration of 3D radiation images and the 3D photo-model created using photogrammetry.

  2. Possible application of an imaging plate to space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Hiroko; Yamadera, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Fading correction plays an important role in the application of commercially available BaBrF:Eu 2+ phosphors: imaging plates (IP) to dosimetry. We successfully determined a fading correction equation, which is a function of elapsed time and absolute temperature, as the sum of several exponentially decaying components having different half-lives. In this work, a new method was developed to eliminate a short half-life component by annealing the IP and estimating the radiation dose with the long half-life components. Annealing decreases the effect of fading on the estimated dose, however, it also causes the loss of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL). Considering an IP as an integral detector for a specific period of up to one month, the practically optimum conditions for quantitative measurement with two types of IP (BAS-TR and BAS-MS) were evaluated by using the fading correction equation, which was obtained after irradiation with a 244 Cm source as the alpha-ray source having a specific radioactivity of 1,638.5 Bq/cm 2 including beta and gamma-ray (alpha energy of 5.763 and 5.805 MeV). Annealing at 80 deg C for 24 hours after irradiation for one month using BAS-MS should minimize the effect of the elapsed time, resulting in sufficient sensitivity. The results demonstrate new possibilities for radiation dosimetry offered by the use of an IP. (author)

  3. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Frank; Behrens, Joerg; Pospisil, Stanislav; Kudela, Karel

    2011-01-01

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  4. Space situational awareness satellites and ground based radiation counting and imaging detector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.jansen@dlr.de [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Behrens, Joerg [DLR Institute of Space Systems, Robert-Hooke-Str. 7, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Pospisil, Stanislav [Czech Technical University, IEAP, 12800 Prague 2, Horska 3a/22 (Czech Republic); Kudela, Karel [Slovak Academy of Sciences, IEP, 04001 Kosice, Watsonova 47 (Slovakia)

    2011-05-15

    We review the current status from the scientific and technological point of view of solar energetic particles, solar and galactic cosmic ray measurements as well as high energy UV-, X- and gamma-ray imaging of the Sun. These particles and electromagnetic data are an important tool for space situational awareness (SSA) aspects like space weather storm predictions to avoid failures in space, air and ground based technological systems. Real time data acquisition, position and energy sensitive imaging are demanded by the international space weather forecast services. We present how newly developed, highly miniaturized radiation detectors can find application in space in view of future SSA related satellites as a novel space application due to their counting and imaging capabilities.

  5. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  6. The Physics of Imaging with Remote Sensors : Photon State Space & Radiative Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2012-01-01

    Standard (mono-pixel/steady-source) retrieval methodology is reaching its fundamental limit with access to multi-angle/multi-spectral photo- polarimetry. Next... Two emerging new classes of retrieval algorithm worth nurturing: multi-pixel time-domain Wave-radiometry transition regimes, and more... Cross-fertilization with bio-medical imaging. Physics-based remote sensing: - What is "photon state space?" - What is "radiative transfer?" - Is "the end" in sight? Two wide-open frontiers! center dot Examples (with variations.

  7. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  8. Multiscale registration of medical images based on edge preserving scale space with application in image-guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Li, Hongsheng; Wan, Honglin; Chen, Jinhu; Gong, Guanzhong; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Liming; Yin, Yong

    2012-08-01

    Mutual information (MI) is a well-accepted similarity measure for image registration in medical systems. However, MI-based registration faces the challenges of high computational complexity and a high likelihood of being trapped into local optima due to an absence of spatial information. In order to solve these problems, multi-scale frameworks can be used to accelerate registration and improve robustness. Traditional Gaussian pyramid representation is one such technique but it suffers from contour diffusion at coarse levels which may lead to unsatisfactory registration results. In this work, a new multi-scale registration framework called edge preserving multiscale registration (EPMR) was proposed based upon an edge preserving total variation L1 norm (TV-L1) scale space representation. TV-L1 scale space is constructed by selecting edges and contours of images according to their size rather than the intensity values of the image features. This ensures more meaningful spatial information with an EPMR framework for MI-based registration. Furthermore, we design an optimal estimation of the TV-L1 parameter in the EPMR framework by training and minimizing the transformation offset between the registered pairs for automated registration in medical systems. We validated our EPMR method on both simulated mono- and multi-modal medical datasets with ground truth and clinical studies from a combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner. We compared our registration framework with other traditional registration approaches. Our experimental results demonstrated that our method outperformed other methods in terms of the accuracy and robustness for medical images. EPMR can always achieve a small offset value, which is closer to the ground truth both for mono-modality and multi-modality, and the speed can be increased 5-8% for mono-modality and 10-14% for multi-modality registration under the same condition. Furthermore, clinical application by adaptive

  9. Multiscale registration of medical images based on edge preserving scale space with application in image-guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dengwang; Wan Honglin; Li Hongsheng; Chen Jinhu; Gong Guanzhong; Yin Yong; Wang Hongjun; Wang Liming

    2012-01-01

    Mutual information (MI) is a well-accepted similarity measure for image registration in medical systems. However, MI-based registration faces the challenges of high computational complexity and a high likelihood of being trapped into local optima due to an absence of spatial information. In order to solve these problems, multi-scale frameworks can be used to accelerate registration and improve robustness. Traditional Gaussian pyramid representation is one such technique but it suffers from contour diffusion at coarse levels which may lead to unsatisfactory registration results. In this work, a new multi-scale registration framework called edge preserving multiscale registration (EPMR) was proposed based upon an edge preserving total variation L1 norm (TV-L1) scale space representation. TV-L1 scale space is constructed by selecting edges and contours of images according to their size rather than the intensity values of the image features. This ensures more meaningful spatial information with an EPMR framework for MI-based registration. Furthermore, we design an optimal estimation of the TV-L1 parameter in the EPMR framework by training and minimizing the transformation offset between the registered pairs for automated registration in medical systems. We validated our EPMR method on both simulated mono- and multi-modal medical datasets with ground truth and clinical studies from a combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner. We compared our registration framework with other traditional registration approaches. Our experimental results demonstrated that our method outperformed other methods in terms of the accuracy and robustness for medical images. EPMR can always achieve a small offset value, which is closer to the ground truth both for mono-modality and multi-modality, and the speed can be increased 5–8% for mono-modality and 10–14% for multi-modality registration under the same condition. Furthermore, clinical application by

  10. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the radiation environment in space that astronauts are likely to be exposed to. Emphasis is on proton and HZE particle effects. Recommendations for radiation protection guidelines are presented

  12. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  13. Radiation protection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Fry, R.J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space.

  14. Radiation protection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakely, E.A.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The challenge for planning radiation protection in space is to estimate the risk of events of low probability after low levels of irradiation. This work has revealed many gaps in the present state of knowledge that require further study. Despite investigations of several irradiated populations, the atomic-bomb survivors remain the primary basis for estimating the risk of ionizing radiation. Compared to previous estimates, two new independent evaluations of available information indicate a significantly greater risk of stochastic effects of radiation (cancer and genetic effects) by about a factor of three for radiation workers. This paper presents a brief historical perspective of the international effort to assure radiation protection in space

  15. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  16. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  17. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  18. Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglesang, C [European Astronaut Centre, ESA, Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technolgy (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Christer.fuglesang@esa.int

    2007-10-01

    About 80% of people who travel in space experience sudden phosphenes, commonly called light flashes (LF). Although the detailed physiological process is still not known, the LFs are caused by particles in the cosmic radiation field. Indeed, by counting LFs one can even make a crude image of the radiation environment around the Earth. Studies on the space station Mir with the SilEye experiment correlated LFs with charged particles traversing the eye. It was found that a nucleus in the radiation environment has roughly a 1% probability of causing a light flash, whereas the proton's probability is almost three orders of magnitude less. As a function of linear energy transfer (LET), the probability increased with ionization above 10 keV/{mu}m, reaching about 5% at 50 keV/{mu}m. The investigations are continuing on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Alteino/SileEye-3 detector, which is also a precursor to the large Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility. These detectors are also measuring-imaging-the radiation environment inside the ISS, which will be compared to Geant4 simulations from the DESIRE project. To further the understanding of the LF phenomena, a survey among current NASA and ESA astronauts was recently conducted. The LFs are predominantly noticed before sleep and some respondents even thought it disturbed their sleep. The LFs appear white, have elongated shapes, and most interestingly, often come with a sense of motion. Comparing the shapes quoted from space observations with ground experiments done by researchers in the 1970s, it seems likely that some 5-10% of the LFs in space are due to Cherenkov light in the eye. However, the majority is most likely caused by some direct interaction in the retina.

  19. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  20. Space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, H.B.

    1998-01-01

    Coupled with the increasing concern over trapped radiation effects on microelectronics, the availability of new data, long term changes in the Earth's magnetic field, and observed variations in the trapped radiation fluxes have generated the need for better, more comprehensive tools for modeling and predicting the Earth's trapped radiation environment and its effects on space systems. The objective of this report is to describe the current status of those efforts and review methods for attacking the issues associated with modeling the trapped radiation environment in a systematic, practical fashion. The ultimate goal will be to point the way to increasingly better methods of testing, designing, and flying reliable microelectronic systems in the Earth's radiation environment. The review will include a description of the principal models of the trapped radiation environment currently available--the AE8 and AP8 models. Recent results rom radiation experiments on spacecraft such as CRRES, SAMPEX, and CLEMENTINE will then be described. (author)

  1. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochinskii, N V; Sun, G C; Kostamo, P; Silenas, A; Saynatjoki, A; Grant, J; Owens, A; Kozorezov, A G; Noschis, E; Van Eijk, C; Nagarkar, V; Sekiya, H; Pribat, D; Campbell, M; Lundgren, J; Arques, M; Gabrielli, A; Padmore, H; Maiorino, M; Volpert, M; Lebrun, F; Van der Putten, S; Pickford, A; Barnsley, R; Anton, M E.G.; Mitschke, M; Gros d' Aillon, E; Frojdh, C; Norlin, B; Marchal, J; Quattrocchi, M; Stohr, U; Bethke, K; Bronnimann, C H; Pouvesle, J M; Hoheisel, M; Clemens, J C; Gallin-Martel, M L; Bergamaschi, A; Redondo-Fernandez, I; Gal, O; Kwiatowski, K; Montesi, M C; Smith, K

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

  2. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d'Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K.

    2005-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications

  3. Protection from space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W.; Shinn, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for astronauts in the anticipated human exploration and development of space will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than for any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from galactic cosmic rays for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate. The authors evaluate their current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods

  4. Modeling Space Radiation with Bleomycin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space radiation is a mixed field of solar particle events (proton) and particles of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with different energy levels. These radiation events...

  5. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  6. The space radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u -1 to over a GeV u -1 . These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d -1 depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbit with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d -1 . In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d -1 . Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h -1 . For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y -1 at solar maximum and 580 mSv y -1 at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv

  7. Space Radiation Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of space radiation on astronauts is one of the most important limiting factors for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit, including a journey to Mars. This talk will present an overview of space radiation issues that arise throughout the solar system and will describe research efforts at NASA aimed at studying space radiation effects on astronauts, including the experimental program at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent work on galactic cosmic ray simulation at ground based accelerators will also be presented. The three major sources of space radiation, namely geomagnetically trapped particles, solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays will be discussed as well as recent discoveries of the harmful effects of space radiation on the human body. Some suggestions will also be given for developing a space radiation program in the Republic of Korea.

  8. Radiation biophysics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.

    1983-01-01

    In a demonstration experiment bacterium sporules have been exposed to the space vacuum and to the solar radiation field at 254 nm, with the following results: 1) a short vacuum exposition of 1.3 h does not affect the vitality of the sporules, 2) the survival rate of humid sporules after UV-irradiation is consistent with terrestrial control samples, 3) after a simultaneous exposition to vacuum and solar UV-radiation the effect on the sporules is enhanced by a factor of ten as compared to the situation without vaccum exposition. Additional studies in biophysical simulation systems revealed, that the enhanced UV sensitivity is caused by the dehydration of the sporules. By this process the structure of the essential macromolecules in cell, such as DNA and proteins, is modified such that new photo-products can be formed. For these products the cells have no effective repair systems. (AJ) [de

  9. Space Radiation Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.

    2003-01-01

    Although partly protected from galactic and solar cosmic radiation by the Earth's magnetosphere in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) astronauts exposure levels during long-term missions (90 days to 180 days) by far exceed with exposures of up to more than 100 mSv the annual exposure limits set for workers in the nuclear industry, but are still below the yearly exposure limits of 500 mSv for NASA astronauts. During solar particle events the short-term limits (300 mSv) may be approached or even exceeded. In the interplanetary space, outside the Earth's magnetic field even relatively benign Solar Particle Events (SPEs) can produce 1 Sv skin-absorbed doses. Although new rocket technologies could reduce astronauts' total exposure to space radiation during a human Mars mission, the time required for the mission, which is now in the order of years. Therefore mission planners will need to consider a variety of countermeasures for the crew members including physical protection (e.g. shelters), active protection (e.g. magnetic protection), pharmacological protection, local protection (extra protection for critical areas of the body) etc. With full knowledge of these facts, accurate personal dose measurement will become increasingly important during human missions to Mars. The new dose limits for radiation workers correspond to excess lifetime risk of 3% (NCRP) and 4% (ICRP). While astronauts accept the whole variety of flight risks they are taking in mission, there is concern about risks that may occur later in life. A risk no greater than the risk of radiation workers would be acceptable. (author)

  10. Radiation Dose Reduction of Chest CT with Iterative Reconstruction in Image Space - Part I: Studies on Image Quality Using Dual Source CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Jeon; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Jin Seong; Song, Jae Woo; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Song Soo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the image quality (IQ) is improved with iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS), and whether IRIS can be used for radiation reduction in chest CT. Standard dose chest CT (SDCT) in 50 patients and low dose chest CT (LDCT) in another 50 patients were performed, using a dual-source CT, with 120 kVp and same reference mAs (50 mAs for SDCT and 25 mAs for LDCT) employed to both tubes by modifying a dual-energy scan mode. Full-dose data were obtained by combining the data from both tubes and half-dose data were separated from a single tube. These were reconstructed by using a filtered back projection (FBP) and IRIS: full-dose FBP (F-FBP); full-dose IRIS (F-IRIS); half-dose FBP (H-FBP) and half-dose IRIS (H-IRIS). Objective noise was measured. The subjective IQ was evaluated by radiologists for the followings: noise, contrast and sharpness of mediastinum and lung. Objective noise was significantly lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP (p < 0.01). In both SDCT and LDCT, the IQ scores were highest in F-IRIS, followed by F-FBP, H-IRIS and H-FBP, except those for sharpness of mediastinum, which tended to be higher in FBP. When comparing CT images between the same dose and different reconstruction (F-IRIS/F-FBP and H-IRIS/H-FBP) algorithms, scores tended to be higher in IRIS than in FBP, being more distinct in half-dose images. However, despite the use of IRIS, the scores were lower in H-IRIS than in F-FBP. IRIS generally helps improve the IQ, being more distinct at the reduced radiation. However, reduced radiation by half results in IQ decrease even when using IRIS in chest CT.

  11. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  12. Radiation: behavioral implications in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogo, V.

    1988-01-01

    Since future space missions are likely to be beyond Earth's protective atmosphere, a potentially significant hazard is radiation. The following behavioural situations are addressed in this paper: (1) space radiations are more effective at disrupting behaviour; (2) task demands can aggravate the radiation-disruption; (3) efforts to mitigate disruption with drugs or shielding are not satisfactory and the drugs can be behaviourally toxic; and (4) space- and radiation-induced emesis combined may be synergistic. Thus future space travel will be a demanding, exciting time for behavioral toxicologists, and while the circumstances may seem insurmountable at first, creative application of scientific expertise should illicit solutions, similar to demanding situations confronted before. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mei; Qi Zhangnian; Li Xianggao; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong; Wang Genliang

    1999-01-01

    The author introduced the space radiation environment and the application of thermoluminescent measurement in space radiation dosimetry. Space ionization radiation is charged particles radiation. Space radiation dosimetry was developed for protecting astronauts against space radiation. Thermoluminescent measurement is an excellent method used in the spaceship cabin. Also the authors mentioned the recent works here

  14. European Space Imaging & Skybox Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Schichor, P.

    2015-01-01

    Skybox and European Space Imaging have partnered to bring timely, Very High-Resolution imagery to customers in Europe and North Africa. Leveraging Silicon Valley ingenuity and world-class aerospace expertise, Skybox designs, builds, and operates a fleet of imaging satellites. With two satellites currently on-orbit, Skybox is quickly advancing towards a planned constellation of 24+ satellites with the potential for daily or sub-daily imaging at 70-90 cm resolution. With consistent, high-resolution imagery and video, European customers can monitor the dynamic units of human activity - cars, trucks, shipping containers, ships, aircraft, etc. - and derive valuable insights about the global economy. With multiple imaging opportunities per day, the Skybox constellation provides unprecedented access to imagery and information about critical targets that require rapid analysis. Skybox's unique capability to deliver high-definition video from space enables European customers to monitor a network of globally distributed assets with full-motion snapshots, without the need to deploy an aircraft or field team. The movement captured in these 30-90 second video windows yield unique insights that improve operational decisions. Skybox and EUSI are excited to offer a unique data source that can drive a better understanding of our world through supply chain monitoring, natural resource management, infrastructure monitoring, and crisis response. (author)

  15. Radiation risk in space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Wilson, J.W.; Cucinotta, F.; Kim, M.H.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Humans living and working in space are exposed to energetic charged particle radiation due to galactic cosmic rays and solar particle emissions. In order to keep the risk due to radiation exposure of astronauts below acceptable levels, the physical interaction of these particles with space structures and the biological consequences for crew members need to be understood. Such knowledge is, to a large extent, very sparse when it is available at all. Radiation limits established for space radiation protection purposes are based on extrapolation of risk from Japanese survivor data, and have been found to have large uncertainties. In space, attempting to account for large uncertainties by worst-case design results in excessive costs and accurate risk prediction is essential. It is best developed at ground-based laboratories, using particle accelerator beams to simulate individual components of space radiation. Development of mechanistic models of the action of space radiation is expected to lead to the required improvements in the accuracy of predictions, to optimization of space structures for radiation protection and, eventually, to the development of biological methods of prevention and intervention against radiation injury. (author)

  16. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The biological effects of the radiations to which mankind on earth are exposed are becoming known with an increasing degree of detail. This knowledge is the basis of the estimates of risk that, in turn, fosters a comprehensive and evolving radiation protection system. The substantial body of information has been, and is being, applied to questions about the biological effects of radiation is space and the associated risk estimates. The purpose of this paper is not to recount all the biological effect of radiation but to concentrate on those that may occur as a result from exposure to the radiations encountered in space. In general, the biological effects of radiation in space are the same as those on earth. However, the evidence that the effects on certain tissues by the heaviest-charged particles can be interpreted on the basis of our knowledge about other high-LET radiation is equivocal. This specific question will be discussed in greater detail later. It is important to point out the that there are only limited data about the effects on humans of two components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. Thus predictions of effects on space crews are based on experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences that are higher than those in space and one the effects of gamma or x rays with estimates of the equivalent doses using quality factors

  17. Space radiation and astronaut safety

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This brief explores the biological effects of long-term radiation on astronauts in deep space. As missions progress beyond Earth's orbit and away from the protection of its magnetic shielding, astronauts risk constant exposure to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. The text concisely addresses the full spectrum of biomedical consequences from exposure to space radiation and goes on to present possible ways to mitigate such dangers and protect astronauts within the limitations of existing technologies.

  18. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bahadori Amir; Semones Edward; Ewert Michael; Broyan James; Walker Steven

    2017-01-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles ...

  19. Surviving radiation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation damage to communications, navigation and weather satellites is common and caused by high energy charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, from the Earth's Van Allen belts. The combined release and radiation effects satellite (CRRES), recently launched by the United States, will allow scientists to create far more realistic computer models of satellite radiation damage than has been the case to date. It is hoped that information thus received will allow satellite builders to protect these essential structures in future. The second aim of the CCRES mission is to study the effect of releasing artificially charged particles into the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. Spacecraft design engineers will benefit from the results produced by the CCRES mission. (UK)

  20. Space radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.; Kopp, J.; Strauch, K.; Heinrich, W.

    1996-01-01

    Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emusions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed at different locations inside the space laboratory Spacelab and at the astronauts' body and in different sections of the MIR space station. Total dose measurements, particle fluence rate and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of heavy ions, number of nuclear disintegrations and fast neutron fluence rate from this exposure are given in this report. The dose equivalent received by the PSs were calculated from the measurements and range from 190 μSv d -1 to 770 μSv d -3 . (orig.) [de

  1. k-space sampling optimization for ultrashort TE imaging of cortical bone: Applications in radiation therapy planning and MR-based PET attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Lingzhi; Traughber, Melanie; Su, Kuan-Hao; Pereira, Gisele C.; Grover, Anu; Traughber, Bryan; Muzic, Raymond F. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The ultrashort echo-time (UTE) sequence is a promising MR pulse sequence for imaging cortical bone which is otherwise difficult to image using conventional MR sequences and also poses strong attenuation for photons in radiation therapy and PET imaging. The authors report here a systematic characterization of cortical bone signal decay and a scanning time optimization strategy for the UTE sequence through k-space undersampling, which can result in up to a 75% reduction in acquisition time. Using the undersampled UTE imaging sequence, the authors also attempted to quantitatively investigate the MR properties of cortical bone in healthy volunteers, thus demonstrating the feasibility of using such a technique for generating bone-enhanced images which can be used for radiation therapy planning and attenuation correction with PET/MR. Methods: An angularly undersampled, radially encoded UTE sequence was used for scanning the brains of healthy volunteers. Quantitative MR characterization of tissue properties, including water fraction and R2 ∗ = 1/T2 ∗ , was performed by analyzing the UTE images acquired at multiple echo times. The impact of different sampling rates was evaluated through systematic comparison of the MR image quality, bone-enhanced image quality, image noise, water fraction, and R2 ∗ of cortical bone. Results: A reduced angular sampling rate of the UTE trajectory achieves acquisition durations in proportion to the sampling rate and in as short as 25% of the time required for full sampling using a standard Cartesian acquisition, while preserving unique MR contrast within the skull at the cost of a minimal increase in noise level. The R2 ∗ of human skull was measured as 0.2–0.3 ms −1 depending on the specific region, which is more than ten times greater than the R2 ∗ of soft tissue. The water fraction in human skull was measured to be 60%–80%, which is significantly less than the >90% water fraction in brain. High-quality, bone

  2. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure. Copyright © 2014 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadori Amir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  4. Measuring space radiation shielding effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Amir; Semones, Edward; Ewert, Michael; Broyan, James; Walker, Steven

    2017-09-01

    Passive radiation shielding is one strategy to mitigate the problem of space radiation exposure. While space vehicles are constructed largely of aluminum, polyethylene has been demonstrated to have superior shielding characteristics for both galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events due to the high hydrogen content. A method to calculate the shielding effectiveness of a material relative to reference material from Bragg peak measurements performed using energetic heavy charged particles is described. Using accelerated alpha particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory, the method is applied to sample tiles from the Heat Melt Compactor, which were created by melting material from a simulated astronaut waste stream, consisting of materials such as trash and unconsumed food. The shielding effectiveness calculated from measurements of the Heat Melt Compactor sample tiles is about 10% less than the shielding effectiveness of polyethylene. Shielding material produced from the astronaut waste stream in the form of Heat Melt Compactor tiles is therefore found to be an attractive solution for protection against space radiation.

  5. Radiative transfer on discrete spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Preisendorfer, Rudolph W; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Pure and Applied Mathematics, Volume 74: Radiative Transfer on Discrete Spaces presents the geometrical structure of natural light fields. This book describes in detail with mathematical precision the radiometric interactions of light-scattering media in terms of a few well established principles.Organized into four parts encompassing 15 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the derivations of the practical formulas and the arrangement of formulas leading to numerical solution procedures of radiative transfer problems in plane-parallel media. This text then constructs radiative tran

  6. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.; Lanza, R.C.; Sohval, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation imaging apparatus especially suited for use in a computerized tomographic (CT) scanner is specified. It employs a fixed array of discrete X-ray sources, each being a cold cathode diode having an impedance in excess of about 100 ohms and an adjacent fixed array of closely packed radiation detectors to produce images of rapidly moving body organs such as the beating heart. The X-ray source is pulsed by a 120 to 130 kv pulse of 150 to 160 ns duration, derived from an unregulated DC source, of output voltage 15 to 30 kv. Each X-ray source may comprise a cold cathode pulse or may be constituted by a pair of annular cathodes having radially extending anodes therebetween. (author)

  7. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation imaging apparatus. It relates more particularly to apparatus of this general type which employs stationary X-ray source and detector arrays capable of acquiring multiple ultrafast scans per second to facilitate the dynamic study of moving human organs such as the beating heart. While the invention has many applications, it has particular utility in connection with computerized tomographic (CT) scanners. (Auth.)

  8. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W L; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MS-366, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies.

  9. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, W L; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies

  10. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  11. Radiation in space: risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of radiation environments in space makes estimation of risks more difficult than for the protection of terrestrial population. In deep space the duration of the mission, position of the solar cycle, number and size of solar particle events (SPE) and the spacecraft shielding are the major determinants of risk. In low-earth orbit missions there are the added factors of altitude and orbital inclination. Different radiation qualities such as protons and heavy ions and secondary radiations inside the spacecraft such as neutrons of various energies, have to be considered. Radiation dose rates in space are low except for short periods during very large SPEs. Risk estimation for space activities is based on the human experience of exposure to gamma rays and to a lesser extent X rays. The doses of protons, heavy ions and neutrons are adjusted to take into account the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the different radiation types and thus derive equivalent doses. RBE values and factors to adjust for the effect of dose rate have to be obtained from experimental data. The influence of age and gender on the cancer risk is estimated from the data from atomic bomb survivors. Because of the large number of variables the uncertainties in the probability of the effects are large. Information needed to improve the risk estimates includes: (1) risk of cancer induction by protons, heavy ions and neutrons; (2) influence of dose rate and protraction, particularly on potential tissue effects such as reduced fertility and cataracts; and (3) possible effects of heavy ions on the central nervous system. Risk cannot be eliminated and thus there must be a consensus on what level of risk is acceptable. (author)

  12. Biology relevant to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    There are only very limited data on the health effects to humans from the two major components of the radiations in space, namely protons and heavy ions. As a result, predictions of the accompanying effects must be based either on (1) data generated through studies of experimental systems exposed on earth at rates and fluences higher than those in space, or (2) extrapolations from studies of gamma and x rays. Better information is needed about the doses, dose rates, and the energy and LET spectra of the radiations at the organ level that are anticipated to be encountered during extended space missions. In particular, there is a need for better estimates of the relationship between radiation quality and biological effects. In the case of deterministic effects, it is the threshold that is important. The possibility of the occurrence of a large solar particle event (SPE) requires that such effects be considered during extended space missions. Analyses suggest, however, that it is feasible to provide sufficient shielding so as to reduce such effects to acceptable levels, particularly if the dose rates can be limited. If these analyses prove correct, the primary biological risks will be the stochastic effects (latent cancer induction). The contribution of one large SPE to the risk of stochastic effects while undesirable will not be large in comparison to the potential total dose on a mission of long duration

  13. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ghost imaging is an optical imaging technique that utilizes the correlations between optical fields in two channels. One of the channels contains the object, however...

  14. Scattered Radiation Emission Imaging: Principles and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging processes built on the Compton scattering effect have been under continuing investigation since it was first suggested in the 50s. However, despite many innovative contributions, there are still formidable theoretical and technical challenges to overcome. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art principles of the so-called scattered radiation emission imaging. Basically, it consists of using the cleverly collected scattered radiation from a radiating object to reconstruct its inner structure. Image formation is based on the mathematical concept of compounded conical projection. It entails a Radon transform defined on circular cone surfaces in order to express the scattered radiation flux density on a detecting pixel. We discuss in particular invertible cases of such conical Radon transforms which form a mathematical basis for image reconstruction methods. Numerical simulations performed in two and three space dimensions speak in favor of the viability of this imaging principle and its potential applications in various fields.

  15. Space-Time Quantum Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E. Meyers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum imaging where the images are stored in both space and time. Ghost images of remote objects are produced with either one or two beams of chaotic laser light generated by a rotating ground glass and two sensors measuring the reference field and bucket field at different space-time points. We further observe that the ghost images translate depending on the time delay between the sensor measurements. The ghost imaging experiments are performed both with and without turbulence. A discussion of the physics of the space-time imaging is presented in terms of quantum nonlocal two-photon analysis to support the experimental results. The theoretical model includes certain phase factors of the rotating ground glass. These experiments demonstrated a means to investigate the time and space aspects of ghost imaging and showed that ghost imaging contains more information per measured photon than was previously recognized where multiple ghost images are stored within the same ghost imaging data sets. This suggests new pathways to explore quantum information stored not only in multi-photon coincidence information but also in time delayed multi-photon interference. The research is applicable to making enhanced space-time quantum images and videos of moving objects where the images are stored in both space and time.

  16. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  17. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  18. Imaging of the perivertebral space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Megan K; Shah, Lubdha M

    2015-01-01

    The perivertebral space extends from the skull base to the mediastinum and is delineated by the deep layer of the deep cervical fascia. The different tissue types, including muscles, bones, nerves, and vascular structures, give rise to the various disorders that can be seen in this space. This article defines the anatomy of the perivertebral space, guides lesion localization, discusses different disease processes arising within this space, and reviews the best imaging approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dosimetric radiation measurements in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    In reviewing radiation exposures recorded during spaceflights of the United States and the Soviet Union, this paper examines absorbed dose and dose rates as a function of parameters such as inclination, altitude, spacecraft type and shielding. Complete shielding from galactic cosmic rays does not appear practical because of spacecraft weight limitations. Preliminary data on neutron and HZE-particle components and LET spectra are available. Most of the data in this paper are from manned missions; for low Earth-orbit missions, the dose encountered is strongly altitude-dependent, with a weaker dependence on inclination. The doses range from about 6 millirad per day for the Space Transportation System (STS) No. 3 flight to about 90 mrad per day for Skylab. The effective quality factor (QF) for the near-Earth orbits and free space has been estimated to be about 1.5 and about 5.5 respectively. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on microelectronics in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srour, J.R.; McGarrity, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of space radiation effects on microelectronics are reviewed in this paper. Topics discussed include the effects of displacement damage and ionizing radiation on devices and circuits, single event phenomena, dose enhancement, radiation effects on optoelectronic devices and passive components, hardening approaches, and simulation of the space radiation environment. A summary is presented of damage mechanisms that can cause temporary or permanent failure of devices and circuits operating in space

  1. Radiation-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a new technique for obtaining information non-invasively on the composition and structures of a material or body by detecting radiation-induced thermoacoustic image features. This is accomplished by utilizing the acoustic wave generated by sudden thermal stress. The sudden thermal stress is induced by a pulse of radiation which deposits energy causing a rapid, but very small, rise of temperature (typically, ΔT approximately 10sup(-6) - 10sup(-5) deg C). The radiation may be ionizing radiation, such as high energy electrons, photons (x-rays), neutrons, or other charged particles or it may be non-ionizing radiation, such as R.F. and microwave electromagnetic radiation and ultrasonic radiation. The choice of radiation depends on the nature of the body to be imaged and the type of information desired

  2. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

    2013-01-01

    The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

  3. Research progress on space radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjian; Dang Bingrong; Wang Zhuanzi; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Biqian; Zhang Bintuan

    2010-01-01

    Space radiation, particularly induced by the high-energy charged particles, may cause serious injury on living organisms. So it is one critical restriction factor in Manned Spaceflight. Studies have shown that the biological effects of charged particles were associated with their quality, the dose and the different biological end points. In addition, the microgravity conditions may affect the biological effects of space radiation. In this paper we give a review on the biological damage effects of space radiation and the combined biological effects of the space radiation coupled with the microgravity from the results of space flight and ground simulation experiments. (authors)

  4. Dose estimation for space radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Feng; Xu Zhenhua; Huang Zengxin; Jia Xianghong

    2007-01-01

    For evaluating the effect of space radiation on human health, the dose was estimated using the models of space radiation environment, models of distribution of the spacecraft's or space suit's mass thickness and models of human body. The article describes these models and calculation methods. (authors)

  5. Space Radiation Intelligence System (SPRINTS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Federal Systems proposes an innovative SPace Radiation INTelligence System (SPRINTS) which provides an interactive and web-delivered capability that...

  6. NASA Space Radiation Program Integrative Risk Model Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hu, Shaowen; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sandridge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    NASA Space Radiation Program Element scientists have been actively involved in development of an integrative risk models toolkit that includes models for acute radiation risk and organ dose projection (ARRBOD), NASA space radiation cancer risk projection (NSCR), hemocyte dose estimation (HemoDose), GCR event-based risk model code (GERMcode), and relativistic ion tracks (RITRACKS), NASA radiation track image (NASARTI), and the On-Line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space (OLTARIS). This session will introduce the components of the risk toolkit with opportunity for hands on demonstrations. The brief descriptions of each tools are: ARRBOD for Organ dose projection and acute radiation risk calculation from exposure to solar particle event; NSCR for Projection of cancer risk from exposure to space radiation; HemoDose for retrospective dose estimation by using multi-type blood cell counts; GERMcode for basic physical and biophysical properties for an ion beam, and biophysical and radiobiological properties for a beam transport to the target in the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory beam line; RITRACKS for simulation of heavy ion and delta-ray track structure, radiation chemistry, DNA structure and DNA damage at the molecular scale; NASARTI for modeling of the effects of space radiation on human cells and tissue by incorporating a physical model of tracks, cell nucleus, and DNA damage foci with image segmentation for the automated count; and OLTARIS, an integrated tool set utilizing HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) intended to help scientists and engineers study the effects of space radiation on shielding materials, electronics, and biological systems.

  7. Database for radiation therapy images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalev, S.; Cosby, S.; Leszczynski, K.; Chu, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a database for images acquired during simulation and verification of radiation treatments. Simulation images originate as planning films that are digitized with a video camera, or through direct digitization of fluoroscopic images. Verification images may also be digitized from portal films or acquired with an on-line portal imaging system. Images are classified by the patient, the fraction, the field direction, static or dynamic (movie) sequences, and the type of processing applied. Additional parameters indicate whether the source is a simulation or treatment, whether images are digitized film or real-time acquisitions, and whether treatment is portal or double exposure for beam localization. Examples are presented for images acquired, processed, stored, and displayed with on-line portal imaging system (OPIUM) and digital simulation system (FLIP)

  8. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Dunnick, N. Reed; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2011-01-01

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  9. Guidance on radiation received in space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report, therefore, are to: re-examine the current guidelines and the philosophy adopted by NASA, estimate the risks to both men and women exposed to radiation in space, re-examine the estimates of radiation risks in outer space with special attention to SPE and to exposure to HZE particles, and examine what information may still be required and what research is needed. This report incorporates the changes in estimates of terrestrial radiation risks made since 1970 that appear to be acceptable and appropriate to the particular case of space missions. Since plans for a space station have been established and are a priority for NASA, this space mission will be used as one example for reference. The likely altitude and orbit for the proposed space station are 450 km and 28.5 degree, respectively. Therefore, estimates of the radiation environment for this mission can be made with more confidence than for some of the other missions. In this report, we have chosen to write more fully about certain subjects, for example, the eye, because they are of concern and because they have not been dealt with in such detail in other reports on radiation risks and protection. Since this report covers a number of different disciplines and specialized areas of research, a glossary is included. Radiation protection in space is as international a task as is the protection of radiation workers and the general population on earth. Kovalev, 1983, has noted that radiation protection in space is a pressing but complex problem. The recommendations in this report will require modifications as we learn more about the radiation environment in space and how to estimate radiation risks with greater precision. 450 refs

  10. Quality of radiation field imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The questions were studied of the quality of imaging the gamma radiation field and of the limits of the quality in directional detector scanning. A resolution angle was introduced to quantify the imaging quality, and its relation was sought with the detection effective half-angle of the directional detector. The resolution angle was defined for the simplest configuration of the radiation field consisting of two monoenergetic gamma beams in one plane. It was shown that the resolution angle decreases, i.e., resolution in imaging the radiation field is better, with the effective half-angle of the directional detector. It was also found that resolution of both gamma beams deteriorated when the beams were surrounded with an isotropic background field. If the beams are surrounded with a background field showing general distribution, the angle size will be affected not only by the properties of the detector but also by the distribution of the ambient radiation field and the method of its scanning. The method described can be applied in designing a directional detector necessary for imaging the presumed radiation field in the required quality. (Z.M.). 4 figs., 3 refs

  11. On the radiation dosimetry in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, Tadayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The radiation dosimetry in space is considerably different from that on the earth surface, because, on the earth surface, the quality factor for radiation is roughly given for its energy but, in space, it is defined as a continuous function of LET. Thus, the contribution to the dose equivalent from heavy charged particles included in galactic cosmic rays is more than 50%, because of their high LET values. To evaluate such dose equivalent within an uncertainty of 30%, we must determine the true LET distribution. This paper describes the essence of such a new radiation dosimetry in space. (author)

  12. Radiation dosimetry for the space shuttle program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Richmond, R.G.; Cash, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation measurements aboard the Space Shuttle are made to record crew doses for medical records, to verify analytical shielding calculations used in dose predictions and to provide dosimetry support for radiation sensitive payloads and experiments. Low cost systems utilizing thermoluminescent dosimeters, nuclear track detectors and activation foils have been developed to fulfill these requirements. Emphasis has been placed on mission planning and dose prediction. As a result, crew doses both inside the orbiter and during extra-vehicular activities have been reasonable low. Brief descriptions of the space radiation environment, dose prediction models, and radiation measurement systems are provided, along with a summary of the results for the first fourteen Shuttle flights

  13. Deep space test bed for radiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, James H.; Adcock, Leonard; Apple, Jeffery; Christl, Mark; Cleveand, William; Cox, Mark; Dietz, Kurt; Ferguson, Cynthia; Fountain, Walt; Ghita, Bogdan; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Milton, Martha; Myers, Jeremy; O'Brien, Sue; Seaquist, Jim; Smith, Edward A.; Smith, Guy; Warden, Lance; Watts, John

    2007-01-01

    The Deep Space Test-Bed (DSTB) Facility is designed to investigate the effects of galactic cosmic rays on crews and systems during missions to the Moon or Mars. To gain access to the interplanetary ionizing radiation environment the DSTB uses high-altitude polar balloon flights. The DSTB provides a platform for measurements to validate the radiation transport codes that are used by NASA to calculate the radiation environment within crewed space systems. It is also designed to support other exploration related investigations such as measuring the shielding effectiveness of candidate spacecraft and habitat materials, testing new radiation monitoring instrumentation, flight avionics and investigating the biological effects of deep space radiation. We describe the work completed thus far in the development of the DSTB and its current status

  14. Near-Earth Space Radiation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; O'Brien, T. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Review of models of the near-Earth space radiation environment is presented, including recent developments in trapped proton and electron, galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event models geared toward spacecraft electronics applications.

  15. Radiation imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Wiesen, E.J.; Woronowicz, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in the uniformity and resolution of scintillation cameras are described in detail. One of the problems in scintillation cameras is the non-uniform response of the photomultiplier array to light signals which results in non-uniformity of the displayed image. A novel method of overcoming the problem is presented. By electronically processing the signals from the photomultiplier array it is possible to deduce four co-ordinate signals viz +x, -x, +y and -y; the signals are summed to give the energy of the scintillation event. Details of the electronic circuits required are given. (U.K.)

