WorldWideScience

Sample records for space plasmas subjected

  1. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  2. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  3. Space plasma branch at NRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (Washington, D.C.) formed the Space Plasma Branch within its Plasma Physics Division on July 1. Vithal Patel, former Program Director of Magnetospheric Physics, National Science Foundation, also joined NRL on the same date as Associate Superintendent of the Plasma Physics Division. Barret Ripin is head of the newly organized branch. The Space Plasma branch will do basic and applied space plasma research using a multidisciplinary approach. It consolidates traditional rocket and satellite space experiments, space plasma theory and computation, with laboratory space-related experiments. About 40 research scientists, postdoctoral fellows, engineers, and technicians are divided among its five sections. The Theory and Computation sections are led by Joseph Huba and Joel Fedder, the Space Experiments section is led by Paul Rodriguez, and the Pharos Laser Facility and Laser Experiments sections are headed by Charles Manka and Jacob Grun.

  4. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  5. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  6. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  7. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  8. Transport processes in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Elphic, R.C.; Feldman, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project represents a comprehensive research effort to study plasma and field transport processes relevant for solar-terrestrial interaction, involving the solar wind and imbedded magnetic field and plasma structures, the bow shock of the Earth's magnetosphere and associated waves, the Earth's magnetopause with imbedded flux rope structures and their connection with the Earth, plasma flow in the Earth's magnetotail, and ionospheric beam/wave interactions. The focus of the work was on the interaction between plasma and magnetic and electric fields in the regions where different plasma populations exist adjacent to or superposed on each other. These are the regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, important for plasma and energy transport and rapid energy releases. The research addressed questions about how this interaction takes place, what waves, instabilities, and particle/field interactions are involved, how the penetration of plasma and energy through characteristic boundaries takes place, and how the characteristic properties of the plasmas and fields of the different populations influence each other on different spatial and temporal scales. These topics were investigated through combining efforts in the analysis of plasma and field data obtained through space missions with theory and computer simulations of the plasma behavior

  9. Reconnection in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in space physics is to understand the physical mechanism which governs energy conversion process from magnetic to particle energies, a typical one being the reconnection mechanism. As a possible candidate process of the magnetic reconnection in space, tearing mode instability has been considered. In this paper are discussed selected topics related to the understanding of the tearing mode instability; the effect of the boundary condition, the resonant particle and current filamentation effects, vorticity excitation, and the Hall current effect. 31 refs, 12 figs

  10. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1990-01-01

    . The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulence. The latter "active" type of particles can be subject to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...

  11. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecseli, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent diffusion of charged test particles in electrostatic plasma turbulence is reviewed. Two different types of test particles can be distinguished. First passice particles which are subject to the fluctuating electric fields without themselves contributing to the local space charge. The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulent. The latter ''active'' type of particles can be subjected to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves. In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions for the mean square particle displacements in phase space are discussed. More generally equations for the full probability densities are derived and these are solved analytically in special limits. (orig.)

  12. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  13. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  14. Langmuir turbulence in space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, M.V. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Newman, D.L. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Wang, J.G. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Muschietti, L. [California Univ., Berkeley (United States). Space Sciences Lab.

    1996-11-01

    Recent developments in theoretical and numerical modeling of Langmuir turbulence in space and laboratory plasmas are addressed. Kinetic effects, which have been missing from (fluid) traditional Zakharov equation models are explored using Vlasov code simulations. These studies are motivated by beam-driven Langmuir waves and particle distributions measured in earth`s foreshock region, and by beam-driven Langmuir waves and beams that underlie type III solar radio emission in the solar wind. The nonlinear physical processes studied in these 1-D Vlasov simulations include both wave-wave interactions and acceleration of particles by waves-leading to electron-beam flattening. We study bump-on-tail instabilities as boundary value problems, and determine the interplay in space and time between beam plateau formation, stimulated wave-wave backscatter cascades, and strong turbulence wave-packet collapse. (orig.).

  15. Interrelated experiments in laboratory and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepke, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Many advances in understanding space plasma phenomena have been linked to insight derived from theoretical modelling and/or laboratory experiments. Here are discussed advances for which laboratory experiments played an important role. How the interpretation of the space plasma data was influenced by one or more laboratory experiments is described. The space-motivation of laboratory investigations and the scaling of laboratory plasma parameters to space plasma conditions are discussed. Examples demonstrating how laboratory experiments develop physical insight, benchmark theoretical models, discover unexpected behaviour, establish observational signatures, and pioneer diagnostic methods for the space community are presented. The various device configurations found in space-related laboratory investigations are outlined. A primary objective of this review is to articulate the overlapping scientific issues that are addressable in space and lab experiments. A secondary objective is to convey the wide range of laboratory and space plasma experiments involved in this interdisciplinary alliance. The interrelation ship between plasma experiments in the laboratory and in space has a long history, with numerous demonstrations of the benefits afforded the space community by laboratory results. An experiment's suitability and limitations for investigating space processes can be quantitatively established using dimensionless parameters. Even with a partial match of these parameters, aspects of waves, instabilities, nonlinearities, particle transport, reconnection, and hydrodynamics are addressable in a way useful to observers and modelers of space phenomena. Because diagnostic access to space plasmas, laboratory-experimentalists awareness of space phenomena, and efforts by theorists and funding agencies to help scientists bridge the gap between the space and laboratory communities are increasing, the range of laboratory and space plasma experiments with overlapping scientific

  16. Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  17. Plasma contactor development for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Manzella, David H.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Nelson, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Plasma contactors have been baselined for the Space Station (SS) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thrustor systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this pre-flight development program these will all be brought to breadboard or engineering model status. Development efforts for the plasma contactor include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor unit design selected for the SS is an enclosed keeper, xenon hollow cathode plasma source. This paper discusses the test results and development status of the plasma contactor unit subsystem for the SS.

  18. Creating Space Plasma from the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0179 CREATING SPACE PLASMA FROM THE GROUND Herbert C Carlson UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY Final Report 05/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 05/14/2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 08/14/2012-05/14/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Creating space plasma from...Report (2016) Creating Space Plasma from the Ground Grant FA9550-11-1-0236 AFOSR Program Manager Dr. Kent Miller PI: Herbert C. Carlson Center for

  19. Plasma in outer space and in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgornyj, I.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of modelling a plasma in interplanetary space, in the Earth magnetosphere and in the atmospheres of other planets are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to solar wind behaviour. (B.S.)

  20. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  1. Nongyrotropic particle distributions in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Motschmann

    Full Text Available In nonstationary, strong inhomogeneous or open plasmas particle orbits are rather complicated. If the nonstationary time scale is smaller than the gyration period, if the inhomogeneity scale is smaller than the gyration radius, i.e. at magnetic plasma boundaries, or if the plasma has sources and sinks in phase space, then nongyrotropic distribution functions occur. The stability of such plasma configurations is studied in the framework of linear dispersion theory. In an open plasma nongyrotropy drives unstable waves parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field, whereas in the gyrotropic limit the plasma is stable. In nonstationary plasmas nongyrotropy drives perpendicular unstable waves only. Temporal modulation couples a seed mode with its side lobes and thus it renders unstable wave growth more difficult. As an example of an inhomogeneous plasma a magnetic halfspace is discussed. In a layer with thickness of the thermal proton gyroradius a nongyrotropic distribution is formed which may excite unstable parallel and perpendicular propagating waves.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence · Ionosphere (plasma waves and instabilities · Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities

  2. Nongyrotropic particle distributions in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Motschmann

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In nonstationary, strong inhomogeneous or open plasmas particle orbits are rather complicated. If the nonstationary time scale is smaller than the gyration period, if the inhomogeneity scale is smaller than the gyration radius, i.e. at magnetic plasma boundaries, or if the plasma has sources and sinks in phase space, then nongyrotropic distribution functions occur. The stability of such plasma configurations is studied in the framework of linear dispersion theory. In an open plasma nongyrotropy drives unstable waves parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field, whereas in the gyrotropic limit the plasma is stable. In nonstationary plasmas nongyrotropy drives perpendicular unstable waves only. Temporal modulation couples a seed mode with its side lobes and thus it renders unstable wave growth more difficult. As an example of an inhomogeneous plasma a magnetic halfspace is discussed. In a layer with thickness of the thermal proton gyroradius a nongyrotropic distribution is formed which may excite unstable parallel and perpendicular propagating waves.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence · Ionosphere (plasma waves and instabilities · Magnetospheric physics (plasma waves and instabilities

  3. MHD waveguides in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, N. G.; Fedorov, E. N.; Pilipenko, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    The waveguide properties of two characteristic formations in the Earth's magnetotail-the plasma sheet and the current (neutral) sheet-are considered. The question of how the domains of existence of different types of MHD waveguide modes (fast and slow, body and surface) in the (k, ω) plane and their dispersion properties depend on the waveguide parameters is studied. Investigation of the dispersion relation in a number of particular (limiting) cases makes it possible to obtain a fairly complete qualitative pattern of all the branches of the dispersion curve. Accounting for the finite size of perturbations across the wave propagation direction reveals new additional effects such as a change in the critical waveguide frequencies, the excitation of longitudinal current at the boundaries of the sheets, and a change in the symmetry of the fundamental mode. Knowledge of the waveguide properties of the plasma and current sheets can explain the occurrence of preferred frequencies in the low-frequency fluctuation spectra in the magnetotail. In satellite observations, the type of waveguide mode can be determined from the spectral properties, as well as from the phase relationships between plasma oscillations and magnetic field oscillations that are presented in this paper.

  4. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  5. Dusty Plasmas in Laboratory and in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were directed on the study of dusty plasma structures and dynamics. Dusty plasma is a unique laboratory tool for the investigation of the physics of systems with strong Coulomb interaction. This is due to the fact that the interaction of micron-sized dust particles (usually 0.1-10 µm in diameter) with charges up to 10 2 -10 5 elementary charges may form the ordered structures of liquid and crystal types accessible to observe them at kinetic level, i.e. at level of behavior of separate particles of medium. Dusty plasma is affected by gravity, depending on the size of the solid particles gravity can be the dominating force. Under microgravity conditions in space much weaker forces become important and other new phenomena not achievable on Earth can be observed. In this report results are presented from the experimental studies of dusty plasmas under ground bounded and microgravity conditions. Structural and transport characteristics of the system of macroparticles in dusty plasma were measured in a set of experiments in rf gas-discharge plasmas in microgravity conditions on the board of International Space Station. A number of different phenomena were studied including self-excitation of dusty waves, formation of plasma crystal and plasma liquid regions, different vortices of charged dust grains. The experimental studies of the viscosity of a dust-plasma liquid were carried out. The results of analysis of the obtained data made it possible to estimate the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of a dust-plasma liquid. Dusty plasmas were also studied in a combined dc/rf discharge under microgravity conditions in parabolic flights. The chamber provided a particular advantage for investigation of different dynamical phenomena in dusty plasmas such as sheared laminar flow of a strongly coupled dusty liquid, nozzle flow, boundary layers and instabilities, shock waves formation and propagation, dust particle lane formation and space dust grain separation by their

  6. Micro- to macroscale perspectives on space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is the most accessible of natural collisionless plasma environments; an astrophysical plasma ''laboratory.'' Magnetospheric physics has been in an exploration phase since its origin 35 years ago but new coordinated, multipoint observations, theory, modeling, and simulations are moving this highly interdisciplinary field of plasma science into a new phase of synthesis and understanding. Plasma systems are ones in which binary collisions are relatively negligible and collective behavior beyond the microscale emerges. Most readily accessible natural plasma systems are collisional and nearest-neighbor classical interactions compete with longer-range plasma effects. Except for stars, most space plasmas are collisionless, however, and the effects of electrodynamic coupling dominate. Basic physical processes in such collisionless plasmas occur at micro-, meso-, and macroscales that are not merely reducible to each other in certain crucial ways as illustrated for the global coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere and for the nonlinear dynamics of charged particle motion in the magnetotail. Such global coupling and coherence makes the geospace environment, the domain of solar-terrestrial science, the most highly coupled of all physical geospheres

  7. Dynamic trapping of electrons in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N.; Bohm, M.; Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The neutralization of positive space charge is studied in a case where heavy positive ions are added to a limited region of length L in a collisionfree magnetized plasma. It is found that electrons which become accelerated towards the positive space charge can only achieve a partial neutralization: they overshoot, and the positive region becomes surrounded by negative space charges which screen the electric field from the surroundings. The process is studied both analytically and by computer simulations with consistent results: large positive potentials (U>>kT e /e) can be built up with respect to the surrounding plasma. In the process of growth, the potential maximum traps electrons in transit so that quasineutrality is maintained. The potential U is proportional to the ambient electron temperature and the square of the plasma density increase, but independent of both the ion injection rate and the length L. The process explains several features of the Porcupinge xenon beam injection experiment. It could also have importance for the electrodynamic coupling between plasmas of different densities, e.g. the injection of neutral clouds in the ionosphere of species that becomes rapidly photoionized, or penetration of dense plasma clouds from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. (31 refs.) (authors)

  8. Electron beam interaction with space plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C.; Bolokitin, A. S.

    1999-12-01

    Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification.

  9. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  10. High-Latitude Space Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Nobel Symposium No. 54 on High Latitude Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Plasma Physics. The main purpose of the symposium was to prepare for the European research effort in space plasma physics in the mid-1980's, in which two major constituents are the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) facilities and the Swedish satellite Viking. The physics of the high-latitude ionosphere and how this part of near space is affected by the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field are explored. A detailed discussion is provided on high-latitude magnetospheric physics at altitudes of 1-2 earth radii, the main focus of the Viking project. Specific topics considered include the role of the auroral ionosphere in magnetospheric substorms, the low altitude cleft, ionospheric modification and stimulated emissions, plasma physics on auroral field lines, solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling, cold plasma distribution above a few thousand kilometers at high latitudes, hot electrons in and above the auroral ionosphere, the correlation of auroral kilometric radiation with visual auroras and with Birkeland currents, electrostatic waves in the topside ionosphere, solitary waves and double layers, and an Alfven wave model of auroral arcs

  11. Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, S. B.; Bartolone, L.; Christian, E.; Thieman, J.; Eastman, T.; Lewis, E.

    2011-09-01

    Atoms and sub-atomic particles play a crucial role in the dynamics of our universe, but these particles and the space plasmas comprised of them are often overlooked in popular scientific and educational resources. Although the concepts are pertinent to a wide range of topics, even the most basic particle and plasma physics principles are generally unfamiliar to non-scientists. Educators and public communicators need assistance in explaining these concepts that cannot be easily demonstrated in the everyday world. Active visuals are a highly effective aid to understanding, but resources of this type are currently few in number and difficult to find, and most do not provide suitable context for audience comprehension. To address this need, our team is developing an online multimedia reference library of animations, visualizations, interactivities, and videos resources - Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles. The site targets grades 9-14 and the equivalent in informal education and public outreach. Each ready-to-use product will be accompanied by a supporting explanation at a reading level matching the educational level of the concept. It will also have information on relevant science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) educational standards, activities, lesson plans, related products, links, and suggested uses. These products are intended to stand alone, making them adaptable to the widest range of uses, including scientist presentations, museum displays, educational websites and CDs, teacher professional development, and classroom use. This project is funded by a NASA Education and Public Outreach in Earth and Space Science (EPOESS) grant.

  12. The concept of temperature in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadiotis, G.

    2017-12-01

    Independently of the initial distribution function, once the system is thermalized, its particles are stabilized into a specific distribution function parametrized by a temperature. Classical particle systems in thermal equilibrium have their phase-space distribution stabilized into a Maxwell-Boltzmann function. In contrast, space plasmas are particle systems frequently described by stationary states out of thermal equilibrium, namely, their distribution is stabilized into a function that is typically described by kappa distributions. The temperature is well-defined for systems at thermal equilibrium or stationary states described by kappa distributions. This is based on the equivalence of the two fundamental definitions of temperature, that is (i) the kinetic definition of Maxwell (1866) and (ii) the thermodynamic definition of Clausius (1862). This equivalence holds either for Maxwellians or kappa distributions, leading also to the equipartition theorem. The temperature and kappa index (together with density) are globally independent parameters characterizing the kappa distribution. While there is no equation of state or any universal relation connecting these parameters, various local relations may exist along the streamlines of space plasmas. Observations revealed several types of such local relations among plasma thermal parameters.

  13. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects. Pla....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity.......Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects...

  14. Electron beam interaction with space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Active space experiments involving the controlled injection of electron beams and the formation of artificially generated currents can provide in many cases a calibration of natural phenomena connected with the dynamic interaction of charged particles with fields. They have a long history beginning from the launches of small rockets with electron guns in order to map magnetic fields lines in the Earth's magnetosphere or to excite artificial auroras. Moreover, natural beams of charged particles exist in many space and astrophysical plasmas and were identified in situ by several satellites; a few examples are beams connected with solar bursts, planetary foreshocks or suprathermal fluxes traveling in planetary magnetospheres. Many experimental and theoretical works have been performed in order to interpret or plan space experiments involving beam injection as well as to understand the physics of wave-particle interaction, as wave radiation, beam dynamics and background plasma modification. Recently, theoretical studies of the nonlinear evolution of a thin monoenergetic electron beam injected in a magnetized plasma and interacting with a whistler wave packet have led to new results. The influence of an effective dissipation process connected with whistler wave field leakage out of the beam volume to infinity (that is, effective radiation outside the beam) on the nonlinear evolution of beam electrons distribution in phase space has been studied under conditions relevant to active space experiments and related laboratory modelling. The beam-waves system's evolution reveals the formation of stable nonlinear structures continuously decelerated due to the effective friction imposed by the strongly dissipated waves. The nonlinear interaction between the electron bunches and the wave packet are discussed in terms of dynamic energy exchange, particle trapping, slowing down of the beam, wave dissipation and quasi-linear diffusion. (author)

  15. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in obese Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S H; Fan, S H; Say, Y H

    2012-12-01

    There is a pressing need to better understand the complex biochemical pathways that lead to the pathogenesis of obesity. Increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant capacity have been identified to be associated with obesity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of Malaysian subjects and to evaluate its potential association with obesity and related anthropometric measurements. Plasma TAC of 362 multi-ethnic Malaysian subjects from the Kampar Health Clinic (138 males, 224 females; 124 ethnic Malays, 152 Chinese, 86 Indians; 192 non-obese, 170 obese) was measured using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) 96-well plate assay. Plasma TAC was significantly lower in obese subjects (M +/- SE = 292 +/- 10.4 micromol/L) compared to non-obese subjects (397 +/- 8.58 micromol/L), whereas it was significantly higher in males and those in the 21-30 age group. Those with salty food preference and practising a strict vegetarian diet also had significantly higher plasma TAC. However, no association was found for other dietary habits (coffee intake) and lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking). Plasma TAC was also significantly negatively correlated with diastolic blood pressure, waist and hip circumferences, weight, body mass index, total body fat, % subcutaneous fat, visceral fat level, resting metabolism and % skeletal muscle. Plasma TAC was found to be associated with obesity, strict vegetarian practice, salty food preference and all obesity anthropometric indicators, except systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. Obese people have decreased plasma TAC indicating a compromised systemic antioxidant defence and increased oxidative stress.

  16. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films http://pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/1/18/990/

  17. 'Complexity' and anomalous transport in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tom; Wu Chengchin

    2002-01-01

    'Complexity' has become a hot topic in nearly every field of modern physics. Space plasma is of no exception. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures are the origin of 'complexity' in space plasmas. The intermittent localized interactions, which generate the anomalous diffusion, transport, and evolution of the macroscopic state variables of the overall dynamical system, may be modeled by a triggered (fast) localized chaotic growth equation of a set of relevant order parameters. Such processes would generally pave the way for the global system to evolve into a 'complex' state of long-ranged interactions of fluctuations, displaying the phenomenon of forced and/or self-organized criticality. An example of such type of anomalous transport and evolution in a sheared magnetic field is provided via two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The coarse-grained dissipation due to the intermittent triggered interactions among the magnetic coherent structures induces a 'fluctuation-induced nonlinear instability' that reconfigures the sheared magnetic field into an X-point magnetic geometry (in the mean field sense), leading to the anomalous acceleration of the magnetic coherent structures. A phenomenon akin to such type of anomalous transport and acceleration, the so-called bursty bulk flows, has been commonly observed in the plasma sheet of the Earth's magnetotail

  18. Solitons and nonlinear waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiewicz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent measurements made on the ESA/NASA Cluster mission to the Earth's magnetosphere have provided first detailed measurements of magnetosonic solitons in space. The solitons represent localized enhancements of the magnetic field by a factor of 2-10, or depressions down to 10% of the ambient field. The magnetic field signatures are associated with density depressions/enhancements A two-fluid model of nonlinear electron and ion inertial waves in anisotropic plasmas explains the main properties of these structures. It is shown that warm plasmas support four types of nonlinear waves, which correspond to four linear modes: Alfvenic, magnetosonic, sound, and electron inertial waves. Each of these nonlinear modes has slow and fast versions. It is shown by direct integration that the exponential growth rate of nonlinear modes is balanced by the ion and electron dispersion leading to solutions in the form of trains of solitons or cnoidal waves. By using a novel technique of phase portraits it is shown how the dispersive properties of electron and ion inertial waves change at the transition between warm and hot plasmas, and how trains of solitons ('' mirror modes '') are produced in a hot, anisotropic plasma. The applicability of the model is illustrated with data from Cluster spacecraft. (author)

  19. Creating space plasma from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. C.; Djuth, F. T.; Zhang, L. D.

    2017-01-01

    We have performed an experiment to compare as directly as realizable the ionization production rate by HF radio wave energy versus by solar EUV. We take advantage of the commonality that ionization production by both ground-based high-power HF radio waves and by solar EUV is driven by primary and secondary suprathermal electrons near and above 20 eV. Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) plasma-line amplitudes are used as a measure of suprathermal electron fluxes for ISR wavelengths near those for 430 MHz and are indeed a clean measure of such for those fluxes sufficiently weak to have negligible self-damping. We present data from an HF heating experiment on November 2015 at Arecibo, which even more directly confirm the only prior midlatitude estimate, of order 10% efficiency for conversion of HF energy to ionospheric ionization. We note the theoretical maximum possible is 1/3, while 1% or less reduces the question to near practical irrelevance. Our measurements explicitly confirm the prediction that radio-frequency production of artificial ionospheres can be practicable, even at midlatitudes. Furthermore, that this midlatitude efficiency is comparable to efficiencies measured at high latitudes (which include enhancements unique to high latitudes including magnetic zenith effect, gyrofrequency multiples, and double resonances) requires reexamination of current theoretical thinking about soft-electron acceleration processes in weakly magnetized plasmas. The implications are that electron acceleration by any of a variety of processes may be a fundamental underpinning to energy redistribution in space plasmas.

  20. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W. Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the efficient use of both the propellant mass and power. Efficient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process

  1. Multiprobe characterization of plasma flows for space propulsion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damba, Julius; Argente, P.; Maldonado, P. E.; Cervone, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Conde, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Plasma engines for space propulsion generate plasma jets (also denominated plasma plumes) having supersonic ion groups with typical speeds in the order of tens of kilometers per second, which lies between electron and ion thermal speeds. Studies of the stationary plasma expansion process using a

  2. Laboratory simulation of erosion by space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoferson, L.; Fredga, K.

    1976-04-01

    A laboratory experiment has been made where a plasma stream collides with targets made of different materials of cosmic interest. The experiment can be viewed as a process simulation of the solar wind particle interaction with solid surfaces in space, e.g. cometary dust. Special interest is given to sputtering of OH and Na. It is shown that the erosion of solid particles in interplanetary space at large heliocentric distances is most likely dominated by sputtering and by sublimation near the sun. The heliocentric distance of the limit between the two regions is determined mainly by the material properties of the eroded surface, e.g. heat of sublimation and sputtering yield, a typical distance being 0,5 a.u. It is concluded that the observations of Na in comets at large solar distances, in some cases also near the sun, is most likely to be explained by solar wind sputtering. OH emission in space could be of importance also from 'dry', water-free, matter by means of molecule sputtering. The observed OH production rates in comets are however too large to be explained in this way and are certainly the results of sublimation and dissociation of H 2 O from an icy nucleus. (Auth.)

  3. Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, P K

    2005-01-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, 'with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfven wave theory, observations of Alfven waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects - a large subject! - are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  4. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  5. Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles: Extraordinary Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, B.; Bartolone, L. M.; Christian, E. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Lewis, E.; Thieman, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    A recent survey of museum visitors documented some startling misconceptions at a very basic level. Even in this "science attentive" group, one quarter of the respondents believed that an atom would explode if it lost an electron, one sixth said it would become a new atom or element, and one fifth said they had no idea what would happen. Only one fourth of the respondents indicated they were familiar with plasma as a state of matter. Current resources on these topics are few in number and/or are difficult to locate, and they rarely provide suitable context at a level understandable to high school students and educators or to the interested public. In response to this and other evidence of common misunderstandings of simple particle and plasma science, our team of space scientists and education specialists has embarked upon the development of "Extraordinary Matter: Visualizing Space Plasmas and Particles", an online NASA multimedia library. It is designed to assist formal and informal educators and scientists with explaining concepts that cannot be easily demonstrated in the everyday world. The newly released site, with a target audience equivalent to grades 9-14, includes both existing products, reviewed by our team for quality, and new products we have developed. Addition of products to our site is in large part determined by the results of our front-end evaluation to determine the specific needs, gaps, and priorities of potential audiences. Each ready-to-use product is accompanied by a supporting explanation at a reading level matching the educational level of the concept, along with educational standards addressed, and links to other associated resources. Some will include related educational activities. Products are intended to stand alone, making them adaptable to the widest range of uses, either individually or as a custom-selected group. Uses may include, for example, scientist presentations, museum displays, teacher professional development, and classroom

  6. Plasma simulation in space propulsion : the helicon plasma thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Cavallé, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The Helicon Plasma Thruster (HPT) is an electrodynamic rocket proposed in the early 2000s. It matches an Helicon Plasma Source (HPS), which ionizes the neutral gas and heats up the plasma, with aMagneticNozzle (MN),where the plasma is supersonically accelerated resulting in thrust. Although the core of this thruster inherits the knowledge on Helicon Plasma sources, dated from the seventies, the HPT technology is still not developed and remains below TRL 4. A deep review of the HPT State-of-ar...

  7. A technique for plasma velocity-space cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Skiff, Fred

    2018-05-01

    An advance in experimental plasma diagnostics is presented and used to make the first measurement of a plasma velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. The velocity space correlation function can detect collective fluctuations of plasmas through a localized measurement. An empirical decomposition, singular value decomposition, is applied to this Hermitian matrix in order to obtain the plasma fluctuation eigenmode structure on the ion distribution function. A basic theory is introduced and compared to the modes obtained by the experiment. A full characterization of these modes is left for future work, but an outline of this endeavor is provided. Finally, the requirements for this experimental technique in other plasma regimes are discussed.

  8. Space research and cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1983-08-01

    Scientific progress depends on the development of new instruments. The change from Ptolemaic to Copernican cosmology was to a large extent caused by the introduction of telescopes. Similarly, space research has changed our possibilities to explore our large scale environment so drastically that a thorough revision of cosmic physics is now taking place. A list is given of a large number of fields in which this revision is in progress or is just starting. The new view are based on in situ measurements in the magnetospheres. By extrapolating these measurments to more distant regions, also plasma astrophysics in general has to be reconsidered. In certain important fields the basic approach has to be changed. This applies to cosmogony (origin and evolution of the solar system) and to cosmology. New results from laboratory and magnetospheric measurements extrapolated to cosmogonic conditions give an increased reliability to our treatment of the origin and evolution of the Solar system. Especially the Voyager observations of the saturnian rings give us the hope that we may transfer cosmogony from a playground for more or less crazy ideas into a respectable science. (author)

  9. Plasmas: from space to laboratory. 'Introduction to plasma physics' course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoini, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This course addresses the different basic concepts of plasma physics. After an introduction which addresses the plasma state, basic equations, the different theoretical approaches (orbitals, kinetic, multi-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics), and the different characteristic scales, waves are addressed and presented as a disordered electromagnetism: existence of plasma waves, generalities on waves, relationship of formal dispersion of plasmas, plasma without magnetic field (longitudinal, transverse, or low frequency wave), plasma with magnetic field (parallel, perpendicular, or arbitrary propagation). The next parts present various approaches: the particle-based approach (case of constant and uniform magnetic fields, case of non-uniform magnetic fields), the statistical approach (elements of kinetic theory, the collision phenomenon, the equilibrium state), and the fluid approach (fluid equations according to the multi-fluid theory, comparison with the particle-based approach, presentation of magnetohydrodynamics as the single-fluid model, validity of MHD)

  10. Computer modeling of active experiments in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollens, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of space plasmas is expanding rapidly. This is, in large part, due to the ambitious efforts of scientists from around the world who are performing large scale active experiments in the space plasma surrounding the earth. One such effort was designated the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) and consisted of a series of plasma releases that were completed during 1984 and 1985. What makes the AMPTE experiments particularly interesting was the occurrence of a dramatic anomaly that was completely unpredicted. During the AMPTE experiment, three satellites traced the solar-wind flow into the earth's magnetosphere. One satellite, built by West Germany, released a series of barium and lithium canisters that were detonated and subsequently photo-ionized via solar radiation, thereby creating an artificial comet. Another satellite, built by Great Britain and in the vicinity during detonation, carried, as did the first satellite, a comprehensive set of magnetic field, particle and wave instruments. Upon detonation, what was observed by the satellites, as well as by aircraft and ground-based observers, was quite unexpected. The initial deflection of the ion clouds was not in the ambient solar wind's flow direction (rvec V) but rather in the direction transverse to the solar wind and the background magnetic field (rvec V x rvec B). This result was not predicted by any existing theories or simulation models; it is the main subject discussed in this dissertation. A large three dimensional computer simulation was produced to demonstrate that this transverse motion can be explained in terms of a rocket effect. Due to the extreme computer resources utilized in producing this work, the computer methods used to complete the calculation and the visualization techniques used to view the results are also discussed

  11. Plasma kinetics issues in an ESA study for a plasma laboratory in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annaratone, B M; Biancalani, A; Ceccherini, F; Pegoraro, F; Bruno, D; Capitelli, M; Pascale, O de; Longo, S; Daly, E; Hilgers, A; Diomede, P; D'Ammando, G; Marcuccio, S; Mendonca, J T; Nagnibeda, V; Sanmartin, J R

    2008-01-01

    A study supported by the European Space Agency (ESA), in the context of its General Studies Programme, performed an investigation of the possible use of space for studies in pure and applied plasma physics, in areas not traditionally covered by 'space plasma physics'. A set of experiments have been identified that can potentially provide access to new phenomena and to allow advances in several fields of plasma science. These experiments concern phenomena on a spatial scale (10 1 -10 4 m) intermediate between what is achievable on the ground and the usual solar system plasma observations. Detailed feasibility studies have been performed for three experiments: active magnetic experiments, large-scale discharges and long tether-plasma interactions. The perspectives opened by these experiments are discussed for magnetic reconnection, instabilities, MHD turbulence, atomic excited states kinetics, weakly ionized plasmas, plasma diagnostics, artificial auroras and atmospheric studies. The discussion is also supported by results of numerical simulations and estimates

  12. Novel diagnostics for dust in space, Laboratory and fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldo, C.

    2011-01-01

    In situ diagnostics for mobile dust, based on dust impact ionization phenomena, as well as silica aerogel dust collectors are discussed for applications to space and fusion plasmas. The feasibility of an electro-optical probe to detect hypervelocity (>1 km/s) dust particles in tokamaks is evaluated. For quiescent plasmas, a diagnostic of submicron dust based on measurements of plasma fluctuation spectra can be used (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. On the Dynamics of Space Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    emisions . kii dluctutions (i tne. Coiteidet witho the hirTntg ot tesw~n in~~~~~~~~~~~~~ps otcleisinatiutdtpatcepeittion Julavn dayche of2 1 iheerye9tr83.r...sraefled plasma by a supersonic body plasma diagnostic techniques. Hr holds membership in Tau Beta P’i. A VS. on the basils of the Poilaoun-Vlaaov

  14. Plasma Physics of the Subauroral Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-20

    or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for...irregular subauroral regions create strong scintillations of UHF and GPS L1 band signals. Irregular structures in the plasmasphere guide VLF whistler waves ...drifts, substorm-injected plasma jets, SAID/SAPS-related plasma waves , plasmaspheric boundary layer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  15. Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...

  16. EDITORIAL: Interrelationship between plasma phenomena in the laboratory and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Mark

    2008-07-01

    relevant physics within these ranges and extrapolate the results to space conditions that may or may not be subject to any restrictions on the values of the plasma parameters. The interrelationship between laboratory and space plasma experiments has been cultivated at a low level and the potential scientific benefit in this area has yet to be realized. The few but excellent examples of joint papers, joint experiments, and directly relevant cross-disciplinary citations are a direct result of the emphasis placed on this interrelationship two decades ago. Building on this special issue Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion plans to create a dedicated webpage to highlight papers directly relevant to this field published either in the recent past or in the future. It is hoped that this resource will appeal to the readership in the laboratory-experiment and space-plasma communities and improve the cross-fertilization between them.

  17. Linear Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 296, - (2002), s. 117-124 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : linear Vlasov plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  18. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  19. Multi-scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vörös, Zoltán; IAFA 2011 - International Astrophysics Forum 2011 : Frontiers in Space Environment Research

    2012-01-01

    Magnetized plasmas in the universe exhibit complex dynamical behavior over a huge range of scales. The fundamental mechanisms of energy transport, redistribution and conversion occur at multiple scales. The driving mechanisms often include energy accumulation, free-energy-excited relaxation processes, dissipation and self-organization. The plasma processes associated with energy conversion, transport and self-organization, such as magnetic reconnection, instabilities, linear and nonlinear waves, wave-particle interactions, dynamo processes, turbulence, heating, diffusion and convection represent fundamental physical effects. They demonstrate similar dynamical behavior in near-Earth space, on the Sun, in the heliosphere and in astrophysical environments. 'Multi-scale Dynamical Processes in Space and Astrophysical Plasmas' presents the proceedings of the International Astrophysics Forum Alpbach 2011. The contributions discuss the latest advances in the exploration of dynamical behavior in space plasmas environm...

  20. MHD dynamo action in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1984-05-01

    Electric currents are now recognized to play a major role in the physical process of the Earths magnetosphere as well as in distant astrophysical plasmas. In driving these currents MHD dynamos as well as generators of a thermoelectric nature are important. The primary source of power for the Earths magnetospheric process is the solar wind, which supplies a voltage of the order of 200 kV across the magnetosphere. The direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field varies of many different time scales. The power input to the magnetosphere is closely correlated with the direction of the large-scale solar wind electric field in such a fashion as to mimick the response of a half-wave rectifier with a down-to-dusk conduction direction. Behind this apparently simple response there are complex plasma physical processes that are still very incompletely understood. They are intimately related to auroras, magnetic storms, radiation belts and changes in magnetospheric plasma populations. Similar dynamo actions should occur at other planets having magnetospheres. Recent observations seem to indicate that part of the power input to the Earths magnetosphere comes through MHD dynamo action of a forced plasma flow inside the flanks of the magnetopause and may play a role in other parts of the magnetosphere, too. An example of a cosmical MHD connected to a solid load is the corotating plasma of Jupiters inner magnetosphere, sweeping past the plants inner satelites. In particular the electric currents thereby driven to and from the satellite Io have attracted considerable interest.(author)

  1. Particle Heating in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, E. E.; Keesee, A. M.; Aquirre, E.; Good, T.

    2017-12-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v ˜ 8 km/s flowing downstream that is confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is confined to within a few centimeters radially and is measurable for tens of centimeters axially before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The axial ion beam velocity slows in agreement with collisional processes. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with radial location. The DC electric field, electron temperature, and the plasma density in the double layer plume are all consistent with magnetic field aligned structures. The upstream and downstream electric field measurements show clear evidence of an ion hole that maps along the magnetic field at the edge of the plasma. Current theories and simulations of double layers, which are one-dimensional, completely miss these critically important two-dimensional features.

  2. Mathematical Model of Plasma Space for Electronic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Chernyshov; K.T. Umyarov; D.V. Pisarenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the plasma used in technologies of the electronic industry. It gives the characteristic of plasma space on the basis of a system of Maxwell-Boltzmann equa-tions. Solving these equations is represented in the form of Fourier transformation and Green functions. Fluctuation-dissipative theorem and method of Longevin sources for calculating electric filed fluctua-tions are used.

  3. Influence of pinches on magnetic reconnection in turbulent space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Lapenta, Giovanni; Markidis, Stefano; Divin, Andrey

    A generally accepted scenario of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas is the breakage of magnetic field lines in X-points. In laboratory, reconnection is widely studied in pinches, current channels embedded into twisted magnetic fields. No model of magnetic reconnection in space plasmas considers both null-points and pinches as peers. We have performed a particle-in-cell simulation of magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional configuration where null-points are present nitially, and Z-pinches are formed during the simulation. The X-points are relatively stable, and no substantial energy dissipation is associated with them. On contrary, turbulent magnetic reconnection in the pinches causes the magnetic energy to decay at a rate of approximately 1.5 percent per ion gyro period. Current channels and twisted magnetic fields are ubiquitous in turbulent space plasmas, so pinches can be responsible for the observed high magnetic reconnection rates.

  4. A note on dust grain charging in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Mendis, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Central to the study of dust-plasma interactions in the solar system is the electrostatic charging of dust grains. While previous calculations have generally assumed that the distributions of electrons and ions in the plasma are Maxwellian, most space plasmas are observed to have non-Maxwellian tails and can often be fit by a generalized Lorentzian (kappa) distribution. Here we use such a distribution to reevaluate the grain potential, under the condition that the dominant currents to the grain are due to electron and ion collection, as is the case in certain regions of space. The magnitude of the grain potential is found to be larger than that in a Maxwellian plasma as long as the electrons are described by a kappa distribution: this enhancement increased with ion mass and decreasing electron kappa. The modification of the grain potential in generalized Lorentzian plasmas has implications for both the physics (e.g., grain growth and disruption) and the dynamics of dust in space plasmas. These are also briefly discussed.

  5. On the physics of electron beams in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the main physical processes related to the injection, the propagation and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the physical linear and nonlinear mechanisms involved in the generation, the stabilization and the saturation of the electromagnetic waves excited by the beams in wide frequency ranges. and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the

  6. CSSP implementation plan for space plasma physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Williams, D.J.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) has provided NASA with guidance in the areas of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric, and upper atmospheric research. The budgetary sitation confronted by NASA has called for a prioritized plane for the implementation of solar and space plasma physics programs. CSSP has developed the following recommendations: (1) continue implementation of both the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and Solar Optical Telescope programs; (2) initiate the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program; (3) plan for later major free-flying missions and carry out the technology development they require; (4) launch an average of one solar and space physics Explorer per yr beginning in 1990; (5) enhance current Shuttle/Spacelab programs; (6) develop facility-class instrumentation; (7) augment the solar terrestrial theory program by FY 1990; (8) support a compute modeling program; (9) strengthen the research and analysis program; and (10) maintain a stable suborbital program for flexible science objectives in upper atmosphere and space plasma physics

  7. Cracking susceptibility of stainless steel subjected to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madarame, H.

    1995-01-01

    The similarities and differences in the cracking susceptibility between welding and resolidification after plasma disruption were examined experimentally using a number of primary candidate alloy samples with different chemical compositions. The product of the number density and the average depth of the cracks was measured after simulated disruption, employing a hydrogen ion beam as the heat source, and was compared with the Varestraint test result. An adequate correlation was observed between them, which indicates that the cracking susceptibility during plasma disruption can be well estimated from the welding cracking susceptibility. (orig.)

  8. Nonlinear periodic space-charge waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    A solution is obtained in the form of coupled nonlinear periodic space-charge waves propagating in a magnetoactive plasma. The wave spectrum in the vicinity of the critical point, where the number of harmonics increases substantially, is found to fall with harmonic number as ∝ s -1/3 . Periodic space-charge waves are invoked to explain the zebra pattern in the radio emission from solar flares.

  9. TRIIODOTHYRONINE RAPIDLY LOWERS PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN (A) IN HYPOTHYROID SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; HOOGENBERG, K; SLUITER, WJ

    Background: Increases in plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo-B) are well known in primary hypothyroidism, but it is uncertain whether thyroid dysfunction is associated with elevated levels of the atherogenic lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Methods: The effect of

  10. Heat transfer modelling of first walls subject to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Makowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the plasma disruption problem and potential thermal consequences to the first wall is given. Thermal models reviewed include: a) melting of a solid with melt layer in place; b) melting of a solid with complete removal of melt (ablation); c) melting/vaporization of a solid; and d) vaporization of a solid but no phase change affecting the temperature profile

  11. Plasma polarization spectroscopy: past, present, and future - a subjective view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.

    2004-01-01

    I describe how I got into the field of plasma polarization spectroscopy (PPS), how the PPS Workshops started, and how the whole field got consolidated and strengthened. Subsequently I describe what kind of present theoretical and experimental activities I am aware of. Finally I explain why I think that the future of PPS is bright. (author)

  12. Subjective Vertical Conflict Theory and Space Motion Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chao, Jian-Gang; Wang, Jin-Kun; Chen, Xue-Wen; Tan, Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Space motion sickness (SMS) remains a troublesome problem during spaceflight. The subjective vertical (SV) conflict theory postulates that all motion sickness provoking situations are characterized by a condition in which the SV sensed from gravity and visual and idiotropic cues differs from the expected vertical. This theory has been successfully used to predict motion sickness in different vehicles on Earth. We have summarized the most outstanding and recent studies on the illusions and characteristics associated with spatial disorientation and SMS during weightlessness, such as cognitive map and mental rotation, the visual reorientation and inversion illusions, and orientation preferences between visual scenes and the internal z-axis of the body. The relationships between the SV and the incidence of and susceptibility to SMS as well as spatial disorientation were addressed. A consistent framework was presented to understand and explain SMS characteristics in more detail on the basis of the SV conflict theory, which is expected to be more advantageous in SMS prediction, prevention, and training.

