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Sample records for space industry input-output

  1. Impact of the Smart City Industry on the Korean National Economy: Input-Output Analysis

    Kyunam Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the smart city industry and its effects on the national economy of Korea are investigated using input-output analysis. The definition and industrial classification of a smart city are established using the Delphi technique for experts in various fields, from information and communication technologies (ICT to governmental policies for urban matters. The results of the analysis, including the production, value added and employment induction effects, show that the smart city industry has intermediate characteristics between ICT and urban construction industries, indicating that acquisition of the competitive edge of both the ICT and construction industries is the key to the success of the smart city industry. The crucial industries related to the smart city industry are identified based on an analysis of the forward and backward linkage effects, the results of which suggest the importance of the relevant service industries. The economic effects on the national economy induced by the governmental program for smart city demonstration are estimated using input-output analysis results. Overall, the results of this study indicate that facilitation of the smart city industry plays a key role not only in the sustainable city, but also in the growth of the national economy.

  2. Development of algorithm for depreciation costs allocation in dynamic input-output industrial enterprise model

    Keller Alevtina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of allocation of depreciation costs in the dynamic inputoutput model of an industrial enterprise. Accounting the depreciation costs in such a model improves the policy of fixed assets management. It is particularly relevant to develop the algorithm for the allocation of depreciation costs in the construction of dynamic input-output model of an industrial enterprise, since such enterprises have a significant amount of fixed assets. Implementation of terms of the adequacy of such an algorithm itself allows: evaluating the appropriateness of investments in fixed assets, studying the final financial results of an industrial enterprise, depending on management decisions in the depreciation policy. It is necessary to note that the model in question for the enterprise is always degenerate. It is caused by the presence of zero rows in the matrix of capital expenditures by lines of structural elements unable to generate fixed assets (part of the service units, households, corporate consumers. The paper presents the algorithm for the allocation of depreciation costs for the model. This algorithm was developed by the authors and served as the basis for further development of the flowchart for subsequent implementation with use of software. The construction of such algorithm and its use for dynamic input-output models of industrial enterprises is actualized by international acceptance of the effectiveness of the use of input-output models for national and regional economic systems. This is what allows us to consider that the solutions discussed in the article are of interest to economists of various industrial enterprises.

  3. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    Lixon, Benoit; Thomassin, Paul J.; Hamaide, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  4. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  5. Global industrial impact coefficient based on random walk process and inter-country input-output table

    Xing, Lizhi; Dong, Xianlei; Guan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Input-output table is very comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with lots of economic relationships, which contains supply and demand information among industrial sectors. The complex network, a theory and method for measuring the structure of complex system, can describe the structural characteristics of the internal structure of the research object by measuring the structural indicators of the social and economic system, revealing the complex relationship between the inner hierarchy and the external economic function. This paper builds up GIVCN-WIOT models based on World Input-Output Database in order to depict the topological structure of Global Value Chain (GVC), and assumes the competitive advantage of nations is equal to the overall performance of its domestic sectors' impact on the GVC. Under the perspective of econophysics, Global Industrial Impact Coefficient (GIIC) is proposed to measure the national competitiveness in gaining information superiority and intermediate interests. Analysis of GIVCN-WIOT models yields several insights including the following: (1) sectors with higher Random Walk Centrality contribute more to transmitting value streams within the global economic system; (2) Half-Value Ratio can be used to measure robustness of open-economy macroeconomics in the process of globalization; (3) the positive correlation between GIIC and GDP indicates that one country's global industrial impact could reveal its international competitive advantage.

  6. Industrial and ecological cumulative exergy consumption of the United States via the 1997 input-output benchmark model

    Ukidwe, Nandan U.; Bakshi, Bhavik R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a thermodynamic input-output (TIO) model of the 1997 United States economy that accounts for the flow of cumulative exergy in the 488-sector benchmark economic input-output model in two different ways. Industrial cumulative exergy consumption (ICEC) captures the exergy of all natural resources consumed directly and indirectly by each economic sector, while ecological cumulative exergy consumption (ECEC) also accounts for the exergy consumed in ecological systems for producing each natural resource. Information about exergy consumed in nature is obtained from the thermodynamics of biogeochemical cycles. As used in this work, ECEC is analogous to the concept of emergy, but does not rely on any of its controversial claims. The TIO model can also account for emissions from each sector and their impact and the role of labor. The use of consistent exergetic units permits the combination of various streams to define aggregate metrics that may provide insight into aspects related to the impact of economic sectors on the environment. Accounting for the contribution of natural capital by ECEC has been claimed to permit better representation of the quality of ecosystem goods and services than ICEC. The results of this work are expected to permit evaluation of these claims. If validated, this work is expected to lay the foundation for thermodynamic life cycle assessment, particularly of emerging technologies and with limited information

  7. Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects by supply-driven input-output model: A case study of Taiwan's industry

    Wu, Kuei-Yen; Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Fu, Szu-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Most existing literature focuses on the direct rebound effect on the demand side for consumers. This study analyses direct and indirect rebound effects in Taiwan's industry from the perspective of producers. However, most studies on the producers' viewpoint may overlook inter-industry linkages. This study applies a supply-driven input-output model to quantify the magnitude of rebound effects by explicitly considering inter-industry linkages. Empirical results showed that total rebound effects for most Taiwan's sectors were less than 10% in 2011. A comparison among the sectors yields that sectors with lower energy efficiency had higher direct rebound effects, while sectors with higher forward linkages generated higher indirect rebound effects. Taking the Mining sector (S3) as an example, which is an upstream supplier and has high forward linkages; it showed high indirect rebound effects that are derived from the accumulation of additional energy consumption by its downstream producers. The findings also showed that in almost all sectors, indirect rebound effects were higher than direct rebound effects. In other words, if indirect rebound effects are neglected, the total rebound effects will be underestimated. Hence, the energy-saving potential may be overestimated. - Highlights: • This study quantifies rebound effects by a supply-driven input-output model. • For most Taiwan's sectors, total rebound magnitudes were less than 10% in 2011. • Direct rebound effects and energy efficiency were inverse correlation. • Indirect rebound effects and industrial forward linkages were positive correlation. • Indirect rebound effects were generally higher than direct rebound effects.

  8. Input-output supervisor

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  9. Comprehensive evaluation of industrial CO{sub 2} emission (1989-2004) in Taiwan by input-output structural decomposition

    Chang, Yih F. [Department of Tourism and Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (China); Lewis, Charles [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Lin, Sue J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Taiwan currently emits approximately 1% of the world's CO{sub 2} - ranking it 22nd among nations. Herein, we use the input-output (I-O) structural decomposition method to examine the changes in CO{sub 2} emission over a 15-year period. By decomposing the CO{sub 2} emission changes into nine factors for the periods of 1989-1994, 1994-1999, and 1999-2004, we have identified the key factors causing the emission changes, as well as the most important trends regarding the industrial development process in Taiwan. The 5-year increment with the largest increase of CO{sub 2} emission was that of 1999-2004, due to the rapid increase of electricity consumption. From the decomposition, the industrial energy coefficient and the CO{sub 2} emission factors were identified as the most important parameters for the determination of the highway, petrochemical materials, iron and steel, the commercial sector, and electric machinery as the major sources of increased CO{sub 2} emission during the past 15 years. From 1989 to 2004, the level of exports and the level of domestic final demand were the largest contributors to the increase in the total increment of CO{sub 2} change. During 1989-2004, the industrial energy coefficient and CO{sub 2} emission factors, being minimally significant during 1989-1994, became extremely important, joining the domestic final demand and the level of exports factors as the major causes of the increase increment of CO{sub 2}. This indicates a heavy reliance upon high-energy (and CO{sub 2}) intensity for Taiwanese industries; therefore, continuous efforts to improve energy intensity and fuel mix toward lower carbon are important for CO{sub 2} reduction, especially for the electricity and power generation sectors. Relevant strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from major industries are also highlighted. (author)

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of industrial CO2 emission (1989-2004) in Taiwan by input-output structural decomposition

    Chang, Yih F.; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Sue J.

    2008-01-01

    Taiwan currently emits approximately 1% of the world's CO 2 - ranking it 22nd among nations. Herein, we use the input-output (I-O) structural decomposition method to examine the changes in CO 2 emission over a 15-year period. By decomposing the CO 2 emission changes into nine factors for the periods of 1989-1994, 1994-1999, and 1999-2004, we have identified the key factors causing the emission changes, as well as the most important trends regarding the industrial development process in Taiwan. The 5-year increment with the largest increase of CO 2 emission was that of 1999-2004, due to the rapid increase of electricity consumption. From the decomposition, the industrial energy coefficient and the CO 2 emission factors were identified as the most important parameters for the determination of the highway, petrochemical materials, iron and steel, the commercial sector, and electric machinery as the major sources of increased CO 2 emission during the past 15 years. From 1989 to 2004, the level of exports and the level of domestic final demand were the largest contributors to the increase in the total increment of CO 2 change. During 1989-2004, the industrial energy coefficient and CO 2 emission factors, being minimally significant during 1989-1994, became extremely important, joining the domestic final demand and the level of exports factors as the major causes of the increase increment of CO 2 . This indicates a heavy reliance upon high-energy (and CO 2 ) intensity for Taiwanese industries; therefore, continuous efforts to improve energy intensity and fuel mix toward lower carbon are important for CO 2 reduction, especially for the electricity and power generation sectors. Relevant strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from major industries are also highlighted. (author)

  11. World Input-Output Network.

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  12. Economic interrelationships and impacts of the aviation/aerospace industry in the state of Florida using input-output analysis

    Whealan George, Kelly

    The study provided a detailed description of the interrelatedness of the aviation and aerospace industry with principal industries in Florida and Volusia County (VC) using Input-Output (IO) analysis. Additionally, this research provided an economic impact analysis of the creation of a university research park in Daytona Beach (DB). The economic impact measures included not only direct economic output and industry employment descriptions but also described the multiplier effects in the form of indirect and induced impacts using data for 2012. This research concluded the average labor income of the aviation and aerospace industry was higher than average labor income in Florida and VC. A substantive difference between the Florida and VC average labor income for the aviation and aerospace industry existed because VC's aerospace sector was only concentrated in the search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing sector. VC's transport by air sector was one-fifth the size of Florida's. Differences in the aviation and aerospace industry composition between Florida and VC are important because the economic impacts from a shock to the entire aviation and aerospace industry will be distributed differently. Since the aviation and aerospace average labor income is higher than the average labor income in Florida and VC, it would be a positive move for Florida's economy to attract and grow the aviation and aerospace industry. It would be highly unlikely that the entirety of newly created jobs would be resourced from the local population. Nonetheless, growing the aviation and aerospace industry jobs would have a positive influence on the region's economy and tax revenues. It would be a desirable course of action to spur the growth of this sector, as its direct effect would culminate with additional jobs in Florida that would bring higher wage jobs to the state. The interdependencies of the aviation and aerospace industry in Florida and VC with other industries had a

  13. Study of industrial consumption behavior in the conditions of low power consumption and decrease of pollution using input-output analysis

    Ragalie, S.; Gaftea, V.

    1996-01-01

    This study, regarding the industrial consumption behaviour at low power consumption and under low pollution constraints, making use of the input-output analysis, is based on models for prices, energy demand, and pollution. Numerical applications were developed by use of MATILDA program and the methods of setting the model parameters and data acquisition are presented. The analysis provided prognoses for pollution coefficients for given price and consumption input data and very important data for industrial consumption behavior. (author) 7 refs

  14. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  15. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on bibliographic coupling network: How industrial sectors on the GVC compete for production resources

    Guan, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyu; Xing, Lizhi

    2018-03-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing national economic systems with abundance of economic relationships depicting information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper focuses on how to quantify the degree of competition on the global value chain (GVC) from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models are established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output (ICIO) tables and then have them transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network models to analyze the competitive relationships based on bibliographic coupling approach. Three indicators well suited for the weighted and undirected networks with self-loops are introduced here, including unit weight for competitive power, disparity in the weight for competitive amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied empirically to analyze the function of industrial sectors on the basis of the latest World Input-Output Database (WIOD) in order to reveal inter-sector competitive status during the economic globalization.

  16. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  17. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  18. The Economic Value of Korean Nuclear Power Industry in the National Economy: An Input-Output Analysis

    Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. H. [Nuclear Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In 1978, Korea introduced the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 unit, in parallel with the nation's industrialization policy. Thereafter, Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program and sustained a strong commitment to nuclear power development. Thus, nuclear is a prime energy source which presently meets about 30 percent of Korea's power demands. Also, Korea won a contract for APR-1400 NPPs to the UAE in 2009 which led to Korea as a significant exporter in the world nuclear market. Recently, the new government of Korea has been launching 'Creative Economy', from this perspective, the quantitative contributions of nuclear sector to the national economic growth are required to be estimated. This paper is to estimate quantitatively the economic values created by nuclear power industry in the framework of national economy. The total economic values created by nuclear power industry are estimated to be 63.6 trillion won for the study period.

  19. Remote input/output station

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  20. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  1. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  2. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  3. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  4. El análisis input-output

    de Parada, Javier

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has been the permanent aim of the economic policy of every country. This requires a detailed knowledge of the relationships between the various economic activities, so that available resources can be applied to those activities that will lead to the greatest increase in the total national production, and also to the largest increment in labour vacancies, and exports. This optimum exploitation of available economic resources has been attempted width the introduction of the so called economic development plans. An important instrument in economic planning is the input output analysis. This article gives the basic hypotheses and the theoretical fundamentals underlying this type of analysis. From the latest input output table of Spanish economic activity, a secondary table has been prepared covering the aspects that affect construction most closely, so that the construction industry can also be subjected to this type of analysis. The predetermined variables have been taken to be the state provisions for future subsidies to the housing and road construction industries.Cuando en 1758 el Dr. F. Quesnay, médico de Luis XV, formula su famoso «Tableau Economique», las ideas sobre la interdependencia general de los sectores económicos calaron profundamente en el espíritu de los economistas de la época. La escuela fisiócrata, entonces en boga, consideraba el «dejar obrar» a las leyes naturales como la mejor forma de gobierno. Quesnay intuyó el movimiento natural circulatorio de los bienes económicos, y como fruto de sus investigaciones surgió el celebérrimo «Tableau Economique», que fue aclamado por sus contemporáneos como uno de los más grandes descubrimientos de la Historia.

  5. Modelling Analysis of Forestry Input-Output Elasticity in China

    Guofeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended economic model and space econometrics, this essay analyzed the spatial distributions and interdependent relationships of the production of forestry in China; also the input-output elasticity of forestry production were calculated. Results figure out there exists significant spatial correlation in forestry production in China. Spatial distribution is mainly manifested as spatial agglomeration. The output elasticity of labor force is equal to 0.6649, and that of capital is equal to 0.8412. The contribution of land is significantly negative. Labor and capital are the main determinants for the province-level forestry production in China. Thus, research on the province-level forestry production should not ignore the spatial effect. The policy-making process should take into consideration the effects between provinces on the production of forestry. This study provides some scientific technical support for forestry production.