  16. Ghost Imaging of Space Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Erkmen, Baris I; Yu Nan

    2013-01-01

    The term 'ghost imaging' was coined in 1995 when an optical correlation measurement in combination with an entangled photon-pair source was used to image a mask placed in one optical channel by raster-scanning a detector in the other, empty, optical channel. Later, it was shown that the entangled photon source could be replaced with thermal sources of light, which are abundantly available as natural illumination sources. It was also shown that the bucket detector could be replaced with a remote point-like detector, opening the possibility to remote-sensing imaging applications. In this paper, we discuss the application of ghost-imaging-like techniques to astronomy, with the objective of detecting intensity-correlation signatures resulting from space objects of interest, such as exo-planets, gas clouds, and gravitational lenses. An important aspect of being able to utilize ghost imaging in astronomy, is the recognition that in interstellar imaging geometries the object of interest can act as an effective beam splitter, yielding detectable variations in the intensity-correlation signature.

  17. Radiation effects on video imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.J.; Bujnosek, J.J.; Jaramillo, S.A.; Walton, R.B.; Martinez, T.M.; Black, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of several photoconductive, photoemissive, and solid state silicon-based video imagers was measured by analyzing stored photocharge induced by irradiation with continuous and pulsed sources of high energy photons and neutrons. Transient effects as functions of absorbed dose, dose rate, fluences, and ionizing particle energy are presented

  18. The Near-Earth Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the effects of the Near-Earth space radiation environment on NASA missions. Included in this presentation is a review of The Earth s Trapped Radiation Environment, Solar Particle Events, Galactic Cosmic Rays and Comparison to Accelerator Facilities.

  19. Space Radar Image of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its surroundings, centered at 51.17 north latitude and 30.15 west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 16th orbit on October 1, 1994. The area is located on the northern border of the Ukraine Republic and was produced by using the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) polarization. The differences in the intensity are due to differences in vegetation cover, with brighter areas being indicative of more vegetation. These data were acquired as part of a collaboration between NASA and the National Space Agency of Ukraine in Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences. NASA has included several sites provided by the Ukrainian space agency as targets of opportunity during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The Ukrainian space agency also plans to conduct airborne surveys of these sites during the mission. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located toward the top of the image near the Pripyat River. The 12-kilometer (7.44-mile)-long cooling pond is easily distinguishable as an elongated dark shape in the center near the top of the image. The reactor complex is visible as the bright area to the extreme left of the cooling pond and the city of Chernobyl is the bright area just below the cooling pond next to the Pripyat River. The large dark area in the bottom right of the image is the Kiev Reservoir just north of Kiev. Also visible is the Dnieper River, which feeds into the Kiev Reservoir from the top of the image. The Soviet government evacuated 116,000 people within 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) of the Chernobyl reactor after the explosion and fire on April 26, 1986. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight

  20. Influence of space radiation on satellite magnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, M K [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum (India)

    1978-12-01

    The magnetic circuits and devices used in space-borne systems such as satellites are naturally exposed to space environments having among others, hazardous radiations. Such radiations, in turn, may be of solar, cosmic or nuclear origin depending upon the altitude as well as the propulsion/power systems involving mini atomic reactors when utilised. The influence of such radiations on the magnetic components of the satellite have been analysed revealing the critical hazards in the latter circuits system. Remedial measures by appropriate shielding, etc. necessary for maintaining optimum performance of the satellite have been discussed.

  1. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  2. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The original recommendations for radiation protection guidelines were made by the National Academy of Sciences in 1970. Since that time the US crews have become more diverse in their makeup and much has been learned about both radiation-induced cancer and other late effects. While far from adequate there is now some understanding of the risks that high-Z and -energy (HZE) particles pose. For these reasons it was time to reconsider the radiation protection guidelines for space workers. This task was undertaken recently by National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP). 42 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  3. Astronaut exposure to space radiation - Space Shuttle experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.

    1990-01-01

    Space Shuttle astronauts are exposed to both the trapped radiation and the galactic cosmic radiation environments. In addition, the sun periodically emits high-energy particles which could pose a serious threat to flight crews. NASA adheres to federal regulations and recommended exposure limits for radiation protection and has established a radiological health and risk assessment program. Using models of the space radiation environment, a Shuttle shielding model, and an anatomical human model, crew exposure estimates are made for each Shuttle flight. The various models are reviewed. Dosimeters are worn by each astronaut and are flown at several fixed locations to obtain inflight measurements. The dosimetry complement is discussed in detail. A comparison between the premission calculations and measurements is presented. Extrapolation of Shuttle experience to long-duration exposure is explored. 14 refs

  4. Radiation investigations during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, A.Yu.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Fekher, I.; Deme, Sh.; Khashchegan, D.

    1986-01-01

    Results of radiation investigations during ''Salyut-6'' orbital station flight are presented. The program of studying the environmental radioactivity at the station included ''Integral'' and ''Pille'' experiments. In the course of the ''Integral'' experiment absorbed dose distributions of cosmic radiation and heavy charged particle fluence for long time intervals were studied. Method, allowing one to study dose distributions and determine individual doses for any time interval rapidity and directly on board the station was tested in the course of ''Pille'' experiment for the first time. Attention is paid to measuring equipment. Effect of heavy charged particles on the cellular structure of air-dry Lactuca sativa lettuce seeds was studied in the course of radiobiological experiments conducted at ''Salyut-6'' station. It is shown, that with the increase of flight duration the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations increases

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Image of Omega Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This sturning image, taken by the newly installed Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), is an image of the center of the Omega Nebula. It is a hotbed of newly born stars wrapped in colorful blankets of glowing gas and cradled in an enormous cold, dark hydrogen cloud. The region of nebula shown in this photograph is about 3,500 times wider than our solar system. The nebula, also called M17 and the Swan Nebula, resides 5,500 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. The Swan Nebula is illuminated by ultraviolet radiation from young, massive stars, located just beyond the upper-right corner of the image. The powerful radiation from these stars evaporates and erodes the dense cloud of cold gas within which the stars formed. The blistered walls of the hollow cloud shine primarily in the blue, green, and red light emitted by excited atoms of hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Particularly striking is the rose-like feature, seen to the right of center, which glows in the red light emitted by hydrogen and sulfur. As the infant stars evaporate the surrounding cloud, they expose dense pockets of gas that may contain developing stars. One isolated pocket is seen at the center of the brightest region of the nebula. Other dense pockets of gas have formed the remarkable feature jutting inward from the left edge of the image. The color image is constructed from four separate images taken in these filters: blue, near infrared, hydrogen alpha, and doubly ionized oxygen. Credit: NASA, H. Ford (JHU), G. Illingworth (USCS/LO), M. Clampin (STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), the ACS Science Team, and ESA.

  6. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-01-01

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space

  7. Radiation Effects in the Space Telecommunications Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Winokur, Peter S.

    1999-05-17

    Trapped protons and electrons in the Earth's radiation belts and cosmic rays present significant challenges for electronics that must operate reliably in the natural space environment. Single event effects (SEE) can lead to sudden device or system failure, and total dose effects can reduce the lifetime of a telecommmiications system with significant space assets. One of the greatest sources of uncertainty in developing radiation requirements for a space system is accounting for the small but finite probability that the system will be exposed to a massive solar particle event. Once specifications are decided, standard laboratory tests are available to predict the total dose response of MOS and bipolar components in space, but SEE testing of components can be more challenging. Prospects are discussed for device modeling and for the use of standard commercial electronics in space.

  8. Continuous imaging space in three-dimensional integral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Yang Yong; Wang Jin-Gang; Zhao Xing; Fang Zhi-Liang; Yuan Xiao-Cong

    2013-01-01

    We report an integral imaging method with continuous imaging space. This method simultaneously reconstructs real and virtual images in the virtual mode, with a minimum gap that separates the entire imaging space into real and virtual space. Experimental results show that the gap is reduced to 45% of that in a conventional integral imaging system with the same parameters. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. On static and radiative space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conformal constraint equations on space-like hypersurfaces are discussed near points which represent either time-like or spatial infinity for an asymptotically flat solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations. In the case of time-like infinity a certain 'radiativity condition' is derived which must be satisfied by the data at that point. The case of space-like infinity is analysed in detail for static space-times with non-vanishing mass. It is shown that the conformal structure implied here on a slice of constant Killing time, which extends analytically through infinity, satisfies at spatial infinity the radiativity condition. Thus to any static solution exists a certain 'radiative solution' which has a smooth structure at past null infinity and is regular at past time-like infinity. A characterization of these solutions by their 'free data' is given and non-symmetry properties are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  11. Peculiarities of perception of stereoscopic radiation images in full colour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamchev, G.V.

    1994-01-01

    The principles of coloring stereoscopic radiation images providing their three-dimensional structure distinguishing increase are discussed. The results of analytical and experimental studies dealing with estimation of the effect of stereoscopic image chromaticity on accuracy of metric operations realization in three-dimensional space are given. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Graphite epoxy composite degradation by space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, M.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Bennion, J.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation environment in space is a critical consideration for successful operation in space. All manned space missions with a duration of more than a few days are subjected to elevated ionizing radiation exposures, which are a threat to both personnel and structures in space. The increasing demands for high-performance materials as structural components in the aerospace, aircraft, and defense industries have led to the development of materials such as graphite fiber-reinforced, epoxy resin matrix composites (Gr/Ep). These materials provide important advantages over conventional structural materials, such as ultrahigh specific strength, enhanced specific moduli, and better fatigue resistance. The fact that most advanced composite materials under cyclic fatigue loading evidence little or no observable crack growth prior to rapid fracture suggests that for fail-safe considerations of parts subject to catastrophic failure, a detailed evaluation of radiation damage from very energetic particle is crucial. The Gr/Ep components are believed to suffer severe degradation in space due to highly penetrating secondary radiation, mainly from neutrons and protons. Investigation into the performance and stability of Gr/Ep materials are planned

  13. [Diagnostic imaging and radiation hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudon, Michel; Guillaume, Luc

    2015-01-01

    For the last 20 years, the exposure of the population to medical radiation has been increased by 600%, mainly due to the extension of new imaging modalities such as CT or interventional radiology. The risk for radio-induced hazards is especially marked for children, because of the high sensivity of tissues to radiation especially during the first decade of the life. Two main ways allow to better control and reduce the mean effective dose per patient in diagnostic imaging: the introduction of recent technical improvement (i.e. low dose CT scans using iterative reconstruction algorithms, low dose technique for pediatric spine), and the substitution to non-radiating techniques such as ultrasound and MRI. The French National institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety periodically publishes dose reference levels for conventional films and CT examinations, for both adults and pediatric patients. A close relationship between clinicians and radiologists remains essential for a better appreciation of the risk/benefit ratio of each individual examination using X-Rays.

  14. Rotating film radiators for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    A new class of light-weight radiators is described. This radiator consists of a thin rotating envelope that contains the working fluid. The envelope can have many shapes including redundant, foldable configurations. The working fluid, which may be a liquid or a condensable vapor, impinges on the inside surface of the radiator and is driven as a film to the periphery by centrifugal force. Heat is radiated to space by the outer surface of the envelope. Pumps located on the periphery then return the liquid to the power converter. For a 100-MW radiator operating at 800 K, specific mass approx.0.1 kg/kW and mass density approx.2 kg/m 2 may be achievable. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Space Images for NASA/JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Karen; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Watanabe, Susan M.; Oks, Boris; Arca, Jeremy M.; Stanboli, Alice; Peez, Martin; Whatmore, Rebecca; Kang, Minliang; Espinoza, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space Images for NASA/JPL is an Apple iPhone application that allows the general public to access featured images from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). A back-end infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure.

  16. Conceptual designs for 100-MW space radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description and comparison of heat rejection systems for multimegawatt space-based power supplies is given. Current concepts are described, and through a common performance parameter, these are compared with three advanced radiator concepts. The comparison is based on a power system that rejects 100 MW of heat while generating 10 MW of electrical power

  17. Radiation protection guidelines for space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.; Nachtwey, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The current radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) were recommended in 1970. The career limit was set at 4.0 Sv (400 rem). Using the same approach as in 1970 but current risk estimates, a considerably lower career limit would obtain today. Also, there is now much more information about the radiation environments that will be experienced in different missions. Furthermore, since 1970 women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. For these and other reasons, it was considered necessary to re-examine the radiation protection guidelines. This task has been undertaken by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Scientific Committee 75. Within the magnetosphere, the radiation environment varies with altitude and inclination of the orbit. In outer space missions, galactic cosmic rays, with the small but important heavy-ion component, determine the radiation environment. The new recommendations for career dose limits, based on lifetime excess risk of cancer mortality, take into account age at first exposure and sex. The career limits range from 1.0 Sv (100 rem) for a 24-y-old female up to 4.0 Sv (400 rem) for a 55-y-old male, compared with the previous single limit of 4.0 Sv (400 rem). The career limit for the lens of the eye has been reduced from 6.0 Sv (600 rem) to 4.0 Sv (400 rem)

  18. Mid-space-independent deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Reuter, Martin; Sabuncu, Mert Rory; Fischl, Bruce

    2017-05-15

    Aligning images in a mid-space is a common approach to ensuring that deformable image registration is symmetric - that it does not depend on the arbitrary ordering of the input images. The results are, however, generally dependent on the mathematical definition of the mid-space. In particular, the set of possible solutions is typically restricted by the constraints that are enforced on the transformations to prevent the mid-space from drifting too far from the native image spaces. The use of an implicit atlas has been proposed as an approach to mid-space image registration. In this work, we show that when the atlas is aligned to each image in the native image space, the data term of implicit-atlas-based deformable registration is inherently independent of the mid-space. In addition, we show that the regularization term can be reformulated independently of the mid-space as well. We derive a new symmetric cost function that only depends on the transformation morphing the images to each other, rather than to the atlas. This eliminates the need for anti-drift constraints, thereby expanding the space of allowable deformations. We provide an implementation scheme for the proposed framework, and validate it through diffeomorphic registration experiments on brain magnetic resonance images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Generalized probabilistic scale space for image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexander; Mishra, Akshaya K

    2010-10-01

    A novel generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale space theory is proposed for image restoration. We explore extending the definition of scale space to better account for both noise and observation models, which is important for producing accurately restored images. A new class of scale-space realizations based on sampling and probability theory is introduced to realize this extended definition in the context of image restoration. Experimental results using 2-D images show that generalized sampling-based probabilistic scale-space theory can be used to produce more accurate restored images when compared with state-of-the-art scale-space formulations, particularly under situations characterized by low signal-to-noise ratios and image degradation.

  20. Radiation protection considerations in space station missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit

  1. 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 8 - 9, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Radiation Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plan for the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis Cancer Risk. The SRP also reviewed the newly revised Evidence Reports for the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs) (Acute Risk), the Risk of Acute (In-flight) and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation (Degen Risk), as well as a status update on these Risks. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Simonsen, Dr. Huff, Dr. Nelson, and Dr. Patel for their detailed presentations. The Space Radiation Element did a great job presenting a very large volume of material. The SRP considers it to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data. The SRP commended the tissue sharing protocols, working groups, systems biology analysis, and standardization of models. In several of the discussed areas the SRP suggested improvements of the research plans in the future. These include the following: It is important that the team has expanded efforts examining immunology and inflammation as important components of the space radiation biological response. This is an overarching and important focus that is likely to apply to all aspects of the program including acute, CVD, CNS, cancer and others. Given that the area of immunology/inflammation is highly complex (and especially so as it relates to radiation), it warrants the expansion of investigators expertise in immunology and inflammation to work with the individual research projects and also the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCORs). Historical data on radiation injury to be entered into the Watson

  2. Validation of comprehensive space radiation transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The HZETRN code has been developed over the past decade to evaluate the local radiation fields within sensitive materials on spacecraft in the space environment. Most of the more important nuclear and atomic processes are now modeled and evaluation within a complex spacecraft geometry with differing material components, including transition effects across boundaries of dissimilar materials, are included. The atomic/nuclear database and transport procedures have received limited validation in laboratory testing with high energy ion beams. The codes have been applied in design of the SAGE-III instrument resulting in material changes to control injurious neutron production, in the study of the Space Shuttle single event upsets, and in validation with space measurements (particle telescopes, tissue equivalent proportional counters, CR-39) on Shuttle and Mir. The present paper reviews the code development and presents recent results in laboratory and space flight validation

  3. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation is described utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation and interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  4. Radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A radiographic imaging system for high energy radiation utilizing a detector of such radiation and a mask having regions relatively transparent to such radiation interspersed among regions relatively opaque to such radiation is described. A relative motion is imparted between the mask and the detector, the detector providing a time varying signal in response to the incident radiation and in response to the relative motion. The time varying signal provides, with the aid of a decoder, an image of a source of such radiation

  5. Apparatus for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.B.; Williams, G.H.; Sypal, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is disclosed for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices. The collimator provides a penetrating beam of radiation from a source thereof, which beam is substantially non-diverging in at least one direction. In the preferred embodiment, the collimator comprises an elongated sandwich assembly of a plurality of layers of material exhibiting relatively high radiation attenuation characteristics, which attenuating layers are spaced apart and separated from one another by interleaved layers of material exhibiting relatively low radiation attenuation characteristics. The sandwich assembly is adapted for lengthwise disposition and orientation between a radiation source and a target or receiver such that the attenuating layers are parallel to the desired direction of the beam with the interleaved spacing layers providing direct paths for the radiation

  6. Existential space understanding through digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iñarra Abad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The logical way to learn from the architectural space and then be able to design and represent it is, undoubtedly, that of experiencing it through all the sensitive channels that the space wakes up us.  But since the last 30 years, much of our learning about space comes from images of architecture and not from the space itself. The art of architecture is drifting towards a visual art and moving away from its existential side. In digital images that have flooded the architectural media, digital photographs of existing spaces intermingle with non-existent space renderings (photographs with a virtual camera. The first ones represent existing places but can be altered to change the perception that  the observer of the image will have, the second ones speak to us about places that do not exist yet but they present reality portions through extracts from digital photography (textures, trees, people... that compose the image.

  7. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  8. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. Furthermore, no estimates of risk or recommendations were made for women in 1970 and must now be considered. The current career limit is 400 rem. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation and this will be taken into account. Work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 21 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  9. Approaches to radiation guidelines for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    There are obvious risks in space travel that have loomed larger than any risk from radiation. Nevertheless, NASA has maintained a radiation program that has involved maintenance of records of radiation exposure, and planning so that the astronauts' exposures are kept as low as possible, and not just within the current guidelines. These guidelines are being reexamined currently by NCRP Committee 75 because new information is available, for example, risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer and about the effects of HZE particles. The current career limit is 400 rem to the blood forming organs. The appropriateness of this limit and its basis are being examined as well as the limits for specific organs. There is now considerably more information about age-dependency for radiation effects and this will be taken into account. In 1973 a committee of the National Research Council made a separate study of HZE particle effects and it was concluded that the attendant risks did not pose a hazard for low inclination near-earth orbit missions. Since that time work has been carried out on the so-called microlesions caused by HZE particles and on the relative carcinogenic effect of heavy ions, including iron. A remaining question is whether the fluence of HZE particles could reach levels of concern in missions under consideration. Finally, it is the intention of the committee to indicate clearly the areas requiring further research. 26 references, 1 figure, 7 tables

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of radiation optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, C.F.; Schatz, N.J.; Glaser, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Three patients with delayed radiation optic neuropathy after radiation therapy for parasellar neoplasms underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The affected optic nerves and chiasms showed enlargement and focal gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement. The magnetic resonance imaging technique effectively detected and defined anterior visual pathway changes of radionecrosis and excluded the clinical possibility of visual loss because of tumor recurrence

  11. Imaging the Surfaces of Stars from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Rau, Gioia

    2018-04-01

    Imaging of Stellar Surfacess has been dominated to-date by ground-based observations, but space-based facilities offer tremendous potential for extending the wavelength coverage and ultimately the resolution of such efforts. We review the imaging accomplished so far from space and then talk about exciting future prospects. The earliest attempts from space indirectly produced surface maps via the Doppler Imaging Technique, using UV spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). Later, the first direct UV images were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), of Mira and Betelgeuse, using the Faint Object Camera (FOC). We will show this work and then investigate prospects for IR imaging with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The real potential of space-based Imaging of Stellar Surfacess, however, lies in the future, when large-baseline Fizeau interferometers, such as the UV-optical Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission, with a 30-element array and 500m max baseline, are flown. We describe SI and its science goals, which include 0.1 milli-arcsec spectral Imaging of Stellar Surfacess and the probing of internal structure and flows via asteroseismology.

  12. Optimization of a space based radiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Kien Fan Cesar Hung; Deng Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increased demand in satellite weight reduction for the reduction of costs. Thermal control system designers have to face the challenge of reducing both the weight of the system and required heater power while maintaining the components temperature within their design ranges. The main purpose of this paper is to present an optimization of a heat pipe radiator applied to a practical engineering design application. For this study, a communications satellite payload panel was considered. Four radiator areas were defined instead of a centralized one in order to improve the heat rejection into space; the radiator's dimensions were determined considering worst hot scenario, solar fluxes, heat dissipation and the component's design temperature upper limit. Dimensions, thermal properties of the structural panel, optical properties and degradation/contamination on thermal control coatings were also considered. A thermal model was constructed for thermal analysis and two heat pipe network designs were evaluated and compared. The model that allowed better radiator efficiency was selected for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. This pursues finding the minimum size of the heat pipe network while keeping complying with thermal control requirements without increasing power consumption. - Highlights: →Heat pipe radiator optimization applied to a practical engineering design application. →The heat pipe radiator of a communications satellite panel is optimized. →A thermal model was built for parametric thermal analysis and optimization. →Optimal heat pipe network size is determined for the optimal weight solution. →The thermal compliance was verified by transient thermal analysis.

  13. The ionizing radiation environment in space and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Jim; Falconer, David; Fry, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The ionizing radiation environment in space poses a hazard for spacecraft and space crews. The hazardous components of this environment are reviewed and those which contribute to radiation hazards and effects identified. Avoiding the adverse effects of space radiation requires design, planning, monitoring and management. Radiation effects on spacecraft are avoided largely though spacecraft design. Managing radiation exposures of space crews involves not only protective spacecraft design and careful mission planning. Exposures must be managed in real time. The now-casting and forecasting needed to effectively manage crew exposures is presented. The techniques used and the space environment modeling needed to implement these techniques are discussed.

  14. Radiation applications in NDT in space program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1994-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation play an important role in the qualification of sub-systems and components in space programme. NDT is carried out at various stages of manufacturing of components and also prior to end use to ensure a high degree of reliability. Penetrating radiations such as X-rays, γ-rays and neutrons are extensively used for the radiographic inspection of components, sub-systems and assemblies in both the launch vehicles and satellites. Both low and high energy radiations are employed for the evaluation of the above components depending on their size and nature. Real time radiography (RTR) and computed tomography (CT) are also used in certain specific applications where more detailed information is needed. Neutron radiography is employed for the inspection of pyro-devices used in separation, destruct and satellite deployment systems. Besides their use for non-destructive testing purposes, the radiation sources are also used for various special applications like solid propellant slurry flow measurement simulation of radiation environment on components used in the satellites and also for studying migration of ingredients in solid rocket motor. (author). 12 refs., 6 figs

  15. DNA Damage Signals and Space Radiation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Space radiation is comprised of high-energy and charge (HZE) nuclei and protons. The initial DNA damage from HZE nuclei is qualitatively different from X-rays or gamma rays due to the clustering of damage sites which increases their complexity. Clustering of DNA damage occurs on several scales. First there is clustering of single strand breaks (SSB), double strand breaks (DSB), and base damage within a few to several hundred base pairs (bp). A second form of damage clustering occurs on the scale of a few kbp where several DSB?s may be induced by single HZE nuclei. These forms of damage clusters do not occur at low to moderate doses of X-rays or gamma rays thus presenting new challenges to DNA repair systems. We review current knowledge of differences that occur in DNA repair pathways for different types of radiation and possible relationships to mutations, chromosomal aberrations and cancer risks.

  16. Deformable image registration in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Seung Jong; Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The number of imaging data sets has significantly increased during radiation treatment after introducing a diverse range of advanced techniques into the field of radiation oncology. As a consequence, there have been many studies proposing meaningful applications of imaging data set use. These applications commonly require a method to align the data sets at a reference. Deformable image registration (DIR) is a process which satisfies this requirement by locally registering image data sets into a reference image set. DIR identifies the spatial correspondence in order to minimize the differences between two or among multiple sets of images. This article describes clinical applications, validation, and algorithms of DIR techniques. Applications of DIR in radiation treatment include dose accumulation, mathematical modeling, automatic segmentation, and functional imaging. Validation methods discussed are based on anatomical landmarks, physical phantoms, digital phantoms, and per application purpose. DIR algorithms are also briefly reviewed with respect to two algorithmic components: similarity index and deformation models.

  17. Radiation from Cardiac Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her test will be performed with attention paid to keeping radiation exposure low. Two Questions ... based, whereby less radiation is used to take pictures of skinnier patients. Questions for CT Angiograms Do ...

  18. Space storms and radiation causes and effects

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Carolus J

    2010-01-01

    Heliophysics is a fast-developing scientific discipline that integrates studies of the Sun's variability, the surrounding heliosphere, and the environment and climate of planets. The Sun is a magnetically variable star and for planets with intrinsic magnetic fields, planets with atmospheres, or planets like Earth with both, there are profound consequences. This 2010 volume, the second in this series of three heliophysics texts, integrates the many aspects of space storms and the energetic radiation associated with them - from causes on the Sun to effects in planetary environments. It reviews t

  19. PAMELA Space Mission: The Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2003-07-01

    PAMELA telescope is a satellite-b orne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific objectives of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) in the cosmic rays, and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is currently under integration and is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time of flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD detector is composed of 9 sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD detector characteristics will be described along with its performance studied exposing the detector to particle beams of electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities.

  20. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  1. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  2. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  3. IMAGE QUALITY FORECASTING FOR SPACE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Altukhov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an approach to quality predicting of the space objects images, which can be used to plan optoelectronic systems of remote sensing satellites work programs. The proposed approach is based on evaluation of the optoelectronic equipment transfer properties and calculation of indexes images quality considering the influence of the orbital shooting conditions.

  4. Improved space bandwidth product in image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique increasing the space bandwidth product of a nonlinear image upconversion process used for spectral imaging. The technique exploits the strong dependency of the phase-matching condition in sum frequency generation (SFG) on the angle of propagation of the interacting fields...

  5. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  6. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-04-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta.

  7. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta

  8. Measurement of parapharyngeal space using CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Keiichi; Kase, Yasuhiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1991-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space can be defined as a potential space surrounded by deglutitional and masticator muscles and their covering, superficial and middle layer of deep cervical fascia. Parapharyngeal space has traditionally been divided by styloid process and fascia of tensor veli palatini muscle (nasopharyngeal level) or fascia of stylopharyngeus muscle (oropharyngeal level) into two compartments, prestyloid and poststyloid spaces. The latter is often called as carotid space. Prestyloid portion exclusively contains fat tissue, which yields hypoabsorption area in CT films and high density area in MRI. In most of papers in radiological journals, the term of parapharyngeal space is regarded as its prestyloid portion which is clearly identified. Axial CT images of 144 patients without any naso- or oropharyngeal lesions were analyzed. Two reference levels of nasopharynx were adopted for the study. The upper level passes through the plane of fossa of Rosenmuller, and the lower reference level transects soft palate. The following parameters of the space were measured; Length and width of the whole space, length and width of prestyloid fatty space, and furthermore, width of pre- and poststyloid space, that were divided by a imaginary line pararell to the axis of the whole space (the upper level); Length and width of the whole space, length of base and height of a triangle of the prestyloid part (the lower level). While parapharyngeal space was symmmetrical in the upper level, the rate of asymmetry amounted to a fourth in the lower level. Prestyloid space was broader than poststyloid one in the upper level. Men were dominant in length of the space in both the upper and the lower level and in length of the base of fatty space in the lower level. There was no difference between any age groups other than in fatty area in the lower level. Teens tended to be narrow, while 60's and older were wide. (author)

  9. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  10. Ionizing radiation in earth's atmosphere and in space near earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Civil Aerospace Medical Institute of the FAA is charged with identifying health hazards in air travel and in : commercial human space travel. This report addresses one of these hazards ionizing radiation. : Ionizing radiation is a subatomic p...

  11. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  12. NASA space radiation transport code development consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the Univ. of Tennessee (lead institution), the Univ. of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking. (authors)

  13. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  14. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid- 90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  15. Radiation -- A Cosmic Hazard to Human Habitation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ruthan; Pellish, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Radiation exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats to the performance and success of human and robotic space missions. Radiation permeates all space and aeronautical systems, challenges optimal and reliable performance, and tests survival and survivability. We will discuss the broad scope of research, technological, and operational considerations to forecast and mitigate the effects of the radiation environment for deep space and planetary exploration.

  16. Radiation: Rational use of diagnostic imaging studies in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to recognize the biological effects of radiation; explain the action of ionizing radiation on the cell; list the main sources of ionizing radiation; to indicate imaging studies considering the danger of radiation; select the method of imaging saving radiation; rational use of imaging studies without repeating exams. [es

  17. Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...

  18. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation hardened nonvolatile memories for space is still primarily confined to EEPROM. There is high density effective or cost effective NVM solution available to...

  19. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  20. Global Solar Radiation in Spain from Satellite Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, L.; Mora, L.; Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Navarro, A. A.; Varela, M.; Cruz, M. de la

    2003-01-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been reevaluated to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar, impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyrano metric measures in a concrete locality, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which it is not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs

  1. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  2. Space Images for NASA JPL Android Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon D.; Gutheinz, Sandy C.; Strom, Joshua R.; Arca, Jeremy M.; Perez, Martin; Boggs, Karen; Stanboli, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This software addresses the demand for easily accessible NASA JPL images and videos by providing a user friendly and simple graphical user interface that can be run via the Android platform from any location where Internet connection is available. This app is complementary to the iPhone version of the application. A backend infrastructure stores, tracks, and retrieves space images from the JPL Photojournal and Institutional Communications Web server, and catalogs the information into a streamlined rating infrastructure. This system consists of four distinguishing components: image repository, database, server-side logic, and Android mobile application. The image repository contains images from various JPL flight projects. The database stores the image information as well as the user rating. The server-side logic retrieves the image information from the database and categorizes each image for display. The Android mobile application is an interfacing delivery system that retrieves the image information from the server for each Android mobile device user. Also created is a reporting and tracking system for charting and monitoring usage. Unlike other Android mobile image applications, this system uses the latest emerging technologies to produce image listings based directly on user input. This allows for countless combinations of images returned. The backend infrastructure uses industry-standard coding and database methods, enabling future software improvement and technology updates. The flexibility of the system design framework permits multiple levels of display possibilities and provides integration capabilities. Unique features of the software include image/video retrieval from a selected set of categories, image Web links that can be shared among e-mail users, sharing to Facebook/Twitter, marking as user's favorites, and image metadata searchable for instant results.

  3. Image-guided radiation therapy: physician's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, T.; Anand Narayan, C.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of radiotherapy has been ontogenetically linked to medical imaging. Over the years, major technological innovations have resulted in substantial improvements in radiotherapy planning, delivery, and verification. The increasing use of computed tomography imaging for target volume delineation coupled with availability of computer-controlled treatment planning and delivery systems have progressively led to conformation of radiation dose to the target tissues while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Recent advances in imaging technology coupled with improved treatment delivery allow near-simultaneous soft-tissue localization of tumor and repositioning of patient. The integration of various imaging modalities within the treatment room for guiding radiation delivery has vastly improved the management of geometric uncertainties in contemporary radiotherapy practice ushering in the paradigm of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Image-guidance should be considered a necessary and natural corollary to high-precision radiotherapy that was long overdue. Image-guided radiation therapy not only provides accurate information on patient and tumor position on a quantitative scale, it also gives an opportunity to verify consistency of planned and actual treatment geometry including adaptation to daily variations resulting in improved dose delivery. The two main concerns with IGRT are resource-intensive nature of delivery and increasing dose from additional imaging. However, increasing the precision and accuracy of radiation delivery through IGRT is likely to reduce toxicity with potential for dose escalation and improved tumor control resulting in favourable therapeutic index. The radiation oncology community needs to leverage this technology to generate high-quality evidence to support widespread adoption of IGRT in contemporary radiotherapy practice. (author)

  4. Projection x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Patrick W; Konkle, Justin J; Zheng, Bo; Saritas, Emine U; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-05-01

    Projection magnetic particle imaging (MPI) can improve imaging speed by over 100-fold over traditional 3-D MPI. In this work, we derive the 2-D x-space signal equation, 2-D image equation, and introduce the concept of signal fading and resolution loss for a projection MPI imager. We then describe the design and construction of an x-space projection MPI scanner with a field gradient of 2.35 T/m across a 10 cm magnet free bore. The system has an expected resolution of 3.5 × 8.0 mm using Resovist tracer, and an experimental resolution of 3.8 × 8.4 mm resolution. The system images 2.5 cm × 5.0 cm partial field-of views (FOVs) at 10 frames/s, and acquires a full field-of-view of 10 cm × 5.0 cm in 4 s. We conclude by imaging a resolution phantom, a complex "Cal" phantom, mice injected with Resovist tracer, and experimentally confirm the theoretically predicted x-space spatial resolution.

  5. The Nasa space radiation school, an excellent training in radiobiology and space radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogin, G.

    2009-01-01

    The astronauts have to spend more time in space and the colonization of the moon and Mars are in the cross hairs of international agencies. The cosmic radiation from which we are protected on ground by atmosphere and by the terrestrial magnetosphere (.4 mSv/year according to Who) become really threatening since 20 km altitude, delivering an average radiation dose of a therapeutic kind to astronauts with peaks related to solar events. It is composed in majority of hadrons: protons (85%) and heavy ions (13%), but also photons (2%) of high energy (GeV/n)). the incurred risks are multiple: early ones(cataract, central nervous system damages, whole body irradiation) but especially delayed ones (carcinogenesis). The astronauts radiation protection turns poor and the rate of death risk by cancer returning from a mission on Mars has been estimated at 5%. The Nasa created in 2004 a summer school aiming to awareness young researchers to the space radiobiology specificities. Areas concerned as follow: radioinduced DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, bystander effect, genome instability, neuro degeneration, delayed effects and carcinogenesis in relation with radiation exposure. (N.C.)

  6. Radiation Measured for Chinese Satellite SJ-10 Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Shenyi; Sun, Yueqiang; Liang, Jinbao; Zhu, Guangwu; Jing, Tao; Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Space biological effects are mainly a result of space radiation particles with high linear energy transfer (LET); therefore, accurate measurement of high LET space radiation is vital. The radiation in low Earth orbits is composed mainly of high-energy galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles, particles of radiation belts, the South Atlantic Anomaly, and the albedo neutrons and protons scattered from the Earth's atmosphere. CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors sensitive to high LET are the best passive detectors to measure space radiation. The LET method that employs CR-39 can measure all the radiation LET spectra and quantities. CR-39 detectors can also record the incident directions and coordinates of GCR heavy ions that pass through both CR-39 and biosamples, and the impact parameter, the distance between the particle's incident point and the seed's spore, can then be determined. The radiation characteristics and impact parameter of GCR heavy ions are especially beneficial for in-depth research regarding space radiation biological effects. The payload returnable satellite SJ-10 provided an excellent opportunity to investigate space radiation biological effects with CR-39 detectors. The space bio-effects experiment was successfully conducted on board the SJ-10 satellite. This paper introduces space radiation in low Earth orbits and the LET method in radiation-related research and presents the results of nuclear tracks and biosamples hitting distributions of GCR heavy ions, the radiation LET spectra, and the quantities measured for the SJ-10 space mission. The SJ-10 bio-experiment indicated that radiation may produce significant bio-effects.

  7. Synchrotron radiation and biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.

    1986-08-01

    In this lecture we describe the characteristics of Synchrotron radiation as a source of X rays. We discuss the properties of SR arc sources, wigglers, undulators and the use of backscattering of laser light. Applications to angiography, X ray microscopy and tomography are reviewed. 16 refs., 23 figs

  8. High intensity radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear imaging system is described for mapping a spatially distributed source of high energy nuclear particles from a living organ which has selectively absorbed a radioactive compound in which the nuclear energy is spatially coded by a zone plate positioned between the source and a spatial detector, and a half tone screen is positioned between the source and the zone plate to increase the definition of the image

  9. Passive radiation shielding considerations for the proposed space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Patamia, S. E.; Gassend, B.

    2007-02-01

    The Earth's natural van Allen radiation belts present a serious hazard to space travel in general, and to travel on the space elevator in particular. The average radiation level is sufficiently high that it can cause radiation sickness, and perhaps death, for humans spending more than a brief period of time in the belts without shielding. The exact dose and the level of the related hazard depends on the type or radiation, the intensity of the radiation, the length of exposure, and on any shielding introduced. For the space elevator the radiation concern is particularly critical since it passes through the most intense regions of the radiation belts. The only humans who have ever traveled through the radiation belts have been the Apollo astronauts. They received radiation doses up to approximately 1 rem over a time interval less than an hour. A vehicle climbing the space elevator travels approximately 200 times slower than the moon rockets did, which would result in an extremely high dose up to approximately 200 rem under similar conditions, in a timespan of a few days. Technological systems on the space elevator, which spend prolonged periods of time in the radiation belts, may also be affected by the high radiation levels. In this paper we will give an overview of the radiation belts in terms relevant to space elevator studies. We will then compute the expected radiation doses, and evaluate the required level of shielding. We concentrate on passive shielding using aluminum, but also look briefly at active shielding using magnetic fields. We also look at the effect of moving the space elevator anchor point and increasing the speed of the climber. Each of these mitigation mechanisms will result in a performance decrease, cost increase, and technical complications for the space elevator.

  10. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  11. An Overview of Effects of Space Radiation on the Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sun Tae; Shin, Dong Kwan; Son, Young Jong; Kim Jin Hong

    2009-01-01

    The first Korean astronaut successfully carried out the scientific experiments at International Space Station (ISS) in April 2008. Due to the government's strong will and support for the field of space, Korea has enhanced its space technology based on the accomplishments in space development. On October 12∼16, 2009 the 60 th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) was held in Daejeon. IAC 2009 must serve as a place for the extensive exchange of global space technology and information in order to speed up the development of space technology in Korea. With regard for space research and development, the radiation effects in space have been reviewed from the viewpoint of electronics

  12. Efficient Mosaicking of Spitzer Space Telescope Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph; Makovoz, David; Eisenhardt, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A parallel version of the MOPEX software, which generates mosaics of infrared astronomical images acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope, extends the capabilities of the prior serial version. In the parallel version, both the input image space and the output mosaic space are divided among the available parallel processors. This is the only software that performs the point-source detection and the rejection of spurious imaging effects of cosmic rays required by Spitzer scientists. This software includes components that implement outlier-detection algorithms that can be fine-tuned for a particular set of image data by use of a number of adjustable parameters. This software has been used to construct a mosaic of the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera Shallow Survey, which comprises more than 17,000 exposures in four wavelength bands from 3.6 to 8 m and spans a solid angle of about 9 square degrees. When this software was executed on 32 nodes of the 1,024-processor Cosmos cluster computer at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a speedup of 8.3 was achieved over the serial version of MOPEX. The performance is expected to improve dramatically once a true parallel file system is installed on Cosmos.