  13. Spectral investigation of a complex space charge structure in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurlui, S.; Dimitriu, D. G.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. W.

    2009-01-01

    Complex space charge structures bordered by electrical double layers were spectrally investigated in argon plasma in the domain 400-1000 nm, identifying the lines corresponding to the transitions from different excited states of argon. The electron excitation temperature in the argon atoms was estimated from the spectral lines intensity ratio. (authors)

  14. The production of subject and space in video games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altuğ Işığan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the dominant view that distinguishes video game space from other spatial representations as navigable space, someone who engages with the screen space of a video game must first and foremost rest at an ideal viewing spot in physical space, which is in accord with the requirements of a proper screening. In other words, one’s illusory experience of navigable space becomes possible only if one’s body in physical space occupies the visual center on which the scenographic arrangement relies in order to function.

  15. Velocity space ring-plasma instability, magnetized, Part I: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of magnetized monoenergetic ions (a ring in velocity space) with a homogeneous Maxwellian target plasma is studied numerically using linear Vlasov theory. The ring may be produced when an energetic beam is injected perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field. In addition to yielding the previously known results, the present study classifies this flute-like instability into three distinct regimes based on the beam density relative to the plasma density, where many features such as physical mechanisms, dispersion diagrams, and maximum growth rates are quite different. The effects of electron dynamics, plasma or ring thermal spread, the ratio of ω/sub p//ω/sub c/ for plasma ions, and electromagnetic modifications are also considered

  16. Investigation of radiofrequency plasma sources for space travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, C; Boswell, R W; Takahashi, K

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of radiofrequency (RF) plasma sources for the development of space thrusters differs from other applications such as plasma processing of materials since power efficiency, propellant usage, particle acceleration or heating become driving parameters. The development of two RF (13.56 MHz) plasma sources, the high-pressure (∼1 Torr) capacitively coupled ‘pocket rocket’ plasma micro-thruster and the low-pressure (∼1 mTorr) inductively coupled helicon double layer thruster (HDLT), is discussed within the context of mature and emerging electric propulsion devices. The density gradient in low-pressure expanding RF plasmas creates an electric field that accelerates positive ions out of the plasma. Generally, the total potential drop is similar to that of a wall sheath allowing the plasma electrons to neutralize the ion beam. A high-pressure expansion with no applied magnetic field can result in large dissociation rates and/or a collimated beam of ions of small area and a flowing heated neutral beam (‘pocket rocket’). A low-pressure expansion dominated by a magnetic field can result in the formation of electric double layers which produce a very directed neutralized beam of ions of large area (HDLT). (paper)

  17. Investigation of radiofrequency plasma sources for space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.; Takahashi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Optimization of radiofrequency (RF) plasma sources for the development of space thrusters differs from other applications such as plasma processing of materials since power efficiency, propellant usage, particle acceleration or heating become driving parameters. The development of two RF (13.56 MHz) plasma sources, the high-pressure (˜1 Torr) capacitively coupled ‘pocket rocket’ plasma micro-thruster and the low-pressure (˜1 mTorr) inductively coupled helicon double layer thruster (HDLT), is discussed within the context of mature and emerging electric propulsion devices. The density gradient in low-pressure expanding RF plasmas creates an electric field that accelerates positive ions out of the plasma. Generally, the total potential drop is similar to that of a wall sheath allowing the plasma electrons to neutralize the ion beam. A high-pressure expansion with no applied magnetic field can result in large dissociation rates and/or a collimated beam of ions of small area and a flowing heated neutral beam (‘pocket rocket’). A low-pressure expansion dominated by a magnetic field can result in the formation of electric double layers which produce a very directed neutralized beam of ions of large area (HDLT).

  18. Influence of vacuum space on formation of potential sheath in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    Properties of potential sheaths developed in plasmas are investigated in terms of the plasma Debye length and the dimension of vacuum space. Biased plasma potential and the potential profile depend very sensitively on the geometrical configuration of plasma and vacuum space. The potential sheath is never developed near electrodes in high-density plasmas where the Debye length is much less than the dimension of the vacuum space. In this case, most of the potential drops occur in the vacuum space and almost no electric field exists inside the plasma. Parametric investigation of the potential sheath in terms of the vacuum-space and plasma dimensions is carried out. (orig.)

  19. Laboratory space physics: Investigating the physics of space plasmas in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Gregory G.

    2018-05-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a valuable complement to explore the fundamental physics of space plasmas without the limitations inherent to spacecraft measurements. Specifically, experiments overcome the restriction that spacecraft measurements are made at only one (or a few) points in space, enable greater control of the plasma conditions and applied perturbations, can be reproducible, and are orders of magnitude less expensive than launching spacecraft. Here, I highlight key open questions about the physics of space plasmas and identify the aspects of these problems that can potentially be tackled in laboratory experiments. Several past successes in laboratory space physics provide concrete examples of how complementary experiments can contribute to our understanding of physical processes at play in the solar corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the outer boundary of the heliosphere. I present developments on the horizon of laboratory space physics, identifying velocity space as a key new frontier, highlighting new and enhanced experimental facilities, and showcasing anticipated developments to produce improved diagnostics and innovative analysis methods. A strategy for future laboratory space physics investigations will be outlined, with explicit connections to specific fundamental plasma phenomena of interest.

  20. Plasma Decontamination of Space Equipment for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Barczyk, Simon; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Satoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Weber, Peter

    The search for extraterrestrial life is one of the most challenging science topics for the next decades. Space missions, like ExoMars, plan to land and search for biological remnants on planets and moons in our nearby Solar system. Planetary protection regulations defined by COSPAR prevent that during the mission biological contamination of the bodies occur through the space probes. Therefore decontamination of the probes and more general space equipment is necessary before the launch. The up-to-date accepted decontamination procedure originate from the old NASA Viking missions and use dry heat (T>110°C for 30h) - a technology not well suited for sensitive equipment nowadays. We investigated in a study financed by the German Space Agency* cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) as an alternative for such decontamination. It is well known that CAP can kill bacteria or spores within seconds or minutes, respectively, if the plasma is in direct contact with the treated sample. This procedure might also be quite aggressive to the treated surface materials. Therefore, we developed an afterglow CAP device specially designed for the soft treatment of space equipment. Afterglow plasma produced by a SMD device in air is transported into a “larger” treatment chamber where the samples are positioned. It could be shown that samples of different bacteria and spores, the latter defined by COSPAR as a means to show the effectiveness of the decontamination process, positioned on different materials (steel, Teflon, quartz) could be effectively inactivated. The surface materials were investigated after the plasma treatment to identify etching or deposition problems. The afterglow in the treatment chamber could even overcome obstacles (tubes of different height and diameter) which simulate more complicated structures of the relevant surfaces. Up to now, CAP looks like a quite promising alternative to decontaminate space equipment and need to be studied in greater detail in the near future

  1. Space-time resolved measurements of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pisarczyk, T.; Gus’kov, S.Yu.; Dudžák, Roman; Chodukowski, T.; Dostál, Jan; Demchenko, N. N.; Korneev, Ph.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kalal, M.; Renner, Oldřich; Šmíd, Michal; Borodziuk, S.; Krouský, Eduard; Ullschmied, Jiří; Hřebíček, Jan; Medřík, Tomáš; Golasowski, Jiří; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Pisarczyk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2015), č. článku 102706. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA ČR GPP205/11/P712 Grant - others:FP7(XE) 284464 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : space-time resolved spontaneous magnetic field (SMF) * Laser System Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/pop/22/10/10.1063/1.4933364

  2. Effects of fenfluramine on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Stein, D J; Saoud, J B; DeCaria, C M; Cooper, T B; Islam, M N; Liebowitz, M R; Stanley, M

    1992-01-01

    The specificity of fenfluramine as a pharmacological probe of the serotonin system has been questioned, since animal studies with high dose l-fenfluramine show increases in striatal levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid. To test the specificity of fenfluramine in humans with clinical doses, we compared plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentration in healthy volunteers after administration of fenfluramine (60 mg) and placebo. There were no significant effects on pHVA, which supports previous findings that at doses used in pharmacological challenge paradigms, the effect of fenfluramine on the dopamine system is insufficient to alter measures of its change.

  3. Laboratory Experiments Enabling Electron Beam use in Tenuous Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miars, G.; Leon, O.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Delzanno, G. L.; Castello, F. L.; Borovsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    A mission concept is under development which involves firing a spacecraft-mounted electron beam from Earth's magnetosphere to connect distant magnetic field lines in real time. To prevent excessive spacecraft charging and consequent beam return, the spacecraft must be neutralized in the tenuous plasma environment of the magnetosphere. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations suggest neutralization can be accomplished by emitting a neutral plasma with the electron beam. Interpretation of these simulations also led to an ion emission model in which ion current is emitted from a quasi-neutral plasma as defined by the space charge limit [1,2]. Experiments were performed at the University of Michigan's Plasmadynamics and Electric Propulsion Laboratory (PEPL) to help validate the ion emission model. A hollow cathode plasma contactor was used as a representative spacecraft and charged with respect to the chamber walls to examine the effect of spacecraft charging on ion emission. Retarding Potential Analyzer (RPA) measurements were performed to understand ion flow velocity as this parameter relates directly to the expected space charge limit. Planar probe measurements were also made to identify where ion emission primarily occurred and to determine emission current density levels. Evidence of collisions within the plasma (particularly charge exchange collisions) and a simple model predicting emitted ion velocities are presented. While a detailed validation of the ion emission model and of the simulation tools used in [1,2] is ongoing, these measurements add to the physical understanding of ion emission as it may occur in the magnetosphere. 1. G.L. Delzanno, J.E. Borovsky, M.F. Thomsen, J.D. Moulton, and E.A. MacDonald, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 120, 3647, 2015. 2. G.L. Delzanno, J.E. Borovsky, M.F. Thomsen, and J.D. Moulton, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics 120, 3588, 2015. ________________________________ * This work is supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  4. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  5. Interpretation of ion cyclotron emission from fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Superthermal ion cyclotron emission (ICE) is observed in both fusion and space plasma. Typical spectra display strong peaks at sequential multiple ion cyclotron harmonics, and distinct energetic ion populations are present in the emitting regions. In JET and TFTR, for example, ICE appears to be driven by fusion products or by injected beam ions in the outer mid plane; and in the Earth's ring current, radiation belts, and bow shock, ICE has been observed by the spacecraft OGO 3, GEOS 1 and 2 and AMPTE/IRM, often in conjunction with highly non-Maxwellian proton populations. Common emission mechanisms, arising from collective relaxation of energetic ion populations, appear to operate in both the fusion and space plasma environments. These are reviewed here, and the potential role of ICE as a diagnostic of energetic ion populations is also examined. (Author)

  6. Dispersion surfaces and ion wave instabilities in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M

    1985-08-01

    In this thesis, the dispersion relation of linear waves in a non-relativistic, collisionless and homogeneous plasma in a uniform magnetic field, is solved numerically. Both electrostatic and elecromagnetic waves with frequencies from below the ion gyrofrequency to above the electron gyrofrequency are studied for all angles of propagation. Modes occurring in a cold plasma as well as waves dependent on thermal effects are included. Dispersion surfaces, that is plots of frequency versus wavevector components, are presented for some models of space plasmas. Waves with frequencies of the order of the ion gyrofrequency (ion waves), are well known to exist in space plasmas. In this thesis, the generation of ion waves by ion distributions with loss-cones or temperature anisotropies, or by beams of charged particles, is investigated by numerical methods. Effects of heavy ions are considered. Dispersion surfaces and analytical arguments are used to clarify the results. It is shown that particle beams and ion loss-cone distributions can generate electrostatic ion waves, even when a significant amount of the electrons are cool. These calculations are in agreement with simultaneous observatons of waves and particles obtained by a satellite on auroral field lines. (author)

  7. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma

  8. Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Giuseppina; Griffo, Ettore; Cipriano, Paola; Vetrani, Claudia; Vitale, Marilena; Mamone, Gianfranco; Rivellese, Angela A; Riccardi, Gabriele; Giacco, Rosalba

    2018-06-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (ppasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subjective assessment of impairment in scale-space-coded images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Majoor, G.M.M.

    1988-01-01

    Direct category scaling and a scaling procedure in accordance with Functional Measurement Theory (Anderson, 1982) have been used to assess impairment in scale-space-coded illlages, displayed on a black-and-white TV monitor. The image of a complex scene was passed through a Gaussian filter of limited

  10. Atmospheric and Space Sciences: Ionospheres and Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiǧit, Erdal

    2018-01-01

    The SpringerBriefs on Atmospheric and Space Sciences in two volumes presents a concise and interdisciplinary introduction to the basic theory, observation & modeling of atmospheric and ionospheric coupling processes on Earth. The goal is to contribute toward bridging the gap between meteorology, aeronomy, and planetary science. In addition recent progress in several related research topics, such atmospheric wave coupling and variability, is discussed. Volume 1 will focus on the atmosphere, while Volume 2 will present the ionospheres and the plasma environments. Volume 2 is aimed primarily at (research) students and young researchers that would like to gain quick insight into the basics of space sciences and current research. In combination with the first volume, it also is a useful tool for professors who would like to develop a course in atmospheric and space physics.

  11. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  12. Collisionless shocks in space plasmas structure and accelerated particles

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, David

    2015-01-01

    Shock waves are an important feature of solar system plasmas, from the solar corona out to the edge of the heliosphere. This engaging introduction to collisionless shocks in space plasmas presents a comprehensive review of the physics governing different types of shocks and processes of particle acceleration, from fundamental principles to current research. Motivated by observations of planetary bow shocks, interplanetary shocks and the solar wind termination shock, it emphasises the physical theory underlying these shock waves. Readers will develop an understanding of the complex interplay between particle dynamics and the electric and magnetic fields that explains the observations of in situ spacecraft. Written by renowned experts in the field, this up-to-date text is the ideal companion for both graduate students new to heliospheric physics and researchers in astrophysics who wish to apply the lessons of solar system shocks to different astrophysical environments.

  13. Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, André

    2013-01-01

    The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...

  14. Solar Array Sails: Possible Space Plasma Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Willie R.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of the interactions between proposed "solar sail" propulsion systems with photovoltaic energy generation capabilities and the space plasma environments. Major areas of interactions ere: Acting from high voltage arrays, ram and wake effects, V and B current loops and EMI. Preliminary analysis indicates that arcing will be a major risk factor for voltages greater than 300V. Electron temperature enhancement in the wake will be produce noise that can be transmitted via the wake echo process. In addition, V and B induced potential will generate sheath voltages with potential tether like breakage effects in the thin film sails. Advocacy of further attention to these processes is emphasized so that plasma environmental mitigation will be instituted in photovoltaic sail design.

  15. Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration

  16. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  17. Radio stimulation and diagnostics of space plasmas. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minchang.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the investigation of the small-scale topside ionospheric plasma structures first observed at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts with the 440 MHz incoherent scatter radar. These small-scale obliquely propagating plasma modes occurring in the vicinity of the midlatitude ionospheric trough, have large radar cross-sections and narrow spectral widths. They have, until recently, been dismissed solely as hard target contamination of the incoherent scatter radar. The geophysical conditions associated with the ionospheric trough, such as the field-aligned current activity and steep plasma density gradients, suggest that these recently discovered small-scale topside ionospheric plasmas may also appear in the auroral and polar ionosphere. In fact, this speculation has been corroborated by the preliminary experiments and data analyses at Tromso, Norway and Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. The primary research results are highlighted. Described in Section 3 are the experiments conducted at Arecibo, Puerto Rico in the past summer for simulating the geophysical conditions of generating these topside ionospheric plasma structures. Recommendation for the future research is finally given. Attached as the appendix of this report are several chapters which present the detailed results of research in the concerned topside ionospheric clutter. Highlights of the research results include: (1) causes of the enhanced radar backscatter (ERB) phenomenon; (2) occurrence of the ERB phenomenon; (3) altitudes of the ERB phenomenon; (4) strength of the ERB returns; (5) range of altitudes of the ERB returns; (6) occurrence frequency of the ERB phenomenon; (7) Doppler effect of the ERB phenomenon; (8) persistency of the ERB; and (9) distinction between ERB phenomenon and space object signatures

  18. Investigating plasma-rotation methods for the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign at UCLA's BAPSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, S. M.; Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.

    2006-10-01

    In D'Angelo et al., JGR 79, 4747 (1974), rigid-body ExB plasma flow was inferred from parabolic floating-potential profiles produced by a spiral ionizing surface. Here, taking a different approach, we report effects on barium-ion azimuthal-flow profiles using either a non-emissive or emissive spiral end-electrode in the WVU Q-machine. Neither electrode produced a radially-parabolic space-potential profile. The emissive spiral, however, generated controllable, radially-parabolic structure in the floating potential, consistent with a second population of electrons having a radially-parabolic parallel-energy profile. Laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of spatially resolved, azimuthal-velocity distribution functions show that, for a given flow profile, the diamagnetic drift of hot (>>0.2eV) ions overwhelms the ExB-drift contribution. Our experiments constitute a first attempt at producing controllable, rigid-body, ExB plasma flow for future experiments on the LArge-Plasma-Device (LAPD), as part of the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign (at UCLA's BAPSF).

  19. Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Mark E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Funds were expended to offset the travel costs of three students and three postdoctoral research associates to participate in and present work at the 2015 International Workshop on the Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space (IPELS2015), 23-28 August 2015, Pitlochry, Scotland, UK. Selection was priority-ranked by lab-space engagement, first, and topic relevance, second. Supplementary selection preference was applied to under-represented populations, applicants lacking available travel-resources in their home research group, applicants unusually distant from the conference venue, and the impact of the applicant’s attendance in increasing the diversity of conference participation. One support letter per student was required. The letters described the specific benefit of IPELS2015 to the student dissertation or the postdoc career development, and document the evidence for the ordering criteria.

  20. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  1. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  2. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  3. A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Plasma Magnetoshell works like a ballute, where plasma takes the place of inflated fabric. The primary drag-inducing interaction between the magnetically...

  4. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  5. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  6. Effect of solar wind plasma parameters on space weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, Balveer S.; Gupta, Dinesh C.; Kaushik, Subhash C.

    2015-01-01

    Today's challenge for space weather research is to quantitatively predict the dynamics of the magnetosphere from measured solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Correlative studies between geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and the various interplanetary (IP) field/plasma parameters have been performed to search for the causes of geomagnetic activity and develop models for predicting the occurrence of GMSs, which are important for space weather predictions. We find a possible relation between GMSs and solar wind and IMF parameters in three different situations and also derived the linear relation for all parameters in three situations. On the basis of the present statistical study, we develop an empirical model. With the help of this model, we can predict all categories of GMSs. This model is based on the following fact: the total IMF B total can be used to trigger an alarm for GMSs, when sudden changes in total magnetic field B total occur. This is the first alarm condition for a storm's arrival. It is observed in the present study that the southward B z component of the IMF is an important factor for describing GMSs. A result of the paper is that the magnitude of B z is maximum neither during the initial phase (at the instant of the IP shock) nor during the main phase (at the instant of Disturbance storm time (Dst) minimum). It is seen in this study that there is a time delay between the maximum value of southward B z and the Dst minimum, and this time delay can be used in the prediction of the intensity of a magnetic storm two-three hours before the main phase of a GMS. A linear relation has been derived between the maximum value of the southward component of B z and the Dst, which is Dst = (−0.06) + (7.65) B z +t. Some auxiliary conditions should be fulfilled with this, for example the speed of the solar wind should, on average, be 350 km s −1 to 750 km s −1 , plasma β should be low and, most importantly, plasma temperature

  7. Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin

    This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the core electrons

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, `with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfvén wave theory, observations of Alfvén waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects—a large subject!—are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  9. Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.

  10. Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

    2015-09-01

    The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility (DPPF) is an instrument planned for the International Space Station (ISS). If approved by NASA, JPL will build and operate the facility, and NASA will issue calls for proposals allowing investigators outside JPL to carry out research, public education, and outreach. Microgravity conditions on the ISS will be useful for eliminating two unwanted effects of gravity: sedimentation of dust particles to the bottom of a plasma chamber, and masking weak forces such as the ion drag force that act on dust particles. The DPPF facility is expected to support multiple scientific users. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will use a parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge, polymer microspheres, and high-speed video cameras. This first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other purposes, such as engineering applications, and experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

  11. Model of magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations imply that exponentially smaller non-ideal effects than commonly assumed can give rapid magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas. In an ideal evolution, magnetic field lines act as stretchable strings, which can become ever more entangled but cannot be cut. High entanglement makes the lines exponentially sensitive to small non-ideal changes in the magnetic field. The cause is well known in popular culture as the butterfly effect and in the theory of deterministic dynamical systems as a sensitive dependence on initial conditions, but the importance to magnetic reconnection is not generally recognized. Two-coordinate models are too constrained geometrically for the required entanglement, but otherwise the effect is general and can be studied in simple models. A simple model is introduced, which is periodic in the x and y Cartesian coordinates and bounded by perfectly conducting planes in z. Starting from a constant magnetic field in the z direction, reconnection is driven by a spatially smooth, bounded force. The model is complete and could be used to study the impulsive transfer of energy between the magnetic field and the ions and electrons using a kinetic plasma model.

  12. Bayesian Techniques for Plasma Theory to Bridge the Gap Between Space and Lab Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas; Tejero, Erik

    2017-10-01

    We will show how Bayesian techniques provide a general data analysis methodology that is better suited to investigate phenomena that require a nonlinear theory for an explanation. We will provide short examples of how Bayesian techniques have been successfully used in the radiation belts to provide precise nonlinear spectral estimates of whistler mode chorus and how these techniques have been verified in laboratory plasmas. We will demonstrate how Bayesian techniques allow for the direct competition of different physical theories with data acting as the necessary arbitrator. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNH15AZ90I.

  13. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  14. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  15. Effect of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Yotsutsuji, T; Kurachi, M; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Saitoh, O

    1998-07-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have been suggested to provide a measure of dopaminergic activity in the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effect of mental stress by the Kraepelin test, a test of continuous arithmetic addition of single-digit figures for 30 min, on pHVA levels in 13 male psychiatrically normal healthy volunteers. Following an overnight fast and restricted physical activity, plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the administration of the Kraepelin test. Plasma HVA levels following the administration of the Kraepelin test were significantly lower than the pretest pHVA levels. The percent change in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pretest pHVA levels. The observed reduction in pHVA levels by mental stress in normal subjects may reflect some aspects of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain.

  16. MAGNETIC NULL POINTS IN KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF SPACE PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic attempt to study magnetic null points and the associated magnetic energy conversion in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of various plasma configurations. We address three-dimensional simulations performed with the semi-implicit kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D in different setups: variations of a Harris current sheet, dipolar and quadrupolar magnetospheres interacting with the solar wind, and a relaxing turbulent configuration with multiple null points. Spiral nulls are more likely created in space plasmas: in all our simulations except lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA) and quadrupolar mini-magnetosphere the number of spiral nulls prevails over the number of radial nulls by a factor of 3–9. We show that often magnetic nulls do not indicate the regions of intensive energy dissipation. Energy dissipation events caused by topological bifurcations at radial nulls are rather rare and short-lived. The so-called X-lines formed by the radial nulls in the Harris current sheet and LMA simulations are rather stable and do not exhibit any energy dissipation. Energy dissipation is more powerful in the vicinity of spiral nulls enclosed by magnetic flux ropes with strong currents at their axes (their cross sections resemble 2D magnetic islands). These null lines reminiscent of Z-pinches efficiently dissipate magnetic energy due to secondary instabilities such as the two-stream or kinking instability, accompanied by changes in magnetic topology. Current enhancements accompanied by spiral nulls may signal magnetic energy conversion sites in the observational data

  17. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenberg, Jennie; Ingemansson, Sandra Lindstedt; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2010-10-12

    Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion.

  19. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  20. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  1. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  2. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases

  3. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  4. AMPS sciences objectives and philosophy. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas-in-Space project on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will open a new era in the exploration of earth's near-space environment, where the weight and power capabilities of Spacelab and the ability to use man in real time add important new features. The Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space project (AMPS) is conceived of as a facility where flexible core instruments can be flown repeatedly to perform different observations and experiments. The twin thrusts of remote sensing of the atmosphere below 120 km and active experiments on the space plasma are the major themes. They have broader implications in increasing our understanding of plasma physics and of energy conversion processes elsewhere in the universe.

  5. Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 65-69 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Vlasov plasma, oscillator Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  6. Strongly emissive plasma-facing material under space-charge limited regime: Application to emissive probes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cavalier, Jordan; Lemoine, N.; Bousselin, G.; Plihon, N.; Ledig, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 013506. ISSN 1070-664X Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * emissive probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4973557

  7. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Arnaldi, Dario; Brugnolo, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Largo P. Daneo, 3, 16132, Genoa (Italy); Polidori, M.C. [University of Cologne, Institute of Geriatrics, Cologne (Germany); Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Bastiani, Patrizia; Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Perugia (Italy); Morbelli, Silvia; Bossert, Irene [University of Genoa and IRCCS San Martino-IST, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), Genoa (Italy); Fiorucci, Giuliana; Dottorini, Massimo Eugenio [Nuclear Medicine, S. M. della Misericordia Hospital, Perugia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain{sup 18}F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  8. Plasma antioxidants and brain glucose metabolism in elderly subjects with cognitive complaints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picco, Agnese; Ferrara, Michela; Arnaldi, Dario; Brugnolo, Andrea; Nobili, Flavio; Polidori, M.C.; Cecchetti, Roberta; Baglioni, Mauro; Bastiani, Patrizia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Morbelli, Silvia; Bossert, Irene; Fiorucci, Giuliana; Dottorini, Massimo Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    The role of oxidative stress is increasingly recognized in cognitive disorders of the elderly, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these subjects brain 18 F-FDG PET is regarded as a reliable biomarker of neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that oxidative stress could play a role in impairing brain glucose utilization in elderly subjects with increasing severity of cognitive disturbance. The study group comprised 85 subjects with cognitive disturbance of increasing degrees of severity including 23 subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 28 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 34 patients with mild AD. In all subjects brain FDG PET was performed and plasma activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (eSOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured. Voxel-based analysis (SPM8) was used to compare FDG PET between groups and to evaluate correlations between plasma antioxidants and glucose metabolism in the whole group of subjects, correcting for age and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Brain glucose metabolism progressively decreased in the bilateral posterior temporoparietal and cingulate cortices across the three groups, from SCI to mild AD. eSOD activity was positively correlated with glucose metabolism in a large area of the left temporal lobe including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri and the fusiform gyrus. These results suggest a role of oxidative stress in the impairment of glucose utilization in the left temporal lobe structures in elderly patients with cognitive abnormalities, including AD and conditions predisposing to AD. Further studies exploring the oxidative stress-energy metabolism axis are considered worthwhile in larger groups of these patients in order to identify pivotal pathophysiological mechanisms and innovative therapeutic opportunities. (orig.)

  9. Space-resolved characterization of high frequency atmospheric-pressure plasma in nitrogen, applying optical emission spectroscopy and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, Priyadarshini; Ruhrmann, Cornelia; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Averaged plasma parameters such as electron distribution function and electron density are determined by characterization of high frequency (2.4 GHz) nitrogen plasma using both experimental methods, namely optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and microphotography, and numerical simulation. Both direct and step-wise electron-impact excitation of nitrogen emissions are considered. The determination of space-resolved electron distribution function, electron density, rate constant for electron-impact dissociation of nitrogen molecule and the production of nitrogen atoms, applying the same methods, is discussed. Spatial distribution of intensities of neutral nitrogen molecule and nitrogen molecular ion from the microplasma is imaged by a CCD camera. The CCD images are calibrated using the corresponding emissions measured by absolutely calibrated OES, and are then subjected to inverse Abel transformation to determine space-resolved intensities and other parameters. The space-resolved parameters are compared, respectively, with the averaged parameters, and an agreement between them is established. (paper)

  10. Acute regulation of plasma leptin by isoprenaline in lean and obese fasted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, K C R; Nicholas, M D; Shojaee-Moradie, F; Umpleby, A M; Giannoulis, M G

    2006-07-01

    In human obesity, there is some evidence for impaired adrenergic sensitivity with respect to catecholamine-induced lipolysis. The beta-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline has been shown to suppress plasma leptin levels in lean humans in vivo. We hypothesized that a reduced adrenergic sensitivity in obese humans would result in impaired suppression of leptin secretion. Eight obese [Ob, body mass index (BMI) = 33.3 kg/m2] and seven lean (Ln, BMI = 21.8 kg/m2) men were studied after an overnight fast. Intravenous isoprenaline infusion was initiated at a rate of 8 ng/kg/min, titrated up to 24 ng/kg/min over 30 min and continued at this rate for a further 120 min with continuous electrocardiogram monitoring. Baseline fasting plasma leptin was higher in obese compared with lean subjects (Ob 12.2 +/- 1.8, Ln 2.6 +/- 0.6 ng/ml, p fasting glycerol as a measure of lipolysis was similar in both groups (Ob 62.9 +/- 7.6, Ln 42.4 +/- 8.9 micromol/l) and increased from baseline to 150 min by equivalent amounts (Ob +66.9%, Ln +81.2%, p = NS). Plasma leptin decreased from baseline to 150 min with similar relative changes in both groups (Ob -29.2%, Ln -27.8%). Obese subjects show a similar lipolytic and leptin response to acute isoprenaline infusion compared with lean subjects. Impaired beta-adrenergic-induced inhibition of leptin secretion does not appear to contribute to hyperleptinaemia in obese human subjects.

  11. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  12. Vector model for mapping of visual space to subjective 4-D sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuzevicius, Dalius; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2014-01-01

    Here we present a mathematical model of binocular vision that maps a visible physical world to a subjective perception of it. The subjective space is a set of 4-D vectors whose components are outputs of four monocular neurons from each of the two eyes. Monocular neurons have one of the four types of concentric receptive fields with Gabor-like weighting coefficients. Next this vector representation of binocular vision is implemented as a pool of neurons where each of them is selective to the object's particular location in a 3-D visual space. Formally each point of the visual space is being projected onto a 4-D sphere. Proposed model allows determination of subjective distances in depth and direction, provides computational means for determination of Panum's area and explains diplopia and allelotropia

  13. Fusion, space and solar plasmas as complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R O; Chapman, S C; Paczuski, M

    2007-01-01

    Complex systems science seeks to identify simple universal models that capture the key physics of extended macroscopic systems, whose behaviour is governed by multiple nonlinear coupled processes that operate across a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. In such systems, it is often the case that energy release occurs intermittently, in bursty events, and the phenomenology can exhibit scaling, that is a significant degree of self-similarity. Within plasma physics, such systems include Earth's magnetosphere, the solar corona and toroidal magnetic confinement experiments. Guided by broad understanding of the dominant plasma processes-for example, turbulent transport in tokamaks or reconnection in some space and solar contexts-one may construct minimalist complex systems models that yield relevant global behaviour. Examples considered here include the sandpile approach to tokamaks and the magnetosphere and a multiple loops model for the solar coronal magnetic carpet. Such models can address questions that are inaccessible to analytical treatment and are too demanding for contemporary computational resources; thus they potentially yield new insights, but risk being simplistic. Central to the utility of these models is their capacity to replicate distinctive aspects of observed global phenomenology, often strongly nonlinear, or of event statistics, for which no explanation can be obtained from first principles considerations such as the underlying equations. For example, a sandpile model, which embodies critical-gradient-triggered avalanching transport associated with nearest-neighbour mode coupling and simple boundary conditions (and little else), can be used to generate some of the distinctive observed elements of tokamak confinement phenomenology such as ELMing and edge pedestals. The same sandpile model can also generate distributions of energy-release events whose distinctive statistics resemble those observed in the auroral zone. Similarly, a multiple loops model

  14. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  15. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  16. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  17. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observation of Plasma Velocity-Space Cascade Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parashar, T. N.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chasapis, A.; Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.; Gershman, D. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Fuselier, S. A.; Phan, T.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is investigated using high-resolution ion velocity distributions, measured by theMagnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) in the Earth's magnetosheath. The particle distributionmanifests large fluctuations, suggesting a cascade-like process in velocity space, invoked by theoristsfor many years. This complex velocity space structure is investigated using a three-dimensional Hermitetransform that reveals a power law distribution of moments. A Kolmogorov approach leads directlyto a range of predictions for this phase-space cascade. The scaling theory is in agreement withobservations, suggesting a new path for the study of plasma turbulence in weakly collisional spaceand astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Subjective Experiences of Space and Time: Self, Sensation, and Phenomenal Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of subjective experiences (SEs) of space and time is at the core of consciousness research. The term ‘space’ includes the subject and objects. The SE of subject, I-ness, is defined as ‘Self’. The SEs of objects, subject’s external body, and subject’s internal states such as feelings, thoughts, and so on can be investigated using the proto-experience (PE)-SE framework. The SE of time is defined as ‘phenomenal time’ (...

  19. Fasting plasma glucose in the screening for type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofsø, Dag; Jenssen, Trond; Hager, Helle; Røislien, Jo; Hjelmesaeth, Jøran

    2010-03-01

    Higher mortality rates among morbidly obese (BMI of > or =40 or > or =35 kg/m2 with weight-related comorbidities) subjects are mainly explained by comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. As bariatric surgery ameliorates diabetes, obese diabetic subjects will receive great benefits from bariatric surgery. Screening for diabetes prior to surgical referral is therefore crucial. We studied 1,253 consecutively recruited (2005-2008) morbidly obese subjects (67% women). Among subjects without known diabetes, 70% (670/961) performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Screen-detected diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (fPG) > or =7.0 mmol/l and/or 2-h glucose concentration (2hPG) > or = 11.1 mmol/l. Within the study population, 31% had diabetes, of which 8% were screen-detected. Eighty percent of those with screen-detected diabetes were diagnosed by fPG. In subjects with nondiabetic fPG concentrations, elevating the fPG cutoff value from 5.2 mmol/l to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended value of 6.1 mmol/l reduced the percentage of the population needing an OGTT considerably (78-23%), but only slightly reduced the sensitivity of fPG in detecting a diabetic 2hPG concentration (100-77%). Only 7% of the patients with fPG between 6.1 and 6.9 mmol/l had a diabetic 2hPG concentration. Following the WHO's recommendations, we found that 95% of all subjects with unknown diabetes were identified. Fasting glucose identified four out of five morbidly obese subjects with unknown diabetes. A supplemental OGTT in selected persons identified the majority of the remaining diabetic cases.

  20. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  1. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  2. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  3. Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, P; Salas-Salvadó, J; Baldrich-Mora, M; Mallol, R; Correig, X; Bulló, M

    2015-04-01

    Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects. Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007). Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01441921. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes.

  5. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  6. Scattering characteristics of electromagnetic waves in time and space inhomogeneous weakly ionized dusty plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-xin; Chen, Wei; Li, Jiang-ting; Ren, Yi; Liu, Song-hua

    2018-05-01

    The dielectric coefficient of a weakly ionised dusty plasma is used to establish a three-dimensional time and space inhomogeneous dusty plasma sheath. The effects of scattering on electromagnetic (EM) waves in this dusty plasma sheath are investigated using the auxiliary differential equation finite-difference time-domain method. Backward radar cross-sectional values of various parameters, including the dust particle radius, charging frequency of dust particles, dust particle concentration, effective collision frequency, rate of the electron density variation with time, angle of EM wave incidence, and plasma frequency, are analysed within the time and space inhomogeneous plasma sheath. The results show the noticeable effects of dusty plasma parameters on EM waves.

  7. Influence of insulin on beta-endorphin plasma levels in obese and normal weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunani, A; Pincelli, A I; Pasqualinotto, L; Tibaldi, A; Baldi, G; Scacchi, M; Fatti, L M; Cavagnini, F

    1996-08-01

    To establish the possible role of hyperinsulinemia in the elevation of plasma beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels observed in obese patients after an oral glucose load. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Two groups of six (age: 22-39 y, BMI: 30-48 kg/m2) and eight obese men (age: 18-37 y, BMI: 35-45 kg/m2), respectively, and five normal weight healthy men (age: 22-30 y, BMI 22-23 kg/m2). Glucose, insulin and beta-EP levels at baseline and every 30 min until 180 min during the OGTT; glucose, insulin, C-peptide and beta-EP concentrations at baseline and in steady state condition (i.e. during the last 30 min of insulin infusion) in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In the six obese patients undergoing the OGTT a significant elevation of beta-EP plasma levels was observed between 60 and 90 min after glucose ingestion. In the clamp studies no significant differences in beta-EP plasma levels, blood glucose and serum insulin were observed between obese and normal weight subjects both at baseline and at steady state. A markedly diminished insulin sensitivity along with a lower inhibition of C-peptide during insulin infusion was observed in obese patients compared to control subjects. A rise in serum insulin levels unaccompanied by a concomitant increase in blood glucose concentration is unable to elicit a beta-EP response in obese patients.

  8. Plasma Liner Research for MTF at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Eskridge, R.; Lee, M.; Martin, A.; Smith, J.; Cassibry, J. T.; Wu, S. T.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Knapp, C. E.; Turchi, P. J.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The current research effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in MTF is directed towards exploring the critical physics issues of potential embodiments of MTF for propulsion, especially standoff drivers involving plasma liners for MTF. There are several possible approaches for forming plasma liners. One approach consists of using a spherical array of plasma jets to form a spherical plasma shell imploding towards the center of a magnetized plasma, a compact toroid. Current experimental plan and status to explore the physics of forming a 2-D plasma liner (shell) by merging plasma jets are described. A first-generation coaxial plasma guns (Mark-1) to launch the required plasma jets have been built and tested. Plasma jets have been launched reproducibly with a low jitter, and velocities in excess of 50 km/s for the leading edge of the plasma jet. Some further refinements are being explored for the plasma gun, Successful completion of these single-gun tests will be followed by an experimental exploration of the problems of launching a multiple number of these jets simultaneously to form a cylindrical plasma liner.

  9. Nattokinase decreases plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Chien-Hsun; Shen, Ming-Ching; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Wen, Yao-Ke; Hwang, Kai-Lin; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Nae-Cherng

    2009-03-01

    Nattokinase, a serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis, is considered to be one of the most active functional ingredients found in natto. In this study, we hypothesized that nattokinase could reduce certain factors of blood clotting and lipids that are associated with an increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Thus, an open-label, self-controlled clinical trial was conducted on subjects of the following groups: healthy volunteers (Healthy Group), patients with cardiovascular risk factors (Cardiovascular Group), and patients undergoing dialysis (Dialysis Group). All subjects ingested 2 capsules of nattokinase (2000 fibrinolysis units per capsule) daily orally for 2 months. The laboratory measurements were performed on the screening visit and, subsequently, regularly after the initiation of the study. The intent-to-treat analysis was performed on all 45 enrolled subjects. By use of mixed model analysis, a significant time effect, but not group effect, was observed in the change from baseline of fibrinogen (P = .003), factor VII (P nattokinase. No significant changes of uric acid or notable adverse events were observed in any of the subjects. In summary, this study showed that oral administration of nattokinase could be considered as a CVD nutraceutical by decreasing plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and factor VIII.

  10. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and triple...

  11. Simulation of the Plasma Meniscus with and without Space Charge using Triode Extraction System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, M.M.; EI-Khabeary, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work simulation of the singly charged argon ion trajectories for a variable plasma meniscus is studied with and without space charge for the triode extraction system by using SIMION 3D (Simulation of Ion Optics in Three Dimensions) version 7 personal computer program. Tbe influence of acceleration voltage applied to tbe acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system on the shape of the plasma meniscus has been determined. The plasma electrode is set at +5000 volt and the acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode is varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt. In the most of the concave and convex plasma shapes ion beam emittance can be calculated by using separate standard deviations of positions and elevations angles. Ion beam emittance as a function of the curvature of the plasma meniscus for different plasma shapes ( flat concave and convex ) without space change at acceleration voltage varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been investigated. Tbe influence of the extraction gap on ion beam emittance for a plasma concave shape of 3.75 mm without space charge at acceleration voltage, V a cc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been determined. Also the influence of space charge on ion beam emittance for variable plasma meniscus at acceleration voltage, V a cc = - 2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of. the triode extraction system has been studied

  12. Simulation of the plasma meniscus with and without space charge using triode extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.Abdel; El-Khabeary, H.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, simulation of the singly charged argon ion trajectories for a variable plasma meniscus is studied with and without space charge for the triode extraction system by using SIMION 3D (Simulation of Ion Optics in Three Dimensions) version 7 personal computer program. The influence of acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system on the shape of the plasma meniscus has been determined. The plasma electrode is set at +5000 volt and the acceleration voltage applied to the acceleration electrode is varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt. In the most of the concave and convex plasma shapes, ion beam emittance can be calculated by using separate standard deviations of positions and elevations angles. Ion beam emittance as a function of the curvature of the plasma meniscus for different plasma shapes ( flat, concave and convex ) without space charge at acceleration voltage varied from -5000 volt to +5000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been investigated. The influence of the extraction gap on ion beam emittance for a plasma concave shape of 3.75 mm without space charge at acceleration voltage, V acc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been determined. Also the influence of space charge on ion beam emittance for variable plasma meniscus at acceleration voltage, V acc = -2000 volt applied to the acceleration electrode of the triode extraction system has been studied. (author)

  13. Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H

    2008-04-30

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.