  6. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  7. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  8. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms

  10. Input-output tables and analyses 2000. Imports, employment and environment

    2002-05-01

    The publication is primarily designed as a practical reference quide presenting data and in particular analytical results (impact multipliers) on the structural characteristics and developments of the Danish economy. Also readers who are not familiar with the theoretical aspects of input-output analysis may benefit from the contents. In the different chapters of the publication a comprehensive treatment of the basic data material is given together with figures primarily for the year 1998, which is the most recent year for which final national accounts and input-output tables are available. This part is followed by the multipliers, some of which have also been 'forecasted' to the year 2000. The publication presents data for each industrial sector and the household sector in Denmark. It presents data for input-output analyses, environmental accounts, production, employment, energy consumption, and emission of pollutants. (LN)

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE BANDUNG CHANGES EXCELLENT POTENTIAL THROUGH INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL USING INDEX LE MASNE

    Teti Sofia Yanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Input-Output Table is arranged to present an overview of the interrelationships and interdependence between units of activity (sector production in the whole economy. Therefore the input-output models are complete and comprehensive analytical tool. The usefulness of input-output tables is an analysis of the economic structure of the national/regional level which covers the structure of production and value-added (GDP of each sector. For the purposes of planning and evaluation of the outcomes of development that is comprehensive both national and smaller scale (district/city, a model for regional development planning approach can use the model input-output analysis. Analysis of Bandung Economic Structure did use Le Masne index, by comparing the coefficients of the technology in 2003 and 2008, of which nearly 50% change. The trade sector has grown very conspicuous than other areas, followed by the services of road transport and air transport services, the development priorities and investment Bandung should be directed to these areas, this is due to these areas can be thrust and be power attraction for the growth of other areas. The areas that experienced the highest decrease was Industrial Chemicals and Goods from Chemistry, followed by Oil and Refinery Industry Textile Industry Except For Garment.

  12. QUALITATIVE DATA AND ERROR MEASUREMENT IN INPUT-OUTPUT-ANALYSIS

    NIJKAMP, P; OOSTERHAVEN, J; OUWERSLOOT, H; RIETVELD, P

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the rapidly emerging field of qualitative data analysis in economics. Ordinal data techniques and error measurement in input-output analysis are here combined in order to test the reliability of a low level of measurement and precision of data by means of a stochastic

  13. INPUT-OUTPUT STRUCTURE OF LINEAR-DIFFERENTIAL ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS

    KUIJPER, M; SCHUMACHER, JM

    Systems of linear differential and algebraic equations occur in various ways, for instance, as a result of automated modeling procedures and in problems involving algebraic constraints, such as zero dynamics and exact model matching. Differential/algebraic systems may represent an input-output

  14. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  15. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 7. Know Your Personal Computer Basic Input-Output System (BIOS). Siddhartha Kumar Ghoshal. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 7 July 1997 pp 48-54. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Country's Nuclear Status

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation's efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country's or region's economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry's output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a given

  17. Multiregional Input-Output Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Evolution Driving Force for Carbon Emissions Embodied in Interprovincial Trade and Optimization Policies: Case Study of Northeast Industrial District in China.

    Cheng, Hao; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Fujia; Yang, Yang; Li, Shantong; Li, Yu

    2018-01-02

    In the counties with rapid economy and carbon emissions (CEs) growth, CEs embodied in interprovincial trade (CEs-PT) significantly impacts the CEs amount and structure and represents a key issue to consider in CEs reduction policies formulation. This study applied EEBT and two-stage SDA model to analyze the characteristics and driving force of spatial-temporal evolution for net CEs-PT outflow in the Northeast Industrial District of China (NID). We found that, during 1997-2007, the net CEs-PT flowed out from NID to 16 south and east provinces, then to 23 provinces all over China, and its amount has increased 216.798Mt (by 211.67% per year). The main driving forces are technology and demand (further decomposed into structure and scale matrix); the contribution are 71.6418 Mt and 145.1562 Mt. Then, we constructed coupling relationship model and took the top three industries with the greatest net CEs-PT outflow (farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, electricity and heat production and supply, petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing) as examples, adjusted the interprovincial trade constructions, scales, and objects, to reduce the CEs-PT with lower costs, greater effect, and more equitability. The achievement could provide reference for formulating CEs reduction policies for similar areas in the world characterized by rapid growth of economy and CEs.

  18. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  19. Enhancing MINIX 3.X input/output performance

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés; Weisz, Gustavo; Bardus, Marisa; Hein, César

    2008-01-01

    MINIX 3.X is an open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible, and secure. The kernel is extremely small and user processes, specialized servers and device driver runs as user-mode insulated processes. These features, the tiny amount of kernel code, and other aspects greatly enhance system reliability. The drawbacks of running device drivers in user-mode are the performance penalties on input/output ports access, kernel data structures access, interrupt indirect man...

  20. An Interface Theory for Input/Output Automata

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de~Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch's Input/Output Automata, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit....... We also present a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata. Proofs are provided in an appendix....

  1. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  2. State space and input-output linear systems

    Delchamps, David F

    1988-01-01

    It is difficult for me to forget the mild sense of betrayal I felt some ten years ago when I discovered, with considerable dismay, that my two favorite books on linear system theory - Desoer's Notes for a Second Course on Linear Systems and Brockett's Finite Dimensional Linear Systems - were both out of print. Since that time, of course, linear system theory has undergone a transformation of the sort which always attends the maturation of a theory whose range of applicability is expanding in a fashion governed by technological developments and by the rate at which such advances become a part of engineering practice. The growth of the field has inspired the publication of some excellent books; the encyclopedic treatises by Kailath and Chen, in particular, come immediately to mind. Nonetheless, I was inspired to write this book primarily by my practical needs as a teacher and researcher in the field. For the past five years, I have taught a one semester first year gradu­ ate level linear system theory course i...

  3. Graphical user interface for input output characterization of single variable and multivariable highly nonlinear systems

    Shahrukh Adnan Khan M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Graphical User Interface (GUI software utility for the input/output characterization of single variable and multivariable nonlinear systems by obtaining the sinusoidal input describing function (SIDF of the plant. The software utility is developed on MATLAB R2011a environment. The developed GUI holds no restriction on the nonlinearity type, arrangement and system order; provided that output(s of the system is obtainable either though simulation or experiments. An insight to the GUI and its features are presented in this paper and example problems from both single variable and multivariable cases are demonstrated. The formulation of input/output behavior of the system is discussed and the nucleus of the MATLAB command underlying the user interface has been outlined. Some of the industries that would benefit from this software utility includes but not limited to aerospace, defense technology, robotics and automotive.

  4. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF A DYNAMIC INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL WITH A HUMAN CAPITAL BLOCK

    Baranov A. O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of human capital is an important factor of economic growth. It seems to be useful to include «human capital» as a factor of a macroeconomic model, as it helps to take into account the quality differentiation of the workforce. Most of the models usually distinguish labor force by the levels of education, while some of the factors remain unaccounted. Among them are health status and culture development level, which influence productivity level as well as gross product reproduction. Inclusion of the human capital block to the interindustry model can help to make it more reliable for economic development forecasting. The article presents a mathematical description of the extended dynamic input-output model (DIOM with a human capital block. The extended DIOM is based on the Input-Output Model from The KAMIN system (the System of Integrated Analyses of Interindustrial Information developed at the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation and at the Novosibirsk State University. The extended input-output model can be used to analyze and forecast development of Russian economy.

  6. Prioritizing Interdependent Production Processes using Leontief Input-Output Model

    Masbad Jesah Grace

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology in identifying key production processes in an interdependent production system. Previous approaches on this domain have drawbacks that may potentially affect the reliability of decision-making. The proposed approach adopts the Leontief input-output model (L-IOM which was proven successful in analyzing interdependent economic systems. The motivation behind such adoption lies in the strength of L-IOM in providing a rigorous quantitative framework in identifying key components of interdependent systems. In this proposed approach, the consumption and production flows of each process are represented respectively by the material inventory produced by the prior process and the material inventory produced by the current process, both in monetary values. A case study in a furniture production system located in central Philippines was carried out to elucidate the proposed approach. Results of the case were reported in this work

  7. Input-output analysis for installing renewable energy systems

    Itoh, Y.; Nakata, T.

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy facilities have been installed in many regions, because of their possibility to be an alternative to fossil fuels for mitigating global warming. Besides the profitability of renewable energy businesses, indirect economic effects of installing renewable energy facilities should be clarified. This study examines the possibility that the renewable energy facilities give renewed impetus to regional economic progress. The economic effects are analysed with input-output techniques in a rural area in Japan. As a consequence, both positive and negative effects on the rural economy are derived. In addition, we will focus on the changes in sectors such as construction, business services, banking, etc. as a result of economic activities for renewable systems. The business benefits of renewable energy system are discussed. (author)

  8. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Vahid Moosavi

    Full Text Available The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  9. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Moosavi, Vahid; Isacchini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  10. Input-output model of regional environmental and economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    Johnson, M.H.; Bennett, J.T.

    1979-01-01

    The costs of delayed licensing of nuclear power plants calls for a more-comprehensive method of quantifying the economic and environmental impacts on a region. A traditional input-output (I-O) analysis approach is extended to assess the effects of changes in output, income, employment, pollution, water consumption, and the costs and revenues of local government disaggregated among 23 industry sectors during the construction and operating phases. Unlike earlier studies, this model uses nonlinear environmental interactions and specifies environmental feedbacks to the economic sector. 20 references

  11. Structural consequences of carbon taxes: An input-output analysis

    Che Yuhu.

    1992-01-01

    A model system is provided for examining for examining the structural consequences of carbon taxes on economic, energy, and environmental issues. The key component is the Iterative Multi-Optimization (IMO) Process model which describes, using an Input-Output (I-O) framework, the feedback between price changes and substitution. The IMO process is designed to assure this feedback process when the input coefficients in an I-O table can be changed while holding the I-O price model. The theoretical problems of convergence to a limit in the iterative process and uniqueness (which requires all IMO processes starting from different initial prices to converge to a unique point for a given level of carbon taxes) are addressed. The empirical analysis also examines the effects of carbon taxes on the US economy as described by a 78 sector I-O model. Findings are compared with those of other models that assess the effects of carbon taxes, and the similarities and differences with them are interpreted in terms of differences in the scope, sectoral detail, time frame, and policy assumptions among the models

  12. An analytical model for an input/output-subsystem

    Roemgens, J.

    1983-05-01

    An input/output-subsystem of one or several computers if formed by the external memory units and the peripheral units of a computer system. For these subsystems mathematical models are established, taking into account the special properties of the I/O-subsystems, in order to avoid planning errors and to allow for predictions of the capacity of such systems. Here an analytical model is presented for the magnetic discs of a I/O-subsystem, using analytical methods for the individual waiting queues or waiting queue networks. Only I/O-subsystems of IBM-computer configurations are considered, which can be controlled by the MVS operating system. After a description of the hardware and software components of these I/O-systems, possible solutions from the literature are presented and discussed with respect to their applicability in IBM-I/O-subsystems. Based on these models a special scheme is developed which combines the advantages of the literature models and avoids the disadvantages in part. (orig./RW) [de

  13. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  14. Field-Programmable Logic Devices with Optical Input Output

    Szymanski, Ted H.; Saint-Laurent, Martin; Tyan, Victor; Au, Albert; Supmonchai, Boonchuay

    2000-02-01

    A field-programmable logic device (FPLD) with optical I O is described. FPLD s with optical I O can have their functionality specified in the field by means of downloading a control-bit stream and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as optical signal processing, optical image processing, and optical interconnects. Our device implements six state-of-the-art dynamically programmable logic arrays (PLA s) on a 2 mm 2 mm die. The devices were fabricated through the Lucent Technologies Advanced Research Projects Agency Consortium for Optical and Optoelectronic Technologies in Computing (Lucent ARPA COOP) workshop by use of 0.5- m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor self-electro-optic device technology and were delivered in 1998. All devices are fully functional: The electronic data paths have been verified at 200 MHz, and optical tests are pending. The device has been programmed to implement a two-stage optical switching network with six 4 4 crossbar switches, which can realize more than 190 10 6 unique programmable input output permutations. The same device scaled to a 2 cm 2 cm substrate could support as many as 4000 optical I O and 1 Tbit s of optical I O bandwidth and offer fully programmable digital functionality with approximately 110,000 programmable logic gates. The proposed optoelectronic FPLD is also ideally suited to realizing dense, statically reconfigurable crossbar switches. We describe an attractive application area for such devices: a rearrangeable three-stage optical switch for a wide-area-network backbone, switching 1000 traffic streams at the OC-48 data rate and supporting several terabits of traffic.

  15. A Water-Withdrawal Input-Output Model of the Indian Economy.

    Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Mathur, Ritu

    2016-02-02

    Managing freshwater allocation for a highly populated and growing economy like India can benefit from knowledge about the effect of economic activities. This study transforms the 2003-2004 economic input-output (IO) table of India into a water withdrawal input-output model to quantify direct and indirect flows. This unique model is based on a comprehensive database compiled from diverse public sources, and estimates direct and indirect water withdrawal of all economic sectors. It distinguishes between green (rainfall), blue (surface and ground), and scarce groundwater. Results indicate that the total direct water withdrawal is nearly 3052 billion cubic meter (BCM) and 96% of this is used in agriculture sectors with the contribution of direct green water being about 1145 BCM, excluding forestry. Apart from 727 BCM direct blue water withdrawal for agricultural, other significant users include "Electricity" with 64 BCM, "Water supply" with 44 BCM and other industrial sectors with nearly 14 BCM. "Construction", "miscellaneous food products"; "Hotels and restaurants"; "Paper, paper products, and newsprint" are other significant indirect withdrawers. The net virtual water import is found to be insignificant compared to direct water used in agriculture nationally, while scarce ground water associated with crops is largely contributed by northern states.

  16. Input-output analysis in fertilizers sector. A case study of Turkey

    Karkacier, O.; Guelse, H.S.; Sayili, M.; Akca, H.