  13. MR imaging of masticator space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Chang Kyu; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hong Dae; Park, Byung Kwan; Lee, In Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo

    1998-01-01

    To identify the characteristic appearances of masticator space infection, as seen on magnetic resonance(MR) imaging. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 23 patients with clinically and bacteriologically proven masticator space infection, with attention to the involved structures, spread pattern, abscess formation, mandibular involvement, and etiology. The masseter muscle was involved in 21 of 23 cases, while the cases, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, and temporalis muscles were involved in 14, 12 , and 13 cases, respectively. All muscles in the masticator space were involved in eight cases and only a single muscle in five. In all but one case, extension through the muscle plane was noted, and in 10 cases, transfascial extension was seen. Abscess formation was noted in seven cases. Mandibular involvement was seen in 16 cases, half of which showed focal cortical disruption. The source of infection was odontogenous in 15 cases, with frequent involvement of the mandible and masseter. Masticator space infection frequently originated from an odontogenous source. the characteristic MR appearances of this infection included extension through the muscle plane and frequent transfascial spread to adjacent deep cervical spaces, as well as common mandibular involvement with or without cortical disruption of focal pattern.=20

  14. Space Radar Image of Harvard Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of the area surrounding the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts that has been operated as a ecological research facility by Harvard University since 1907. At the center of the image is the Quabbin Reservoir, and the Connecticut River is at the lower left of the image. The Harvard Forest itself is just above the reservoir. Researchers are comparing the naturally occurring physical disturbances in the forest and the recent and projected chemical disturbances and their effects on the forest ecosystem. Agricultural land appears dark blue/purple, along with low shrub vegetation and some wetlands. Urban development is bright pink; the yellow to green tints are conifer-dominated vegetation with the pitch pine sand plain at the middle left edge of the image appearing very distinctive. The green tint may indicate pure pine plantation stands, and deciduous broadleaf trees appear gray/pink with perhaps wetter sites being pinker. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The image is centered at 42.50 degrees North latitude and 72.33 degrees West longitude and covers an area of 53 kilometers 63 by kilometers (33 miles by 39 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band horizontally transmitted and horizontally received.

  15. Characterization of Outer Space Radiation Induced Changes in Extremophiles Utilizing Deep Space Gateway Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Wang, C.; Smith, D.; Mason, C.; Landry, K.; Rettberg, P.

    2018-02-01

    Extremophilic microbial survival, adaptation, biological functions, and molecular mechanisms associated with outer space radiation can be tested by exposing them onto Deep Space Gateway hardware (inside/outside) using microbiology and molecular biology techniques.

  16. Orbital radiation imaging with various physical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of orbital radiation and authors' investigations on the high spatial resolution X ray-CT, fluorescence X ray-CT and phase-type X ray imaging. Orbital radiation is an X ray generated by relativistic electron bended by magnet in the synchrotron and possesses the high photon density/unit area (>100,000 times higher than that of the ordinary X ray generated by the tube) and broad energy spectrum, which make it possible to select the X ray with appropriate energy for the target. The high spatial resolution X-CT has the resolution of 0.05 mm in contrast to 0.5 mm of the ordinary X-CT and is used for the hard structure like tooth and bone. The CT images of rat lumbar vertebrae and artificial bone are presented. Fluorescence X-CT is utilized for detection of trace elements. Images of the thyroid are presented on iodine detection. Concerning the phase-type X-imaging, the principle using the X ray interferometer is described and actual phase-images of blood vessels and 3-demensional ones of metastatic colon cancer in the liver are given. Imaging with the orbital radiation can be a useful technique in the near future. (K.H.)

  17. Orbital radiation imaging with various physical principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Toru; Itai, Yuji

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of orbital radiation and authors' investigations on the high spatial resolution X ray-CT, fluorescence X ray-CT and phase-type X ray imaging. Orbital radiation is an X ray generated by relativistic electron bended by magnet in the synchrotron and possesses the high photon density/unit area (>100,000 times higher than that of the ordinary X ray generated by the tube) and broad energy spectrum, which make it possible to select the X ray with appropriate energy for the target. The high spatial resolution X-CT has the resolution of 0.05 mm in contrast to 0.5 mm of the ordinary X-CT and is used for the hard structure like tooth and bone. The CT images of rat lumbar vertebrae and artificial bone are presented. Fluorescence X-CT is utilized for detection of trace elements. Images of the thyroid are presented on iodine detection. Concerning the phase-type X-imaging, the principle using the X ray interferometer is described and actual phase-images of blood vessels and 3-demensional ones of metastatic colon cancer in the liver are given. Imaging with the orbital radiation can be a useful technique in the near future. (K.H.)

  18. CT image registration in sinogram space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weihua; Li, Tianfang; Wink, Nicole; Xing, Lei

    2007-09-01

    Object displacement in a CT scan is generally reflected in CT projection data or sinogram. In this work, the direct relationship between object motion and the change of CT projection data (sinogram) is investigated and this knowledge is applied to create a novel algorithm for sinogram registration. Calculated and experimental results demonstrate that the registration technique works well for registering rigid 2D or 3D motion in parallel and fan beam samplings. Problem and solution for 3D sinogram-based registration of metallic fiducials are also addressed. Since the motion is registered before image reconstruction, the presented algorithm is particularly useful when registering images with metal or truncation artifacts. In addition, this algorithm is valuable for dealing with situations where only limited projection data are available, making it appealing for various applications in image guided radiation therapy.

  19. CT image registration in sinogram space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Weihua; Li Tianfang; Wink, Nicole; Xing Lei

    2007-01-01

    Object displacement in a CT scan is generally reflected in CT projection data or sinogram. In this work, the direct relationship between object motion and the change of CT projection data (sinogram) is investigated and this knowledge is applied to create a novel algorithm for sinogram registration. Calculated and experimental results demonstrate that the registration technique works well for registering rigid 2D or 3D motion in parallel and fan beam samplings. Problem and solution for 3D sinogram-based registration of metallic fiducials are also addressed. Since the motion is registered before image reconstruction, the presented algorithm is particularly useful when registering images with metal or truncation artifacts. In addition, this algorithm is valuable for dealing with situations where only limited projection data are available, making it appealing for various applications in image guided radiation therapy

  20. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-15

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety.

  1. Status Report of Simulated Space Radiation Environment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Choi, Jae Hak; Lim, Youn Mook; Jung, Chan Hee; Jeon, Young Kyu

    2007-11-01

    The technology for performance testing and improvement of materials which are durable at space environment is a military related technology and veiled and securely regulated in advanced countries such as US and Russia. This core technology cannot be easily transferred to other country too. Therefore, this technology is the most fundamental and necessary research area for the successful establishment of space environment system. Since the task for evaluating the effects of space materials and components by space radiation plays important role in satellite lifetime extension and running failure percentage decrease, it is necessary to establish simulated space radiation facility and systematic testing procedure. This report has dealt with the status of the technology to enable the simulation of space environment effects, including the effect of space radiation on space materials. This information such as the fundamental knowledge of space environment and research status of various countries as to the simulation of space environment effects of space materials will be useful for the research on radiation hardiness of the materials. Furthermore, it will be helpful for developer of space material on deriving a better choice of materials, reducing the design cycle time, and improving safety

  2. Space Radar Image of Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    These two images were created using data from the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). On the left is a false-color image of Manaus, Brazil acquired April 12, 1994, onboard space shuttle Endeavour. In the center of this image is the Solimoes River just west of Manaus before it combines with the Rio Negro to form the Amazon River. The scene is around 8 by 8 kilometers (5 by 5 miles) with north toward the top. The radar image was produced in L-band where red areas correspond to high backscatter at HH polarization, while green areas exhibit high backscatter at HV polarization. Blue areas show low backscatter at VV polarization. The image on the right is a classification map showing the extent of flooding beneath the forest canopy. The classification map was developed by SIR-C/X-SAR science team members at the University of California,Santa Barbara. The map uses the L-HH, L-HV, and L-VV images to classify the radar image into six categories: Red flooded forest Green unflooded tropical rain forest Blue open water, Amazon river Yellow unflooded fields, some floating grasses Gray flooded shrubs Black floating and flooded grasses Data like these help scientists evaluate flood damage on a global scale. Floods are highly episodic and much of the area inundated is often tree-covered. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those

  3. Space Radar Image of Wenatchee, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows a segment of the Columbia River as it passes through the area of Wenatchee, Washington, about 220 kilometers (136 miles) east of Seattle. The Wenatchee Mountains, part of the Cascade Range, are shown in green at the lower left of the image. The Cascades create a 'rain shadow' for the region, limiting rainfall east of the range to less than 26 centimeters (10 inches) per year. The radar's ability to see different types of vegetation is highlighted in the contrast between the pine forests, that appear in green and the dry valley plain that shows up as dark purple. The cities of Wenatchee and East Wenatchee are the grid-like areas straddling the Columbia River in the left center of the image. With a population of about 60,000, the region produces about half of Washington state's lucrative apple crop. Several orchard areas appear as green rectangular patches to the right of the river in the lower right center. Radar images such as these can be used to monitor land use patterns in areas such as Wenatchee, that have diverse and rapidly changing urban, agricultural and wild land pressures. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 10, 1994. The image is 38 kilometers by 45 kilometers (24 miles by 30 miles) and is centered at 47.3 degrees North latitude, 120.1 degrees West longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  4. 3D IMAGING USING COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Cloetens

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional imaging is becoming a standard tool for medical, scientific and industrial applications. The use of modem synchrotron radiation sources for monochromatic beam micro-tomography provides several new features. Along with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and improved spatial resolution, these include the possibility of quantitative measurements, the easy incorporation of special sample environment devices for in-situ experiments, and a simple implementation of phase imaging. These 3D approaches overcome some of the limitations of 2D measurements. They require new tools for image analysis.

  5. A perceptual space of local image statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Jonathan D; Thengone, Daniel J; Rizvi, Syed M; Conte, Mary M

    2015-12-01

    Local image statistics are important for visual analysis of textures, surfaces, and form. There are many kinds of local statistics, including those that capture luminance distributions, spatial contrast, oriented segments, and corners. While sensitivity to each of these kinds of statistics have been well-studied, much less is known about visual processing when multiple kinds of statistics are relevant, in large part because the dimensionality of the problem is high and different kinds of statistics interact. To approach this problem, we focused on binary images on a square lattice - a reduced set of stimuli which nevertheless taps many kinds of local statistics. In this 10-parameter space, we determined psychophysical thresholds to each kind of statistic (16 observers) and all of their pairwise combinations (4 observers). Sensitivities and isodiscrimination contours were consistent across observers. Isodiscrimination contours were elliptical, implying a quadratic interaction rule, which in turn determined ellipsoidal isodiscrimination surfaces in the full 10-dimensional space, and made predictions for sensitivities to complex combinations of statistics. These predictions, including the prediction of a combination of statistics that was metameric to random, were verified experimentally. Finally, check size had only a mild effect on sensitivities over the range from 2.8 to 14min, but sensitivities to second- and higher-order statistics was substantially lower at 1.4min. In sum, local image statistics form a perceptual space that is highly stereotyped across observers, in which different kinds of statistics interact according to simple rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation doses at high altitudes and during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.

    2001-01-01

    There are three main sources of radiation exposure during space flights and at high altitudes--galactic cosmic radiation, solar cosmic radiation and radiation of the earth's radiation belt. Their basic characteristics are presented in the first part of this paper.Man's exposure during space flights is discussed in the second part of the paper. Particular attention is devoted to the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the radiation exposure on near-earth orbits: both theoretical estimation as well as experimental data are presented. Some remarks on radiation protection rules on-board space vehicles are also given.The problems connected with the radiation protection of air crew and passengers of subsonic and supersonic air transport are discussed in the last part of the paper. General characteristics of on-board radiation fields and their variations with flight altitude, geomagnetic parameters of a flight and the solar activity are presented, both based on theoretical estimates and experimental studies. The questions concerning air crew and passenger radiation protection arising after the publication of ICRP 60 recommendation are also discussed. Activities of different institutions relevant to the topic are mentioned; strategies to manage and check this type of radiation exposure are presented and discussed. Examples of results based on the author's personal experience are given, analyzed and discussed. (author)

  7. Space Radar Image of Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image is dominated by the metropolitan area of Australia's largest city, Sydney. Sydney Harbour, with numerous coves and inlets, is seen in the upper center of the image, and the roughly circular Botany Bay is shown in the lower right. The downtown business district of Sydney appears as a bright white area just above the center of the image. The Sydney Harbour Bridge is a white line adjacent to the downtown district. The well-known Sydney Opera House is the small, white dot to the right of the bridge. Urban areas appear yellow, blue and brown. The purple areas are undeveloped areas and park lands. Manly, the famous surfing beach, is shown in yellow at the top center of the image. Runways from the Sydney Airport are the dark features that extend into Botany Bay in the lower right. Botany Bay is the site where Captain James Cook first landed his ship, Endeavour, in 1770. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 20, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 33 kilometers by 38kilometers (20 miles by 23 miles) and is centered at 33.9 degrees south latitude, 151.2 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequenciesand polarizations as follows: red is L-band, vertically transmittedand horizontally received; green is C-band, vertically transmitted and horizontally received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmittedand received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italianand United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. #####

  8. Space Radar Image of County Kerry, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Iveragh Peninsula, one of the four peninsulas in southwestern Ireland, is shown in this spaceborne radar image. The lakes of Killarney National Park are the green patches on the left side of the image. The mountains to the right of the lakes include the highest peaks (1,036 meters or 3,400 feet) in Ireland. The patchwork patterns between the mountains are areas of farming and grazing. The delicate patterns in the water are caused by refraction of ocean waves around the peninsula edges and islands, including Skellig Rocks at the right edge of the image. The Skelligs are home to a 15th century monastery and flocks of puffins. The region is part of County Kerry and includes a road called the 'Ring of Kerry' that is one of the most famous tourist routes in Ireland. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 12, 1994. The image is 82 kilometers by 42 kilometers (51 miles by 26 miles) and is centered at 52.0 degrees north latitude, 9.9 degrees west longitude. North is toward the lower left. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, vertically transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, vertically transmitted and received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  9. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children : Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J. Reid; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Apfaltrer, Paul

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose

  10. Radically Reducing Radiation Exposure during Routine Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to radiation from medical imaging in the United States has increased dramatically. NCI and several partner organizations sponsored a 2011 summit to promote efforts to reduce radiation exposure from medical imaging.

  11. Attenuation of multiples in image space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Gabriel F.

    In complex subsurface areas, attenuation of 3D specular and diffracted multiples in data space is difficult and inaccurate. In those areas, image space is an attractive alternative. There are several reasons: (1) migration increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the data; (2) primaries are mapped to coherent events in Subsurface Offset Domain Common Image Gathers (SODCIGs) or Angle Domain Common Image Gathers (ADCIGs); (3) image space is regular and smaller; (4) attenuating the multiples in data space leaves holes in the frequency-Wavenumber space that generate artifacts after migration. I develop a new equation for the residual moveout of specular multiples in ADCIGs and use it for the kernel of an apex-shifted Radon transform to focus and separate the primaries from specular and diffracted multiples. Because of small amplitude, phase and kinematic errors in the multiple estimate, we need adaptive matching and subtraction to estimate the primaries. I pose this problem as an iterative least-squares inversion that simultaneously matches the estimates of primaries and multiples to the data. Standard methods match only the estimate of the multiples. I demonstrate with real and synthetic data that the method produces primaries and multiples with little cross-talk. In 3D, the multiples exhibit residual moveout in SODCIGs in in-line and cross-line offsets. They map away from zero subsurface offsets when migrated with the faster velocity of the primaries. In ADCIGs the residual moveout of the primaries as a function of the aperture angle, for a given azimuth, is flat for those angles that illuminate the reflector. The multiples have residual moveout towards increasing depth for increasing aperture angles at all azimuths. As a function of azimuth, the primaries have better azimuth resolution than the multiples at larger aperture angles. I show, with a real 3D dataset, that even below salt, where illumination is poor, the multiples are well attenuated in ADCIGs with the new

  12. Role of radiations in assuring quality in space programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Penetrating radiations such as x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons are extensively used for radiographic inspection of various components used in space programmes. Some of these are rocket motor segments, assembled motors, composite nozzles, igniters, pyro devices, and various critical sub systems. These components employ advanced materials like composites, propellants, insulation materials, alloy steels, maraging steel, pyro techniques etc. Often they are in complex geometrical shapes and assemblies. Simulation of radiation environment on a number of components used in satellites is also carried out using radiation sources. This will help in assessing the effect of terrestrial radiation on the components that work in space. Future trends in the exploitation of radiation for space applications include automated radiography and development of expert systems, computed tomography, improvement in realtime radiography, Compton back scatter tomography etc. Adapting some of the advancements in medical radiology to industrial environment is also a welcome step in future. (author). 2 figs

  13. Dose limits for cosmic radiation during space flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draaisma, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to raised levels of ionizing radiation, which may cause biologic effects during space flights. Insights in these effects should lead to doselimits for astronauts during their full career. (author). 4 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  15. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  16. Radiation resistance of polymer materials for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyauchi, Masahiko; Iwata, Minoru; Yokota, Rikio

    2011-01-01

    The thin film of thermoplastic polyimide with a new asymmetric structure is used in the solar sail 'IKAROS'. Here, the relation of its chemical structure to its thermodynamic properties and radiation resistance is introduced. (M.H.)

  17. Radiations in space and global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguti, Takasi

    1994-01-01

    It has been well known that the global environment of the earth is basically determined by the radiation equilibrium of the earth atmosphere system embedded in the solar radiation. However, the surface temperature of about 15 degC on average is much higher than that determined by the radiation equilibrium. This is due to the so-called greenhouse gases in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane and others. Also the global environment has evolved by interacting with the living things on the earth, for example, tree oxygen by photosynthesis, and a small amount of ozone protecting living things from the fetal damage due to solar ultraviolet radiation. The solar radiation of short wavelength, that is, ultraviolet to X-ray influences atmospheric constituents, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the atmosphere through chemical reaction. The solar energetic particles produced by solar flares precipitate in the polar regions, and the nitric oxides are produced by auroral X-ray. Auroral activities accelerate particles in the magnetosphere. All these radiations cause significant global changes. Human activities increase greenhouse gases rapidly and cause global warming, and atmospheric chloro-fluoro-carbon (CFC) makes the ozone hole. Now, human activities must be modified to match the natural cycle of materials. (K.I.)

  18. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  19. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  20. Space Radar Image of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a deformation map of the south flank of Kilauea volcano on the big island of Hawaii, centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.25 degrees west longitude. The map was created by combining interferometric radar data -- that is data acquired on different passes of the space shuttle which are then overlayed to obtain elevation information -- acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar during its first flight in April 1994 and its second flight in October 1994. The area shown is approximately 40 kilometers by 80 kilometers (25 miles by 50 miles). North is toward the upper left of the image. The colors indicate the displacement of the surface in the direction that the radar instrument was pointed (toward the right of the image) in the six months between images. The analysis of ground movement is preliminary, but appears consistent with the motions detected by the Global Positioning System ground receivers that have been used over the past five years. The south flank of the Kilauea volcano is among the most rapidly deforming terrains on Earth. Several regions show motions over the six-month time period. Most obvious is at the base of Hilina Pali, where 10 centimeters (4 inches) or more of crustal deformation can be seen in a concentrated area near the coastline. On a more localized scale, the currently active Pu'u O'o summit also shows about 10 centimeters (4 inches) of change near the vent area. Finally, there are indications of additional movement along the upper southwest rift zone, just below the Kilauea caldera in the image. Deformation of the south flank is believed to be the result of movements along faults deep beneath the surface of the volcano, as well as injections of magma, or molten rock, into the volcano's 'plumbing' system. Detection of ground motions from space has proven to be a unique capability of imaging radar technology. Scientists hope to use deformation data acquired by SIR-C/X-SAR and future imaging

  1. Small space object imaging : LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, Mark R.; Valley, Michael T.; Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2009-10-01

    We report the results of an LDRD effort to investigate new technologies for the identification of small-sized (mm to cm) debris in low-earth orbit. This small-yet-energetic debris presents a threat to the integrity of space-assets worldwide and represents significant security challenge to the international community. We present a nonexhaustive review of recent US and Russian efforts to meet the challenges of debris identification and removal and then provide a detailed description of joint US-Russian plans for sensitive, laser-based imaging of small debris at distances of hundreds of kilometers and relative velocities of several kilometers per second. Plans for the upcoming experimental testing of these imaging schemes are presented and a preliminary path toward system integration is identified.

  2. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  3. GammaCam trademark radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    GammaCam trademark, a gamma-ray imaging system manufactured by AIL System, Inc., would benefit a site that needs to locate radiation sources. It is capable of producing a two-dimensional image of a radiation field superimposed on a black and white visual image. Because the system can be positioned outside the radiologically controlled area, the radiation exposure to personnel is significantly reduced and extensive shielding is not required. This report covers the following topics: technology description; performance; technology applicability and alternatives; cost; regulatory and policy issues; and lessons learned. The demonstration of GammaCam trademark in December 1996 was part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) whose objective is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5). The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that by using innovative and improved decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources, significant benefits can be achieved when compared to baseline D and D technologies

  4. Space Radar Image of Flevoland, Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a three-frequency false color image of Flevoland, The Netherlands, centered at 52.4 degrees north latitude, 5.4 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. It was produced by combining data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars. The area shown is approximately 25 kilometers by 28 kilometers (15-1/2 by 17-1/2 miles). Flevoland, which fills the lower two-thirds of the image, is a very flat area that is made up of reclaimed land that is used for agriculture and forestry. At the top of the image, across the canal from Flevoland, is an older forest shown in red; the city of Harderwijk is shown in white on the shore of the canal. At this time of the year, the agricultural fields are bare soil, and they show up in this image in blue. The changes in the brightness of the blue areas are equal to the changes in roughness. The dark blue areas are water and the small dots in the canal are boats. This SIR-C/X-SAR supersite is being used for both calibration and agricultural studies. Several soil and crop ground-truth studies will be conducted during the shuttle flight. In addition, about 10calibration devices and 10 corner reflectors have been deployed to calibrate and monitor the radar signal. One of these transponders can be seen as a bright star in the lower right quadrant of the image. This false-color image was made using L-band total power in the red channel, C-band total power in the green channel, and X-band VV polarization in the blue channel. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by

  5. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  6. Space Radar Image of Colombian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a radar image of a little known volcano in northern Colombia. The image was acquired on orbit 80 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994, by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The volcano near the center of the image is located at 5.6 degrees north latitude, 75.0 degrees west longitude, about 100 kilometers (65 miles) southeast of Medellin, Colombia. The conspicuous dark spot is a lake at the bottom of an approximately 3-kilometer-wide (1.9-mile) volcanic collapse depression or caldera. A cone-shaped peak on the bottom left (northeast rim) of the caldera appears to have been the source for a flow of material into the caldera. This is the northern-most known volcano in South America and because of its youthful appearance, should be considered dormant rather than extinct. The volcano's existence confirms a fracture zone proposed in 1985 as the northern boundary of volcanism in the Andes. The SIR-C/X-SAR image reveals another, older caldera further south in Colombia, along another proposed fracture zone. Although relatively conspicuous, these volcanoes have escaped widespread recognition because of frequent cloud cover that hinders remote sensing imaging in visible wavelengths. Four separate volcanoes in the Northern Andes nations ofColombia and Ecuador have been active during the last 10 years, killing more than 25,000 people, including scientists who were monitoring the volcanic activity. Detection and monitoring of volcanoes from space provides a safe way to investigate volcanism. The recognition of previously unknown volcanoes is important for hazard evaluations because a number of major eruptions this century have occurred at mountains that were not previously recognized as volcanoes. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of

  7. NDT using ionising radiation in the Indian space programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1997-01-01

    Ionising radiations continue to play a vital role in the Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of various components used in space vehicles and satellites. The different Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods which are useful to the Indian space programme are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This one of NASA's sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  9. Acceptability of risk from radiation: Application to human space flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-30

    This one of NASA`s sponsored activities of the NCRP. In 1983, NASA asked NCRP to examine radiation risks in space and to make recommendations about career radiation limits for astronauts (with cancer considered as the principal risk). In conjunction with that effort, NCRP was asked to convene this symposium; objective is to examine the technical, strategic, and philosophical issues pertaining to acceptable risk and radiation in space. Nine papers are included together with panel discussions and a summary. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Canadian space agency discipline working group for space dosimetry and radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, Anthony; Waller, Edward; Lewis, Brent; Bennett, Leslie; Conroy, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the great technical challenges in the human and robotic exploration of space is the deleterious effect of radiation on humans and physical systems. The magnitude of this challenge is broadly understood in terms of the sources of radiation, however, a great deal remains to be done in the development of instrumentation, suitable for the space environment, which can provide real-time monitoring of the complex radiation fields encountered in space and a quantitative measure of potential biological risk. In order to meet these research requirements collaboration is needed between experimental nuclear instrumentation scientists, theoretical scientists working on numerical modeling techniques and radiation biologists. Under the auspices of the Canadian Space Agency such a collaborative body has been established as one of a number of Discipline Working Groups. Members of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science working group form a collaborative network across Canada including universities, government laboratories and the industrial sector. Three central activities form the core of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science DWG. An instrument sub-group is engaged in the development of instruments capable of gamma ray, energetic charged particle and neutron dosimetry including the ability to provide dosimetric information in real-time. A second sub-group is focused on computer modeling of space radiation fields in order to assess the performance of conceptual designs of detectors and dosimeters or the impact of radiation on cellular and sub-cellular biological targets and a third sub-group is engaged in the study of the biological effects of space radiation and the potential of biomarkers as a method of assessing radiation impact on humans. Many working group members are active in more than one sub-group facilitating communication throughout the whole network. A summary progress-report will be given of the activities of the Discipline Working Group and the

  11. Space weather effects measured in atmospheric radiation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.; Bouwer, D.; Bailey, J. J.; Didkovsky, L. V.; Judge, K.; Wieman, S. R.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R. W.; Bell, L. D.; Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.; Jones, J. B. L.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Halford, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Since 2013 Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes using a small fleet of six instruments. The objective of this work is to improve radiation risk management in air traffic operations. Under the auspices of the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) projects our team is making dose rate measurements on multiple aircraft flying global routes. Over 174 ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), Solar Energetic Protons (SEPs), and outer radiation belt energetic electrons. The real-time radiation exposure is measured as an absorbed dose rate in silicon and then computed as an ambient dose equivalent rate for reporting dose relevant to radiative-sensitive organs and tissue in units of microsieverts per hour. ARMAS total ionizing absorbed dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into ambient dose equivalent rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users. Dose rates from flight altitudes up to 56,700 ft. are shown for flights across the planet under a variety of space weather conditions. We discuss several space weather

  12. Use of imaging techniques in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Rudder, D.; Jimenez, P.

    2002-01-01

    Imaging techniques are used in radiation oncology for: disease diagnosis, tumor localization and staging, treatment simulation, treatment planning, clinical dosimetry displays, treatment verification and patient follow up. In industrialized countries, up to the 1970's, conventional radiology was used for diagnosis, simulation and planning. Gamma cameras helped tumor staging by detecting metastases. In the 1970's, simulators were developed for exclusive use in radiation oncology departments. Clinical dosimetry displays consisted mainly in axial dose distributions. Treatment verification was done placing films in the radiation beam with the patient under treatment. In the 1980's, 2-D imaging was replaced by 3-D displays with the incorporation of computerized tomography (CT) scanners, and in the 1990's of magnetic resonance imagers (MRI). Ultrasound units, briefly used in the 1960's for treatment planning purposes, were found again useful, mainly for brachytherapy dosimetry. Digital portal imagers allowed accurate treatment field verification. Treatment planning systems incorporated the capability of 'inverse planning', i.e. once the desired dose distribution is decided, the field size, gantry, collimator and couch angles, etc, can be automatically selected. At the end of the millennium, image fusion permitted excellent anatomical display of tumors and adjacent sensitive structures. The 2000's are seeing a change from anatomical to functional imaging with the advent of MRI units capable of spectroscopy at 3 Tesla and positron emission tomography (PET) units. In 2001 combined CT/PET units appeared in RT departments. In 2002, fusion of CT, MRI and PET images became available. Molecular imaging is being developed. The situation in developing countries is quite different. To start with, cancer incidence is different in developing and in industrialized countries. In addition, the health services pattern is different: Cancer treatment is mostly done in public institutions

  13. Radiation dose assessment in space missions. The MATROSHKA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The exact determination of radiation dose in space is a demanding and challenging task. Since January 2004, the International Space Station is equipped with a human phantom which is a key part of the MATROSHKA Experiment. The phantom is furnished with thousands of radiation sensors for the measurement of depth dose distribution, which has enabled the organ dose calculation and has demonstrated that personal dosemeter at the body surface overestimates the effective dose during extra-vehicular activity by more than a factor two. The MATROSHKA results serve to benchmark models and have therefore a large impact on the extrapolation of models to outer space. (author)

  14. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  15. The radiation protection problems of high altitude and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the radiation environment in aircraft at high altitudes and spacecraft in low earth orbit and in deep space and the factors that influence the dose equivalents. Altitude, latitude and solar cycle are the major influences for flights below the radiation belts. In deep space, solar cycle and the occurrence of solar particle events are the factors of influence. The major radiation effects of concern are cancer and infertility in males. In high altitude aircraft the radiation consists mainly of protons and neutrons, with neutrons contributing about half the equivalent dose. The average dose rate at altitudes of transcontinental flights that approach the polar regions are greater by a factor of about 2.5 than on routes at low latitudes. Current estimates of does to air crews suggest they are well within the ICRP (1990) recommended dose limits for radiation workers

  16. Space Radar Image of Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the 'Valley Island' of Maui, Hawaii. The cloud-penetrating capabilities of radar provide a rare view of many parts of the island, since the higher elevations are frequently shrouded in clouds. The light blue and yellow areas in the lowlands near the center are sugar cane fields. The three major population centers, Lahaina on the left at the western tip of island, Wailuku left of center, and Kihei in the lower center appear as small yellow, white or purple mottled areas. West Maui volcano, in the lower left, is 1800 meters high (5900 feet) and is considered extinct. The entire eastern half of the island consists of East Maui volcano, which rises to an elevation of 3200 meters (10,500 feet) and features a spectacular crater called Haleakala at its summit. Haleakala Crater was produced by erosion during previous ice ages rather than by volcanic activity, although relatively recent small eruptions have produced the numerous volcanic cones and lava flows that can be seen on the floor of the crater. The most recent eruption took place near the coast at the southwestern end of East Maui volcano in the late 1700s. Such a time frame indicates that East Maui should be considered a dormant, rather than an extinct volcano. A new eruption is therefore possible in the next few hundred years. The multi-wavelength capability of the SIR-C radar also permits differences in the vegetation cover on the middle flanks of East Maui to be identified. Rain forests appear in yellow, while grassland is shown in dark green, pink and blue. Radar images such as this one are being used by scientists to understand volcanic processes and to assess potential threats that future activity may pose to local populations. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 16, 1994. The image is 73.7 kilometers by 48.7 kilometers (45.7 miles by 30.2 miles) and is centered at 20

  17. Update on the Status of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, K. A.; Cox, C.; Debes, J. H.; DiFelice, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Hodge, P.; Holland, S.; Lindsay, K.; Lockwood, S. A.; Mason, E.; Oliveira, C. M.; Penton, S. V.; Proffitt, C. R.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Taylor, J. M.; Wheeler, T.

    2013-06-01

    The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) has been on orbit for approximately 16 years as one of the 2nd generation instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Its operations were interrupted by an electronics failure in 2004, but STIS was successfully repaired in May 2009 during Service Mission 4 (SM4) allowing it to resume science observations. The Instrument team continues to monitor its performance and work towards improving the quality of its products. Here we present updated information on the status of the FUV and NUV MAMA and the CCD detectors onboard STIS and describe recent changes to the STIS calibration pipeline. We also discuss the status of efforts to apply a pixel-based correction for charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) effects to STIS CCD data. These techniques show promise for ameliorating the effects of ongoing radiation damage on the quality of STIS CCD data.

  18. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  19. Applications of Radiative Heating for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Vehicles entering planetary atmospheres at high speeds (6 - 12 kms) experience intense heating by flows with temperatures of the order 10 000K. The flow around the vehicle experiences significant dissociation and ionization and is characterized by thermal and chemical non-equilibrium near the shock front, relaxing toward equilibrium. Emission from the plasma is intense enough to impart a significant heat flux on the entering spacecraft, making it necessary to predict the magnitude of radiative heating. Shock tubes represent a unique method capable of characterizing these processes in a flight-similar environment. The Electric Arc Shock tube (EAST) facility is one of the only facilities in its class, able to produce hypersonic flows at speeds up to Mach 50. This talk will review the characterization of radiation measured in EAST with simulations by the codes DPLR and NEQAIR, and in particular, focus on the impact these analyses have on recent missions to explore the solar system.

  20. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  1. Development of space foods using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk; Choi, Jong-IL; Park, Jin-Kyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun

    2008-07-01

    Four Korean food items (Kimchi, ready-to-eat fermented vegetable; Ramen, ready-to-cook noodles; Nutrition bar, ready-to-eat raw grain bar; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods by the application of high-dose gamma irradiation. All Korean space foods were certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. Establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. Reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate were monitored after HIT injection to mice was conducted. Development of Korean astronaut preferred flavoring for space food was conducted to reduced atherogenic index (AI) than butter fat. The spread added honey and pineapple essence was preferred spreadability and overall flavor by sensory evaluation. Flavor was affected by irradiation source (γ-ray or electron beam) or irradiation dosage (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) using electronic nose system an space foods using gamma irradiation pH of porridge was mostly stable and pH increased. Most of TBARS value was generally low, and there wasn't any significant difference. Consistency, viscosity, and firmness was higher in round rice porridge and half rice porridge than in rice powder porridge, and increase in added water amount led to decrease of all textural properties

  2. Development of space foods using radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Song, Beom-Suk; Choi, Jong-IL; Park, Jin-Kyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun

    2008-07-15

    Four Korean food items (Kimchi, ready-to-eat fermented vegetable; Ramen, ready-to-cook noodles; Nutrition bar, ready-to-eat raw grain bar; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods by the application of high-dose gamma irradiation. All Korean space foods were certificated for use in space flight conditions during 30 days by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. Establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. Reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate were monitored after HIT injection to mice was conducted. Development of Korean astronaut preferred flavoring for space food was conducted to reduced atherogenic index (AI) than butter fat. The spread added honey and pineapple essence was preferred spreadability and overall flavor by sensory evaluation. Flavor was affected by irradiation source ({gamma}-ray or electron beam) or irradiation dosage (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kGy) using electronic nose system an space foods using gamma irradiation pH of porridge was mostly stable and pH increased. Most of TBARS value was generally low, and there wasn't any significant difference. Consistency, viscosity, and firmness was higher in round rice porridge and half rice porridge than in rice powder porridge, and increase in added water amount led to decrease of all textural properties.

  3. Space Radar Image of Bebedauro, Brazil, seasonal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR

  4. Properties of Brownian Image Models in Scale-Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2003-01-01

    Brownian images) will be discussed in relation to linear scale-space theory, and it will be shown empirically that the second order statistics of natural images mapped into jet space may, within some scale interval, be modeled by the Brownian image model. This is consistent with the 1/f 2 power spectrum...... law that apparently governs natural images. Furthermore, the distribution of Brownian images mapped into jet space is Gaussian and an analytical expression can be derived for the covariance matrix of Brownian images in jet space. This matrix is also a good approximation of the covariance matrix......In this paper it is argued that the Brownian image model is the least committed, scale invariant, statistical image model which describes the second order statistics of natural images. Various properties of three different types of Gaussian image models (white noise, Brownian and fractional...

  5. Physical and biomedical countermeasures for space radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will he reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to he effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat. (orig.)

  6. Adaptation of radiation shielding code to space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Koichi; Hara, Akihisa

    1992-01-01

    Recently, the trend to the development of space has heightened. To the development of space, many problems are related, and as one of them, there is the protection from cosmic ray. The cosmic ray is the radiation having ultrahigh energy, and there was not the radiation shielding design code that copes with cosmic ray so far. Therefore, the high energy radiation shielding design code for accelerators was improved so as to cope with the peculiarity that cosmic ray possesses. Moreover, the calculation of the radiation dose equivalent rate in the moon base to which the countermeasures against cosmic ray were taken was simulated by using the improved code. As the important countermeasures for the safety protection from radiation, the covering with regolith is carried out, and the effect of regolith was confirmed by using the improved code. Galactic cosmic ray, solar flare particles, radiation belt, the adaptation of the radiation shielding code HERMES to space environment, the improvement of the three-dimensional hadron cascade code HETCKFA-2 and the electromagnetic cascade code EGS 4-KFA, and the cosmic ray simulation are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  8. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  9. Some comments on space flight and radiation limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Setting limits on human exposure to space-related radiation involves two very different processes - the appropriate hard science, and certain emotional aspects and expectations of the groups involved. These groups include the general public and their elected politicians, the astronauts and flight crews, and NASA managers, each group with different expectations and concerns. Public and political views of human space flight and human radiation exposures are often poorly informed and are often based on emotional reactions to current events which may be distorted by 'experts' and the media. Career astronauts' and cosmonauts' views are much more realistic about the risks involved and there is a willingness on their part to accept increased necessary risks. However, there is a concern on their part about career-threatening dose limits, the potential for overexposures, and the health effects from all sources of radiation. There is special concern over radiation from medical studies. This last concern continues to raise the question of 'voluntary' participation in studies involving radiation exposure. There is greatly diversity in spaceflight crews and their expectations; and 'official' Astronaut Office positions will reflect strong management direction. NASA management has its own priorities and concerns and this fact will be reflected in their crucial influence on radiation limits. NASA, and especially spaceflight crews, might be best served by exposure limits which address all sources of spaceflight radiation and all potential effects from such exposure. radiation and all potential effects from such exposure

  10. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  11. Objective assessment of image quality VI: imaging in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Harrison H; Kupinski, Matthew A; Müeller, Stefan; Halpern, Howard J; Morris, John C III; Dwyer, Roisin

    2013-01-01

    Earlier work on objective assessment of image quality (OAIQ) focused largely on estimation or classification tasks in which the desired outcome of imaging is accurate diagnosis. This paper develops a general framework for assessing imaging quality on the basis of therapeutic outcomes rather than diagnostic performance. By analogy to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their variants as used in diagnostic OAIQ, the method proposed here utilizes the therapy operating characteristic or TOC curves, which are plots of the probability of tumor control versus the probability of normal-tissue complications as the overall dose level of a radiotherapy treatment is varied. The proposed figure of merit is the area under the TOC curve, denoted AUTOC. This paper reviews an earlier exposition of the theory of TOC and AUTOC, which was specific to the assessment of image-segmentation algorithms, and extends it to other applications of imaging in external-beam radiation treatment as well as in treatment with internal radioactive sources. For each application, a methodology for computing the TOC is presented. A key difference between ROC and TOC is that the latter can be defined for a single patient rather than a population of patients. (paper)

  12. Simulating Space Radiation-Induced Breast Tumor Incidence Using Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuskin, A C; Osseiran, A I; Tang, J; Costes, S V

    2016-07-01

    Estimating cancer risk from space radiation has been an ongoing challenge for decades primarily because most of the reported epidemiological data on radiation-induced risks are derived from studies of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to an acute dose of gamma rays instead of chronic high-LET cosmic radiation. In this study, we introduce a formalism using cellular automata to model the long-term effects of ionizing radiation in human breast for different radiation qualities. We first validated and tuned parameters for an automata-based two-stage clonal expansion model simulating the age dependence of spontaneous breast cancer incidence in an unexposed U.S. We then tested the impact of radiation perturbation in the model by modifying parameters to reflect both targeted and nontargeted radiation effects. Targeted effects (TE) reflect the immediate impact of radiation on a cell's DNA with classic end points being gene mutations and cell death. They are well known and are directly derived from experimental data. In contrast, nontargeted effects (NTE) are persistent and affect both damaged and undamaged cells, are nonlinear with dose and are not well characterized in the literature. In this study, we introduced TE in our model and compared predictions against epidemiologic data of the atomic bomb survivor cohort. TE alone are not sufficient for inducing enough cancer. NTE independent of dose and lasting ∼100 days postirradiation need to be added to accurately predict dose dependence of breast cancer induced by gamma rays. Finally, by integrating experimental relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for TE and keeping NTE (i.e., radiation-induced genomic instability) constant with dose and LET, the model predicts that RBE for breast cancer induced by cosmic radiation would be maximum at 220 keV/μm. This approach lays the groundwork for further investigation into the impact of chronic low-dose exposure, inter-individual variation and more complex space radiation

  13. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-01-01

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  14. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-02-12

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  15. Space Weather Nowcasting of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Wilson, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Solomon, Stan C.; Wiltberger, J.; Kunches, Joseph; Kress, Brian T.; Murray, John J.