  14. Carotid intima-media thickness and plasma fibrinogen among subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bayanfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of plasma fibrinogen, a key regulator of inflammation processes and increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT to predict metabolic syndrome (MetS is currently under investigation. We assessed differences in the indicators of cIMT and also plasma fibrinogen level between MetS and non-MetS subjects. We also assessed the role of these two parameters for independently relationship with MetS state. METHODS: The subjects in this cross-sectional survey were population-based samples of 93 men and women aged ≥ 35 years and over who were selected from the Isfahan cohort study, Isfahan, Iran. Fibrinogen was measured by the clotting assay of Clauss. Ultrasound studies of the carotid artery were performed to measure cIMT. MetS defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The mean level of plasma fibrinogen was not different in the two groups with and without MetS (240.10 ± 27.80 vs. 242.56 ± 35.82, P = 0.714, but the mean of cIMT was considerably higher in MetS group than in non-MetS group (0.85 ± 0.06 mm vs. 0.66 ± 0.09 mm, P < 0.001. Using a multivariable logistic regression model, high cIMT could effectively predict MetS state with the presence of different components of MetS (odds ratio = 17.544, 95% confidence interval: 2.151-142.860, P = 0.008. The optimal cutoff point of cIMT for discriminating these two clinical states was 0.6 mm yielding a sensitivity of 61.5% and a specificity of 59.6%. CONCLUSION: Individuals with MetS demonstrated increased cIMT values compared with those without MetS. However, high plasma fibrinogen level may not be associated with MetS state.   Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, Fibrinogen, Prediction 

  15. Foveal cone spacing and cone photopigment density difference: objective measurements in the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, S; Tornow, R P; Elsner, A E; Navarro, R

    1997-07-01

    Foveal cone spacing was measured in vivo using an objective technique: ocular speckle interferometry. Cone packing density was computed from cone spacing data. Foveal cone photopigment density difference was measured in the same subjects using retinal densitometry with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Both the cone packing density and cone photopigment density difference decreased sharply with increasing retinal eccentricity. From the comparison of both sets of measurements, the computed amounts of photopigment per cone increased slightly with increasing retinal eccentricity. Consistent with previous results, decreases in cone outer segment length are over-compensated by an increase in the outer segment area, at least in retinal eccentricities up to 1 deg.

  16. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  17. Numerical Study on the Validity of the Taylor Hypothesis in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perri, Silvia; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Via P. Bucci, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Vaivads, Andris, E-mail: silvia.perri@fis.unical.it [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-07-01

    In situ heliospheric measurements allow us to resolve fluctuations as a function of frequency. A crucial point is to describe the power spectral density as a function of the wavenumber, in order to understand the energy cascade through the scales in terms of plasma turbulence theories. The most favorable situation occurs when the average wind speed is much higher than the phase speed of the plasma modes, equivalent to the fact that the fluctuations’ dynamical times are much longer than their typical crossing period through the spacecraft (frozen-in Taylor approximation). Using driven compressible Hall-magneothydrodynamics simulations, in which an “imaginary” spacecraft flies across a time-evolving turbulence, here we explore the limitations of the frozen-in assumption. We find that the Taylor hypothesis is robust down to sub-proton scales, especially for flows with mean velocities typical of the fast solar wind. For slow mean flows (i.e., speeds of the order of the Alfvèn speed) power spectra are subject to an amplitude shift throughout the scales. At small scales, when dispersive decorrelation mechanisms become significant, the frozen-in assumption is generally violated, in particular for k -vectors almost parallel to the average magnetic field. A discussion in terms of the spacetime autocorrelation function is proposed. These results might be relevant for the interpretation of the observations, in particular for existing and future space missions devoted to very high-resolution measurements.

  18. Numerical Study on the Validity of the Taylor Hypothesis in Space Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perri, Silvia; Servidio, Sergio; Valentini, Francesco; Vaivads, Andris

    2017-01-01

    In situ heliospheric measurements allow us to resolve fluctuations as a function of frequency. A crucial point is to describe the power spectral density as a function of the wavenumber, in order to understand the energy cascade through the scales in terms of plasma turbulence theories. The most favorable situation occurs when the average wind speed is much higher than the phase speed of the plasma modes, equivalent to the fact that the fluctuations’ dynamical times are much longer than their typical crossing period through the spacecraft (frozen-in Taylor approximation). Using driven compressible Hall-magneothydrodynamics simulations, in which an “imaginary” spacecraft flies across a time-evolving turbulence, here we explore the limitations of the frozen-in assumption. We find that the Taylor hypothesis is robust down to sub-proton scales, especially for flows with mean velocities typical of the fast solar wind. For slow mean flows (i.e., speeds of the order of the Alfvèn speed) power spectra are subject to an amplitude shift throughout the scales. At small scales, when dispersive decorrelation mechanisms become significant, the frozen-in assumption is generally violated, in particular for k -vectors almost parallel to the average magnetic field. A discussion in terms of the spacetime autocorrelation function is proposed. These results might be relevant for the interpretation of the observations, in particular for existing and future space missions devoted to very high-resolution measurements.

  19. Plasma cytokine IL-6 levels and subjective cognitive decline: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Andrew P; Paris, Daniel; Luis, Cheryl A; Abdullah, Laila; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Pryor, Makenzie; Chaykin, Jillian; Crynen, Gogce; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prior to clinical inception will be paramount for introducing disease modifying treatments. We have begun collecting baseline characteristics of a community cohort for longitudinal assessment and testing of antecedent blood-based biomarkers. We describe the baseline visit from the first 131 subjects in relationship to a commonly described cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL-6). Subjects from the community presented for a free memory screening with varying degrees of memory concern. We quantified the baseline plasma levels of the cytokine IL-6 and assessed cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA) and mood (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) in relationship to their memory concern. Baseline MoCA scores were inversely related to age, and this association was influenced by an AD risk factor, Apolipoprotein E (APOE4) carrier status. The degree of subjective cognitive decline correlated with GDS and was inversely related to MoCA scores. Interleukin 6 levels were related to age, body mass index, and years of education. It will be important to assess how these baseline IL-6 levels and forthcoming novel biomarkers relate to future cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding

    2012-08-01

    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  1. Time and space-correlated plasma potential measurements in the near field of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. W.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Space- and time-correlated measurements of floating and plasma potential are made in the near field, external flow cathode region of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge using an emissive probe synchronized to quasicoherent fluctuations in discharge current. The luminous axial feature frequently observed in the near field of operating plasma accelerators is found to be concomitant with a spike in the plasma potential (and electron temperature). The structure of the plasma potential allows for multiple avenues for back-streaming ions to accelerate toward the discharge front pole and may pull some classes of ions toward the central axis. The fluctuations in plasma properties exhibit a complex structure at frequencies on the order of the so-called 'breathing mode' ionization instability often seen in these types of discharges. Most notably, the plasma potential appears to fluctuate in a helical fashion, resembling tilted drift waves rotating about the central axis. A simple analysis of these waves draws attention to the possible role that they may play in driving anomalous cross-field electron transport in the near field region.

  2. Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.

  3. Ion trajectories calculation in a three dimensional beam subjected to a space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauth, T.

    1978-04-01

    Physical and geometrical conditions allowing a first approximation of necessary sizes to numerical integration of the ions movement equations subjected to electrical and magnetic crossed fields and space charge action are investigated here. To take into consideration the effect of the last one, two artifices are put forward: replacing charged particles by equivalent particles in calculating the coulomb force, electrical field calculation produced in different points situated on the beam envelope by the uniform charges distribution [fr

  4. Prognostic implications of fasting plasma glucose in subjects with echocardiographic abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether baseline fasting plasma glucose (FPG) modifies the prognostic role of left ventricular (LV) mass, geometric pattern, and diastolic function, for prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Population-based cohort study comprising of 1047 men and 456 women...... proportional-hazards regression with interaction analysis was used to evaluate the risk associated with FPG and LV structure and function. RESULTS: Median age was 67years, and 31% had impaired fasting glucose, 31% diabetes, 17% LV hypertrophy, and 40% diastolic dysfunction. During a median follow-up duration.......001), and with the association between diastolic dysfunction and event risk (P=0.02), including grade 2 or 3 dysfunction (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Echocardiographic abnormalities were more strongly associated with an adverse prognosis among subjects with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes....

  5. Solitary Waves in Space Dusty Plasma with Dust of Opposite Polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwakil, S.A.; Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.; Abdelwahed, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary waves (DAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless dusty plasma has been investigated. The fluid model is a generalize to the model of Mamun and Shukla to a more realistic space dusty plasma in different regions of space viz.., cometary tails, mesosphere, Jupiter s magnetosphere, etc., by considering a four component dusty plasma consists of charged dusty plasma of opposite polarity, isothermal electrons and vortex like ion distributions in the ambient plasma. A reductive perturbation method were employed to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation for the first-order potential and a stationary solution is obtained. The effect of the presence of positively charged dust fluid, the specific charge ratioμ, temperature of the positively charged dust fluid, the ratio of constant temperature of free hot ions and the constant temperature of trapped ions and ion temperature are also discussed.

  6. New method for rekindling the nonlinear solitary waves in Maxwellian complex space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, G. C.; Sarma, Ridip

    2018-04-01

    Our interest is to study the nonlinear wave phenomena in complex plasma constituents with Maxwellian electrons and ions. The main reason for this consideration is to exhibit the effects of dust charge fluctuations on acoustic modes evaluated by the use of a new method. A special method (G'/G) has been developed to yield the coherent features of nonlinear waves augmented through the derivation of a Korteweg-de Vries equation and found successfully the different nature of solitons recognized in space plasmas. Evolutions have shown with the input of appropriate typical plasma parameters to support our theoretical observations in space plasmas. All conclusions are in good accordance with the actual occurrences and could be of interest to further the investigations in experiments and satellite observations in space. In this paper, we present not only the model that exhibited nonlinear solitary wave propagation but also a new mathematical method to the execution.

  7. Determination of albumin transport rate between plasma and peritoneal space in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (TERperit.space) was determined in eighteen patients with decompensated cirrhosis by sampling ascitic fluid after i.v. injection of 125I-labelled serum albumin. Median TERperit.space was 0.30% of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) per hour (range 0...

  8. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  9. A real space calculation of absolutely unstable modes for two-plasmon decay in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates for absolute modes of two-plasmon decay are obtained by solving for eigenmodes of the coupled mode equations for obliquely scattered Langmuir waves in real space. This analysis establishes a connection both to previous analysis in Fourier transform space and to other parametric instabilities, the analysis of which is commonly done in real space. The essential feature of the instability which admits absolute modes in an inhomogeneous plasma is the strong spatial dependence of the coupling coefficients. Landau damping limits the perpendicular wavenumbers of the most unstable modes and raises the instability thresholds for background plasma temperatures above 1 keV. (author)

  10. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  11. Fasting plasma glucose levels and coronary artery calcification in subjects with impaired fasting glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Young-Mi; Kang, Sung-Goo; Song, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). While the association of impaired glucose tolerance with CVD has been shown in many studies, the relationship between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and CVD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores of participants with normal fasting glucose versus those with IFG, according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, and to assess whether differences in CAC scores were independent of important confounders. Retrospective study. Health Promotion Center of the University Hospital (Gyeonggi-do, South Korea), during the period 2010-2014. Participants were enrolled from the general population who visited for a medical check-up. CAC was assessed in asymptomatic individuals by multidetector computed tomography. Anthropometric parameters and metabolic profiles were also recorded. Subjects were divided into four fasting glucose groups. Participants with a history of CVD or diabetes mellitus were excluded. Correlation between FPG and CAC scores, CAC score categories, and association between CAC score and FPG categories. Of 1112 participants, 346 (34.2%) had a CAC score > 0. FPG values in the IFG patients were positively but weakly correlated with CAC scores (r=0.099, P=.001). The incidence of CAC differed according to FPG level (P =110 mg/dL had a significantly higher risk of CAC than did subjects with normal fasting glucose (110.

  12. Instantaneous Metabolic Cost of Walking: Joint-Space Dynamic Model with Subject-Specific Heat Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustyn Roberts

    Full Text Available A subject-specific model of instantaneous cost of transport (ICOT is introduced from the joint-space formulation of metabolic energy expenditure using the laws of thermodynamics and the principles of multibody system dynamics. Work and heat are formulated in generalized coordinates as functions of joint kinematic and dynamic variables. Generalized heat rates mapped from muscle energetics are estimated from experimental walking metabolic data for the whole body, including upper-body and bilateral data synchronization. Identified subject-specific energetic parameters-mass, height, (estimated maximum oxygen uptake, and (estimated maximum joint torques-are incorporated into the heat rate, as opposed to the traditional in vitro and subject-invariant muscle parameters. The total model metabolic energy expenditure values are within 5.7 ± 4.6% error of the measured values with strong (R2 > 0.90 inter- and intra-subject correlations. The model reliably predicts the characteristic convexity and magnitudes (0.326-0.348 of the experimental total COT (0.311-0.358 across different subjects and speeds. The ICOT as a function of time provides insights into gait energetic causes and effects (e.g., normalized comparison and sensitivity with respect to walking speed and phase-specific COT, which are unavailable from conventional metabolic measurements or muscle models. Using the joint-space variables from commonly measured or simulated data, the models enable real-time and phase-specific evaluations of transient or non-periodic general tasks that use a range of (aerobic energy pathway similar to that of steady-state walking.

  13. Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal theory of electron holes in superthermal space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindakshan, Harikrishnan; Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati

    2018-05-01

    Several spacecraft missions have observed electron holes (EHs) in Earth's and other planetary magnetospheres. These EHs are modeled with the stationary solutions of Vlasov-Poisson equations, obtained by adopting the Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) approach. Through the literature survey, we find that the BGK EHs are modelled by using either thermal distribution function or any statistical distribution derived from particular spacecraft observations. However, Maxwell distributions are quite rare in space plasmas; instead, most of these plasmas are superthermal in nature and generally described by kappa distribution. We have developed a one-dimensional BGK model of EHs for space plasma that follows superthermal kappa distribution. The analytical solution of trapped electron distribution function for such plasmas is derived. The trapped particle distribution function in plasma following kappa distribution is found to be steeper and denser as compared to that for Maxwellian distribution. The width-amplitude relation of perturbation for superthermal plasma is derived and allowed regions of stable BGK solutions are obtained. We find that the stable BGK solutions are better supported by superthermal plasmas compared to that of thermal plasmas for small amplitude perturbations.

  14. A micro-scale plasma spectrometer for space and plasma edge applications (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, E. E., E-mail: escime@wvu.edu; Keesee, A. M.; Elliott, D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Dugas, M.; Ellison, S.; Tersteeg, J.; Wagner, G. [Advanced Research Corporation, White Bear Lake, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Barrie, A.; Rager, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A plasma spectrometer design based on advances in lithography and microchip stacking technologies is described. A series of curved plate energy analyzers, with an integrated collimator, is etched into a silicon wafer. Tests of spectrometer elements, the energy analyzer and collimator, were performed with a 5 keV electron beam. The measured collimator transmission and energy selectivity were in good agreement with design targets. A single wafer element could be used as a plasma processing or fusion first wall diagnostic.

  15. Participation in the scientific activities of the Waves in Space Plasma (WISP) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Yakov L.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the Final Report for Contract NAG5-1925, that consisted of experiment design, for possible use by the space science mission called WISP (Waves in Space Plasma). This mission is under study by the Canadian Space Agency and by NASA. Two WISP configurations are contemplated, under the name of BICEPS: one is called BOLAS, and the other WISPRS. Both these configurations are meant to perform bistatic sounding of the ionosphere, at a height close to F(sub 2) H(sub max) (about 350 Km), with a pair of satellites, either tethered or in free flight. Investigation A (with Y.L. Alpert as P.I.) addresses the subject of parametric decay effects, expected to arise in a magnetoplasma under the influence of high-intensity HF fields. Criteria were formulated that could be used in searching for parametric instabilities and of electric fields in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, by in-situ satellites, such as the BICEPS Pair. Investigation B (with M.D.Grossi as P.I.) addressed the bistatic measurement, by the BICEPS pair,of ionospheric features, such as large-scale and small-scale disturbances, travelling ionospheric disturbances, electron density irregularities, spread-F phenomena, etc. These measurements by BICEPS could be correlated with the waveform distortion and degradation experienced by microwave links from geosynchronous height to ground, such as the ACTS satellite, expected to radiate pulses as short as 1 nanosecond in the band 20 to 30 GHz. These links are transionospheric and propagate e.m. waves in the volume of the ionosphere where BICEPS operates. It will be possible, therefore, to correlate the two classes of measurements, and learn the causative mechanisms that are responsible for the time-spread and frequency-spread nature of communications waveforms at microwave, in geosynchronous height to ground paths.

  16. Plasma engineering analyses of tokamak reactor operating space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive method is presented for analyzing the potential physics operating regime of fusion reactor plasmas with detailed transport codes. Application is made to the tokamak Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The relationships between driven and ignited operation and supplementary heating requirements are examined. The reference physics models give a finite range of density and temperature over which physics objectives can be reached. Uncertainties in the confinement scaling and differences in supplementary heating methods can expand or contract this operating regime even to the point of allowing ignition with the more optimistic models

  17. Laboratory and space experiments as a key to the plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1993-08-01

    Almost all of the known matter in our universe is in the state of plasma. Because of the complexity of the plasma state, a reliable understanding has to be built on empirical knowledge, since theoretical models easily become misleading unless guided by experiment or observation. Cosmical plasmas cover a vast range of densities and temperatures, but in important respects they can be classified into three main categories: high, medium, and low density plasmas. The ability of a plasma to carry electric current is very different in different kinds of plasma, varying from high density plasmas, where the ordinary Ohms law applies to low density plasmas, where no local macroscopic relation needs to exist between electric field and current density. According to classical formulas, the electrical conductivity of many plasmas should be practically infinite. But on the basis of laboratory experiments and in situ measurements in space we now know that in important cases the plasmas ability to carry electric current can be reduced by many powers of ten, and even collisionless plasmas may support significant magnetic-field aligned electric fields. A small number of processes responsible for this have been identified. They include anomalous resistivity, magnetic mirror effect and electric double layers. One of the consequences is possible violation of the frozen field condition, which greatly simplifies the analysis but can be dangerously misleading. Another is the possibility of extremely efficient release of magnetically stored energy. Cosmical plasmas have a strong tendency to form filamentary and cellular structures, which complicates their theoretical description by making homogeneous models inappropriate. In situ observations in the Earths magnetosphere have revealed completely unexpected and still not fully understood chemical separation processes that are likely to be important also in astrophysical plasmas. 108 refs

  18. Laboratory simulation of the formation of an ionospheric depletion using Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the formation of an ionospheric depletion was simulated in a controlled laboratory plasma. The experiment was performed by releasing chemical substance sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 into the pure argon discharge plasma. Results indicate that the plasma parameters change significantly after release of chemicals. The electron density is nearly depleted due to the sulfur hexafluoride-electron attachment reaction; and the electron temperature and space potential experience an increase due to the decrease of the electron density. Compared to the traditional active release experiments, the laboratory scheme can be more efficient, high repetition rate and simpler measurement of the varying plasma parameter after chemical releasing. Therefore, it can effective building the bridge between the theoretical work and real space observation.

  19. Leucine-based receptor sorting motifs are dependent on the spacing relative to the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Dietrich, J; Nielsen, B L

    1998-01-01

    Many integral membrane proteins contain leucine-based motifs within their cytoplasmic domains that mediate internalization and intracellular sorting. Two types of leucine-based motifs have been identified. One type is dependent on phosphorylation, whereas the other type, which includes an acidic...... amino acid, is constitutively active. In this study, we have investigated how the spacing relative to the plasma membrane affects the function of both types of leucine-based motifs. For phosphorylation-dependent leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 7 residues between the plasma membrane...... and the phospho-acceptor was required for phosphorylation and thereby activation of the motifs. For constitutively active leucine-based motifs, a minimal spacing of 6 residues between the plasma membrane and the acidic residue was required for optimal activity of the motifs. In addition, we found that the acidic...

  20. Plasma-induced evolution behavior of space-charge-limited current for multiple-needle cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Limin; Liu Lie; Zhang Jun; Wen Jianchun; Liu Yonggui; Wan Hong

    2009-01-01

    Properties of the plasma and beam flow produced by tufted carbon fiber cathodes in a diode powered by a ∼500 kV, ∼400 ns pulse are investigated. Under electric fields of 230-260 kV cm -1 , the electron current density was in the range 210-280 A cm -2 , and particularly at the diode gap of 20 mm, a maximum beam power density of about 120 MW cm -2 was obtained. It was found that space-charge-limited current exhibited an evolution behavior as the accelerating pulse proceeded. There exists a direct relation between the movement of plasma within the diode and the evolution of space-charge-limited current. Initially in the accelerating pulse, the application of strong electric fields caused the emission sites to explode, forming cathode flares or plasma spots, and in this stage the space-charge-limited current was approximately described by a multiple-needle cathode model. As the pulse proceeded, these plasma spots merged and expanded towards the anode, thus increasing the emission area and shortening the diode gap, and the corresponding space-charge-limited current followed a planar cathode model. Finally, the space-charge-limited current is developed from a unipolar flow into a bipolar flow as a result of the appearance of anode plasma. In spite of the nonuniform distribution of cathode plasma, the cross-sectional uniformity of the extracted electron beam is satisfactory. The plasma expansion within the diode is found to be a major factor in the diode perveance growth and instability. These results show that these types of cathodes can offer promising applications for high-power microwave tubes.

  1. Space plasma observations - observations of solar-terrestrial environment. Space Weather Forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Eiichi; Akioka, Maki

    1996-01-01

    The space environment becomes more important than ever before because of the expansion in the utilization of near-earth space and the increase in the vulnerability of large scale systems on the ground such as electrical power grids. The concept of the Space Weather Forecast program emerged from the accumulation of understanding on basic physical processes and from our activities as one of the regional warning centers of the international network of space environment services. (author)

  2. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5). In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U) in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4) or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3). Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion. Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP) across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05). Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) across all groups. However, the increase (%) in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile)] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278) vs. 186 (94-308)] or 80 U ([491 (414-548) vs. 478 (409-857)] experiments (P > 0.05). Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P BCAA in either of the experiments (P > 0.05). Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  3. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  4. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concept Study of Radio Frequency (RF Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Theodora ANDREESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric thrusters are capable of accelerating ions to speeds that are impossible to reach using chemical reaction. Recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of electromagnetic (RF generation and acceleration systems as able to provide not only continuous thrust, but also highly controllable and wide-range exhaust velocities. For Future Space Propulsion there is a pressing need for low pressure, high mass flow rate and controlled ion energies. This paper explores the potential of using RF heated plasmas for space propulsion in order to mitigate the electric propulsion problems caused by erosion and gain flexibility in plasma manipulation. The main key components of RF thruster architecture are: a feeding system able to provide the required neutral gas flow, plasma source chamber, antenna/electrodes wrapped around the discharge tube and optimized electromagnetic field coils for plasma confinement. A preliminary analysis of system performance (thrust, specific impulse, efficiency is performed along with future plans of Space Propulsion based on this new concept of plasma mechanism.

  6. Urinary elimination of molybdenum by healthy subjects as determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Prémel-Cabic, A; Mauras, Y; Cledes, A; Cournot, A

    The concentration of molybdenum was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) in the urines of two groups of healthy people living in two areas of France, Brest and Paris, about 500 km away. The concentration of Mo in the 24-hour urines of 10 healthy subjects from the Brest region was 25 +/- 10 micrograms/l, 38 +/- 20 micrograms/24 h and 21 +/- 9 micrograms/g creatinine. The concentration of Mo in the morning urines of 23 healthy men of the Paris region was 41 +/- 34 micrograms/l and 21 +/- 15 micrograms/g creatinine. Thus the mean elimination of Mo per gram of creatinine was the same in the two groups (21 +/- 9 and 21 +/- 15). Since the three main isotopes of Mo m/z = 95, 96 and 98, corresponding to an abundance percentage of 16, 17 and 24.5, respectively, were simultaneously analyzed in each sample and led to similar results, the ICPMS method seems reliable.

  7. Space plasma physics at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Edwards, T.; Hall, D.S.; Ward, A.K.

    1984-03-01

    The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is contributing instruments and a spacecraft to several imminent and excitingly new explorations of the plasma phenomena arising from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth, and the solar wind and a comet. The projects in which the Laboratory is engaged, in collaboration with university and other research groups in the UK and abroad, include the AMPTE mission, which will trace the flow of particles injected into the solar wind, the GIOTTO encounter with comet Halley, the VIKING exploration of the generation of the aurora, and the CRRES and ISTP missions to clarify the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. These projects are outlined, together with the results of recent studies of particle acceleration and pulsations in the aurora. (author)

  8. Solar array experiments on the SPHINX satellite. [Space Plasma High voltage INteraction eXperiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Space Plasma, High Voltage Interaction Experiment (SPHINX) is the name given to an auxiliary payload satellite scheduled to be launched in January 1974. The principal experiments carried on this satellite are specifically designed to obtain the engineering data on the interaction of high voltage systems with the space plasma. The classes of experiments are solar array segments, insulators, insulators with pin holes and conductors. The satellite is also carrying experiments to obtain flight data on three new solar array configurations: the edge illuminated-multijunction cells, the teflon encased cells, and the violet cells.

  9. Some aspects of transformation of the nonlinear plasma equations to the space-independent frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.N.; Chakraborty, B.

    1982-01-01

    Relativistically correct transformation of nonlinear plasma equations are derived in a space-independent frame. This transformation is useful in many ways because in place of partial differential equations one obtains a set of ordinary differential equations in a single independent variable. Equations of Akhiezer and Polovin (1956) for nonlinear plasma oscillations have been generalized and the results of Arons and Max (1974), and others for wave number shift and precessional rotation of electromagnetic wave are recovered in a space-independent frame. (author)

  10. Phase-space description of plasma waves. Linear and nonlinear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.

    1992-11-01

    We develop an (r,k) phase space description of waves in plasmas by introducing Gaussian window functions to separate short scale oscillations from long scale modulations of the wave fields and variations in the plasma parameters. To obtain a wave equation that unambiguously separates conservative dynamics from dissipation also in an inhomogeneous and time varying background plasma, we first discuss the proper form of the current response function. On the analogy of the particle distribution function f(v,r,t), we introduce a wave density N(k,r,t) on phase space. This function is proven to satisfy a simple continuity equation. Dissipation is also included, and this allows us to describe the damping or growth of wave density' along rays. Problems involving geometric optics of continuous media often appear simpler when viewed in phase space, since the flow of N in phase space is incompressible. Within the phase space representation, we obtain a very general formula for the second order nonlinear current in terms of the vector potential. This formula is a convenient starting point for studies of coherent as well as turbulent nonlinear processes. We derive kinetic equations for weakly inhomogeneous and turbulent plasma, including the effects of inhomogeneous turbulence, wave convection and refraction. (author)

  11. Near Earth space plasma monitoring under COST 296

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Altadill, D.; Boška, Josef; Cander, Lj. R.; Gulyaeva, T.; Reinisch, B. W.; Romano, V.; Krankowski, A.; Bremer, J.; Belehaki, A.; Stanislawska, I.; Jakowski, N.; Scotto, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 221-234 ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Ionosphere * monitoring * data validation * monitoring techniques * campaigns * dissemination Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009 http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/4562

  12. Plasma 27-hydroxycholesterol/cholesterol ratio is increased in low high density lipoprotein-cholesterol healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Valéria S; Leança, Camila C; Panzoldo, Natália B; Parra, Eliane; Zago, Vanessa; Cazita, Patrícia M; Nakandakare, Edna R; de Faria, Eliana C; Quintão, Eder C R

    2013-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) which is widely distributed among tissues and is expressed at high levels in the vascular endothelium and macrophages. There is a continuous flow of this oxysterol from the tissues into the liver, where it is converted to bile acids. Measure plasma concentrations of 27-OHC in subjects that differ according to their plasma HDL-C concentration. Healthy men presenting low HDL-C (1.55 mmol/L), n=18, BMIm² were recruited after excluding secondary causes that might interfere with their plasma lipid concentrations such as smoking, heavy drinking and diabetes. Blood samples were drawn after a 12h fasting period for the measurement of 27-OHC by the combined GC/MS analysis utilizing deuterium-label internal standards. The plasma ratio 27-OHC/total cholesterol (median and range nmoL/mmoL) was 50.41 (27.47-116.00) in the High HDL-C subjects and 63.34 (36.46-91.18) in the Low HDL-C subjects (p=0.0258). Our data indicate that the production of 27-OHC by extrahepatic tissues and its transport to the liver may represent an alternative pathway for a deficient reverse cholesterol transport system when plasma HDL-C is low. © 2013.

  13. Multi-satellite observations of magnetic fields in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Erlandson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The most common method of detecting electric currents in space has been by virtue of the magnetic perturbations they produce. A satellite can pass through a field-aligned ''Birkeland'' current and measure the in-situ magnetic perturbations. Satellite-borne magnetic field experiments may also be used to observe characteristics of resonant oscillations of the Earth's magnetic field at ULF frequencies. Examples of such measurements with magnetic field experiments on the Viking, AMPTE/CCE, and DMSP-F7 satellites will be presented. The Viking satellite, launched in February, 1986, is Sweden's first satellite and is in a polar orbit with 3.1 R/sub e/ apogee. AMPTE/CCE was launched in August, 1984, with satellites from West Germany and the United Kingdom, for the purpose of creating artificial comets in space. It is in an equatorial orbit with a 8.8 R/sub e/ apogee. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)-F7 satellite was launched in October, 1983 into an 800 km circular sun-synchronous orbit in the 0830-2030 magnetic local time plane. Viking and AMPTE/CCE observed harmonic ULF pulsations when they were near the same flux tube, but separated by about 10 R/sub e/. These unique observations are used to investigate the characteristics and sources of multiple field line resonances of Alfven waves. On another occasion, Viking and DMSP-F7 observed similar magnetic perturbations at widely separated locations. The authors interpret these perturbations as due to a complicated system of large-scale stable Birkeland currents in the morning sector. This multi-satellite data set is in the early stages of exploration, but already confirms the usefulness of coordinated multi-position observations of magnetic fields in space

  14. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)

  15. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  16. Effects of synthetic TRH on plasma human prolactin levels in normal subjects and in patients with various endocrine disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Norio; Miyoshi, Masanori; Suzuki, Shinya; Ofuji, Tadashi; Furuno, Katsushi

    1974-01-01

    HPRL was iodinated a modification of the enzymatic method using lactoperoxidase. By solid-phase RIA using antibody-coated disposable plastic microtiter trays, it was confirmed that the second peak consisted of the immunoreactive material that was used for RIA. For the measurement of plasma hPRL levels, the double antibody technique was used to separate bound from free labeled hormones. Basal plasma hPRL levels in normal subjects were less than 20 ng/ml. The mean basal hPRL levels were 10.2 +- 4.9 (Mean+-SD) ng/ml in 13 normal men and 9.6+-5.4 ng/ml in 8 normal women; no statistically significant sex difference was observed. When synthetic TRH was administered intravenously to a normal male subject, the maximum increase in plasma hPRL above the baseline level increased linearly as a function of the log of the TRH dose between 25 and 100 μg of TRH. Intravenous administration of 500 μg of TRH caused a significant increase in plasma hPRL in all of the 10 normal subjects tested. Plasma hPRL levels in 2 patients with Sheehan's syndrome and in a patient with operated-irradiated chromophobe adenoma tended to be low, and they showed no significant increase in plasma hPRL after TRH injection. Basal plasma hPRL levels in most of the patients with hypothalamopituitary tumor tended to be high. Plasma hPRL levels were normal in most patients with pituitary dwarfism. Plasma hPRL levels in 2 patients with hyperthyroidism tended to be low, and they showed no significant hPRL response to TRH, while patients with hypothyroidism showed normal or rather exaggerated hPRL response to TRH. Plasma hPRL levels were normal in most of the patients with Cushing's syndrome and plasma hPRL responses to TRH in these patients were normal. TRH-induced hPRL secretion tended to be impaired in patients receiving long-term and high doses of glucocorticoid. (auth.)

  17. Relationship of plasma apolipoprotein M with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 levels in non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappelle, Paul J W H; Lambert, Gilles; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Apolipoprotein M (apoM) retards atherosclerosis development in murine models, and may be regulated by pathways involved in LDL metabolism. Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in LDL receptor processing. We determined the extent to which plasma apo......M is related to PCSK9 levels in subjects with varying degrees of obesity. METHODS: We sought correlations between plasma apoM and PCSK9, measured using recently developed ELISAs, in 79 non-diabetic subjects. RESULTS: ApoM and PCSK9 levels were both correlated positively with total cholesterol, non...... contribute to plasma apoM regulation in humans. The influence of PCSK9 on circulating apoM appears to be modified by adiposity...

  18. Alternative model of space-charge-limited thermionic current flow through a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanell, M. D.

    2018-04-01

    It is widely assumed that thermionic current flow through a plasma is limited by a "space-charge-limited" (SCL) cathode sheath that consumes the hot cathode's negative bias and accelerates upstream ions into the cathode. Here, we formulate a fundamentally different current-limited mode. In the "inverse" mode, the potentials of both electrodes are above the plasma potential, so that the plasma ions are confined. The bias is consumed by the anode sheath. There is no potential gradient in the neutral plasma region from resistivity or presheath. The inverse cathode sheath pulls some thermoelectrons back to the cathode, thereby limiting the circuit current. Thermoelectrons entering the zero-field plasma region that undergo collisions may also be sent back to the cathode, further attenuating the circuit current. In planar geometry, the plasma density is shown to vary linearly across the electrode gap. A continuum kinetic planar plasma diode simulation model is set up to compare the properties of current modes with classical, conventional SCL, and inverse cathode sheaths. SCL modes can exist only if charge-exchange collisions are turned off in the potential well of the virtual cathode to prevent ion trapping. With the collisions, the current-limited equilibrium must be inverse. Inverse operating modes should therefore be present or possible in many plasma devices that rely on hot cathodes. Evidence from past experiments is discussed. The inverse mode may offer opportunities to minimize sputtering and power consumption that were not previously explored due to the common assumption of SCL sheaths.

  19. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  20. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  1. Initial Efforts in Characterizing Radiation and Plasma Effects on Space Assets: Bridging the Space Environment, Engineering and User Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Guild, T. B.; Jiggens, P.; Jun, I.; Mazur, J. E.; Meier, M. M.; Minow, J. I.; Pitchford, D. A.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Shprits, Y.; Tobiska, W. K.; Xapsos, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Jordanova, V. K.; Kellerman, A. C.; Fok, M. C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading the community-wide model validation projects for many years. Such effort has been broadened and extended via the newly-launched International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment (https://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov/assessment/), Its objective is to track space weather models' progress and performance over time, which is critically needed in space weather operations. The Radiation and Plasma Effects Working Team is working on one of the many focused evaluation topics and deals with five different subtopics: Surface Charging from 10s eV to 40 keV electrons, Internal Charging due to energetic electrons from hundreds keV to several MeVs. Single Event Effects from solar energetic particles (SEPs) and galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) (several MeV to TeVs), Total Dose due to accumulation of doses from electrons (>100 KeV) and protons (> 1 MeV) in a broad energy range, and Radiation Effects from SEPs and GCRs at aviation altitudes. A unique aspect of the Radiation and Plasma Effects focus area is that it bridges the space environments, engineering and user community. This presentation will summarize the working team's progress in metrics discussion/definition and the CCMC web interface/tools to facilitate the validation efforts. As an example, tools in the areas of surface charging/internal charging will be demoed.

  2. State-space modeling of the radio frequency inductively-coupled plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, Rakesh Kumar; Punjabi, Sangeeta B; Mangalvedekar, H A; Lande, B K; Joshi, N K; Barve, D N

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models of RF-ICP are useful in understanding the basic transport phenomenon in an ICP torch under a wide variety of operating conditions. However, these models lack the ability to evaluate the effects of the plasma condition on the RF generator. In this paper, simulation of an induction plasma generator has been done using state space modelling by considering inductively coupled plasma as a part of RF network .The time dependent response of the RF-ICP generator circuit to given input excitation has been computed by extracting the circuit's state-space variables and their constraint matrices. MATLAB 7.1 software has been used to solve the state equations. The values of RF coil current, frequency and plasma power has been measured experimentally also at different plate bias voltage. The simulated model is able to predict RF coil current, frequency, plasma power, overall efficiency of the generator. The simulated and measured values are in agreement with each other. This model can prove useful as a design tool for the Induction plasma generator.

  3. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  4. BDNF Val66Met homozygosity does not influence plasma BDNF levels in healthy human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luykx, J.J.; Boks, M.P.M.; Breetvelt, E.J.; Aukes, M.F.; Strengman, E.; da Pozzo, E.; Dell'osso, L.; Marazziti, D.; van Leeuwen, A.; Vreeker, A.; Abramovic, L.; Martini, C.; Numans, M.E.; Kahn, R. S.; Ophoff, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    A putative pathway by which the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) leads to aberrant phenotypes is its influence on plasma BDNF. Research into the impact of rs6265 on plasma BDNF has given rise to conflicting results. Moreover, most such studies have compared Met-carriers with Val-homozygous

  5. Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.

  6. Plasma instabilities stimulated by HF transmitters in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Vinas, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    Diffuse incoherent signal returns are often observed on Alouette and ISIS topside ionograms in addition to coherent echoes of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves. These diffuse signals, which at times can be the dominant features on topside ionograms, have been attributed to sounder-induced temperature anisotropies which drive the Harris instability. Previous theoretical investigations were based on the electrostatic approximation to the dispersion equation. The present paper will present calculations indicating that when the electromagnetic terms are retained in the dispersion equation and when the sounder-stimulated perpendicular electron temperature approaches 1 keV, then the whistler mode can have a temporal growth rate larger than the electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic wave mode central to the diffuse resonance problem. Present sounders lack the power and antenna lengths to generate whistler mode waves in this manner. In addition, such waves would have large group velocities and would quickly leave the vicinity of the sounder. Experiments to investigate the wave growth, propagation, and damping of such stimulated waves are planned for the 1990s using a highly flexible sounder on the Space Shuttle and a receiver on a subsatellite. 30 references

  7. Mini-magnetosphere plasma experiment for space radiation protection in manned spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo

    2012-01-01

    With the development of Chinese manned spaceflight, the planetary missions will become true in the future. The protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem that should be considered. There are many revolutionary ideas for shielding including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. The concept using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field was recommended for further assessment. Magnetic field inflation was produced by the injection of plasma onto the magnetic field. The method can be used to deflect charged ions and to reduce space radiation dose. It can supply the suitable radiation protection for astronauts and spacecraft. Principle experiments demonstrated that the magnetic field was inflated by the injection of the plasma in the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field intensity strengthened with the increasing of input RF power in this paper. The mechanism should be studied in following steps. (authors)

  8. Electroacupuncture effect at the LI 4 Hegu point on the plasma β-endorphin level of healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawardhani, A. L.; Srilestari, A.; Simadibrata, C.

    2017-08-01

    As a therapy modality, acupuncture is becoming popular for treating diseases. Nevertheless, the acupuncture mechanism of action remains unclear until now. Some studies suggest that acupuncture works by stimulating the β-endorphin release, whereas other studies show the opposite. This study aims to determine whether electro acupuncture at the LI 4 Hegu point could increase the plasma β-endorphin level as a basic of acupuncture mechanism of action. Thirty-six healthy subjects were involved and divided randomly into two groups, namely, intervention (n=18) and control (n=18). In the intervention group, electroacupuncture was applied at the LI 4 Hegu point with a low frequency for 30 min. In the control group, sham electroacupuncture was applied at a non-acupoint for 30 min. The plasma β-endorphin was examined before and after intervention using the ELISA method. A significant difference was found between the intervention and control groups in increasing the plasma β-endorphin level (9(50%) vs. 1(5.6%); p = 0.009). A significant difference was also observed in the plasma β-endorphin level after intervention between the two groups (35.1±3.4 vs. 10.3±1.8 p=0.003). Electroacupuncture at the LI 4 Hegu point was found to increase the plasma β-endorphin level in healthy subjects.

  9. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  10. ISS and Space Environment Interactions in Event of Plasma Contactor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), illustrated in Figure 1, will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, and similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur.

  11. Bistable intrinsic charge fluctuations of a dust grain subject to secondary electron emission in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2015-10-01

    A master equation was formulated to study intrinsic charge fluctuations of a grain in a plasma as ions and primary electrons are attached to the grain through collisional collection, and secondary electrons are emitted from the grain. Two different plasmas with Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions were considered. The fluctuations could be bistable in either plasma when the secondary electron emission is present, as two stable macrostates, associated with two stable roots of the charge net current, may exist. Metastablity of fluctuations, manifested by the passage of the grain charge between two macrostates, was shown to be possible.