    1999-01-01

    The types of structural analysis in the input-output model known are forward and backwards ties. Fertilizer sector is tied forwardly agriculture, agri-business, chemistry, petro-chemistry and glass sector. In addition, it tied backwardly mining, chemistry, petro-chemistry, electricity, gas, water and transportation. The effect of backward tie of fertilizer sector is more important than its effect of the forward ties. In this study, by means of the year of 1979, 1985 and 1990 input-output table of Turkey the own situation of fertilizer industry and the production relation with other sectors of the economy have been tired to explain with forward and backwards ties. According to the result of the research it was determined that in 1990, (u j ) input coefficient of fertilizer sector is 69 %. That is, 69 percent of the product of fertilizer sector was used as an intermediate goods by other sectors. Therefore, 31 percent of goods produced by fertilizer sector was consumed as a final good. In addition, in this year, (w i ) intermediate use coefficient of fertilizer sector is 52 %. (w i ) intermediate use coefficient of fertilizer sector decreased from 1973 to 1990, as a result of this final use coefficient (1-w i ) increased. Refs. 5 (author)

  17. Multiregional input-output model for the evaluation of Spanish water flows.

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez Chóliz, Julio

    2013-01-01

    We construct a multiregional input-output model for Spain, in order to evaluate the pressures on the water resources, virtual water flows, and water footprints of the regions, and the water impact of trade relationships within Spain and abroad. The study is framed with those interregional input-output models constructed to study water flows and impacts of regions in China, Australia, Mexico, or the UK. To build our database, we reconcile regional IO tables, national and regional accountancy of Spain, trade and water data. Results show an important imbalance between origin of water resources and final destination, with significant water pressures in the South, Mediterranean, and some central regions. The most populated and dynamic regions of Madrid and Barcelona are important drivers of water consumption in Spain. Main virtual water exporters are the South and Central agrarian regions: Andalusia, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Aragon, and Extremadura, while the main virtual water importers are the industrialized regions of Madrid, Basque country, and the Mediterranean coast. The paper shows the different location of direct and indirect consumers of water in Spain and how the economic trade and consumption pattern of certain areas has significant impacts on the availability of water resources in other different and often drier regions.

  18. Leontief Input-Output Method for The Fresh Milk Distribution Linkage Analysis

    Riski Nur Istiqomah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about linkage analysis and identifies the key sector in the fresh milk distribution using Leontief Input-Output method. This method is one of the application of Mathematics in economy. The current fresh milk distribution system includes dairy farmers →collectors→fresh milk processing industries→processed milk distributors→consumers. Then, the distribution is merged between the collectors’ axctivity and the fresh milk processing industry. The data used are primary and secondary data taken in June 2016 in Kecamatan Jabung Kabupaten Malang. The collected data are then analysed using Leontief Input-Output Matriks and Python (PYIO 2.1 software. The result is that the merging of the collectors’ and the fresh milk processing industry’s activities shows high indices of forward linkages and backward linkages. It is shown that merging of the two activities is the key sector which has an important role in developing the whole activities in the fresh milk distribution.

  19. Pengaruh Sektor Pariwisata Terhadap Perekonomian dan Keruangan Kota Bukittinggi (Pendekatan Analisis Input Output

    Desi Arianti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bukittinggi city is one of the city located in the province of West Sumatra .  Although it does not have the potential of natural resources that can be exploited , Bukittinggi has another potential, which is a beautiful natural conditions, the air is cool, has a historic heritage places, and is located in a strategic position potentially make this city as tourists visiting the area.  Because of the potential of the tourism sector serve as a leading sector in the city of Bukittinggi, which is expected to be the main driver of the city economy.  This research was conducted with input-output analysis approach , to examine how the influence of the tourism sector and linkages with other sectors of the economy of the town of Bukittinggi.  Moreover it will be seen also how the spatial effect of the tourism sector on the pattern and structure of urban space Bukittinggi. The influence of the tourism sector to the economy of Bukittinggi shows the role of the tourism sector to the total demand is 40.86% when grouped into the business field of agriculture and mining sector, industrial sector, tourism sector and the service sector. Linkages with other sectors of the tourism sector seen from the spread of the power index and the degree of sensitivity, all sectors related to tourism activities have spread of power index > 1.  But the degree of sensitivity index > 1 only occurs in large & retail trade sector and the transport, while the hotel secto , restaurants and entertainment and recreation has index < 1.  Multiplier effect of all relevant sectors of tourism activities have a relatively large effect on both the output multiplier effects, household income and employment.  Application of financial input scenarios, showing the influence of the tourism sector on the economy will be larger Bukittinggi if allocated greater financial inputs to the sectors of tourism, both in the form of government spending and investment spending.  The existence of

  20. China’s Carbon Footprint Based on Input-Output Table Series: 1992–2020

    Haitao Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reducing carbon emissions is a major concern for China’s future. This paper explores the embodied carbon footprint of Chinese final demand from the point of view of industries. It uses the Matrix Transformation Technique (MTT to update the input-output table series from 1992 to 2020 in China. Then, we measure the embodied carbon emissions for the period 1992–2020 from 29 industry producers to the final demand, covering urban and rural residential consumption, government consumption, fixed capital formation, and net exports. The results show that construction, other services, wholesale, retail trade, accommodation and catering, industrial machinery and equipment, transport, storage and postal services, and manufacture of foods and tobacco are the industries with the greatest carbon emissions from producers, while fixed capital formation and urban consumption are the largest emitters from the perspective of final demand. The embodied carbon emission multipliers for most of the industries are decreasing, while the total carbon emissions are increasing each year. The ratio of emissions from residential consumption in terms of total emissions is decreasing. Each industry has a different main final demand-driven influencing factor on emission and, for each type of final demand, there are different industries with higher emissions.

  1. Towards a global multi-regional environmentally extended input-output database

    Tukker, Arnold; Poliakov, Evgueni; Heijungs, Reinout; Hawkins, Troy; Neuwahl, Frederik; Rueda-Cantuche, Jose M.; Giljum, Stefan; Moll, Stephan; Oosterhaven, Jan; Bouwmeester, Maaike

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the strategy for a large EU-funded Integrated Project: EXIOPOL ("A New Environmental Accounting Framework Using Externality Data and Input-Output Tools for Policy Analysis"), with special attention for its part in environmentally extended (EE) input-output (IO) analysis. The

  2. Multifunction input-output board for the IBM AT/XT (Lab-Master)

    Pilyar, A V

    1996-12-31

    Multifunction input-output board for the IBM PC AT/XT is described. It consists of a CMOS analog input multiplexer, programmable amplifier, a fast 12-bit ADC, four 10-bit DAC and two 8-bit digital input-output registers. Specifications of analog input and output are given. 6 refs.

  3. DAMPAK SUB-SEKTOR UNGGULAN TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN KOTA SAMARINDA: PENDEKATAN INPUT-OUTPUT

    Jerry Pahlevy Mahakam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the writer would like to investigate the sub-sectors of the economy categorized as superior, potential, and non-superior, determine the magnitude of multiplier income arising from these sub-sector on household income and job opportunities, and identify the sub-sector of the economy which can be placed as a superior in Samarinda. This study employed Input-Output approach which later discovered several factors which were considered as superior, namely food and beverage industry; Paper and printing industry; electricity; construction / building; land transportation; and other services, while the sub-sectors which were included in non-superior categories were rice, cassava, vegetables, fruits, other staple food crops, plantation crops, timber and forest products, fisheries, mining, timber industry, chemical industry, hotels, telecommunications, insurance, government, education services. In addition, the results of forward and backward linkages analysis and multiplier income calculating of household income and job opportunities found that those sub-sectors of food and beverage industry, building/ construction, other services, and land transportation were categorized into major sub-sectors.

  4. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  5. WORKBENCH FOR CONTROL SYSTEMS TRIALS BASED ON VIPA 300 CONTROLLER AND ADVANTECH INPUT/OUTPUT CARD

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic is about workbench creation for control systems trials based on VIPA 300 industrial PLC and model of control object which is implemented in MatLab Simulink program on PC. Connection between controller and the PC is provided by the Advantech PCI-1711 input/output card of discrete and analog signals. Object identification,control system synthesis, creation of control device structure and its parametrical identification, as a rule, is done on a PC in a modelling environment, e.g. in MatLab. But often, using this PC modelling, the hardware and software features of algorithms which were obtained during system synthesis are not considered in a specific industrial PLC.It is considered a good idea to use a composite version where obtained algorithms are tested in a real industrial PLC and control object is substituted by a model which is working on a PC in real time scale. In this case software realization of algorithms in a specific PLC are fully taken into account and substitution of real control object by itsmodel considerably reduces the costs for carrying out experiments and allows to study the system behavior when control object parameters and modes of operation vary greatly. The creation of workbench stipulates several stages: configuration and programming of industrial PLC VIPA 313 SC, installation and configuration of Advantech PCI- 1711 input/output card, tuning of Simulink modelling environment for working in real time scale using Real-Time Windows Target Library, testing of workbench by using constant and harmonic signals of different frequencies. Work results of virtual stabilization system are compared with combined version. In virtual stabilization system PID governor and control object are implemented in Simulink. In combined version control object is still implemented in Simulink and PID governor - in VIPA 313 SC controller (using functional block FB58 from Step7 standard library.

  6. Economic input-output life-cycle assessment of trade between Canada and the United States.

    Norman, Jonathan; Charpentier, Alex D; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-03-01

    With increasing trade liberalization, attempts at accounting for environmental impacts and energy use across the manufacturing supply chain are complicated by the predominance of internationally supplied resources and products. This is particularly true for Canada and the United States, the world's largest trading partners. We use an economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. Overall, we find that U.S. manufacturing and resource industries are about 1.15 times as energy-intensive and 1.3 times as GHG-intensive as Canadian industries, with significant sector-specific discrepancies in energy and GHG intensity. This trend is mainly due to a greater direct reliance on fossil fuels for many U.S. industries, in addition to a highly fossil-fuel based electricity mix in the U.S. To account for these differences, we develop a 76 sector binational EIO-LCA model that implicitly considers trade in goods between Canada and the U.S. Our findings show that accounting for trade can significantly alter the results of life-cycle assessment studies, particularly for many Canadian manufacturing sectors, and the production/consumption of goods in one country often exerts significant energy- and GHG-influences on the other.

  7. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  8. Specification and Aggregation Errors in Environmentally Extended Input-Output Models

    Bouwmeester, Maaike C.; Oosterhaven, Jan

    This article considers the specification and aggregation errors that arise from estimating embodied emissions and embodied water use with environmentally extended national input-output (IO) models, instead of with an environmentally extended international IO model. Model specification errors result

  9. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  10. The economic impacts of Lake States forestry: an input-output study.

    Larry Pedersen; Daniel E. Chappelle; David C. Lothner

    1989-01-01

    The report describes 1985 and 1995 levels of forest-related economic activity in the three-state area of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and their impacts on other economic sectors based on a regional input-output model.

  11. Impact of the Sugar Import Reduction on Iran Economic Value Added (Input- Output Approach

    Fateme Hayatgheibi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at understanding interactions and linkages between the sugar sector with other economic sectors, and the influence of sugar import reduction on the economic value added. To achieve the purpose, the Input-Output table of Iran for the year 2006, Leontief inverse matrix and hypothetical extraction method were used. Based on the results, sugar industry has the most forward linkages with “Manufacture of food products and beverages,…”, “husbandry, aviculture,…”, “cultivation, horticulture”, “bakery products” and “restaurants”. This sector has also strong backward linkages with “cultivation, horticulture”, “chemicals and chemical products”, “other services”, “transport and telecommunication” and “financial services, insurance and bank”. Furthermore, either one unit increase in the final demand of sugar or one unit decrease in the sugar import increases the output of whole economic, agricultural and fishing, industry and mining, and services sectors by 2.3060, 0.6019, 1.4331, and 0.2710 unit, respectively. The increasing coefficients of the value added for the above sectors are 0.4308, 0.3700, and 0.1992 unit, respectively.

  12. International trade inoperability input-output model (IT-IIM): theory and application.

    Jung, Jeesang; Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2009-01-01

    The inoperability input-output model (IIM) has been used for analyzing disruptions due to man-made or natural disasters that can adversely affect the operation of economic systems or critical infrastructures. Taking economic perturbation for each sector as inputs, the IIM provides the degree of economic production impacts on all industry sectors as the outputs for the model. The current version of the IIM does not provide a separate analysis for the international trade component of the inoperability. If an important port of entry (e.g., Port of Los Angeles) is disrupted, then international trade inoperability becomes a highly relevant subject for analysis. To complement the current IIM, this article develops the International Trade-IIM (IT-IIM). The IT-IIM investigates the resulting international trade inoperability for all industry sectors resulting from disruptions to a major port of entry. Similar to traditional IIM analysis, the inoperability metrics that the IT-IIM provides can be used to prioritize economic sectors based on the losses they could potentially incur. The IT-IIM is used to analyze two types of direct perturbations: (1) the reduced capacity of ports of entry, including harbors and airports (e.g., a shutdown of any port of entry); and (2) restrictions on commercial goods that foreign countries trade with the base nation (e.g., embargo).

  13. The concept of parallel input/output processing for an electron linac

    Emoto, Takashi

    1993-01-01

    The instrumentation of and the control system for the PNC 10 MeV CW electron linac are described. A new concept of parallel input/output processing for the linac has been introduced. It is based on a substantial number of input/output processors(IOP) using beam control and diagnostics. The flexibility and simplicity of hardware/software are significant advantages with this scheme. (author)

  14. Finding industrial space

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...... that have been operative in the redevelopment of the so-called Carlsberg Square in Copenhagen between 2006-2009. It concludes with general remarcs on dealing with the complex matter open space in the practices of design and heritage management in urban redevelopment processes....

  15. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2007-01-01

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  16. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  17. Process Debottlenecking and Retrofit of Palm Oil Milling Process via Inoperability Input-Output Modelling

    May Tan May

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increase in crude palm oil (CPO demand, resulting in palm oil mills (POMs seizing the opportunity to increase CPO production to make more profits. A series of equipment are designed to operate in their optimum capacities in the current existing POMs. Some equipment may be limited by their maximum design capacities when there is a need to increase CPO production, resulting in process bottlenecks. In this research, a framework is developed to provide stepwise procedures on identifying bottlenecks and retrofitting a POM process to cater for the increase in production capacity. This framework adapts an algebraic approach known as Inoperability Input-Output Modelling (IIM. To illustrate the application of the framework, an industrial POM case study was solved using LINGO software in this work, by maximising its production capacity. Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR analysis was also performed to assess the economic feasibility. As results, the Screw Press was identified as the bottleneck. The retrofitting recommendation was to purchase an additional Screw Press to cater for the new throughput with BCR of 54.57. It was found the POM to be able to achieve the maximum targeted production capacity of 8,139.65 kg/hr of CPO without any bottlenecks.