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing concern for the health and safety of commercial aircrew and passengers due to their exposure to ionizing radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET), particularly at high latitudes. The International Commission of Radiobiological Protection (ICRP), the EPA, and the FAA consider the crews of commercial aircraft as radiation workers. During solar energetic particle (SEP) events, radiation exposure can exceed annual limits, and the number of serious health effects is expected to be quite high if precautions are not taken. There is a need for a capability to monitor the real-time, global background radiations levels, from galactic cosmic rays (GCR), at commercial airline altitudes and to provide analytical input for airline operations decisions for altering flight paths and altitudes for the mitigation and reduction of radiation exposure levels during a SEP event. The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) model is new initiative to provide a global, real-time radiation dosimetry package for archiving and assessing the biologically harmful radiation exposure levels at commercial airline altitudes. The NAIRAS model brings to bear the best available suite of Sun-Earth observations and models for simulating the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment. Observations are utilized from ground (neutron monitors), from the atmosphere (the METO analysis), and from space (NASA/ACE and NOAA/GOES). Atmospheric observations provide the overhead shielding information and the ground- and space-based observations provide boundary conditions on the GCR and SEP energy flux distributions for transport and dosimetry simulations. Dose rates are calculated using the parametric AIR (Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation) model and the physics-based HZETRN (High Charge and Energy Transport) code. Empirical models of the near-Earth radiation environment (GCR/SEP energy flux distributions and geomagnetic cut-off rigidity) are benchmarked

  16. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  18. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  19. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground.

  20. Study on biological response to space radiation and its countermeasure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Kim, Jae Kyung; Park, Jong Heum; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2011-12-01

    The purpose is to develop the core technologies for the advanced life supporting system based on radiation technology by 2015 and to be a member of G7 in the space technology research field. And it is the final aim that contribution for establishment of the self-supporting technology and national strength by 2020. To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, denervation model was established in Gamma Phytotron. The changes in microflora population in animal model was shown. The effect of simulated microgravity and long-term exposure to irradiation was investigated. In the experiment of MARS 500, crews for expedition to Mars had been served by Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground

  1. Lightweight space radiator with leakage control by internal electrostatic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Bankoff, S.G.; Miksis, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    An electrostatic liquid film space radiator is proposed. This will employ an internal electrostatic field to prevent leakage of the liquid-metal coolant out of a puncture. This overcomes the major disadvantage of membrane radiators, which is their vulnerability to micrometeorite impacts. Calculations show that leaks of liquid lithium at 700 degree K can easily be stopped from punctures which are several mm in diameter, with very large safety factors. The basic idea lends itself to a variety of radiator concepts, both rotating and non-rotating. Some typical film thickness and pressure calculations in the presence of an electric field are shown

  2. Gamma radiation in ceramic capacitors: a study for space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Ferreira, Eduardo; Sarango Souza, Juliana

    2017-10-01

    We studied the real time effects of the gamma radiation in ceramic capacitors, in order to evaluate the effects of cosmic radiation on these devices. Space missions have electronic circuits with various types of devices, many studies have been done on semiconductor devices exposed to gamma radiation, but almost no studies for passive components, in particular ceramic capacitors. Commercially sold ceramic capacitors were exposed to gamma radiation, and the capacitance was measured before and after exposure. The results clearly show that the capacitance decreases with exposure to gamma radiation. We confirmed this observation in a real time capacitance measurement, obtained using a data logging system developed by us using the open source Arduino platform.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation in a semi-compact space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Yokoo, Sumito

    2018-02-01

    In this note, we investigate the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a revolving point charge in a compact space. If the point charge is circulating with an angular frequency ω0 on the (x , y)-plane at z = 0 with boundary conditions, x ∼ x + 2 πR and y ∼ y + 2 πR, it emits radiation into the z-direction of z ∈ [ - ∞ , + ∞ ]. We find that the radiation shows discontinuities as a function of ω0 R at which a new propagating mode with a different Fourier component appears. For a small radius limit ω0 R ≪ 1, all the Fourier modes except the zero mode on (x , y)-plane are killed, but an effect of squeezing the electric field totally enhances the radiation. In the large volume limit ω0 R → ∞, the energy flux of the radiation reduces to the expected Larmor formula.

  4. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  5. Validation of elastic cross section models for space radiation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werneth, C.M., E-mail: charles.m.werneth@nasa.gov [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Xu, X. [National Institute of Aerospace (United States); Norman, R.B. [NASA Langley Research Center (United States); Ford, W.P. [The University of Tennessee (United States); Maung, K.M. [The University of Southern Mississippi (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The space radiation field is composed of energetic particles that pose both acute and long-term risks for astronauts in low earth orbit and beyond. In order to estimate radiation risk to crew members, the fluence of particles and biological response to the radiation must be known at tissue sites. Given that the spectral fluence at the boundary of the shielding material is characterized, radiation transport algorithms may be used to find the fluence of particles inside the shield and body, and the radio-biological response is estimated from experiments and models. The fidelity of the radiation spectrum inside the shield and body depends on radiation transport algorithms and the accuracy of the nuclear cross sections. In a recent study, self-consistent nuclear models based on multiple scattering theory that include the option to study relativistic kinematics were developed for the prediction of nuclear cross sections for space radiation applications. The aim of the current work is to use uncertainty quantification to ascertain the validity of the models as compared to a nuclear reaction database and to identify components of the models that can be improved in future efforts.

  6. Space-Ready Advanced Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II effort Toyon will increase the state-of-the-art for video/image systems. This will include digital image compression algorithms as well as system...

  7. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  8. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  9. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars

  10. Space radiation interaction mechanisms in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Models of charged-particle impact under conditions typical of the space environment are reported, with a focus on impact excitation and nuclear reactions, especially for heavy ions. Impact excitation is studied by using a global model for electronic excitation based on formal relations through the classical dielectric function to derive an approximation related to the local plasma (electron density distribution) within the atoms and molecules and corrections to the model resulting from the nonfluid nature of this plasma are discussed. Nuclear reactions are studied by reducing quantum-mechanical treatment of this general N-body problem to an equivalent two-body problem that is solvable, and by comparing the results with experimental data. The equations for heavy-charged-particle transport are derived and solution techniques demonstrated. Finally, these methods of analysis are applied to study the change in the electrical properties of a GaAs semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. Proton damage to GaAs crystals is found to arise from stable replacement defects and to be nonannealable, in contrast to electron-induced damage. 17 references

  11. Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCARB_ER2_MAS data are Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Brazil (SCARB) NASA ER2 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator (MAS)...

  12. Performance of a Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR) is a nonventing thermal control subsystem that combines a Space Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) with a Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). The LCAR is a heat pump radiator that absorbs water vapor produced in the SWME. Because of the very low water vapor pressure at equilibrium with lithium chloride solution, the LCAR can absorb water vapor at a temperature considerably higher than the SWME, enabling heat rejection sufficient for most EVA activities by thermal radiation from a relatively small area radiator. Prior SEAR prototypes used a flexible LCAR that was designed to be installed on the outer surface of a portable life support system (PLSS) backpack. This paper describes a SEAR subsystem that incorporates a very compact LCAR. The compact, multifunctional LCAR is built in the form of thin panels that can also serve as the PLSS structural shell. We designed and assembled a 2 ft² prototype LCAR based on this design and measured its performance in thermal vacuum tests when supplied with water vapor by a SWME. These tests validated our models for SEAR performance and showed that there is enough area available on the PLSS backpack shell to enable rejection of metabolic heat from the LCAR. We used results of these tests to assess future performance potential and suggest approaches for integrating the SEAR system with future space suits.

  13. NASA FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, David R.

    1963-04-15

    Information on the energies andd fluxes of trapped electrons and protons in space is summarized, and the Space Radiation Effects Laboratory being constructed to simulate most of the space particulate-energy spectrum is described. A 600-Mev proton synchrocyclotron of variable energy and electron accelerators of 1 to 10 Mev will be included. The accelerator characteristics and the arrangement of the experimental and support buildings, particularly the beam facilities, are discussed; and the planned activities of the laboratory are given. (D.C.W.)

  14. Reducing Human Radiation Risks on Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    101 Figure 49. Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation System...2013). These same studies reveal that for astronauts returning home, this may result in significant loss of lifespan and quality of life due to...warnings to the satellites in orbit at either planet , or to spacecraft in transit (Phys.org 2010). C. IMPROVEMENTS TO MEASUREMENTS OF SPACE RADIATION

  15. NASA Space Radiation Risk Project: Overview and Recent Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Chappell, Lori J.; George, Kerry A.; Hada, Megumi; Hu, Shaowen; Kidane, Yared H.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Kovyrshina, Tatiana; Norman, Ryan B.; Nounu, Hatem N.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Risk project is responsible for integrating new experimental and computational results into models to predict risk of cancer and acute radiation syndrome (ARS) for use in mission planning and systems design, as well as current space operations. The project has several parallel efforts focused on proving NASA's radiation risk projection capability in both the near and long term. This presentation will give an overview, with select results from these efforts including the following topics: verification, validation, and streamlining the transition of models to use in decision making; relative biological effectiveness and dose rate effect estimation using a combination of stochastic track structure simulations, DNA damage model calculations and experimental data; ARS model improvements; pathway analysis from gene expression data sets; solar particle event probabilistic exposure calculation including correlated uncertainties for use in design optimization.

  16. A radiation hardened digital fluxgate magnetometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Bennest, J. R.; Mann, I. R.; Millling, D. K.

    2013-09-01

    Space-based measurements of Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes responsible for energising particles in the Van Allen radiation belts and influencing space weather. This paper describes a prototype fluxgate magnetometer instrument developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission and which has applications in other space and suborbital applications. The magnetometer is designed to survive and operate in the harsh environment of Earth's radiation belts and measure low-frequency magnetic waves, the magnetic signatures of current systems, and the static background magnetic field. The new instrument offers improved science data compared to its predecessors through two key design changes: direct digitisation of the sensor and digital feedback from two cascaded pulse-width modulators combined with analog temperature compensation. These provide an increase in measurement bandwidth up to 450 Hz with the potential to extend to at least 1500 Hz. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65 000 nT field with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz. This performance is comparable with other recent digital fluxgates for space applications, most of which use some form of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation for feedback and omit analog temperature compensation. The prototype instrument was successfully tested and calibrated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory.

  17. Validation of nuclear models used in space radiation shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2013-01-01

    A program of verification and validation has been undertaken to assess the applicability of models to space radiation shielding applications and to track progress as these models are developed over time. In this work, simple validation metrics applicable to testing both model accuracy and consistency with experimental data are developed. The developed metrics treat experimental measurement uncertainty as an interval and are therefore applicable to cases in which epistemic uncertainty dominates the experimental data. To demonstrate the applicability of the metrics, nuclear physics models used by NASA for space radiation shielding applications are compared to an experimental database consisting of over 3600 experimental cross sections. A cumulative uncertainty metric is applied to the question of overall model accuracy, while a metric based on the median uncertainty is used to analyze the models from the perspective of model development by examining subsets of the model parameter space.

  18. The Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission

    CERN Document Server

    André, Philippe; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoȋt, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J.A.P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford; Cabrera, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM

  19. Application of Java technology in radiation image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weifeng; Li Zheng; Chen Zhiqiang; Zhang Li; Gao Wenhuan

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and processing of radiation image plays an important role in modern application of civil nuclear technology. The author analyzes the rationale of Java image processing technology which includes Java AWT, Java 2D and JAI. In order to demonstrate applicability of Java technology in field of image processing, examples of application of JAI technology in processing of radiation images of large container have been given

  20. Development of the image registration program for portal and DRR images in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takeshi; Nakazeko, Kazuma; Tachibana, Atsuhi; Hashimoto, Takeyuki; Shinohara, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an image registration program of portal images and digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) images used as simulation images for external beam radiation therapy planning. First, the center of the radiation field in a portal image taken using a computed radiograhy cassette is matched to the center of the portal image. Then scale points projected on a DRR image and the portal image are deleted, and the portal image with the radiation field is extracted. Registration of the DRR and portal images is performed using mutual information as the registration criterion. It was found that the absolute displacement misregistrations in two directions (x, y) were 1.2±0.7 mm and 0.5±0.3 mm, respectively, and rotation disagreement about the z axis 0.3±0.3deg. It was concluded the proposed method was applicable to image registration of portal and DRR images in radiation therapy. (author)

  1. Optical Imaging of Ionizing Radiation from Clinical Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Travis M; Drain, Charles Michael; Grimm, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Nuclear medicine uses ionizing radiation for both in vivo diagnosis and therapy. Ionizing radiation comes from a variety of sources, including x-rays, beam therapy, brachytherapy, and various injected radionuclides. Although PET and SPECT remain clinical mainstays, optical readouts of ionizing radiation offer numerous benefits and complement these standard techniques. Furthermore, for ionizing radiation sources that cannot be imaged using these standard techniques, optical imaging offers a unique imaging alternative. This article reviews optical imaging of both radionuclide- and beam-based ionizing radiation from high-energy photons and charged particles through mechanisms including radioluminescence, Cerenkov luminescence, and scintillation. Therapeutically, these visible photons have been combined with photodynamic therapeutic agents preclinically for increasing therapeutic response at depths difficult to reach with external light sources. Last, new microscopy methods that allow single-cell optical imaging of radionuclides are reviewed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. Radiation protection in newer imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Not even a week passes without a paper getting published in peer reviewed journals on radiation protection in newer imaging technologies that either did not exist 10 y ago or were not established for routine use. Computed tomography (CT) happens to be a common element in most of these technologies. Radiation protection is high on the agenda of manufacturers and researchers and that is becoming a driving force for users and international organisations. The media and thus the public have their own share in increasing the momentum. The slice war seems to be shifting to dose war. Manufacturers are now chasing the target of sub-mSv CT. The era of two digit mSv effective dose for a CT procedure is far from losing ground, although cardiac CT within 5 mSv seems possible. A few years ago the change in technology was faster than adoption of dose management but currently even the development of dose reduction techniques is faster than its adoption. There is dearth of large scale surveys of practice and lack of surveys with change in technology. (authors)

  3. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs.

  4. SORIS-A standoff radiation imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelakiewicz, Scott; Hoctor, Ralph; Ivan, Adrian; Ross, William; Nieters, Edward; Smith, William; McDevitt, Daniel; Wittbrodt, Michael; Milbrath, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The detection of radiological and special nuclear material within the country's borders is a crucial component of the national security network. Being able to detect small amounts of radiological material at large distances is especially important for search applications. To provide this capability General Electric's Research Center has developed, as a part of DNDO's standoff radiation detection system advanced technology demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program, a standoff radiation imaging system (SORIS). This vehicle-based system is capable of detecting weak sources at large distances in relatively short times. To accomplish this, GE has developed a novel coded aperture detector based on commercial components from GE Healthcare. An array of commercial gamma cameras modified to increase the system efficiency and energy range are used as position sensitive detectors. Unlike typical coded aperture systems, however, SORIS employs a non-planar mask and thus does not suffer the typical limitations of partially encoded regions giving it a wide field of view. Source identification is done using both low-statistics anomaly indicators and conventional high-statistics algorithms being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of scanned areas and threats identified are displayed to the user and overlaid on satellite imagery.

  5. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This is the third edition of CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 (now CAN/CSA-C22.2 No. 114), which is one of a series of standards issued by the Canadian Standards Association under Part II of the Canadian Electrical Code. This edition marks an important shift towards harmonization of Canadian requirements with those of the European community and the United States. Also important to this edition is the expansion of its scope to include the complete range of diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy equipment, rather than solely radiation-emitting equipment. In so doing, equipment previously addressed by CSA Standard C22.2 No. 125, Electromedical Equipment, specifically lasers for medical applications and diagnostic ultrasound units, is now dealt with in the new edition. By virtue of this expanded scope, many of the technical requirements in the electromedical equipment standard have been introduced to the new edition, thereby bringing CSA Standard C22.2 No. 114 up to date. 14 tabs., 16 figs

  6. SORIS—A standoff radiation imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelakiewicz, Scott; Hoctor, Ralph; Ivan, Adrian; Ross, William; Nieters, Edward; Smith, William; McDevitt, Daniel; Wittbrodt, Michael; Milbrath, Brian

    2011-10-01

    The detection of radiological and special nuclear material within the country's borders is a crucial component of the national security network. Being able to detect small amounts of radiological material at large distances is especially important for search applications. To provide this capability General Electric's Research Center has developed, as a part of DNDO's standoff radiation detection system advanced technology demonstration (SORDS-ATD) program, a standoff radiation imaging system (SORIS). This vehicle-based system is capable of detecting weak sources at large distances in relatively short times. To accomplish this, GE has developed a novel coded aperture detector based on commercial components from GE Healthcare. An array of commercial gamma cameras modified to increase the system efficiency and energy range are used as position sensitive detectors. Unlike typical coded aperture systems, however, SORIS employs a non-planar mask and thus does not suffer the typical limitations of partially encoded regions giving it a wide field of view. Source identification is done using both low-statistics anomaly indicators and conventional high-statistics algorithms being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The results of scanned areas and threats identified are displayed to the user and overlaid on satellite imagery.

  7. Imaging findings and significance of deep neck space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qixin; Gu Yifeng; Du Lianjun; Zhu Lili; Pan Yuping; Li Minghua; Yang Shixun; Shang Kezhong; Yin Shankai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of deep neck space cellulitis and abscess and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of deep neck space infection. Methods: CT and MRI findings of 28 cases with deep neck space infection proved by clinical manifestation and pathology were analyzed, including 11 cases of retropharyngeal space, 5 cases of parapharyngeal space infection, 4 cases of masticator space infection, and 8 cases of multi-space infection. Results: CT and MRI could display the swelling of the soft tissues and displacement, reduction, or disappearance of lipoid space in the cellulitis. In inflammatory tissues, MRI imaging demonstrated hypointense or isointense signal on T 1 WI, and hyperintense signal changes on T 2 WI. In abscess, CT could display hypodensity in the center and boundary enhancement of the abscess. MRI could display obvious hyperintense signal on T 2 WI and boundary enhancement. Conclusion: CT and MRI could provide useful information for deep neck space cellulitis and abscess

  8. Radiation dosimetry using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new dosimetry system for 3D dose distribution measurements based on the Fricke dosimeter and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed. The dosimeter consists of a ferrous sulphate solution incorporated in an agarose gel, which together constitute the dosimeter gel. The absorbed dose to the gel is measured by means of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1 in an MR scanner. The dose distribution to an arbitrary slice within a dosimeter gel phantom can thus be determined. The chemical yield of the dosimeter gel is significantly higher than that of the for Fricke solution, and is strongly dependent of the initial ferrous sulphate concentration, assuming that the gel is bubbled with oxygen during preparation. A gel of 1.5 mM [Fe 2+ ] and 50 mM [H 2 SO 4 ] has a sensitivity of 0.108 s -1 Gy -1 and is linear up to 50 Gy. The dosimeter gel has uniform dose response over large volumes. Above 50 mM[H 2 SO 4 ] the yield increases only slightly, but the gel strength decreases and results in gel phantoms with non-uniform dose response. Below 50 mM[H 2 SO 4 ] the sensitivity of the dosimeter falls rapidly due to the decreased relaxivity of the ferric ions. The high chemical yield can be explained by a chain reaction and a reaction scheme is accordingly proposed. The dosimeter gel shows no dependence on dose rate or radiation quality and can be regarded as water-equivalent with respect to the interaction of the radiation. The diffusion coefficient of the ferric ions in the agarose gel is 1.19x10 -2 cm 2 /h. The diffusion blurs the dosimeteric image, but poses only a minor problem if the MR measurements are completed within the first two hours after irradiation. Dose distribution data from external radiation therapy units have been determined using the dosimeter gel and MRI with good accuracy, but the precision is poor, about 5-10%. (au) (84 refs.)

  9. A Learning State-Space Model for Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Greg C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach based on a state-space model for learning the user concepts in image retrieval. We first design a scheme of region-based image representation based on concept units, which are integrated with different types of feature spaces and with different region scales of image segmentation. The design of the concept units aims at describing similar characteristics at a certain perspective among relevant images. We present the details of our proposed approach based on a state-space model for interactive image retrieval, including likelihood and transition models, and we also describe some experiments that show the efficacy of our proposed model. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a state-space model to estimate the user intuition in image retrieval.

  10. Image Segmentation and Processing for Efficient Parking Space Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tutika, Chetan Sai; Vallapaneni, Charan; R, Karthik; KP, Bharath; Muthu, N Ruban Rajesh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a method to detect vacant parking spaces in an environment with unclear segments and contours with the help of MATLAB image processing capabilities. Due to the anomalies present in the parking spaces, such as uneven illumination, distorted slot lines and overlapping of cars. The present-day conventional algorithms have difficulties processing the image for accurate results. The algorithm proposed uses a combination of image pre-processing and false contour detection ...

  11. NASA Self-Assessment of Space Radiation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    Space exploration involves unavoidable exposures to high-energy galactic cosmic rays whose penetration power and associated secondary radiation makes radiation shielding ineffective and cost prohibitive. NASA recognizing the possible health dangers from cosmic rays notified the U.S. Congress as early as 1959 of the need for a dedicated heavy ion accelerator to study the largely unknown biological effects of galactic cosmic rays on astronauts. Information and scientific tools to study radiation health effects expanded over the new decades as NASA exploration programs to the moon and preparations for Mars exploration were carried out. In the 1970 s through the early 1990 s a more than 3-fold increase over earlier estimates of fatal cancer risks from gamma-rays, and new knowledge of the biological dangers of high LET radiation were obtained. Other research has increased concern for degenerative risks to the central nervous system and other tissues at lower doses compared to earlier estimates. In 1996 a review by the National Academy of Sciences Space Science Board re-iterated the need for a dedicated ground-based accelerator facility capable of providing up to 2000 research hours per year to reduce uncertainties in risks projections and develop effective mitigation measures. In 1998 NASA appropriated funds for construction of a dedicated research facility and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) opened for research in October of 2003. This year marks the 8th year of NSRL research were about 1000 research hours per year have been utilized. In anticipation of the approaching ten year milestone, funded investigators and selected others are invited to participate in a critical self-assessment of NSRL research progress towards NASA s goals in space radiation research. A Blue and Red Team Assessment format has been integrated into meeting posters and special plenary sessions to allow for a critical debate on the progress of the research and major gaps areas. Blue

  12. Radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging among patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, Alan N

    2012-03-01

    There are concerns about levels of radiation exposure among patients who undergo diagnostic imaging for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared with other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We quantified imaging studies and estimated the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation received by patients with organic and functional GI disorders. We also identified factors and diagnoses associated with high CEDs.

  13. Mapping the space radiation environment in LEO orbit by the SATRAM Timepix payload on board the Proba-V satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Polansky, Stepan

    2016-07-07

    Detailed spatial- and time-correlated maps of the space radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are produced by the spacecraft payload SATRAM operating in open space on board the Proba-V satellite from the European Space Agency (ESA). Equipped with the hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix, the compact radiation monitor payload provides the composition and spectral characterization of the mixed radiation field with quantum-counting and imaging dosimetry sensitivity, energetic charged particle tracking, directionality and energy loss response in wide dynamic range in terms of particle types, dose rates and particle fluxes. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) at the altitude of 820 km the payload samples the space radiation field at LEO covering basically the whole planet. First results of long-period data evaluation in the form of time-and spatially-correlated maps of total dose rate (all particles) are given.

  14. Blackbody radiation from light cone in flat space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1983-01-01

    Blackbody radiation in flat space-time is not necessarily associated with the flat event horizon of a single accelerated observer. The author considers a spherical bubble which expands in a uniformly accelerating fashion. Its history traces out a time-like hyperboloid. Suppose the bubble membrane has a spatially isotropic and homogeneous (surface) stress energy tensor i.e. the membrane is made out of the stiffest possible material permitted by causality considerations. It follows that this bubble membrane is in equilibrium even though it is expanding. Such an expanding bubble membrane may serve as a detector of electromagnetic radiation if the membrane can interact with the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  15. Array element of a space-based synchrotron radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.W.; Commichau, S.C.; Kim, G.N.; Son, D.; Viertel, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    A synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) has been proposed as part of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station to study cosmic ray electrons and positrons in the TeV energy range. The SRD will identify these particles by detecting their emission of synchrotron radiation in the Earth's magnetic field. This article reports on the study of key technical parameters for the array elements which form the SRD, including the choice of the detecting medium, the sensor and the readout system

  16. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  17. Electro-Optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-Space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Libelo, Louis Francis; Wu, Qi

    1999-09-14

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric field and a laser beam in an electro-optic crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field--optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  18. Device for forming the image of a radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosswill, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    An improvement can be made to the space resolution of systems providing the image of a radiation source by means of a slit collimator. In order to do so, a lateral movement of the collimator (with its detectors) is superimposed on the movement of the collimator, in a transversal direction in relation to the transmission direction through the collimator as well as in relation to the walls defining the slits. The total amplitude of the lateral movement is at least equal to the distance between centres of a slit and the following one. In the near field operating system, the lateral movement is a rectilinear movement perpendicular to the walls of the slits. In the distance field operating systems, it is an angular movement about an axis perpendicular to the direction of transmission through the slits [fr

  19. SOA based intensive support system for space radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranova, M.; Shishedjiev, B.; Genova, S.; Semkova, J.

    2013-01-01

    Modern data intensive science involves heterogeneous and structured data sets in sophisticated data formats. Scientists need access to distributed computing and data sources and support for remote access to expensive, multinational specialized instruments. Scientists need effective software for data analysis, querying, accessing and visualization. The interaction between computer science and science and engineering becomes essential for the automation of data manipulation. The key solution uses the Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) in the field of science and Grid computing. The goal of this paper is managing the scientific data received by the Lyulin-5 particle telescope used in MATROSHKA-R experiment performed at the International Space Station (ISS). The dynamics of radiation characteristics and their dependency on the time and the orbital parameters have been established. The experiment helps the accurate estimation of the impact of space radiation on human health in long-duration manned missions

  20. Batman flies: a compact spectro-imager for space observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frederic; Ilbert, Olivier; Zoubian, Julien; Delsanti, Audrey; Boissier, Samuel; Lancon, Ariane

    2017-11-01

    from the sky background is blocked. To get more than 2 millions independent micromirrors, the only available component is a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) chip from Texas Instruments (TI) that features 2048 x 1080 mirrors and a 13.68μm pixel pitch. DMDs have been tested in space environment (-40°C, vacuum, radiations) by LAM and no showstopper has been revealed [7]. We are presenting in this paper a DMD-based spectrograph called BATMAN, including two arms, one spectroscopic channel and one imaging channel. This instrument is designed for getting breakthrough results in several science cases, from high-z galaxies to nearby galaxies and Trans-Neptunian Objects of Kuiper Belt.

  1. Image Enhancement In HSI Space Using Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sonia; Malhotra, Deepti

    2010-11-01

    Image processing modifies images to improve them (enhancement, restoration), extract information (analysis, recognition), and change their structure (composition, image editing). Image Enhancement is simple and most appealing area among all the digital image processing techniques. The main purpose of image enhancement is to bring out detail that is hidden in an image or to increase contrast in a low contrast image [1]. The color restoration functions of some real color image enhancement algorithms are greatly at random and not proved , and the real color images enhanced which are based on illumination-reflectance model have the loss of details and the `halos', we proposed a new algorithm to overcome these disadvantages. Firstly, we transform the real color image from RGB space to HSI space which is approximately orthonormal system. Secondly, the illumination and the reflectance of value are separated by homomorphic filtering based on illumination-reflectance model. We have discovered that the high dynamic range of image including high bright lights is mainly caused by the reflectance. Thirdly, the details of reflectance are preserved by wavelet transform. Fourthly, the dynamic range of reflectance is compressed by Butterworth filtering. Lastly, the energy of the saturation of real color image in HSI space is attenuated according to the spectral sensitivity of most human vision.

  2. Radiative hazard of solar flares in the nearterrestrial cosmic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Zil', M.V.; Eremkina, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of radiation enviroment due to solar cosmic rays was carried out in the near-terrestrial space. Systematized are the data on cosmic ray flux and spectra detected during 19-th and 20-th cycles of solar activity. 127 flares are considered with proton fluxes of more than 10 proton/cm 2 at energies higher than 30 MeV. Obtained are distribution functions of intervals between flares, flux distribution of flares and characteristic rigidity, and also distribution of magnetic disturbances over Dsub(st)-variation amplitude. The totality of these distributions presents the statistic model of radiation enviroment caused by solar flare protons for the period of maximum solar .activity. This model is intended for estimation of radiation hazard at manned cosmic flights

  3. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Fitzgerald@umassmed.edu [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Followill, David S. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Galvin, James [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Knopp, Michael V. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Ohio, Wexner Medical Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core St. Louis, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Rosen, Mark A. [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Health System, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine–Radiation Oncology, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Shankar, Lalitha K. [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Laurie, Fran [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki [Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Rhode Island, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (United States); Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain [National Cancer Institute, Clinical Radiation Oncology Branch, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  4. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J.; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Followill, David S.; Galvin, James; Knopp, Michael V.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Rosen, Mark A.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Laurie, Fran; Cicchetti, M. Giulia; Moni, Janaki; Coleman, C. Norman; Deye, James A.; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  5. Radiation resistivity of pure-silica core image guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayami, H.; Ishitani, T.; Kishihara, O.; Suzuki, K.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation resistivity of pure-silica core image guides were investigated in terms of incremental spectral loss and quality of pictures transmitted through the image guides. Radiation-induced spectral losses were measured so as to clarify the dependences of radiation resistivity on such parameters as core materials (OH and Cl contents), picture element dimensions, (core packing density and cladding thickness), number of picture elements and drawing conditions. As the results, an image guide with OH-and Cl-free pure-silica core, 30-45% in core packing density, and 1.8 ∼ 2.2 μm in cladding thickness showed the lowest loss. The parameters to design this image guide were almost the same as those to obtain a image guide with good picture quality. Radiation resistivity of the image guide was not dependent on drawing conditions and number of picture elements, indicating that the image guide has large allowable in production conditions and that reliable quality is constantly obtained in production. Radiation resistivity under high total doses was evaluated using the image guide with the lowest radiation-induced loss. Maximum usable lengths of the image guide for practical use under specific high total doses and maximum allowable total doses for the image guide in specific lengths were extrapolated. Picture quality in terms of radiation-induced degradation in color fidelity in the pictures transmitted through image guides was quantitatively evaluated in the chromaticity diagram based on the CIE standard colorimetric system and in the color specification charts according to three attributes of colors. The image guide with the least spectral incremental loss gives the least radiation-induced degradation in color fidelity in the pictures as well. (author)

  6. Mitigating radiation damage of single photon detectors for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimova, Elena; Higgins, Brendon L.; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cranmer, Miles [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Choi, Eric [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Magellan Aerospace, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Hudson, Danya; Piche, Louis P.; Scott, Alan [Honeywell Aerospace (formerly COM DEV Ltd.), Ottawa, ON (Canada); Makarov, Vadim [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Jennewein, Thomas [University of Waterloo, Institute for Quantum Computing, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Quantum Information Science Program, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6, 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as -86 C. This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to +100 C. (orig.)

  7. Lightweight Radiator for in Space Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Paul; Tomboulian, Briana; SanSoucie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is a promising option for high-speed in-space travel due to the high energy density of nuclear fission power sources and efficient electric thrusters. Advanced power conversion technologies may require high operating temperatures and would benefit from lightweight radiator materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric propulsion systems. Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Pitch-based carbon fiber materials have the potential to offer significant improvements in operating temperature, thermal conductivity, and mass. These properties combine to allow advances in operational efficiency and high temperature feasibility. An effort at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to show that woven high thermal conductivity carbon fiber mats can be used to replace standard metal and composite radiator fins to dissipate waste heat from NEP systems is ongoing. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate a proof of concept, to show that a significant improvement of specific power (power/mass) can be achieved, and to develop a thermal model with predictive capabilities making use of constrained input parameter space. A description of this effort is presented.

  8. Space Station Validation of Advanced Radiation-Shielding Polymeric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Subtopic X11.01, NASA has identified the need to develop advanced radiation-shielding materials and systems to protect humans from the hazards of space radiation...

  9. NASA Strategy to Safely Live and Work in the Space Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Wu, Honglu; Corbin, Barbara; Sulzman, Frank; Kreneck, Sam

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the radiation environment that is a significant potential hazard to NASA's goals for space exploration, of living and working in space. NASA has initiated a Peer reviewed research program that is charged with arriving at an understanding of the space radiation problem. To this end NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) was constructed to simulate the harsh cosmic and solar radiation found in space. Another piece of the work was to develop a risk modeling tool that integrates the results from research efforts into models of human risk to reduce uncertainties in predicting risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system damage, degenerative tissue disease, and acute radiation effects acute radiation effects.

  10. METHOD OF IMAGE QUALITY ENHANCEMENT FOR SPACE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Korshunov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach for image quality improvement of the space objects in the visible range of electromagnetic wave spectrum. The proposed method is based on the joint taking into account of both the motion velocity of the space supervisory apparatus and a space object observed in the near-earth space when the time of photo-detector exposure is chosen. The timing of exposure is carried out by light-signal characteristics, which determines the optimal value of the charge package formed in the charge-coupled device being irradiated. Thus, the parameters of onboard observation equipment can be selected, which provides space images suitable for interpretation. The linear resolving capacity is used as quality indicator for space images, giving a complete picture for the image contrast and geometric properties of the object on the photo. Observation scenario modeling of the space object, done by sputnik-inspector, has shown the possibility of increasing the linear resolution up to10% - 20% or up to 40% - 50% depending on the non-complanarity angle at the movement along orbits. The proposed approach to the increase of photographs quality provides getting sharp and highcontrast images of space objects by the optical-electronic equipment of the space-based remote sensing. The usage of these images makes it possible to detect in time the space technology failures, which are the result of its exploitation in the nearearth space. The proposed method can be also applied at the stage of space systems design for optical-electronic surveillance in computer models used for facilities assessment of the shooting equipment information tract.

  11. Cytogenetic examination of cosmonauts for space radiation exposure estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigiryova, G. P.; Novitskaya, N. N.; Fedorenko, B. S.

    2012-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate radiation induced chromosome aberration frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS (International Space Station). Materials and methodsCytogenetic examination which has been performed in the period 1992-2008 included the analysis of chromosome aberrations using conventional Giemsa staining method in 202 blood samples from 48 cosmonauts who participated in flights on Mir Orbital Station and ISS. ResultsSpace flights led to an increase of chromosome aberration frequency. Frequency of dicentrics plus centric rings (Dic+Rc) depend on the space flight duration and accumulated dose value. After the change of space stations (from Mir Orbital Station to ISS) the radiation load of cosmonauts based on data of cytogenetic examination decreased. Extravehicular activity also adds to chromosome aberration frequency in cosmonauts' blood lymphocytes. Average doses after the first flight, estimated by the frequency of Dic+Rc, were 227 and 113 mGy Eq for long-term flights (LTF) and 107 and 53 mGy Eq for short-term flights (STF). ConclusionCytogenetic examination of cosmonauts can be applied to assess equivalent doses.

  12. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater

  13. Imaging of the meninges and the extra-axial spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmi, Olga; Sheerin, Fintan; Patel, Neel

    2009-12-01

    The separate meningeal layers and extraaxial spaces are complex and can only be differentiated by pathologic processes on imaging. Differentiation of the location of such processes can be achieved using different imaging modalities. In this pictorial review we address the imaging techniques, enhancement and location patterns, and disease spread that will promote accurate localization of the pathology, thus improving accuracy of diagnosis. Typical and unusual magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound imaging findings of many conditions affecting these layers and spaces are described.

  14. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Samuel B.; Rhee, Frank C.; Monroe, James I.; Sohn, Jason W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically ''important'' areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/MVCT image sets. The

  15. Spatially weighted mutual information image registration for image guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Samuel B; Rhee, Frank C; Monroe, James I; Sohn, Jason W

    2010-09-01

    To develop a new metric for image registration that incorporates the (sub)pixelwise differential importance along spatial location and to demonstrate its application for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). It is well known that rigid-body image registration with mutual information is dependent on the size and location of the image subset on which the alignment analysis is based [the designated region of interest (ROI)]. Therefore, careful review and manual adjustments of the resulting registration are frequently necessary. Although there were some investigations of weighted mutual information (WMI), these efforts could not apply the differential importance to a particular spatial location since WMI only applies the weight to the joint histogram space. The authors developed the spatially weighted mutual information (SWMI) metric by incorporating an adaptable weight function with spatial localization into mutual information. SWMI enables the user to apply the selected transform to medically "important" areas such as tumors and critical structures, so SWMI is neither dominated by, nor neglects the neighboring structures. Since SWMI can be utilized with any weight function form, the authors presented two examples of weight functions for IGRT application: A Gaussian-shaped weight function (GW) applied to a user-defined location and a structures-of-interest (SOI) based weight function. An image registration example using a synthesized 2D image is presented to illustrate the efficacy of SWMI. The convergence and feasibility of the registration method as applied to clinical imaging is illustrated by fusing a prostate treatment planning CT with a clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) image set acquired for patient alignment. Forty-one trials are run to test the speed of convergence. The authors also applied SWMI registration using two types of weight functions to two head and neck cases and a prostate case with clinically acquired CBCT/ MVCT image sets. The SWMI registration with

  16. The Effect of Topography on the Exposure of Airless Bodies to Space Radiation: Phobos Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Wang, Y.; Guo, J.; Schwadron, N.; Cooper, J. F.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Spence, H. E.; Jordan, A.; Sturner, S. J.; Glenar, D. A.; Wilson, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The surfaces of airless bodies, such as the Moon and Phobos (innermost Martian moon), are directly exposed to the surrounding space environment, including energetic particle radiation from both the ever-present flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and episodic bursts of solar energetic particles (SEPs). Characterizing this radiation exposure is critical to our understanding of the evolution of these bodies from space weathering processes, such as radiation damage of regolith, radiolysis of organics and volatiles, and dielectric breakdown. Similarly, this also has important implications for the long-term radiation exposure of future astronauts and equipment on the surface. In this study, the focus is the influence of Phobian topography on the direct exposure of Phobos to space radiation. For a given point on its surface, this exposure depends on: (i) the solid angle subtended by the sky, (ii) the solid angle of the sky blocked by Mars, and (iii) the energy and angular distributions of ambient energetic particle populations. The sky solid angle, determined using the elevation of the local horizon calculated from a digital elevation model (DEM), can be significantly reduced around topographic lows, such as crater floors, or increased near highs like crater rims. The DEM used in this study was produced using images from the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and has the highest available spatial resolution ( 100m). The proximity of Phobos to Mars means the Martian disk appears large in the Phobian sky, but this only effects the moon's near side due its tidally locked orbit. Only isotropic distributions of energetic particles are initially considered, which is typically a reasonable assumption for GCRs and sometimes for SEPs. Observations of the radiation environments on Mars by Curiosity's Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD), and the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) at the Moon

  17. Processing of space images and geologic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudin, V S

    1981-01-01

    Using data for standard sections, a correlation was established between natural formations in geologic/geophysical dimensions and the form they take in the imaging. With computer processing, important data can be derived from the image. Use of the above correlations has allowed to make a number of preliminary classifications of tectonic structures, and to determine certain ongoing processes in the given section. The derived data may be used for search of useful minerals.