  12. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  13. GSK1265744 pharmacokinetics in plasma and tissue after single-dose long-acting injectable administration in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, William; Ford, Susan L; Chen, Shuguang; Wilfret, David; Margolis, David; Gould, Elizabeth; Piscitelli, Stephen

    2014-12-15

    GSK1265744 (744) is an HIV-1 integrase inhibitor in clinical development as a long-acting (LA) injectable formulation. This study evaluated plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics after single-dose administration of 744 LA administered by intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous injections. This was a phase I, open-label, 9-cohort, parallel study of 744 in healthy subjects. 744 was administered as a 200 mg/mL nanosuspension at doses of 100-800 mg IM and 100-400 mg subcutaneous. Eight (6 active and 2 placebo) male and female subjects participated in each of the first 7 cohorts. All 8 subjects, 4 males and 4 females, received active 744 LA in cohorts 8 and 9 and underwent rectal and cervicovaginal tissue sampling, respectively. Plasma pharmacokinetic sampling was performed for a minimum of 12 weeks or until 744 concentrations were ≤0.1 μg/mL. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue biopsies were performed at weeks 2 and 8 (cohort 8) and weeks 4 and 12 (cohort 9). 744 LA was generally safe and well tolerated after single injections. A majority of subjects reported injection site reactions, all graded as mild in intensity. Plasma concentration-time profiles were prolonged with measureable concentrations up to 52 weeks after dosing. 744 LA 800 mg IM achieved mean concentrations above protein adjusted-IC90 for approximately 16 weeks. Rectal and cervicovaginal tissue concentrations ranged from injection has potential application as a monthly or less frequent HIV treatment or prevention agent.

  14. Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.

  15. Low Frequency Turbulence as the Source of High Frequency Waves in Multi-Component Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, George V.; Krivorutsky, Emmanuel N.; Uritsky, Vadim M.

    2011-01-01

    Space plasmas support a wide variety of waves, and wave-particle interactions as well as wavewave interactions are of crucial importance to magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma behavior. High frequency wave turbulence generation by the low frequency (LF) turbulence is restricted by two interconnected requirements: the turbulence should be strong enough and/or the coherent wave trains should have the appropriate length. These requirements are strongly relaxed in the multi-component plasmas, due to the heavy ions large drift velocity in the field of LF wave. The excitation of lower hybrid waves (LHWs), in particular, is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven waves, in particular those associated with LF turbulence, may generate LHW s in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases (particularly in the inner magnetosphere) this serves as the Alfven wave saturation mechanism. We also argue that the described scenario can playa vital role in various parts of the outer magnetosphere featuring strong LF turbulence accompanied by LHW activity. Using the data from THEMIS spacecraft, we validate the conditions for such cross-scale coupling in the near-Earth "flow-braking" magnetotail region during the passage of sharp injection/dipolarization fronts, as well as in the turbulent outflow region of the midtail reconnection site.

  16. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  17. Effects of itopride hydrochloride on plasma gut-regulatory peptide and stress-related hormone levels in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Shiga, Toru; Inoue, Shin; Sato, Yuhki; Itoh, Hiroki; Takeyama, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    Itopride hydrochloride (itopride), a gastrokinetic drug, has recently been evaluated for its clinical usefulness in functional dyspepsia. We investigated effects of itopride on human plasma gastrin-, somatostatin-, motilin-, and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive substances (IS); adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-immunoreactive substances (IS), and cortisol under stress conditions in healthy subjects. A single administration of itopride caused significant increases in plasma somatostatin- and motilin-IS levels compared to placebo. Itopride significantly decreased plasma CCK-IS, and suppressed the ACTH-IS level compared to placebo. We hypothesize that itopride may have an accelerating gastric emptying effect, and a modulatory effect on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous functions. These effects might be beneficial in stress-related diseases, suggesting that itopride has clinicopharmacological activities.

  18. The Space Station Photovoltaic Panels Plasma Interaction Test Program: Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1989-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  19. The Space Station photovoltaic panels plasma interaction test program - Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  20. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  1. Electrostatic storage ring with focusing provided by the space charge of an electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J. L.; Ordonez, C. A.; Weathers, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic storage rings are used for a variety of atomic physics studies. An advantage of electrostatic storage rings is that heavy ions can be confined. An electrostatic storage ring that employs the space charge of an electron plasma for focusing is described. An additional advantage of the present concept is that slow ions, or even a stationary ion plasma, can be confined. The concept employs an artificially structured boundary, which is defined at present as one that produces a spatially periodic static field such that the spatial period and range of the field are much smaller than the dimensions of a plasma or charged-particle beam that is confined by the field. An artificially structured boundary is used to confine a non-neutral electron plasma along the storage ring. The electron plasma would be effectively unmagnetized, except near an outer boundary where the confining electromagnetic field would reside. The electron plasma produces a radially inward electric field, which focuses the ion beam. Self-consistently computed radial beam profiles are reported.

  2. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects: role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Perton, Frank G.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; van Roon, Arie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  3. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects : Role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Perton, FG; Dallinga-Thie, GM; van Roon, AM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  4. The development of the miniaturized waveform receiver with the function measuring Antenna Impedance in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H.; Kojima, H.; Fukuhara, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Plasma wave is one of the most essential physical quantities in the solar terrestrial physics. The role of plasma wave receiver onboard satellites is to detect plasma waves in space with a good signal to noise ratio. There are two types of plasma wave receivers, the sweep frequency analyzer and the waveform capture. While the sweep frequency analyzer provides plasma wave spectra, the waveform capture obtains waveforms with phase information that is significant in studying nonlinear phenomena. Antenna sensors to observe electric fields of the plasma waves show different features in plasmas from in vacuum. The antenna impedances have specific characteristics in the frequency domain because of the dispersion of plasmas. These antenna impedances are expressed with complex number. We need to know not only the antenna impedances but also the transfer functions of plasma wave receiver's circuits in order to calibrate observed waveforms precisely. The impedances of the electric field antennas are affected by a state of surrounding plasmas. Since satellites run through various regions with different plasma parameters, we precisely should measure the antenna impedances onboard spacecraft. On the contrary, we can obtain the plasma density and by measuring the antenna impedances. Several formulas of the antenna impedance measurement system were proposed. A synchronous detection method is used on the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO), which will be launched in 2014. The digital data are stored in the onboard memory. They are read out and converted to the analog waveforms by D/A converter. They are fed into the input of the preamplifiers of antenna sensors through a resistor. We can calculate a transfer function of the circuit by applying the synchronous detection method to the output waveform from waveform receivers and digital data as a signal source. The size of this system is same as an A5 board. In recent years, Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC

  5. Possible further subjects of study in the field of fusion plasma theory in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: First fusion plasma theory relevant studies in Latvia were related to edge localized modes (ELMs). This work has been carried out at the Institute of Solid Physics and is nearing successful completion. The next suggested topic 'Stochastisation of magnetic field lines and its impact on fusion plasma' is related to the theory of ergotic magnetic fields. The stochastisation of magnetic field lines is thought to play a major role in fast energy loss events from magnetically confined fusion plasma due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Classical examples are sawtooth crashes and disruptions. Here it is thought that stochastisation plays a role in the enhanced reconnection rate, which is often observed. More recently, this process has also been proposed as an explanation for the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) phenomenon, which is repetitive rapid decrease of a neoclassical magnetic island due to its interaction with other MHD modes. The timescale for this phenomenon is clearly too fast to be explained by a conventional reconnection. The theoretical study of the onset of stochastisation will be illustrated for plasma parameters typical for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak operated at the Max-Planc-Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Germany

  6. Analyticity spaces of self-adjoint operators subjected to perturbations with applications to Hankel invariant distribution spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.; Graaf, de J.

    1986-01-01

    A new theory of generalized functions has been developed by one of the authors (de Graaf). In this theory the analyticity domain of each positive self-adjoint unbounded operator $\\mathcal{A}$ in a Hilbert space $X$ is regarded as a test space denoted by $\\mathcal{S}_{x,\\mathcal{A}} $. In the first

  7. Control of magnetohydrodynamic stability by phase space engineering of energetic ions in tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J P; Chapman, I T; Coda, S; Lennholm, M; Albergante, M; Jucker, M

    2012-01-10

    Virtually collisionless magnetic mirror-trapped energetic ion populations often partially stabilize internally driven magnetohydrodynamic disturbances in the magnetosphere and in toroidal laboratory plasma devices such as the tokamak. This results in less frequent but dangerously enlarged plasma reorganization. Unique to the toroidal magnetic configuration are confined 'circulating' energetic particles that are not mirror trapped. Here we show that a newly discovered effect from hybrid kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic theory has been exploited in sophisticated phase space engineering techniques for controlling stability in the tokamak. These theoretical predictions have been confirmed, and the technique successfully applied in the Joint European Torus. Manipulation of auxiliary ion heating systems can create an asymmetry in the distribution of energetic circulating ions in the velocity orientated along magnetic field lines. We show the first experiments in which large sawtooth collapses have been controlled by this technique, and neoclassical tearing modes avoided, in high-performance reactor-relevant plasmas.

  8. To Mars and beyond, fast! how plasma propulsion will revolutionize space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Chang Díaz, Franklin

    2017-01-01

    As advanced space propulsion moves slowly from science fiction to achievable reality, the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, or VASIMR, is a leading contender for making 'Mars in a month' a possibility. Developed by Ad Astra Rockets, which was founded by astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz and backed by NASA, its first commercial tests are imminent. VASIMR heats plasma to extreme temperatures using radio waves. Strong magnetic fields then funnel this plasma out the back of the engine, creating thrust. The continuous propulsion may place long, fast interplanetary journeys within reach in the near future. While scientists dream of the possibilities of using fusion or well-controlled matter-antimatter interactions to propel spacecraft fast and far, that goal is still some way over the horizon. VASIMR provides a more attainable propulsion technology that is based on the matter-antimatter concept. The book describes a landmark technology grounded in plasma physics and offering a practical technological solu...

  9. Mini-cavity plasma core reactors for dual-mode space nuclear power/propulsion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, S.

    1976-01-01

    A mini-cavity plasma core reactor is investigated for potential use in a dual-mode space power and propulsion system. In the propulsive mode, hydrogen propellant is injected radially inward through the reactor solid regions and into the cavity. The propellant is heated by both solid driver fuel elements surrounding the cavity and uranium plasma before it is exhausted out the nozzle. The propellant only removes a fraction of the driver power, the remainder is transferred by a coolant fluid to a power conversion system, which incorporates a radiator for heat rejection. In the power generation mode, the plasma and propellant flows are shut off, and the driver elements supply thermal power to the power conversion system, which generates electricity for primary electric propulsion purposes

  10. Automatic emissive probe apparatus for accurate plasma and vacuum space potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianquan, LI; Wenqi, LU; Jun, XU; Fei, GAO; Younian, WANG

    2018-02-01

    We have developed an automatic emissive probe apparatus based on the improved inflection point method of the emissive probe for accurate measurements of both plasma potential and vacuum space potential. The apparatus consists of a computer controlled data acquisition card, a working circuit composed by a biasing unit and a heating unit, as well as an emissive probe. With the set parameters of the probe scanning bias, the probe heating current and the fitting range, the apparatus can automatically execute the improved inflection point method and give the measured result. The validity of the automatic emissive probe apparatus is demonstrated in a test measurement of vacuum potential distribution between two parallel plates, showing an excellent accuracy of 0.1 V. Plasma potential was also measured, exhibiting high efficiency and convenient use of the apparatus for space potential measurements.

  11. The mathematical modelling of plasmas at the service of space technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, Christophe; Degond, Pierre; Vignal, Marie-Helene

    2001-01-01

    The objective is here to provide a background for some aspects of the mathematical modelling in physics (i.e. a physical problem, its description by an appropriate set of equations, a reduction of this set, implementation on a computer, selection of test cases, validation, result interpretation, visualisation, exploitation of the code for prediction or production purposes), in the case of aspects related to plasmas in space environment. These plasmas can be those of the environment (ionosphere), those created by abnormal operating conditions of the satellite (induced discharges), or those used for technological purposes (plasma propulsion). After a presentation of some basic notions regarding space environment (scales, sun and solar wind, definition of a plasma, magnetosphere, ionosphere), the authors propose a modelling of ionospheric irregularities (model of Euler-Maxwell, model without dimension, three-dimensional dynamo model, quasi-two-dimensional dynamo model, striation model, turbulence modelling). They address the problem of discharges occurring on satellites: problem description, scenario description, Vlasov equation, limits and numerical results

  12. Space-time-dependent development of the plasma in a pulsed hollow-cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.; Wages, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents streak camera investigations on the space-time-dependent development of pulsed hollow-cathode discharges (HCD's) starting from low-current preionization discharges. The discharges started closer to the end of the cathode, then moved further into the cathode, and then spread over a longer range along the axis of the cathode. The depth range of the intense pulsed hollow-cathode plasma was found to be two to eight times the cathode diameter

  13. Space-resolved vacuum ultra-violet spectroscopy on T.F.R. Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported of space-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopy (between 100 A and 2000A) on T.F.R. Tokamak plasmas and examples are given of profiles for both heavy and light impurity ions. The experimental method and the associated uncertainties and problems are stressed. The great importance of numerical calculations in the interpretation of the impurity profiles is pointed out. (author)

  14. Quantum theory of parametric excitation in plasmas with the driving field space dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Hong Anh

    1998-11-01

    A development of the quantum theory of parametric wave excitation in plasmas is presented to take into account the effects of space dispersion of the driving external fields. The quantum equation of motion method with the use of appropriate matrix formalism leads to the system of dispersion equations for the eigenmodes of vibrations. Calculations show the enlargement of the excitable waves region both in wave number values and directions as compared to the case of dipole approximation considered earlier. (author)

  15. Assessment of plasma acylcarnitines before and after weight loss in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooneman, Marieke G.; Napolitano, Antonella; Houten, Sander M.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Miller, Sam R.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Tan, Chong Y.; Virtue, Samuel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Nunez, Derek J.; Soeters, Maarten R.

    2016-01-01

    Acylcarnitines, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates, have been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as increased levels are found in obese insulin resistant humans. Moreover plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with clinical parameters related to

  16. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  17. Effect of spin-polarized D-3He fuel on dense plasma focus for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Yu Wang, Choi, Chan K.; Mead, Franklin B.

    1992-01-01

    Spin-polarized D-3He fusion fuel is analyzed to study its effect on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device for space propulsion. The Mather-type plasma focus device is adopted because of the ``axial'' acceleration of the current carrying plasma sheath, like a coaxial plasma gun. The D-3He fuel is chosen based on the neutron-lean fusion reactions with high charged-particle fusion products. Impulsive mode of operation is used with multi-thrusters in order to make higher thrust (F)-to-weight (W) ratio with relatively high value of specific impulse (Isp). Both current (I) scalings with I2 and I8/3 are considered for plasma pinch temperature and capacitor mass. For a 30-day Mars mission, with four thrusters, for example, the typical F/W values ranging from 0.5-0.6 to 0.1-0.2 for I2 and I8/3 scalings, respectively, and the Isp values of above 1600 s are obtained. Parametric studies indicate that the spin-polarized D-3He provides increased values of F/W and Isp over conventional D-3He fuel which was due to the increased fusion power and decreased radiation losses for the spin-polarized case.

  18. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Optimization of confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary report on the identification and optimization of independent variables which affect the ion density and confinement time in a bumpy torus plasma is presented. The independent variables include the polarity, position, and number of the midplane electrode rings, the method of gas injection, and the polarity and strength of a weak vertical magnetic field. Some characteristic data taken under condition when most of the independent variables were optimized are presented. The highest value of the electron number density on the plasma axis is 3.2 x 10 to the 12th power/cc, the highest ion heating efficiency is 47 percent, and the longest particle containment time is 2.0 milliseconds

  20. Analytical and between-subject variation of thrombin generation measured by calibrated automated thrombography on plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Anne F; Kristensen, Søren R; Falkmer, Ursula; Münster, Anna-Marie B; Pedersen, Shona

    2018-05-01

    The Calibrated Automated Thrombography (CAT) is an in vitro thrombin generation (TG) assay that holds promise as a valuable tool within clinical diagnostics. However, the technique has a considerable analytical variation, and we therefore, investigated the analytical and between-subject variation of CAT systematically. Moreover, we assess the application of an internal standard for normalization to diminish variation. 20 healthy volunteers donated one blood sample which was subsequently centrifuged, aliquoted and stored at -80 °C prior to analysis. The analytical variation was determined on eight runs, where plasma from the same seven volunteers was processed in triplicates, and for the between-subject variation, TG analysis was performed on plasma from all 20 volunteers. The trigger reagents used for the TG assays included both PPP reagent containing 5 pM tissue factor (TF) and PPPlow with 1 pM TF. Plasma, drawn from a single donor, was applied to all plates as an internal standard for each TG analysis, which subsequently was used for normalization. The total analytical variation for TG analysis performed with PPPlow reagent is 3-14% and 9-13% for PPP reagent. This variation can be minimally reduced by using an internal standard but mainly for ETP (endogenous thrombin potential). The between-subject variation is higher when using PPPlow than PPP and this variation is considerable higher than the analytical variation. TG has a rather high inherent analytical variation but considerable lower than the between-subject variation when using PPPlow as reagent.

  1. Glycoprotein YKL-40 Levels in Plasma Are Associated with Fibrotic Changes on HRCT in Asbestos-Exposed Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Väänänen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available YKL-40 is a chitinase-like glycoprotein produced by alternatively activated macrophages that are associated with wound healing and fibrosis. Asbestosis is a chronic asbestos-induced lung disease, in which injury of epithelial cells and activation of alveolar macrophages lead to enhanced collagen production and fibrosis. We studied if YKL-40 is related to inflammation, fibrosis, and/or lung function in subjects exposed to asbestosis. Venous blood samples were collected from 85 men with moderate or heavy occupational asbestos exposure and from 28 healthy, age-matched controls. Levels of plasma YKL-40, CRP, IL-6, adipsin, and MMP-9 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Plasma YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in subjects with asbestosis (n=19 than in those with no fibrotic findings in HRCT following asbestos exposure (n=66 or in unexposed healthy controls. In asbestos-exposed subjects, plasma YKL-40 correlated negatively with lung function capacity parameters FVC (Pearson’s r −0.259, p=0.018 and FEV1 (Pearson’s r −0.240, p=0.028 and positively with CRP (Spearman’s rho 0.371, p<0.001, IL-6 (Spearman’s rho 0.314, p=0.003, adipsin (Spearman’s rho 0.459, p<0.001, and MMP-9 (Spearman’s rho 0.243, p=0.025. The present finding suggests YKL-40 as a biomarker associated with fibrosis and inflammation in asbestos-exposed subjects.

  2. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-07-07

    scaling (MDS) and landmark multidimensional scaling (LMDS) for data visualization (dimensionality reduction). Furthermore, two new classification schemes are developed: a distance-to-centroid classifier (D2C) and a principal geodesic classifier (PGC). D2C classifies on the basis of the minimum GD to the class centroids and PGC considers the shape of the class on the manifold by determining the minimum distance to the principal geodesic of each class. The methods are validated by their application to the classification and retrieval of colored texture images represented in the wavelet domain. Both methods prove to be computationally efficient, yield high accuracy and also clearly exhibit the adequacy of the GD and its superiority over the Euclidean distance, for comparing PDFs. The second main goal of the work targets ELM analysis at three fronts, using pattern recognition and probabilistic modeling: (i) We first concentrate on visualization of ELM characteristics by creating maps containing projections of multidimensional ELM data, as well as the corresponding probabilistic models. In particular, GD-based MDS is used for representing the complete distributions of the multidimensional data characterizing the operational space of ELMs onto two-dimensional maps. Clusters corresponding to type I and type III ELMs are identified and the maps enable tracking of trends in plasma parameters across the operational space. It is shown that the maps can also be used with reasonable accuracy for predicting the values of the plasma parameters at a certain point in the operational space. (ii) Our second application concerns fast, standardized and automated classification of ELM types. The presented classification schemes are aimed at complementing the phenomenological characterization using standardized methods that are less susceptible to subjective interpretation, while considerably reducing the effort of ELM experts in identifying ELM types. To this end, different classification

  3. Pattern recognition in spaces of probability distributions for the analysis of edge-localized modes in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabbir, Aqsa

    2016-01-01

    scaling (MDS) and landmark multidimensional scaling (LMDS) for data visualization (dimensionality reduction). Furthermore, two new classification schemes are developed: a distance-to-centroid classifier (D2C) and a principal geodesic classifier (PGC). D2C classifies on the basis of the minimum GD to the class centroids and PGC considers the shape of the class on the manifold by determining the minimum distance to the principal geodesic of each class. The methods are validated by their application to the classification and retrieval of colored texture images represented in the wavelet domain. Both methods prove to be computationally efficient, yield high accuracy and also clearly exhibit the adequacy of the GD and its superiority over the Euclidean distance, for comparing PDFs. The second main goal of the work targets ELM analysis at three fronts, using pattern recognition and probabilistic modeling: (i) We first concentrate on visualization of ELM characteristics by creating maps containing projections of multidimensional ELM data, as well as the corresponding probabilistic models. In particular, GD-based MDS is used for representing the complete distributions of the multidimensional data characterizing the operational space of ELMs onto two-dimensional maps. Clusters corresponding to type I and type III ELMs are identified and the maps enable tracking of trends in plasma parameters across the operational space. It is shown that the maps can also be used with reasonable accuracy for predicting the values of the plasma parameters at a certain point in the operational space. (ii) Our second application concerns fast, standardized and automated classification of ELM types. The presented classification schemes are aimed at complementing the phenomenological characterization using standardized methods that are less susceptible to subjective interpretation, while considerably reducing the effort of ELM experts in identifying ELM types. To this end, different classification

  4. Plasma progranulin and relaxin levels in PCOS women with normal BMI compared to control healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS is the most commonly encountered endocrine gland disease affecting 5-10 present of women at their reproductive age. This syndrome is associated with type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Progranulin and relaxin are adipokins that are related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Due to limited data about progranulin and relaxin plasma levels´ in women with PCOS and normal BMI, this study was conducted. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional. During the study 39 women with PCOS and BMI< 25 on the basis of Rotterdam criteria were chosen as the patient group and 38 healthy women were selected as the control group. The concentration of progranulin and relaxin were measured by ELISA technique. Results: The difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin, and also some of the biochemical parameters in the patient group versus to the control group was not significant, but there was significant difference in the concentrations of VLDL, triglyceride (p=0.046, insulin (p=0.016, HOMA-IR (p=0.015, testosterone (p=0.01, and DHEAS (p=0.034 in the patients group compared to the control group. Conclusion: In this study, the difference in Plasma concentration of progranulin and relaxin in the patient group compared to the control group was not significant. It could be inferred that lack of change in plasma level of progranulin and relaxin in women with PCOS is related to BMI<25 and FBS<110. Moreoverestosterones, insulin, DHEAS and HOMA-IR changes could be better predictors of PCOS and its associated diabetes.

  5. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma ami...

  6. 11th International Conference on Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Flows: ASTRONUM-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    PREFACEThe Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR) at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) and Maison de la Simulation at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat a l’energie atomique et aux energies alternatives, CEA) organized the 11th annual International Conference on Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Flows (ASTRONUM-2016) on June 6—10, 2016 in Monterey, California, USA.The Program Committee consisted of Tahar Amari (CNRS Ecole Polytechnique, France), Edouard Audit (CEA/CNRS Maison de la Simulation, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, co-chair), Amitava Bhattacharjee (Princeton University, USA), Phillip Colella (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA), Anthony Mezzacappa (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA), Ewald Müller (Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), Nikolai Pogorelov (University of Alabama in Huntsville/CSPAR, USA, chair), Kazunari Shibata (Kyoto University, Japan), James Stone (Princeton University, USA), Jon Linker (Predictive Science, Inc., USA), and Gary P. Zank (University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA).The conference attracted 92 scientists representing different branches of the plasma simulation community. The distinctive feature of this conference is a combination of diverse research topics, all of which are essential for performing high-resolution, continuum mechanics and particle, simulations of physical phenomena in space physics and astrophysics. Among such topics were software packages for modeling and analyzing plasma flows; advanced numerical methods for space and astrophysical flows; large-scale fluid-based, kinetic, and hybrid simulations; turbulence and cosmic ray transport; and magnetohydrodynamics. The applications discussed included cosmology and galaxy formation, supernova explosions, physics of the Sun-heliosphere-magnetosphere environments, the interstellar medium and star formation, stellar physics, experimental plasma physics, astrophysical

  7. Stability analysis of Hasegawa space-charge waves in a plasma waveguide with collisional ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-12-01

    The dispersion relation for the Hasegawa space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide dusty plasma containing collision-dominated ion stream is derived by using the fluid equations and the Poisson equation which lead to a Bessel equation. The solution of Bessel equation is null at the boundary and then the roots of the Bessel function would characterize the property of space-charge wave propagation. We have found that the Hasegawa space-charge wave can be excited for a large axial wave number. The growth rate of excitation increases as the order of the roots of the Bessel function increases. The growth rate decreases with an increase of the radius of cylindrical waveguide as well as with an increase of the collision frequency. We found that the disturbance of wave can be damped only for small wave numbers.

  8. Transverse phase space diagnostics for ionization injection in laser plasma acceleration using permanent magnetic quadrupoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Nie, Z.; Wu, Y. P.; Guo, B.; Zhang, X. H.; Huang, S.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, Z.; Ma, Y.; Fang, Y.; Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Xu, X. L.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.

    2018-04-01

    We report the transverse phase space diagnostics for electron beams generated through ionization injection in a laser-plasma accelerator. Single-shot measurements of both ultimate emittance and Twiss parameters are achieved by means of permanent magnetic quadrupole. Beams with emittance of μm rad level are obtained in a typical ionization injection scheme, and the dependence on nitrogen concentration and charge density is studied experimentally and confirmed by simulations. A key feature of the transverse phase space, matched beams with Twiss parameter α T ≃ 0, is identified according to the measurement. Numerical simulations that are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results reveal that a sufficient phase mixing induced by an overlong injection length leads to the matched phase space distribution.

  9. Kinetic theory of twisted waves: Application to space plasmas having superthermal population of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Kashif; Poedts, Stefaan; Lazar, Marian

    2017-04-01

    ring shape morphology of a beam with orbital angular momentum (OAM) is ideal for the observation of solar corona around the sun where the intensity of the beam is minimum at the center, in solar experiments, and Earth's ionosphere. The twisted plasma modes carrying OAM are mostly studied either by the fluid theory or Maxwellian distributed Kinetic Theory. But most of the space plasmas and some laboratory plasmas have non-thermal distributions due to super-thermal population of the plasma particles. Therefore the Kinetic Theory of twisted plasma modes carrying OAM are recently studied using non-thermal (kappa) distribution of the super-thermal particles in the presence of the helical electric field and significant change in the damping rates are observed by tuning appropriate parameters.

  10. On performance of cylindrical dipole antenna in diagnostics of wave phenomena in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraga, A.

    Tubular and wire antennas have been employed since an advent of in situ measurements in space. It is generally accepted that they are well suited to recipe electromagnetic radiation from remote sources as well as divers local plasma emissions. Quasi thermal noise spectroscopy provides an example of well documented, both experimentally and theoretically, technique to study solar wind plasma. In many data sets of wave spectra, recorded with use of tubular or wire antennas at all altitudes inside a plasma sphere, there is pronounced, permanent, variable frequency spectral structure, routinely assigned to upper hybrid band (UHR) emissions. On the other hand, spectral structure, which could be assigned to upper hybrid band, is less pronounced and infrequent, in sets of wave spectra recorded in polar region with the use of spherical double probes. These apparently inconsistent observations have not drawn much attention of wave community. Assignment to UHR emission have been bolstered by theoretical plausibility, permanency in data sets, frequency verification with independent techniques and conviction that measurements were performed with good voltmeter with well known properties. It has been recognized that stray capacitance acts as a voltage divider and underestimates real voltage imposed on antenna. But in sufficiently dense and cold main plasma component, even short antenna is inductive in some frequency band below upper hybrid frequency. Stray capacitance and antenna inductance result in circuit resonance, which is very pronounced, if antenna resistance is low and input resistance is high. In such circumstances, a good voltmeter concept is very misleading. In this report we show that good voltmeter concept is not sufficient for interpretation of passive mode spectra recorded with tubular antenna on IK -19, APEX and CORONAS satellites. With orbit inclination of ~80deg and altitude range of 500-3000km, very divers plasmas were encountered, but distinct plasma emission

  11. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120...... subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28 % in the AG-PUFA group and 22 % in the EE...

  12. Comparison of Omadacycline and Tigecycline Pharmacokinetics in the Plasma, Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Alveolar Cells of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotfried, Mark H; Horn, Karolyn; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne; Villano, Stephen; Tzanis, Evan; Chitra, Surya; Manley, Amy; Tanaka, S Ken; Rodvold, Keith A

    2017-09-01

    The steady-state concentrations of omadacycline and tigecycline in the plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar cells (AC) of 58 healthy adult subjects were obtained. Subjects were administered either omadacycline at 100 mg intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h for two doses followed by 100 mg i.v. every 24 h for three doses or tigecycline at an initial dose of 100 mg i.v. followed by 50 mg i.v. every 12 h for six doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject following the start of the fifth dose of omadacycline at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h and after the start of the seventh dose of tigecycline at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h. The value of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h postdosing (AUC 0-24 ) (based on mean concentrations) in ELF and the ratio of the ELF to total plasma omadacycline concentration based on AUC 0-24 values were 17.23 mg · h/liter and 1.47, respectively. The AUC 0-24 value in AC was 302.46 mg · h/liter, and the ratio of the AC to total plasma omadacycline concentration was 25.8. In comparison, the values of the AUC from time zero to 12 h postdosing (AUC 0-12 ) based on the mean concentrations of tigecycline in ELF and AC were 3.16 and 38.50 mg · h/liter, respectively. The ratio of the ELF and AC to total plasma concentrations of tigecycline based on AUC 0-12 values were 1.71 and 20.8, respectively. The pharmacokinetic advantages of higher and sustained concentrations of omadacycline compared to those of tigecycline in plasma, ELF, and AC suggest that omadacycline is a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections caused by susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Gotfried et al.

  13. Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition

  14. Diagnosis of Magnetic Structures and Intermittency in Space Plasma Turbulence using the Method of Surrogate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Goldstein, Melvyn

    2008-01-01

    Several observations in space plasmas have reported the presence of coherent structures at different plasma scales. Structure formation is believed to be a direct consequence of nonlinear interactions between the plasma modes, which depend strongly on phase synchronization of those modes. Despite this important role of the phases in turbulence, very limited work has been however devoted to study the phases as a potential tracers of nonlinearities in comparison with the wealth of literature on power spectra of turbulence where phases are totally missed. We present a method based on surrogate data to systematically detect coherent structures in turbulent signals. The new method has been applied successfully to magnetosheath turbulence (Sahraoui, Phys. Rev. E, 2008, in press), where the relationship between the identified phase coherence and intermittency (classically identified as non Gaussian tails of the PDFs) as well as the energy cascade has been studied. Here we review the main results obtained in that study and show further applications to small scale solar wind turbulence. Implications of the results on theoretical modelling of space turbulence (applicability of weak/wave turbulence, its validity limits and its connection to intermittency) will be discussed.

  15. Non-thermal Power-Law Distributions in Solar and Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Battaglia, M.; Birn, J.; Chaston, C. C.; Effenberger, F.; Eriksson, E.; Fletcher, L.; Hatch, S.; Imada, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Kuhar, M.; Livadiotis, G.; Miyoshi, Y.; Retino, A.

    2017-12-01

    Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies in solar and space plasma environments. While energy spectra of accelerated particles often exhibit a power-law and are characterized by the power-law index δ, it remains unclear how particles are accelerated to high energies and how δ is determined. Here, we review previous observations of the power-law index δ in a variety of different plasma environments with a particular focus on sub-relativistic electrons. It appears that in regions more closely related to magnetic reconnection (such as the "above-the-looptop" solar hard X-ray source and the plasma sheet in Earth's magnetotail), the spectra are typically soft (δ> 4). This is in contrast to the typically hard spectra (δuniform in the plasma sheet, while power-law distributions still exist even in quiet times. The role of magnetotail reconnection in the electron power-law formation could therefore be confounded with these background conditions. Because different regions have been studied with different instrumentations and methodologies, we point out a need for more systematic and coordinated studies of power-law distributions for a better understanding of possible scaling laws in particle acceleration as well as their universality.

  16. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined

  17. Extended MHD modeling of nonlinear instabilities in fusion and space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    A number of different sub-projects where pursued within this DOE early career project. The primary focus was on using fully nonlinear, curvilinear, extended MHD simulations of instabilities with applications to fusion and space plasmas. In particular, we performed comprehensive studies of the dynamics of the double tearing mode in different regimes and confi gurations, using Cartesian and cyclindrical geometry and investigating both linear and non-linear dynamics. In addition to traditional extended MHD involving Hall term and electron pressure gradient, we also employed a new multi-fluid moment model, which shows great promise to incorporate kinetic effects, in particular off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, in a fluid model, which is naturally computationally much cheaper than fully kinetic particle or Vlasov simulations. We used our Vlasov code for detailed studies of how weak collisions effect plasma echos. In addition, we have played an important supporting role working with the PPPL theory group around Will Fox and Amitava Bhattacharjee on providing simulation support for HED plasma experiments performed at high-powered laser facilities like OMEGA-EP in Rochester, NY. This project has support a great number of computational advances in our fluid and kinetic plasma models, and has been crucial to winning multiple INCITE computer time awards that supported our computational modeling.

  18. Effects of indomethacin on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects: a study of prostaglandin-dopamine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, R S; Davidson, M; Kanof, P; McQueeney, R T; Singh, R R; Davis, K L

    1991-01-01

    In laboratory animals, prostaglandins have been shown to act as endogenous neuromodulators of central dopamine (DA) activity. To examine the interaction between prostaglandins and DA in man, the effect of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin, was studied on plasma concentrations of the DA metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA). Indomethacin (150 mg PO) as compared to placebo significantly elevated mean pHVA concentrations in eight normal subjects. Results of this study support the hypothesis that, as in animals, inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis increases central DA turnover in man.

  19. Non-Formal Education as a Factor in Civilizational Development of Educational Space Subject in the Cross-Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarova, Dulma T.; Starostina, Svetlana E.; Namsarayev, Sergey D.; Dagbaeva, Nina Zh.; Malanov, Innokentiy A.

    2016-01-01

    The research is aimed at determining the organizational and pedagogical conditions of nonformal education implementation as a factor in civilizational development of subjects, joint international projects performers, in the educational space of the cross-border region. New integration projects forming the need for effective models implementation…

  20. Time and space resolved observation of hot spots in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, P.; Aliaga, R.; Herold, H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors report some recent results on the time and space evolution of hot spots on the DPF-78 plasma focus at the University of Stuttgart. The experiments were carried out in mixtures of deuterium and krypton at a bank voltage of 60 kV and a stored energy of 28 kJ. A modification of the ADRRM streak technique carried out in the soft x-ray region allowed us to directly examine some characteristics of the hot spots. Simultaneous measurements were carried out on the hard x-ray radiation (80 keV), the spatially resolved optical emissions, the neutron yield rate with TOF information and the plasma and bank currents

  1. The Properties of the Space-Charge and Net Current Density in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatami, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model is used to investigate the properties of positive space-charge and net current density in the sheath region of magnetized, collisional plasmas with warm positive ions. It is shown that an increase in the ion-neutral collision frequency, as well as the magnitude of the external magnetic field, leads to an increase in the net current density across the sheath region. The results also show that the accumulation of positive ions in the sheath region increases by increasing the ion-neutral collision frequency and the magnitude of the magnetic field. In addition, it is seen that an increase in the positive ion temperatures causes a decrease in the accumulation of positive ions and the net current density in the sheath region. (basic plasma phenomena)

  2. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  4. Coherent Structures and Spectral Energy Transfer in Turbulent Plasma: A Space-Filter Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Califano, F.; Retinò, A.

    2018-03-01

    Plasma turbulence at scales of the order of the ion inertial length is mediated by several mechanisms, including linear wave damping, magnetic reconnection, the formation and dissipation of thin current sheets, and stochastic heating. It is now understood that the presence of localized coherent structures enhances the dissipation channels and the kinetic features of the plasma. However, no formal way of quantifying the relationship between scale-to-scale energy transfer and the presence of spatial structures has been presented so far. In the Letter we quantify such a relationship analyzing the results of a two-dimensional high-resolution Hall magnetohydrodynamic simulation. In particular, we employ the technique of space filtering to derive a spectral energy flux term which defines, in any point of the computational domain, the signed flux of spectral energy across a given wave number. The characterization of coherent structures is performed by means of a traditional two-dimensional wavelet transformation. By studying the correlation between the spectral energy flux and the wavelet amplitude, we demonstrate the strong relationship between scale-to-scale transfer and coherent structures. Furthermore, by conditioning one quantity with respect to the other, we are able for the first time to quantify the inhomogeneity of the turbulence cascade induced by topological structures in the magnetic field. Taking into account the low space-filling factor of coherent structures (i.e., they cover a small portion of space), it emerges that 80% of the spectral energy transfer (both in the direct and inverse cascade directions) is localized in about 50% of space, and 50% of the energy transfer is localized in only 25% of space.

  5. Time- and space-resolved light emission and spectroscopic research of the flashover plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleizer, J. Z.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Leopold, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Rafael Laboratories, Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel)

    2015-02-21

    The results of an experimental study of the evolution of surface flashover across the surface of an insulator in vacuum subject to a high-voltage pulse and the parameters of the flashover plasma are reported. For the system studied, flashover is always initiated at the cathode triple junctions. Using time-resolved framing photography of the plasma light emission the velocity of the light emission propagation along the surface of the insulator was found to be ∼2.5·10{sup 8} cm/s. Spectroscopic measurements show that the flashover is characterized by a plasma density of 2–4 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3} and neutral and electron temperatures of 2–4 eV and 1–3 eV, respectively, corresponding to a plasma conductivity of ∼0.2 Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} and a discharge current density of up to ∼10 kA/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  7. Plasma triacylglycerol and coagulation factor concentrations predict the anticoagulant effect of dietary fish oil in overweight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanschoonbeek, Kristof; Feijge, Marion A H; Saris, Wim H M

    2007-01-01

    fish-oil effects. In study 1, 54 overweight subjects consumed 3.1 g (n-3) PUFA daily. In study 2, which involved 42 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, 20 subjects consumed (n-3) PUFA, whereas 22 others ingested a preparation rich in (n-6) PUFA. Tissue factor-induced thrombin generation (thrombin...... potential) was determined as an integrated measure of plasma coagulant activity. In both studies, multivariate analysis indicated a strong clustering of fasting concentrations of triacylglycerols, prothrombin, factor V, factor VII, and factor X with one another at baseline. This cluster of factors......-induced lowering of triacylglycerol and coagulation factor V, VII, and X concentrations, and thrombin generation. We conclude that high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations predict high procoagulant activity and a lowering of thrombin potential with dietary fish oil....

  8. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  9. Space-time structure of neutron and X-ray sources in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.; Prior, W.

    1977-01-01

    Systematic measurements with paraffin collimators of the neutron emission intensity have been completed on a plasma focus with a 15-20 kV capacitor bank (hollow centre electrode; discharge period T approximately 8 μs; D 2 filling at 4-8 torr). The space resolution was 1 cm or better. These data indicate that at least 70% of the total neutron yield originates within hot-plasma regions where electron beams and high-energy D beams (approximately > 0.1-1 MeV) are produced. The neutron source is composed of several (approximately > 1-10) space-localized sources of different intensity, each with a duration approximately less than 5 ns (FWHM). Localized neutron sources and hard (approximately > 100 keV) X-ray sources have the same time multiplicity and are usually distributed in two groups over a time interval 40-400 ns long. By the mode of operation used by the authors one group of localized sources (Burst II) is observed 200-400 ns after the other group (Burst I) and its space distribution is broader than for Burst I. The maximum intensity of a localized source of neutrons in Burst I is much higher than the maximum intensity in Burst II. Secondary reactions T(D,n) 4 He (from the tritium produced only by primary reactions in the same discharge; no tritium was used in filling the discharge chamber) are observed in a time coincidence with the strongest D-D neutron pulse of Burst I. The neutron signal from a localized source with high intensity has a relatively long tail of small amplitude (area tail approximately less than 0.2 X area peak). This tail can be generated by the D-D reactions of the unconfined part of an ion beam in the cold plasma. Complete elimination of scattered neutrons on the detector was achieved in these measurements. (author)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  11. Simulating Coupling Complexity in Space Plasmas: First Results from a new code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, I.; Zank, G. P.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Raeder, J.; Ciardo, G.; Florinski, V. A.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Li, G.; Petrini, F.; Shematovich, V. I.; Winske, D.; Shaikh, D.; Webb, G. M.; Yee, H. M.

    2005-12-01

    The development of codes that embrace 'coupling complexity' via the self-consistent incorporation of multiple physical scales and multiple physical processes in models has been identified by the NRC Decadal Survey in Solar and Space Physics as a crucial necessary development in simulation/modeling technology for the coming decade. The National Science Foundation, through its Information Technology Research (ITR) Program, is supporting our efforts to develop a new class of computational code for plasmas and neutral gases that integrates multiple scales and multiple physical processes and descriptions. We are developing a highly modular, parallelized, scalable code that incorporates multiple scales by synthesizing 3 simulation technologies: 1) Computational fluid dynamics (hydrodynamics or magneto-hydrodynamics-MHD) for the large-scale plasma; 2) direct Monte Carlo simulation of atoms/neutral gas, and 3) transport code solvers to model highly energetic particle distributions. We are constructing the code so that a fourth simulation technology, hybrid simulations for microscale structures and particle distributions, can be incorporated in future work, but for the present, this aspect will be addressed at a test-particle level. This synthesis we will provide a computational tool that will advance our understanding of the physics of neutral and charged gases enormously. Besides making major advances in basic plasma physics and neutral gas problems, this project will address 3 Grand Challenge space physics problems that reflect our research interests: 1) To develop a temporal global heliospheric model which includes the interaction of solar and interstellar plasma with neutral populations (hydrogen, helium, etc., and dust), test-particle kinetic pickup ion acceleration at the termination shock, anomalous cosmic ray production, interaction with galactic cosmic rays, while incorporating the time variability of the solar wind and the solar cycle. 2) To develop a coronal

  12. Filamentation of a surface plasma wave over a semiconductor-free space interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gagan; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    A large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW), propagating over a semiconductor-free space interface, is susceptible to filamentation instability. A small perturbation in the amplitude of the SPW across the direction of propagation exerts a ponderomotive force on free electrons and holes, causing spatial modulation in free carrier density and hence the effective permittivity ɛeff of the semiconductor. The regions with higher ɛeff attract more power from the nieghborhood, leading to the growth of the perturbation. The growth rate increases with the intensity of the surface wave. It decreases with the frequency of the SPW.