  18. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    Shan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals. The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  19. The Space Industry

    2007-01-01

    advantage. But the solar winds of change are blowing. America’s dominance in this important domain can no longer be taken for granted. Space represents an...venture between Boeing, Energia , Aker Kvaerner, and SDO Yuzhnoye/PO Yuzhmash. The Ukranian Zenit booster, a former ICBM and the Soyuz rocket are also...U.S. customers, and the use of the Russian Energia RD-180 engine in Lockheed Martin’s Atlas V booster. The Nature of the Market The space industry

  20. Pandemic recovery analysis using the dynamic inoperability input-output model.

    Santos, Joost R; Orsi, Mark J; Bond, Erik J

    2009-12-01

    Economists have long conceptualized and modeled the inherent interdependent relationships among different sectors of the economy. This concept paved the way for input-output modeling, a methodology that accounts for sector interdependencies governing the magnitude and extent of ripple effects due to changes in the economic structure of a region or nation. Recent extensions to input-output modeling have enhanced the model's capabilities to account for the impact of an economic perturbation; two such examples are the inoperability input-output model((1,2)) and the dynamic inoperability input-output model (DIIM).((3)) These models introduced sector inoperability, or the inability to satisfy as-planned production levels, into input-output modeling. While these models provide insights for understanding the impacts of inoperability, there are several aspects of the current formulation that do not account for complexities associated with certain disasters, such as a pandemic. This article proposes further enhancements to the DIIM to account for economic productivity losses resulting primarily from workforce disruptions. A pandemic is a unique disaster because the majority of its direct impacts are workforce related. The article develops a modeling framework to account for workforce inoperability and recovery factors. The proposed workforce-explicit enhancements to the DIIM are demonstrated in a case study to simulate a pandemic scenario in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

  1. A grey neural network and input-output combined forecasting model. Primary energy consumption forecasts in Spanish economic sectors

    Liu, Xiuli; Moreno, Blanca; García, Ana Salomé

    2016-01-01

    A combined forecast of Grey forecasting method and neural network back propagation model, which is called Grey Neural Network and Input-Output Combined Forecasting Model (GNF-IO model), is proposed. A real case of energy consumption forecast is used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The GNF-IO model predicts coal, crude oil, natural gas, renewable and nuclear primary energy consumption volumes by Spain's 36 sub-sectors from 2010 to 2015 according to three different GDP growth scenarios (optimistic, baseline and pessimistic). Model test shows that the proposed model has higher simulation and forecasting accuracy on energy consumption than Grey models separately and other combination methods. The forecasts indicate that the primary energies as coal, crude oil and natural gas will represent on average the 83.6% percent of the total of primary energy consumption, raising concerns about security of supply and energy cost and adding risk for some industrial production processes. Thus, Spanish industry must speed up its transition to an energy-efficiency economy, achieving a cost reduction and increase in the level of self-supply. - Highlights: • Forecasting System Using Grey Models combined with Input-Output Models is proposed. • Primary energy consumption in Spain is used to validate the model. • The grey-based combined model has good forecasting performance. • Natural gas will represent the majority of the total of primary energy consumption. • Concerns about security of supply, energy cost and industry competitiveness are raised.

  2. The Technological Input-output Efficiency of High-technology Enterprises in China Based on the DEA method

    Lu Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-technology enterprises play the leader role in the regional economic progress, but nowadays technological resources have many problems such as division, separation and dispersing. It’s an urgent problem to be solved that how to evaluate input-output productivity of technological resources towards industries and regions scientifically and efficiently. Firstly the article analyzes the input-output efficiency status of technological resources at home and abroad. Then high-technology enterprises in 29 provinces, as the subject of evaluation, are analyzed for their operation efficiency by DEA. The article states the suggestions like balanced development among regions and reasonable structure of input and output by comparing the differences among regions. And the article estimates the technological resources configuration efficiency of 5 leader industries and explains the developmental characteristics and direction among industries. And on these bases the article conducts hypothesis testing for inner elements which might have an influence on the operational efficiency by Tobit model. Finally, the paper proposes many suggestions to the benefits of promoting the productivity of high-technology enterprise according to the comprehensive analysis.

  3. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2018-03-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  4. A use-side procedure for estimating trade margins in input-output analysis

    Marisa Asensio Pardo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the National Accounting Systems proposed by United Nations (1993 and Eurostat (1996, use and make (or supply matrices should be measured before goods and services are conveyed to the markets (basic values. Actually, the make table is defined in basic values (excluding trade and transport margins and net commodity taxes whereas the use table is in purchasers’ values (including them. In particular, this paper shows how trade margins can be removed from the use table with the purpose of constructing an input-output table. The proposed approach is based on the use-side procedure from the ESA-95 Input-Output Manual (Eurostat, 2002 and is also being applied to the forthcoming 2000 Andalusian Input-Output Framework.

  5. Input-output linearizing tracking control of induction machine with the included magnetic saturation

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    The tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearisation with magnetic saturation included is addressed. The magnetic saturation is represented by a nonlinear magnetising curve for the iron core and is used in the control, the observer of the state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances. It is based on the mixed 'stator current - rotor flux linkage' induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with saturation included behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  6. Impact of magnetic saturation on the input-output linearising tracking control of an induction motor

    Dolinar, Drago; Ljusev, Petar; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the tracking control design of an induction motor, based on input-output linearization with magnetic saturation included. Magnetic saturation is represented by the nonlinear magnetizing curve of the iron core and is used in the control design, the observer of state variables......, and in the load torque estimator. An input-output linearising control is used to achieve better tracking performances of the drive. It is based on the mixed ”stator current - rotor flux linkage” induction motor model with magnetic saturation considered in the stationary reference frame. Experimental results show...... that the proposed input-output linearising tracking control with the included saturation behaves considerably better than the one without saturation, and that it introduces smaller position and speed errors, and better motor stiffness on account of the increased computational complexity....

  7. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bixler, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  8. Forecasting the Romanian sectoral economy using the input-output method

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to forecast the sectoral output in 2013 based on the input-output structure of Romanian economy in 2010. Considering that the economic linkage mechanisms do not easily change during certain time periods, the forecasting is possible, even if not in the sequence of the time passing. Using the technical matrix of the sectoral structure described for year 2010 and some known indicators of the economic sectors, as the value added for each sector in 2013, the sectoral output is projected for 2013. The Romanian GDP in 2013 is estimated based on the input-output model. From a managerial perspective, this study is useful to forecast the sectoral output and to understand the sectoral behaviour, based on the input-output analysis of the value added, the compensation for employees and the final demand, which were considered here.

  9. Climatic change, technological, financial and commercial flows : new directions in input-output analysis

    Cloutier, L.M.; DeBresson, C.; Dietzenbacher, E.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents the recent work of prominent economists who used the latest input-output analysis techniques to examine complex and interdependent problems such as global warming, climate change and greenhouse gas reduction. It proposes solutions to Solow's Paradox regarding information and communication technologies and examines the role of technological and financial flows. It also proposes theoretical applications for use in Quebec and Canada. The work of young economists who participated at the Leontief International Input-Output Association was also presented. The book is mainly intended for analysts of economic policies and for young researchers looking for advanced input-output analysis techniques. It offers a useful, realistic and systematic analysis of various issues facing contemporary companies. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Numerical simulation of waveguide input/output couplers for a planar mm-wave linac cavity

    Kang, Y.W.

    1994-01-01

    A double-sided planar mm-wave linear accelerating cavity structure has been studied. The input/output couplers for the accelerating cavity structure have been designed using the Hewlett-Packard High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The program is a frequency domain finite element 3-D field solver and can include matched port boundary conditions. The power transmission property of the structure is calculated in the frequency domain. The dimensions of the, coupling cavities and the irises at the input/output ports are adjusted to have the structure matched to rectangular waveguides. The field distributions in the accelerating structure for the 2π/3-mode traveling wave are shown

  11. Role of Manufacturing Sector and Trade, Hotel, Restaurant Sector In East Java’s Economy: Input Output Analysis

    Anggari Marya Kresnowati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 analyze the relationship the manufacturing sector and the trade, hotel, and restaurant sector with other sectors in East Java, (2 to analyze the economic impact caused the two sectors based on the multiplier effect, (3 and analyze the economic impact caused by these two sectors if there additional investment funds. This study uses data analysis input output 2010 East Java 19x19 aggregation sector.The results indicate that base metals subsector has the highest linkages to other sectors. Based on household income multiplier effect, trade subsector has the greatest multiplier. Employment multiplier in trade and industrial sectors are in medium rank. This is indicates that the labor has been absorbed well in both sectors. The output multiplier effect, subsector non-metal goods, except petroleum and coal has the highest multiplier. The last, according to the analysis of investment injection simulations Input-Output East Java in 2010, subsector other processing industries has a best value added. Overall, the manufacturing sector has a better influence to East Java's economy than trade, hotel, and restaurant sector.

  12. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Dietary Changes in Iran: An Input-Output Analysis

    Roham Rahmani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health Organization (WHO, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF and Mediterranean alternative dietary scenarios. A range of impacts occurred depending upon the relative changes in food items. The direction of changes was similar in the three alternative scenarios. The greatest and smallest impact occurred in the WHO and the Mediterranean scenarios respectively. Total changes in output in WHO, WCRF and Mediterranean dietary scenarios were calculated to be 7010.1, 4802.8 and 3330.8 billion Rials respectively. The outputs of rice, vegetables, fruit, bread and macaroni decreased, but those of live and other animal products increased. The output of non-food commodities and services increased as well. The environmental load increased for three dietary scenarios in comparison with the status-quo diet. The greatest and smallest environmental load occurred in WHO and Mediterranean dietary scenarios respectively. Thus, although dietary changes can have positive effects on economic output, in order to avoid negative environmental effects, it is necessary to consider strategies such as applying capabilities, particularly natural resources in an optimal healthy and environmentally diet, planning for improving forest covering and green space simultaneously with increasing economic activities and using indirect incentives, such as taxes and insurance, for promoting sustainable and healthy foods and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Analysing global value chains using input-output economics : proceed with care

    Nomaler, Z.O.; Verspagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Input-output economics has become a popular tool to analyse the international fragmentation of value chains, especially now that several multi-regional tables that cover large parts of the global economy have become available. It has been argued that these tables, when analysed with the help of the

  14. Analysing global value chains using input-output economics: Proceed with care

    Nomaler, Ö.; Verspagen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Input-output economics has become a popular tool to analyse the international fragmentation of value chains, especially now that several multi-regional tables that cover large parts of the global economy have become available. It has been argued that these tables, when analysed with the help of the

  15. Input-output and energy demand models for Ireland: Data collection report. Part 1: EXPLOR

    Henry, E W; Scott, S

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented in support of EXPLOR, an input-output economic model for Ireland. The data follow the listing of exogenous data-sets used by Batelle in document X11/515/77. Data are given for 1974, 1980, and 1985 and consist of household consumption, final demand-production, and commodity prices. (ACR)

  16. Approaches and Tools Used to Teach the Computer Input/Output Subsystem: A Survey

    Larraza-Mendiluze, Edurne; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys how the computer input/output (I/O) subsystem is taught in introductory undergraduate courses. It is important to study the educational process of the computer I/O subsystem because, in the curricula recommendations, it is considered a core topic in the area of knowledge of computer architecture and organization (CAO). It is…

  17. Deflation of input-output tables from the user's point of view : a heuristic approach

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    This paper considers the problem of deflating an input-output table from the viewpoint of the user. In many practical cases certain margins of this table are readily available in constant prices, whereas the entire table is not. This reduces the problem to estimating the matrix of sectoral

  18. From LCC to LCA Using a Hybrid Input Output Model – A Maritime Case Study

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pagoropoulos, Aris; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    As companies try to embrace life cycle thinking, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) have proven to be powerful tools. In this paper, an Environmental Input-Output model is used for analysis as it enables an LCA using the same economic input data as LCC. This approach helps...

  19. The Economic Impact of Higher Education Institutions in Ireland: Evidence from Disaggregated Input-Output Tables

    Zhang, Qiantao; Larkin, Charles; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    While there has been a long history of modelling the economic impact of higher education institutions (HEIs), little research has been undertaken in the context of Ireland. This paper provides, for the first time, a disaggregated input-output table for Ireland's higher education sector. The picture painted overall is a higher education sector that…

  20. Economic and environmental impacts of dietary changes in Iran : an input-output analysis

    Rahmani, R.; Bakhshoodeh, M.; Zibaei, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Eftekhari, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO) model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health

  1. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models

    Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of

  2. Input-Output model for waste management plan for Nigeria | Njoku ...

    An Input-Output Model for Waste Management Plan has been developed for Nigeria based on Leontief concept and life cycle analysis. Waste was considered as source of pollution, loss of resources, and emission of green house gasses from bio-chemical treatment and decomposition, with negative impact on the ...

  3. DIMITRI 1.0: Beschrijving en toepassing van een dynamisch input-output model

    Wilting HC; Blom WF; Thomas R; Idenburg AM; LAE

    2001-01-01

    DIMITRI, the Dynamic Input-Output Model to study the Impacts of Technology Related Innovations, was developed in the framework of the RIVM Environment and Economy project to answer questions about interrelationships between economy, technology and the environment. DIMITRI, a meso-economic model,

  4. An improved robust model predictive control for linear parameter-varying input-output models

    Abbas, H.S.; Hanema, J.; Tóth, R.; Mohammadpour, J.; Meskin, N.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a new robust model predictive control (MPC) scheme to control the discrete-time linear parameter-varying input-output models subject to input and output constraints. Closed-loop asymptotic stability is guaranteed by including a quadratic terminal cost and an ellipsoidal terminal

  5. The economic impact of multifunctional agriculture in Dutch regions: An input-output model

    Heringa, P.W.; Heide, van der C.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Multifunctional agriculture is a broad concept lacking a precise definition. Moreover, little is known about the societal importance of multifunctional agriculture. This paper is an empirical attempt to fill this gap. To this end, an input-output model was constructed for multifunctional agriculture

  6. The economic impact of multifunctional agriculture in The Netherlands: A regional input-output model

    Heringa, P.W.; Heide, van der C.M.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multifunctional agriculture is a broad concept lacking a precise and uniform definition. Moreover, little is known about the societal importance of multifunctional agriculture. This paper is an empirical attempt to fill this gap. To this end, an input-output model is constructed for multifunctional

  7. Rotation-type input-output relationships for Wigner distribution moments in fractional Fourier transform systems

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order in the output plane of a (generally anamorphic) two-dimensional fractional Fourier transform system can be expressed in terms of the moments in the input plane. This general input-output relationship is then broken down into a

  8. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and quantification of agricultural input-output combinations.

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Rabbinge, R.

    1997-01-01

    Definitions and concepts of production ecology are presented as a basis for development of alternative production technologies characterized by their input-output combinations. With these concepts the relative importance of several growth factors and inputs is investigated to explain actual yield

  9. Statistics & Input-Output Measures for School Libraries in Colorado, 2002.

    Colorado State Library, Denver.