  18. BioSentinel: Biosensors for Deep-Space Radiation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, Melissa P.; Santa Maria, Sergio R.; Marina, Diana B.; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    The BioSentinel mission will be deployed on NASA's Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in 2018. We will use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a biosensor to study the effect of deep-space radiation on living cells. The BioSentinel mission will be the first investigation of a biological response to space radiation outside Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. Radiation can cause damage such as double stand breaks (DSBs) on DNA. The yeast cell was chosen for this mission because it is genetically controllable, shares homology with human cells in its DNA repair pathways, and can be stored in a desiccated state for long durations. Three yeast strains will be stored dry in multiple microfluidic cards: a wild type control strain, a mutant defective strain that cannot repair DSBs, and a biosensor strain that can only grow if it gets DSB-and-repair events occurring near a specific gene. Growth and metabolic activity of each strain will be measured by a 3-color LED optical detection system. Parallel experiments will be done on the International Space Station and on Earth so that we can compare the results to that of deep space. One of our main objectives is to characterize the microfluidic card activation sequence before the mission. To increase the sensitivity of yeast cells as biosensors, desiccated yeast in each card will be resuspended in a rehydration buffer. After several weeks, the rehydration buffer will be exchanged with a growth medium in order to measure yeast growth and metabolic activity. We are currently working on a time-course experiment to better understand the effects of the rehydration buffer on the response to ionizing radiation. We will resuspend the dried yeast in our rehydration medium over a period of time; then each week, we will measure the viability and ionizing radiation sensitivity of different yeast strains taken from this rehydration buffer. The data obtained in this study will be useful in finalizing the card activation sequence for

  19. Preliminary analysis of accelerated space flight ionizing radiation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Stock, L. V.; Carter, D. J.; Chang, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary analysis shows that radiation dose equivalent to 30 years in the geosynchronous environment can be accumulated in a typical composite material exposed to space for 2 years or less onboard a spacecraft orbiting from perigee of 300 km out to the peak of the inner electron belt (approximately 2750 km). Future work to determine spacecraft orbits better tailored to materials accelerated testing is indicated. It is predicted that a range of 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 10th power rads would be accumulated in 3-6 mil thick epoxy/graphite exposed by a test spacecraft orbiting in the inner electron belt. This dose is equivalent to the accumulated dose that this material would be expected to have after 30 years in a geosynchronous orbit. It is anticipated that material specimens would be brought back to Earth after 2 years in the radiation environment so that space radiation effects on materials could be analyzed by laboratory methods.

  20. Genetic risks associated with radiation exposures during space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.

    1983-01-01

    Although the genetic risks of space radiation do not pose a significant hazard to the general population, the risks may be very important to the individual astronaut. The present paper summarizes some experimental results on the induction of dominant lethal mutations and chromosomal damage in the first generation which may be used in the prediction of the genetic risks of radiation exposures of space crews. Young adult male mice were exposed to single, weekly and continuous doses of gamma rays, neutrons in single doses and weekly exposures and continuous doses of Pu-239 alpha particles. Evaluation of fetal survival rates in females mated to the exposed males shows the mutation rate in individuals exposed to gamma rays to decline as the exposure period is prolonged and the dose rate is reduced, while the response to neutrons is in the opposite direction. Cytological determinations show the rate of balanced chromosomal translocations to drop as gamma ray exposures change from one-time to continuous, however little or no dose rate effect is seen with neutron radiation and alpha particle exposure shows no regular dose-response. Based on the above results, it is predicted that the rate of dominant mutations and transmissible chromosome aberrations in astronauts on a 100-day mission will increase by 4.5 to 41.25 percent over the spontaneous rate. 35 references

  1. Advanced concepts in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kai; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Haefner, Andy; Torii, Tatsuo; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes. (author)

  2. Modeling Natural Space Ionizing Radiation Effects on External Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstatt, Richard L.; Edwards, David L.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Predicting the effective life of materials for space applications has become increasingly critical with the drive to reduce mission cost. Programs have considered many solutions to reduce launch costs including novel, low mass materials and thin thermal blankets to reduce spacecraft mass. Determining the long-term survivability of these materials before launch is critical for mission success. This presentation will describe an analysis performed on the outer layer of the passive thermal control blanket of the Hubble Space Telescope. This layer had degraded for unknown reasons during the mission, however ionizing radiation (IR) induced embrittlement was suspected. A methodology was developed which allowed direct comparison between the energy deposition of the natural environment and that of the laboratory generated environment. Commercial codes were used to predict the natural space IR environment model energy deposition in the material from both natural and laboratory IR sources, and design the most efficient test. Results were optimized for total and local energy deposition with an iterative spreadsheet. This method has been used successfully for several laboratory tests at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The study showed that the natural space IR environment, by itself, did not cause the premature degradation observed in the thermal blanket.

  3. Use of discrete chromatic space to tune the image tone in a color image mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxun; Li, Zhijiang; Zhang, Jianqing; Zheng, Li

    2003-09-01

    Color image process is a very important problem. However, the main approach presently of them is to transfer RGB colour space into another colour space, such as HIS (Hue, Intensity and Saturation). YIQ, LUV and so on. Virutally, it may not be a valid way to process colour airborne image just in one colour space. Because the electromagnetic wave is physically altered in every wave band, while the color image is perceived based on psychology vision. Therefore, it's necessary to propose an approach accord with physical transformation and psychological perception. Then, an analysis on how to use relative colour spaces to process colour airborne photo is discussed and an application on how to tune the image tone in colour airborne image mosaic is introduced. As a practice, a complete approach to perform the mosaic on color airborne images via taking full advantage of relative color spaces is discussed in the application.

  4. Radiation safety standards: space hazards vs. terrestrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    Policies regarding the setting of standards for radiation exposure for astronauts and other workers in space are discussed. The first recommendations for dose limitation and the underlying philosophy of these recommendations, which were put out in 1970, are examined, and consequences for the standards if the same philosophy of allowing a doubling in overall cancer risk for males aged 30-35 over a 20-year period were applied to more recent risk estimates are calculated, leading to values about a factor of 4 below the 1970 recommendation. Standards set since 1930 for terrestrial occupational exposures, which lead to a maximum lifetime risk of about 2.3 percent, are then considered, and the space and terrestrial exposure risks for fatal cancers at maximum lifetime dose are compared with industrial accidental death rates. Attention is also given to the question of the potential effects of HZE particles in space and to the possibility that HZE particle effects, rather than radiation carcinogenesis, might be the limiting factor. 17 references

  5. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas; Jones, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The growth of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) scans has revolutionised healthcare but also greatly increased population radiation doses. Overuse of diagnostic radiation is becoming a feature of medical practice, leading to possible unnecessary radiation exposures and lifetime-risks of developing cancer. Doctors across all medical specialties and experience levels were surveyed to determine their knowledge of radiation doses and potential risks associated with some diagnostic imaging. A survey relating to knowledge and understanding of medical imaging radiation was distributed to doctors at 14 major Queensland public hospitals, as well as fellows and trainees in radiology, emergency medicine and general practice. From 608 valid responses, only 17.3% correctly estimated the radiation dose from CT scans and almost 1 in 10 incorrectly believed that CT radiation is not associated with any increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. There is a strong inverse relationship between a clinician's experience and their knowledge of CT radiation dose and risks, even among radiologists. More than a third (35.7%) of doctors incorrectly believed that typical NM imaging either does not use ionising radiation or emits doses equal to or less than a standard chest radiograph. Knowledge of CT and NM radiation doses is poor across all specialties, and there is a significant inverse relationship between experience and awareness of CT dose and risk. Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients.

  6. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; MacNeil, Lawrence; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong; Gaska, Remis

    2010-01-01

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 10 15 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 10 12 protons/cm 2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2 x 10 12 protons/cm 2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have

  7. SPACE RADIATION ENVIRONMENT MONITORED BY KITSAT-1 AND KITSAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Shin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of space radiation experiments carried out on board the first two Korean technology demonstration microsatellites are presented in this paper. The first satellite, KITSAT-1, launched in August 1992, carries a radiation monitoring payload called cosmic ray experiment(CRE for characterizing the low-earth orbit(LEO radiation environment. The CRE consists of two sub-systems: the cosmic particle experiment (CPE and the total dose experiment(TDE. In addition, single event upset(SEUrates of the program memory and the RAM disk are also monitored. The second satellite, KITSAT-2, launched in September 1993, carries a newly developed 32-bit on-board computer(OBC, KASCOM(KAIST satellite computer in addition to OBC186. SEUs ocurred in the KASCOM, as well as in the program memory and RAM disk memory, have been monitored since the beginning of the satellite operation. These two satellites, which are very similar in structures but different in orbits, provide a unique opportunity to study the effects of the radiation environment characterized by the orbit.

  8. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  9. Space-based infrared sensors of space target imaging effect analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huayu; Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun; Zhao, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Target identification problem is one of the core problem of ballistic missile defense system, infrared imaging simulation is an important means of target detection and recognition. This paper first established the space-based infrared sensors ballistic target imaging model of point source on the planet's atmosphere; then from two aspects of space-based sensors camera parameters and target characteristics simulated atmosphere ballistic target of infrared imaging effect, analyzed the camera line of sight jitter, camera system noise and different imaging effects of wave on the target.

  10. Image Gently: A campaign to promote radiation protection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-14

    Dec 14, 2015 ... developing education materials that support the protection of children worldwide from unnecessary radiation ... Emory University School of. Medicine .... materials for the Image Gently campaign are provided free of charge (cf.

  11. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    1989-07-01

    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  12. A new system for the measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation from space mainly consists of charged heavy particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact, the effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. Current measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both of the quantities simultaneously. A combined device for measurement of the mentioned values consists of an on-board thermoluminescence dosimeter reader and a three-axis silicon detector linear energy transfer spectrometer. This paper deals with the main characteristic of the new system. This system can be, applied for dosimetry of air crew as well. (authors)

  13. A new system for measurement of the space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazmandi, T.; Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Beaujean, R.

    2001-01-01

    The space radiation mainly consists of heavy charged particles (protons and heavier particles). Due to this fact its effective dose significantly differs from the physical dose. The recently used measuring equipment is not fully suitable to measure both quantities simultaneously. The combined device for measurement of mentioned values consists of an on board thermoluminescent dosimeter reader and a three axis silicon telescope as a linear energy transfer spectrometer. The paper deals with the main characteristics of the new system. This system can be applied for dosimetry of air-crew as well. (authors)

  14. Radiation retinopathy following treatment of posterior nasal space carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.M.; Migdal, C.S.; Whittle, R.J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Posterior nasal space carcinoma has a high mortality and most patents are treated with radiotherapy. Radiation retinopathy was encountered in 7 out of 10 survivors included in this study. Five of the affected patients lost vision as a result of the retinopathy. One patient required laser photocoagulation and responded well to this treatment. There was a variation in the severity of the retinopathy among the patients studied despite the fact that all patients received a similar dose of radiotherapy. We suspect that previously unrecognised factors in the planning of radiotherapy fields may explain this difference. (author)

  15. Static dosimetry space image in which urology diagnostics are performed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banduka, M.S.; Vasic, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The effects of the dispersed radiation described theoretically imply complex picture of interaction of the photon beam with the patient's body, as well as its dispersion on other structures. Basic theoretical laws of this phenomenon are highlighted, thus giving the opportunity to model the effect in total. Material and methods. The measurements of the absorbed dose in the air give isodose curves that show distribution of the radiation dose. For the urological procedures standard urological diagnostic methods were being used. Results. Through a large series of measuring, we got the distribution of the radiation dose in space, where urology diagnostics is being made using the X-ray. The parameters determining this picture are the most frequent ones in the total number of 20 random cases taken in General Hospital in Doboj, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Conclusions. Static dosimetric picture of the space (radiation zone) in the general sense is useful before all for organisation of the diagnostic procedures utilising ionised radiation. Obtained in any way, this picture enables an insight into the three-dimensional distribution of the dosage on the basis of which it is possible to correct the organisation of the diagnostics being performed under these conditions. The values of the radiation dosage show it is necessary to use the protecting means prescribed by law. For more frequent exposure, it would be useful to make a dynamic dosimetric picture for professional exposure and assessment of the radiation risk of these persons. (author)

  16. Relaxation in x-space magnetic particle imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Laura R; Goodwill, Patrick W; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new imaging modality that noninvasively images the spatial distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs). MPI has demonstrated high contrast and zero attenuation with depth, and MPI promises superior safety compared to current angiography methods, X-ray, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging angiography. Nanoparticle relaxation can delay the SPIO magnetization, and in this work we investigate the open problem of the role relaxation plays in MPI scanning and its effect on the image. We begin by amending the x-space theory of MPI to include nanoparticle relaxation effects. We then validate the amended theory with experiments from a Berkeley x-space relaxometer and a Berkeley x-space projection MPI scanner. Our theory and experimental data indicate that relaxation reduces SNR and asymmetrically blurs the image in the scanning direction. While relaxation effects can have deleterious effects on the MPI scan, we show theoretically and experimentally that x-space reconstruction remains robust in the presence of relaxation. Furthermore, the role of relaxation in x-space theory provides guidance as we develop methods to minimize relaxation-induced blurring. This will be an important future area of research for the MPI community.

  17. Thermal performance of a radiatively cooled system for quantum optomechanical experiments in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilan Zanoni, André; Burkhardt, Johannes; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We improved performance and design aspects of a radiatively cooled instrument. • A heat-flow analysis showed near optimal performance of the shield design. • A simple modification to imaging optics allowed further improvements. • We studied the thermal behavior for different orbital cases. • A transfer-function analysis showed strong attenuation of thermal variations. - Abstract: Passive cooling of scientific instruments via thermal radiation to deep space offers many advantages over active cooling in terms of mission cost, lifetime and the achievable quality of vacuum and microgravity. Motivated by the mission proposal MAQRO to test the foundations of quantum physics harnessing a deep-space environment, we investigate the performance of a radiatively cooled instrument, where the environment of a test particle in a quantum superposition has to be cooled to less than 20 K. We perform a heat-transfer analysis between the instrument components and a transfer-function analysis on thermal oscillations induced by the spacecraft interior and dissipative sources. The thermal behavior of the instrument is discussed for an orbit around a Lagrangian point and for a highly elliptical Earth orbit. Finally, we investigate possible design improvements. These include a mirror-based design of the imaging system on the optical bench (OB) and an extension of the heat shields.

  18. Development of Space Life Supporting System Using Radiation Technology (Top Brand Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Lee, Yoon Jong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, Hindlimb Suspension Model was established in Gamma Phytotron. Hindlimb suspended group exposed to irradiation, non-suspended group not exposed to irradiation, and non-suspended group exposed to irradiation were experimented for 2 weeks at the dose rate of 3.2 mSV/day. The results showed that muscle weight was decreased by suspension. To develop the countermeasure to physiological changes in space environment, the peptides from soy beam was selected to evaluate the effect with the space environment simulation model. Suing the microscopic and fluorescent images, the growth of microorganisms were detected. The species were identified based on primer-targeted gene sequence analysis. Also, the radiation resistance of species was defined. To research on sustainable nutritional supply and improvement of human physiology in space environment, four kinds of new Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, and Mulberry beverage) were developed using the irradiation technology and certified as space foods by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. The contract on joint research of MARS-500 between KAERI and IBMP was made. In the experiment, crews for expedition to Mars will eat Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground. The developed technology and know-how could be spun out to the various fields, such as aircraft, automobile, military, information and communication, bio technologies. Moreover, the results obtained from this research can be used for the further development for military use or special food area such as foods for patient

  19. Development of Space Life Supporting System Using Radiation Technology (Top Brand Project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Yoon, Yo Han; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam; Han, In Jun; Lee, Yoon Jong

    2010-08-01

    To simulate the space environment of microgravity and expose to space radiation, Hindlimb Suspension Model was established in Gamma Phytotron. Hindlimb suspended group exposed to irradiation, non-suspended group not exposed to irradiation, and non-suspended group exposed to irradiation were experimented for 2 weeks at the dose rate of 3.2 mSV/day. The results showed that muscle weight was decreased by suspension. To develop the countermeasure to physiological changes in space environment, the peptides from soy beam was selected to evaluate the effect with the space environment simulation model. Suing the microscopic and fluorescent images, the growth of microorganisms were detected. The species were identified based on primer-targeted gene sequence analysis. Also, the radiation resistance of species was defined. To research on sustainable nutritional supply and improvement of human physiology in space environment, four kinds of new Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, and Mulberry beverage) were developed using the irradiation technology and certified as space foods by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems. The contract on joint research of MARS-500 between KAERI and IBMP was made. In the experiment, crews for expedition to Mars will eat Korean space foods (Bulgogi, Bibimbap, Seaweed soup, Mulberry beverage, Kimchi, Sujeonggwa) for 120 days, then their immunity will be examined and compared with it on the ground. The developed technology and know-how could be spun out to the various fields, such as aircraft, automobile, military, information and communication, bio technologies. Moreover, the results obtained from this research can be used for the further development for military use or special food area such as foods for patient

  20. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricarico, Francesco; Hlavacek, Anthony M.; Schoepf, U.J.; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Nance, John W.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Cho, Young Jun; Spears, J.R.; Secchi, Francesco; Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Apfaltrer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  1. Cardiovascular CT angiography in neonates and children: Image quality and potential for radiation dose reduction with iterative image reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tricarico, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Hlavacek, Anthony M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Children' s Hospital, Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Ebersberger, Ullrich [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Groningen/University of Groningen, Centre for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Cho, Young Jun [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Konyang University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Spears, J.R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Secchi, Francesco [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Milan School of Medicine IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, Milan (Italy); Savino, Giancarlo; Marano, Riccardo; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' Hospital, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical University of South Carolina, Ashley River Tower, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate image quality (IQ) of low-radiation-dose paediatric cardiovascular CT angiography (CTA), comparing iterative reconstruction in image space (IRIS) and sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) with filtered back-projection (FBP) and estimate the potential for further dose reductions. Forty neonates and children underwent low radiation CTA with or without ECG synchronisation. Data were reconstructed with FBP, IRIS and SAFIRE. For ECG-synchronised studies, half-dose image acquisitions were simulated. Signal noise was measured and IQ graded. Effective dose (ED) was estimated. Mean absolute and relative image noise with IRIS and full-dose SAFIRE was lower than with FBP (P < 0.001), while SNR and CNR were higher (P < 0.001). Image noise was also lower and SNR and CNR higher in half-dose SAFIRE studies compared with full-and half-dose FBP studies (P < 0.001). IQ scores were higher for IRIS, full-dose SAFIRE and half-dose SAFIRE than for full-dose FBP and higher for half-dose SAFIRE than for half-dose FBP (P < 0.05). Median weight-specific ED was 0.3 mSv without and 1.36 mSv with ECG synchronisation. The estimated ED of half-dose SAFIRE studies was 0.68 mSv. IR improves image noise, SNR, CNR and subjective IQ compared with FBP in low-radiation-dose paediatric CTA and allows further dose reductions without compromising diagnostic IQ. (orig.)

  2. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas; Jones, Lee

    2013-02-01

    The growth of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) scans has revolutionised healthcare but also greatly increased population radiation doses. Overuse of diagnostic radiation is becoming a feature of medical practice, leading to possible unnecessary radiation exposures and lifetime-risks of developing cancer. Doctors across all medical specialties and experience levels were surveyed to determine their knowledge of radiation doses and potential risks associated with some diagnostic imaging. A survey relating to knowledge and understanding of medical imaging radiation was distributed to doctors at 14 major Queensland public hospitals, as well as fellows and trainees in radiology, emergency medicine and general practice. From 608 valid responses, only 17.3% correctly estimated the radiation dose from CT scans and almost 1 in 10 incorrectly believed that CT radiation is not associated with any increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. There is a strong inverse relationship between a clinician's experience and their knowledge of CT radiation dose and risks, even among radiologists. More than a third (35.7%) of doctors incorrectly believed that typical NM imaging either does not use ionising radiation or emits doses equal to or less than a standard chest radiograph. Knowledge of CT and NM radiation doses is poor across all specialties, and there is a significant inverse relationship between experience and awareness of CT dose and risk. Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  3. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  4. Hawking radiation from black holes in de Sitter spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation has been treated, by Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), as a compensating flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel a gravitational anomaly at the event horizon (EH) of a Schwarzschild-type black hole. In this paper, motivated by this work, Hawking radiation from the event horizon (EH) and the de Sitter cosmological horizon (CH) of black holes in de Sitter spaces, specifically including the purely de Sitter black hole and the static, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as the rotating Kerr-de Sitter black hole, have been studied by anomalies. The results show that the gauge-current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, required to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the EH and the CH, are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from the EH and the CH, respectively. It should be noted that gauge and gravitational anomalies taking place at the CH arise from the fact that the effective field theory is formulated inside the CH to integrate out the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, which are different from those at the black hole horizon

  5. Image correlation spectroscopy: mapping correlations in space, time, and reciprocal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of two recent implementations of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). The background theory is presented for spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy and image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICS and STICCS, respectively) as well as k-(reciprocal) space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS). An introduction to the background theory is followed by sections outlining procedural aspects for properly implementing STICS, STICCS, and kICS. These include microscopy image collection, sampling in space and time, sample and fluorescent probe requirements, signal to noise, and background considerations that are all required to properly implement the ICS methods. Finally, procedural steps for immobile population removal and actual implementation of the ICS analysis programs to fluorescence microscopy image time stacks are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Research Program Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloschak, Gayle; Steinberg-Wright, S.; Coleman, Norman; Grdina, David; Hill, Colin; Iliakis, George; Metting, Noelle; Meyers, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (SRP) met at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) on December 9-11, 2009 to discuss the areas of current and future research targeted by the Space Radiation Program Element (SRPE) of the Human Research Program (HRP). Using evidence-based knowledge as a background for identified risks to astronaut health and performance, NASA had identified gaps in knowledge to address those risks. Ongoing and proposed tasks were presented to address the gaps. The charge to the Space Radiation SRP was to review the gaps, evaluate whether the tasks addressed these gaps and to make recommendations to NASA s HRP Science Management Office regarding the SRP's review. The SRP was requested to evaluate the practicality of the proposed efforts in light of the demands placed on the HRP. Several presentations were made to the SRP during the site visit and the SRP spent sufficient time to address the SRP charge. The SRP made a final debriefing to the HRP Program Scientist, Dr. John B. Charles, on December 11, 2009. The SRP noted that current SRPE strategy is properly science-based and views this as the best assurance of the likelihood that answers to the questions posed as gaps in knowledge can be found, that the uncertainty in risk estimates can be reduced, and that a solid, cost-effective approach to risk reduction solutions is being developed. The current approach of the SRPE, based on the use of carefully focused research solicitations, requiring thorough peer-review and approaches demonstrated to be on the path to answering the NASA strategic questions, addressed to a broad extramural community of qualified scientists, optimally positioned to take advantage of serendipitous discoveries and to leverage scientific advances made elsewhere, is sound and appropriate. The SRP viewed with concern statements by HRP implying that the only science legitimately deserving support should be "applied" or, in some instances that the very term "research" might be

  7. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  8. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  9. Radiation Tests of Single Photon Avalanche Diode for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, Francesco; Marisaldi, Martino; MacCagnani, Piera; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Prest, Michela; Berra, Alessandro; Bolognini, Davide; Ghioni, Massimo; Rech, Ivan; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been recently studied as photodetectors for applications in space missions. In this presentation we report the results of radiation hardness test on large area SPAD (actual results refer to SPADs having 500 micron diameter). Dark counts rate as low as few kHz at -10 degC has been obtained for the 500 micron devices, before irradiation. We performed bulk damage and total dose radiation tests with protons and gamma-rays in order to evaluate their radiation hardness properties and their suitability for application in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space mission. With this aim SPAD devices have been irradiated using up to 20 krad total dose with gamma-rays and 5 krad with protons. The test performed show that large area SPADs are very sensitive to proton doses as low as 2×10(exp 8) (1 MeV eq) n/cm2 with a significant increase in dark counts rate (DCR) as well as in the manifestation of the "random telegraph signal" effect. Annealing studies at room temperature (RT) and at 80 degC have been carried out, showing a high decrease of DCR after 24-48 h at RT. Lower protons doses in the range 1-10×10(exp 7) (1 MeV eq) n/cm(exp 2) result in a lower increase of DCR suggesting that the large-area SPADs tested in this study are well suitable for application in low-inclination LEO, particularly useful for gamma-ray astrophysics.

  10. Registration and monitoring of radiation exposure from radiological imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, F.; Pinto dos Santos, D.; Hempel, J.; Dueber, C.; Mildenberger, P.

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for reducing radiation exposure are an important part of optimizing medical imaging and therefore a relevant quality factor in radiology. Regarding the medical radiation exposure, computed tomography has a special relevance. The use of the integrating the healthcare enterprise (IHE) radiation exposure monitoring (REM) profile is the upcoming standard for organizing and collecting exposure data in radiology. Currently most installed base devices do not support this profile generating the required digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) dose structured reporting (SR). For this reason different solutions had been developed to register dose exposure measurements without having the dose SR object. Registration and analysis of dose-related parameters is required for constantly optimizing examination protocols, especially computed tomography (CT) examinations based on the latest research results in order to minimize the individual radiation dose exposure from medical imaging according to the principle as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). (orig.) [de

  11. X-space MPI: magnetic nanoparticles for safe medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Patrick William; Saritas, Emine Ulku; Croft, Laura Rose; Kim, Tyson N; Krishnan, Kannan M; Schaffer, David V; Conolly, Steven M

    2012-07-24

    One quarter of all iodinated contrast X-ray clinical imaging studies are now performed on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients. Unfortunately, the iodine contrast agent used in X-ray is often toxic to CKD patients' weak kidneys, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, we are pioneering a new medical imaging method, called Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI), to replace X-ray and CT iodinated angiography, especially for CKD patients. MPI uses magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents that are much safer than iodine for CKD patients. MPI already offers superb contrast and extraordinary sensitivity. The iron oxide nanoparticle tracers required for MPI are also used in MRI, and some are already approved for human use, but the contrast agents are far more effective at illuminating blood vessels when used in the MPI modality. We have recently developed a systems theoretic framework for MPI called x-space MPI, which has already dramatically improved the speed and robustness of MPI image reconstruction. X-space MPI has allowed us to optimize the hardware for fi ve MPI scanners. Moreover, x-space MPI provides a powerful framework for optimizing the size and magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticle tracers used in MPI. Currently MPI nanoparticles have diameters in the 10-20 nanometer range, enabling millimeter-scale resolution in small animals. X-space MPI theory predicts that larger nanoparticles could enable up to 250 micrometer resolution imaging, which would represent a major breakthrough in safe imaging for CKD patients.

  12. Gallium-67 citrate imaging for the assessment of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Masaaki

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of radiation pneumotinis, gallium-67 citrate ( 67 Ga) imaging was performed before and after radiation therapy (RT) on 103 patients with lung cancer. In 23 patients with radiation pneumonitis detected radiographically, abnormal 67 Ga uptake in sites other than tumors was found in all post-RT 67 Ga lung images. Three patterns of uptake were found: (A) focal uptake corresponding to the RT field (n=10); (B) diffuse uptake including the RT field (n=4); and (C) diffuse uptake outside the RT field (n=9). The area of 67 Ga uptake was consistent with that of interstitial pneumonitis as revealed histopathologically in 7 cases. 67 Ga uptake in pattern (C) was an indicator of poor prognosis for the patients with radiation pneumonitis. 67 Ga uptake in the patients with reversible pneumonitis disappeared with steroid therapy. Sixteen (20%) of 80 asymptomatic patients, in whose chest radiographs there was no finding of radiation pneumonitis, showed transient 67 Ga uptake. These were considered to occur in the subclinical radiation pneumonitis. These data suggest that 67 Ga imaging is more sensitive than chest radiography in the detection of radiation pneumonitis and is useful in the assessment of the extent and clinical course of radiation pneumonitis. (author)

  13. Exploring Sustainability Using images from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Loris; Salmon, Jennifer; Burns, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    , laptops, iPads). As a result, web-based resources are incorporated into student learning on a daily basis. This has created a truly global classroom for students who, via the Internet, can and do access materials from any country in the world. Students work collaboratively using Google Classroom and a suite of Google apps. Teacher-created websites serve as the textbook with text, video, static images, interactive images, and external links designed to stimulate student growth in scientific literacy, language arts, and mathematics. Images of Earth's systems generated from data collected by Earth orbiting spacecraft are essential tools for understanding sustainability concepts at global, national, regional, and local scales. Images and supporting data from NASA (U.S.), ESA (Europe), and JAXA (Japan) are used to explore Earth's atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. Simulations, time-lapses, and graphical representations of historical and real-time, remote-sensing data stimulate student questions and engage students in learning as they design and test models to explain complex interactions of Earth's systems and feedback loops between natural and human-made environments. As students make meaning of observations and communicate their perceptions and understandings to a variety of audiences, they gain mastery of scientific literacy, language arts skills, and mathematics skills.

  14. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  15. MR imaging assisted radiation therapy planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, M.; Roesler, H.P.; Higer, H.P.; Kutzner, J.; Thelen, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the improvement of the accuracy of treatment portals in radiation therapy of brain tumors with use of MR imaging. After proper processing, the parasagittal MR image showing the largest tumor size and the midline sagittal image were superimposed. With common anatomic landmarks of midline tomogram and lateral simulation radiograph, commensurate reference grids were laid over both images in identical positions. Tumor coordinates were then transferred from the synthesized MR image to the lateral radiograph. Rectangular fields or individual shielding blocks encompassing the tumor could be drawn directly. This new method was used in 17 patients, and results were compared with CT-assisted results

  16. Fall 2015 NASA Internship, and Space Radiation Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This fall, I was fortunate enough to have been able to participate in an internship at NASA's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. I was placed into the Human Health & Performance Directorate, where I was specifically tasked to work with Dr. Zarana Patel, researching the impacts of cosmic level radiation on human cells. Using different laboratory techniques, we were able to examine the cells to see if any damage had been done due to radiation exposure, and if so, how much damage was done. Cell culture samples were exposed at different doses, and fixed at different time points so that we could accumulate a large pool of quantifiable data. After examining quantifiable results relative to the impacts of space radiation on the human body at the cellular and chromosomal level, researchers can defer to different areas of the space program that have to do with astronaut safety, and research and development (extravehicular mobility unit construction, vehicle design and construction, etc.). This experience has been very eye-opening, and I was able to learn quite a bit. I learned some new laboratory techniques, and I did my best to try and learn new ways to balance such a hectic work and school schedule. I also learned some very intimate thing about working at NASA; I learned that far more people want to watch you succeed, rather than watch you fail, and I also learned that this is a place that is alive with innovators and explorers - people who have a sole purpose of exploring space for the betterment of humanity, and not for any other reason. It's truly inspiring. All of these experiences during my internship have impacted me in a really profound way, so much that my educational and career goals are completely different than when I started. I started out as a biotechnology major, and I discovered recently toward the end of the internship, that I don't want to work in a lab, nor was I as enthralled by biological life sciences as a believed myself to be. Taking that all into

  17. Source-space ICA for MEG source imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonmohamadi, Yaqub; Jones, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    One of the most widely used approaches in electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography (MEG) source imaging is application of an inverse technique (such as dipole modelling or sLORETA) on the component extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) (sensor-space ICA + inverse technique). The advantage of this approach over an inverse technique alone is that it can identify and localize multiple concurrent sources. Among inverse techniques, the minimum-variance beamformers offer a high spatial resolution. However, in order to have both high spatial resolution of beamformer and be able to take on multiple concurrent sources, sensor-space ICA + beamformer is not an ideal combination. We propose source-space ICA for MEG as a powerful alternative approach which can provide the high spatial resolution of the beamformer and handle multiple concurrent sources. The concept of source-space ICA for MEG is to apply the beamformer first and then singular value decomposition + ICA. In this paper we have compared source-space ICA with sensor-space ICA both in simulation and real MEG. The simulations included two challenging scenarios of correlated/concurrent cluster sources. Source-space ICA provided superior performance in spatial reconstruction of source maps, even though both techniques performed equally from a temporal perspective. Real MEG from two healthy subjects with visual stimuli were also used to compare performance of sensor-space ICA and source-space ICA. We have also proposed a new variant of minimum-variance beamformer called weight-normalized linearly-constrained minimum-variance with orthonormal lead-field. As sensor-space ICA-based source reconstruction is popular in EEG and MEG imaging, and given that source-space ICA has superior spatial performance, it is expected that source-space ICA will supersede its predecessor in many applications.

  18. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  19. Compton scatter imaging: A promising modality for image guidance in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redler, Gage; Jones, Kevin C; Templeton, Alistair; Bernard, Damian; Turian, Julius; Chu, James C H

    2018-03-01

    Lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires delivering large radiation doses with millimeter accuracy, making image guidance essential. An approach to forming images of patient anatomy from Compton-scattered photons during lung SBRT is presented. To investigate the potential of scatter imaging, a pinhole collimator and flat-panel detector are used for spatial localization and detection of photons scattered during external beam therapy using lung SBRT treatment conditions (6 MV FFF beam). MCNP Monte Carlo software is used to develop a model to simulate scatter images. This model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated phantom images. Patient scatter images are then simulated from 4DCT data. Experimental lung tumor phantom images have sufficient contrast-to-noise to visualize the tumor with as few as 10 MU (0.5 s temporal resolution). The relative signal intensity from objects of different composition as well as lung tumor contrast for simulated phantom images agree quantitatively with experimental images, thus validating the Monte Carlo model. Scatter images are shown to display high contrast between different materials (lung, water, bone). Simulated patient images show superior (~double) tumor contrast compared to MV transmission images. Compton scatter imaging is a promising modality for directly imaging patient anatomy during treatment without additional radiation, and it has the potential to complement existing technologies and aid tumor tracking and lung SBRT image guidance. © 2018 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  20. Radiations and space flight; Quand les radiations font partie du voyage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N. [Groupe de Radiobiologie, Inserm U836, Institut des Neurosciences, 38 - Grenoble (France); Maalouf [CNES, Dept. des Sciences de la Vie, 75 - Paris (France); Vogin, G. [Laboratoire de Radiobiologie, EA3738, Faculte de Medecine de Lyon Sud, 69- Oullins (France)

    2011-02-15

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm{sup 2}/s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), solar radiation (10{sup 8} protons/cm{sup 2}/s in the solar wind), the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm{sup 2}/s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 {mu}Gray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 {mu}Gray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  1. Television imaging transducers for use in radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyaev, V.M.; Krasovskij, S.S.; Surikov, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    For optical television equipment widely used in nuclear energetics it appears to be importance to account for various radiation effects on the device material and units aiming at diminishing negative effects of radiation upon the devices operation. Basing on the experimental results (along with the analysis of literature data) the authors propose a mechanism of radiation effect upon television imaging sensors (TIS). Operation principles and construction of up-to date TIS are briefly described, as well as the characteristics of radiation conditions. Various radiation effects upon the TIS material and construction have been considered. Optimal radiation conditions and levels have been suggested for the equipment operation. The efficiencies of various TIS are compared. 230 refs.; 86 figs.; 4 tabs

  2. Electrostatic images for underwater anisotropic conductive half spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flykt, M.; Lindell, I.; Eloranta, E.

    1998-01-01

    A static image principle makes it possible to derive analytical solutions to some basic geometries for DC fields. The underwater environment is especially difficult both from the theoretical and practical point of view. However, there are increasing demands that also the underwater geological formations should be studied in detail. The traditional image of a point source lies at the mirror point of the original. When anisotropic media is involved, however, the image location can change and the image source may be a continues, sector-like distribution. In this paper some theoretical considerations are carried out in the case where the lower half space can have a very general anisotropy in terms of electrical conductivity, while the upper half space is assumed isotropic. The reflection potential field is calculated for different values of electrical conductivity. (orig.)