  13. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  14. Warping similarity space in category learning by human subjects: the role of task difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Pevtzow, Rachel; Harnad, Stevan

    1997-01-01

    In innate Categorical Perception (CP) (e.g., colour perception), similarity space is "warped," with regions of increased within-category similarity (compression) and regions of reduced between-category similarity (separation) enh ancing the category boundaries and making categorisation reliable and all-or-none rather than graded. We show that category learning can likewise warp similarity space, resolving uncertainty near category boundaries. Two Hard and two Easy texture learning tasks were ...

  15. Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects, with and without periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Barnes

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are bi-directionally associated. Identification of a molecular signature for periodontitis using unbiased metabolic profiling could allow identification of biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study identified plasma and salivary metabolic products associated with periodontitis and/or diabetes in order to discover biomarkers that may differentiate or demonstrate an interaction of these diseases. Saliva and plasma samples were analyzed from 161 diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects with a healthy periodontium, gingivitis and periodontitis. Metabolite profiling was performed using Metabolon's platform technology. A total of 772 metabolites were found in plasma and 475 in saliva. Diabetics had significantly higher levels of glucose and α-hydroxybutyrate, the established markers of diabetes, for all periodontal groups of subjects. Comparison of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis saliva samples within the non-diabetic group confirmed findings from previous studies that included increased levels of markers of cellular energetic stress, increased purine degradation and glutathione metabolism through increased levels of oxidized glutathione and cysteine-glutathione disulfide, markers of oxidative stress, including increased purine degradation metabolites (e.g. guanosine and inosine, increased amino acid levels suggesting protein degradation, and increased ω-3 (docosapentaenoate and ω-6 fatty acid (linoleate and arachidonate signatures. Differences in saliva between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts showed altered signatures of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative stress exist in the diabetic samples. Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human saliva in diabetics replicated the metabolite signature of periodontal disease progression in non-diabetic patients and revealed unique metabolic

  16. Distribution, persistence and interchange of Epstein-Barr virus strains among PBMC, plasma and saliva of primary infection subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready interchange of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle.

  17. Sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in outpatient settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ePEDRAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine.Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview ‘Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders’. Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex.The results showed that the chemokine concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL12/SDF-1 were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα were higher in control women relative to men, but these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women. Cytokine concentrations were unaltered in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative; whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, POEA was only increased in cocaine-addicted women.Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (mood, anxiety and psychosis disorders.These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of

  18. Information content of the space-frequency filtering of blood plasma layers laser images in the diagnosis of pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.

    2013-12-01

    The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.

  19. Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković-Košćal Milanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides (Tg were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months. Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group. Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group. After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01, LDL-C (p<0.01 and Tg (p<0.0001 and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05 was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can

  20. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  1. New approach to 3-D, high sensitivity, high mass resolution space plasma composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new type of 3-D space plasma composition analyzer. The design combines high sensitivity, high mass resolution measurements with somewhat lower mass resolution but even higher sensitivity measurements in a single compact and robust design. While the lower resolution plasma measurements are achieved using conventional straight-through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, the high mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions reflected in a linear electric field (LEF), where the restoring force that an ion experiences is proportional to the depth it travels into the LEF region. Consequently, the ion's equation of motion in that dimension is that of a simple harmonic oscillator and its travel time is simply proportional to the square root of the ion's mass/charge (m/q). While in an ideal LEF, the m/q resolution can be arbitrarily high, in a real device the resolution is limited by the field linearity which can be achieved. In this paper we describe how a nearly linear field can be produced and discuss how the design can be optimized for various different plasma regimes and spacecraft configurations

  2. Spaces of life: Revolt, expulsion and a conceptual rebirth of the educative subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Sonja; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    Beyond knowledge, critical thinking, new ideas, rigorous science and scholarly development, the university is a space of life. It is a place for academic, moral and cultural citizenship, ethically entangled with ways of being, encountering and evolving thought and relationships with the self......), it can be said to be teetering, like Levinasian (2001) spectors or ghosts, somewhere ‘between being and nothingness’. As a space of life, even a virtuous place for critical citizenship (Nixon, 2008), the university then has a role in maintaining the ‘life and the mind of the species’ (Kristeva, 2000...

  3. Design and construction of Keda Space Plasma Experiment (KSPEX) for the investigation of the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhongkai; Lei, Jiuhou; Cao, Jinxiang; Yu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xiao; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Yaodong

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the design and construction of the Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX), which aims to study the boundary layer processes of ionospheric depletions, are described in detail. The device is composed of three stainless-steel sections: two source chambers at both ends and an experimental chamber in the center. KSPEX is a steady state experimental device, in which hot filament arrays are used to produce plasmas in the two sources. A Macor-mesh design is adopted to adjust the plasma density and potential difference between the two plasmas, which creates a boundary layer with a controllable electron density gradient and inhomogeneous radial electric field. In addition, attachment chemicals can be released into the plasmas through a tailor-made needle valve which leads to the generation of negative ions plasmas. Ionospheric depletions can be modeled and simulated using KSPEX, and many micro-physical processes of the formation and evolution of an ionospheric depletion can be experimentally studied.

  4. Physics and potentials of fissioning plasmas for space power and propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    Fissioning uranium plasmas are the nuclear fuel in conceptual high-temperature gaseous-core reactors for advanced rocket propulsion in space. A gaseous-core nuclear rocket would be a thermal reactor in which an enriched uranium plasma at about 10,000 K is confined in a reflector-moderator cavity where it is nuclear critical and transfers its fission power to a confining propellant flow for the production of thrust at a specific impulse up to 5000 sec. With a thrust-to-engine weight ratio approaching unity, the gaseous-core nuclear rocket could provide for propulsion capabilities needed for manned missions to the nearby planets and for economical cislunar ferry services. Fueled with enriched uranium hexafluoride and operated at temperatures lower than needed for propulsion, the gaseous-core reactor scheme also offers significant benefits in applications for space and terrestrial power. They include high-efficiency power generation at low specific mass, the burnup of certain fission products and actinides, the breeding of U-233 from thorium with short doubling times, and improved convenience of fuel handling and processing in the gaseous phase.

  5. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  6. Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Solid Targets for Space and Aerospace Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Goncalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, G.; Baba, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes successful results obtained by a new type of plasma source, named as Vaporization of Solid Targets (VAST), for treatment of materials for space and aerospace applications, by means of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Here, the solid element is vaporized in a high pressure glow discharge, being further ionized and implanted/deposited in a low pressure cycle, with the aid of an extra electrode. First experiments in VAST were run using lithium as the solid target. Samples of silicon and aluminum alloy (2024) were immersed into highly ionized lithium plasma, whose density was measured by a double Langmuir probe. Measurements performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed clear modification of the cross-sectioned treated silicon samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed that lithium was implanted/deposited into/onto the surface of the silicon. Implantation depth profiles may vary according to the condition of operation of VAST. One direct application of this treatment concerns the protection against radiation damage for silicon solar cells. For the case of the aluminum alloy, X-ray diffraction analysis indicated the appearance of prominent new peaks. Surface modification of A12024 by lithium implantation/deposition can lower the coefficient of friction and improve the resistance to fatigue of this alloy. Recently, cadmium was vaporized and ionized in VAST. The main benefit of this element is associated with the improvement of corrosion resistance of metallic substrates. Besides lithium and cadmium, VAST allows to performing PIII and D with other species, leading to the modification of the near-surface of materials for distinct purposes, including applications in the space and aerospace areas.

  7. Magnetic field-aligned plasma expansion in critical ionization velocity space experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by the recent Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) experiments in space, the temporal evolution of a plasma cloud released in an ambient plasma is studied. Time-dependent Vlasov equations for both electrons and ions, along with the Poisson equation for the self-consistent electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field, are solved. The initial cloud is assumed to consist of cold, warm, and hot electrons with temperatures T/sub c/ ≅ 0.2 eV, T/sub w/ ≅ 2 eV, and T/sub h/ ≅ 10 eV, respectively. It is found that the minor hot electrons escape the cloud, and their velocity distribution function shows the typical time-of-flight dispersion feature - that is, the larger the distance from the cloud, the larger is the average drift velocity of the escaping electrons. The major warm electrons expand along the magnetic field line with the corresponding ion-acoustic speed. The combined effect of the escaping hot electrons and the expanding warm ones sets up an electric potential structure which accelerates the ambient electrons into the cloud. Thus, the energy loss due to the electron escape is partly replenished. The electric field distribution in the potential structure depends on the stage of the evolution; before the rarefaction waves propagating from the edges of the cloud reach its center, the electric fields point into the cloud. After this stage the cloud divides into two subclouds, with each having their own bipolar electric fields. Effects of collisions on the evolution of plasma clouds are also discussed. The relevance of the results seen from the calculations are discussed in the context of recent space experiments on CIV

  8. ITER operational space for full plasma current H-mode operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattei, M. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Seconda University di Napoli, Aversa (Italy)], E-mail: massimiliano.mattei@unirc.it; Cavinato, M.; Saibene, G.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G. [Assoc. Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, University Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); Horton, L.D. [Max Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Garching (Germany); Kessel, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University (United States); Koechl, F. [Assoc. EURATOM-OAW/ATI, Vienna (Austria); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Assoc., Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Assoc. EURATOM/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisbon (Portugal); Parail, V. [Max Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Garching (Germany); Sartori, R. [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sips, A.C.C. [Max Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Garching (Germany); Thomas, P.R. [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    Sensitivity studies performed as part of the ITER IO design review highlighted a very stiff dependence of the maximum Q attainable on the machine parameters. In particular, in the considered range, the achievable Q scales with I{sub p}{sup 4}. As a consequence, the achievement of the ITER objective of Q = 10 requires the machine to be routinely operated at a nominal current I{sub p} of 15 MA, and at full toroidal field BT of 5.3 T. This paper analyses the capabilities of the poloidal field (PF) system (including the central solenoid) of ITER against realistic full current plasma scenarios. An exploration of the ITER operational space for the 15 and 17 MA inductive scenario is carried out. An extensive analysis includes the evaluation of margins for the closed loop shape control action. The overall results of this analysis indicate that the control of a 15 MA plasma in ITER is likely to be adequate in the range of li 0.7-0.9 whereas, for a 17 MA plasma, control capabilities are strongly reduced. The ITER operational space, provided by the reference pre-2008 PF system, was rather limited if compared to the range of parameters normally observed in present experiment. Proposals for increasing the current and field limits on PF2, PF5 and PF6, adjustment on the number of turns in some of the PF coils, changes to the divertor dome geometry, to the conductor of PF6 to Nb3Sn, moving PF6 radially and/or vertically are described and evaluated in the paper. Some of them have been included in 2008 ITER revised configuration.

  9. Waves and turbulences studies in plasmas: ten years of research on quiescent plasmas at the Brazilian Space Research National Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Quiescent plasmas generated by thermionic discharges and surface confined by multipole magnetic fields have been used in basic plasma research since 1973. The first machine was developed at UCLA (USA) to produce an uniform plasma for beam and waves studies in large cross section plasmas. A double quiescent plasma machine was constructed at the plasma laboratory of INPE in 1981, it began its operation producing linear ion-acoustic waves in an Argon plasma. Later on non linear ion acoustic waves and solitons were studied in plasma containing several species of negative and positive ions. The anomalous particle transport across multipole magnetic fields were also investigated. An anomalous resistivity associated with an ion acoustic turbulence is responsible for the formation of a small amplitude double-layer. The existence of a bootstrap mechanism is shown experimentally. Today, the main interest is toward the generation of Langmuir waves in non uniform plasmas. An experimental study on Langmuir wave generation using a grid system is been carried on. A magnetized quiescent plasma device for studies of whistle wave generation is been constructed. This machine will make possible future studies on several wave modes of magnetized plasmas. (author). 31 refs, 16 figs

  10. Crack initiation behaviors of metallic walls subjected to high heat flux expected at plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Uno, Masayoshi; Seki, Masahiro.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were performed to investigate crack initiation behavior near a surface of stainless steel and tungsten when subjected to extremely high heat flux. The improved electron beam test facility was used as the heat source. Two-dimensional thermal and elasto-plastic stress analyses were also performed. From the results for stainless steel, micro-cracks about 0.1 mm deep only initiated in the resolidified layer along dendrites. No cracks propagated into the non-melted zone, and repeated heating of up to 20 times did not affect the depth and population of the cracks. According to the elasto-plastic stress analyses, no fatigue cracks were expected. Cracks with a depth of more than a few millimeters were observed in a tungsten plate. The cracks initiated at a boundary between heated and unheated areas. They grew into the non-melted zone, and curved towards the center part of the heated area. The elasto-plastic stress analyses indicated that the cracks were initiated due to the residual tensile strain after heated at the surface of the test specimen. When the heat flux was repeated, the cracks propagated and penetrated to the rear side of the test specimen in several repetition. (author)

  11. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  12. Orthodontic space closure versus implant placement in subjects with missing teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilander, B

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to give a systematic review of alternative orthodontic space closure and implant placement in young adults with missing teeth. A literary search was made in the MEDLINE (Pub Med) database from 1990 to 2007. Totally 146 articles were found. Only studies in the English language or other languages with an English abstract were accepted, which reduced the number to 91 articles. Among them, only one prospective and three retrospective articles, two review papers and five case reports with discussion were found. The others presented one or two cases, or focused on treatment planning of missing teeth in general. Consequently, they were excluded. Moreover, a manual search of bibliographies in relevant journals gave no additional information. Thus, only 11 relevant articles were accepted. This systematic review clearly showed, that both alternatives (space closure or implant placement) present advantages as well as disadvantages. Knowledge about tissue reaction of orthodontic space closure and dento-facial development (including continuous changes of the dentition and its supporting tissues) are significant factors in the choice of treatment. Thus, we need more research on basic level and clinical follow-up studies of large samples.

  13. Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

  14. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  15. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  16. High resolution time- and 2-dimensional space-resolved x-ray imaging of plasmas at NOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    A streaked multiple pinhole camera technique, first used by P. Choi et al. to record time- and 2-D space-resolved soft X-ray images of plasma pinches, has been implemented on laser plasmas at NOVA. The instrument is particularly useful for time-resolved imaging of small sources ( 2.5 key imaging, complementing the existing 1--3 key streaked X-ray microscope capabilities at NOVA

  17. Subjective figure reversal in two- and three-dimensional perceptual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilová, J; Radil-Weiss, T

    1984-08-01

    A permanently illuminated pattern of Mach's truncated pyramid can be perceived according to the experimental instruction given, either as a three-dimensional reversible figure with spontaneously changing convex and concave interpretation (in one experiment), or as a two-dimensional reversible figure-ground pattern (in another experiment). The reversal rate was about twice as slow, without the subjects being aware of it, if it was perceived as a three-dimensional figure compared to the situation when it was perceived as two-dimensional. It may be hypothetized that in the three-dimensional case, the process of perception requires more sequential steps than in the two-dimensional one.

  18. Plasma homovanillic acid correlates inversely with history of learning problems in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F; Hirsch, Sharon L; Stein, Mark A

    2007-01-15

    Central dopaminergic activity is critical to the functioning of both motor and cognitive systems. Based on the therapeutic action of dopaminergic agents in treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptoms may be related to a reduction in central dopaminergic activity. We tested the hypothesis that dopaminergic activity, as reflected by plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), may be related to dimensional aspects of ADHD in adults. Subjects were 30 healthy volunteer and 39 personality disordered subjects, in whom morning basal pHVA concentration and a dimensional measure of childhood ADHD symptoms (Wender Utah Rating Scale: WURS) were obtained. A significant inverse correlation was found between WURS Total score and pHVA concentration in the total sample. Among WURS factor scores, a significant inverse relationship was noted between pHVA and history of "childhood learning problems". Consistent with the dopaminergic dysfunction hypothesis of ADHD and of cognitive function, pHVA concentrations were correlated with childhood history of ADHD symptoms in general and with history of "learning problems" in non-ADHD psychiatric patients and controls. Replication is needed in treated and untreated ADHD samples to confirm these initial results.

  19. Pre-launch simulation experiment of microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment in the space plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N. (Kobe University, Kobe, Japan); Tsutsui, M. (Kyoto University, Uji, Japan); Matsumoto, H. (Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan)

    1980-09-01

    A pre-flight test experiment of a microwave-ionosphere nonlinear interaction rocket experiment (MINIX) has been carried out in a space plasma simulation chamber. Though the first rocket experiment ended up in failure because of a high voltage trouble, interesting results are observed in the pre-flight experiment. A significant microwave heating of plasma up to 300% temperature increase is observed. Strong excitations of plasma waves by the transmitted microwaves in the VLF and HF range are observed as well. These microwave effects may have to be taken into account in solar power satellite projects in the future.

  20. Simultaneously time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charatis, G.; Young, B.K.F.; Busch, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The CHROMA laser facility at KMS Fusion has been used to irradiate a variety of microdot targets. These include aluminum dots and mixed bromine dots doped with K-shell (magnesium) emitters. Simultaneously time- and space-resolved K-shell and L-shell spectra have been measured and compared to dynamic model predictions. The electron density profiles are measured using holographic interferometry. Temperatures, densities, and ionization distributions are determined using K-shell and L-shell spectral techniques. Time and spatial gradients are resolved simultaneously using three diagnostics: a framing crystal x-ray spectrometer, an x-ray streaked crystal spectrometer with a spatial imaging slit, and a 4-frame holographic interferometer. Significant differences have been found between the interferometric and the model-dependent spectral measurements of plasma density. Predictions by new non-stationary L-shell models currently being developed are also presented. 14 refs., 10 figs

  1. Assessment of space plasma effectsfor satellite applications:Working Group 2 overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An important part of the tasks of Working Group 2 of the COST Action 271 «Assessment of space plasma effect for satellites applications» is the assessment of novel data sources for information about the state of ionisation of the ionosphere. This report deals with those aspects which are not represented adequately in the scientific papers in this issue. Here emphasis is given to the product aspect (data and model collections, descriptions of methods and algorithms, availability of products, expected future developments and the links between the past COST Actions 238 and 251 with the present Action 271 and with possible future cooperations. Working Group 2 was leading in the transionospheric propagation aspects of possible products for the International Telecommunication Union?s Radiocommunication (ITU-R Study Group 3. This report gives a short overview emphasizing future developments.

  2. AMITIS: A 3D GPU-Based Hybrid-PIC Model for Space and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Shahab; Poppe, Andrew R.; Delory, Gregory T.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-05-01

    We have developed, for the first time, an advanced modeling infrastructure in space simulations (AMITIS) with an embedded three-dimensional self-consistent grid-based hybrid model of plasma (kinetic ions and fluid electrons) that runs entirely on graphics processing units (GPUs). The model uses NVIDIA GPUs and their associated parallel computing platform, CUDA, developed for general purpose processing on GPUs. The model uses a single CPU-GPU pair, where the CPU transfers data between the system and GPU memory, executes CUDA kernels, and writes simulation outputs on the disk. All computations, including moving particles, calculating macroscopic properties of particles on a grid, and solving hybrid model equations are processed on a single GPU. We explain various computing kernels within AMITIS and compare their performance with an already existing well-tested hybrid model of plasma that runs in parallel using multi-CPU platforms. We show that AMITIS runs ∼10 times faster than the parallel CPU-based hybrid model. We also introduce an implicit solver for computation of Faraday’s Equation, resulting in an explicit-implicit scheme for the hybrid model equation. We show that the proposed scheme is stable and accurate. We examine the AMITIS energy conservation and show that the energy is conserved with an error < 0.2% after 500,000 timesteps, even when a very low number of particles per cell is used.

  3. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eun-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF waves in the scape-off layer (SOL of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  4. 2D full-wave simulation of waves in space and tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Bertelli, Nicola; Johnson, Jay; Valeo, Ernest; Hosea, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Simulation results using a 2D full-wave code (FW2D) for space and NSTX fusion plasmas are presented. The FW2D code solves the cold plasma wave equations using the finite element method. The wave code has been successfully applied to describe low frequency waves in planetary magnetospheres (i.e., dipole geometry) and the results include generation and propagation of externally driven ultra-low frequency waves via mode conversion at Mercury and mode coupling, refraction and reflection of internally driven field-aligned propagating left-handed electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves at Earth. In this paper, global structure of linearly polarized EMIC waves is examined and the result shows such resonant wave modes can be localized near the equatorial plane. We also adopt the FW2D code to tokamak geometry and examine radio frequency (RF) waves in the scape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks. By adopting the rectangular and limiter boundary, we compare the results with existing AORSA simulations. The FW2D code results for the high harmonic fast wave heating case on NSTX with a rectangular vessel boundary shows excellent agreement with the AORSA code.

  5. Integrity assessment of the spacecraft subjected to the hypervelocity impact by ceramic and metal projectiles simulating space debris and micrometeoroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Masahide; Takeba, Atsushi; Nitta, Kumi; Kawakita, Shirou; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2010-01-01

    In order to establish the guidelines for the protection of unmanned spacecrafts from the space debris and micrometeoroid impacts, the experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presents mainly its numerical methodology, especially from the viewpoint of highly non-linear and dynamic material model: i.e. the equation of state, constitutive model and fracture or failure model, including a brittle material model for ceramics and an equation of state for the shock-induced vaporization accompanied by hypervelocity impact. The experimental results of hypervelocity impact by two-stage light-gas gun and plasma drag gun are compared with corresponding numerical simulation results by using a hydrocode, and both results are demonstrated to be overall in good agreement with each other.

  6. Integrity assessment of the spacecraft subjected to the hypervelocity impact by ceramic and metal projectiles simulating space debris and micrometeoroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Masahide, E-mail: masahide.katayama@ctc-g.co.jp [Science and Engineering Systems Division, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Takeba, Atsushi [Science and Engineering Systems Division, ITOCHU Techno-Solutions, 3-2-5, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Nitta, Kumi; Kawakita, Shirou; Matsumoto, Haruhisa [Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Kitazawa, Yukihito [Aerospace Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1, Sengen, Tsukuba-city, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Aero-Engine and Space Operations, IHI Corporation, 3-1-1, Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8710 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    In order to establish the guidelines for the protection of unmanned spacecrafts from the space debris and micrometeoroid impacts, the experimental and numerical investigations have been conducted at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This paper presents mainly its numerical methodology, especially from the viewpoint of highly non-linear and dynamic material model: i.e. the equation of state, constitutive model and fracture or failure model, including a brittle material model for ceramics and an equation of state for the shock-induced vaporization accompanied by hypervelocity impact. The experimental results of hypervelocity impact by two-stage light-gas gun and plasma drag gun are compared with corresponding numerical simulation results by using a hydrocode, and both results are demonstrated to be overall in good agreement with each other.

  7. Composition of plasma and atheromatous plaque among coronary artery disease subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazhy, Sabitha; Kamath, Prakash; Rajesh, P C; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nair, Shiv K; Vasudevan, D M

    2012-12-01

    Coconut oil, which is rich in medium-chain saturated fatty acids, is the principal cooking medium of the people of Kerala, India. Replacement of saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat is effective in reducing serum cholesterol levels. However, the effect of substituting coconut oil with sunflower oil on the fatty acid composition of plaque has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore evaluated and compared the fatty acid composition of plasma and plaque among subjects consuming coconut oil or sunflower oil as the cooking medium. Endarterectomy samples and plasma samples were obtained from subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 71). The subjects were grouped based on the type of oil they were using as their cooking medium (coconut oil or sunflower oil). The fatty acid composition in the plaques and the plasma was determined by HPLC and the data were analyzed statistically. Sunflower oil consumers had elevated concentrations of linoleic acid (p = 0.001) in plasma, while coconut oil users had higher myristic acid levels (p = 0.011) in plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids did not differ significantly between the two groups in the plasma. Medium-chain fatty acids were detected in the plaques in both groups of subjects. In contrast to previous reports, long-chain saturated fatty acids dominated the lipid content of plaque in this population, and the fatty acid composition of plaque was not significantly different between the two groups. No correlation between fatty acids of plasma and plaque was observed in either group. A change in cooking medium, although it altered the plasma fatty acid composition, was not reflected in the plaque composition.

  8. Nonlinear dust-acoustic structures in space plasmas with superthermal electrons, positrons, and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saberian, E., E-mail: e.saberian@neyshabur.ac.ir [University of Neyshabur, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Afsari-Ghazi, M. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Some features of nonlinear dust-acoustic (DA) structures are investigated in a space plasma consisting of superthermal electrons, positrons, and positive ions in the presence of negatively charged dust grains with finite-temperature by employing a pseudo-potential technique in a hydrodynamic model. For this purpose, it is assumed that the electrons, positrons, and ions obey a kappa-like (κ) distribution in the background of adiabatic dust population. In the linear analysis, it is found that the dispersion relation yield two positive DA branches, i.e., the slow and fast DA waves. The upper branch (fast DA waves) corresponds to the case in which both (negatively charged) dust particles and (positively charged) ion species oscillate in phase with electrons and positrons. On the other hand, the lower branch (slow DA waves) corresponds to the case in which only dust particles oscillate in phase with electrons and positrons, while ion species are in antiphase with them. On the other hand, the fully nonlinear analysis shows that the existence domain of solitons and their characteristics depend strongly on the dust charge, ion charge, dust temperature, and the spectral index κ. It is found that the minimum/maximum Mach number increases as the spectral index κ increases. Also, it is found that only solitons with negative polarity can propagate and that their amplitudes increase as the parameter κ increases. Furthermore, the domain of Mach number shifts to the lower values, when the value of the dust charge Z{sub d} increases. Moreover, it is found that the Mach number increases with an increase in the dust temperature. Our analysis confirms that, in space plasmas with highly charged dusts, the presence of superthermal particles (electrons, positrons, and ions) may facilitate the formation of DA solitary waves. Particularly, in two cases of hydrogen ions H{sup +} (Z{sub i} = 1) and doubly ionized Helium atoms He{sup 2+} (Z{sub i} = 2), the mentioned results are the same

  9. The effect of plasma background on the instability of two non-parallel quantum plasma shells in whole K space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, H.; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell's equations are used to study the stability problem of non-parallel and non-relativistic plasma shells colliding over a “background plasma” at arbitrary angle, as a first step towards a microscopic understanding of the collision shocks. The calculations have been performed for all magnitude and directions of wave vectors. The colliding plasma shells in the vacuum region have been investigated in the previous works as a counter-streaming model. While, in the presence of background plasma (more realistic system), the colliding shells are mainly non-paralleled. The obtained results show that the presence of background plasma often suppresses the maximum growth rate of instabilities (in particular case, this behavior is contrary). It is also found that the largest maximum growth rate occurs for the two-stream instability of the configuration consisting of counter-streaming currents in a very dilute plasma background. The results derived in this study can be used to analyze the systems of three colliding plasma slabs, provided that the used coordinate system is stationary relative to the one of the particle slabs. The present analytical investigations can be applied to describe the quantum violent astrophysical phenomena such as white dwarf stars collision with other dense astrophysical bodies or supernova remnants. Moreover, at the limit of ℏ→0, the obtained results described the classical (sufficiently dilute) events of colliding plasma shells such as gamma-ray bursts and flares in the solar winds

  10. Space Charge Modulated Electrical Breakdown of Oil Impregnated Paper Insulation Subjected to AC-DC Combined Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanwei Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the existing acknowledgment that space charge modulates AC and DC breakdown of insulating materials, this investigation promotes the related investigation into the situations of more complex electrical stress, i.e., AC-DC combined voltages. Experimentally, the AC-DC breakdown characteristics of oil impregnated paper insulation were systematically investigated. The effects of pre-applied voltage waveform, AC component ratio, and sample thickness on AC-DC breakdown characteristics were analyzed. After that, based on an improved bipolar charge transport model, the space charge profiles and the space charge induced electric field distortion during AC-DC breakdown were numerically simulated to explain the differences in breakdown characteristics between the pre-applied AC and pre-applied DC methods under AC-DC combined voltages. It is concluded that large amounts of homo-charges are accumulated during AC-DC breakdown, which results in significantly distorted inner electric field, leading to variations of breakdown characteristics of oil impregnated paper insulation. Therefore, space charges under AC-DC combined voltages must be considered in the design of converter transformers. In addition, this investigation could provide supporting breakdown data for insulation design of converter transformers and could promote better understanding on the breakdown mechanism of insulating materials subjected to AC-DC combined voltages.

  11. Supersonic plasma beams with controlled speed generated by the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, L.; Domenech-Garret, J. L.; Donoso, J. M.; Damba, J.; Tierno, S. P.; Alamillo-Gamboa, E.; Castillo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of supersonic ion beams from the alternative low power hybrid ion engine (ALPHIE) are discussed. This simple concept of a DC powered plasma accelerator that only needs one electron source for both neutral gas ionization and ion beam neutralization is also examined. The plasma production and space charge neutralization processes are thus coupled in this plasma thruster that has a total DC power consumption of below 450 W, and uses xenon or argon gas as a propellant. The operation parameters of the plasma engine are studied in the laboratory in connection with the ion energy distribution function obtained with a retarding-field energy analyzer. The ALPHIE plasma beam expansion produces a mesothermal plasma flow with two-peaked ion energy distribution functions composed of low and high speed ion groups. The characteristic drift velocities of the fast ion groups, in the range 36.6-43.5 Km/s, are controlled by the acceleration voltage. These supersonic speeds are higher than the typical ion sound velocities of the low energy ion group produced by the expansion of the plasma jet. The temperatures of the slow ion population lead to ion Debye lengths longer than the electron Debye lengths. Furthermore, the electron impact ionization can coexist with collisional ionization by fast ions downstream the grids. Finally, the performance characteristics and comparisons with other plasma accelerator schemes are also discussed.

  12. Whistlers in space plasma, their role for particle populations in the inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyar, David

    time, quasi-electrostatic lower-hybrid resonance (LHR) waves (to which non-ducted whistler mode waves originating from lightning strokes naturally evolve while propagating in the magnetosphere) may efficiently interact with energetic protons at higher order cyclotron resonances. Thus, whistler mode waves may mediate energy transfer not only between different populations of energetic electrons, but also between various plasma species. Theoretical discussion of various aspects of resonant wave-particle interactions in the magne-tosphere, those mentioned above and others, will be the subject of the report.

  13. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989; Relatorio de atividades do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma do INPE no bienio 88/89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. A review of the findings of the plasma diagnostic package and associated laboratory experiments: Implications of large body/plasma interactions for future space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald B.; Lonngren, Karl E.

    1986-01-01

    The discoveries and experiments of the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP) on the OSS 1 and Spacelab 2 missions are reviewed, these results are compared with those of other space and laboratory experiments, and the implications for the understanding of large body interactions in a low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma environment are discussed. First a brief review of the PDP investigation, its instrumentation and experiments is presented. Next a summary of PDP results along with a comparison of those results with similar space or laboratory experiments is given. Last of all the implications of these results in terms of understanding fundamental physical processes that take place with large bodies in LEO is discussed and experiments to deal with these vital questions are suggested.

  15. The Role of Life-Space, Social Activity, and Depression on the Subjective Memory Complaints of Community-Dwelling Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lagdaan, Lovely France M.; Lagoy, Marie Lauren V.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are one of the major concerns of the elderly and remain a challenging area in gerontology. There are previous studies that identify different factors affecting subjective memory complaints. However, an extended model that correlates life-space on subjective memory complaints remains a blank spot. The objective of this…

  16. Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on insulin signalling and inflammation in skeletal muscle from human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Tantiwong, Puntip; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Mohan, Sumathy; Espinoza, Sara; Defronzo, Ralph A; Dubé, John J; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Reducing plasma FFA concentration in obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanism by which FFA reduction improves insulin sensitivity in human subjects is not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological FFA reduction enhances insulin action by reducing local (muscle) inflammation, leading to improved insulin signalling. Insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal (TGD), plasma FFA species, muscle insulin signalling, IBα protein, c-Jun phosphorylation, inflammatory gene (toll-like receptor 4 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1) expression, and ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were measured in muscle from a group of obese and T2DM subjects before and after administration of the antilipolytic drug acipimox for 7 days, and the results were compared to lean individuals. We found that obese and T2DM subjects had elevated saturated and unsaturated FFAs in plasma, and acipimox reduced all FFA species. Acipimox-induced reductions in plasma FFAs improved TGD and insulin signalling in obese and T2DM subjects. Acipimox increased IBα protein (an indication of decreased IB kinase-nuclear factor B signalling) in both obese and T2DM subjects, but did not affect c-Jun phosphorylation in any group. Acipimox also decreased inflammatory gene expression, although this reduction only occurred in T2DM subjects. Ceramide and DAG content did not change. To summarize, pharmacological FFA reduction improves insulin signalling in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects. This beneficial effect on insulin action could be related to a decrease in local inflammation. Notably, the improvements in insulin action were more pronounced in T2DM, indicating that these subjects are more susceptible to the toxic effect of FFAs.

  17. Ghrelin system in alcohol-dependent subjects: role of plasma ghrelin levels in alcohol drinking and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Cardone, Silvia; Nesci, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Malandrino, Noemi; Capristo, Esmeralda; Canestrelli, Benedetta; Monteleone, Palmiero; Kenna, George A; Swift, Robert M; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2012-03-01

    Animal studies suggest that the gut-brain peptide ghrelin plays an important role in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence (AD). Human studies show an effect of alcohol on ghrelin levels and a correlation between ghrelin levels and alcohol craving in alcoholics. This investigation consisted of two studies. Study 1 was a 12-week study with alcohol-dependent subjects, where plasma ghrelin determinations were assessed four times (T0-T3) and related to alcohol intake and craving [Penn Alcohol Craving Score (PACS) and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS)]. Serum growth hormone levels and assessment of the nutritional/metabolic status were also performed. Study 2 was a pilot case-control study to assess ghrelin gene polymorphisms (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met) in alcohol-dependent individuals. Study 1 showed no significant differences in ghrelin levels in the whole sample, while there was a statistical difference for ghrelin between non-abstinent and abstinent subjects. Baseline ghrelin levels were significantly and positively correlated with the PACS score at T1 and with all craving scores both at T2 and T3 (PACS, OCDS, obsessive and compulsive OCDS subscores). In Study 2, although there was a higher frequency of the Leu72Met ghrelin gene polymorphism in alcohol-dependent individuals, the distribution between healthy controls and alcohol dependent individuals was not statistically significant. This investigation suggests that ghrelin is potentially able to affect alcohol-seeking behaviors, such as alcohol drinking and craving, representing a new potential neuropharmacological target for AD. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  19. Easy measurement of diffusion coefficients of EGFP-tagged plasma membrane proteins using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Marlar, Saw

    2014-01-01

    Lateral diffusion and compartmentalization of plasma membrane proteins are tightly regulated in cells and thus, studying these processes will reveal new insights to plasma membrane protein function and regulation. Recently, k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy (kICS)1 was developed to enable...... routine measurements of diffusion coefficients directly from images of fluorescently tagged plasma membrane proteins, that avoided systematic biases introduced by probe photophysics. Although the theoretical basis for the analysis is complex, the method can be implemented by nonexperts using a freely...... to the correlation function yields the diffusion coefficient. This paper provides a step-by-step guide to the image analysis and measurement of diffusion coefficients via kICS. First, a high frame rate image sequence of a fluorescently labeled plasma membrane protein is acquired using a fluorescence microscope Then...

  20. Latest Results on Complex Plasmas with the PK-3 Plus Laboratory on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, M.; Du, C.-R.; Huber, P.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Naumkin, V. N.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Zhukhovitskii, D. I.; Fortov, V. E.; Thomas, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Complex plasmas are low temperature plasmas that contain microparticles in addition to ions, electrons, and neutral particles. The microparticles acquire high charges, interact with each other and can be considered as model particles for effects in classical condensed matter systems, such as crystallization and fluid dynamics. In contrast to atoms in ordinary systems, their movement can be traced on the most basic level, that of individual particles. In order to avoid disturbances caused by gravity, experiments on complex plasmas are often performed under microgravity conditions. The PK-3 Plus Laboratory was operated on board the International Space Station from 2006 - 2013. Its heart consisted of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasma chamber. Microparticles were inserted into the low-temperature plasma, forming large, homogeneous complex plasma clouds. Here, we review the results obtained with recent analyzes of PK-3 Plus data: We study the formation of crystallization fronts, as well as the microparticle motion in, and structure of crystalline complex plasmas. We investigate fluid effects such as wave transmission across an interface, and the development of the energy spectra during the onset of turbulent microparticle movement. We explore how abnormal particles move through, and how macroscopic spheres interact with the microparticle cloud. These examples demonstrate the versatility of the PK-3 Plus Laboratory.

  1. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  2. Breakdown of a Space Charge Limited Regime of a Sheath in a Weakly Collisional Plasma Bounded by Walls with Secondary Electron Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydorenko, D.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Raitses, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A new regime of plasma-wall interaction is identified in particle-in-cell simulations of a hot plasma bounded by walls with secondary electron emission. Such a plasma has a strongly non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function and consists of bulk plasma electrons and beams of secondary electrons. In the new regime, the plasma sheath is not in a steady space charge limited state even though the secondary electron emission produced by the plasma bulk electrons is so intense that the corresponding partial emission coefficient exceeds unity. Instead, the plasma-sheath system performs relaxation oscillations by switching quasiperiodically between the space charge limited and non-space-charge limited states.

  3. Civic activation, vulnerable subjects and public space: the case of the park of Rione Traiano in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman, in every kind of human settlement, culture as well a time, plays a peculiar role in terms of active observation and multitasking actor of the urban form and their organization model. Studying urban phenomena through the filter of the gender interpretation and fostering a proactive participation of women in the process of urban planning could provide added value in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency. In this paper it was decided to dealing with this issue in the framework of public spaces through the construction of a case study centered on women-mothers and their contribution for interpreting and being proactive in a participatory process of urban regeneration. The expected result of this interactive process is twofold: developing a generalized methodology of interaction with communities for interpreting, in terms of space organization, the demand they express on the one hand as well as for dealing with specific context, with the involvement of activists and associations to define and share possible trajectories of transformation of public spaces, on the other hand. To pursue this goal we have chosen to deal with the specificities of a complex environment such as Naples and with a CEP district, the largest in Italy, whose construction was initiated in 1960: Rione Traiano. In this area has started a dialogue, with non-profit organizations operating in the area first and then with women in the community, in order to address the relationship between vulnerable people and public spaces, testing a methodology for interaction and civic activation finalized to collect, prioritize and translate into proposals instances as expressed by these subjects. The disciplinary horizon selected is the integration between established tools of community planning and project strategies typical of urban design.

  4. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  5. Mechanisms for the Dissipation of Alfven Waves in Near-Earth Space Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Davis, John M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Alfven waves are a major mechanism for the transport of electromagnetic energy from the distant part of the magnetosphere to the near-Earth space. This is especially true for the auroral and polar regions of the Earth. However, the mechanisms for their dissipation have remained illusive. One of the mechanisms is the formation of double layers when the current associated with Alfven waves in the inertial regime interact with density cavities, which either are generated nonlinearly by the waves themselves or are a part of the ambient plasma turbulence. Depending on the strength of the cavities, weak and strong double layers could form. Such double layers are transient; their lifetimes depend on that of the cavities. Thus they impulsively accelerate ions and electrons. Another mechanism is the resonant absorption of broadband Alfven- wave noise by the ions at the ion cyclotron frequencies. But this resonant absorption may not be possible for the very low frequency waves, and it may be more suited for electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. A third mechanism is the excitation of secondary waves by the drifts of electrons and ions in the Alfven wave fields. It is found that under suitable conditions, the relative drifts between different ion species and/or between electrons and ions are large enough to drive lower hybrid waves, which could cause transverse accelerations of ions and parallel accelerations of electrons. This mechanism is being further studied by means of kinetic simulations using 2.5- and 3-D particle-in-cell codes. The ongoing modeling efforts on space weather require quantitative estimates of energy inputs of various kinds, including the electromagnetic energy. Our studies described here contribute to the methods of determining the estimates of the input from ubiquitous Alfven waves.