    This document presents statistics and input-output measures for K-12 school libraries in Colorado for 2002. Data are presented by type and size of school, i.e., high schools (six categories ranging from 2,000 and over to under 300), junior high/middle schools (five categories ranging from 1,000-1,999 to under 300), elementary schools (four…

  10. An input-output energy analysis in pistachio nut production: A case ...

    This research examined the energy use pattern and energy input/output analysis of pistachio nut widely grown in the South-eastern Anatolia, Turkey. For this purpose, data from pistachio nut production were collected in 61 farms from ten villages by a questionnaire which was selected according to their regional properties.

  11. Logistics flows and enterprise input-output models: aggregate and disaggregate analysis

    Albino, V.; Yazan, Devrim; Messeni Petruzzelli, A.; Okogbaa, O.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose the use of enterprise input-output (EIO) models to describe and analyse the logistics flows considering spatial issues and related environmental effects associated with production and transportation processes. In particular, transportation is modelled as a specific

  12. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  13. Change in CO2 emission and its transmissions between Korea and Japan using international input-output analysis

    Rhee, Hae-Chun; Chung, Hyun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyze CO 2 transmission between Japan and South Korea through international trade based on 1990 and 1995 international input-output data. It applied a residual-free structural decomposition method proposed by Chung and Rhee [Chung, H.S., Rhee, H.C., 2001. A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries. Energy 26 (1), 15-30] to emission-related international input-output analysis for the first time in the decomposition studies. This paper is a case study regarding the manner and the extent to which CO 2 emissions are influenced by international trade between Japan (an Annex I country) and South Korea (a non-Annex I country), which is of particular interest for the carbon leakage issue. In this paper, we attempted to show which factors contributed to the changes in emission of the major greenhouse gas in South Korea and Japan. The changes in emission are analyzed in terms of emission intensity, input techniques, demand composition, and trade structures. According to our analysis, South Korea, a non-Annex I country, has more energy-intensive production structures than Japan, an Annex I country. South Korea's trade pattern with Japan reflects these production features, resulting in the Korea's comparative advantage in emission intensive products, though the degree has somewhat mitigated in 1995 compared to 1990. (author)

  14. Energy and carbon embodied in the international trade of Brazil. An input-output approach

    Machado, G; Schaeffer, R.; Worrell, E.

    2001-01-01

    All goods and services produced in an economy are directly and/or indirectly associated with energy use and, according to the type of fuel utilized, with CO2 emissions as well. International trade is an important factor in shaping the industrial structure of a country and, consequently, in affecting a country's energy use and CO2 emissions. This study applies input-output techniques to the Brazilian economy to evaluate the total impacts of international trade on its energy use and CO2 emissions. A commodity-by-industry IO model in hybrid units (energy commodities in physical units and non-energy commodities in monetary units) is applied to the Brazilian economy in 1995. Results show that total energy embodied in the exports of non-energy goods of Brazil equals 831 PJ, while total carbon embodied is 13.5 MtC. These amounts are larger than the relevant amounts embodied in the imports of non-energy goods, respectively 679 PJ and 9.9 MtC. These figures are better understood by contrasting them with the total energy use and the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995 estimated by this work: 6781 PJ and 99.4 MtC, respectively. This means that international inflows and outflows of energy embodied in non-energy goods are in the order of 10 and 12% of the total energy use, while inflows and outflows of carbon embodied in non-energy goods are approximately 10 and 14% of the corresponding total carbon emissions of the Brazilian economy in 1995. The general picture is that Brazil is not only a net exporter of energy (153 PJ) and of carbon (3.6 MtC) embodied in the non-energy goods internationally traded by the country in 1995, but also that each dollar earned with exports embodied 40% more energy and 56% more carbon than each dollar spent on imports. These findings suggest that Brazilian policy-makers should be concerned about the extra impacts international trade policy may have on energy use and carbon emissions of the country. 71 refs

  15. Politiques agricoles et structures agro-industrielles: une approche à partir des tableaux input-output chiliens

    1992-01-01

    sistema agroalimenticio de este país. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND AGRO-INDUSTRY STRUCTURES: AN APPROACH FROM CHILEAN INPUT-OUTPUT SHEMES. The determination of certain agro-export world power nations to free international agro-feeding exchanges with the purpose to accelerate economic growth and optimize the employment of productive factors, is opposed to the protection and normative policies effective in many countries where agriculture has to accomplish functions, other than those related to only provide consumer or exportation goods, like: self-sufficiency or self-guarantee in the production of foods, employment stability, space regulation, industrial development. Integrated development or re-orientation of the various procedures over a reduced number of production networks, this is in our opinion, the real scope of the new world order related to agriculture. The purpose of this information is to propose -from the analysis in the input-output tables- a methodology which grants an impact acknowledgement of external exchanges over internal structures of the agro-alimentary systems. We promote the hypothesis that indiscriminate application of liberal policies -mainly agro-export-led- leads to the homogenization of techniques, specialization of agriculture and the production networks and concludes finally, to the extraversion of economy. A well-oriented protection leads otherwise, to the diversification of production and inter-industrial exchanges, and contributes to the structure of agro-industrial systems, auspicious to the diffusion of technical progress and the internationalization of the economic growth production. The analysis of the chilean case at a long term basis, is specially relevant to this regard. The new liberal industrialization policies based on the exportation implemented in Chile after 1973 led in a certain way, to the disorganization of the agro-alimentary system in this country.

  16. The Use of Input-Output Control System Analysis for Sustainable Development of Multivariable Environmental Systems

    Koliopoulos, T. C.; Koliopoulou, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present an input-output solution for simulating the associated behavior and optimized physical needs of an environmental system. The simulations and numerical analysis determined the accurate boundary loads and areas that were required to interact for the proper physical operation of a complicated environmental system. A case study was conducted to simulate the optimum balance of an environmental system based on an artificial intelligent multi-interacting input-output numerical scheme. The numerical results were focused on probable further environmental management techniques, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impact to protect the quality of public health and the environment. Our conclusions allowed us to minimize the associated risks, focusing on probable cases in an emergency to protect the surrounded anthropogenic or natural environment. Therefore, the lining magnitude could be determined for any useful associated technical works to support the environmental system under examination, taking into account its particular boundary necessities and constraints.

  17. Solid wastes integrated management in Rio de Janeiro: input-output analysis

    Pimenteira, C.A.P.; Carpio, L.G.T.; Rosa, L.P.; Tolmansquim, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic aspects of solid waste management in Rio de Janeiro. An 'input-output' methodology was used to examine how the secondary product resulting from recycling is re-introduced into the productive process. A comparative profile was developed from the state of recycling and the various other aspects of solid waste management, both from the perspective of its economic feasibility and from the social aspects involved. This was done analyzing the greenhouse gas emissions and the decreased energy consumption. The effects of re-introducing recycled raw materials into the matrix and the ensuing reduction of the demand for virgin raw materials was based on the input-output matrix for the State of Rio de Janeiro. This paper also analyzes the energy savings obtained from recycling and measures the avoided emissions of greenhouse gases

  18. Study and development of a generalised input-output system for data base management systems

    Zidi, Noureddine

    1975-01-01

    This thesis reports a study which aimed at designing and developing a software for the management and execution of all input-output actions of data base management systems. This software is also an interface between data base management systems and the various operating systems. After a recall of general characteristics of database management systems, the author presents the previously developed GRISBI system (rational management of information stored in an integrated database), and describes difficulties faced to adapt this system to the new access method (VSAM, virtual sequential access method). This lead to the search for a more general solution, the development of which is presented in the second part of this thesis: environment of the input-output generalised system, architecture, internal specifications. The last part presents flowcharts and statements of the various routines [fr

  19. Quantum-optical input-output relations for dispersive and lossy multilayer dielectric plates

    Gruner, T.; Welsch, D.

    1996-01-01

    Using the Green-function approach to the problem of quantization of the phenomenological Maxwell theory, the propagation of quantized radiation through dispersive and absorptive multilayer dielectric plates is studied. Input-output relations are derived, with special emphasis on the determination of the quantum noise generators associated with the absorption of radiation inside the dielectric matter. The input-output relations are used to express arbitrary correlation functions of the outgoing field in terms of correlation functions of the incoming field and those of the noise generators. To illustrate the theory, photons at dielectric tunneling barriers are considered. It is shown that inclusion in the calculations of losses in the photonic band gaps may substantially change the barrier traversal times. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer's guide. APS Release 3.12

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers

  1. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  2. Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale input-output analysis

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, Bo; Shao, L.; Guo, S.; Zhou, S. Y.; Jiang, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework in this paper are detailed carbon emission account procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment, property management, demolition, and disposal for buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity databases based on multi-scale input-output analysis, essential for low-carbon planning, procurement and supply chain design, and logistics management.

  3. Enhancing MINIX 3 Input/Output performance using a virtual machine approach

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés; González, César Daniel

    2010-01-01

    MINIX 3 is an open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible, and secure. The kernel is extremely small and user processes, specialized servers and device drivers run as user-mode insulated processes. These features, the tiny amount of kernel code, and other aspects greatly enhance system reliability. The drawbacks of running device drivers in usermode are the performance penalties on input/output ports access, kernel data structures access, interrupt indirect manage...

  4. A Systematic Study for Smart Residential Thermostats: User Needs for the Input, Output, and Intelligence Level

    Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of “smart” residential thermostats—both in terms of wider connectivity and higher intelligence—has revealed great opportunity for energy conservation, as well as providing comfort and convenience. This paper focuses on the interaction design of such a novel system, and analyzed user requirements for input, output, and level of intelligence systematically through both in-depth interviews and a survey.

  5. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    Laghave, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  6. The Canadian Defence Input-Output Model DIO Version 4.41

    2011-09-01

    Request to develop DND tailored Input/Output Model. Electronic communication from AllenWeldon to Team Leader, Defence Economics Team onMarch 12, 2011...and similar contain- ers 166 1440 Handbags, wallets and similar personal articles such as eyeglass and cigar cases and coin purses 167 1450 Cotton yarn...408 3600 Radar and radio navigation equipment 409 3619 Semi-conductors 410 3621 Printed circuits 411 3622 Integrated circuits 412 3623 Other electronic

  7. Economic structure and pollution intensity within the environmental input-output framework

    Llop, Maria [Departament d' Economia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avgda. Universitat no. 1, 43204 Reus (Spain)]. E-mail: maria.llop@urv.cat

    2007-06-15

    The environmental input-output approach reveals the channels through which the environmental burdens of production activities are transmitted throughout the economy. This paper uses the input-output framework and analyses the changes in Spanish emission multipliers during the period 1995-2000. By decomposing the total changes in multipliers into different components, it is possible to evaluate separately the effects of economic structure and pollution intensity captured by the environmental input-output model. Specifically, in this study, we distinguish between the effects on multipliers caused by changes in emission coefficients (the pollution intensity effects) and the effects on multipliers caused by changes in technical coefficients (the economic structure effects). Our results show a significant reduction in the pollution intensity of production activities, which contributed negatively to changes in emission multipliers. They also show that the economic structure contributed positively to changes in emission multipliers. Together, these two effects lead to a small reduction in multipliers during the period of analysis. My results also show significant differences in the individual behaviour of different sectors in terms of their contribution to multiplier changes. Since there are considerable differences in the way individual sectors affect the changes in emission levels, and in the intensity of these effects, this means that the final effects will basically depend on the activity considered.

  8. Input-output supervisor; Le superviseur d'entree-sortie dans les ordinateurs

    Dupuy, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Vaujours (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [French] Le superviseur d'entree-sortie est le programme charge de gerer les echanges d'information entre la memoire rapide et les organes peripheriques d'un ordinateur. Ce travail se compose de trois parties: 1 - Etude d'un systeme d'entree-sortie general et theorique qui, en faisant un certain nombre d'hypotheses simplificatrices, permet de retrouver la plupart des superviseurs d'entree-sortie actuels. 2 - Expose d'une realisation concrete, gestion d'un tambour magnetique. 3 - Suggestions hardware en vue de faciliter le timesharing. (auteur)

  9. Economic structure and pollution intensity within the environmental input-output framework

    Llop, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The environmental input-output approach reveals the channels through which the environmental burdens of production activities are transmitted throughout the economy. This paper uses the input-output framework and analyses the changes in Spanish emission multipliers during the period 1995-2000. By decomposing the total changes in multipliers into different components, it is possible to evaluate separately the effects of economic structure and pollution intensity captured by the environmental input-output model. Specifically, in this study, we distinguish between the effects on multipliers caused by changes in emission coefficients (the pollution intensity effects) and the effects on multipliers caused by changes in technical coefficients (the economic structure effects). Our results show a significant reduction in the pollution intensity of production activities, which contributed negatively to changes in emission multipliers. They also show that the economic structure contributed positively to changes in emission multipliers. Together, these two effects lead to a small reduction in multipliers during the period of analysis. My results also show significant differences in the individual behaviour of different sectors in terms of their contribution to multiplier changes. Since there are considerable differences in the way individual sectors affect the changes in emission levels, and in the intensity of these effects, this means that the final effects will basically depend on the activity considered

  10. From water use to water scarcity footprinting in environmentally extended input-output analysis.

    Ridoutt, Bradley George; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Nolan, Martin; Bryan, Brett A

    2018-05-18

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) supports environmental policy by quantifying how demand for goods and services leads to resource use and emissions across the economy. However, some types of resource use and emissions require spatially-explicit impact assessment for meaningful interpretation, which is not possible in conventional EEIOA. For example, water use in locations of scarcity and abundance is not environmentally equivalent. Opportunities for spatially-explicit impact assessment in conventional EEIOA are limited because official input-output tables tend to be produced at the scale of political units which are not usually well aligned with environmentally relevant spatial units. In this study, spatially-explicit water scarcity factors and a spatially disaggregated Australian water use account were used to develop water scarcity extensions that were coupled with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO). The results link demand for agricultural commodities to the problem of water scarcity in Australia and globally. Important differences were observed between the water use and water scarcity footprint results, as well as the relative importance of direct and indirect water use, with significant implications for sustainable production and consumption-related policies. The approach presented here is suggested as a feasible general approach for incorporating spatially-explicit impact assessment in EEIOA.