  3. Radiation therapy for life-threatening huge laryngeal hemangioma involving pharynx and parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Ming; Lee, Ka-Wo; Huang, Chih-Jen

    2013-04-01

    Adult hemangiomas are rare, slowly progressing vascular tumors. Potential complications include laryngeal involvement or massive tumor burden. A case of recurrent, bulky laryngeal hemangioma involving the parapharyngeal space is presented herein. The clinical course and treatment are described, and a series of MRI studies are compared to demonstrate the treatment response. A 35-year-old woman presented with progressive hoarseness, neck fullness, and intermittent dyspnea caused by a bulky laryngeal hemangioma. Steroid therapy had a limited response. Radiation therapy with a total dose of 40 Gray (Gy) in 20 fractions successfully relieved her symptoms. Image studies after therapy revealed moderate tumor regression. The patient showed no serious complications during the next 2 years of follow-up. Radiation therapy may be effective in intractable and function-threatening laryngeal hemangiomas. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; To, Khiet; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we describe revisions to the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model focusing on updates to probability distribution functions (PDF) representing the uncertainties in the radiation quality factor (QF) model parameters and the dose and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factor (DDREF). We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis. In an earlier work we introduced distinct QFs for leukemia and solid cancer risk predictions, and here we consider liver cancer risks separately because of the higher RBE's reported in mouse experiments compared to other tumors types, and distinct risk factors for liver cancer for astronauts compared to the U.S. The revised model is used to make predictions of fatal cancer and circulatory disease risks for 1-year deep space and International Space Station (ISS) missions, and a 940 day Mars mission. We analyzed the contribution of the various model parameter uncertainties to the overall uncertainty, which shows that the uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors at high LET due to statistical uncertainties and differences across tissue types and mouse strains are the dominant uncertainty. NASA's exposure limits are approached or exceeded for each mission scenario considered. Two main conclusions are made: 1) Reducing the current estimate of about a 3-fold uncertainty to a 2-fold or lower uncertainty will require much more expansive animal carcinogenesis studies in order to reduce statistical uncertainties and understand tissue, sex and genetic variations. 2) Alternative model assumptions such as non-targeted effects, increased tumor lethality and decreased latency at high LET, and non-cancer mortality risks from circulatory diseases could significantly increase risk estimates to several times higher than the NASA limits. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR

  5. Imaging after radiation therapy of thoracic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaye, B.; Wanet, M.; El Hajjam, M.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) is frequent after therapeutic irradiation of thoracic malignancies. Many technique-, treatment-, tumor- and patient-related factors influence the degree of injury sustained by the lung after irradiation. Based on the time interval after the completion of the treatment RILD presents as early and late features characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes, respectively. They are usually confined to the radiation port. Though the typical pattern of RILD is easily recognized after conventional two-dimensional radiation therapy (RT), RILD may present with atypical patterns after more recent types of three or four-dimensional RT treatment. Three atypical patterns are reported: the modified conventional, the mass-like and the scar-like patterns. Knowledge of the various features and patterns of RILD is important for correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. RILD should be differentiated from recurrent tumoral disease, infection and radiation-induced tumors. Due to RILD, the follow-up after RT may be difficult as response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) criteria may be unreliable to assess tumor control particularly after stereotactic ablation RT (SABR). Long-term follow-up should be based on clinical examination and morphological and/or functional investigations including CT, PET-CT, pulmonary functional tests, MRI and PET-MRI. (authors)

  6. Comparison of positron emission tomography/CT and bremsstrahlung imaging following Y-90 radiation synovectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, Thomas W.; Yap, Kenneth S.K.; Cherk, Martin H.; Kalff, Victor; Powell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the results of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with bremsstrahlung imaging following Y-90 radiation synovectomy. All patients referred to our institution for Y-90 radiation synovectomy between July 2011 and February 2012 underwent both PET/CT and bremsstrahlung planar (±single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or SPECT/CT) imaging at 4 or 24 h following administration of Y-90 silicate colloid. PET image acquisition was performed for between 15 and 20min. In patients who underwent SPECT, side-by-side comparison with PET was performed and image quality/resolution scored using a five-point scale. The distribution pattern of Y-90 on PET and bremsstrahlung imaging was compared with the intra- or extra-articular location of Y-90 activity on fused PET/CT. Thirteen joints (11 knees and two ankles) were imaged with both PET/CT and planar bremsstrahlung imaging with 12 joints also imaged with bremsstrahlung SPECT. Of the 12 joints imaged with SPECT, PET image quality/resolution was superior in 11 and inferior in one. PET demonstrated a concordant distribution pattern compared with bremsstrahlung imaging in all scans, with the pattern classified as diffuse in 12 and predominantly focal in one. In all 12 diffuse scans, PET/CT confirmed the Y-90 activity to be located intra-articularly. In the one predominantly focal scan, the fused PET/CT images localised the Y-90 activity to mostly lie in the extra-articular space of the knee. PET/CT can provide superior image quality compared with bremsstrahlung imaging and may enable reliable detection of extra-articular Y-90 activity when there are focal patterns on planar bremsstrahlung imaging.

  7. Toward Imaging of Small Objects with XUV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayrac, Muhammed; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Boran, Yakup; Schuessler, Hans

    The coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) technique has the potential to capture high resolution images of nano- or micron-sized structures when using XUV radiation obtained by high harmonic radiation (HHG) process. When a small object is exposed to XUV radiation, a diffraction pattern of the object is created. The advances in the coherent HHG enable obtaining photon flux sufficient for XUV imaging. The diffractive imaging technique from coherent table top XUV beams have made possible nanometer-scale resolution imaging by replacing the imaging optics with a computer reconstruction algorithm. In this study, we present our initial work on diffractive imaging using a tabletop XUV source. The initial investigation of imaging of a micron-sized mesh with an optimized HHG source is demonstrated. This work was supported in part by the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. A1546 and the Qatar Foundation under the grant NPRP 8-735-1-154. M. Sayrac acknowledges support from the Ministry of National Education of the Republic of Turkey.

  8. Stereo imaging and random array stratified imaging for cargo radiation inspecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Zeng Yu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Stereo Imaging and Random Array Stratified Imaging for cargo container radiation Inspecting. By using dual-line vertical detector array scan, a stereo image of inspected cargo can be obtained and watched with virtual reality view. The random detector array has only one-row of detectors but distributed in a certain horizontal dimension randomly. To scan a cargo container with this random array detector, a 'defocused' image is obtained. By using 'anti-random focusing', one layer of the image can be focused on the background of all defocused images from other layers. A stratified X-ray image of overlapped bike wheels is presented

  9. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  10. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff-Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices.

  11. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff–Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices. (paper)

  12. Mechanism on radiation degradation of Si space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Taylor, S.J.; Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Matsuda, Sumio

    1998-01-01

    Radiation testing of Si n + -p-p + structure space solar cells has revealed an anomalous increase in short-circuit current Isc, followed by an abrupt decrease and cell failure, induced by high fluence electron and proton irradiations. A model to explain these phenomena by expressing the change in carrier concentration p of the base region is proposed in addition to the well-known model where Isc is decreased by minority-carrier lifetime reduction with irradiation. Change in carrier concentration causes broadening the depletion layer to contribute increase in the generated photocurrent and increase in recombination-generation current in the depletion layer, and increase in the resistivity of the base layer to result in the abrupt decrease of Isc and failure of the solar cell. Type conversion from p-type to n-type in base layer has been confirmed by EBIC (electron-beam induced current) and spectral response measurements. Moreover, origins of radiation-induced defects in heavily irradiated Si and generation of deep donor defects have also been examined by using DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) analysis. (author)

  13. Space Radiation Effects on Human Cells: Modeling DNA Breakage, DNA Damage Foci Distribution, Chromosomal Aberrations and Tissue Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A. L.; Huff, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Future long-tem space travel will face challenges from radiation concerns as the space environment poses health risk to humans in space from radiations with high biological efficiency and adverse post-flight long-term effects. Solar particles events may dramatically affect the crew performance, while Galactic Cosmic Rays will induce a chronic exposure to high-linear-energy-transfer (LET) particles. These types of radiation, not present on the ground level, can increase the probability of a fatal cancer later in astronaut life. No feasible shielding is possible from radiation in space, especially for the heavy ion component, as suggested solutions will require a dramatic increase in the mass of the mission. Our research group focuses on fundamental research and strategic analysis leading to better shielding design and to better understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation damage. We present our recent effort to model DNA damage and tissue damage using computational models based on the physics of heavy ion radiation, DNA structure and DNA damage and repair in human cells. Our particular area of expertise include the clustered DNA damage from high-LET radiation, the visualization of DSBs (DNA double strand breaks) via DNA damage foci, image analysis and the statistics of the foci for different experimental situations, chromosomal aberration formation through DSB misrepair, the kinetics of DSB repair leading to a model-derived spectrum of chromosomal aberrations, and, finally, the simulation of human tissue and the pattern of apoptotic cell damage. This compendium of theoretical and experimental data sheds light on the complex nature of radiation interacting with human DNA, cells and tissues, which can lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis later in human life after the space mission.

  14. ALARA and paediatric imaging in radiation therapy: A survey of Canadian paediatric imaging practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgerson, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is little discussion in the literature regarding paediatric imaging dose reduction with respect to conventional imaging carried out in radiotherapy departments. This is in contrast to diagnostic radiography where dose optimization when imaging children is a very current topic. For this reason Canadian radiotherapy clinics were surveyed to look at paediatric imaging practice, knowledge and perspectives with respect to imaging dose reduction. Method: As this was an exploratory study, a questionnaire was developed and sent to radiation therapy clinics across Canada, via email, to assess knowledge of paediatric imaging and dose reduction initiatives. The questionnaire focus was CT simulation and treatment verification imaging of children. Results: Practice and knowledge of paediatric imaging varied across Canada. Forty percent of clinics reported using paediatric specific protocols for CT simulation and 20% of clinics reported using paediatric specific protocols for treatment verification imaging. There was variation in imaging practices among the clinics that reported treating the most children. The survey results show that while some measures are being taken to reduce paediatric imaging dose in radiation therapy, 46.7% of the respondents felt more could be done. Conclusion: The survey demonstrates interest in dose reduction in radiation therapy imaging as well as differences in current practice and knowledge across Canada. Paediatric imaging dose reduction would appear to be an area of practice that would benefit from more study and development of standards of practice

  15. Performances of Kevlar and Polyethylene as radiation shielding on-board the International Space Station in high latitude radiation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; Larosa, Marianna; Picozza, Piergiorgio; Rizzo, Alessandro; Zaconte, Veronica

    2017-05-10

    Passive radiation shielding is a mandatory element in the design of an integrated solution to mitigate the effects of radiation during long deep space voyages for human exploration. Understanding and exploiting the characteristics of materials suitable for radiation shielding in space flights is, therefore, of primary importance. We present here the results of the first space-test on Kevlar and Polyethylene radiation shielding capabilities including direct measurements of the background baseline (no shield). Measurements are performed on-board of the International Space Station (Columbus modulus) during the ALTEA-shield ESA sponsored program. For the first time the shielding capability of such materials has been tested in a radiation environment similar to the deep-space one, thanks to the feature of the ALTEA system, which allows to select only high latitude orbital tracts of the International Space Station. Polyethylene is widely used for radiation shielding in space and therefore it is an excellent benchmark material to be used in comparative investigations. In this work we show that Kevlar has radiation shielding performances comparable to the Polyethylene ones, reaching a dose rate reduction of 32 ± 2% and a dose equivalent rate reduction of 55 ± 4% (for a shield of 10 g/cm 2 ).

  16. Clinical utility of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melki, P.S.; Halimi, P.; Wibault, P.; Doyon, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the diagnostic and prognostic value of MR imaging in chronic progressive radiation myelopathy 9CPRM). In this series, MR imaging showed excellent sensitivity (199%) for the demonstration of radiation-induced lesions of the spinal cord. Fifty percent of the cases showed spinal cord hypertrophy (pseudotumoral, 33%; cystic, 17%) occurring within 8 months of the clinical onset of myelopathy. The remaining 50% showed spinal cord atrophy, which occurred more than 8 months following the onset of myelopathy. These medullary lesions were located at least partially in the radiation field but extended beyond its boundaries in 73% of the cases. MR imaging helped to establish disease prognosis: spinal cord hypertrophy was usually associated with neurologic deterioration and fatal outcome within a mean of 11.5 months; in spinal atrophy, neurologic deficit was often static and survival rates were better

  17. Radiation Dose Risk and Diagnostic Benefit in Imaging Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrescu, Lidia; Rădulescu, Gheorghe-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents many facets of medical imaging investigations radiological risks. The total volume of prescribed medical investigations proves a serious lack in monitoring and tracking of the cumulative radiation doses in many health services. Modern radiological investigations equipment is continuously reducing the total dose of radiation due to improved technologies, so a decrease in per caput dose can be noticed, but the increasing number of investigations has determined a net increase ...

  18. OBJECT-SPACE MULTI-IMAGE MATCHING OF MOBILE-MAPPING-SYSTEM IMAGE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an object-space multi-image matching procedure of terrestrial MMS (Mobile Mapping System image sequences to determine the coordinates of an object point automatically and reliably. This image matching procedure can be applied to find conjugate points of MMS image sequences efficiently. Conventional area-based image matching methods are not reliable to deliver accurate matching results for this application due to image scale variations, viewing angle variations, and object occlusions. In order to deal with these three matching problems, an object space multi-image matching is proposed. A modified NCC (Normalized Cross Correlation coefficient is proposed to measure the similarity of image patches. A modified multi-window matching procedure will also be introduced to solve the problem of object occlusion. A coarse-to-fine procedure with a combination of object-space multi-image matching and multi-window matching is adopted. The proposed procedure has been implemented for the purpose of matching terrestrial MMS image sequences. The ratio of correct matches of this experiment was about 80 %. By providing an approximate conjugate point in an overlapping image manually, most of the incorrect matches could be fixed properly and the ratio of correct matches was improved up to 98 %.

  19. Color image segmentation using perceptual spaces through applets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Color image segmentation using perceptual spaces through applets for determining and preventing diseases in chili peppers. JL González-Pérez, MC Espino-Gudiño, J Gudiño-Bazaldúa, JL Rojas-Rentería, V Rodríguez-Hernández, VM Castaño ...

  20. Subjective assessment of impairment in scale-space-coded images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Majoor, G.M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Direct category scaling and a scaling procedure in accordance with Functional Measurement Theory (Anderson, 1982) have been used to assess impairment in scale-space-coded illlages, displayed on a black-and-white TV monitor. The image of a complex scene was passed through a Gaussian filter of limited

  1. Imaging Primary Lung Cancers in Mice to Study Radiation Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, David G.; Grimm, Jan; Guimaraes, Alexander R.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Perez, Bradford A.; Santiago, Philip M.; Anthony, Nikolas K.; Forbes, Thomas; Doppke, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To image a genetically engineered mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure tumor response to radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The Cre-loxP system was used to generate primary lung cancers in mice with mutation in K-ras alone or in combination with p53 mutation. Mice were serially imaged by micro-CT, and tumor volumes were determined. A comparison of tumor volume by micro-CT and tumor histology was performed. Tumor response to radiation therapy (15.5 Gy) was assessed with micro-CT. Results: The tumor volume measured with free-breathing micro-CT scans was greater than the volume calculated by histology. Nevertheless, this imaging approach demonstrated that lung cancers with mutant p53 grew more rapidly than lung tumors with wild-type p53 and also showed that radiation therapy increased the doubling time of p53 mutant lung cancers fivefold. Conclusions: Micro-CT is an effective tool to noninvasively measure the growth of primary lung cancers in genetically engineered mice and assess tumor response to radiation therapy. This imaging approach will be useful to study the radiation biology of lung cancer.

  2. The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medicine: Radiation Detectors for Morphological Imaging (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late ’70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this series of three lectures I will try to present how high energy physics and medical imaging development have both benefited by t...

  3. The Use of Radiation Detectors in Medicine: Radiation Detectors for Functional Imaging (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    The development of radiation detectors in the field of nuclear and particle physics has had a terrific impact in medical imaging since this latter discipline took off in late ’70 with the invention of the CT scanners. The massive use in High Energy Physics of position sensitive gas detectors, of high Z and high density scintillators coupled to Photomultiplier (PMT) and Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMT), and of solid state detectors has triggered during the last 30 years a series of novel applications in Medical Imaging with ionizing radiation. The accelerated scientific progression in genetics and molecular biology has finally generated what it is now called Molecular Imaging. This field of research presents additional challenges not only in the technology of radiation detector, but more and more in the ASIC electronics, fast digital readout and parallel software. In this series of three lectures I will try to present how high energy physics and medical imaging development have both benefited by t...

  4. 18th International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshops on Radiation Imaging Detectors are held yearly and provide an international forum for discussing current research and developments in the area of position sensitive detectors for radiation imaging, including semiconductor detectors, gas and scintillator-based detectors. Topics include processing and characterization of detector materials, hybridization and interconnect technologies, design of counting or integrating electronics, readout and data acquisition systems, and applications in various scientific and industrial fields. The workshop will have plenary sessions with invited and contributed papers presented orally and in poster sessions. The invited talks will be chosen to review recent advances in different areas covered in the workshop.

  5. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  6. The Radiation Safety Culture: Image Gently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegate, E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to Implementing Safety include Silos of Knowledge, Time, training and Resources. Creating a Safety Culture in Healthcare include Decreased authority gradients, Checklists and audits (QA), Use of structured language (SBAR), Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation Team briefings and debriefings (immediate learning, team building tools), Lifelong learning (PQI). Use of Collective Learning Opportunities - QA and PQI that include Web sites: IG, WFPI, IAEA, ISR and Data Registries: ACR . The Key Principles of Radiation Protection: When do we learn them? For Occupational Workers:Time, Distance and Shielding while those of For Patients: Justification, Optimization and Dose Limits (dose reference levels)

  7. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  8. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  9. Influence of radiation dose on image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmann, S; Aastrand, K [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    When the speed of a recording medium is doubled the background quantum mottle is increased by a factor ..sqrt..2. However, the signal/noise ratio is changed not in proportion to the square root of the exposure, but in a linear fashion, i.e. by a factor 2. The change in the depiction of objects with a very high attenuation difference in relation to its surroundings appears not to be linear, but proportional to the square root of the exposure. Such objects (metal wire meshes, lead bar grids) should thus be avoided in routine evaluation of image quality since they give incomplete information as to image impairment when high-speed recording media are used.

  10. Influence of radiation dose on image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichmann, S.; Aastrand, K.

    1979-01-01

    When the speed of a recording medium is doubled the background quantum mottle is increased by a factor √2. However, the signal/noise ratio is changed not in proportion to the square root of the exposure, but in a linear fashion, i.e. by a factor 2. The change in the depiction of objects with a very high attenuation difference in relation to its surroundings appears not to be linear, but proportional to the square root of the exposure. Such objects (metal wire meshes, lead bar grids) should thus be avoided in routine evaluation of image quality since they give incomplete information as to image impairment when high-speed recording media are used. (Auth.)

  11. What Reliability Engineers Should Know about Space Radiation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBari, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Space radiation in space systems present unique failure modes and considerations for reliability engineers. Radiation effects is not a one size fits all field. Threat conditions that must be addressed for a given mission depend on the mission orbital profile, the technologies of parts used in critical functions and on application considerations, such as supply voltages, temperature, duty cycle, and redundancy. In general, the threats that must be addressed are of two types-the cumulative degradation mechanisms of total ionizing dose (TID) and displacement damage (DD). and the prompt responses of components to ionizing particles (protons and heavy ions) falling under the heading of single-event effects. Generally degradation mechanisms behave like wear-out mechanisms on any active components in a system: Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and Displacement Damage: (1) TID affects all active devices over time. Devices can fail either because of parametric shifts that prevent the device from fulfilling its application or due to device failures where the device stops functioning altogether. Since this failure mode varies from part to part and lot to lot, lot qualification testing with sufficient statistics is vital. Displacement damage failures are caused by the displacement of semiconductor atoms from their lattice positions. As with TID, failures can be either parametric or catastrophic, although parametric degradation is more common for displacement damage. Lot testing is critical not just to assure proper device fi.mctionality throughout the mission. It can also suggest remediation strategies when a device fails. This paper will look at these effects on a variety of devices in a variety of applications. This paper will look at these effects on a variety of devices in a variety of applications. (2) On the NEAR mission a functional failure was traced to a PIN diode failure caused by TID induced high leakage currents. NEAR was able to recover from the failure by reversing the

  12. The effect of space radiation of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Grant E.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Yang, Tracy; Whitney, Monroe

    The long-term effects of irradiation by accelerated heavy ions on the structure and function of the nervous system have not been studied extensively. Although the adult brain is relatively resistant to low LET radiation, cellular studies indicate that individual heavy ions can produce serious membrane lesions and multiple chromatin breaks. Capillary hemorrhages may follow high LET particle irradiation of the developing brain as high RBE effects. Evidence has been accumulating that the glial system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) are relatively sensitive to injury by ionizing radiation. While DNA repair is active in neural systems, it may be assumed that a significant portion of this molecular process is misrepair. Since the expression of cell lethality usually requires cell division, and nerve cells have an extremely low rate of division, it is possible that some of the characteristic changes of premature aging may represent a delayed effect of chromatin misrepair in brain. Altered microcirculation, decreased local metabolism, entanglement and reduction in synaptic density, premature loss of neurons, myelin degeneration, and glial proliferation are late signs of such injuries. HZE particles are very efficient in producing carcinogenic cell transformation, reaching a peak for iron particles. The promotion of viral transformation is also efficient up to an energy transfer of approximately 300 keV/micron. The RBE for carcinogenesis in nerve tissues remains unknown. On the basis of available information concerning HZE particle flux in interplanetary space, only general estimates of the magnitude of the effects of long-term spaceflight on some nervous system parameters may be constructed.

  13. Diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy services (summary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.

    1982-01-01

    In keeping with the mandate of the National Health Planning and Resources Development Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-641) and its Amendments of 1979 (P.L. 96-79), the Radiation Services Planning Task Force of the Orange County Health Planning Council has developed a series of planning components. Each component consists of a technical description and extensive analyses of the separate services compiled from a local survey as well as data obtained from state sources. This report provides an overview as well as a brief description and analyses of each service. Most reference citations are included only in the individual service components. Goals, policy statements, and suggested recommendations are included in each section. The appendices include tables, glossary, selected references, and pertinent documents

  14. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  15. Imaging plates for use with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    1995-01-01

    This review summarizes the principles and performance characteristics of the imaging-plate (IP) X-ray area detector, which is based on the photo-stimulable phosphor BaF(Br,I):Eu 2+ , together with some of its applications at the Photon Factory. The photo-stimulable phosphor can temporarily store an X-ray image. The stored image is reat out by measuring the intensity of luminescence, which is stimulated by an He-Ne laser beam scanning the phosphor surface. The IP has a spatial resolution of 170 μm (FWHM) with a pixel size of 100 x 100 μm and area sizes ranging from 127 x 127 to 201 x 400 mm 2 . The dynamic range is over 1:10 5 . The detective quantum efficiency, which is a function of exposure level, is more than 80% for 8-20 keV X-rays at medium exposure levels. The background noise level is equivalent to less than 3 X-ray photons/pixel of 8 keV. The precision in intensity measurement is 0.5-1% at best. These performance characteristics of the IP depend largely on the performance of the IP readout system. Two applications of the IP to time-resolved measurements are discussed: one is based on a cinema method which achieves a 0.3 s time resolution for 40 exposures of size 127 x 127 mm 2 , and the other uses the IP as a linear detector of length 200 mm with a 23 μs time resolution for a time period of 45 ms, based on the steak-camera method. (au) (17 refs.)

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of rice after seed ground simulated radiation and spaceflight explains the radiation effects of space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Jinming; Liang, Shujian; Lei, Huang; Shenyi, Zhang; Sun, Yeqing

    In previous work, we compared the proteomic profiles of rice plants growing after seed space-flights with ground controls by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and found that the protein expression profiles were changed after seed space environment exposures. Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition in which several interacting factors such as cosmic radiation, microgravity and space magnetic fields are involved. Rice seed is in the process of dormant of plant development, showing high resistance against stresses, so the highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects to seeds. To further investigate the radiation effects of space environment, we performed on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and compared between the proteomes of seed irra-diated plants and seed spaceflight (20th recoverable satellite) plants from the same rice variety. Space ionization shows low-dose but high energy particle effects, for searching the particle effects, ground radiations with the same low-dose (2mGy) but different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3KeV/µm-C, 30KeV/µm-C, 31KeV/µm-Ne, 62.2KeV/µm-C, 500Kev/µm-Fe) were performed; using 2-D DIGE coupled with clustering and principle component analysis (PCA) for data process and comparison, we found that the holistic protein expression patterns of plants irradiated by LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles were most similar to spaceflight. In addition, although space environment presents a low-dose radiation (0.177 mGy/day on the satellite), the equivalent simulated radiation dose effects should still be evaluated: radiations of LET-62.2KeV/µm carbon particles with different cumulative doses (2mGy, 20mGy, 200mGy, 2000mGy) were further carried out and resulted that the 2mGy radiation still shared most similar proteomic profiles with spaceflight, confirming the low-dose effects of space radiation. Therefore, in the protein expression level

  17. Influence of MR imaging in radiation therapy of chest lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, S.E.; Hoppe, R.; Bergin, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the influence of MR detection of additional sites of chest lymphoma on radiation therapy. Chest MR images and CT scans of 56 patients with new or recurrent mediastinal lymphoma obtained within 1 month of each other were retrospectively reviewed. MR images included T1- and T2-weighted SE and STIR sequences. Images were assessed for pleural and extrapleural disease. Radiation portals of patients with pleural or chest wall disease were reevaluated and compared with portals originally designed with CT. MR imaging demonstrated chest wall disease in 15 patients (21 sites). Ten patients also had pleural disease (13 sites). CT identified chest wall disease in four of these patients (five sites) and pleural disease in three patients (five sites). Seven of the 15 patients with chest wall disease were treated with radiation therapy alone. Two of the seven patients had significant modification of radiation portals based on MR findings. Retrospectively, therapy would have been altered in an additional two patients in whom pleural disease was identified at MR. The increased sensitivity of MR in detecting chest wall or pleural disease has important implications for treatment planning in chest wall lymphoma

  18. Radiation-induced optic neuropathy: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Mancuso, A.; Beck, R.; Moster, M.L.; Sedwick, L.A.; Quisling, R.G.; Rhoton, A.L. Jr.; Protzko, E.E.; Schiffman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Optic neuropathy induced by radiation is an infrequent cause of delayed visual loss that may at times be difficult to differentiate from compression of the visual pathways by recurrent neoplasm. The authors describe six patients with this disorder who experienced loss of vision 6 to 36 months after neurological surgery and radiation therapy. Of the six patients in the series, two had a pituitary adenoma and one each had a metastatic melanoma, multiple myeloma, craniopharyngioma, and lymphoepithelioma. Visual acuity in the affected eyes ranged from 20/25 to no light perception. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed sellar and parasellar recurrence of both pituitary adenomas, but the intrinsic lesions of the optic nerves and optic chiasm induced by radiation were enhanced after gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) administration and were clearly distinguishable from the suprasellar compression of tumor. Repeated MR imaging showed spontaneous resolution of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve in a patient who was initially suspected of harboring recurrence of a metastatic malignant melanoma as the cause of visual loss. The authors found the presumptive diagnosis of radiation-induced optic neuropathy facilitated by MR imaging with gadolinium-DTPA. This neuro-imaging procedure may help avert exploratory surgery in some patients with recurrent neoplasm in whom the etiology of visual loss is uncertain

  19. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  20. Radiation-Force Assisted Targeting Facilitates Ultrasonic Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhao

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic molecular imaging employs contrast agents, such as microbubbles, nanoparticles, or liposomes, coated with ligands specific for receptors expressed on cells at sites of angiogenesis, inflammation, or thrombus. Concentration of these highly echogenic contrast agents at a target site enhances the ultrasound signal received from that site, promoting ultrasonic detection and analysis of disease states. In this article, we show that acoustic radiation force can be used to displace targeted contrast agents to a vessel wall, greatly increasing the number of agents binding to available surface receptors. We provide a theoretical evaluation of the magnitude of acoustic radiation force and show that it is possible to displace micron-sized agents physiologically relevant distances. Following this, we show in a series of experiments that acoustic radiation force can enhance the binding of targeted agents: The number of biotinylated microbubbles adherent to a synthetic vessel coated with avidin increases as much as 20-fold when acoustic radiation force is applied; the adhesion of contrast agents targeted to αvβ3 expressed on human umbilical vein endothelial cells increases 27-fold within a mimetic vessel when radiation force is applied; and finally, the image signal-to-noise ratio in a phantom vessel increases up to 25 dB using a combination of radiation force and a targeted contrast agent, over use of a targeted contrast agent alone.

  1. Radiation protection and image quality in dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.A. den; Sprengers, J.H.M.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison is made between radiation protection standards affecting dental X-ray equipment for intra-oral film. The comparison shows that the standards not only promote a reduction of the radiation load on the patient but also, and with more emphasis in the more recent standards, an optimum image quality. These standards can therefore be considered to balance the cost in terms of the radiation load against the benefit of the image quality obtained, a conclusion which explains the lack of strict requirements on tube voltage and the complete absence of requirements on film speed. An evolutionary development of the standards in the course of time can be traced, and future developments can be anticipated. A continuing consultation between the regulatory organizations, the dental profession and the industry is necessary to maintain the cost/benefit balance. (Auth.)

  2. Radiation protection and image quality in dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    den Boer, J A; Sprengers, J H.M. [Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken N.V., Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1980-01-01

    A comparison is made between radiation protection standards affecting dental X-ray equipment for intra-oral film. The comparison shows that the standards not only promote a reduction of the radiation load on the patient but also, and with more emphasis in the more recent standards, an optimum image quality. These standards can therefore be considered to balance the cost in terms of the radiation load against the benefit of the image quality obtained, a conclusion which explains the lack of strict requirements on tube voltage and the complete absence of requirements on film speed. An evolutionary development of the standards in the course of time can be traced, and future developments can be anticipated. A continuing consultation between the regulatory organizations, the dental profession and the industry is necessary to maintain the cost/benefit balance.

  3. Radiation damage assessment by digital correlation of images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.; Salih, S.M.; Cosslett, V.E.

    1974-01-01

    Structural changes in the electron microscopic specimen due to radiation damage are conveniently studied by electron diffraction. However, two disadvantages of this method are that it does not work for amorphous specimens and that it is not sensitive to structural changes that affect only the phase of the structure factor. It has been proposed that a series of successive images taken under minimum exposure conditions could provide additional information in those cases where the relationship between object function and image intensity can be established. In order to test the proposed method, both lattice images and diffraction patterns of coronene crystals were recorded in separate experiments at controlled levels of exposure. (author)

  4. Space Radar Image of Central African Gorilla Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This is a false-color radar image of Central Africa, showing the Virunga Volcano chain along the borders of Rwanda, Zaire and Uganda. This area is home to the endangered mountain gorillas. This C-band L-band image was acquired on April 12, 1994, on orbit 58 of space shuttle Endeavour by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The area is centered at about 1.75 degrees south latitude and 29.5 degrees east longitude. The image covers an area 58 kilometers by 178 kilometers (48 miles by 178 miles). The false-color composite is created by displaying the L-band HH return in red, the L-band HV return in green and the C-band HH return in blue. The dark area in the bottom of the image is Lake Kivu, which forms the border between Zaire (to the left) and Rwanda (to the right). The airport at Goma, Zaire is shown as a dark line just above the lake in the bottom left corner of the image. Volcanic flows from the 1977 eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo are shown just north of the airport. Mt. Nyiragongo is not visible in this image because it is located just to the left of the image swath. Very fluid lava flows from the 1977 eruption killed 70 people. Mt. Nyiragongo is currently erupting (August 1994) and will be a target of observation during the second flight of SIR-C/X-SAR. The large volcano in the center of the image is Mt. Karisimbi (4,500 meters or 14,800 feet). This radar image highlights subtle differences in the vegetation and volcanic flows of the region. The faint lines shown in the purple regions are believed to be the result of agriculture terracing by the people who live in the region. The vegetation types are an important factor in the habitat of the endangered mountain gorillas. Researchers at Rutgers University in New Jersey and the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund in London will use this data to produce vegetation maps of the area to aid in their study of the remaining 650 gorillas in the region. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet

  5. Radiation: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    This discussion of radiation considers the spectrum of electromagnetic energy including light, x-rays, radioactivity, and other waves. Radiation is considered from three aspects; time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought. Several chapters on the history and concepts…

  6. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  7. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu

    2008-08-01

    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  8. Space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr; Charles, L [Alcoa, TN; Buckner, Mark A [Oak Ridge, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bryan, William L [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for space charge dosimeters for extremely low power measurements of radiation in shipping containers. A method includes in situ polling a suite of passive integrating ionizing radiation sensors including reading-out dosimetric data from a first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and a second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor, where the first passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor and the second passive integrating ionizing radiation sensor remain situated where the dosimetric data was integrated while reading-out. Another method includes arranging a plurality of ionizing radiation sensors in a spatially dispersed array; determining a relative position of each of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors to define a volume of interest; collecting ionizing radiation data from at least a subset of the plurality of ionizing radiation sensors; and triggering an alarm condition when a dose level of an ionizing radiation source is calculated to exceed a threshold.

  9. Uniform color space analysis of LACIE image products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Balon, R. J.; Cicone, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis and comparison of image products generated by different algorithms show that the scaling and biasing of data channels for control of PFC primaries lead to loss of information (in a probability-of misclassification sense) by two major processes. In order of importance they are: neglecting the input of one channel of data in any one image, and failing to provide sufficient color resolution of the data. The scaling and biasing approach tends to distort distance relationships in data space and provides less than desirable resolution when the data variation is typical of a developed, nonhazy agricultural scene.

  10. Assessment of neural networks training strategies for histomorphometric analysis of synchrotron radiation medical images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson, E-mail: ameneses@lmp.ufrj.b [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, CP 68509, CEP 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Gomes Pinheiro, Christiano Jorge [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rancoita, Paola [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Mathematics Department, Universita degli Studi di Milano (Italy); Schaul, Tom; Gambardella, Luca Maria [IDSIA (Dalle Molle Institute for Artificial Intelligence), University of Lugano (Switzerland); Schirru, Roberto [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, COPPE, Nuclear Engineering Program, CP 68509, CEP 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de [State University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-21

    Micro-computed tomography ({mu}CT) obtained by synchrotron radiation (SR) enables magnified images with a high space resolution that might be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique for the quantitative analysis of medical images, in particular the histomorphometry (HMM) of bony mass. In the preprocessing of such images, conventional operations such as binarization and morphological filtering are used before calculating the stereological parameters related, for example, to the trabecular bone microarchitecture. However, there is no standardization of methods for HMM based on {mu}CT images, especially the ones obtained with SR X-ray. Notwithstanding the several uses of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in medical imaging, their application to the HMM of SR-{mu}CT medical images is still incipient, despite the potential of both techniques. The contribution of this paper is the assessment and comparison of well-known training algorithms as well as the proposal of training strategies (combinations of training algorithms, sub-image kernel and symmetry information) for feed-forward ANNs in the task of bone pixels recognition in SR-{mu}CT medical images. For a quantitative comparison, the results of a cross validation and a statistical analysis of the results for 36 training strategies are presented. The ANNs demonstrated both very low mean square errors in the validation, and good quality segmentation of the image of interest for application to HMM in SR-{mu}CT medical images.

  11. Assessment of neural networks training strategies for histomorphometric analysis of synchrotron radiation medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga de Moura Meneses, Anderson; Gomes Pinheiro, Christiano Jorge; Rancoita, Paola; Schaul, Tom; Gambardella, Luca Maria; Schirru, Roberto; Barroso, Regina Cely; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2010-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (μCT) obtained by synchrotron radiation (SR) enables magnified images with a high space resolution that might be used as a non-invasive and non-destructive technique for the quantitative analysis of medical images, in particular the histomorphometry (HMM) of bony mass. In the preprocessing of such images, conventional operations such as binarization and morphological filtering are used before calculating the stereological parameters related, for example, to the trabecular bone microarchitecture. However, there is no standardization of methods for HMM based on μCT images, especially the ones obtained with SR X-ray. Notwithstanding the several uses of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in medical imaging, their application to the HMM of SR-μCT medical images is still incipient, despite the potential of both techniques. The contribution of this paper is the assessment and comparison of well-known training algorithms as well as the proposal of training strategies (combinations of training algorithms, sub-image kernel and symmetry information) for feed-forward ANNs in the task of bone pixels recognition in SR-μCT medical images. For a quantitative comparison, the results of a cross validation and a statistical analysis of the results for 36 training strategies are presented. The ANNs demonstrated both very low mean square errors in the validation, and good quality segmentation of the image of interest for application to HMM in SR-μCT medical images.

  12. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  13. Application of Interval Predictor Models to Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy,Daniel P.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for predicting the uncertainty range of an output variable given input-output data. These models are called Interval Predictor Models (IPM) because they yield an interval valued function of the input. This paper develops IPMs having a radial basis structure. This structure enables the formal description of (i) the uncertainty in the models parameters, (ii) the predicted output interval, and (iii) the probability that a future observation would fall in such an interval. In contrast to other metamodeling techniques, this probabilistic certi cate of correctness does not require making any assumptions on the structure of the mechanism from which data are drawn. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs having minimal spread while containing all the data are developed. Constraints for bounding the minimum interval spread over the continuum of inputs, regulating the IPMs variation/oscillation, and centering its spread about a target point, are used to prevent data over tting. Furthermore, we develop an approach for using expert opinion during extrapolation. This metamodeling technique is illustrated using a radiation shielding application for space exploration. In this application, we use IPMs to describe the error incurred in predicting the ux of particles resulting from the interaction between a high-energy incident beam and a target.

  14. Adobe Photoshop images software in the verification of radiation portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Shuigen; Wang Xiaohu; Liu Zhiqiang; Wei Xiyi; Qi Yong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Adobe Photoshop images software in the verification of radiation portal. Methods: The portal and simulation films or CT reconstruction images were imported into computer using a scanner. The image size, gray scale and contrast scale were adjusted with Adobe Photoshop images software, then image registration and measurement were completed. Results: By the comparison between portal image and simulation image, the set-up errors in right-left, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior directions were (1.11 ± 1.37) mm, (1.33 ± 1.25) mm and (0.83±0.79) mm in the head and neck;(1.44±1.03) mm,(1.6±1.52) mm and (1.34±1.17) mm in the thorax;(1.53±0.86) mm, (1.83 ± 1.19) mm and (1.67 ± 0.68)mm in the abdomen; (1.93 ± I. 83) mm, (1.59 ± 1.07)mm and (0.85 ± 0.72)mm in the pelvic cavity. Conclusions: Accurate radiation portal verification and position measurement can be completed by using Adobe Photoshop, which is a simple, safe and reliable method. (authors)

  15. Refraction-contrast bone imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koichi; Sekine, Norio; Sato, Hitoshi; Shikano, Naoto; Shimao, Daisuke; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Oka, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray refraction-contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation with some X-ray energies is successfully performed at B120B2 of SPring-8. The refraction-contrast images of bone samples such as human dried proximal phalanx, wrist, upper cervical vertebrae and sella turcica and as mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray are always better in image contrast and resolution than those of the absorption-contrast images using the synchrotron X-ray and/or the conventional X-ray tube. There is much likeness in the image contrast and resolution of trabeculae bone in the human dried proximal phalanx between X-ray energy of 30 keV at sample-to-film distance of 1 m and those of 40, 50 keV at those of 4,5 m, respectively. High-energy refraction-contrast imaging with suitable sample-to-film distance could reduce the exposure dose in human imaging. In the refraction-contrast imaging of human wrist, upper cervcal vertebrae, sella turcica and mouse proximal femur using the synchrotron X-ray, we can obtain better image contrast and resolution to correctly extract morphological information for diagnosis corresponding to each of the clinical field than those of the absorption-contrast images. (author)

  16. Advanced multi-dimensional imaging of gamma-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodring, Mitchell; Beddingfield, David; Souza, David; Entine, Gerald; Squillante, Michael; Christian, James; Kogan, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The tracking of radiation contamination and distribution has become a high-priority US DOE task. To support DOE needs, Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc. has been actively carrying out research and development on a gamma-radiation imager, RadCam 2000 TM . The imager is based upon a position-sensitive PMT coupled to a scintillator near a MURA coded aperture. The modulated gamma flux detected by the PSPMT is mathematically decoded to produce images that are computer displayed in near real time. Additionally, we have developed a data-manipulation scheme which allows a multi-dimensional data array, comprised of x position, y position, and energy, to be used in the imaging process. In the imager software a gate can be set on a specific isotope energy to reveal where in the field of view the gated data lies or, conversely, a gate can be set on an area in the field of view to examine what isotopes are present in that area. This process is complicated by the FFT decoding process used with the coded aperture; however, we have achieved excellent performance and results are presented here

  17. The public image and image shaping of the nuclear and radiation safety regulatory organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Good image is the basis of trust. It is imminent to build good public image as our society and the public pay close attention to the negative information of relevant government departments which directly or indirectly affects the public image of the government departments in recent years. In order to promote the public image of the government regulatory department, it is required for all staff to figure out how to conscientiously fulfill social responsibility, how to respond to and properly handle emergencies, and how to establish and improve a full-time public relations team. Based on nuclear and radiation safety regulatory task, this paper discussed the necessity of government departments to set up the public image, and how to shape the public image of the nuclear and radiation safety regulatory organization. (author)

  18. Calibration and application of medical particle accelerators to space radiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Park, Miyoung; Chae, Jangsoo; Yoon, Sangpil; Shin, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce radioisotope facilities and medical particle accelerators that can be applied to space radiation experiments and the experimental conditions required by the space radiation experiments. Space radiation experiments on the ground are critical in determining the lifetimes of satellites and in choosing or preparing the appropriate electrical parts to assure the designated mission lifetime. Before the completion of building the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator in Gyeongju, or even after the completion, the currently existing proton accelerators for medical purposes could suggest an alternative plan. We have performed experiments to calibrate medical proton beam accelerators to investigate whether the beam conditions are suitable for applications to space radiation experiments. Based on the calibration results, we propose reference beam operation conditions for space radiation experiments.