  6. Plasma long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and macular pigment in subjects with family history of age-related macular degeneration: the Limpia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Buaud, Benjamin; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Bron, Alain; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Savel, Hélène; Vaysse, Carole; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile

    2017-12-01

    In numerous epidemiological studies, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated with a decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Beyond their structural, functional and neuroprotective roles, omega-3 PUFAs may favour the retinal accumulation of lutein and zeaxanthin and thus increase macular pigment optical density (MPOD). We examined the associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs in subjects with family history of AMD. The Limpia study is a double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective randomized clinical trial performed in 120 subjects. Subjects with at least one parent treated for neovascular AMD, aged 40-70, with a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >20/25, free of late AMD and other major eye conditions and with no use of supplement containing lutein or zeaxanthin the preceding year were recruited in Bordeaux and Dijon, France. At baseline, MPOD within 1° of eccentricity was measured by modified Heidelberg retinal analyser (Heidelberg, Germany) and plasma omega-3 PUFAs by gas chromatography. Medical history and lifestyle data were collected from a standardized questionnaire. Associations of MPOD with plasma omega-3 PUFAs were assessed at the baseline examination, using mixed linear models adjusted for age, gender, centre, body mass index, smoking, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lutein+zeaxanthin. After multivariate adjustment, high MPOD was significantly associated with higher level of plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (β = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.055; p = 0.03). Plasma alpha linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were not significantly associated with MPOD. In the Limpia study, high MPOD within 1° was significantly associated with higher plasma levels of omega-3 DPA. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. On variable geometric factor systems for top-hat electrostatic space plasma analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collinson, Glyn A; Kataria, Dhiren O

    2010-01-01

    Even in the relatively small region of space that is the Earth's magnetosphere, ion and electron fluxes can vary by several orders of magnitude. Top-hat electrostatic analyzers currently do not possess the dynamic range required to sample plasma under all conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare, through computer simulation, three new electrostatic methods that would allow the sensitivity of a sensor to be varied through control of its geometric factor (GF) (much like an aperture on a camera). The methods studied were inner filter plates, split hemispherical analyzer (SHA) and top-cap electrode. This is the first discussion of the filter plate concept and also the first study where all three systems are studied within a common analyzer design, so that their relative merits could be fairly compared. Filter plates were found to have the important advantage that they facilitate the reduction in instrument sensitivity whilst keeping all other instrument parameters constant. However, it was discovered that filter plates have numerous disadvantages that make such a system impracticable for a top-hat electrostatic analyzer. It was found that both the top-cap electrode and SHA are promising variable geometric factor system (VGFS) concepts for implementation into a top-hat electrostatic analyzer, each with distinct advantages over the other

  8. Space-time statistics of the turbulence in the PRETEXT and TEXT tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the statistical space-time properties of the turbulence observed in the edge regions of the PRETEXT and the TEXT tokamaks are reported. Computer estimates of the particle-transport spectrum T(omega), and of the local wavenumber-frequency spectra S(K,omega) for poloidal (k/sub y/) and toroidal (k/sub z/) wavenumbers was determined. A conventional fast-Fourier-transform technique is used initially for the analyses of the potential and density fluctuations obtained from spatially fixed Langmuir-probe pairs. Measurements of the fluctuation-induced particle transport revealed that the particle flux is outward for both PRETEXT and TEXT, and it results primarily from the low-frequency, long-wavelength components of the turbulence. The S(K/sub y/, omega) spectra are dominated by low frequencies ( -1 ) and appear broadened about an approximately linear statistical dispersion relation, anti k(omega). The broadening is characterized by a spectral width sigma/sub k/(omega) (rms deviation about anti k(omega)). In PRETEXT, sigma/sub k/(omega) is of the order of anti k(omega), and the turbulence appears to propagate poloidally with an apparent mean phase velocity of 1-2 x 10 5 cm/s in the ion diamagnetic drift direction. In TEXT, a reversal in the phase velocity of the turbulence in the edge plasma was observed

  9. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B_t and AMF B_z (B_t/B_z). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  10. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B{sub t} and AMF B{sub z} (B{sub t}/B{sub z}). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  11. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  12. Design and Development of a Model to Simulate 0-G Treadmill Running Using the European Space Agency's Subject Loading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, E. C.; Cowley, M. S.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Develop a model that simulates a human running in 0 G using the European Space Agency s (ESA) Subject Loading System (SLS). The model provides ground reaction forces (GRF) based on speed and pull-down forces (PDF). DESIGN The theoretical basis for the Running Model was based on a simple spring-mass model. The dynamic properties of the spring-mass model express theoretical vertical GRF (GRFv) and shear GRF in the posterior-anterior direction (GRFsh) during running gait. ADAMs VIEW software was used to build the model, which has a pelvis, thigh segment, shank segment, and a spring foot (see Figure 1).the model s movement simulates the joint kinematics of a human running at Earth gravity with the aim of generating GRF data. DEVELOPMENT & VERIFICATION ESA provided parabolic flight data of subjects running while using the SLS, for further characterization of the model s GRF. Peak GRF data were fit to a linear regression line dependent on PDF and speed. Interpolation and extrapolation of the regression equation provided a theoretical data matrix, which is used to drive the model s motion equations. Verification of the model was conducted by running the model at 4 different speeds, with each speed accounting for 3 different PDF. The model s GRF data fell within a 1-standard-deviation boundary derived from the empirical ESA data. CONCLUSION The Running Model aids in conducting various simulations (potential scenarios include a fatigued runner or a powerful runner generating high loads at a fast cadence) to determine limitations for the T2 vibration isolation system (VIS) aboard the International Space Station. This model can predict how running with the ESA SLS affects the T2 VIS and may be used for other exercise analyses in the future.

  13. Regional Hippocampal Atrophy and Higher Levels of Plasma Amyloid-Beta Are Associated With Subjective Memory Complaints in Nondemented Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantero, Jose L; Iglesias, Juan E.; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests a link between the presence of subjective memory complaints (SMC) and lower volume of the hippocampus, one of the first regions to show neuropathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease. However, it remains unknown whether this pattern of hippocampal atrophy is region...

  14. Pattern recognition in probability spaces for visualization and identification of plasma confinement regimes and confinement time scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdoolaege, G; Karagounis, G; Oost, G Van; Tendler, M

    2012-01-01

    Pattern recognition is becoming an increasingly important tool for making inferences from the massive amounts of data produced in fusion experiments. The purpose is to contribute to physics studies and plasma control. In this work, we address the visualization of plasma confinement data, the (real-time) identification of confinement regimes and the establishment of a scaling law for the energy confinement time. We take an intrinsically probabilistic approach, modeling data from the International Global H-mode Confinement Database with Gaussian distributions. We show that pattern recognition operations working in the associated probability space are considerably more powerful than their counterparts in a Euclidean data space. This opens up new possibilities for analyzing confinement data and for fusion data processing in general. We hence advocate the essential role played by measurement uncertainty for data interpretation in fusion experiments. (paper)

  15. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolobov, Vladimir; Arslanbekov, Robert; Frolova, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers

  16. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

  17. On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  18. Toward multi-scale simulation of reconnection phenomena in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Usami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtani, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow. On the other hand configuration of the magnetic field leading to formation of diffusion region is determined in macroscopic scale and topological change after reconnection is also expressed in macroscopic scale. Thus magnetic reconnection is typical multi-scale phenomenon and microscopic and macroscopic physics are strongly coupled. Recently Horiuchi et al. developed an effective resistivity model based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results obtained in study of collisionless driven reconnection and applied to a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. They showed reproduction of global behavior in substrom such as dipolarization and flux rope formation by global three dimensional MHD simulation. Usami et al. developed multi-hierarchy simulation model, in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are solved self-consistently and simultaneously. Based on the domain decomposition method, this model consists of three parts: a MHD algorithm for macroscopic global dynamics, a PIC algorithm for microscopic kinetic physics, and an interface algorithm to interlock macro and micro hierarchies. They verified the interface algorithm by simulation of plasma injection flow. In their latest work, this model was applied to collisionless reconnection in an open system and magnetic reconnection was successfully found. In this paper, we describe our approach to clarify multi-scale phenomena and report the current status. Our recent study about extension of the MHD domain to global system is presented. We

  19. Kinetic equations and fluctuations in μspace of one-component dilute plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Michio; Mori, Hazime

    1977-01-01

    Kinetic equations for a spatially coarse-grained electron density in μ phase space A(p, r; t) with a length cutoff b and for its fluctuations are studied by a scaling method and a time-convolutionless approach developed by the present authors. An electron gas with a small plasma parameter epsilon=1/c (lambda sub(D)) 3 has three characteristic lengths; the Landau cutoff r sub(L)=epsilon lambda sub(D), the Debye length lambda sub(D)=√k sub(B)T/4πe 2 c and the mean free path l sub(f)=lambda sub(D)/epsilon, e and c being electronic charge and mean electron density, respectively. It is shown that there are two characteristic regions of the length cutoff b. One is a coherent region where r sub(L)<< b<< lambda sub(D). Its characteristic scaling is c→0, b→infinity, t→infinity with b√c and t√c being kept constant. The Vlasov equation is derived in this limit. The other is a kinetic region where lambda sub(D)<< b<< l sub(f). Its characteristic scaling is c→0, b→infinity, t→infinity with bc and tc being kept constant. The Vlasov term disappears and the Balescu-Lenard-Boltzmann-Landau equation, which is free of divergence for both close and distant collisions, is derived in this limit. It is shown that the fluctuations of A(p, r; t) obey a Markov process with scaling exponents α=0, β=1/2 in the coherent region near thermal equilibrium, while they obey a Gaussian Markov process with α=0, β=1 in the kinetic region. The present theory does not need the factorization ansatz and Bogoliubov's functional ansatz. (auth.)

  20. A simple model for the initial phase of a water plasma cloud about a large structure in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, D.E.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Mogstad, T.

    1988-01-01

    Large structures in the ionosphere will outgas or eject neutral water and perturb the ambient neutral environment. This water can undergo charge exchange with the ambient oxygen ions and form a water plasma cloud. Additionally, water dumps or thruster firings can create a water plasma cloud. A simple model for the evolution of a water plasma cloud about a large space structure is obtained. It is shown that if the electron density around a large space structure is substantially enhanced above the ambient density then the plasma cloud will move away from the structure. As the cloud moves away, it will become unstable and will eventually break up into filaments. A true steady state will exist only if the total electron density is unperturbed from the ambient density. When the water density is taken to be consistent with shuttle-based observations, the cloud is found to slowly drift away on a time scale of many tens of milliseconds. This time is consistent with the shuttle observations

  1. KINETIC-J: A computational kernel for solving the linearized Vlasov equation applied to calculations of the kinetic, configuration space plasma current for time harmonic wave electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David L.; Berry, Lee A.; Simpson, Adam B.; Younkin, Timothy R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the KINETIC-J code, a computational kernel for evaluating the linearized Vlasov equation with application to calculating the kinetic plasma response (current) to an applied time harmonic wave electric field. This code addresses the need for a configuration space evaluation of the plasma current to enable kinetic full-wave solvers for waves in hot plasmas to move beyond the limitations of the traditional Fourier spectral methods. We benchmark the kernel via comparison with the standard k →-space forms of the hot plasma conductivity tensor.

  2. Changes in Peak Oxygen Uptake and Plasma Volume in Fit and Unfit Subjects Following Exposure to a Simulation of Microgravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in plasma volume and work capacity following exposure to simulated microgravity is dependent on the initial level of aerobic fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak...

  3. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  4. A sensitive radioimmunoassay measuring endothelin-like immunoreactivity in human plasma: comparison of levels in patients with essential hypertension and normotensive control subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.P.; Ashby, M.J.; Easton, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed to measure endothelin-like immunoreactivity in human plasma using antibody raised against endothelin-1 which also cross-reacts with big endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 but not endothelin-3. The sensitivity was 1 fmol/tube with inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation of 13% and 9%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with endothelin-3 and non-endothelin peptides was less than 1%. Endothelin-like immunoreactivity was present in plasma of hypertensive patients (n = 25) at 5.7±0.5 pmol/1 (mean±SEM), not significantly different from that of age-matched control subjects (5.1±0.5 pmol/1). At these levels, endothelin-1 is unlikely to function as a circulating hormone. In the normotensive group, the concentration of endothelin-like immunoreactivity in plasma was positively correlated with mean arterial blood pressure, but in hypertensive patients it showed significant negative correlation. (author)

  5. Influence of the laser parameters on the space and time characteristics of an aluminum laser-induced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelemy, O.; Margot, J.; Chaker, M.; Sabsabi, M.; Vidal, F.; Johnston, T.W.; Laville, S.; Le Drogoff, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, an aluminum laser plasma produced in ambient air at atmospheric pressure by laser pulses at a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 is characterized by time- and space-resolved measurements of electron density and temperature. Varying the laser pulse duration from 6 ns to 80 fs and the laser wavelength from ultraviolet to infrared only slightly influences the plasma properties. The temperature exhibits a slight decrease both at the plasma edge and close to the target surface. The electron density is found to be spatially homogeneous in the ablation plume during the first microsecond. Finally, the plasma expansion is in good agreement with the Sedov's model during the first 500 ns and it becomes subsonic, with respect to the velocity of sound in air, typically 1 μs after the plasma creation. The physical interpretation of the experimental results is also discussed to the light of a one-dimensional fluid model which provides a good qualitative agreement with measurements

  6. Uric acid but not apple polyphenols is responsible for the rise of plasma antioxidant activity after apple juice consumption in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Krol, Maciej; Krol, Bogusław; Zwolinska, Anna; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Kasielski, Marek; Padula, Gianluca; Grebowski, Jacek; Grębocki, Jacek; Kazmierska, Paulina; Kazimierska, Paulina; Miatkowski, Marcin; Markowski, Jarosław; Nowak, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether (1) rapid consumption of 1 L of apple juice increases blood antioxidant capacity, measured as ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and serum 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and (2) apple polyphenols or fructose-induced elevation of plasma uric acid contributes to post-juice increase of blood antioxidant activity. The study involved 12 (mean age 32 ± 5 years, mean body weight 73 ± 7 kg) healthy nonsmoking subjects. Tested subjects consumed 1 L of clear apple juice and then FRAP; serum DPPH-scavenging activity, serum uric acid, and total plasma phenolics and quercetin levels were measured just before juice ingestion and 1, 2.5, and 4 hours after ingestion. This was repeated 3 times with 4-day intervals, but volunteers drank either 1 L of clear apple juice without polyphenols (placebo), or 1 L of cloudy apple juice (positive control), or 1 L of water (negative control) at the time. All juices had similar content of sugars (i.e., saccharose, glucose, and fructose) and precisely defined composition of phenolics and antioxidant activity. Consumption of all 3 juices transiently increased FRAP and serum DPPH-scavenging activity, with peak values at 1 hour post-juice ingestion. This was paralleled by the rise of serum uric acid, but no significant changes in plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were observed after all dietary interventions. At the same time, no substantial differences were found between juices (especially between clear apple juice and clear apple juice without polyphenols) concerning the measured variables. A strong significant correlation was noted instead between serum uric acid and plasma antioxidant activity at all analyzed time points, before and after juice ingestion. Plasma total phenolics and quercetin levels were not associated with FRAP and serum DPPH radical-scavenging activity. We have demonstrated that rapid consumption of apple juice increased plasma antioxidant activity in

  7. Nonlinear Electromagnetic Waves and Spherical Arc-Polarized Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B.; Ho, Christian M.; Arballo, John K.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Neubauer, Fritz M.

    1997-01-01

    We review observations of nonlinear plasma waves detected by interplanetary spacecraft. For this paper we will focus primarily on the phase-steepened properties of such waves. Plasma waves at comet Giacobini-Zinner measured by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE), at comets Halley and Grigg-Skjellerup measured by Giotto, and interplanetary Alfven waves measured by Ulysses, will be discussed and intercompared.

  8. Nonlinear control of turbulence and velocity space diffusion in beam plasma systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results of low energy electron beam-plasma heating experiments are discussed. A figure of merit which can be used to compare different beam heating experiments is presented. Some general observations about the possibility of useful beam plasma heating are mentioned. (U.S.)

  9. Plasma wave excitation by intense microwave transmission from a space vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, I.; Matsumoto, H.; Kaya, N.; Miyatake, S.

    An impact of intense microwave upon the ionospheric plasma was empirically investigated by an active rocket experiment (MINIX). The rocket carried two high-power (830W) transmitters of 2.45 GHz microwave on the mother section of the rocket. The ionospheric plasma response to the intense microwave was measured by a diagnostic package installed on both mother and daughter sections. The daughter section was separated from the mother with a slow speed of 15 cm/sec. The plasma wave analyzers revealed that various plasma waves are nonlinearly excited by the microwave. Among them, the most intense are electron cyclotron waves, followed by electron plasma waves. Extremely low frequency waves (several tens of Hz) are also found. The results of the data analysis as well as comparative computer simulations are given in this paper.

  10. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  11. Deproteinization is Necessary for the Accurate Determination of Ammonia Levels by Glutamate Dehydrogenase Assay in Blood Plasma From Subjects With Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarovova, Melita; Skalska, Hana; Holecek, Milan

    2017-11-08

    To determine the effect of presence of high concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-consuming enzymes on the accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) assay for ammonia. We measured ammonia concentrations using GLDH and NADH or NADPH in blood-plasma specimens and specimens deproteinized by sulfosalicylic acid from CCl4-treated or control rats. The nonspecific oxidation of NADH and NADPH was measured in mixtures without GLDH. We observed a gradual decrease (~0.5%) in absorbance in the plasma of controls after the addition of NADH but not after adding NADPH. The decrease in absorbance in plasma of CCl4-treated animals was 13.2% and 5.2% after the addition of NADH and NADPH, respectively. The decrease in absorbance was not detected in deproteinized specimens. The values of ammonia concentration were higher in the plasma specimens compared with the deproteinized ones. Deproteinization is necessary for accurate measurement of ammonia using GLDH assay in the blood plasma of subjects with liver injury. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...

  13. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  14. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Fukano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result

  15. Basic conditions for radioimmunoassay of erythropoietin, and plasma levels of erythropoietin in normal subjects and anemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Hideaki; Ohta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Ueda, Masatsugu; Sasaki, Ryuzou; Chiba, Hideo

    1987-02-01

    We have developed a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin. The sensitivity of our assay is 0.5 mU or 5 mU/ml and is sufficient to detect normal plasma erythropoietin levels. The mean plasma erythropoietin titer of normal Japanese with our radioimmunoassay was found to be 21.9 +- 12.0 mU/ml (n = 199). The validity of the method was further confirmed by the observations that the plasma erythropoietin titers were inversely related to hemoglobin levels in patients with nonuremic anemias, lower in uremic patients than in patients with nonuremic anemias with similar hemoglobin levels, markedly elevated in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia, and in a low normal range in patients with polycythemia vera.

  16. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  17. Low Stress Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Treated Cotton Fabric Subjected to Zinc Oxide-Anti-Microbial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Wai Kan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics are highly popular because of their excellent properties such as regeneration, bio-degradation, softness, affinity to skin and hygroscopic properties. When in contact with the human body, cotton fabrics offer an ideal environment for microbial growth due to their ability to retain oxygen, moisture and warmth, as well as nutrients from spillages and body sweat. Therefore, an anti-microbial coating formulation (Microfresh and Microban together with zinc oxide as catalyst was developed for cotton fabrics to improve treatment effectiveness. In addition, plasma technology was employed in the study which roughened the surface of the materials, improving the loading of zinc oxides on the surface. In this study, the low stress mechanical properties of plasma pre-treated and/or anti-microbial-treated cotton fabric were studied. The overall results show that the specimens had improved bending properties when zinc oxides were added in the anti-microbial coating recipe. Also, without plasma pre-treatment, anti-microbial-treatment of cotton fabric had a positive effect only on tensile resilience, shear stress at 0.5° and compressional energy, while plasma-treated specimens had better overall tensile properties even after anti-microbial treatment.

  18. Laboratory plasma interactions experiments: Results and implications to future space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Philip

    1986-01-01

    The experimental results discussed show the significance of the effects caused by spacecraft plasma interactions, in particular the generation of Electromagnetic Interference. As the experimental results show, the magnitude of the adverse effects induced by Plasma Interactions (PI) will be more significant for spacecraft of the next century. Therefore, research is needed to control possible adverse effects. Several techniques to control the selected PI effects are discussed. Tests, in the form of flight experiments, are needed to validate these proposed ideas.

  19. Hybrid modeling of plasma and applications to fusion and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazeminejad, F.

    1989-01-01

    Obtaining reasonable solutions to the nonlinear equations is crucial to the understanding of the behavior of plasmas. With the advent of high speed computers, computer modeling of plasmas has moved into the front row of the tools used in research of their nonlinear plasma dynamics. There are roughly speaking two types of plasma models, particle models and fluid models. Particle models try to emulate nature by following the motion of a large number of charged particles in their self consistent electromagnetic fields. Fluid models on the other hand use macroscopic fluid equations to model the plasma. MHD models are typical of this type. Particle models in general require larger memory for the computer due to the massive amount of data associated with the particles' kinematical variables. Particle models are generally limited to studying small regions of plasma for relatively short time intervals. Fluid models are better fit to handle large scales and long times; i.e., quite often the complete plasma involved in an experiment. The drawback of the fluid models however is that, they miss the physical phenomenon taking place at the microscale and these phenomenon can influence the properties of fluid. Another approach is to start with fluid models and incorporate more physics. Such models are referred to as hybrid models. In this thesis, two such models are discussed. They are then applied to two problems; the first is a simulation of the artificial comet generated by the AMPTE experiment; the second is the production of enhanced noise in fusion plasmas by injected energetic ions or by fusion reaction products. In both cases the models demonstrate qualitative agreement with the experimental observations

  20. Finite element study of three dimensional radiative nano-plasma flow subject to Hall and ion slip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohm’s law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search ηmax and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents

  1. High plasma apolipoprotein B identifies obese subjects who best ameliorate white adipose tissue dysfunction and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia after a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Simon; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Lamantia, Valerie; Leroux, Catherine; Provost, Viviane; Cyr, Yannick; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Faraj, May

    2018-06-18

    To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet. Fifty-nine men and postmenopausal women [mean ± SD age: 58 ± 6 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 32.6 ± 4.6] completed a prospective study with a 6-mo hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured by 1-h intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) followed by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, respectively. Ex vivo gynoid WAT function (i.e., hydrolysis and storage of 3H-triolein-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) and 6-h postprandial plasma clearance of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal were measured in a subsample (n = 25). Postintervention first-phase GIISIVGTT and total C-peptide secretion decreased in both sexes, whereas second-phase and total GIISIVGTT and clamp IS were ameliorated in men (P hypocaloric diet. We propose that subjects with high plasma apoB represent an optimal target group for the primary prevention of T2D by hypocaloric diets. This trial was registered at BioMed Central as ISRCTN14476404.

  2. Relationships between Endogenous Plasma Biomarkers of Constitutive Cytochrome P450 3A Activity and Single-Time-Point Oral Midazolam Microdose Phenotype in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Sarah J; Beaton, Melanie D; Choi, Yun-Hee; Dresser, George K; Gryn, Steven E; Kim, Richard B; Tirona, Rommel G

    2016-04-01

    Due to high basal interindividual variation in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity and susceptibility to drug interactions, there has been interest in the application of efficient probe drug phenotyping strategies, as well as endogenous biomarkers for assessment of in vivo CYP3A activity. The biomarkers 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βHC) and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6βHCL) are sensitive to CYP3A induction and inhibition. However, their utility for the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity remains uncertain. We investigated whether endogenous plasma biomarkers (4βHC and 6βHCL) are associated with basal CYP3A metabolic activity in healthy subjects assessed by a convenient single-time-point oral midazolam (MDZ) phenotyping strategy. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL metabolic ratios (MRs) were analysed in 51 healthy adult participants. CYP3A activity was determined after administration of an oral MDZ microdose (100 μg). Simple linear and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between MDZ oral clearance, biomarkers and subject covariates. Among study subjects, basal MDZ oral clearance, 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs ranged 6.5-, 10- and 13-fold, respectively. Participant age and alcohol consumption were negatively associated with MDZ oral clearance (p = 0.03 and p = 0.045, respectively), while weight and female sex were associated with lower plasma 4βHC MR (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.032, respectively). Neither 4βHC nor 6βHCL MRs were associated with MDZ oral clearance. Plasma 4βHC and 6βHCL MRs do not relate to MDZ single-time-point metabolic phenotype in the assessment of constitutive CYP3A activity among healthy individuals. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in subjects with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, [corrected] controlled trial (SYSDIET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, Lea; Rejnmark, Lars; Carlberg, Carsten; Schwab, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rosqvist, Fredrik; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Risérus, Ulf; Savolainen, Markku J; Thorsdottir, Inga; Uusitupa, Matti; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-06-01

    At northern latitudes, vitamin D is not synthesized endogenously during winter, causing low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a healthy Nordic diet based on Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR) on plasma 25(OH)D and explored its dietary predictors. In a Nordic multi-centre trial, subjects (n = 213) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to a control or a healthy Nordic diet favouring fish (≥300 g/week, including ≥200 g/week fatty fish), whole-grain products, berries, fruits, vegetables, rapeseed oil and low-fat dairy products. Plasma 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone were analysed before and after 18- to 24-week intervention. At baseline, 45 % had vitamin D inadequacy (healthy Nordic diet (P healthy Nordic and the control diet reduced the prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy by 42 % (P healthy Nordic diet. Predictors for 25(OH)D were intake of vitamin D, eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA), docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), vitamin D supplement, plasma EPA and plasma DHA. Nevertheless, only vitamin D intake and season predicted the 25(OH)D changes. Consuming a healthy Nordic diet based on NNR increased vitamin D intake but not plasma 25(OH)D concentration. The reason why fish consumption did not improve vitamin D status might be that many fish are farmed and might contain little vitamin D or that frying fish may result in vitamin D extraction. Additional ways to improve vitamin D status in Nordic countries may be needed.

  4. A nuclear powered pulsed inductive plasma accelerator as a viable propulsion concept for advanced OTV space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapper, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electric propulsion concept suitable for delivering heavy payloads from low earth orbit (LEO) to high energy earth orbit is proposed. The system consists of a number of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters powered by a 100 kWe space nuclear power system. The pulsed plasma thruster is a relatively simple electrodeless device. It also exhibits adequate conversion to thrust power in the desired I sub sp regime of 1500 to 3000 seconds for optimal payload transfer from low earth to high earth orbit. Because of these features and the fact that the nuclear power unit will be capable of delivering sustained high power levels throughout the duration of any given mission, the system presented appears to be a very promising propulsion candidate for advanced orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) applications. An OTV, which makes use of this propulsion system and which has been designed to lift a 9000-lb payload into geosynchronous earth orbit, (GEO) is also examined

  5. Effects of hyperbolic rotation in Minkowski space on the modeling of plasma accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of hyperbolic rotation in Minkowski space resulting from the use of Lorentz boosted frames of calculation on laser propagation in plasmas are analyzed. Selection of a boost frame at the laser group velocity is shown to alter the laser spectrum, allowing the use of higher boost velocities. The technique is applied to simulations of laser driven plasma wakefield accelerators, which promise much smaller machines and whose development requires detailed simulations that challenge or exceed current capabilities. Speedups approaching the theoretical optima are demonstrated, producing the first direct simulations of stages up to 1 TeV. This is made possible by a million times speedup thanks to a frame boost with a relativistic factor γ b as high as 1300, taking advantage of the rotation to mitigate an instability that limited previous work.

  6. Non linear dynamic of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas; Dinamica nao linear de ondas de Langmuir e eletromagneticas em plasmas espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guede, Jose Ricardo Abalde

    1995-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nonlinear dynamics of Langmuir and electromagnetic waves in space plasmas. Firstly, the generalized Zakharov equations are derived which are used to study the hybrid parametric instability involving the generation of daughter Langmuir, electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves induced by two counter-propagating Langmuir pump waves with different amplitudes based on a coupled dispersion relation. Secondly, starting from the generalized Zakharov equations the linear and nonlinear coupled mode theories of three-wave and four-wave parametric interactions are developed, respectively. In three-waves processes, a Langmuir wave decays into another Langmuir wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electrostatic parametric decay) or into an electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave (electromagnetic parametric decay). In four-wave (modulational) processes, the interaction involves two wave triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplets: in the decay triplet a pump wave couples with a low-frequency wave to generate a Stokes wave, and in the fusion triplet the coupling of a pump wave with a low-frequency wave generate an anti-Stokes wave. These modulational processes are convective and resonant processes wherein the low-frequency modes are Eigenmodes of plasma and are known as the stimulated modulational processes. Four such processes are investigated in this thesis: two with Langmuir pump waves (electrostatic and hybrid stimulated modulation processes) and the other two with electromagnetic pump waves (stimulated modulation Brillouin scattering and electromagnetic stimulated modulation process). Applications of the theoretical results in space plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the electrostatic and electromagnetic parametric decay processes of Langmuir waves can model the generation and modulation of radio emissions and Langmuir waves in the

  7. Comprehensive Identification of Glycated Peptides and Their Glycation Motifs in Plasma and Erythrocytes of Control and Diabetic Subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Monroe, Matthew E.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese RW; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Meng, Da; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2011-07-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of proteins is implicated in diabetes mellitus and its related complications. In this report, we extend our previous development and refinement of proteomics-based methods for the analysis of non-enzymatically glycated proteins to comprehensively identify glycated proteins in normal and diabetic human plasma and erythrocytes. Using immunodepletion, enrichment, and fractionation strategies, we identified 7749 unique glycated peptides, corresponding to 3742 unique glycated proteins. Semi-quantitative comparisons revealed a number of proteins with glycation levels significantly increased in diabetes relative to control samples and that erythrocyte proteins are more extensively glycated than plasma proteins. A glycation motif analysis revealed amino acids that are favored more than others in the protein primary structures in the vicinity of the glycation sites in both sample types. The glycated peptides and corresponding proteins reported here provide a foundation for the potential identification of novel markers for diabetes, glycemia, or diabetic complications.

  8. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor of cardiovascular events in subjects with atrial fibrillation: a community-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Nakamura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF is a significant public health issue due to its high prevalence in the general population, and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV events including systemic thrombo-embolism, heart failure, and coronary artery disease. The relationship between plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and CV risk in real world AF subjects remains unknown. METHODS: The subject of the study (n = 228; mean age = 69 years was unselected individuals with AF in a community-based population (n = 15,394; AF prevalence rate = 1.5%. The CV event free rate within each BNP tertile was estimated, and Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the relative risk of the onset of CV events among the tertiles. The prognostic ability of BNP was compared to an established risk score for embolic events (CHADS2 score. In addition, to determine the usefulness of BNP as a predictor in addition to CHADS2 score, we calculated Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI indices. RESULTS: During the follow-up period 58 subjects experienced CV events (52 per 1,000 person-years. The event-free ratio was significantly lower in the highest tertile (p < 0.02. After adjustment for established CV risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR of the highest tertile was significantly higher than that of the lowest tertile (HR = 2.38; p < 0.02. The predictive abilities of plasma BNP in terms of sensitivity and specificity for general CV events were comparable to those of CHADS2 score. Adding BNP to the CHADS2 score only model improved the NRI (0.319; p < 0.05 and the IDI (0.046; p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Plasma BNP is a valuable biomarker both singly or in combination with an established scoring system for assessing general CV risk including stroke, heart failure and acute coronary syndrome in real-world AF subjects.

  9. Association of plasma fetuin-a levels with peripheral arterial disease and lower extremity arterial calcification in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Perrea, Despoina; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-03-01

    Fetuin-A is a hepatic glycoprotein that is involved in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Herein we examined the association of plasma fetuin-A levels with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 patients with T2DM and 57 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. Diagnosis of PAD was based on the absence of triphasic waveform at pedal arteries, while ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Radiographs of both feet and ankles were taken for the assessment of lower extremity arterial calcification (LEAC). Plasma fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA. Patients with T2DM had higher fetuin-A levels than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes and PAD had lower fetuin-A levels than non-PAD diabetic patients. In subjects with T2DM fetuin-A levels were associated with ABI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in patients with T2DM the odds of PAD increased with long diabetes duration, smoking, presence of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as with lower fetuin-A levels. A trend towards higher fetuin-A levels in subjects with less severe LEAC was found. Plasma fetuin-A levels are lower in patients with T2DM and PAD and are associated with PAD, irrespective of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, fetuin-A may be involved in arterial calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Striking differences in glucose and lactate levels between brain extracellular fluid and plasma in conscious human subjects: effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Saab, Walid M; Maggs, David G; Jones, Tim; Jacob, Ralph; Srihari, Vinod; Thompson, James; Kerr, David; Leone, Paola; Krystal, John H; Spencer, Dennis D; During, Matthew J; Sherwin, Robert S

    2002-03-01

    Brain levels of glucose and lactate in the extracellular fluid (ECF), which reflects the environment to which neurons are exposed, have never been studied in humans under conditions of varying glycemia. The authors used intracerebral microdialysis in conscious human subjects undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation for medically intractable epilepsy and measured ECF levels of glucose and lactate under basal conditions and during a hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study. Only measurements from nonepileptogenic areas were included. Under basal conditions, the authors found the metabolic milieu in the brain to be strikingly different from that in the circulation. In contrast to plasma, lactate levels in brain ECF were threefold higher than glucose. Results from complementary studies in rats were consistent with the human data. During the hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study the relationship between plasma and brain ECF levels of glucose remained similar, but changes in brain ECF glucose lagged approximately 30 minutes behind changes in plasma. The data demonstrate that the brain is exposed to substantially lower levels of glucose and higher levels of lactate than those in plasma; moreover, the brain appears to be a site of significant anaerobic glycolysis, raising the possibility that glucose-derived lactate is an important fuel for the brain.

  11. Sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay for big endothelin-I in plasma: concentrations in healthy human subjects unaffected by sex or posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, P; Le Brun, G; Moldovan, F; Villette, J M; Créminon, C; Dumas, J; Homyrda, L; Soliman, H; Azizi, M; Fiet, J

    1997-01-01

    A sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay has been developed for measuring human big endothelin-1 (big ET-1) in human plasma and supernatant fluids from human cell cultures. Big ET-1 is the precursor of endothelin 1 (ET-1), the most potent vasoconstrictor known. A rabbit antibody raised against the big ET-1 COOH-terminus fragment was used as an immobilized antibody (anti-P16). The Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody (1B3) raised against the ET-1 loop fragment was used as the enzyme-labeled antibody, after being coupled to acetylcholinesterase. The lowest detectable value in the assay was 1.2 pg/mL (0.12 pg/well). The assay was highly specific for big ET-1, demonstrating no cross-reactivity with ET-1, big endothelin-2 (big ET-2), and big endothelin-3 (big ET-3). We used this assay to evaluate the effect of two different postural positions (supine and standing) on plasma big ET-1 concentrations in 11 male and 11 female healthy subjects. Data analysis revealed that neither sex nor body position influenced plasma big ET-1 concentrations. This assay should thus permit the detection of possible variations in plasma concentrations of big ET-1 in certain pathologies and, in association with ET-1 assay, make possible in vitro study of endothelin-converting enzyme activity in cell models. Such studies could clarify the physiological and clinical roles of this family of peptides.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Plasma Cellular Antioxidative Effects of Flavanols After Oral Intake of Green Tea Formulated with Vitamin C and Xylitol in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yu-Ra; Park, Tae-Sik; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to test whether green tea formulated with vitamin C and xylitol (GTVX) could improve absorption of flavanols and total antioxidant activity (TAC) of plasma compared with green tea only (GT) in healthy subjects. The total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter method was used to measure the TAC of plasma. Cmax, Tmax, and area under the curve (AUC) of flavanols in plasma after consumption of GTVX were 5980.58 μg/mL, 2.14 h, and 18,915.56 h·μg/mL, respectively, indicating that GTVX showed significantly higher AUC than GT (13,855.43 μg/mL). The peak TACs occurred at 3 and 0.5 h after intake of GT and GTVX, respectively. The TAC of plasma was found to be significantly higher in GTVX than in GT at each time point. This study suggests that formulating green tea with vitamin C and xylitol could increase the absorption of flavanols in green tea, enhancing cellular antioxidative effects.

  13. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  14. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  15. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P Bertato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  17. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  18. Space- and time-resolved diagnostics of soft x-ray emission from laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.C.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Chen, H.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis of soft x-ray emission from plasmas created by intense short-wavelength laser radiation can provide much useful information on the density, temperature and ionization distribution of the plasma. Until recently, limitations of sensitivity and the availability of suitable x-ray optical elements have restricted studies of soft x-ray emission from laser plasmas. In this paper, the authors describe novel instrumentation which provides high sensitivity in the soft x-ray spectrum with spatial and temporal resolution in the micron and picosecond ranges respectively. These systems exploit advances made in soft x-ray optic and electro-optic technology. Their application in current studies of laser fusion, x-ray lasers, and high density atomic physics are discussed

  19. Effects of ponderomotive forces and space-charge field on laser plasma hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Yu; Lu Xin; Wu Huichun; Zhang Jie

    2005-01-01

    Using a two-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic code, authors studied the hydrodynamics in the interaction of intense (10 15 W/cm 2 ) ultrashort (150 fs) laser pulses and linear density plasmas. The simulation results show the ponderomotive force effect on the formation of the electron density ripples in under-dense region, such ripples increase the reflection of the laser pulse, and on the separation of the plasma in critical surface. Quasi-electroneutrality is not suitable in this case because of the different ponderomotive force and the gradient of thermal-pressure for ions and electrons. Ions are moved by the electrostatic force. Comparing with the simulation results from one-fluid two-temperature code, authors find that under strong ponderomotive force and gradient of thermo-pressure, two-fluid code is more suitable to simulate the hydrodynamics of plasmas. (authors)

  20. Velocity-space diffusion due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reija

    1991-01-01

    The velocity-space diffusion equation describing distortion of the velocity distribution function due to resonant wave-wave scattering of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized plasma is derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations by perturbation theory. The conservation laws for total energy and momentum densities of waves and particles are verified, and the time evolutions of the energy and momentum densities of particles are given in terms of the nonlinear wave-wave coupling coefficient in the kinetic wave equation. (author)

  1. Development of occlusal traits and dental arch space from adolescence to adulthood: a 25-year follow-up study of 245 untreated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Teitur; Arnlaugsson, Sigurjon; Saemundsson, Sigurdur Runar; Magnusson, Thordur Eydal

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the development of specific occlusal traits and space conditions in an Icelandic sample. The sample comprised 245 adolescents examined clinically in the late mixed or permanent dentition and again 25 years later. All subjects were orthodontically untreated, and all had the full complement of teeth at both examinations. A significant increase in the prevalence of mandibular anterior crowding and mesial molar relationships and a decrease in the prevalence of excessive overjet and maxillary anterior spacing were seen. The persistence of malocclusion traits ranged from 17.9% to 53.4% for maxillary anterior spacing and crowding, mandibular spacing, overjet, overbite, and distal molar occlusion, whereas anterior mandibular crowding and molar crossbite were still found in 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, at the second examination. Normal occlusal traits and space conditions at adolescence stayed mostly unchanged, with the exception of 11.2% of the subjects, who developed mandibular anterior crowding between the first and second examinations. Deterioration of normal occlusal traits and space relationships was uncommon in this study, whereas self-correction of malocclusion traits and space anomalies was relatively frequent.

  2. Dynamic analysis of isotropic nanoplates subjected to moving load using state-space method based on nonlocal second order plate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.

  3. Proceedings of the thirty second national symposium on plasma science and technology: plasma for societal benefits: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, Sandhya; Shravan Kumar, S.; Vijayakumaran; Singh, Raj; Awasthi, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    This symposium covers topics on: basic plasma, computer modelling for plasma, exotic plasma, industrial plasma, laser plasma theory, nuclear fusion, plasma diagnostics, laser plasma, plasma processing, pulsed power, space and astrophysical plasma. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. The Whisper Relaxation Sounder onboard Cluster: A Powerful Tool for Space Plasma Diagnosis around the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotignon, J.G.; Decreau, P.M.E.; Rauch, J.L.; LeGuirriec, E.; Canu, P.; Darrouzet, F.

    2001-01-01

    The WHISPER relaxation sounder that is onboard the four CLUSTER spacecraft has for main scientific objectives to monitor the natural waves in the 2 kHz - 80 kHz frequency range and, mostly, to determine the total plasma density from the solar wind down to the Earth's plasmasphere. To fulfil these objectives, the WHISPER uses the two long double sphere antennae of the Electric Field and Wave experiment as transmitting and receiving sensors. In its active working mode, the WHISPER works according to principles that have been worked out for topside sounding. A radio wave transmitter sends an almost monochromatic and short wave train. A few milliseconds after, a receiver listens to the surrounding plasma response. Strong and long lasting echoes are actually received whenever the transmitting frequencies coincide with characteristic plasma frequencies. Provided that these echoes, also called resonances, may be identified, the WHISPER relaxation sounder becomes a reliable and powerful tool for plasma diagnosis. When the transmitter is off, the WHISPER behaves like a passive receiver, allowing natural waves to be monitored. The paper aims mainly at the resonance identification process description and the WHISPER capabilities and performance highlighting. (author)

  5. The Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding Process: Its Application to the Space Shuttle External Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Bayless, E. O., Jr.; Wilson, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes progress in the implementation of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process at the External Tank (ET) assembly facility. Design allowable data has been developed for thicknesses up to 1.00 in. More than 24,000 in. of welding on liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen cylinders has been made without an internal defect.

  6. Velocity-space tomography of fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of gyrotron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Jacobsen, A.S.; Jensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    -tonoise ratio becomes fairly low for MeV-range ions. Ions at any energy can be detected well by collective Thomson scattering of mm-wave radiation from a high-power gyrotron. We demonstrate how collective Thomson scattering can be used to measure 푓2퐷푣 in the MeV-range in reactor relevant plasmas...