  11. Input-output supervisor; Le superviseur d'entree-sortie dans les ordinateurs

    Dupuy, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Vaujours (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [French] Le superviseur d'entree-sortie est le programme charge de gerer les echanges d'information entre la memoire rapide et les organes peripheriques d'un ordinateur. Ce travail se compose de trois parties: 1 - Etude d'un systeme d'entree-sortie general et theorique qui, en faisant un certain nombre d'hypotheses simplificatrices, permet de retrouver la plupart des superviseurs d'entree-sortie actuels. 2 - Expose d'une realisation concrete, gestion d'un tambour magnetique. 3 - Suggestions hardware en vue de faciliter le timesharing. (auteur)

  12. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  13. Modeling the short-run effect of fiscal stimuli on GDP : A new semi-closed input-output model

    Chen, Quanrun; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart; Yang, Cuihong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new semi-closed input-output model, which reconciles input-output analysis with modern consumption theories. It can simulate changes in household consumption behavior when exogenous stimulus policies lead to higher disposable income levels. It is useful for quantifying

  14. Las redes sociales como herramienta de análisis estructural input-output.

    García Muñiz, Ana Salomé

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos fundamentales que posibilita el conocimiento en profundidad de una economía es la realización de un análisis de su estructura productiva. Dicho análisis supone una importante ayuda no sólo en la toma de decisiones de política económica, sino también constituye un requisito indispensable y previo a las tareas de predicción necesarias en un contexto empresarial.El estudio de una economía puede abordarse desde muy diversas ópticas, una de las cuales es el enfoque input-output, el cual permite analizar conjuntamente las relaciones intersectoriales de una economía y su demanda agregada, con lo cual se dispone de un conocimiento integrado de la actividad económica. Consideramos la teoría de redes como una importante “herramienta”, a nuestro juicio poco explotada en el ámbito económico, que constituye un marco general de estudio dentro del cual podemos encuadrar el análisis input-output. Esta teoría permite simplificar el esquema de relaciones surgido entre los sectores de una economía y, por lo tanto, favorecer la comprensión del mismo. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las relaciones interindustriales bajo la óptica de la teoría de las redes sociales y, al mismo tiempo, efectuar una comparación entre los resultados así obtenidos y los que se derivan de la aplicación de los métodos input-output clásicos.

  15. Runtime analysis of the (1+1) EA on computing unique input output sequences

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Computing unique input output (UIO) sequences is a fundamental and hard problem in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSM). Previous experimental research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be applied successfully to find UIOs for some FSMs. However, before EAs can...... in the theoretical analysis, and the variability of the runtime. The numerical results fit well with the theoretical results, even for small problem instance sizes. Together, these results provide a first theoretical characterisation of the potential and limitations of the (1 + 1) EA on the problem of computing UIOs....

  16. Priority economic sector and household income in Indonesia (an analysis of input output)

    Subanti, S.; Mulyanto; Hakim, A. R.; Mafruhah, I.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    This purpose of study aims to identify the roles of priority economic sectors on household incomes in Indonesia. Analyse in this paper used nine economic sectors, that representing result of classification from input output table. This study found that (1) priority economic sector are manufacturing sector & trade hotel and restaurant; (2) sector that have looking forward orientation included agriculture, mining & quarrying, and financial ownership & business services; and (3) electricity, gas, and water supply sector give the biggest impact to household income in Indonesia. The suggestion that policies aimed at increasing productivity and raising skills while encouraging individual participation in the formal labour market are essential.

  17. ¿Cómo transformar los modelos input-output para calcular multiplicadores netos?

    Pereira López, Xesús

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to calculate net input-output multipliers using different adjustments on the Leontief inverse, without simply removing part of its elements. Moreover, in order to increase the accuracy of the estimation, a standardization of the inverse is offered. The empirical application is presented for the Galician economy, based on the year 2011. A comparison between the proposed extended methodology and the traditional I-O techniques is shown, throughout the results obtained in the estimation of the backward and forward sectoral linkages. With this new approach, some of the conventional key sectors will not appear as such, like the case of the construction sector.

  18. Primary energy and greenhouse gases embodied in Australian final consumption: an input-output analysis

    Lenzen, M.

    1998-01-01

    Input-output modeling of primary energy and greenhouse gas embodiments in goods and services is a useful technique for designing greenhouse gas abatement policies. The present paper describes direct and indirect primary energy and greenhouse gas requirements for a given set of Australian final consumption. It considers sectoral disparities in energy prices, capital formation and international trade flows and it accounts for embodiments in the Gross National Expenditure as well as the Gross Domestic Product. Primary energy and greenhouse gas intensities in terms of MJ/$ and kg CO 2 -e/$ are reported, as well as national balance of primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  19. 'Key' sectors in final energy consumption: an input-output application to the Spanish case

    Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the determination of 'key' sectors in the final energy consumption. We approach this issue from an input-output perspective and we design a methodology based on the elasticities of the demands of final energy consumption. As an exercise, we apply the proposed methodology to the Spanish economy. The analysis allows us to indicate the greater or lesser relevance of the different sectors in the consumption of final energy, pointing out which sectors deserve greater attention in the Spanish case and showing the implications for energy policy

  20. Trade in value added in the West Pacific: An input-output analysis

    Nakamura, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of trade between the four regions in the West Pacific in both gross and value added terms is analyzed using international input-output tables. It is found that value added exports of computers and electronic equipment of the Asian economies are very limited in comparison with their gross exports, and that the largest shares of value added exports were accounted for by the services sectors in every region, particularly so in Japan and the US. Surpluses and deficits in bilateral t...

  1. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy prices and the post oil/energy crisis Brazilian inflation: an input-output study

    Lara-Resende, M.deM.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an attempt to understand the implications of the OPEC-induced severalfold increase in the international price of oil for average and sectoral domestic prices in Brazil, a large oil-importing open developing economy. Rather than using a Keynesian model (focusing on the universal characteristics of an economy), the study makes use of an open-price input-output model (capturing the structural characteristics of the Brazilian economy). The first three chapters, descriptive in nature, place in perspective the following three, which detail the model and the empirical results. The main conclusion is that, despite the significant increase observed in the post-crisis period, the relative percentage contribution of primary energy to wholesale inflation in Brazil is still relatively minor. A conservative estimate suggests that, in the years of substantial acceleration (1974 and 1979), approximately 15% of the wholesale inflation was due to energy (basically crude oil and oil derivatives). Though such low estimates are partly due to the limitations and assumptions underlying input-output analysis, it seems that the acceleration of inflation is related to more than cost increases originating in energy prices. It also seems to be related to agricultural and labor prices, as well as to the government's decision to abruptly and inopportunely raise several important product prices.

  3. The Input-output Status and Farmers’Willingness to Choose Ecological Operation of Hickory

    LIU Qiang; LI Shi-yong; WU Wei-guang

    2012-01-01

    This study takes Lin’an City which early carries out the experiment of ecological operation of hickory as the study site.On the basis of the input-output data on hickory and farmers’ land,we analyze the input-output status of hickory land which practises ecological operation,the operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation and the influencing factors.The results show that in the short term,ecological operation of hickory will have a certain negative impact on the economic benefits;within the experimental area,the degree of operators’ willingness to accept ecological operation of hickory is high,and the operators have a clear understanding of long-term comprehensive benefits which may be brought by ecological operation;the ecological experiment and demonstration of hickory have achieved certain results;family income level,characteristics of householders,education and training,and so on,are the main factors that affect the operators’ willingness to choose ecological operation.Finally,for how to further improve the promotion efficiency of ecological operation of hickory,we put forth some constructive recommendations.

  4. IMPORT COMPONENTS AND IMPORT MULTIPLIERS IN INDONESIAN ECONOMY: WORLD INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS

    Muchdie Muchdie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates, presents and discusses on import components and the impact of final demand change on Indonesian imports using Indonesian 36 sector input-output tables of years: 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 from World Input-Output Tables. The results showed that firstly, Indonesian import components of input were, on average, more than 20 percent; meaning that input that locally provided were less than 80 percent. Secondly, Indonesian import of input had increased significantly from US$ 36,011 million in 2000 to US$ 151,505 million in 2014. Thirdly, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Sector-3: Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco products, Sector-4: Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel and leather products, Sector-24: Construction, Sector-25: Wholesale and retail trade and repair, and Sector-26: Transportation and post services. Fourthly, by country of origin, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Japan, Korea, the USA, Australia, and China. Imports from Australia, Japan, and the US have been decreased significantly, but import from China has steadily increased. Finally, highest sectoral import multipliers occurred if final demands change in Sector-1: Crop and animal production, forestry, fishing and aquaculture, Sector-2: Mining and quarrying, Sector-23: Water collection; sewerage; waste collection, treatment and disposal activities, and Sector-30: Real estate activities, but there was no significant difference of import multipliers for country origin of import.

  5. Snapshot Views of the Romanian Economy on Regional Level Using Input-Output Methodology

    BORÓKA-JÚLIA BÍRÓ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our present paper proposes to give snapshot views on the status-quo of the Romanian economy at the level of development regions. From a methodological perspective, the study is based on the construction of an aggregated national Input-Output table from the more detailed one of the National Institute of Statistics, followed by the derivation of regional tables using the non-survey GRIT technique. Quantitative sectoral interrelationships are going to be analysed based on multipliers, backward and forward linkages in order to identify key sectors within regional economies. This could serve as a baseline for assessing the impact of several policies of the European Union on the Romanian economy, such as the Cohesion Policy and the Common Agricultural Policy. The lower territorial approach – i.e. the construction of regional Input-Output models – used within the present study is in accordance with the European Union’s NUTS2 level policy design and planning philosophy on the one hand. On the other hand, this analytic direction makes possible the use of the results as a base for regional economic development strategy design, highlighting structural specificities and discrepancies among regions of the same country.

  6. Input-output analysis of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities: An application for Catalonia

    Llop, Maria; Pie, Laia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the economic impact of alternative policies implemented on the energy activities of the Catalan production system. Specifically, we analyze the effects of a tax on intermediate energy uses, a reduction in intermediate energy demand, and a tax on intermediate uses combined with a reduction in intermediate energy demand. The methodology involves two versions of the input-output price model: a competitive price formulation and a mark-up price formulation. The input-output price framework will make it possible to evaluate how the alternative measures modify production prices, consumption prices, private real income, and intermediate energy uses. The empirical application is for the Catalan economy and uses economic data for the year 2001. The combination of a tax on energy uses and an improvement in the energy efficiency of the production system is a measure that accomplishes both economic and environmental goals, since it has no effects on prices, it has a positive effect on private real income and, finally, energy consumption is considerably reduced. (author)

  7. Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade. The effects of spatial aggregation

    Su, Bin; Ang, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade have been widely studied by researchers using the environmental input-output analysis framework. It is well known that both sector aggregation and spatial aggregation affect the results obtained in such studies. With regard to the latter, past studies are often conducted at the national level irrespective of country or economy size. For a large economy with the needed data, studies may be conducted at different levels of spatial aggregation. We examine this problem analytically by extending the work of Su et al. ([Su, B., Huang, H.C., Ang, B.W., Zhou, P., 2010. Input-output analysis of CO 2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of sector aggregation. Energy Economics 32 (1), 166-175.]) on sector aggregation. We present a numerical example using the data of China and by dividing the country into eight regions. It is found that the results are highly dependent on spatial aggregation. Our study shows that for a large country like China it is meaningful to look into the effect of spatial aggregation. (author)

  8. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  9. Analysis of network motifs in cellular regulation: Structural similarities, input-output relations and signal integration.

    Straube, Ronny

    2017-12-01

    Much of the complexity of regulatory networks derives from the necessity to integrate multiple signals and to avoid malfunction due to cross-talk or harmful perturbations. Hence, one may expect that the input-output behavior of larger networks is not necessarily more complex than that of smaller network motifs which suggests that both can, under certain conditions, be described by similar equations. In this review, we illustrate this approach by discussing the similarities that exist in the steady state descriptions of a simple bimolecular reaction, covalent modification cycles and bacterial two-component systems. Interestingly, in all three systems fundamental input-output characteristics such as thresholds, ultrasensitivity or concentration robustness are described by structurally similar equations. Depending on the system the meaning of the parameters can differ ranging from protein concentrations and affinity constants to complex parameter combinations which allows for a quantitative understanding of signal integration in these systems. We argue that this approach may also be extended to larger regulatory networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Space Industry

    Borrelli, Carmine; Buckon, Danielle; Cogossi, Bruce; Davidson, Cynthia; Ditzler-Smith, Cristie; Doddato, August; Gabrielson, Charles; Hubbard, Kenneth; Jacocks, Kent; Jircitano, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    .... To ensure these, U.S. policy should encourage more commercial activity in space, emphasize a more globally cooperative environment, change acquisition methods to emphasize cost control over performance at any cost...

  11. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando [Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, Universidad de Castilla - La Mancha, Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies and Goods (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  12. A comprehensive estimation of the economic effects of meteorological services based on the input-output method.

    Wu, Xianhua; Wei, Guo; Yang, Lingjuan; Guo, Ji; Lu, Huaguo; Chen, Yunfeng; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete) economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency) in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27-1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30-1 : 51). Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries.

  13. Assessing the influence of manufacturing sectors on electricity demand. A cross-country input-output approach

    Tarancon, Miguel Angel; Callejas Albinana, Fernando; Del Rio, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The production and consumption of electricity is a major source of CO 2 emissions in Europe and elsewhere. In turn, the manufacturing sectors are significant end-users of electricity. In contrast to most papers in the literature, which focus on the supply-side, this study tackles the demand-side of electricity. An input-output approach combined with a sensitivity analysis has been developed to analyse the direct and indirect consumptions of electricity by eighteen manufacturing sectors in fifteen European countries, with indirect electricity demand related to the purchase of industrial products from other sectors which, in turn, require the consumption of electricity in their manufacturing processes. We identify the industrial transactions and sectors, which account for a greater share of electricity demand. In addition, the impact of an electricity price increase on the costs and prices of manufacturing products is simulated through a price model, allowing us to identify those sectors whose manufacturing costs are most sensitive to an increase in the electricity price. (author)

  14. Compilation of an Embodied CO2 Emission Inventory for China Using 135-Sector Input-Output Tables

    Qian Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A high-quality carbon dioxide (CO2 inventory is the cornerstone of climate change mitigation. Most of the previously reported embodied CO2 inventories in China have no more than 42 sectors, and this limitation may introduce apparent inaccuracy into the analysis at the sector level. To improve the quality of input-output (IO-based CO2 inventories for China, we propose a practical energy allocation approach to link the energy statistics to the 135-sector IO tables for China and compiled a detailed embodied CO2 intensity and inventory for 2007 using a single-region IO model. Interpretation of embodied CO2 intensities by fuel category, direct requirement, and total requirement in the sectors were conducted to identify, from different perspectives, the significant contributors. The total embodied CO2 emissions in 2007 was estimated to be 7.1 Gt and was separated into the industrial sector and final demand sector. Although the total CO2 estimations by the 42-sector and 135-sector analyses are equivalent, the allocations in certain groups of sectors differ significantly. Our compilation methodologies address indirect environmental impacts from industrial sectors, including the public utility and tertiary sectors. This method of interpretation could be utilized for better communication with stakeholders.

  15. A Comprehensive Estimation of the Economic Effects of Meteorological Services Based on the Input-Output Method

    Xianhua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27–1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30–1 : 51. Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries.