  19. [The model of radiation shielding of the service module of the International space station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomenskiĭ, A V; Kuznetsov, V G; Laĭko, Iu A; Bengin, V V; Shurshakov, V A

    2001-01-01

    Compared and contrasted were models of radiation shielding of habitable compartments of the basal Mir module that had been used to calculate crew absorbed doses from space radiation. Developed was a model of the ISS Service module radiation shielding. It was stated that there is a good agreement between experimental shielding function and the one calculated from this model.

  20. Space Radar Image of Manaus region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    These L-band images of the Manaus region of Brazil were acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The left image was acquired on April 12, 1994, and the middle image was acquired on October 3, 1994. The area shown is approximately 8 kilometers by 40 kilometers (5 miles by 25 miles). The two large rivers in this image, the Rio Negro (top) and the Rio Solimoes (bottom), combine at Manaus (west of the image) to form the Amazon River. The image is centered at about 3 degrees south latitude and 61 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top left of the images. The differences in brightness between the images reflect changes in the scattering of the radar channel. In this case, the changes are indicative of flooding. A flooded forest has a higher backscatter at L-band (horizontally transmitted and received) than an unflooded river. The extent of the flooding is much greater in the April image than in the October image, and corresponds to the annual, 10-meter (33-foot) rise and fall of the Amazon River. A third image at right shows the change in the April and October images and was created by determining which areas had significant decreases in the intensity of radar returns. These areas, which appear blue on the third image at right, show the dramatic decrease in the extent of flooded forest, as the level of the Amazon River falls. The flooded forest is a vital habitat for fish and floating meadows are an important source of atmospheric methane. This demonstrates the capability of SIR-C/X-SAR to study important environmental changes that are impossible to see with optical sensors over regions such as the Amazon, where frequent cloud cover and dense forest canopies obscure monitoring of floods. Field studies by boat, on foot and in low-flying aircraft by the University of California at Santa Barbara, in collaboration with Brazil's Instituto Nacional de Pesguisas Estaciais, during

  1. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  2. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-01-01

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N 2 , Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  3. Space charge effect measurements for a multi-channel ionization chamber used for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Amgad

    2012-07-18

    In vivo coronary angiography is one of the techniques used to investigate the heart diseases, by using catheter to inject a contrast medium of a given absorption coefficient into the heart vessels. Taking X-ray images produced by X-ray tube or synchrotron radiation for visualizing the blood in the coronary arteries. As the synchrotron radiation generated by the relativistic charged particle at the bending magnets, which emits high intensity photons in comparison with the X-ray tube. The intensity of the synchrotron radiation is varies with time. However for medical imaging it's necessary to measure the incoming intensity with the integrated time. The thesis work includes building a Multi-channel ionization chamber which can be filled with noble gases N{sub 2}, Ar and Xe with controlled inner pressure up to 30 bar. This affects the better absorption efficiency in measuring the high intensity synchrotron beam fluctuation. The detector is a part of the experimental setup used in the k-edge digital subtraction angiography project, which will be used for correcting the angiography images taken by another detector at the same time. The Multi-channel ionization chamber calibration characteristics are measured using 2 kW X-ray tube with molybdenum anode with characteristic energy of 17.44 keV. According to the fast drift velocity of the electrons relative to the positive ions, the electrons will be collected faster at the anode and will induce current signals, while the positive ions is still drifting towards the cathode. However the accumulation of the slow ions inside the detector disturbs the homogeneous applied electric field and leads to what is known a space charge effect. In this work the space charge effect is measured with very high synchrotron photons intensity from EDR beam line at BESSYII. The strong attenuation in the measured amplitude signal occurs when operating the chamber in the recombination region. A plateau is observed at the amplitude signal when

  4. Prior image constrained scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen; Nett, Brian E; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-02-21

    X-ray scatter is a significant problem in cone-beam computed tomography when thicker objects and larger cone angles are used, as scattered radiation can lead to reduced contrast and CT number inaccuracy. Advances have been made in x-ray computed tomography (CT) by incorporating a high quality prior image into the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we extend this idea to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT image-guided radiation therapy. Specifically, this paper presents a new scatter correction algorithm which uses a prior image with low scatter artifacts to reduce shading artifacts in cone-beam CT images acquired under conditions of high scatter. The proposed correction algorithm begins with an empirical hypothesis that the target image can be written as a weighted summation of a series of basis images that are generated by raising the raw cone-beam projection data to different powers, and then, reconstructing using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. The weight for each basis image is calculated by minimizing the difference between the target image and the prior image. The performance of the scatter correction algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through phantom studies using a Varian 2100 EX System with an on-board imager. Results show that the proposed scatter correction algorithm using a prior image with low scatter artifacts can substantially mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in both full-fan and half-fan modes.

  5. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  6. Restoration of retinal images with space-variant blur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Millán, M. S.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2014), 016023-1-016023-12 ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * space-variant restoration * retinal image Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.859, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/sorel-0424586.pdf

  7. Dark current spectroscopy of space and nuclear environment induced displacement damage defects in pinned photodiode based CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloir, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    CMOS image sensors are envisioned for an increasing number of high-end scientific imaging applications such as space imaging or nuclear experiments. Indeed, the performance of high-end CMOS image sensors has dramatically increased in the past years thanks to the unceasing improvements of microelectronics, and these image sensors have substantial advantages over CCDs which make them great candidates to replace CCDs in future space missions. However, in space and nuclear environments, CMOS image sensors must face harsh radiation which can rapidly degrade their electro-optical performances. In particular, the protons, electrons and ions travelling in space or the fusion neutrons from nuclear experiments can displace silicon atoms in the pixels and break the crystalline structure. These displacement damage effects lead to the formation of stable defects and to the introduction of states in the forbidden bandgap of silicon, which can allow the thermal generation of electron-hole pairs. Consequently, non ionizing radiation leads to a permanent increase of the dark current of the pixels and thus a decrease of the image sensor sensitivity and dynamic range. The aim of the present work is to extend the understanding of the effect of displacement damage on the dark current increase of CMOS image sensors. In particular, this work focuses on the shape of the dark current distribution depending on the particle type, energy and fluence but also on the image sensor physical parameters. Thanks to the many conditions tested, an empirical model for the prediction of the dark current distribution induced by displacement damage in nuclear or space environments is experimentally validated and physically justified. Another central part of this work consists in using the dark current spectroscopy technique for the first time on irradiated CMOS image sensors to detect and characterize radiation-induced silicon bulk defects. Many types of defects are detected and two of them are identified

  8. Overview of CMOS process and design options for image sensor dedicated to space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gonthier, P.; Magnan, P.; Corbiere, F.

    2005-10-01

    With the growth of huge volume markets (mobile phones, digital cameras...) CMOS technologies for image sensor improve significantly. New process flows appear in order to optimize some parameters such as quantum efficiency, dark current, and conversion gain. Space applications can of course benefit from these improvements. To illustrate this evolution, this paper reports results from three technologies that have been evaluated with test vehicles composed of several sub arrays designed with some space applications as target. These three technologies are CMOS standard, improved and sensor optimized process in 0.35μm generation. Measurements are focussed on quantum efficiency, dark current, conversion gain and noise. Other measurements such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and crosstalk are depicted in [1]. A comparison between results has been done and three categories of CMOS process for image sensors have been listed. Radiation tolerance has been also studied for the CMOS improved process in the way of hardening the imager by design. Results at 4, 15, 25 and 50 krad prove a good ionizing dose radiation tolerance applying specific techniques.

  9. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk. Copyright © 2016 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of a Near Infrared Imaging System for Thermographic Imaging of the Space Shuttle during Hypersonic Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Tietjen, Alan B.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Tomek, Deborah M.; Gibson, David M.; Taylor, Jeff C.; Tack, Steve; Bush, Brett C.; Mercer, C. David; Shea, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    observations confirmed the challenge of a long-range acquisition during re-entry. These challenges are due to unknown atmospheric conditions, image saturation, vibration etc. This provides the motivation for the use of a digital NIR sensor. The characterizations performed on the digital NIR sensor included radiometric, spatial, and spectral measurements using blackbody radiation sources and known targets. An assessment of the collected data for three Space Shuttle atmospheric re-entries, STS-119, STS-125, and STS-128, are provided along with a description of various events of interest captured using the digital NIR imaging system such as RCS firings and boundary layer transitions. Lastly the process used to convert the raw image counts to quantitative temperatures is presented along with comparisons to the Space Shuttle's onboard thermocouples.

  11. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Clayton B.; Thompson, Holly M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Chen, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”

  12. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  13. Electro-optical and Magneto-optical Sensing Apparatus and Method for Characterizing Free-space Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Riordan, Jenifer Ann; Sun, Feng-Guo

    2000-08-29

    Apparatus and methods for characterizing free-space electromagnetic energy, and in particular, apparatus/method suitable for real-time two-dimensional far-infrared imaging applications are presented. The sensing technique is based on a non-linear coupling between a low-frequency electric (or magnetic) field and a laser beam in an electro-optic (or magnetic-optic) crystal. In addition to a practical counter-propagating sensing technique, a co-linear approach is described which provides longer radiated field-optical beam interaction length, thereby making imaging applications practical.

  14. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  15. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); St. Andrew' s Medical Institute, St. Andrew' s War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Business and Industrial Statistics Research Group, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment

  16. Monitoring radiation use in cardiac fluoroscopy imaging procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Nathaniel T.; Steiner, Stefan H.; Smith, Ian R.; MacKay, R. Jock

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Timely identification of systematic changes in radiation delivery of an imaging system can lead to a reduction in risk for the patients involved. However, existing quality assurance programs involving the routine testing of equipment performance using phantoms are limited in their ability to effectively carry out this task. To address this issue, the authors propose the implementation of an ongoing monitoring process that utilizes procedural data to identify unexpected large or small radiation exposures for individual patients, as well as to detect persistent changes in the radiation output of imaging platforms. Methods: Data used in this study were obtained from records routinely collected during procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization imaging facility at St. Andrew's War Memorial Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, over the period January 2008-March 2010. A two stage monitoring process employing individual and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control charts was developed and used to identify unexpectedly high or low radiation exposure levels for individual patients, as well as detect persistent changes in the radiation output delivered by the imaging systems. To increase sensitivity of the charts, we account for variation in dose area product (DAP) values due to other measured factors (patient weight, fluoroscopy time, and digital acquisition frame count) using multiple linear regression. Control charts are then constructed using the residual values from this linear regression. The proposed monitoring process was evaluated using simulation to model the performance of the process under known conditions. Results: Retrospective application of this technique to actual clinical data identified a number of cases in which the DAP result could be considered unexpected. Most of these, upon review, were attributed to data entry errors. The charts monitoring the overall system radiation output trends demonstrated changes in equipment performance

  17. Multiplexed phase-space imaging for 3D fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsiou-Yuan; Zhong, Jingshan; Waller, Laura

    2017-06-26

    Optical phase-space functions describe spatial and angular information simultaneously; examples of optical phase-space functions include light fields in ray optics and Wigner functions in wave optics. Measurement of phase-space enables digital refocusing, aberration removal and 3D reconstruction. High-resolution capture of 4D phase-space datasets is, however, challenging. Previous scanning approaches are slow, light inefficient and do not achieve diffraction-limited resolution. Here, we propose a multiplexed method that solves these problems. We use a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the pupil plane of a microscope in order to sequentially pattern multiplexed coded apertures while capturing images in real space. Then, we reconstruct the 3D fluorescence distribution of our sample by solving an inverse problem via regularized least squares with a proximal accelerated gradient descent solver. We experimentally reconstruct a 101 Megavoxel 3D volume (1010×510×500µm with NA 0.4), demonstrating improved acquisition time, light throughput and resolution compared to scanning aperture methods. Our flexible patterning scheme further allows sparsity in the sample to be exploited for reduced data capture.

  18. Image reconstruction in k-space from MR data encoded with ambiguous gradient fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gerrit; Gallichan, Daniel; Weber, Hans; Witschey, Walter R T; Honal, Matthias; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the limits of image reconstruction in k-space are explored when non-bijective gradient fields are used for spatial encoding. The image space analogy between parallel imaging and imaging with non-bijective encoding fields is partially broken in k-space. As a consequence, it is hypothesized and proven that ambiguities can only be resolved partially in k-space, and not completely as is the case in image space. Image-space and k-space based reconstruction algorithms for multi-channel radiofrequency data acquisitions are programmed and tested using numerical simulations as well as in vivo measurement data. The hypothesis is verified based on an analysis of reconstructed images. It is found that non-bijective gradient fields have the effect that densely sampled autocalibration data, used for k-space reconstruction, provide less information than a separate scan of the receiver coil sensitivity maps, used for image space reconstruction. Consequently, in k-space only the undersampling artifact can be unfolded, whereas in image space, it is also possible to resolve aliasing that is caused by the non-bijectivity of the gradient fields. For standard imaging, reconstruction in image space and in k-space is nearly equivalent, whereas there is a fundamental difference with practical consequences for the selection of image reconstruction algorithms when non-bijective encoding fields are involved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  20. Lessons learned using different mouse models during space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xiang; Farris, Alton B.; Wang, Ya

    2016-06-01

    Unlike terrestrial ionizing radiation, space radiation, especially galactic cosmic rays (GCR), contains high energy charged (HZE) particles with high linear energy transfer (LET). Due to a lack of epidemiologic data for high-LET radiation exposure, it is highly uncertain how high the carcinogenesis risk is for astronauts following exposure to space radiation during space missions. Therefore, using mouse models is necessary to evaluate the risk of space radiation-induced tumorigenesis; however, which mouse model is better for these studies remains uncertain. Since lung tumorigenesis is the leading cause of cancer death among both men and women, and low-LET radiation exposure increases human lung carcinogenesis, evaluating space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis is critical to enable safe Mars missions. Here, by comparing lung tumorigenesis obtained from different mouse strains, as well as miR-21 in lung tissue/tumors and serum, we believe that wild type mice with a low spontaneous tumorigenesis background are ideal for evaluating the risk of space radiation-induced lung tumorigenesis, and circulating miR-21 from such mice model might be used as a biomarker for predicting the risk.

  1. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Jeffery C.; Scott, Graham B. I.; Sutton, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS) decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs), but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:25370382

  2. Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery C. Chancellor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projecting a vision for space radiobiological research necessitates understanding the nature of the space radiation environment and how radiation risks influence mission planning, timelines and operational decisions. Exposure to space radiation increases the risks of astronauts developing cancer, experiencing central nervous system (CNS decrements, exhibiting degenerative tissue effects or developing acute radiation syndrome. One or more of these deleterious health effects could develop during future multi-year space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO. Shielding is an effective countermeasure against solar particle events (SPEs, but is ineffective in protecting crew members from the biological impacts of fast moving, highly-charged galactic cosmic radiation (GCR nuclei. Astronauts traveling on a protracted voyage to Mars may be exposed to SPE radiation events, overlaid on a more predictable flux of GCR. Therefore, ground-based research studies employing model organisms seeking to accurately mimic the biological effects of the space radiation environment must concatenate exposures to both proton and heavy ion sources. New techniques in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and other “omics” areas should also be intelligently employed and correlated with phenotypic observations. This approach will more precisely elucidate the effects of space radiation on human physiology and aid in developing personalized radiological countermeasures for astronauts.

  3. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  4. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  5. The role of imaging in pediatric radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowe, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The pediatric radiation oncologist is involved in treating a different spectrum of tumors that is generally seen by the adult radiation oncologist. More than one-third of pediatric patients with malignancies suffer from acute lymphocytic leukemia and lymphomas. Approximately one-quarter of the patients have primary tumors of the brain and central nervous system, while the remaining patients mostly present with mesenchymal sarcomas as opposed to the carcinomas more generally seen in adult practice. Pediatric tumors are frequently deep seated and therefore more difficult to evaluate by physical examination that the typical adult epithelial tumors. In the following sections, the various tumor types and locations are discussed with reference to the specific imaging requirements for each of the groups. This is preceded by a brief introduction to modern radiation oncology in order to clarify the role of these modalities

  6. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, J., E-mail: jinhun.joung@nucaremed.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    demonstrated imaging of 3D space, which is the most general and fundamental task in the field of radiological environment imaging. The experiments show quite promising results. In addition, the method is able to provide quantitative information about each distribution, including isotope identification, activity concentration, and the size and shape of radiation sources. Our future studies include employing other detector modules and collimators and developing systems for other applications, such as container truck and conveyor inspections.

  7. Feasibility study of an image slicer for future space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcines, A.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication presents the feasibility study of an image slicer for future space missions, especially for the integral field unit (IFU) of the SUVIT (Solar UV-Visible-IR telescope) spectro-polarimeter on board the Japanese-led solar space mission Solar-C as a backup option. The MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) image slicer concept, originally developed for the European Solar Telescope, has been adapted to the SUVIT requirements. The IFU will reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 10 x 10 arcsec2 into three slits of 0.18 arcsec width by 185.12 arcsec length using flat slicer mirrors of 100 μm width. The layout of MuSICa for Solar-C is telecentric and offers an optical quality limited by diffraction. The entrance for the SUVIT spectro-polarimeter is composed by the three IFU slits and one ordinal long slit to study, using high resolution spectro-polarimetry, the solar atmosphere (Photosphere and Chromosphere) within a spectral range between 520 nm (optionally 280 nm) and 1,100 nm.

  8. The All Terrain Bio nano Gear for Space Radiation Detection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ummat, Ajay; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses about the relevance of detecting space radiations which are very harmful and pose numerous health issues for astronauts. There are many ways to detect radiations, but we present a non-invasive way of detecting them in real-time while an astronaut is in the mission. All Terrain Bio-nano (ATB) gear system is one such concept where we propose to detect various levels of space radiations depending on their intensity and warn the astronaut of probable biological damage. A basic framework for radiation detection system which utilizes bio-nano machines is discussed. This radiation detection system is termed as 'radiation-responsive molecular assembly' (RMA) for the detection of space radiations. Our objective is to create a device which could detect space radiations by creating an environment equivalent to human cells within its structure and bio-chemically sensing the effects induced therein. For creating such an environment and further bio-chemically sensing space radiations bio-nano systems could be potentially used. These bio-nano systems could interact with radiations and signal based on the intensity of the radiations their relative biological effectiveness. Based on the energy and kind of radiation encountered, a matrix of signals has to be created which corresponds to a particular biological effect. The key advantage of such a design is its ability to interact with the radiation at e molecular scale; characterize its intensity based on energy deposition and relate it to the relative biological effectiveness based on the correspondence established through molecular structures and bond strengths of the bio-nano system

  9. Imaging performance of a dedicated radiation transparent RF coil on a 1.0 Tesla inline MRI-linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liney, Gary P; Dong, Bin; Weber, Ewald; Rai, Robba; Destruel, Aurelien; Garcia-Alvarez, Roberto; Manton, David; Jelen, Urszula; Zhang, Kevin; Barton, Michael; Keall, Paul J; Crozier, Stuart

    2018-05-25

    This work describes the first imaging studies on a 1.0 Tesla inline MRI-Linac using a dedicated transmit/receive RF body coil that has been designed to be completely radio transparent and provide optimum imaging performance over a large patient opening. Methods: A series of experiments was performed on the MRI-Linac to investigate the performance and imaging characteristics of a new dedicated volumetric RF coil: (1) numerical electromagnetic simulations were used to measure transmit efficiency in two patient positions; (2) image quality metrics of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), ghosting and uniformity were assessed in a large diameter phantom with no radiation beam; (3) radiation induced effects were investigated in both the raw data (k-space) and image sequences acquired with simultaneous irradiation; (4) radiation dose was measured with and without image acquisition; (5) RF heating was studied using an MR-compatible fluoroptic thermometer and; (6) the in vivo image quality and versatility of the coil was demonstrated in normal healthy subjects for both supine and standing positions. Results: Daily phantom measurements demonstrated excellent imaging performance with stable SNR over a period of 3 months (42.6 ± 0.9). Simultaneous irradiation produced no statistical change in image quality (p>0.74) and no interference in raw data for a 20  20 cm radiation field. The coil was found to be efficient over large volumes and negligible RF heating was observed. Volunteer scans acquired in both supine and standing positions provided artefact free images with good anatomical visualisation. Conclusions: The first completely radio transparent RF coil for use on a 1.0 Tesla MRI-Linac has been described. There is no impact on either the imaging or dosimetry performance with a simultaneous radiation beam. The open design enables imaging and radiotherapy guidance in a variety of positons. . © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  10. Radiation Exposure and Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer in Early NASA Astronauts: Space for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgart, S. R.; Little, M. P.; Campbell, L. J.; Milder, C. M.; Shavers, M. R.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z. S.

    2018-01-01

    Of the many possible health challenges posed during extended exploratory missions to space, the effects of space radiation on cardiovascular disease and cancer are of particular concern. There are unique challenges to estimating those radiation risks; care and appropriate and rigorous methodology should be applied when considering small cohorts such as the NASA astronaut population. The objective of this work was to establish whether there is evidence for excess cardiovascular disease or cancer mortality in an early NASA astronaut cohort and determine if a correlation exists between space radiation exposure and mortality.

  11. Multi-sensor radiation detection, imaging, and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Glenn Knoll was one of the leaders in the field of radiation detection and measurements and shaped this field through his outstanding scientific and technical contributions, as a teacher, his personality, and his textbook. His Radiation Detection and Measurement book guided me in my studies and is now the textbook in my classes in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley. In the spirit of Glenn, I will provide an overview of our activities at the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program reflecting some of the breadth of radiation detection technologies and their applications ranging from fundamental studies in physics to biomedical imaging and to nuclear security. I will conclude with a discussion of our Berkeley Radwatch and Resilient Communities activities as a result of the events at the Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan more than 4 years ago. - Highlights: • .Electron-tracking based gamma-ray momentum reconstruction. • .3D volumetric and 3D scene fusion gamma-ray imaging. • .Nuclear Street View integrates and associates nuclear radiation features with specific objects in the environment. • Institute for Resilient Communities combines science, education, and communities to minimize impact of disastrous events.

  12. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso, E.R.; Gregorio, M.A. de; Mateo, P.; Esco, R.; Bascon, N.; Morales, F.; Bellosta, R.; Lopez, P.; Gimeno, M.; Roca, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ''open-neck'' (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Radiation myelopathy in over-irradiated patients: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso, E.R. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gregorio, M.A. de [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Mateo, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Esco, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bascon, N. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Morales, F. [Neurology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Bellosta, R. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Lopez, P. [Radiation Oncology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain); Gimeno, M. [Hospital Miguel Servet, Zaragoza (Spain); Roca, M. [Radiology Service, Hospital Miguel Servet, E-50 009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villavieja, J.L. [Radiology Service, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this work is to report the MRI findings in patients with radiation myelopathy due to accidental local over-irradiation syndrome. Eight patients (seven males and one female) were suffering from over-irradiation syndrome as a result of treatments from a malfunctioning linear electron accelerator. The mean accidental estimated dose was 136 Gy delivered to the ``open-neck`` (seven cases) and to the thoracic wall (one case), during a mean of 5.4 sessions (range 1-9 sessions). Paresthesia and weakness in the upper extremities were the earliest symptoms (87.5 %), with evolution to paralysis in all patients. No patient is alive (mean survival time 64 days). In all cases MRI was negative for neurologic lesions in the acute phase (< 90 days from irradiation; Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system). Late signs of radiation myelitis manifested as high-intensity signals on T2-weighted images in three patients, and as Gd-DTPA enhancement of T1-weighted images in one case. Autopsies performed on four patients who died in acute phase showed morphologic alterations in white matter: edema in 75 %, and necrosis and glial reaction as well as obliterative vasculitis in all cases. In cases of over-irradiation, MRI may be normal in acute phase even if the patients have severe neurologic deficit, as positive MRI findings appear only in delayed radiation myelitis. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Light at the end of the tunnel in radiation therapy: molecular imaging in radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.L. Papineni

    2013-01-01

    Accurate dose delivery to malignant tissue in radiotherapy is quite important for enhancing the treatment efficacy while minimizing morbidity of surrounding normal tissues. Advances in therapeutic strategies and diagnosis technologies along with our understanding of the biology of tumor response to radiation therapy have paved way to allow nearly 60% of current cancer patients to be treated with Radiation Therapy. The confluence of molecular imaging and nanotechnology fields are bridging physics and medicine and are quickly making strides in opening new avenues and therapeutic strategies that complement radiation therapy - with a distinct footprint in immunotherapy, adoptive cell therapy, and targeted chemotherapy. Incorporating optical imaging in radiation therapy in my laboratory, we demonstrated that molecular probes can monitor radiation-induced physiological changes at the target and off-target sites using in vivo molecular imaging approaches. Further we show endogenous bioluminescence resulting from whole body irradiation, which is distinct from the Cherenkov radiation. Mice without anesthesia were held in ventilated mouse pie cage and subjected to 5 Gy X-ray irradiation using commercially available X-RAD320 irradiator (1 Gy/min; F2 beam hardening filter 1.5 mm Al, 0.25 mm Cu, 0.75 mm Sn,). The endogenous bioluminescence from the subjects was captured using cooled CCD camera. Significant increase (up to 100 fold) in the amounts of photons released as bioluminescence was detected during 5 min capture from the mice subjected to irradiation compared to that of the control. To determine the early inflammatory response, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity was monitored using L-012 (8-amino-5-chloro-7-phenylpyridol (3,4-d)pyridazine-1,4(2H,3H) dione), a chemiluminescence reporter. L-012 was administered (i.p) after 15 min of irradiation. Chemiluminescence resulting from the irradiation induced ROS activity, possible through the action of the

  15. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D; Green, O; Zeng, Q; Nana, R; Patrick, J; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported into the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green

  16. WE-G-17A-01: Improving Tracking Image Spatial Resolution for Onboard MR Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using the WHISKEE Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y; Mutic, S; Du, D; Green, O [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Zeng, Q; Nana, R; Patrick, J; Shvartsman, S; Dempsey, J [ViewRay Incorporated, Oakwood Village, OH (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the weighted hybrid iterative spiral k-space encoded estimation (WHISKEE) technique to improve spatial resolution of tracking images for onboard MR image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT). Methods: MR tracking images of abdomen and pelvis had been acquired from healthy volunteers using the ViewRay onboard MRIGRT system (ViewRay Inc. Oakwood Village, OH) at a spatial resolution of 2.0mm*2.0mm*5.0mm. The tracking MR images were acquired using the TrueFISP sequence. The temporal resolution had to be traded off to 2 frames per second (FPS) to achieve the 2.0mm in-plane spatial resolution. All MR images were imported into the MATLAB software. K-space data were synthesized through the Fourier Transform of the MR images. A mask was created to selected k-space points that corresponded to the under-sampled spiral k-space trajectory with an acceleration (or undersampling) factor of 3. The mask was applied to the fully sampled k-space data to synthesize the undersampled k-space data. The WHISKEE method was applied to the synthesized undersampled k-space data to reconstructed tracking MR images at 6 FPS. As a comparison, the undersampled k-space data were also reconstructed using the zero-padding technique. The reconstructed images were compared to the original image. The relatively reconstruction error was evaluated using the percentage of the norm of the differential image over the norm of the original image. Results: Compared to the zero-padding technique, the WHISKEE method was able to reconstruct MR images with better image quality. It significantly reduced the relative reconstruction error from 39.5% to 3.1% for the pelvis image and from 41.5% to 4.6% for the abdomen image at an acceleration factor of 3. Conclusion: We demonstrated that it was possible to use the WHISKEE method to expedite MR image acquisition for onboard MR-IGRT systems to achieve good spatial and temporal resolutions simultaneously. Y. Hu and O. green

  17. Imaging analyses of odontogenic infection involving the maxillofacial fascial spaces, with special emphasis on the parapharyngeal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariji, Yoshiko; Gotoh, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Kurita, Kenichi; Natsume, Nagato; Ariji, Eiichiro [Aichi-Gakuin Univ., Nisshin (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate odontogenic infection pathways into the maxillofacial fascial spaces, especially into the parapharyngeal space, in relation to causal tooth and clinical symptoms. CT and MR images were retrospectively investigated in 47 patients with spread of odontogenic infection into the maxillofacial spaces. The involvement of spaces was evaluated based on lateral asymmetry of their shapes and density on CT images or intensity on MR images. Involvement on images was observed in 70%, 49%, and 30% of the submandibular, the masticator, and the parapharyngeal spaces, respectively. Patients with submandibular space involvement often had spontaneous pain. Of 14 patients with parapharyngeal space involvement, 8 patients showed dysphagia and/or fever, and 13 patients showed involvement of the mandibular molar as a cause of infection. All of these 14 patients also had submandibular space involvement, while only 7 patients (50%) showed changes in the medial pterygoid muscle. The fat layer between the medial pterygoid muscle and parapharyngeal space was maintained in 11 of 14 (79%) patients with parapharyngeal involvement. CT and MR images clearly demonstrated the spread of odontogenic infection into the maxillofacial spaces. Involvement of the parapharyngeal space was mostly caused by infection originating in the mandibular molar, and was considered to be secondary spread from the submandibular space and/or medial pterygoid muscle. (author)

  18. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Ursula; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [Departments of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang [Nuclear Medicine, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.nestle@uniklinik-freiburg.de

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required. (topical review)

  19. Biological imaging in radiation therapy: role of positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Ursula; Weber, Wolfgang; Hentschel, Michael; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2009-01-07

    In radiation therapy (RT), staging, treatment planning, monitoring and evaluation of response are traditionally based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These radiological investigations have the significant advantage to show the anatomy with a high resolution, being also called anatomical imaging. In recent years, so called biological imaging methods which visualize metabolic pathways have been developed. These methods offer complementary imaging of various aspects of tumour biology. To date, the most prominent biological imaging system in use is positron emission tomography (PET), whose diagnostic properties have clinically been evaluated for years. The aim of this review is to discuss the valences and implications of PET in RT. We will focus our evaluation on the following topics: the role of biological imaging for tumour tissue detection/delineation of the gross tumour volume (GTV) and for the visualization of heterogeneous tumour biology. We will discuss the role of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET in lung and head and neck cancer and the impact of amino acids (AA)-PET in target volume delineation of brain gliomas. Furthermore, we summarize the data of the literature about tumour hypoxia and proliferation visualized by PET. We conclude that, regarding treatment planning in radiotherapy, PET offers advantages in terms of tumour delineation and the description of biological processes. However, to define the real impact of biological imaging on clinical outcome after radiotherapy, further experimental, clinical and cost/benefit analyses are required.

  20. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AT AVIATION ALTITUDES AND IN SPACE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sihver, L.; Ploc, Ondřej; Puchalska, M.; Ambrožová, Iva; Kubančák, Ján; Kyselová, Dagmar; Shurshakov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 477-483 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cosmic radiation * radiation field * on-board spacecraft Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  1. Mapping from Speech to Images Using Continuous State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a system that transforms speech waveforms to animated faces are proposed. The system relies on continuous state space models to perform the mapping, this makes it possible to ensure video with no sudden jumps and allows continuous control of the parameters in 'face space...... a subjective point of view the model is able to construct an image sequence from an unknown noisy speech sequence even though the number of training examples are limited.......'. The performance of the system is critically dependent on the number of hidden variables, with too few variables the model cannot represent data, and with too many overfitting is noticed. Simulations are performed on recordings of 3-5 sec.\\$\\backslash\\$ video sequences with sentences from the Timit database. From...

  2. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  3. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G; Costes, Sylvain V

    2018-04-13

    Accurate assessment of risks of long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration. It is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is a major health risk factor for astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently, there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low-dose, low-dose-rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The NASA GeneLab project ( https://genelab.nasa.gov/ ) aims to provide a detailed library of omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information on radiation exposure for ground-based studies, GeneLab is adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight experiments. GeneLab is the first comprehensive omics database for space-related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments, utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. The GLDS is continually expanding as omics-related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of the space radiation-related data available at GeneLab.

  4. Behaviors study of image registration algorithms in image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lian; Hou Qing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Study the behaviors of image registration algorithms, and analyze the elements which influence the performance of image registrations. Methods: Pre-known corresponding coordinates were appointed for reference image and moving image, and then the influence of region of interest (ROI) selection, transformation function initial parameters and coupled parameter spaces on registration results were studied with a software platform developed in home. Results: Region of interest selection had a manifest influence on registration performance. An improperly chosen ROI resulted in a bad registration. Transformation function initial parameters selection based on pre-known information could improve the accuracy of image registration. Coupled parameter spaces would enhance the dependence of image registration algorithm on ROI selection. Conclusions: It is necessary for clinic IGRT to obtain a ROI selection strategy (depending on specific commercial software) correlated to tumor sites. Three suggestions for image registration technique developers are automatic selection of the initial parameters of transformation function based on pre-known information, developing specific image registration algorithm for specific image feature, and assembling real-time image registration algorithms according to tumor sites selected by software user. (authors)

  5. Application of ultrasound processed images in space: assessing diffuse affectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Poch, A.; Bru, C.; Nicolau, C.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate diffuse affectations in the liver using texture image processing techniques. Ultrasound diagnose equipments are the election of choice to be used in space environments as they are free from hazardous effects on health. However, due to the need for highly trained radiologists to assess the images, this imaging method is mainly applied on focal lesions rather than on non-focal ones. We have conducted a clinical study on 72 patients with different degrees of chronic hepatopaties and a group of control of 18 individuals. All subjects' clinical reports and results of biopsies were compared to the degree of affectation calculated by our computer system , thus validating the method. Full statistical results are given in the present paper showing a good correlation (r=0.61) between pathologist's report and analysis of the heterogenicity of the processed images from the liver. This computer system to analyze diffuse affectations may be used in-situ or via telemedicine to the ground.

  6. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  7. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  8. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo; Peng, Guanyun

    2014-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function

  9. Synchrotron radiation imaging is a powerful tool to image brain microvasculature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mengqi; Sun, Danni; Xie, Yuanyuan; Xia, Jian; Long, Hongyu; Hu, Kai; Xiao, Bo, E-mail: csuxiaobo123456@163.com [Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Guanyun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-03-15

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) imaging is a powerful experimental tool for micrometer-scale imaging of microcirculation in vivo. This review discusses recent methodological advances and findings from morphological investigations of cerebral vascular networks during several neurovascular pathologies. In particular, it describes recent developments in SR microangiography for real-time assessment of the brain microvasculature under various pathological conditions in small animal models. It also covers studies that employed SR-based phase-contrast imaging to acquire 3D brain images and provide detailed maps of brain vasculature. In addition, a brief introduction of SR technology and current limitations of SR sources are described in this review. In the near future, SR imaging could transform into a common and informative imaging modality to resolve subtle details of cerebrovascular function.

  10. Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2004-01-13

    A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.

  11. 13th Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station - Final Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop on Radiation Monitoring for the International Space Station (WRMISS) has been held annually since 1996. The major purpose of WRMISS is to provide a forum for discussion of technical issues concerning radiation dosimetry aboard the International Space Station. This includes discussion of new results, improved instrumentation, detector calibration, and radiation environment and transport models. The goal of WRMISS is to enhance international efforts to provide the best information on the space radiation environment in low-Earth orbit and on the exposure of astronauts and cosmonauts in order to optimize the radiation safety of the ISS crew. During the 13 th Annual WRMISS, held in the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Krakow, Poland) on 8-10 September 2008, participants presented 47 lectures

  12. Innovative, Lightweight Thoraeus RubberTM for MMOD and Space Radiation Shielding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic offers an innovative manufacturing process to yield ultra-lightweight radiation shielding nanocomposites by exploiting the concept of the Thoraeus filter...

  13. High Resolution, Radiation Tolerant Focal Plane Array for Lunar And Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aerius Photonics and its partners propose the development of a high resolution, radiation hardened 3-D FLASH Focal Plane Array (FPA), with performance expected to be...

  14. Multifunctional Carbon Nanotube/Polyethylene Complex Composites for Space Radiation Shielding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polyethylene (PE), due to its high hydrogen content relative to its weight, has been identified by NASA as a promising radiation shielding material against galactic...

  15. LGM2605 as a mitigator of space radiation-induced vascular damage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LignaMed, LLC is a drug development company with a fast track strategy to approval of LGM2605, an oral small molecule for use as a radiation mitigating agent that...

  16. A Monte Carlo transport code study of the space radiation environment using FLUKA and ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, T; Carminati, F; Brun, R; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Empl, A; MacGibbon, J

    2001-01-01

    We report on the progress of a current study aimed at developing a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo computer simulation of the space radiation environment using advanced computer software techniques recently available at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva, Switzerland. By taking the next-generation computer software appearing at CERN and adapting it to known problems in the implementation of space exploration strategies, this research is identifying changes necessary to bring these two advanced technologies together. The radiation transport tool being developed is tailored to the problem of taking measured space radiation fluxes impinging on the geometry of any particular spacecraft or planetary habitat and simulating the evolution of that flux through an accurate model of the spacecraft material. The simulation uses the latest known results in low-energy and high-energy physics. The output is a prediction of the detailed nature of the radiation environment experienced in space as well a...

  17. Low-Power Large-Area Radiation Detector for Space Science Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this task is to develop a low-power, large-area detectors from SiC, taking advantage of very low thermal noise characteristics and high radiation...

  18. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  19. Binary-space-partitioned images for resolving image-based visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Wing; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung; Hanson, Andrew J

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel 2D representation for 3D visibility sorting, the Binary-Space-Partitioned Image (BSPI), to accelerate real-time image-based rendering. BSPI is an efficient 2D realization of a 3D BSP tree, which is commonly used in computer graphics for time-critical visibility sorting. Since the overall structure of a BSP tree is encoded in a BSPI, traversing a BSPI is comparable to traversing the corresponding BSP tree. BSPI performs visibility sorting efficiently and accurately in the 2D image space by warping the reference image triangle-by-triangle instead of pixel-by-pixel. Multiple BSPIs can be combined to solve "disocclusion," when an occluded portion of the scene becomes visible at a novel viewpoint. Our method is highly automatic, including a tensor voting preprocessing step that generates candidate image partition lines for BSPIs, filters the noisy input data by rejecting outliers, and interpolates missing information. Our system has been applied to a variety of real data, including stereo, motion, and range images.