  7. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  8. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and after light therapy in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, B L; Berga, S L; Mostofi, N; Klauber, M R; Resnick, A

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous work in which the authors observed lower, shorter, and advanced nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns in premenstrually depressed patients compared to those in healthy control women. The authors also sought to test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of bright light in patients was associated with corrective effects on the phase, duration, and amplitude of melatonin rhythms. In 21 subjects with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and 11 normal control (NC) subjects, the authors measured the circadian profile of melatonin during follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases and after 1 week of light therapy administered daily, in a randomized crossover design. During three separate luteal phases, the treatments were either (1) bright (> 2,500 lux) white morning (AM; 06:30 to 08:30 h), (2) bright white evening (PM; 19:00 to 21:00 h), or (3) dim (compressed, and area under the curve, amplitude, and mean levels were decreased. In NC subjects, melatonin rhythms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. After AM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were advanced and both duration and midpoint concentration were decreased as compared to RED light. After PM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were delayed, midpoint concentration was increased, and duration was decreased as compared to RED light. By contrast, after light therapy in NC subjects, duration did not change; onset, offset, and midpoint concentration changed as they did in PMDD subjects. When the magnitude of advance and delay phase shifts in onset versus offset time with AM, PM, or RED light were compared, the authors found that in PMDD subjects light shifted offset time more than onset time and that AM light had a greater effect on shifting melatonin offset time (measured the following night in RED light), whereas PM light had a greater effect in shifting melatonin onset time. These findings replicate the

  9. Whimsicality of multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge waves in a complex plasma containing collision-dominated electrons and streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-09-01

    The influence of collision-dominated electrons on multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge waves are investigated in a complex plasma containing streaming ions. The dispersion relation for the multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with dusty plasma containing collision-dominated electrons and streaming ions is derived by using the fluid equations and Poisson’s equation which lead to a Bessel equation. By the boundary condition, the roots of the Bessel function would characterize the property of space-charge wave propagation. It is found that two solutions exist for wave frequency, which are affected by the radius of waveguide and the roots of the Bessel function. The damping and growing modes are found to be enhanced by an increase of the radius. However, an increase of electron collision frequency would suppress the damping and the growing modes of the propagating space-charge wave in a cylindrical waveguide plasma.

  10. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced swine muscle tissue plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.J. [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L., E-mail: luis.diaz@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Ramirez, S. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Caceres, J.O. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Cuidad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of muscle tissue sample plasma induced by a high-power transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} pulsed laser at vacuum conditions (0.1–0.01 Pa) has been investigated using high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and imaging methods. The induced plasma shows mainly electronically excited neutral Na, K, C, Mg, H, Ca, N and O atoms, ionized C{sup +}, C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Mg{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, N{sup +}, N{sup 2+}, Ca{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sup 2+} species and molecular band systems of CN(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}), C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}Π{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u}), CH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup −}–X{sup 2}Π; A{sup 2}Δ–X{sup 2}Π), NH(A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}), OH(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2} Σ{sup +}), and CaOH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}; A{sup 2}Π–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}). Time-resolved two-dimensional emission spectroscopy is used to study the expanded distribution of different species ejected during ablation. Spatial and temporal variations of different atoms and ionic excited species are reported. Plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature were measured from the spatio-temporal analysis of different species. Average velocities of some plasma species were estimated. - Highlights: • LIBS of swine muscle tissue sample generated by CO{sub 2} laser pulses has been done for the first time. • Average velocities of some plasma species have been calculated from spatial and temporally resolved 2D OES images. • Electron density (~ 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) has been studied with spatial and temporal resolution. • Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature has been calculated by means of Boltzmann plots.

  11. Plasma concentrations and expressions of selected adipokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy subjects during 24-hour hypertriglyceridaemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, Jan; Krušinová, E.; Klemontová, M.; Kazdová, L.; Mlejnek, Petr; Pravenec, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. S1 (2005), A36-A36 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /41./. 10.09.2005-15.09.2005, Athen] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipokines * insulin resistance Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. A new Langmuir probe concept for rapid sampling of space plasma electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, K S; Pedersen, A; Moen, J I; Bekkeng, T A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new Langmuir probe concept that was invented for the in situ investigation of HF radar backscatter irregularities, with the capability to measure absolute electron density at a resolution sufficient to resolve the finest conceivable structure in an ionospheric plasma. The instrument consists of two or more fixed-bias cylindrical Langmuir probes whose radius is small compared to the Debye length. With this configuration, it is possible to acquire absolute electron density measurements independent of electron temperature and rocket/satellite potential. The system was flown on the ICI-2 sounding rocket to investigate the plasma irregularities which cause HF backscatter. It had a sampling rate of more than 5 kHz and successfully measured structures down to the scale of one electron gyro radius. The system can easily be adapted for any ionospheric rocket or satellite, and provides high-quality measurements of electron density at any desired resolution

  13. Case Studies in Space Charge and Plasma Acceleration of Charged Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bazzani, A; Londrillo, P; Sinigardi, S; Turchetti, G

    2014-01-01

    Plasma acceleration with electron or proton driver beams is a challenging opportunity for high energy physics. An energy doubling experiment with electron drivers was successfully performed at SLAC and a key experiment AWAKE with proton drivers is on schedule at CERN. Simulations play an important role in choosing the best experimental conditions and in interpreting the results. The Vlasov equation is the theoretical tool to describe the interaction of a driver particle beam or a driver laser pulse with a plasma. Collective effects, such as tune shift and mismatch instabilities, appear in high intensity standard accelerators and are described by the Poisson-Vlasov equation. In the paper we review the Vlasov equation in electrostatic and fully electromagnetic case. The general framework of variational principles is used to derive the equation, the local form of the balance equations and related conservation laws. In the electrostatic case we remind the analytic Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij (K-V) model and we propo...

  14. Plasma effects on the passive external thermal control coating of Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Ralph, Jr.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Holt, James M.; Werp, Richard; Sudduth, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The current baseline chromic acid anodized thermal control coating on 6061-T6 aluminum meteoroid debris (M/D) shields for SSF has been evaluated. The degradation of the solar absorptance, alpha, and the thermal emittance, epsilon, of chromic acid anodized aluminum due to dielectric breakdown in plasma was measured to predict the on-orbit lifetime of the SSF M/D shields. The lifetime of the thermal control coating was based on the surface temperatures achieved with degradation of the thermal control properties, alpha and epsilon. The temperatures of each M/D shield from first element launch (FEL) through FEL+15 years were analyzed. It is shown that the baseline thermal control coating cannot withstand the -140 V potential between the conductive structure of the SSF and the current plasma environment.

  15. Investigation of Ionospheric Turbulence and Whistler Wave Interactions with Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    magnetic field variation B was monitored by the fluxgate magnetometer located at Gakona. The Gakona magnetometer records for the two days are presented in...MUIR radar at 446 MHz, magnetometers , riometer, GPS receivers, as well as our own VLF receiving system, All Sky Imaging System (ASIS), and...radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced E×B drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and

  16. Mechanism of phase transformations in Mg-based alloys subjected to plasma immersion ion implantation of Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenko, Larisa; Fuks, David; Kiv, Arnold; Talianker, Michael; Burlaka, Ljubov; Monteiro, Othon; Brown, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The formation of a new phase of composition Mg 54 Al 28 Ag 18 was observed as a result of plasma immersion ion implantation of Ag into the compound Mg 17 Al 12 . The new structure was characterized using a micro-beam diffraction technique. It was found that the implantation-induced phase transition occurs when the retained dose of the implanted ions is within the range of about 10 15 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . The implanted system has been studied theoretically by means of density-functional electronic structure calculations and a new ab initio approach has been developed to evaluate the specific concentrations of the implanted ions that might cause the phase transition effect in the implanted matrix. The theoretically estimated values of concentrations are in good agreement with experimental observations

  17. Transverse Space-Charge Field-Induced Plasma Dynamics for Ultraintense Electron-Beam Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarkeshian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to laser or x-ray beams, the interaction of sufficiently intense particle beams with neutral gases will result in the creation of plasma. In contrast to photon-based ionization, the strong unipolar field of a particle beam can generate a plasma where the electron population receives a large initial momentum kick and escapes, leaving behind unshielded ions. Measuring the properties of the ensuing Coulomb exploding ions—such as their kinetic energy distribution, yield, and spatial distribution—can provide information about the peak electric fields that are achieved in the electron beams. Particle-in-cell simulations and analytical models are presented for high-brightness electron beams of a few femtoseconds or even hundreds of attoseconds, and transverse beam sizes on the micron scale, as generated by today’s free electron lasers. Different density regimes for the utilization as a potential diagnostics are explored, and the fundamental differences in plasma dynamical behavior for e-beam or photon-based ionization are highlighted. By measuring the dynamics of field-induced ions for different gas and beam densities, a lower bound on the beam charge density can be obtained in a single shot and in a noninvasive way. The exponential dependency of the ionization yield on the beam properties can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, at the submicrometer and subfemtosecond scales, respectively, offering a practical and powerful approach to characterizing beams from accelerators at the frontiers of performance.

  18. Arbitrary amplitude slow electron-acoustic solitons in three-electron temperature space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuli, L. N.; Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of large amplitude slow electron-acoustic solitons supported in a four-component unmagnetised plasma composed of cool, warm, hot electrons, and cool ions. The inertia and pressure for all the species in this plasma system are retained by assuming that they are adiabatic fluids. Our findings reveal that both positive and negative potential slow electron-acoustic solitons are supported in the four-component plasma system. The polarity switch of the slow electron-acoustic solitons is determined by the number densities of the cool and warm electrons. Negative potential solitons, which are limited by the cool and warm electron number densities becoming unreal and the occurrence of negative potential double layers, are found for low values of the cool electron density, while the positive potential solitons occurring for large values of the cool electron density are only limited by positive potential double layers. Both the lower and upper Mach numbers for the slow electron-acoustic solitons are computed and discussed

  19. Arbitrary amplitude fast electron-acoustic solitons in three-electron component space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbuli, L. N.; Maharaj, S. K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA) Space Science, P.O. Box 32, Hermanus 7200, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Bharuthram, R. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape (UWC), Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535, Republic of South Africa (South Africa)

    2016-06-15

    We examine the characteristics of fast electron-acoustic solitons in a four-component unmagnetised plasma model consisting of cool, warm, and hot electrons, and cool ions. We retain the inertia and pressure for all the plasma species by assuming adiabatic fluid behaviour for all the species. By using the Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique, the allowable Mach number ranges for fast electron-acoustic solitary waves are explored and discussed. It is found that the cool and warm electron number densities determine the polarity switch of the fast electron-acoustic solitons which are limited by either the occurrence of fast electron-acoustic double layers or warm and hot electron number density becoming unreal. For the first time in the study of solitons, we report on the coexistence of fast electron-acoustic solitons, in addition to the regular fast electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in our multi-species plasma model. Our results are applied to the generation of broadband electrostatic noise in the dayside auroral region.

  20. Time-space distribution of laser-induced plasma parameters and its influence on emission spectra of the laser plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov-Pavlov, E.A.; Katsalap, K.Yu.; Stepanov, K.L.; Stankevich, Yu.A.

    2008-01-01

    A physical model is developed accounting for dynamics and radiation of plasma plumes induced by nanosecond laser pulses on surface of solid samples. The model has been applied to simulate emission spectra of the laser erosion plasma at the elemental analysis of metals using single- and double-pulse excitation modes. Dynamics of the sample heating and expansion of the erosion products are accounted for by the thermal conductivity and gas dynamic equations, respectively, supposing axial symmetry. Using the resulting time-space distributions of the plasma parameters, emission spectra of the laser plumes are evaluated by solving the radiation transfer equation. Particle concentration in consecutive ionization stages is described by the Saha equation in the Debye approximation. The population of excited levels is determined according to Boltzmann distribution. Local characteristics determining spectral emission and absorption coefficients are obtained point-by-point along an observation line. Voigt spectral line profiles are considered with main broadening mechanisms taken into account. The plasma dynamics and plume emission spectra have been studied experimentally and by the model. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm wavelength has been used to irradiate Al sample with the pulses of 15 ns and 50 mJ duration and energy, respectively. It has resulted in maximum power density of 0.8 MW/cm 2 on the sample surface. The laser plume emission spectra have been recorded at a side-on observation. Problems of the spectra contrast and of the elemental analysis efficiency are considered relying on a comparative study of the measurement and simulation results at the both excitation modes

  1. Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Accumulates in the Brain Even in Subjects without Severe Renal Dysfunction: Evaluation of Autopsy Brain Specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Fukusato, Toshio; Matsuda, Megumi; Toyoda, Keiko; Oba, Hiroshi; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Furui, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    To use inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) to evaluate gadolinium accumulation in brain tissues, including the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP), in subjects who received a gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Written informed consent for postmortem investigation was obtained either from the subject prior to his or her death or afterward from the subject's relatives. Brain tissues obtained at autopsy in five subjects who received a linear GBCA (GBCA group) and five subjects with no history of GBCA administration (non-GBCA group) were examined with ICP-MS. Formalin-fixed DN tissue, the inner segment of the GP, cerebellar white matter, the frontal lobe cortex, and frontal lobe white matter were obtained, and their gadolinium concentrations were measured. None of the subjects had received a diagnosis of severely compromised renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate brain regions. Gadolinium was detected in all specimens in the GBCA agent group (mean, 0.25 µg per gram of brain tissue ± 0.44 [standard deviation]), with significantly higher concentrations in each region (P = .004 vs the non-GBCA group for all regions). In the GBCA group, the DN and GP showed significantly higher gadolinium concentrations (mean, 0.44 µg/g ± 0.63) than other regions (0.12 µg/g ± 0.16) (P = .029). Even in subjects without severe renal dysfunction, GBCA administration causes gadolinium accumulation in the brain, especially in the DN and GP.

  2. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  3. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Plasma Bile Acids, Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, Hexadecanedioate, and Tetradecanedioate with Coproporphyrins I and III as Markers of OATP Inhibition in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Chen, Weiqi; Drexler, Dieter M; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Holenarsipur, Vinay K; Shields, Eric E; Langish, Robert; Sidik, Kurex; Gan, Jinping; Humphreys, W Griffith; Marathe, Punit; Lai, Yurong

    2017-08-01

    Multiple endogenous compounds have been proposed as candidate biomarkers to monitor organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) function in preclinical species or humans. Previously, we demonstrated that coproporphyrins (CPs) I and III are appropriate clinical markers to evaluate OATP inhibition and recapitulate clinical drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In the present study, we investigated bile acids (BAs) dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), hexadecanedioate (HDA), and tetradecanedioate (TDA) in plasma as endogenous probes for OATP inhibition and compared these candidate probes to CPs. All probes were determined in samples from a single study that examined their behavior and their association with rosuvastatin (RSV) pharmacokinetics after administration of an OATP inhibitor rifampin (RIF) in healthy subjects. Among endogenous probes examined, RIF significantly increased maximum plasma concentration ( C max ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) (0-24h) of fatty acids HDA and TDA by 2.2- to 3.2-fold. For the 13 bile acids in plasma examined, no statistically significant changes were detected between treatments. Changes in plasma DHEAS did not correlate with OATP1B inhibition by RIF. On the basis of the magnitude of effects for the endogenous compounds that demonstrated significant changes from baseline over interindividual variations, the overall rank order for the AUC change was found to be CP I > CP III > HDA ≈ TDA ≈ RSV > > BAs. Collectively, these results reconfirmed that CPs are novel biomarkers suitable for clinical use. In addition, HDA and TDA are useful for OATP functional assessment. Since these endogenous markers can be monitored in conjunction with pharmacokinetics analysis, the CPs and fatty acid dicarboxylates, either alone or in combination, offer promise of earlier diagnosis and risk stratification for OATP-mediated DDIs. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  5. HF turbulence as a source of novel diagnostics tool for space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Klos, Z.; Thide, B.; Bergman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The T type of turbulence and instabilities can be produced by a source of free energy in the form of natural and anthropogenic perturbation. Space turbulence acts as a tracer of the various physical processes acting in these regions and gives access to them, but on the other side it disturbs the propagation of radio waves and the ability of detecting targets of interests. To understand the property of solar terrestrial environment and to develop a quantitative model of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere subsystem, which is strongly coupled via the electric field, particle precipitation, heat flows and small scale interaction, it is necessary to design and build new generation multipoint and different type sensor diagnostics, as proposed by LOFAR/LOIS facility in complementary of space borne satellite experiments. Ground based multi frequency and multi polarization LOIS clusters antennas and clusters observations in the in the space should be helpful in achieving to solve problems of space physics and described long term environmental changes. The real-time access to gathered based data, relevant to the impact of environment physical condition on communications and global positioning system, will create the possibility to improve quality of different type space related services. Simultaneously investigation and monitoring of Earth environment will be coordinated with space borne experiment COMPAS 2 experiment. The new design radio spectrometer will be designed to investigate the still largely unknown mechanisms which govern these turbulent interactions natural and man-made origin. The main aim of this presentation is to show the general architecture of LOIS and COMPAS 2 experiment and its scientific challenges. It will be emphasize the description of electromagnetic Earth environments in HF range as well. (author)

  6. Natural honey lowers plasma glucose, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and blood lipids in healthy, diabetic, and hyperlipidemic subjects: comparison with dextrose and sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2004-01-01

    This study included the following experiments: (1) effects of dextrose solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of dextrose) or honey solution (250 mL of water containing 75 g of natural honey) on plasma glucose level (PGL), plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide (eight subjects); (2) effects of dextrose, honey, or artificial honey (250 mL of water containing 35 g of dextrose and 40 g of fructose) on cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) (nine subjects); (3) effects of honey solution, administered for 15 days, on PGL, blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine (eight subjects); (4) effects of honey or artificial honey on cholesterol and TG in six patients with hypercholesterolemia and five patients with hypertriglyceridemia; (5) effects of honey for 15 days on blood lipid and CRP in five patients with elevated cholesterol and CRP; (6) effects of 70 g of dextrose or 90 g of honey on PGL in seven patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; and (7) effects of 30 g of sucrose or 30 g of honey on PGL, plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide in five diabetic patients. In healthy subjects, dextrose elevated PGL at 1 (53%) and 2 (3%) hours, and decreased PGL after 3 hours (20%). Honey elevated PGL after 1 hour (14%) and decreased it after 3 hours (10%). Elevation of insulin and C-peptide was significantly higher after dextrose than after honey. Dextrose slightly reduced cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 1 hour and significantly after 2 hours, and increased TG after 1, 2, and 3 hours. Artificial honey slightly decreased cholesterol and LDL-C and elevated TG. Honey reduced cholesterol, LDL-C, and TG and slightly elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Honey consumed for 15 days decreased cholesterol (7%), LDL-C (1%), TG (2%), CRP (7%), homocysteine (6%), and PGL (6%), and increased HDL-C (2%). In patients with hypertriglyceridemia, artificial honey increased TG, while honey decreased TG. In patients with hyperlipidemia

  7. Theory of Weak Bipolar Fields and Electron Holes with Applications to Space Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Mangeney, Andre

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model of weak electron phase-space holes is used to interpret bipolar field structures observed in space. In the limit eφ max /T e max sech 4 (x/α), where φ max depends on the derivative of the trapped distribution at the separatrix, while α depends only on a screening integral over the untrapped distribution. Idealized trapped and passing electron distributions are inferred from the speed, amplitude, and shape of satellite waveform measurements of weak bipolar field structures

  8. Using Visual Information to Determine the Subjective Valuation of Public Space for Transportation : Application to Subway Crowding Costs in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The objective of this project is to explore the role of visual information in determining the users subjective valuation of multidimensional trip attributes that are relevant in decision-making, but are neglected in standard travel demand models. ...

  9. The ionospheric contribution to the plasma environment in near-earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. D.; Lennartsson, W.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    SCATHA and ISEE 1 satellite ion mass spectrometer data on ion composition near GEO are reviewed. The data were gathered during and close to magnetic storm activity to assess the characteristics of ion composition variations in order to predict the effects of hot GEO plasma on spacecraft instruments. Attention is given to both substorms and storms, the former being associated, at high latitudes, with auroral activity, the latter with ring currents. The ionosphere was found to supply hot H(+), O(+) and He(+) ions to the GEO magnetosphere, while the solar wind carried H(+) and He(+) ions. The ionosphere was the dominant source in both quiet and storm conditions in the inner magnetosphere.

  10. Coupling of electromagnetics and structural/fluid dynamics - application to the dual coolant blanket subjected to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1996-01-01

    Some aspects concerning the coupling of quasi-stationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid are investigated. The necessary equations are given in a dimensionless form. The dimensionless parameters in these equations are used to evaluate the importance of the different coupling effects. A finite element formulation of the eddy-current damping in solid structures is developed. With this formulation, an existing finite element method (FEM) structural dynamics code is extended and coupled to an FEM eddy-current code. With this program system, the influence of the eddy-current damping on the dynamic loading of the dual coolant blanket during a centered plasma disruption is determined. The analysis proves that only in loosely fixed or soft structures will eddy-current damping considerably reduce the resulting stresses. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of the liquid metal in the blankets' poloidal channels is described with a simple two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic approach. The analysis of the dimensionless parameters shows that for small-scale experiments, which are designed to model the coupled electromagnetic and structural/fluid dynamic effects in such a blanket, the same magnetic fields must be applied as in the real fusion device. This will be the easiest way to design experiments that produce transferable results. 10 refs., 7 figs

  11. A two dimensional fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic problem for a half-space subjected to mechanical force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailawalia Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the two dimensional deformation of fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic medium in the context of Green-Lindsay theory of thermoelasticity. A mechanical force is applied along the interface of fluid half space and fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic half space. The normal mode analysis has been applied to obtain the exact expressions for displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress. The effect of anisotropy and micropolarity on the displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress has been depicted graphically.

  12. A Model for Periodic Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in Space Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.N.S.; Shi Jiankui; Liu Zhenxing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to explain the generation mechanism of nonlinear periodic waves with a large amplitude electric field structures propagating obliquely and exactly parallel to the magnetic field. The 'Sagdeev potential' from the MHD equations is derived and the nonlinear electric field waveforms are obtained when the Mach number, direction of propagation, and the initial electric field satisfy certain plasma conditions. For the parallel propagation, the amplitude of the electric field waves with ion-acoustic mode increases with the increase of initial electric field and Mach number but its frequency decreases with the increase of Mach number. The amplitude and frequency of the electric field waves with ion-cyclotron mode decrease with the increase of Mach number and become less spiky, and its amplitude increases with the increase of initial electric field. For the oblique propagation, only periodic electric field wave with an ion-cyclotron mode obtained, its amplitude and frequency increase with the increase of Mach number and become spiky. From our model the electric field structures show periodic, spiky, and saw-tooth behaviours corresponding to different plasma conditions.

  13. Ion- and electron-acoustic solitons in two-electron temperature space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Kakad, A. P.; Singh, S. V.; Verheest, F.

    2008-01-01

    Properties of ion- and electron-acoustic solitons are investigated in an unmagnetized multicomponent plasma system consisting of cold and hot electrons and hot ions using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. The analysis is based on fluid equations and the Poisson equation. Solitary wave solutions are found when the Mach numbers exceed some critical values. The critical Mach numbers for the ion-acoustic solitons are found to be smaller than those for electron-acoustic solitons for a given set of plasma parameters. The critical Mach numbers of ion-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of hot electron temperature and the decrease of cold electron density. On the other hand, the critical Mach numbers of electron-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of the cold electron density as well as the hot electron temperature. The ion-acoustic solitons have positive potentials for the parameters considered. However, the electron-acoustic solitons have positive or negative potentials depending whether the fractional cold electron density with respect to the ion density is greater or less than a certain critical value. Further, the amplitudes of both the ion- and electron-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of the hot electron temperature. Possible application of this model to electrostatic solitary waves observed on the auroral field lines by the Viking spacecraft is discussed

  14. The Dynamics of Very High Alfvén Mach Number Shocks in Space Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Torbjörn; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Scholer, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Masters, Adam [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, Ali H., E-mail: torbjorn.sundberg@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Astrophysical shocks, such as planetary bow shocks or supernova remnant shocks, are often in the high or very-high Mach number regime, and the structure of such shocks is crucial for understanding particle acceleration and plasma heating, as well inherently interesting. Recent magnetic field observations at Saturn’s bow shock, for Alfvén Mach numbers greater than about 25, have provided evidence for periodic non-stationarity, although the details of the ion- and electron-scale processes remain unclear due to limited plasma data. High-resolution, multi-spacecraft data are available for the terrestrial bow shock, but here the very high Mach number regime is only attained on extremely rare occasions. Here we present magnetic field and particle data from three such quasi-perpendicular shock crossings observed by the four-spacecraft Cluster mission. Although both ion reflection and the shock profile are modulated at the upstream ion gyroperiod timescale, the dominant wave growth in the foot takes place at sub-proton length scales and is consistent with being driven by the ion Weibel instability. The observed large-scale behavior depends strongly on cross-scale coupling between ion and electron processes, with ion reflection never fully suppressed, and this suggests a model of the shock dynamics that is in conflict with previous models of non-stationarity. Thus, the observations offer insight into the conditions prevalent in many inaccessible astrophysical environments, and provide important constraints for acceleration processes at such shocks.

  15. Imaging system for obtaining space- and time-resolved plasma images on TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, H.A.; Frerking, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A Reticon 50 x 50 photodiode array camera has been placed on Livermore's Tandem Mirror Experiment to view a 56-cm diameter plasma source of visible, vacuum-ultraviolet, and x-ray photons. The compact camera views the source through a pinhole, filters, a fiber optic coupler, a microchannel plate intensifier (MCPI), and a reducer. The images are digitized (at 3.3 MHz) and stored in a large, high-speed memory that has a capacity of 45 images. A local LSI-11 microprocessor provides immediate processing and display of the data. The data are also stored on floppy disks that can be further processed on the large Livermore Computer System. The temporal resolution is limited by the fastest MCPI gate. The number of images recorded is determined by the read-out time of the Reticon camera (minimum 0.9 msec). The spatial resolution of approximately 1.4 cm is fixed by the geometry and the pinhole of 0.025 cm. Typical high-quality color representation of some plasma images are included

  16. Electrostatic Properties of PE and PTFE Subjected to Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment; Correlation of Experimental Results with Atomistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Boucher, Derrick; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The use of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma was used at KSC to increase the hydrophilicity of spaceport materials to enhance their surface charge dissipation and prevent possible ESD in spaceport operations. Significant decreases in charge decay times were observed after tribocharging the materials using the standard KSC tribocharging test. The polarity and amount of charge transferred was dependent upon the effective work function differences between the respective materials. In this study, polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to a He+O2 APGD. The pre and post treatment surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with some plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE, significant surface oxidation was observed, as indicated by XPS showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angle from 98.9 deg to 61.2 deg. For the PTFE, no C-O bonding appeared and the surface contact angle increased indicating the APGD only succeeded in cleaning the PTFE surface without affecting the surface structure. The calculations using the PM3 and DFT methods were performed on single and multiple oligomers to simulate a wide variety of oxidation scenarios. Calculated work function results suggest that regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =0 or a combination thereof, the experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation are unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and that its increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. The calculations for PTFE argue strongly against significant oxidation of that material, as confirmed by the XPS results.

  17. Synaesthetic perception of colour and visual space in a blind subject: An fMRI case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niccolai, V.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Blakemore, C.; Störig, P.

    2012-01-01

    In spatial sequence synaesthesia (SSS) ordinal stimuli are perceived as arranged in peripersonal space. Using fMRI, we examined the neural bases of SSS and colour synaesthesia for spoken words in a late-blind synaesthete, JF. He reported days of the week and months of the year as both coloured and

  18. PLASMA-2005: International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas combined with the 3. German-Polish Conference on Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion and Applications and the 5. French-Polish Seminar on Thermal Plasma in Space and Laboratory. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K.

    2005-01-01

    The International Conferences 'PLASMA' have been organized in Poland every two years since 1993. The German-Polish Conferences on Plasma Diagnostics were started in 2002, and the French-Polish Seminars on Thermal Plasmas were initiated in 1997. To reduce a number of topical conferences and to improve an exchange of information among different plasma research groups it was agreed to organize for the first time the triple conference at the Opole University, Poland, on September 6-9, 2005. The chairman of the International Scientific Committee (ISC) was Professor Marek J. Sadowski from IPJ in Swierk, and the co-chairmen were Professor Thomas Klinger of the IPP-Greifswald and Professor Michel Dudeck of the CNRS-Orleans. The chairman of LOC was Professor Jozef Musielok of the Opole University. This conference was designed for interested scientists, engineers and students from all the countries, but particularly for these from the Central and Eastern Europe (see http://draco.uni.opole.pl/plasma2005). The scientific programme of the conference embraced almost all directions of plasma research and technology, i.e.: 1. Elementary processes and general theory of plasma; 2. Plasmas in tokamaks, stellerators and related experiments; 3. plasmas in Z-pinch and PF discharges; 4. Plasmas produced by intense laser beams; 5. Plasmas of micro-wave and glow discharges; 6. Plasmas in spark- and arc-discharges; 7. Plasmas in space; 8. Diagnostics and experimental facilities; 9. Applications of quasi-stationary and pulsed plasmas. Participants of the conference were 127 plasma experts (including 23 invited speakers) from 13 different countries, as well as several honorary guests from local authorities and the most important plasma research centers in Poland. Most numerous groups came from Poland (58 persons), Germany (15 persons), France (14 persons), Czech Republic (11 persons), Russia (7 persons), and Ukraine (6 persons). The participants came also from Belarus, Hungary, Iran, Japan

  19. Plasma diagnostics surface analysis and interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas and their interaction with materials have become subjects of major interest because of their importance in modern forefront technologies such as microelectronics, fusion energy, and space. Plasmas are used in microelectronics to process semiconductors (etching of patterns for microcircuits, plasma-induced deposition of thin films, etc.); plasmas produce deleterious erosion effects on surfaces of materials used for fusion devices and spaceships exposed to the low earth environment.Diagnostics of plasmas and materials exposed to them are fundamental to the understanding of the physical a

  20. [Change and correlated factors of fasting level of the plasma endotoxin in subjects with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-Hui; Zhao, Tie-Yun; Hou, Li-Qiong

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the change of the levels of fasting plasma endotoxin (ET) and assess its correlated factors in individuals with different glucose tolerances and body mass indices. The levels of fasting plasma ET were assayed by the endpoint chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate method in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The height, body mass, waist, hips, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were measured with the conventional methods; body mass index (BMI) and waist hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. All groups were divided into obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and non-obesity (BMIfasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours plasma glucose (2 hPG), fasting insulin (FINS), postprandial insulin (PINS), hemoglobin Alc (HbAlc), blood lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also analyzed, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The relationship of the levels of plasma ET with age, BMI, WHR, blood pressure, FBG, 2 hPG, FINS, PINS, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, blood lipids, FFA, AST and ALT were also analyzed. (1) The levels of plasma ET in T2DM group (n=37) was significantly higher than that in NGT group (n=37) [7. 1 (3. 7-11. 8) EU/mL vs. 4. 5 (2.2-6.3) EU/mL, P0. 05). (2) The levels of plasma ET in the obesity T2DM subgroup was higher than that in the non-obesity T2DM subgroup but the differences were not significant [7. 3 (3. 8-13. 3) EU/mL vs. 7.0 (3. 6-10. 4) EU/mL, P>0. 05]. There was a remarkable difference in the levels of plasma ET between obesity and non-obesity subgroup of IGR (6.8 (2.9-13.2) EU/mL vs. 2.7 (1.6-5. 5) EU/mL, Pobesity and non-obesity subgroup of NGT (6.2 (3. 4-12. 7) EU/mL vs. 2. 8 (1. 8-4. 9) EU/mL, P<0. 05). (3) Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that ET wasn' t the important factor influencing FBG and 2 hPG. But BMI and FBG were the important factors

  1. Second order oscillations of a Vlasov-Poisson plasma in the Fourier transformed space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in the Fourier-transformed velocity space is studied. At first some results of the linear theory are reformulated: in the new representation the Van Kampen eigenmodes and their adjoint are found to be ordinary functions with convenient piece-wise continuity properties. A transparent derivation is given of the free-streaming temporal echo in terms of the kinematics of wave packets in the Fourier-transformed velocity space. This analysis is further extended to include Coulomb interactions which allows to establish a connection between the echo theory, the second order oscillations of Best and the phenomenon of linear sidebands. The calculation of the time evolution of the global second order electric field is performed in detail in the case of a Maxwellian equilibrium distribution function. It is concluded that the phenomenon of linear sidebands may be properly explained in terms of the intrinsic features of the equilibrium distribution function. (author) 5 figs., 32 refs

  2. Space-resolved XUV spectra of CVI and BV lines from a 10 ps KrF laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias, E.J.; Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.; Scott, H.

    1999-01-01

    We produced a plasma using highly focused ∼50 mJ, 10 ps pulses from a KrF laser on graphite and boron-carbide targets. We measured space-resolved (along the plasma axis) line profiles of Hydrogen-like and Helium-like Carbon and Boron resonance lines, using a crossed-slit, 1 m grazing-incidence spectrometer, with a spatial resolution ∼50 μm. Synthetic spectra generated with the atomic postprocessor CRETIN provided preliminary estimates of the plasma electron temperature and density. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  3. Dynamics of the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma while surfing the package electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, N.S.; Zol'nikova, N.N.; Kuznetsov, E.A.; Mikhajlovskaya, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Based on numerical calculations considered the relativistic acceleration of charged particles in space plasma when surfing on the spatially localized package of electromagnetic waves. The problem is reduced to the study of unsteady, nonlinear equation for the wave phase at the carrier frequency at the location of the accelerated charge, which is solved numerically. We study the temporal dynamics of the relativistic factor, the component of momentum and velocity of the particle, its trajectory is given gyro-rotation in an external magnetic field after the departure of the effective potential well. Dependence of the dynamics of a particle interacting with the wave of the sign of the velocity of the charge along the wave front. We formulate the optimal conditions of the relativistic particle acceleration wave packet, indicate the possibility of again (after a number gyro-turnover) charge trapping wave with an additional relativistic acceleration.

  4. The Tethered Balloon Current Generator - A space shuttle-tethered subsatellite for plasma studies and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, P. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Tethered Balloon Current Generator experiment are to: (1) generate relatively large regions of thermalized, field-aligned currents, (2) produce controlled-amplitude Alfven waves, (3) study current-driven electrostatic plasma instabilities, and (4) generate substantial amounts of power or propulsion through the MHD interaction. A large balloon (a diameter of about 30 m) will be deployed with a conducting surface above the space shuttle at a distance of about 10 km. For a generally eastward directed orbit at an altitude near 400 km, the balloon, connected to the shuttle by a conducting wire, will be positive with respect to the shuttle, enabling it to collect electrons. At the same time, the shuttle will collect positive ions and, upon command, emit an electron beam to vary current flow in the system.

  5. Space resolved measurements of neutrons and ion emission on plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, U.

    1980-05-01

    This report describes space-resolved measurements of neutrons and of accelerated charged particles, emitted by a plasmafocus-device. The neutron source has been measured with one and two-dimensional paraffin collimators. The space resolution is 5 mm along the axis and the radius, with a time resolution of 10 ns. In order to make quantitative statements about the neutron yield, neutron-scattering, absorption and nuclear reactions were taken into account. Part of the neutron measurements are carried out together with time and space resolved measurements of the electron density to study possible correlations between nsub(e) and Ysub(n). The following results about the neutron measurement were obtained: The neutron emission reaches its maximum between 40 and 60 ns after the maximum compression. The emission region is limited to a well defined range of 0 50 ns it has been observed a broadening of the emission region in + z-direction. The emission profiles in lower and in higher pressure regimes are almost the same. (orig./HT) [de

  6. Ionospheric contribution to the plasma environment in near-earth space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.D.; Lennartsson, W.; Strangeway, R.J.; California Univ., Los Angeles)

    1985-01-01

    SCATHA and ISEE 1 satellite ion mass spectrometer data on ion composition near GEO are reviewed. The data were gathered during and close to magnetic storm activity to assess the characteristics of ion composition variations in order to predict the effects of hot GEO plasma on spacecraft instruments. Attention is given to both substorms and storms, the former being associated, at high latitudes, with auroral activity, the latter with ring currents. The ionosphere was found to supply hot H(+), O(+) and He(+) ions to the GEO magnetosphere, while the solar wind carried H(+) and He(+) ions. The ionosphere was the dominant source in both quiet and storm conditions in the inner magnetosphere. 11 references

  7. Evolution of fractality in space plasmas of interest to geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Víctor; Domínguez, Macarena; Alejandro Valdivia, Juan; Good, Simon; Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2018-03-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of fractality for geomagnetic activity, by calculating fractal dimensions from the Dst data and from a magnetohydrodynamic shell model for turbulent magnetized plasma, which may be a useful model to study geomagnetic activity under solar wind forcing. We show that the shell model is able to reproduce the relationship between the fractal dimension and the occurrence of dissipative events, but only in a certain region of viscosity and resistivity values. We also present preliminary results of the application of these ideas to the study of the magnetic field time series in the solar wind during magnetic clouds, which suggest that it is possible, by means of the fractal dimension, to characterize the complexity of the magnetic cloud structure.

  8. Space Plasma Slab Studies using a new 3D Embedded Reconfigurable MPSoC Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents recent ionospheric slab thickness measurements using a new mobile digital sounder system. The datasets obtained have been compared to the results of existing sounders in operation. The data validity has been verified. The slab thickness data allow constant monitoring of the lower ionosphere revealing the dynamic trends of the physical processes being involved. The prototype offers a tremendous amount of hardware processing power and a previously unseen response time in servicing the input and output data interfaces. This has been enabled by incorporating the latest three-dimensional Ultrascale+ technologies available commercially from the reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) computing industry. Furthermore, a previously developed Network-on-Chip (NoC) design methodology has been incorporated for connecting and controlling the application driven multiprocessor network. The system determines electron distributions, aggregate electromagnetic field gradients and plasma current density.

  9. Some analyses on the plasma motion in the space active region of the axial symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhongyuan; Hu Wenrui.

    1986-04-01

    In general, the potential magnetic field may gradually be twisted into the force-free magnetic field with the current produced by plasma rotation. In this paper, it is pointed out that if the magnetic field has no singularity on the symmetric axis, then the potential magnetic field cannot be twisted into the force-free magnetic field. Namely, it is not a perfect approach that the energy storage is only caused by the pure azimuthal motion in the active region. Besides the pure spiral motion, the unsteady coupling process between the magnetic field and both the toroidal and the poloidal velocity components should be analyzed. Finally, in the present note, some features of the kinematical force-free magnetic field of the axial symmetry are presented by the authors. (author)

  10. Space shuttle charging or beam-plasma discharge: What can electron spectrometer observations contribute to solving the question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watermann, J.; Wilhelm, K.; Torkar, K.M.; Riedler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Several cooperative plasma experiments were carried out on board Spacelab-1, the ninth payload of the Space Transportation System (STS-9). Among them, the electron spectrometer 1ES019A was designed to observe 01.-12.5 keV electron fluxes with high temporal and spatial resolution, while the SEPAC electron beam accelerator emitted electron beams with currents up to 280 mA and maximum energies of 5 keV. Since the question of orbiter charging to high voltages has controversially been discussed in several publications on STS-3 and STS-9 electron beam experiments, an attempt is made to relate information from the return electron flux observed during the SEPAC operations to the vehicle charging interpretation. A close examination reveals that most of our observations can be understood if the occurrence of a beam-plasma discharge is assumed at least for electron beam intensities above 100 mA. This would provide a substantial return current capability. High orbiter charging effects during electron beam accelerator electron emissions are consequently not supported by the observations

  11. A search for new MRI criteria for dissemination in space in subjects with a clinically isolated syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korteweg, T; Tintore, M; Uitdehaag, B M J

    2009-01-01

    The International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) incorporated the Barkhof/Tintoré (B/T) magnetic resonance criteria into their diagnostic scheme to provide evidence of dissemination in space of central nervous system lesions, a prerequisite for diagnosing MS in patients who...... on information from a single scan. Apparently, findings from contrast-enhanced and follow-up magnetic resonance scans are needed to improve the diagnostic algorithm....

  12. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, ornithine hydrochloride, and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynober, L; Coudray-Lucas, C; de Bandt, J P; Guéchot, J; Aussel, C; Salvucci, M; Giboudeau, J

    1990-02-01

    Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) has been useful as an adjuvant of enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, its metabolism and mechanism of action remain unclear although it is known that alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG) and ornithine (ORN) follow, in part, common metabolic pathways. Six fasting healthy male subjects underwent three separate oral load tests: (i) they received 10 g of OKG (i.e., 3.6 g of alpha KG and 6.4 g of ORN); (ii) 6.4 g of ORN as ornithine hydrochloride, and (iii) 3.6 g of alpha KG as calcium alpha-ketoglutarate. Blood was drawn 15 times over a five-hour period for measurements of plasma amino acids, alpha KG, insulin, and glucagon. After OKG and ORN administration, plasma ORN peaked at 60-75 min (494 +/- 91 and 541 +/- 85 mumol/L). The increase in plasma alpha KG was very small. OKG, alpha KG, and ORN all increased glutamate concentrations at 60 min (mean: +43%, +68%, +68%, respectively, p less than 0.05 compared to basal values). However, only OKG increased proline and arginine levels at 60 min (mean: +35%, p less than 0.01 and mean: +41%, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, glutamate, proline, and arginine concentrations correlated linearly with ornithine levels at 60 min. Finally, OKG increased insulinemia and glucagonemia (mean: +24% at 15 min, p less than 0.05 and +30% at 60 min, p less than 0.01, respectively). These data provide evidence that the combination of ORN and alpha KG modifies amino acid metabolism in a way which is not observed when they are administered separately. In addition, the OKG-mediated increase in insulin levels probably does not appear to result from a direct action of ORN on pancreatic secretion.