  16. A Comprehensive Estimation of the Economic Effects of Meteorological Services Based on the Input-Output Method

    Wu, Xianhua; Yang, Lingjuan; Guo, Ji; Lu, Huaguo; Chen, Yunfeng; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete) economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency) in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27–1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30–1 : 51). Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries. PMID:24578666

  17. Analysis of possibilities of early diagnostics criteria for Parkinson's disease based on analysis of the input-output curve

    Janković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the possibilities of the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease at an early stage, based on characteristics of the input-output curve. The input-output (IO curve was analyzed in two ways: we analyzed the gain of the curve for low-level transcranial stimulation and we analyzed the overall 'quality' of the IO curve. The 'quality' of the curve calculation is based on basic concepts from quantum mechanics and calculation of Tsallis entropy.

  18. ProMC: Input-output data format for HEP applications using varint encoding

    Chekanov, S. V.; May, E.; Strand, K.; Van Gemmeren, P.

    2014-10-01

    A new data format for Monte Carlo (MC) events, or any structural data, including experimental data, is discussed. The format is designed to store data in a compact binary form using variable-size integer encoding as implemented in the Google's Protocol Buffers package. This approach is implemented in the PROMC library which produces smaller file sizes for MC records compared to the existing input-output libraries used in high-energy physics (HEP). Other important features of the proposed format are a separation of abstract data layouts from concrete programming implementations, self-description and random access. Data stored in PROMC files can be written, read and manipulated in a number of programming languages, such C++, JAVA, FORTRAN and PYTHON.

  19. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  20. Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.

    2016-04-01

    We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.

  1. Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.

    2015-11-01

    We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.

  2. Tourism and Economic Development in Romania: Input-Output Analysis Perspective

    MARIUS SURUGIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism provides a lot of opportunities for sustainable economic development. At local level, by its triggering effect it could represent a factor of economic recovery, by putting to good use the local material and human potential. By its position of predominantly final-branch, tourism exercises to a large impact on national economy by the vector of final demand, for which the possible and/or desirable variant for the future is an economic-social demand that must be satisfied by variants of total output. Using the input-output model (IO model a comparison was made of the matrix of direct technical coefficients (aij and the one of the total requirement coefficients (bij with the assistance of which the direct and propagated effects were determined for this activity by the indicators defining the dimensions of national economy.

  3. Switched periodic systems in discrete time: stability and input-output norms

    Bolzern, Paolo; Colaneri, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of stability and the characterisation of input-output norms for discrete-time periodic switched linear systems. Such systems consist of a network of time-periodic linear subsystems sharing the same state vector and an exogenous switching signal that triggers the jumps between the subsystems. The overall system exhibits a complex dynamic behaviour due to the interplay between the time periodicity of the subsystem parameters and the switching signal. Both arbitrary switching signals and signals satisfying a dwell-time constraint are considered. Linear matrix inequality conditions for stability and guaranteed H2 and H∞ performances are provided. The results heavily rely on the merge of the theory of linear periodic systems and recent developments on switched linear time-invariant systems.

  4. Detection of no-model input-output pairs in closed-loop systems.

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Alvarado, Christiam Segundo Morales; Garcia, Claudio

    2017-11-01

    The detection of no-model input-output (IO) pairs is important because it can speed up the multivariable system identification process, since all the pairs with null transfer functions are previously discarded and it can also improve the identified model quality, thus improving the performance of model based controllers. In the available literature, the methods focus just on the open-loop case, since in this case there is not the effect of the controller forcing the main diagonal in the transfer matrix to one and all the other terms to zero. In this paper, a modification of a previous method able to detect no-model IO pairs in open-loop systems is presented, but adapted to perform this duty in closed-loop systems. Tests are performed by using the traditional methods and the proposed one to show its effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade. The effects of sector aggregation

    Su, Bin; Huang, H.C.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade have been widely studied by researchers using the input-output analysis framework. These studies are often conducted at a specific level of sector aggregation and the choice made to a large extent is dictated by economic and energy data availability. We investigate analytically the possible effects of sector aggregation on the study results. We conduct empirical studies using the data of China and Singapore where energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in their exports are estimated at different levels of sector aggregation. A finding from the studies is that levels around 40 sectors appear to be sufficient to capture the overall share of emissions embodied in a country's exports. Another finding is that in approximating the 'ideal' situation the hybrid data treatment approach produces better results than the uniformly distributed data treatment approach. Other findings and some recommendations are also presented. (author)

  6. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures. An input-output analysis

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input-output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are examined with regression analysis, and are compared and interpreted on the basis of insight at the product level. With data from the Netherlands in the year 2000, we find that environmental impact increases with increasing household expenditures, although the degree to which the environmental impact increases differs per impact category. Climate change and eutrophication increase less than proportionally with increasing expenditures. Acidification increases nearly proportionally with increasing expenditures, whereas smog formation increases more than proportionally. It appears that the mix of necessities and luxuries to which an environmental impact is related is essential in explaining the relationship. (author)

  7. Use of microinterrupts to provide an instrument oriented input/output structure

    Zaky, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a bit-slice based computer, which has been developed for use in data acquisition and control applications. The main design goals have been to provide fast response to external events, and sufficient processing capability to perform data reduction in real time. The initial application of this computer has been in airborne, geophysical surveying, where such instruments as Gamma-ray spectrometers, magnetometers and navigation equipment are involved. In order to meet the response requirement mentioned above, a microinterrupt facility has been incorporated. Microinterrupts are serviced in microcodes routines which can be initiated within a maximum of two microinstruction cycle times from an external event. This facility makes it possible to implement powerful input/output control functions without the need for complex and specialized hardware interfaces for each instrument. (orig.)

  8. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.

    Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J

    2017-09-01

    Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia: An input-output analysis

    Putranti, Titi Muswati; Imansyah, Muhammad Handry

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the change of CO2 emission on manufacturing sectors in Indonesia using input-output analysis. The method used supply perspective can measure the impact of an increase in the value added of different productive on manufacturing sectors on total CO2 emission and can identify the productive sectors responsible for the increase in CO2 emission when there is an increase in the value added of the economy. The data used are based on Input-Output Energy Table 1990, 1995 and 2010. The method applied the elasticity of CO2 emission to value added. Using the elasticity approach, one can identify the highest elasticity on manufacturing sector as the change of value added provides high response to CO2 emission. Therefore, policy maker can concentrate on manufacturing sectors with the high response of CO2 emission due to the increase of value added. The approach shows the contribution of the various sectors that deserve more consideration for mitigation policy. Five of highest elasticity of manufacturing sectors of CO2 emission are Spinning & Weaving, Other foods, Tobacco, Wearing apparel, and other fabricated textiles products in 1990. Meanwhile, the most sensitive sectors Petroleum refinery products, Other chemical products, Timber & Wooden Products, Iron & Steel Products and Other non-metallic mineral products in 1995. Two sectors of the 1990 were still in the big ten, i.e. Spinning & weaving and Other foods in 1995 for the most sensitive sectors. The six sectors of 1995 in the ten highest elasticity of CO2 emission on manufacturing which were Plastic products, Other chemical products,Other fabricated metal products, Cement, Iron & steel products, Iron & steel, still existed in 2010 condition. The result of this research shows that there is a change in the most elastic CO2 emission of manufacturing sectors which tends from simple and light manufacturing to be a more complex and heavier manufacturing. Consequently, CO2 emission jumped

  10. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  11. Input-output energy analysis in dry apricot production of Turkey

    Esengun, Kemal; Guenduez, Orhan; Erdal, Guelistan

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the amount of input-output energy used in dry apricot production, to investigate the efficiency of energy consumption and to make an economic analysis of dry apricot production in Malatya, Turkey. Data used in this study were obtained from 97 farmers using a face to face questionnaire method. The sample farms were selected through a stratified random sampling technique. The population investigated was divided into two strata based on the size of apricot farms as 0.1-3.0 ha (66 farms) and larger than 3.1 ha (31 farms). The results revealed that 28647.03 MJ ha -1 energy were consumed by the first group and 17884.72 MJ ha -1 by the second group of farmers. The input-output ratio and productivities were 1.24 and 0.24 in the first strata and 1.31 and 0.25 in the second strata, respectively. Results further indicated that in both types of farms, 3/4 of the total energy cost was in non-renewable energy forms, and only 1/4 was in renewable forms. The economic analyses showed that the profit-cost ratios of the farms were 1.11 and 1.19, respectively. Net returns calculated were 414.51 $ ha -1 and 495.59 $ ha -1 in the farms investigated. It was concluded that extension activities are needed to improve the efficiency of energy consumption in dry apricot production and to employ environmentally friendly agricultural management practices and production methods

  12. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  13. Non-linear Membrane Properties in Entorhinal Cortical Stellate Cells Reduce Modulation of Input-Output Responses by Voltage Fluctuations

    Fernandez, Fernando R.; Malerba, Paola; White, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of voltage fluctuations arising from synaptic activity is a critical component in models of gain control, neuronal output gating, and spike rate coding. The degree to which individual neuronal input-output functions are modulated by voltage fluctuations, however, is not well established across different cortical areas. Additionally, the extent and mechanisms of input-output modulation through fluctuations have been explored largely in simplified models of spike generation, and with limited consideration for the role of non-linear and voltage-dependent membrane properties. To address these issues, we studied fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses in medial entorhinal cortical (MEC) stellate cells of rats, which express strong sub-threshold non-linear membrane properties. Using in vitro recordings, dynamic clamp and modeling, we show that the modulation of input-output responses by random voltage fluctuations in stellate cells is significantly limited. In stellate cells, a voltage-dependent increase in membrane resistance at sub-threshold voltages mediated by Na+ conductance activation limits the ability of fluctuations to elicit spikes. Similarly, in exponential leaky integrate-and-fire models using a shallow voltage-dependence for the exponential term that matches stellate cell membrane properties, a low degree of fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses can be attained. These results demonstrate that fluctuation-based modulation of input-output responses is not a universal feature of neurons and can be significantly limited by subthreshold voltage-gated conductances. PMID:25909971

  14. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  15. Development of EPICS Input Output Controller and User Interface for the PEFP Low Level RF Control System

    Song, Young Gi; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub

    2010-01-01

    The Low-Level RF (LLRF) control system of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was developed for handling the driving frequency for Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Draft Tube Linac (DTL) cavities in 2006. The RF amplitude and phase of the accelerating field were controlled within 1% and 1 degree by stability requirements, respectively. Operators have been using the LLRF control system under the windows based text console mode as an operator interface. The LLRF control system could not be integrated with Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input Output Controllers (IOC) for each subsection of PEFP facility. The main objective of this study is to supply operators of the LLRF control system with user friendly and convenient operating environment. The new LLRF control system is composed of a Verse Module Eurocard (VME) baseboard, a PCI Mezzanine Card (PMC), Board Support Package (BSP), EPICS software tool and a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) VxWorks. A test with a dummy cavity of the new LLRF control system shows that operators can control and monitor operation parameters for a desired feedback action by using EPICS Channel Access (CA).

  16. The embodied energy and environmental emissions of construction projects in China: An economic input-output LCA model

    Chang Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang Yaowu

    2010-01-01

    A complete understanding of the resource consumption, embodied energy, and environmental emissions of civil projects in China is difficult due to the lack of comprehensive national statistics. To quantitatively assess the energy and environmental impacts of civil construction at a macro-level, this study developed a 24 sector environmental input-output life-cycle assessment model (I-O LCA) based on 2002 Chinese national economic and environmental data. The model generates an economy-wide inventory of energy use and environmental emissions. Estimates based on the level of economic activity related to planned future civil works in 2015 are made. Results indicate that the embodied energy of construction projects accounts for nearly one-sixth of the total economy's energy consumption in 2007, and may account for approximately one-fifth of the total energy use by 2015. This energy consumption is dominated by coal and oil consumptions. Energy-related emissions are the main polluters of the country's atmosphere and environment. If the industry's energy use and manufacturing techniques remain the same as in 2002, challenges to the goals for total energy consumption in China will appear in the next decade. Thus, effective implementation of efficient energy technologies and regulations are indispensable for achieving China's energy and environmental quality goals.

  17. Assessing the suitability of input-output analysis for enhancing our understanding of potential economic effects of Peak Oil

    Kerschner, Christian; Hubacek, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Given recent developments on energy markets and skyrocketing oil prices, we argue for an urgent need to study the potential effects of world oil production reaching a maximum (Peak Oil) in order to facilitate the development of adaptation policies. We consider input-output (IO) modelling as a powerful tool for this purpose. However, the standard Leontief type model implicitly assumes that all necessary inputs to satisfy a given demand can and will be supplied. This is problematic if the availability of certain key inputs becomes restricted and it is therefore only of limited usefulness for the study of the phenomenon of Peak Oil. Hence this paper firstly reviews two alternative modelling tools within the IO framework: supply-driven and mixed models. The former has been severely criticised for its problematic assumption of perfect factor substitution and perfect elasticity of demand as revealed by Oosterhaven [Oosterhaven J. On the plausibility of the supply-driven IO model. J Reg Sci 1988; 28:203-17. ]. The supply-constrained model on the other hand proved well suited to analyse the quantity dimension of Peak Oil and is therefore applied empirically in the second part of the paper, using data for the UK, Japanese and Chilean economy. Results show how differences in net-oil exporting and net-oil importing countries are clearly visible in terms of final demand. Industries, most affected in all countries, include transportation, electricity production and financial and trade services. (author)

  18. Applying physical input-output tables of energy to estimate the energy ecological footprint (EEF) of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one

  19. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  20. Accounting for the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in input-output life cycle assessment.

    Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2013-08-20

    Nitrogen is indispensable for sustaining human activities through its role in the production of food, animal feed, and synthetic chemicals. This has encouraged significant anthropogenic mobilization of reactive nitrogen and its emissions into the environment resulting in severe disruption of the nitrogen cycle. This paper incorporates the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen into the 2002 input-output model of the U.S. economy. Due to the complexity of this cycle, this work proposes a unique classification of nitrogen flows to facilitate understanding of the interaction between economic activities and various flows in the nitrogen cycle. The classification scheme distinguishes between the mobilization of inert nitrogen into its reactive form, use of nitrogen in various products, and nitrogen losses to the environment. The resulting inventory and model of the US economy can help quantify the direct and indirect impacts or dependence of economic sectors on the nitrogen cycle. This paper emphasizes the need for methods to manage the N cycle that focus not just on N losses, which has been the norm until now, but also include other N flows for a more comprehensive view and balanced decisions. Insight into the N profile of various sectors of the 2002 U.S. economy is presented, and the inventory can also be used for LCA or Hybrid LCA of various products. The resulting model is incorporated in the approach of Ecologically-Based LCA and available online.