  20. Remote radiation imaging system using a compact gamma-ray imager mounted on a multicopter drone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yuki; Terasaka, Yuta; Kaburagi, Masaaki; Tanifuji, Yuta; Kawabata, Kuniaki; Miyamura, Hiroko; Torii, Tatsuo; Ozawa, Shingo; Izumi, Ryo; Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2018-01-01

    A remote radiation imaging system comprising a lightweight Compton camera and a multicopter drone was developed to remotely and quickly measure radioactive contamination inside the buildings of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS). The drone system is used for measuring detailed radiation distributions in narrow areas, which have been difficult to gauge with conventional aircraft monitoring using helicopters. A measurement of radiation distributions in outdoor environments in the coastal areas of Fukushima, Japan, was performed. The drone system with the Compton camera succeeded in remote observations of dense hotspots from the sky over a contaminated area near the FDNPS. The time required for image reconstruction is approximately 550 s in the case of a 9-m flight altitude for the hotspots with a surface dose rate of several tens of μSv/h. This drone system will be used inside the buildings of the FDNPS for remote measurement of radioactive contamination. (author)

  1. Global Solar radiation in Spain from Satellite Images; Radiacion Solar Global en la Espana Peninsular a partir de images de satelite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Santigosa, L.; Mora Lopez, L.; Sidrach de Cardona Ortin, M.; Navarro Fernandez, A. A.; Varela conde, M.; Cruz Echeandia, M. de la

    2003-07-01

    In the context of the present work a series of algorithms of calculation of the solar radiation from satellite images has been developed. These models, have been applied to three years of images of the Meteosat satellite and the results of the treatment have been extrapolated to long term. For the development of the models of solar radiation registered in ground stations have been used, corresponding all of them to localities of peninsular Spain and the Balearic ones. The maximum periods of data available have been used, supposing in most of the cases periods of between 6 and 9 years. From the results has a year type of images of global solar radiation on horizontal surface. The original resolution of the image of 7x7 km in the study latitudes, has been revaluate to 5x5 km. This supposes to have a value of the typical radiation for every day of the year, each 5x5 km in the study territory. This information, supposes an important advance as far as the knowledge of the space distribution of the radiation solar,impossible to reach about alternative methods. Doubtlessly, the precision of the provided values is not comparable with pyranometric measures in a concrete localise, but it provides a very valid indicator in places in which, it not had previous information. In addition to the radiation maps, tables of the global solar radiation have been prepared on different inclinations, from the global radiation on horizontal surface calculated for every day of the year and in each pixel of the image. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Review of NASA approach to space radiation risk assessments for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2015-02-01

    Long duration space missions present unique radiation protection challenges due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which includes high charge and energy particles and other highly ionizing radiation such as neutrons. Based on a recommendation by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, a 3% lifetime risk of exposure-induced death for cancer has been used as a basis for risk limitation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for low-Earth orbit missions. NASA has developed a risk-based approach to radiation exposure limits that accounts for individual factors (age, gender, and smoking history) and assesses the uncertainties in risk estimates. New radiation quality factors with associated probability distribution functions to represent the quality factor's uncertainty have been developed based on track structure models and recent radiobiology data for high charge and energy particles. The current radiation dose limits are reviewed for spaceflight and the various qualitative and quantitative uncertainties that impact the risk of exposure-induced death estimates using the NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model. NSCR estimates of the number of "safe days" in deep space to be within exposure limits and risk estimates for a Mars exploration mission are described.

  3. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.

  4. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  5. Space Weather Action Plan Ionizing Radiation Benchmarks: Phase 1 update and plans for Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, E. R.; Kozyra, J.; Onsager, T. G.; Posner, A.; Allen, J. E., Jr.; Black, C.; Christian, E. R.; Copeland, K.; Fry, D. J.; Johnston, W. R.; Kanekal, S. G.; Mertens, C. J.; Minow, J. I.; Pierson, J.; Rutledge, R.; Semones, E.; Sibeck, D. G.; St Cyr, O. C.; Xapsos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the near-Earth radiation environment can affect satellite operations, astronauts in space, commercial space activities, and the radiation environment on aircraft at relevant latitudes or altitudes. Understanding the diverse effects of increased radiation is challenging, but producing ionizing radiation benchmarks will help address these effects. The following areas have been considered in addressing the near-Earth radiation environment: the Earth's trapped radiation belts, the galactic cosmic ray background, and solar energetic-particle events. The radiation benchmarks attempt to account for any change in the near-Earth radiation environment, which, under extreme cases, could present a significant risk to critical infrastructure operations or human health. The goal of these ionizing radiation benchmarks and associated confidence levels will define at least the radiation intensity as a function of time, particle type, and energy for an occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and an intensity level at the theoretical maximum for the event. In this paper, we present the benchmarks that address radiation levels at all applicable altitudes and latitudes in the near-Earth environment, the assumptions made and the associated uncertainties, and the next steps planned for updating the benchmarks.

  6. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, E.; Ubeda, C.; Leyton, F.; Miranda, P.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 µGy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 µGy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures.

  7. Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E [Radiology Department, Medicine School, Complutense University and San Carlos University Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ubeda, C [Clinical Sciences Department, Faculty of the Science of Health, Tarapaca University, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile); Leyton, F [Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Miranda, P [Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Avenida Antonio Varas 360, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: eliseov@med.ucm.es

    2008-08-07

    Radiation dose and image quality for paediatric protocols in a biplane x-ray system used for interventional cardiology have been evaluated. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) and image quality using a test object and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been measured for the typical paediatric patient thicknesses (4-20 cm of PMMA). Images from fluoroscopy (low, medium and high) and cine modes have been archived in digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) format. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), figure of merit (FOM), contrast (CO), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and high contrast spatial resolution (HCSR) have been computed from the images. Data on dose transferred to the DICOM header have been used to test the values of the dosimetric display at the interventional reference point. ESAK for fluoroscopy modes ranges from 0.15 to 36.60 {mu}Gy/frame when moving from 4 to 20 cm PMMA. For cine, these values range from 2.80 to 161.10 {mu}Gy/frame. SNR, FOM, CO, CNR and HCSR are improved for high fluoroscopy and cine modes and maintained roughly constant for the different thicknesses. Cumulative dose at the interventional reference point resulted 25-45% higher than the skin dose for the vertical C-arm (depending of the phantom thickness). ESAK and numerical image quality parameters allow the verification of the proper setting of the x-ray system. Knowing the increases in dose per frame when increasing phantom thicknesses together with the image quality parameters will help cardiologists in the good management of patient dose and allow them to select the best imaging acquisition mode during clinical procedures.

  8. NASA GeneLab Project: Bridging Space Radiation Omics with Ground Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Afshin; Miller, Jack; Kidane, Yared H.; Berrios, Daniel; Gebre, Samrawit G.; Costes, Sylvain V.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of risk factors for long-term space missions is critical for human space exploration: therefore it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the biological effects on humans living and working in deep space. Ionizing radiation from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) is one of the major risk factors factor that will impact health of astronauts on extended missions outside the protective effects of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently there are gaps in our knowledge of the health risks associated with chronic low dose, low dose rate ionizing radiation, specifically ions associated with high (H) atomic number (Z) and energy (E). The GeneLab project (genelab.nasa.gov) aims to provide a detailed library of Omics datasets associated with biological samples exposed to HZE. The GeneLab Data System (GLDS) currently includes datasets from both spaceflight and ground-based studies, a majority of which involve exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to detailed information for ground-based studies, we are in the process of adding detailed, curated dosimetry information for spaceflight missions. GeneLab is the first comprehensive Omics database for space related research from which an investigator can generate hypotheses to direct future experiments utilizing both ground and space biological radiation data. In addition to previously acquired data, the GLDS is continually expanding as Omics related data are generated by the space life sciences community. Here we provide a brief summary of space radiation related data available at GeneLab.

  9. q-Space imaging using small magnetic field gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Eizou; Yamaguchi, Kojiro; Yoshikawa, Mayo; Ueoku, Sachiko; Tanaka, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    q-space diffusion analysis is a method to obtain the probability density function of the translational displacement of diffusing water molecules. Several quantities can be extracted from the function that indicate a characteristic of the water diffusion in tissue, e.g., the mean displacement of the diffusion, probability for zero displacement, and kurtosis of the function. These quantities are expected to give information about the microstructure of tissues in addition to that obtained from the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, this method requires high q (i.e., high b) values, which are undesirable in practical applications of the method using clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging equipment. We propose a method to obtain certain quantities that indicate a characteristic of the diffusion and that uses low q-value measurements. The quantities we can obtain are the moments of translational displacement, R; the n-th order moment is defined as the average of R n (n: integer). Kurtosis can also be calculated from the second and fourth moments. We tried to map the moments and kurtosis using clinical MR imaging equipment. We also estimated the inherent errors of the moments obtained. Our method requires precision in measuring spin echo signals and setting q values rather than using high q-value measurements. Although our results show that further error reductions are desired, our method is workable using ordinary clinical MR imaging equipment. (author)

  10. Imaging modalities in radiation treatment planning of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, D.

    2009-01-01

    The radiation therapy is a standard treatment after surgery for most of malignant and some of benignant brain tumors. The restriction in acquiring local tumor control is an inability in realization of high dose without causing radiation necrosis in irradiated area and sparing normal tissues. The development of imaging modalities during the last years is responsible for better treatment results and lower early and late toxicity. Essential is the role of image methods not only in the diagnosis and also in the precise anatomical (during last years also functional) localisation, spreading of the tumor, treatment planning process and the effects of the treatment. Target delineation is one of the great geometrical uncertainties in the treatment planning process. Early studies on the use of CT in treatment planning documented that tumor coverage without CT was clearly inadequate in 20% of the patients and marginal in another 27 %. The image fusion of CT, MBI and PET and also the use of contrast materia helps to get over those restrictions. The use of contrast material enhances the signal in 10 % of the patients with glioblastoma multiform and in a higher percentage of the patients with low-grade gliomas

  11. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions ( 180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  12. Radiation dose reduction and new image modalities development for interventional C-arm imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai

    Cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading health problems and causes of death in the US. Due to the minimally invasive nature of the evolution of image guided techniques, interventional radiological procedures are becoming more common and are preferred in treating many cardiovascular diseases and strokes. In addition, with the recent advances in hardware and device technology, the speed and efficacy of interventional treatment has significantly improved. This implies that more image modalities can be developed based on the current C-arm system and patients treated in interventional suites can potentially experience better health outcomes. However, during the treatment patients are irradiated with substantial amounts of ionizing radiation with a high dose rate (digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with 3muGy/frame and 3D cone beam CT image with 0.36muGy/frame for a Siemens Artis Zee biplane system) and/or a long irradiation time (a roadmapping image sequence can be as long as one hour during aneurysm embolization). As a result, the patient entrance dose is extremely high. Despite the fact that the radiation dose is already substantial, image quality is not always satisfactory. By default a temporal average is used in roadmapping images to overcome poor image quality, but this technique can result in motion blurred images. Therefore, reducing radiation dose while maintaining or even improving the image quality is an important area for continued research. This thesis is focused on improving the clinical applications of C-arm cone beam CT systems in two ways: (1) Improve the performance of current image modalities on the C-arm system. (2) Develop new image modalities based on the current system. To be more specific, the objectives are to reduce radiation dose for current modalities (e.g., DSA, fluoroscopy, roadmapping, and cone beam CT) and enable cone beam CT perfusion and time resolved cone beam CT angiography that can be used to diagnose and triage acute

  13. A factorial experiment on image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrman, E.; Persliden, J.

    2005-01-01

    To find if factorial experiments can be used in the optimisation of diagnostic imaging, a factorial experiment was performed to investigate some of the factors that influence image quality, kerma area product (KAP) and effective dose (E). In a factorial experiment the factors are varied together instead of one at a time, making it possible to discover interactions between the factors as well as major effects. The factors studied were tube potential, tube loading, focus size and filtration. Each factor was set to two levels (low and high). The influence of the factors on the response variables (image quality, KAP and E) was studied using a direct digital detector. The major effects of each factor on the response variables were estimated as well as the interaction effects between factors. The image quality, KAP and E were mainly influenced by tube loading, tube potential and filtration. There were some active interactions, for example, between tube potential and filtration and between tube loading and filtration. The study shows that factorial experiments can be used to predict the influence of various parameters on image quality and radiation dose. (authors)

  14. Diffraction-enhanced imaging at the UK synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibison, M.; Cheung, K.C.; Siu, K.; Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Hufton, A.; Wilkinson, S.J.; Rogers, K.D.; Round, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Diffraction-Enhanced Imaging (DEI) system, which shares access to Beamline 7.6 on the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), is now in its third year of existence. The system was developed under a European Commission grant PHase Analyser SYstem (PHASY), won during the Fourth Framework. Typical applications continue to be the imaging of small biological specimens, using a beam of 12-17 keV after monochromation and up to 40 mm in width and 1-2 mm in height, although it is planned to investigate other materials as opportunity permits and time becomes available for more routine scientific use. Recent improvements have been made to the optical alignment procedure for setting up the station before imaging: a small laser device can now be set up to send a beam down the X-ray path through the four crystals, and a small photodiode, which has much better signal-to-noise characteristics than the ion chamber normally used for alignment, has been trailed successfully. A 3-D tomographic reconstruction capability has recently been developed and tested for DEI projection image sets, and will be applied to future imaging work on the SRS, in conjunction with volume visualization software. The next generation of DEI system, planned to operate at up to 60 keV on an SRS wiggler station, is in its design stage; it will feature much improved mechanics and mountings, especially for angular control, and a simplified alignment procedure to facilitate the necessary sharing of the SRS station

  15. Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J

    2018-03-01

    Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med 79:1483-1494, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  17. The HERMES dual-radiator ring imaging Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akopov, N; Bailey, K; Bernreuther, S; Bianchi, N; Capitani, G P; Carter, P; Cisbani, E; De Leo, R; De Sanctis, E; De Schepper, D; Dzhordzhadze, V; Filippone, B W; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Hansen, J O; Hommez, B; Iodice, M; Jackson, H E; Jung, P; Kaiser, R; Kanesaka, J; Kowalczyk, R; Lagamba, L; Maas, A; Muccifora, V; Nappi, E; Negodaeva, K; Nowak, Wolf-Dieter; O'Connor, T; O'Neill, T G; Potterveld, D H; Ryckbosch, D; Sakemi, Y; Sato, F; Schwind, A; Shibata, T A; Suetsugu, K; Thomas, E; Tytgat, M; Urciuoli, G M; Van De Kerckhove, K; Van De Vyver, R; Yoneyama, S; Zhang, L F; Zohrabyan, H G

    2002-01-01

    The construction and use of a dual radiator Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector is described. This instrument was developed for the HERMES experiment at DESY which emphasises measurements of semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. It provides particle identification for pions, kaons, and protons in the momentum range from 2 to 15 GeV, which is essential to these studies. The instrument uses two radiators, C sub 4 F sub 1 sub 0 , a heavy fluorocarbon gas, and a wall of silica aerogel tiles. The use of aerogel in a RICH detector has only recently become possible with the development of clear, large, homogeneous and hydrophobic aerogel. A lightweight mirror was constructed using a newly perfected technique to make resin-coated carbon-fiber surfaces of optical quality. The photon detector consists of 1934 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) for each detector half, held in a soft steel matrix to provide shielding against the residual field of the main spectrometer magnet.

  18. Radiation shielding estimates for manned Mars space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Kolomensky, A.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Semenov, V.F.; Demin, V.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the analysis of the required radiation shielding for spacecraft during a Mars flight, the specific effects of solar activity (SA) on the intensity of galactic and solar cosmic rays were taken into consideration. Three spaceflight periods were considered: (1) maximum SA; (2) minimum SA; and (3) intermediate SA, when intensities of both galactic and solar cosmic rays are moderately high. Scenarios of spaceflights utilizing liquid-propellant rocket engines, low-and intermediate-thrust nuclear electrojet engines, and nuclear rocket engines, all of which have been designed in the Soviet Union, are reviewed. Calculations were performed on the basis of a set of standards for radiation protection approved by the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Standards. It was found that the lowest estimated mass of a Mars spacecraft, including the radiation shielding mass, obtained using a combination of a liquid propellant engine with low and intermediate thrust nuclear electrojet engines, would be 500-550 metric tons. (author)

  19. Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyers, R. W.; Tomboulian, B. N.; Crave, Paul D.; Rogers, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    For high-power nuclear-electric spacecraft, the radiator can account for 40% or more of the power system mass and a large fraction of the total vehicle mass. Improvements in the heat rejection per unit mass rely on lower-density and higher-thermal conductivity materials. Current radiators achieve near-ideal surface radiation through high-emissivity coatings, so improvements in heat rejection per unit area can be accomplished only by raising the temperature at which heat is rejected. We have been investigating materials that have the potential to deliver significant reductions in mass density and significant improvements in thermal conductivity, while expanding the feasible range of temperature for heat rejection up to 1000 K and higher. The presentation will discuss the experimental results and models of the heat transfer in matrix-free carbon fiber fins. Thermal testing of other carbon-based fin materials including carbon nanotube cloth and a carbon nanotube composite will also be presented.

  20. Image registration: An essential part of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenman, Julian G.; Miller, Elizabeth P.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Tim J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We believe that a three-dimensional (3D) registration of nonplanning (diagnostic) imaging data with the planning computed tomography (CT) offers a substantial improvement in tumor target identification for many radiation therapy patients. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss our experience to date. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts and treatment planning records of all patients that underwent 3D radiation treatment planning in our department from June 1994 to December 1995, to learn which patients had image registration performed and why it was thought they would benefit from this approach. We also measured how much error would have been introduced into the target definition if the nonplanning imaging data had not been available and only the planning CT had been used. Results: Between June 1994 and December 1995, 106 of 246 (43%) of patients undergoing 3D treatment planning had image registration. Four reasons for performing registration were identified. First, some tumor volumes have better definition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) than on CT. Second, a properly contrasted diagnostic CT sometimes can show the tumor target better than can the planning CT. Third, the diagnostic CT or MR may have been preoperative, with the postoperative planning CT no longer showing the tumor. Fourth, the patient may have undergone cytoreductive chemotherapy so that the postchemotherapy planning CT no longer showed the original tumor volume. In patients in whom the planning CT did not show the tumor volume well an analysis was done to determine how the treatment plan was changed with the addition of a better tumor-defining nonplanning CT or MR. We have found that the use of this additional imaging modality changed the tumor location in the treatment plan at least 1.5 cm for half of the patients, and up to 3.0 cm for ((1)/(4)) of the patients. Conclusions: Multimodality and/or sequential imaging can substantially aid in better tumor

  1. Radiation imaging with optically read out GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunbauer, F. M.; Lupberger, M.; Oliveri, E.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; van Stenis, M.

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging sensors allow for high granularity optical readout of radiation detectors such as MicroPattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). Taking advantage of the high signal amplification factors achievable by MPGD technologies such as Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs), highly sensitive detectors can be realised and employing gas mixtures with strong scintillation yield in the visible wavelength regime, optical readout of such detectors can provide high-resolution event representations. Applications from X-ray imaging to fluoroscopy and tomography profit from the good spatial resolution of optical readout and the possibility to obtain images without the need for extensive reconstruction. Sensitivity to low-energy X-rays and energy resolution permit energy resolved imaging and material distinction in X-ray fluorescence measurements. Additionally, the low material budget of gaseous detectors and the possibility to couple scintillation light to imaging sensors via fibres or mirrors makes optically read out GEMs an ideal candidate for beam monitoring detectors in high energy physics as well as radiotherapy. We present applications and achievements of optically read out GEM-based detectors including high spatial resolution imaging and X-ray fluorescence measurements as an alternative readout approach for MPGDs. A detector concept for low intensity applications such as X-ray crystallography, which maximises detection efficiency with a thick conversion region but mitigates parallax-induced broadening is presented and beam monitoring capabilities of optical readout are explored. Augmenting high resolution 2D projections of particle tracks obtained with optical readout with timing information from fast photon detectors or transparent anodes for charge readout, 3D reconstruction of particle trajectories can be performed and permits the realisation of optically read out time projection chambers. Combining readily available high performance imaging sensors with compatible

  2. ICRP PUBLICATION 123: Assessment of Radiation Exposure of Astronauts in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Bartlett, D.T.; Cool, D.A.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Jia, X.; McAulay, I.R.; Pelliccioni, M.; Petrov, V.; Reitz, G.; Sato, T.

    2013-01-01

    During their occupational activities in space, astronauts are exposed to ionising radiation from natural radiation sources present in this environment. They are, however, not usually classified as being occupationally exposed in the sense of the general ICRP system for radiation protection of workers applied on Earth. The exposure assessment and risk-related approach described in this report is clearly restricted to the special situation in space, and should not be applied to any other exposure situation on Earth. The report describes the terms and methods used to assess the radiation exposure of astronauts, and provides data for the assessment of organ doses. Chapter 1 describes the specific situation of astronauts in space, and the differences in the radiation fields compared with those on Earth. In Chapter 2, the radiation fields in space are described in detail, including galactic cosmic radiation, radiation from the Sun and its special solar particle events, and the radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Chapter 3 deals with the quantities used in radiological protection, describing the Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) system of dose quantities, and subsequently presenting the special approach for applications in space; due to the strong contribution of heavy ions in the radiation field, radiation weighting is based on the radiation quality factor, Q, instead of the radiation weighting factor, w R . In Chapter 4, the methods of fluence and dose measurement in space are described, including instrumentation for fluence measurements, radiation spectrometry, and area and individual monitoring. The use of biomarkers for the assessment of mission doses is also described. The methods of determining quantities describing the radiation fields within a spacecraft are given in Chapter 5. Radiation transport calculations are the most important tool. Some physical data used in radiation transport codes are presented, and the various codes used for calculations in high

  3. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  4. A novel DC Magnetron sputtering facility for space research and synchrotron radiation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, A.M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pareschi, G.

    1998-01-01

    A new DC magnetron sputtering facility has been build up at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI), specially designed to enable uniform coatings of large area curved optics, such as Wolter-I mirror optics used in space telescopes and curved optics used in synchrotron radiation facilities...

  5. Space-type radiation induces multimodal responses in the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, David; Gill, Kirandeep; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Koturbash, Igor; Nelson, Gregory; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Boerma, Marjan; Braun, Jonathan; Cheema, Amrita K

    2017-08-18

    Space travel is associated with continuous low dose rate exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Pathophysiological manifestations after low dose radiation exposure are strongly influenced by non-cytocidal radiation effects, including changes in the microbiome and host gene expression. Although the importance of the gut microbiome in the maintenance of human health is well established, little is known about the role of radiation in altering the microbiome during deep-space travel. Using a mouse model for exposure to high LET radiation, we observed substantial changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiome. These were accompanied by changes in the abundance of multiple metabolites, which were related to the enzymatic activity of the predicted metagenome by means of metabolic network modeling. There was a complex dynamic in microbial and metabolic composition at different radiation doses, suggestive of transient, dose-dependent interactions between microbial ecology and signals from the host's cellular damage repair processes. The observed radiation-induced changes in microbiota diversity and composition were analyzed at the functional level. A constitutive change in activity was found for several pathways dominated by microbiome-specific enzymatic reactions like carbohydrate digestion and absorption and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, while the activity in other radiation-responsive pathways like phosphatidylinositol signaling could be linked to dose-dependent changes in the abundance of specific taxa. The implication of microbiome-mediated pathophysiology after low dose ionizing radiation may be an unappreciated biologic hazard of space travel and deserves experimental validation. This study provides a conceptual and analytical basis of further investigations to increase our understanding of the chronic effects of space radiation on human health, and points to potential new targets for intervention in adverse radiation

  6. Image slicer manufacturing: from space application to mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, Christophe; Cagnat, Jean-François; Laurent, Florence; Prieto, Eric; Ancourt, Gérard

    2004-09-01

    This presentation aims to show technical and industrial inputs to be taking into account for Image Slicer systems design and development for different types of projects from space application to mass production for multi-IFU instruments. Cybernétix has a strong experience of precision optics assembled thanks to molecular adhesion and have already manufactured 6 prototypes of image slicer subsystem (prototypes of NIRSPEC-IFU, IFS for JWST, MUSE ...) in collaboration with the Laboratoire d"Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) and the Centre de Recherche Astronomique de Lyon (CRAL). After a brief presentation of the principle of manufacturing and assembly, we will focus on the different performances achieved in our prototypes of slicer mirrors, pupil and slit mirrors lines: an accuracy on centre of curvature position better than 15 arsec has been obtained for a stack of 30 slices. The contribution of the slice stacking to this error is lower than 4 arcsec. In spite of very thin surfaces (~ 0.9 x 40 mm for instance), a special process allows to guarantee a surface roughness about 5 nm and very few digs on the slice borders. The WFE of the mini-mirror can also be measured at a stage of the manufacturing. Different environmental tests have shown the withstanding of these assemblies to cryogenic temperature (30 K). Then, we will describe the different solutions (spherical, flat, cylindrical surfaces) and characteristics of an image slicer that can influence difficulties of manufacturing and metrology, cost, schedule and risks with regard to fabrication. Finally, the study of a mass production plan for MUSE (CRAL) composed of 24 Image Slicers of 38 slices, that"s to say 912 slices, will be exposed as an example of what can be do for multi-module instruments.

  7. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L

    2009-01-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  8. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, J.; Andritschke, R.; Hartmann, R.; Herrmann, S.; Holl, P.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Meidinger, N.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.

    2009-03-01

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 × 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  9. Pixel detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, J; Andritschke, R; Hartmann, R; Herrmann, S; Holl, P; Lauf, T; Lechner, P; Lutz, G; Meidinger, N; Porro, M; Richter, R H; Schopper, F; Soltau, H; Strueder, L [MPI Semiconductor Laboratory, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: jft@hll.mpg.de

    2009-03-15

    Pixelated semiconductor detectors for X-ray imaging spectroscopy are foreseen as key components of the payload of various future space missions exploring the x-ray sky. Located on the platform of the new Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite, the eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) instrument will perform an imaging all-sky survey up to an X-ray energy of 10 keV with unprecedented spectral and angular resolution. The instrument will consist of seven parallel oriented mirror modules each having its own pnCCD camera in the focus. The satellite born X-ray observatory SIMBOL-X will be the first mission to use formation-flying techniques to implement an X-ray telescope with an unprecedented focal length of around 20 m. The detector instrumentation consists of separate high- and low energy detectors, a monolithic 128 x 128 DEPFET macropixel array and a pixellated CdZTe detector respectively, making energy band between 0.5 to 80 keV accessible. A similar concept is proposed for the next generation X-ray observatory IXO. Finally, the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on the European Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo will use DEPFET macropixel arrays together with a small X-ray telescope to perform a spatially resolved planetary XRF analysis of Mercury's crust. Here, the mission concepts and their scientific targets are briefly discussed, and the resulting requirements on the detector devices together with the implementation strategies are shown.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope Image, Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were created by the universe's biggest firecracker, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before the United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This HST image of Cas A shows for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the super nova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in January 2000 and January 2002. Image Credit: NASA and HST team (Stoics/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Fesen (Darmouth) and J. Morse ( Univ. of Colorado).

  11. Space radiation measurement of plant seeds boarding on the Shijian-8 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Duicai; Huang Zengxin; Zhao Yali; Wang Genliang; Jia Xianghong; Guo Huijun; Liu Luxiang; Li Chunhua; Zhang Long

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify cause of mutagenesis of plant seeds induced by space flight, especially to ascertain the interrelation between space radiation and mutagenesis, a 'photograph location' experimental setup was designed in this study. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were used to detect space heavy particles. The plant seeds and their position hit by space heavy ions were checked based on relative position between track and seeds in the setup. The low LET part of the spectrum was also measured by thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD, LiF). The results showed that the 'photograph location' experimental method was convenient, practicable and economical. This new method also greatly saved time for microscopical analysis. On Shijian-8 satellite, the average ion flux of space heavy ions was 4.44 ions/cm 2 ·d and the average dosage of low LET space radiation to the plant seeds was 4.79 mGy. (authors)

  12. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Marvin; Ustin, Susan [University of California, Laboratory for Energy-related Health Research, CA (United States); Warman, Edward A [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper satellite images. Eight images acquired between April 22, 1986 and May 15, 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to derive dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM spectral band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The earliest date showing detectable injury 1 km west of the reactor unit was June 16, 1986. Subsequent dates revealed continued expansion of the affected areas to the west, north, and south. The greatest aerial expansion of this area occurred by October 15, 1986, with vegetation changes evident up to 5 km west, 2 km south, and 2 km north of the damaged Reactor Unit 4. By May 11, 1987, further scene changes were due principally to removal and mitigation efforts by the Soviet authorities. Areas showing spectral evidence of vegetation damage during the previous growing season do not show evidence of recovery and reflectance in the TM Bands 4 and 3 remain higher than surrounding vegetation, which infers that the trees are dead. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and the timing of these effects enabled developing an integrated radiation dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These

  13. From 'Image Gently' to image intelligently: a personalized perspective on diagnostic radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerman, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    The risk of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging has been a popular topic in the radiology literature and lay press. Communicating the magnitude of risk to patients and caregivers is problematic because of the uncertainty in estimates derived principally from epidemiological studies of large populations, and alternative approaches are needed to provide a scientific basis for personalized risk estimates. The underlying patient disease and life expectancy greatly influence risk projections. Research into the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced DNA damage and repair challenges the linear no-threshold dose-response assumption and reveals that individuals vary in sensitivity to radiation. Studies of decision-making psychology show that individuals are highly susceptible to irrational biases when judging risks. Truly informed medical decision-making that respects patient autonomy requires appropriate framing of radiation risks in perspective with other risks and with the benefits of imaging. To follow the principles of personalized medicine and treat patients according to their specific phenotypic and personality profiles, diagnostic imaging should optimally be tailored not only to patient size, body region and clinical indication, but also to underlying disease conditions, radio-sensitivity and risk perception and preferences that vary among individuals. (orig.)

  14. BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Arena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.

  15. Gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchia, R.

    1966-01-01

    We have shown that the γ radiation existing in the atmosphere is caused mainly by the Bremsstrahlung of the electrons of the electromagnetic cascades (∼ 50 per cent of the measured radiation), by the 511 keV radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons created in cascades (8 per cent of the measured intensity) and by the Compton γ degradation of this line (30 per cent of the measured intensity). The rest, slightly over 10 per cent, must be attributed to secondary causes such as the nuclear de-excitation γ to the internal Bremsstrahlung of charged particles created in nuclear stars, and to charged particles crossing our detector, since the latter was not fitted with a device for rejecting these particles. Experiments carried out in rockets at Colomb-Bechar confirm these results and have made it possible to detect and measure a primary γ radiation having an intensity of ∼ 2 γ cm 2 s -1 above 100 keV. The primary spectrum obeys an approximate E -2 law. (author) [fr

  16. Cone beam computed tomography radiation dose and image quality assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology has undergone profound changes in the last 30 years. New technologies are available to the dental field, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as one of the most important. CBCT is a catch-all term for a technology comprising a variety of machines differing in many respects: patient positioning, volume size (FOV), radiation quality, image capturing and reconstruction, image resolution and radiation dose. When new technology is introduced one must make sure that diagnostic accuracy is better or at least as good as the one it can be expected to replace. The CBCT brand tested was two versions of Accuitomo (Morita, Japan): 3D Accuitomo with an image intensifier as detector, FOV 3 cm x 4 cm and 3D Accuitomo FPD with a flat panel detector, FOVs 4 cm x 4 cm and 6 cm x 6 cm. The 3D Accuitomo was compared with intra-oral radiography for endodontic diagnosis in 35 patients with 46 teeth analyzed, of which 41 were endodontically treated. Three observers assessed the images by consensus. The result showed that CBCT imaging was superior with a higher number of teeth diagnosed with periapical lesions (42 vs 32 teeth). When evaluating 3D Accuitomo examinations in the posterior mandible in 30 patients, visibility of marginal bone crest and mandibular canal, important anatomic structures for implant planning, was high with good observer agreement among seven observers. Radiographic techniques have to be evaluated concerning radiation dose, which requires well-defined and easy-to-use methods. Two methods: CT dose index (CTDI), prevailing method for CT units, and dose-area product (DAP) were evaluated for calculating effective dose (E) for both units. An asymmetric dose distribution was revealed when a clinical situation was simulated. Hence, the CTDI method was not applicable for these units with small FOVs. Based on DAP values from 90 patient examinations effective dose was estimated for three diagnostic tasks: implant planning in posterior mandible and

  17. [Anthropogenic sources of radiation hazard in the near-Earth space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseev, G A

    2004-01-01

    All plausible artificial radioactive sources entering the near-Earth space (NES) were systematized and consequences of various large radiation accidents and catastrophes to Earth and NES were analyzed. Aggressive "population" of near-Earth orbits by space stations with rotating crews, unmanned research platforms and observatories extends "borderlines" of the noosphere raising at the same time concerns about the noosphere radiation safety and global radioecology. Specifically, consideration is given to the facts of negative effects of space power reactor facilities on results of orbital astrophysical investigations.

  18. Concept of space NPP radiation safety and its realization in the Kosmos-1900 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, G.M.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Serbin, V.I.; Tyugin, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    A standard NPP for a space vehicle, radioactivity composition and radiation safety systems are considered. Plausible accidents on board the space vehicle and requirements to system operation reliability are discussed. The main reactor characteristics situation on board the Kosmos-1900 satellite and completion of its flight are described. The experience in providing radiation safety of space NPP has shown that it is sufficient to use two independent systems: a drift system and a reactor dispersion system based on separation of its structure by active means

  19. Radiation resistance of thin-film solar cells for space photovoltaic power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, James R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and amorphous silicon alloy solar cells have achieved noteworthy performance and are currently being studied for space power applications. Cadmium sulfide cells had been the subject of much effort but are no longer considered for space applications. A review is presented of what is known about the radiation degradation of thin film solar cells in space. Experimental cadmium telluride and amorphous silicon alloy cells are reviewed. Damage mechanisms and radiation induced defect generation and passivation in the amorphous silicon alloy cell are discussed in detail due to the greater amount of experimental data available.

  20. Characteristic of the radiation field in low earth orbit and in deep space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60 latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  1. Characteristic of the radiation field in low Earth orbit and in deep space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Guenther

    2008-01-01

    The radiation exposure in space by cosmic radiation can be reduced through careful mission planning and constructive measures as example the provision of a radiation shelter, but it cannot be completely avoided. The reason for that are the extreme high energies of particles in this field and the herewith connected high penetration depth in matter. For missions outside the magnetosphere ionizing radiation is recognized as the key factor through its impact on crew health and performance. In absence of sporadic solar particle events the radiation exposure in Low Earth orbit (LEO) inside Spacecraft is determined by the galactic cosmic radiation (protons and heavier ions) and by the protons inside the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), an area where the radiation belt comes closer to the earth surface due to a displacement of the magnetic dipole axes from the Earth's center. In addition there is an albedo source of neutrons produced as interaction products of the primary galactic particles with the atoms of the earth atmosphere. Outside the spacecraft the dose is dominated by the electrons of the horns of the radiation belt located at about 60" latitude in Polar Regions. The radiation field has spatial and temporal variations in dependence of the Earth magnetic field and the solar cycle. The complexity of the radiation field inside a spacecraft is further increased through the interaction of the high energy components with the spacecraft shielding material and with the body of the astronauts. In interplanetary missions the radiation belt will be crossed in a couple of minutes and therefore its contribution to their radiation exposure is quite small, but subsequently the protection by the Earth magnetic field is lost, leaving only shielding measures as exposure reduction means. The report intends to describe the radiation field in space, the interaction of the particles with the magnetic field and shielding material and give some numbers on the radiation exposure in low earth

  2. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-01

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  3. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun

    2009-02-15

    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  4. NASA study of cataract in astronauts (NASCA). Report 1: Cross-sectional study of the relationship of exposure to space radiation and risk of lens opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylack, Leo T; Peterson, Leif E; Feiveson, Alan H; Wear, Mary L; Manuel, F Keith; Tung, William H; Hardy, Dale S; Marak, Lisa J; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-07-01

    The NASA Study of Cataract in Astronauts (NASCA) is a 5-year longitudinal study of the effect of space radiation exposure on the severity/progression of nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular (PSC) lens opacities. Here we report on baseline data that will be used over the course of the longitudinal study. Participants include 171 consenting astronauts who flew at least one mission in space and a comparison group made up of three components: (a) 53 astronauts who had not flown in space, (b) 95 military aircrew personnel, and (c) 99 non-aircrew ground-based comparison subjects. Continuous measures of nuclear, cortical and PSC lens opacities were derived from Nidek EAS 1000 digitized images. Age, demographics, general health, nutritional intake and solar ocular exposure were measured at baseline. Astronauts who flew at least one mission were matched to comparison subjects using propensity scores based on demographic characteristics and medical history stratified by gender and smoking (ever/never). The cross-sectional data for matched subjects were analyzed by fitting customized non-normal regression models to examine the effect of space radiation on each measure of opacity. The variability and median of cortical cataracts were significantly higher for exposed astronauts than for nonexposed astronauts and comparison subjects with similar ages (P=0.015). Galactic cosmic space radiation (GCR) may be linked to increased PSC area (P=0.056) and the number of PSC centers (P=0.095). Within the astronaut group, PSC size was greater in subjects with higher space radiation doses (P=0.016). No association was found between space radiation and nuclear cataracts. Cross-sectional data analysis revealed a small deleterious effect of space radiation for cortical cataracts and possibly for PSC cataracts. These results suggest increased cataract risks at smaller radiation doses than have been reported previously.

  5. Simulation of DNA Damage in Human Cells from Space Radiation Using a Physical Model of Stochastic Particle Tracks and Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Artem; Plante, Ianik; Hada, Megumi; George, Kerry; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    The formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and chromosomal aberrations (CAs) is of great importance in radiation research and, specifically, in space applications. We are presenting a recently developed model, in which chromosomes simulated by NASARTI (NASA Radiation Tracks Image) is combined with nanoscopic dose calculations performed with the Monte-Carlo simulation by RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks) in a voxelized space. The model produces the number of DSBs, as a function of dose for high-energy iron, oxygen, and carbon ions, and He ions. The combined model calculates yields of radiation-induced CAs and unrejoined chromosome breaks in normal and repair deficient cells. The merged computational model is calibrated using the relative frequencies and distributions of chromosomal aberrations reported in the literature. The model considers fractionated deposition of energy to approximate dose rates of the space flight environment. The merged model also predicts of the yields and sizes of translocations, dicentrics, rings, and more complex-type aberrations formed in the G0/G1 cell cycle phase during the first cell division after irradiation.

  6. Radiation durability and functional reliability of polymeric materials in space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruvy, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials are preferred for the light-weight construction of space-systems. Materials in space systems are required to fulfill a complete set of specifications, at utmost reliability, throughout the whole period of service in space, while being exposed to the hazardous influence of the space environment. The major threats of the space environment in orbits at the geostationary altitude (GSO) arise from ionizing radiations, the main constituents of which are highly energetic protons (affecting mainly the surface) and fast electrons (which produce the main threat to the electronic components). The maximum dose of ionizing radiation (within the limits of uncertainty of the calculations) at the surface of a material mounted on a space system, namely the ''Skin-Dose'', is ca. 2500 Mrads/yr. Space systems such as telecommunication satellites are planned to serve for prolonged periods of 30 years and longer. The cumulative predicted dose of ionizing-radiation over such periods presents a severe threat of chemical degradation to mos