  13. Effects of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna; Leśkiewicz, Monika; Budziszewska, Bogusława

    2008-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone on immobility time and plasma corticosterone concentration in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test. Metyrapone alone (50 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg) reduced the immobility time of rats in the forced swim test; moreover, both doses tested (25 and 50 mg/kg), dose-dependently decreased the stress-induced plasma corticosterone concentration. Joint administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine (10 mg/kg) and metyrapone (25 mg/kg - a dose inactive per se) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the forced swim test in rats. WAY 100636 (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist), but not prazosin (an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist), used in doses ineffective in the forced swim test, inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or tianeptine with metyrapone (25 mg/kg). Combined treatment of fluoxetine or tianeptine and metyrapone inhibited stress-induced corticosterone secretion to a similar extent as metyrapone alone. The obtained results indicate that metyrapone potentiates the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine or tianeptine and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in this effect. Moreover, metyrapone exerts a beneficial effect on the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. These findings suggest that the co-administration of metyrapone and an antidepressant drug may be useful for the treatment of drug-resistant depression and/or depression associated with a high cortisol level.

  14. Discriminated benefits of a Mediterranean dietary pattern within a hypocaloric diet program on plasma RBP4 concentrations and other inflammatory markers in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    Personalized nutritional strategies to treat obesity may specifically influence inflammatory markers, in addition to reduce body weight. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a hypocaloric diet based on a Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) on nutritional status as well as on plasma concentrations of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) and other proinflammatory markers. Fourty-one subjects (24F/17M; age: 37 ± 7 years; BMI: 32.2 ± 3.9 kg/m²) were assigned to follow a MDP within a caloric-restricted diet over an 8-week period. Anthropometrical, clinical, and biochemical variables were measured at baseline and endpoint after the nutritional program. Dietary intervention resulted in a mean weight loss of -4.4 ± 2.5 kg (P diet score from baseline was a significant and independent predictor factor for the decrease in plasma RBP4 concentration (P hypocaloric diet accompanying a high adherence to a MDP resulted in specific reductions on proinflammatory markers, in addition to a significant improvement in some metabolic syndrome features induced by weight loss, which could be a good combined strategy to treat obesity as well as related metabolic and inflammatory disorders.

  15. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary results of an examination of electronic cigarette user puff topography: the effect of a mouthpiece-based topography measurement device on plasma nicotine and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R; Breland, Alison B; Karaoghlanian, Nareg V; Shihadeh, Alan L; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) heat a nicotine-containing solution; the resulting aerosol is inhaled by the user. Nicotine delivery may be affected by users' puffing behavior (puff topography), and little is known about the puff topography of ECIG users. Puff topography can be measured using mouthpiece-based computerized systems. However, the extent to which a mouthpiece influences nicotine delivery and subjective effects in ECIG users is unknown. Plasma nicotine concentration, heart rate, and subjective effects were measured in 13 experienced ECIG users who used their preferred ECIG and liquid (≥ 12 mg/ml nicotine) during 2 sessions (with or without a mouthpiece). In both sessions, participants completed an ECIG use session in which they were instructed to take 10 puffs with 30-second inter-puff intervals. Puff topography was recorded in the mouthpiece condition. Almost all measures of the effects of ECIG use were independent of topography measurement. Collapsed across session, mean plasma nicotine concentration increased by 16.8 ng/ml, and mean heart rate increased by 8.5 bpm (ps topography measurement equipment, ECIG-using participants took larger and longer puffs with lower flow rates. In experienced ECIG users, measuring ECIG topography did not influence ECIG-associated nicotine delivery or most measures of withdrawal suppression. Topography measurement systems will need to account for the low flow rates observed for ECIG users. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone on the active behaviors and plasma corticosterone concentration in rats subjected to the forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogóż, Zofia; Kabziński, Marcin; Sadaj, Witold; Rachwalska, Paulina; Gądek-Michalska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical reports have postulated a beneficial effect of the addition of a low dose of risperidone to the ongoing treatment with antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression. The present study aimed to examine the effect of treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine, given separately or jointly with risperidone, on active behavior and plasma corticosterone level in male Wistar rats subjected to the forced swim test (FST). The obtained results showed that fluoxetine (5 mg/kg), mirtazapine (5 and 10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) did not change the active behavior of rats in the FST. However, co-treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) induced an antidepressant-like effect in that test because it significantly increased the swimming time and decreased the immobility time, while combined treatment with mirtazapine at 5 and 10 mg/kg and risperidone at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg evoked a significant increase in the swimming time and also climbing, and decreased the immobility time. WAY 100635 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg inhibited the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone failed to enhance the exploratory activity of rats. Co-treatment with fluoxetine or mirtazapine and risperidone did not reduce the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in animals subjected to the FST. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of fluoxetine and mirtazapine in the FST (but does not normalize the stress-induced increase in corticosterone level in these rats), and that 5-HT(1A) receptors may play some role in these effects.

  18. Comment on 'Relation between space charge limited current and power loss in open drift tubes' [Phys. Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    In Phys Plasmas 13, 073101 (2006), the drop in the space-charge-limited (SCL) current for a beam injected into a space with an open boundary is analyzed with an electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The authors explained the power loss observed at the open boundary as the loss of electromagnetic radiation created from the deceleration of electrons in the gap, and they developed an effective voltage theory to predict the drop in the SCL current observed in the simulations. In this Comment, we show that, provided the current remains below the SCL value, the electric and magnetic fields are constant in time so that power loss from the open boundary is a dc phenomenon with no rf power leaving through the boundary. We show that the electric and magnetic fields are static in time and static fields DO NOT RADIATE. Instead, the electron beam charges the collector plate, which causes a real electrostatic electric field to develop. The electron energy loss is not due to radiation but rather to the work done by this electrostatic field on the electrons as they move across the gap. This is precisely the energy dissipated in the matched resistance across the open boundary, which is a consequence of the boundary condition. Furthermore, since a real electrostatic potential develops, the voltage drop is real and there is no need to call the voltage drop an effective voltage

  19. Space and time resolved observations of plasma dynamics in a compressional gas embedded Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, L.; Chuaqui, H.; Favre, M.; Saavedra, R.; Wyndham, E.; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Mitchell, I.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experiments in a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch are presented. The experiments have been carried out in H 2 at 1/3 atm, using a pulse power generator capable of delivering a dl/dt > 10 12 A/s. The pinch is initiated by a focused laser pulse, which is coaxial with a cylindrical DC microdischarge. This configuration results in double column pinch at early times, which at current rise evolves into a gas embedded compressional Z-pinch. Diagnostics used are Rogowski coil, single frame holographic interferometry, and holographic shadowgraphy, visible streak camera images from which current, density, line density, pinch radius and plasma motion are obtained. The pinch is characterized by a maximum on axis density which is much higher than the expected value from the filling pressure, with a Bennett temperature of 40 eV at 130 kA. The results shown confirm the high degree of compression achievable with the composite preionization scheme. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs

  20. Inversion methods for fast-ion velocity-space tomography in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Stagner, L.; Salewski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Velocity-space tomography has been used to infer 2D fast-ion velocity distribution functions. Here we compare the performance of five different tomographic inversion methods: truncated singular value decomposition, maximum entropy, minimum Fisher information and zeroth and first-order Tikhonov...... regularization. The inversion methods are applied to fast-ion Dα measurements taken just before and just after a sawtooth crash in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak as well as to synthetic measurements from different test distributions. We find that the methods regularizing by penalizing steep gradients or maximizing...... entropy perform best. We assess the uncertainty of the calculated inversions taking into account photon noise, uncertainties in the forward model as well as uncertainties introduced by the regularization which allows us to distinguish regions of high and low confidence in the tomographies. In high...

  1. Observations of electron phase-space holes driven during magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Porkolab, M.; Egedal, J.; Katz, N.; Le, A.

    2012-03-01

    This work presents detailed experimental observations of electron phase-space holes driven during magnetic reconnection events on the Versatile Toroidal Facility. The holes are observed to travel on the order of or faster than the electron thermal speed, and are of large size scale, with diameter of order 60 Debye lengths. In addition, they have 3D spheroidal structure with approximately unity aspect ratio. We estimate the direct anomalous resistivity due to ion interaction with the holes and find it to be too small to affect the reconnection rate; however, the holes may play a role in reining in a tail of accelerated electrons and they indicate the presence of other processes in the reconnection layer, such as electron energization and electron beam formation.

  2. Enhanced diffusion with abnormal temperature dependence in underdamped space-periodic systems subject to time-periodic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, I. G.; Marchenko, I. I.; Zhiglo, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in a one-dimensional symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic driving with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at an appropriate choice of the driving amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at the driving amplitudes exceeding a certain value. At any fixed driving frequency Ω normal temperature dependence of the diffusivity is restored at low enough temperatures, T oscillation frequency at the potential minimum, the diffusivity is shown to decrease with Ω according to a power law, with the exponent related to the transient superdiffusion exponent. This behavior is found similar for the cases of sinusoidal in time and piecewise constant periodic ("square") driving.

  3. Analysis of Waves in Space Plasma (WISP) near field simulation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, James E.

    1992-01-01

    The WISP payload scheduler for a 1995 space transportation system (shuttle flight) will include a large power transmitter on board at a wide range of frequencies. The levels of electromagnetic interference/electromagnetic compatibility (EMI/EMC) must be addressed to insure the safety of the shuttle crew. This report is concerned with the simulation and experimental verification of EMI/EMC for the WISP payload in the shuttle cargo bay. The simulations have been carried out using the method of moments for both thin wires and patches to stimulate closed solids. Data obtained from simulation is compared with experimental results. An investigation of the accuracy of the modeling approach is also included. The report begins with a description of the WISP experiment. A description of the model used to simulate the cargo bay follows. The results of the simulation are compared to experimental data on the input impedance of the WISP antenna with the cargo bay present. A discussion of the methods used to verify the accuracy of the model is shown to illustrate appropriate methods for obtaining this information. Finally, suggestions for future work are provided.

  4. Studies on waves and instabilities in a plasma sheath formed on the outer surface of a space craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aria, Anil K.; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2008-01-01

    Using the normal mode analysis, the number of possible modes is obtained in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma sheath formed during the motion of a space craft which consists of negative ions (due to dust) along with the positive ions and the isothermal electrons. In addition to three propagating modes with phase velocities λ 1 , λ 2 , and λ 3 such that λ 1 2 3 , two types of instabilities with growth rates γ 1 and γ 2 also occur in such a plasma sheath. The growth rate γ 1 is increased with the negative to positive ion density ratio r 0 , ion temperature T, and obliqueness θ of the magnetic field B 0 . The growth rate γ 2 of the other instability gets lower with the density ratio r 0 but gets higher with the temperature T. The growth rate γ 2 is sensitive to the temperature T, whereas the growth rate γ 1 gets prominently changed with the density ratio r 0 . The increase in the growth rate γ 1 with the obliqueness θ is more pronounced under the effect of stronger magnetic field. On other hand, the phase velocity λ 1 shows weak dependence on r 0 and T (though it gets larger) but it gets significantly changed (increased) for the larger obliqueness θ. The phase velocity λ 2 gets larger with r 0 , B 0 , and θ and becomes lower for the higher temperature T. The phase velocity λ 3 is decreased for the higher values of r 0 and B 0 and is increased for the larger values of T and θ

  5. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2...... was significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW

  6. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  7. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II+VII+X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Sixtus; Teisner, Ane; Jensen, Søren Astrup; Philips, Malou; Dalhoff, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences the accuracy of the plasma PT assay. The accuracy of Nycotest PT was studied using plasma added NAC in vitro and plasma from subjects infused with NAC. The latter results were compared with those obtained by analysis of PT by CoaguChek S. Therapeutic NAC concentrations added to plasma in vitro decreased factor II+VII+X activity at 37 degrees C in a time-dependent manner. This effect was quenched at temperatures depression of factor II+VII+X activity in plasma from subjects infused with NAC during the first 3h of infusion indicating that it contained reactive NAC. The risk that this NAC interfered with the accuracy of the PT assay was considered minimal with samples stored below 24 degrees C. This was supported by similarity of results obtained by analysis of appropriately stored plasma and simultaneously drawn blood by CoaguChek S. Residual reactive NAC does not interfere with the accuracy of the PT assay of plasma stored below 24 degrees C, but NAC-induced loss in activity at 37 degrees C may be partly recovered during subsequent storage below 24 degrees C.

  8. Electron velocity-space diffusion in a micro-unstable ECRH [electron cyclotron resonance heated] mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hokin, S.A.

    1987-09-01

    An experimental study of the velocity-space diffusion of electrons in an electron cyclotron resonance heated (ECRH) mirror plasma, in the presence of micro-unstable whistler rf emission, is presented. It is found that the dominant loss mechanism for hot electrons is endloss produced by rf diffusion into the mirror loss cone. In a standard case with 4.5 kW of ECRH power, this loss limits the stored energy to 120 J with an energy confinement time of 40 ms. The energy confinement time associated with collisional scattering is 350 ms in this case. Whistler microinstability rf produces up to 25% of the rf-induced loss. The hot electron temperature is not limited by loss of adiabaticity, but by rf-induced loss of high energy electrons, and decreases with increasing rf power in strong diffusion regimes. Collisional loss is in agreement with standard scattering theory. No super-adiabatic effects are clearly seen. Experiments in which the vacuum chamber walls are lined with microwave absorber reveal that single pass absorption is limited to less than 60%, whereas experiments with reflecting walls exhibit up to 90% absorption. Stronger diffusion is seen in the latter, with a hot electron heating rate which is twice that of the absorber experiments. This increase in diffusion can be produced by two distinct aspects of wall-reflected rf: the broader spatial rf profile, which enlarges the resonant region in velocity space, or a reduction in super-adiabatic effects due to randomization of the electron gyrophase. Since no other aspects of super-adiabaticity are observed, the first mechanism appears more likely. 39 refs., 54 figs

  9. Analysis of time- and space-resolved Na-, Ne-, and F-like emission from a laser-produced bromine plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, W.H.; Young, B.K.F.; Osterheld, A.L.; Stewart, R.E.; Walling, R.S.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in the efficiency and accuracy of computational atomic physics and collisional radiative modeling promise to place the analysis and diagnostic application of L-shell emission on a par with the simpler K-shell regime. Coincident improvements in spectroscopic plasma measurements yield optically thin emission spectra from small, homogeneous regions of plasma, localized both in space and time. Together, these developments can severely test models for high-density, high-temperature plasma formation and evolution, and non-LTE atomic kinetics. In this paper we present highly resolved measurements of n=3 to n=2 X-ray line emission from a laser-produced bromine micro plasma. The emission is both space- and time-resolved, allowing us to apply simple, steady-state, 0-dimensional spectroscopic models to the analysis. These relativistic, multi-configurational, distorted wave collisional-radiative models were created using the HULLAC atomic physics package. Using these models, we have analyzed the F-like, Ne-like and Na-like (satellite) spectra with respect to temperature, density and charge-state distribution. This procedure leads to a full characterization of the plasma conditions. 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. The effect of casein, hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins on urinary and postprandial plasma metabolites in overweight and moderately obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Mette S; Bendtsen, Line Quist; Gomes, Sisse

    2018-01-01

    , hydrolyzed casein and whey proteins in overweight and moderately obese men and women by investigating select urinary and blood plasma metabolites. RESULTS: A total of 21 urinary and 23 plasma metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy. The postprandial plasma metabolites revealed a significant diet...

  11. Analysis of Magnetic Nozzles For Space Plasma Thrusters = Análisis de Toberas Magnéticas para Motores Espaciales de Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Martínez, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta un análisis teórico del funcionamiento de toberas magnéticas para la propulsión espacial por plasmas. El estudio está basado en un modelo tridimensional y bi-fluido de la expansión supersónica de un plasma caliente en un campo magnético divergente. El modelo básico es ampliado progresivamente con la inclusión de términos convectivos dominantes de electrones, el campo magnético inducido por el plasma, poblaciones electrónicas múltiples a distintas temperaturas, y la capacid...

  12. Space-time evolution of the power absorbed by creating and heating a hydrogen plasma column by a pulsed laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincosy, Philip; Dufresne, Daniel; Bournot, Philippe; Caressa, J.-P.; Autric, Michel

    1976-01-01

    Space-time measurements of light intensity are presented for the analysis of the processes involved in the creation and heating of an under-dense hydrogen plasma column by a pulsed CO 2 laser beam. The laser beam trapping due to the rapid development of a radial electron density gradient is specifically demonstrated. Time measurements of the changes in the laser power longitudinally transmitted through the plasma give evidence for a significant absorption of the incident power during the first 150 nanoseconds of the interaction [fr

  13. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m 2 ) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the kidney function parameters glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow with dynamic FDG-PET/MRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Barbara K; Baltzer, Pascal; Fueger, Barbara; Hamboeck, Martina; Nakuz, Thomas; Papp, Laszlo; Rasul, Sazan; Sundar, Lalith Kumar Shiyam; Hacker, Marcus; Staudenherz, Anton

    2018-05-09

    A method was developed to assess the kidney parameters glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) from 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) concentration behavior in kidneys, measured with positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Twenty-four healthy adult subjects prospectively underwent dynamic simultaneous PET/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination. Time activity curves (TACs) were obtained from the dynamic PET series, with the guidance of MR information. Patlak analysis was performed to determine the GFR, and based on integrals, ERPF was calculated. Results were compared to intra-individually obtained reference values determined from venous blood samples. Total kidney GFR and ERPF as estimated by dynamic PET/MRI were highly correlated to their reference values (r = 0.88/p dynamic FDG PET/MRI scans in healthy kidneys. This has advantages for patients getting a routine scan, where additional examinations for kidney function estimation could be avoided. Further studies are required for transferring this PET/MRI method to PET/CT applications.

  15. Plasma turbulence at ion scales: a comparison between particle in cell and Eulerian hybrid-kinetic approaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cerri, S.S.; Franci, L.; Califano, F.; Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2017), 705830202/1-705830202/19 ISSN 0022-3778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10057S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : astrophysical plasmas * magnetized plasmas * space plasma physics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2016

  16. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  18. Consumption of strawberries on a daily basis increases the non-urate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of fasting plasma in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Krol, Maciej; Nowak, Michal; de Graft-Johnson, Jeffrey; Padula, Gianluca; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.; Nowak, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Strawberries contain anthocyanins and ellagitanins which have antioxidant properties. We determined whether the consumption of strawberries increase the plasma antioxidant activity measured as the ability to decompose 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in healthy subjects. The study involved 10 volunteers (age 41 ± 6 years, body weight 74.4 ± 12.7 kg) that consumed 500 g of strawberries daily for 9 days and 7 matched controls. Fasting plasma and spot morning urine samples were collected at baseline, during fruit consumption and after a 6 day wash-out period. DPPH decomposition was measured in both deproteinized native plasma specimens and pretreated with uricase (non-urate plasma). Twelve phenolics were determined with HPLC. Strawberries had no effect on the antioxidant activity of native plasma and circulating phenolics. Non-urate plasma DPPH decomposition increased from 5.7 ± 0.6% to 6.6 ± 0.6%, 6.5 ± 1.0% and 6.3 ± 1.4% after 3, 6 and 9 days of supplementation, respectively. The wash-out period reversed this activity back to 5.7 ± 0.8% (p<0.01). Control subjects did not reveal any changes of plasma antioxidant activity. Significant increase in urinary urolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric (by 8.7- and 5.9-times after 6 days of supplementation with fruits) was noted. Strawberry consumption can increase the non-urate plasma antioxidant activity which, in turn, may decrease the risk of systemic oxidants overactivity. PMID:25120279

  19. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  20. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  1. Far-field dynamic behavior of a half-space under an inertial strip foundation subjected to a time-harmonic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dehestani

    Full Text Available Recent research works demonstrated that the interaction between the loads and the carrying structure's boundary which is related to the inertia of the load is an influential factor on the dynamic response of the structure. Although effects of the inertia in moving loads were considered in many works, very few papers can be found on the inertial effects of the stationary loads on structures. In this paper, an elastodynamic formulation was employed to investigate the dynamic response of a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space under an inertial strip foundation subjected to a time-harmonic force. Fourier integral transformation was used to solve the system of Poisson-type partial differential equation considering the boundary conditions and the inertial effects. Steepest descent method was employed to obtain the approximate far-field displacements and stresses. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the methodology and typical results.

  2. Fourth Latin-American workshop on plasma physics. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of this series of Workshops is to provide a periodic meeting place for Latin-American researchers in plasma physics together with colleagues from other countries around the world. This volume includes the contributed papers presented at the Workshop on Plasma Physics held in Buenos Aires in 1990. The scope of the Workshop can be synthesized in the following main subjects: Tokamak experiments and theory; alternative confinement systems and basic experiments; technology and applications; general theory; astrophysical and space plasmas

  3. Framework of the parametric instabilities in the presence of space-time fluctuations in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasma. II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.

    1989-01-01

    Based on the formalism developed in another paper [Phys. Fluids 31, 3362 (1988)], three analytical results are obtained relating to (1) a WKB type of equation in inhomogeneous plasma, (2) the Raman process at (1/4) n/sub c/, and (3) two plasma decay processes at (1/4) n/sub c/. Interesting scaling results are found

  4. The coffee diterpene cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate of large VLDL apolipoprotein B in healthy normolipidemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de B.; Caslake, M.J.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Bedford, D.; Demacker, P.N.; Katan, M.B.; Packard, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Cafestol is a diterpene in unfiltered coffee that raises plasma triacylglycerol in humans. Objective: We studied whether cafestol increases plasma triacylglycerol by increasing the production rate or by decreasing the fractional catabolic rate of VLDL1 [Svedberg flotation unit (Sf)

  5. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance.

  6. Proceedings of the thirtieth national symposium on plasma science and technology: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The topics covered in this symposium are: basic plasma, nuclear fusion, industrial plasma/plasma processing, space plasma and astrophysical plasma, laser plasma, exotic plasma, plasma diagnostics, computer modeling and other areas. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. From particles to plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dam, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The title of this book, From Particles to Plasmas, has more than one meaning. First, it reflects how the scientific career of Marshall Rosenbluth has evolved, beginning in the field of elementary particle physics and extending into his major area of plasma physics. Secondly, it is meant to suggest the wide spectrum of subject matters addressed in the individual lectures, ranging from numerical simulation and space physics and accelerators to various subfields in the physics of plasmas. In the third place, the title is a reference to the way in which the theoretical description of plasmas is often constructed, namely starting from the motion of single particles and then incorporating collective effects. Most of the contributions in this book do concern various aspects of fusion plasma physics, which is the field in which most of Marshall Rosenbluth's scientific contributions have been and are being made. In this field his eminence and authority are indicated by the sobriquet pope of plasma physics that is often applied to him

  8. A numerical model of the electrodynamics of plasma within the contaminant gas cloud of the space shuttle orbiter at low Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, J.V.; Raitt, W.J.; Banks, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results from a two-dimensional, finite-difference model used to solve for the time evolution of low beta plasma within the neutral contaminant cloud in the vicinity of space platforms in low earth orbit. The model of the ambient and contaminant plasma dynamics takes into account the effects of the geomagnetic field, electric fields, background ionosphere, ion-neutral collisions, chemistry, and both Pederson and Hall currents. Net ionization and charge exchange source terms are included in the fluid equations to study electrodynamic effects of chemistry within a moving neutral cloud in the low earth orbit ionosphere. The model is then used with complete water cloud chemistry to simulate the known outgassing situation of the space shuttle Orbiter. A comparison is made of the model results with plasma observations made during daytime on OSS-1/STS-3 mission. The reported density enhancements of the OSS-1 mission are unattainable with normal photoionization and charge exchange rates of simple water cloud chemistry used in the two-dimensional model. The enhanced densities are only attained by a generic chemistry model if a net ionization rate 1,000 times higher than the photoionization rate of water is used. It is also shown that significant plasma buildup at the front of the contaminant neutral cloud can occur due to momentum transfer from the neutral outgas cloud to the plasma through elastic collisions and charge exchange. The currents caused by elastic and reactive collisions result in the generation of a small polarization electric field within the outgas cloud

  9. Progranulin plasma levels predict the presence of GRN mutations in asymptomatic subjects and do not correlate with brain atrophy: results from the GENFI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Daniela; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Fenoglio, Chiara; Cioffi, Sara M G; Arighi, Andrea; Serpente, Maria; Borroni, Barbara; Padovani, Alessandro; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Masellis, Mario; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela; van Swieten, John; Meeter, Lieke; Graff, Caroline; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Bocchetta, Martina; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Scarpini, Elio

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether progranulin plasma levels are predictors of the presence of progranulin gene (GRN) null mutations or of the development of symptoms in asymptomatic at risk members participating in the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative, including 19 patients, 64 asymptomatic carriers, and 77 noncarriers. In addition, we evaluated a possible role of TMEM106B rs1990622 as a genetic modifier and correlated progranulin plasma levels and gray-matter atrophy. Plasma progranulin mean ± SD plasma levels in patients and asymptomatic carriers were significantly decreased compared with noncarriers (30.5 ± 13.0 and 27.7 ± 7.5 versus 99.6 ± 24.8 ng/mL, p 61.55 ng/mL, the test had a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 97.5% in predicting the presence of a mutation, independent of symptoms. No correlations were found between progranulin plasma levels and age, years from average age at onset in each family, or TMEM106B rs1990622 genotype (p > 0.05). Plasma progranulin levels did not correlate with brain atrophy. Plasma progranulin levels predict the presence of GRN null mutations independent of proximity to symptoms and brain atrophy. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  11. Real time three-dimensional space video rate sensors for millimeter waves imaging based very inexpensive plasma LED lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Assaf; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Kopeika, Natan S.; Rozban, Daniel; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has been invested to develop inexpensive but sensitive Millimeter Wave (MMW) detectors that can be used in focal plane arrays (FPAs), in order to implement real time MMW imaging. Real time MMW imaging systems are required for many varied applications in many fields as homeland security, medicine, communications, military products and space technology. It is mainly because this radiation has high penetration and good navigability through dust storm, fog, heavy rain, dielectric materials, biological tissue, and diverse materials. Moreover, the atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low and the scattering is also low compared to NIR and VIS. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to provide a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. In last few years we advanced in research and development of sensors using very inexpensive (30-50 cents) Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) plasma indicator lamps as MMW detectors. This paper presents three kinds of GDD sensor based lamp Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). Those three kinds of cameras are different in the number of detectors, scanning operation, and detection method. The 1st and 2nd generations are 8 × 8 pixel array and an 18 × 2 mono-rail scanner array respectively, both of them for direct detection and limited to fixed imaging. The last designed sensor is a multiplexing frame rate of 16x16 GDD FPA. It permits real time video rate imaging of 30 frames/ sec and comprehensive 3D MMW imaging. The principle of detection in this sensor is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) system while each of the 16 GDD pixel lines is sampled simultaneously. Direct detection is also possible and can be done with a friendly user interface. This FPA sensor is built over 256 commercial GDD lamps with 3 mm diameter International Light, Inc., Peabody, MA model 527 Ne indicator lamps as pixel detectors. All three sensors are fully supported

  12. Final Report for Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER54706 ''Support for the 7th Workshop on The Interrelationship between Plasma Experiment in Laboratory and Space''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Kletzing

    2005-01-01

    We describe the support given to support the 7th IPELS meeting which brings together space and laboratory based physicists. The meeting was a great success with more than 80 attendees and a significant number of young scientists. The major topics of discussion were magnetic reconnection, plasma turbulence, and waves in plasmas

  13. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Denig, W. F.; Anderson, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon.

  14. Transient effects in beam-plasma interactions in a space simulation chamber stimulated by a fast pulse electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitt, W.J.; Banks, P.M.

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon. 5 references

  15. Abstracts of the 6. Brazilian meeting on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on the following subjects: plasma, ionized gases, plasma waves and instability, plasma diagnostic and heating, probes, magnetic confinements and plasma instability

  16. The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of dietary protein and potassium to predict markers of bone metabolism. DESIGN: In the first study, 8 pairs of male identical twins were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, or SED, group) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower-body negative pressure chamber (EX group). In a second study, groups of 4 subjects lived in a closed chamber for 60 or 91 d, and dietary data were collected for two or three 5-d sessions. Urinary calcium, N-telopeptide, and pyridinium cross-links were measured before bed rest; on bed rest days 5-6, 12-13, 19-20, and 26-27; and daily during the chamber studies. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation (P animal protein intake to potassium intake was significantly correlated with N-telopeptide in the SED group during bed rest weeks 3 and 4 (r = 0.77 and 0.80) and during the 91-d chamber study (r = 0.75). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was positively correlated with pyridinium cross-links before bed rest in the EX group (r = 0.83), in the EX group during bed rest week 1 (r = 0.84), and in the SED group during bed rest week 2 (r = 0.72) but not during either chamber study. In both studies, these relations were not significant with the ratio of vegetable protein intake to potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake may affect bone in ambulatory and bed-rest subjects. Changing this ratio may help to prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  17. Development of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics for the free electron density of laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, M.; Frank, A.; Pelka, A.; Schaumann, G.; Schoekel, A.; Schumacher, D.; Roth, M.; Fils, J.; Blazevic, A.; Hessling, T.; Basko, M. M.; Maruhn, J.; Tauschwitz, An.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the development and set-up of a Nomarski-type multi-frame interferometer as a time and space resolving diagnostics of the free electron density in laser-generated plasma. The interferometer allows the recording of a series of 4 images within 6 ns of a single laser-plasma interaction. For the setup presented here, the minimal accessible free electron density is 5 x 10 18 cm -3 , the maximal one is 2 x 10 20 cm -3 . Furthermore, it provides a resolution of the electron density in space of 50 μm and in time of 0.5 ns for one image with a customizable magnification in space for each of the 4 images. The electron density was evaluated from the interferograms using an Abel inversion algorithm. The functionality of the system was proven during first experiments and the experimental results are presented and discussed. A ray tracing procedure was realized to verify the interferometry pictures taken. In particular, the experimental results are compared to simulations and show excellent agreement, providing a conclusive picture of the evolution of the electron density distribution.

  18. Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel synthesis through transesterification of soybean oil with methanol on hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor over sulphated zinc oxide (SO42-/ZnO active acid catalyst was investigated. This research was aimed to study effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity (WHSV and the catalyst diameter on performance of the hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor for biodiesel synthesis. The amount (20.2 g of active sulphated zinc oxide solid acid catalysts was loaded into discharge zone of the reactor. The WHSV and the catalyst diameter were varied between 0.89 to 1.55 min-1 and 3, 5, and 7 mm, respectively. The molar ratio of methanol to oil as reactants of 15:1 is fed to the reactor, while operating condition of the reactor was kept at reaction temperature of 65 oC and ambient pressure. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME component in biodiesel product was identified by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that the FAME yield decreases with increasing WHSV. It was found that the optimum FAME yield was achieved of 56.91 % at WHSV of 0.89 min-1 and catalyst diameter of 5 mm and reaction time of 1.25 min. It can be concluded that the biodiesel synthesis using the hybrid catalytic-plasma reactor system exhibited promising the FAME yield. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 15th November 2016; Revised: 24th December 2016; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Buchori, L., Istadi, I., Purwanto, P. (2017. Effects of Weight Hourly Space Velocity and Catalyst Diameter on Performance of Hybrid Catalytic-Plasma Reactor for Biodiesel Synthesis over Sulphated Zinc Oxide Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 227-234 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.775.227-234 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.775.227-234

  19. Study of nonlinear electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar space plasma with superthermal hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jiu-Ning, E-mail: hanjiuning@126.com; He, Yong-Lin; Luo, Jun-Hua; Nan, Ya-Gong; Han, Zhen-Hai; Dong, Guang-Xing [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China); Duan, Wen-Shan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Li, Jun-Xiu [College of Civil Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)

    2014-01-15

    With the consideration of the superthermal electron distribution, we present a theoretical investigation about the nonlinear propagation of electron-acoustic solitary and shock waves in a dissipative, nonplanar non-Maxwellian plasma comprised of cold electrons, superthermal hot electrons, and stationary ions. The reductive perturbation technique is used to obtain a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation for nonlinear waves in this plasma. We discuss the effects of various plasma parameters on the time evolution of nonplanar solitary waves, the profile of shock waves, and the nonlinear structure induced by the collision between planar solitary waves. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the properties of nonlinear waves and collision-induced nonlinear structure.

  20. Space and phase resolved ion energy and angular distributions in single- and dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122 (United States); Moore, Nathaniel; Pribyl, Patrick; Gekelman, Walter [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The control of ion energy and angular distributions (IEADs) is critically important for anisotropic etching or deposition in microelectronic fabrication processes. With single frequency capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), the narrowing in angle and spread in energy of ions as they cross the sheath are definable functions of frequency, sheath width, and mean free path. With increases in wafer size, single frequency CCPs are finding difficulty in meeting the requirement of simultaneously controlling plasma densities, ion fluxes, and ion energies. Dual-frequency CCPs are being investigated to provide this flexible control. The high frequency (HF) is intended to control the plasma density and ion fluxes, while the ion energies are intended to be controlled by the low frequency (LF). However, recent research has shown that the LF can also influence the magnitude of ion fluxes and that IEADs are determined by both frequencies. Hence, separate control of fluxes and IEADs is complex. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar/O{sub 2} plasma properties in an industrial reactor are discussed. The IEADs are tracked as a function of height above the substrate and phase within the rf cycles from the bulk plasma to the presheath and through the sheath with the goal of providing insights to this complexity. Comparison is made to laser-induced fluorescence experiments. The authors found that the ratios of HF/LF voltage and driving frequency are critical parameters in determining the shape of the IEADs, both during the transit of the ion through the sheath and when ions are incident onto the substrate. To the degree that contributions from the HF can modify plasma density, sheath potential, and sheath thickness, this may provide additional control for the IEADs.

  1. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  2. Collective effects in spin polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Cowley, S.; Detragiache, P.; Kulsrud, R.; Pegoraro, F.

    1984-10-01

    A fusing plasma with coherently polarized spin nuclei can be subject to instabilities due to the anisotropy of the reaction product distributions in velocity space, which is a result of their polarization. The characteristics of these instabilities depend strongly on the plasma spatial inhomogeneities and a significant rate of spin depolarization can be produced by them if adequate fluctuation amplitudes are reached. The results of the relevant analysis are, in addition, of interest for plasma heating processes with frequencies in the range of the cyclotron frequencies of the considered nuclei

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  4. Computer experiments on dynamical cloud and space time fluctuations in one-dimensional meta-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouet, J.L.; Feix, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The test particle picture is a central theory of weakly correlated plasma. While experiments and computer experiments have confirmed the validity of this theory at thermal equilibrium, the extension to meta-equilibrium distributions presents interesting and intriguing points connected to the under or over-population of the tail of these distributions (high velocity) which have not yet been tested. Moreover, the general dynamical Debye cloud (which is a generalization of the static Debye cloud supposing a plasma at thermal equilibrium and a test particle of zero velocity) for any test particle velocity and three typical velocity distributions (equilibrium plus two meta-equilibriums) are presented. The simulations deal with a one-dimensional two-component plasma and, moreover, the relevance of the check for real three-dimensional plasma is outlined. Two kinds of results are presented: the dynamical cloud itself and the more usual density (or energy) fluctuation spectrums. Special attention is paid to the behavior of long wavelengths which needs long systems with very small graininess effects and, consequently, sizable computation efforts. Finally, the divergence or absence of energy in the small wave numbers connected to the excess or lack of fast particles of the two above mentioned meta-equilibrium is exhibited. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Characteristics and performance of the variable polarity plasma arc welding process used in the Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Liu, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    Significant advantages of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process include faster welding, fewer repairs, less joint preparation, reduced weldment distortion, and absence of porosity. Flow profiles and power distribution of argon plasma gas as a working fluid to produce plasma arc jet in the VPPA welding process was analyzed. Major loss of heat transfer for flow through the nozzle is convective heat transfer; for the plasma jet flow between the outlet of the nozzle and workpiece is radiative heat transfer; and for the flow through the keyhole of the workpiece is convective heat transfer. The majority of the power absorbed by the keyhole of the workpiece is used for melting the solid metal workpiece into a molten metallic puddle. The crown and root widths and the crown and root heights can be predicted. An algorithm for promoting automatic control of flow parameters and the dimensions of the final product of the welding specification to be used for the VPPA Welding System operated at MSFC are provided.

  6. The dynamic changes of the plasma membrane proteins and the protective roles of nitric oxide in rice subjected to heavy metal cadmium stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heavy metal cadmium is a common environmental contaminant in soils and has adverse effects on crop growth and development. The signaling processes in plants that initiate cellular responses to environmental stress have been shown to be located in the plasma membrane (PM). A better understanding ...

  7. Progranulin plasma levels predict the presence of GRN mutations in asymptomatic subjects and do not correlate with brain atrophy: Results from the GENFI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Galimberti (Daniela); Fumagalli, G.G. (Giorgio G.); C. Fenoglio (Chiara); Cioffi, S.M.G. (Sara M.G.); A. Arighi (Andrea); M. Serpente (Maria); B. Borroni (Barbara); A. Padovani (Alessandro); F. Tagliavini (Fabrizio); M. Masellis (Mario); M.C. Tartaglia (Maria Carmela); J.C. van Swieten (John); L.H.H. Meeter (Lieke H.H.); C. Graff (Caroline); A. De Mendonça (Alexandre); M. Bocchetta (Martina); J.D. Rohrer (Jonathan Daniel); Scarpini, E. (Elio)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated whether progranulin plasma levels are predictors of the presence of progranulin gene (GRN) null mutations or of the development of symptoms in asymptomatic at risk members participating in the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative, including 19 patients, 64

  8. Carotid intima media thickness is associated with plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) mass in nondiabetic subjects but not in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Alexander; van Pelt, L. Joost; van Leeuwen, Jeroen J. J.; de Vries, Rindert; Tio, Rene A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background A recent meta-analysis showed that both plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) mass and activity independently predict cardiovascular events. Notably, Lp-PLA(2) activity but not mass was found to be a determinant of cardiovascular outcome in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Zank, Gary P

    2014-01-01

    Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...

  10. Modeling to study the role of catalyst in the formation of graphitic shells during carbon nanofiber growth subjected to reactive plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Gupta, Neha; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2018-04-01

    An analytical model to study the role of a metal catalyst nanofilm in the nucleation, growth, and resulting structure of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in low-temperature hydrogen diluted acetylene plasma has been developed. The model incorporates the nanostructuring of thin catalyst films, growth of CNF, restructuring of catalyst nanoparticles during growth, and its repercussion on the resulting structure (alignment of rolled graphene sheets around catalyst nanoparticles) by taking into account the plasma sheath formalization, kinetics of neutrals and positively charged species in the reactive plasma, flux of plasma species onto the catalyst front surface, and numerous surface reactions for carbon generation. In order to examine the influence of the catalyst film on the growth of CNFs, the numerical solutions of the model equations have been obtained for experimentally determined initial conditions and glow discharge plasma parameters. From the solutions obtained, we found that nanostructuring of thin films leads to the formation of small nanoparticles with high surface number density. The CNF nucleates over these small-sized nanoparticles grow faster and attain early saturation because of the quick poisoning of small-sized catalyst particles, and contain only a few graphitic shells. However, thick nanofilms result in shorter CNFs with large diameters composed of many graphitic shells. Moreover, we found that the inclination of graphitic shells also depends on the extent up to which the catalyst can reconstruct itself during the growth. The small nanoparticles show much greater elongation along the growth axis and also show a very small difference between their tip and base diameter during the growth due to which graphitic shells align at very small angles as compared to the larger nanoparticles. The present study is useful to synthesize the thin and more extended CNFs/CNTs having a smaller opening angle (inclination angle of graphene layers) as the opening angle has a

  11. Transfer functions of laminar premixed flames subjected to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and non-thermal plasma discharges

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna; Xiong, Yuan; Moeck, Jonas P.; Chung, Suk-Ho; Roberts, William L.; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.

  12. Transfer functions of laminar premixed flames subjected to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and non-thermal plasma discharges

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2016-06-23

    The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.

  13. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.

    Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  14. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  15. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl'nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  16. D-serine plasma concentration is a potential biomarker of (R,S)-ketamine antidepressant response in subjects with treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Luckenbaugh, David A; Xie, Ying; Villaseñor, Alma; Brutsche, Nancy E; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Lorenzo, Maria Paz; Garcia, Antonia; Bernier, Michel; Torjman, Marc C; Barbas, Coral; Zarate, Carlos A; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    (R,S)-ketamine is a rapid and effective antidepressant drug that produces a response in two thirds of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The underlying biochemical differences between a (R,S)-ketamine responder (KET-R) and non-responder (KET-NR) have not been definitively identified but may involve serine metabolism. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between baseline plasma concentrations of D-serine and its precursor L-serine and antidepressant response to (R,S)-ketamine in TRD patients. Plasma samples were obtained from 21 TRD patients at baseline, 60 min before initiation of the (R,S)-ketamine infusion. Patients were classified as KET-Rs (n = 8) or KET-NRs (n = 13) based upon the difference in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores at baseline and 230 min after infusion, with response defined as a ≥50 % decrease in MADRS score. The plasma concentrations of D-serine and L-serine were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs (3.02 ± 0.21 μM) than in KET-NRs (4.68 ± 0.81 μM), p < 0.001. A significant relationship between baseline D-serine plasma concentrations and percent change in MADRS at 230 min was determined using a Pearson correlation, r = 0.77, p < 0.001, with baseline D-serine explaining 60 % of the variance in (R,S)-ketamine response. The baseline concentrations of L-serine (L-Ser) in KET-Rs were also significantly lower than those measured in KET-NRs (66.2 ± 9.6 μM vs 242.9 ± 5.6 μM, respectively; p < 0.0001). The results demonstrate that the baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs than in KET-NRs and suggest that this variable can be used to predict an antidepressant response following (R,S)-ketamine administration.

  17. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, D; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at