  1. Characterizing the Input-Output Function of the Olfactory-Limbic Pathway in the Guinea Pig

    Gian Luca Breschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the neuroscientific community is taking more and more advantage of the continuous interaction between engineers and computational neuroscientists in order to develop neuroprostheses aimed at replacing damaged brain areas with artificial devices. To this end, a technological effort is required to develop neural network models which can be fed with the recorded electrophysiological patterns to yield the correct brain stimulation to recover the desired functions. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to derive the input-output function of the olfactory-limbic pathway in the in vitro whole brain of guinea pig, less complex and more controllable than an in vivo system. We first experimentally characterized the neuronal pathway by delivering different sets of electrical stimuli from the lateral olfactory tract (LOT and by recording the corresponding responses in the lateral entorhinal cortex (l-ERC. As a second step, we used information theory to evaluate how much information output features carry about the input. Finally we used the acquired data to learn the LOT-l-ERC “I/O function,” by means of the kernel regularized least squares method, able to predict l-ERC responses on the basis of LOT stimulation features. Our modeling approach can be further exploited for brain prostheses applications.

  2. Uncovering the spatially distant feedback loops of global trade: A network and input-output approach.

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; He, Jiaying; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change is increasingly driven by global trade. The term "telecoupling" has been gaining ground as a means to describe how human actions in one part of the world can have spatially distant impacts on land and land-use in another. These interactions can, over time, create both direct and spatially distant feedback loops, in which human activity and land use mutually impact one another over great expanses. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to clarify spatially distant feedbacks in the case of land use and global trade. We use an innovative mix of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for analyzing the co-evolution of changes in trade network patterns with those of land use, as embodied in trade. Our results indicate that the formation of trade ties and changes in embodied land use mutually impact one another, and further, that these changes are linked to disparities in countries' wealth. Through identifying this feedback loop, our results support ongoing discussions about the unequal trade patterns between rich and poor countries that result in uneven distributions of negative environmental impacts. Finally, evidence for this feedback loop is present even when controlling for a number of underlying mechanisms, such as countries' land endowments, their geographical distance from one another, and a number of endogenous network tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of LCI considering the uncertainties of energy consumptions in input-output analyses

    Yoshida, Y.; Ishitani, H.; Kudoh, Y.; Okuma, H.; Kobayashi, O.

    2002-01-01

    The dispersion of input-coefficients in input-output (I-O) tables and the effect on LCA results are evaluated, utilizing the data for compiling the I-O tables. CO 2 emission intensity and its variance with each commodity and service categorized in the I-O tables are estimated and applied to the LCA of a specific passenger car. Calculated results show that coefficients of variation (CV) of CO 2 -emission intensity are about 0.8 for the intermediate commodities which are frequently assessed in LCA. CO 2 emissions induced by the production of the passenger car and the CV of the emissions are estimated at 1.3 Mg-C and 0.14, respectively. The value of CV is smaller than that of the most intermediate commodities since the CV of total emissions decreases as the number of components of the passenger car increases. Although emissions intensity itself given by I-O tables has large variance, I-O tables are still useful tools for LCA if the number of components of a product is large enough. (author)

  4. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  5. Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.

    Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

    2013-10-01

    Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Multiregional input-output model for China's farm land and water use.

    Guo, Shan; Shen, Geoffrey Qiping

    2015-01-06

    Land and water are the two main drivers of agricultural production. Pressure on farm land and water resources is increasing in China due to rising food demand. Domestic trade affects China's regional farm land and water use by distributing resources associated with the production of goods and services. This study constructs a multiregional input-output model to simultaneously analyze China's farm land and water uses embodied in consumption and interregional trade. Results show a great similarity for both China's farm land and water endowments. Shandong, Henan, Guangdong, and Yunnan are the most important drivers of farm land and water consumption in China, even though they have relatively few land and water resource endowments. Significant net transfers of embodied farm land and water flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Heilongjiang is the largest farm land and water supplier, in contrast to Shanghai as the largest receiver. The results help policy makers to comprehensively understand embodied farm land and water flows in a complex economy network. Improving resource utilization efficiency and reshaping the embodied resource trade nexus should be addressed by considering the transfer of regional responsibilities.

  7. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: Inventory and input-output analysis

    Chen, G.Q.; Zhang Bo

    2010-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 with the most recent statistics availability, a concrete inventory covering CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O is composed and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the emission embodiment in final consumption and international trade. The estimated total direct GHG emission amounts to 7456.12 Mt CO 2 -eq by the commonly referred IPCC global warming potentials, with 63.39% from energy-related CO 2 , 22.31% from non-energy-related CO 2 , 11.15% from CH 4 and 3.15% from N 2 O. Responsible for 81.32% of the total GHG emissions are the five sectors of the Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, with distinctive emission structures. The sector of Construction holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and consumption, and the emission embodied in gross capital formation is prominently more than those in other components of the final consumption characterized by extensive investment in contrast to limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with emissions embodied in exports of 3060.18 Mt CO 2 -eq, in magnitude up to 41.04% of the total direct emission.

  9. Modeling uncertainties in workforce disruptions from influenza pandemics using dynamic input-output analysis.

    El Haimar, Amine; Santos, Joost R

    2014-03-01

    Influenza pandemic is a serious disaster that can pose significant disruptions to the workforce and associated economic sectors. This article examines the impact of influenza pandemic on workforce availability within an interdependent set of economic sectors. We introduce a simulation model based on the dynamic input-output model to capture the propagation of pandemic consequences through the National Capital Region (NCR). The analysis conducted in this article is based on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic data. Two metrics were used to assess the impacts of the influenza pandemic on the economic sectors: (i) inoperability, which measures the percentage gap between the as-planned output and the actual output of a sector, and (ii) economic loss, which quantifies the associated monetary value of the degraded output. The inoperability and economic loss metrics generate two different rankings of the critical economic sectors. Results show that most of the critical sectors in terms of inoperability are sectors that are related to hospitals and health-care providers. On the other hand, most of the sectors that are critically ranked in terms of economic loss are sectors with significant total production outputs in the NCR such as federal government agencies. Therefore, policy recommendations relating to potential mitigation and recovery strategies should take into account the balance between the inoperability and economic loss metrics. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  11. Analysis of the South African input-output table to determine sector specific economic impacts: A study on real estate

    Douw Gert Brand Boshoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Input-output analysis is a well known method of analysing specific economic activity and the influence of different sectors on the economy and on one another. This study investigates the ability of input-output analysis to consider the importance of commercial real estate on the economy. It analyses the economic activity, contribution to GDP, employment created and taxes generated with reference to direct, indirect and induced impacts. The research shows the contribution of the specific sector on the economy and highlights the ability of input-output analysis to determine the impact of different types of property and locational analysis. The interaction of property with the economy is discussed, which also enables the use of the analysis reported here for short term future forecasting, whereby expected real estate activity is used to forecast the direct, indirect and induced effects on the economy.

  12. Greenhouse gas footprinting for small businesses - The use of input-output data

    Berners-Lee, M.; Howard, D.C.; Moss, J.; Kaivanto, K.; Scott, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) must be reduced; their major source is man's use of energy. A key way to manage emissions is for the energy consumer to understand their impact and the consequences of changing their activities. This paper addresses the challenge of delivering relevant, practical and reliable greenhouse gas 'footprint' information for small and medium sized businesses. The tool we describe is capable of ascribing parts of the total footprint to specific actions to which the business can relate and is sensitive enough to reflect the consequences of change. It provides a comprehensive description of all emissions for each business and sets them in the context of local, national and global statistics. It includes the GHG costs of all goods and services irrespective of their origin and without double accounting. We describe the development and use of the tool, which draws upon both national input-output data and process-based life cycle analysis techniques; a hybrid model. The use of national data sets the output in context and makes the results consistent with national and global targets, while the life cycle techniques provide a means of reflecting the dynamics of actions. The model is described in some detail along with a rationale and a short discussion of validity. As the tool is designed for small commercial users, we have taken care to combine rigour with practicality; parameterising from readily available client data whilst being clear about uncertainties. As an additional incentive, we also report on the potential costs or savings of switching activities. For users to benefit from the tool, they need to understand the output and know how much confidence they should place in the results. We not only describe an application of non-parametric statistics to generate confidence intervals, but also offer users the option of and guidance on adjusting figures to examine the sensitivity of the model to its

  13. ANALISIS PERANAN DAN DAMPAK INVESTASI INFRASTRUKTUR TERHADAP PEREKONOMIAN INDONESIA: ANALISIS INPUT-OUTPUT

    Chandra Darma Permana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Despite being recovered from economic crisis, the infrastructure development in Indonesia still hasn’t shown a significant improvement. It is reflected from the diminishing government allocation for infrastructure as a percentage of Gross Domestic Products. The main objective of the study is to analyze the role of infrastructure through the linkage analysis, dispersion effect analysis, multiplier effect analysis, and the investment effect analysis. The scope of infrastructure is only referred to electricity, gas and water, and construction sector. The data used for this study is the 2005 Indonesian Input-Output Table. The result of the study has shown that infrastructure has a higher backward linkage than its forward. In addition, all of the infrastructure sectors has shown more than one dispersion coefficient and conversely has revealed less than one value for the dispersion sensitivity. Which means that infrastructure had a better capability to support the development of its upstream sectors than its downstream. Infrastructure has a positive multiplier effect toward the other sectors. The growth of the investment in the electricity, gas and water sector has given the biggest effect toward the change of the total outpu, while the water sector has given the biggest effect toward the change in the total income,  and road, bridge and port sector has given the biggest effect toward the change in the total labour.

  14. Modeling DPOAE input/output function compression: comparisons with hearing thresholds.

    Bhagat, Shaum P

    2014-09-01

    Basilar membrane input/output (I/O) functions in mammalian animal models are characterized by linear and compressed segments when measured near the location corresponding to the characteristic frequency. A method of studying basilar membrane compression indirectly in humans involves measuring distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) I/O functions. Previous research has linked compression estimates from behavioral growth-of-masking functions to hearing thresholds. The aim of this study was to compare compression estimates from DPOAE I/O functions and hearing thresholds at 1 and 2 kHz. A prospective correlational research design was performed. The relationship between DPOAE I/O function compression estimates and hearing thresholds was evaluated with Pearson product-moment correlations. Normal-hearing adults (n = 16) aged 22-42 yr were recruited. DPOAE I/O functions (L₂ = 45-70 dB SPL) and two-interval forced-choice hearing thresholds were measured in normal-hearing adults. A three-segment linear regression model applied to DPOAE I/O functions supplied estimates of compression thresholds, defined as breakpoints between linear and compressed segments and the slopes of the compressed segments. Pearson product-moment correlations between DPOAE compression estimates and hearing thresholds were evaluated. A high correlation between DPOAE compression thresholds and hearing thresholds was observed at 2 kHz, but not at 1 kHz. Compression slopes also correlated highly with hearing thresholds only at 2 kHz. The derivation of cochlear compression estimates from DPOAE I/O functions provides a means to characterize basilar membrane mechanics in humans and elucidates the role of compression in tone detection in the 1-2 kHz frequency range. American Academy of Audiology.

  15. Syringe-Injectable Electronics with a Plug-and-Play Input/Output Interface.

    Schuhmann, Thomas G; Yao, Jun; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-09-13

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics represent a new paradigm for brain science and neural prosthetics by virtue of the stable seamless integration of the electronics with neural tissues, a consequence of the macroporous mesh electronics structure with all size features similar to or less than individual neurons and tissue-like flexibility. These same properties, however, make input/output (I/O) connection to measurement electronics challenging, and work to-date has required methods that could be difficult to implement by the life sciences community. Here we present a new syringe-injectable mesh electronics design with plug-and-play I/O interfacing that is rapid, scalable, and user-friendly to nonexperts. The basic design tapers the ultraflexible mesh electronics to a narrow stem that routes all of the device/electrode interconnects to I/O pads that are inserted into a standard zero insertion force (ZIF) connector. Studies show that the entire plug-and-play mesh electronics can be delivered through capillary needles with precise targeting using microliter-scale injection volumes similar to the standard mesh electronics design. Electrical characterization of mesh electronics containing platinum (Pt) electrodes and silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) demonstrates the ability to interface arbitrary devices with a contact resistance of only 3 Ω. Finally, in vivo injection into mice required only minutes for I/O connection and yielded expected local field potential (LFP) recordings from a compact head-stage compatible with chronic studies. Our results substantially lower barriers for use by new investigators and open the door for increasingly sophisticated and multifunctional mesh electronics designs for both basic and translational studies.

  16. Energy embodied in the international trade of China. An energy input-output analysis

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Guo, Ju'e; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Growing international trade has not only positively affected the People's Republic of China's (China's) economic development, but also expanded the exportation of energy embodied in goods during their production. This energy flow out will pose risks to China's rational utilization of natural resources as well as environmental protection. In this paper, we evaluate the energy embodied in goods produced in China during 1992-2005 and use input-output structural decomposition analysis to identify five key factors causing the changes of energy embodied in exports. (Direct primary energy efficiency, primary energy consumption structure, structure of intermediate inputs, structure of exports, and scale of exports.) For the three sub-periods of 1992-1997, 1997-2002, and 2002-2005, results show that China is a net exporter of energy, and the energy embodied in exports tends to increase over time. The expanding total volume of exports and increasing exports of energy-intensive goods tend to enlarge the energy embodied in exports within all three sub-periods, but these driving forces were offset by a considerable improvement of energy efficiency and changes in primary energy consumption structure from 1992 to 2002 and the effects of structure of intermediate input only in the sub-period from 1992 to 1997. From 2002 to 2005, the sharp augmentation of energy embodied in exports was driven by all the five factors. Our research has practical implications for the Chinese economy. Results of this study suggest that the energy embodied in trade should receive special attentions in energy policies design to limit the energy resource out-flow and pollution generation. (author)

  17. Active structural acoustic control of helicopter interior multifrequency noise using input-output-based hybrid control

    Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.

  18. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Prioritizing towards a green export portfolio for India: An environmental input-output approach

    Goldar, Amrita; Bhanot, Jaya; Shimpo, Kazushige

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of free trade have often hailed international trade as an engine of economic growth. However, the foreign trade sector, like many other sectors in developing countries, frequently involves these countries walking a tightrope between their developmental objectives and environmental goals. In this regard, prioritizing for developing a 'green' yet internationally competitive export portfolio provides a quintessential win-win solution to the problem. This study factors in both environmental benignity (indicated by total CO 2 emission intensity) as well as trade competitiveness (indicated by revealed comparative advantage index) in identifying the 'ideal' Indian export portfolio. The analysis calculates the level of direct and indirect emissions from the foreign trade sector (exports and imports) using the environmental input-output (EIO) matrix for 2003/04 for India that has been jointly developed by researchers from Keio University, Japan, and The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), New Delhi. The derived basket is compared to the current portfolio to estimate the potential saving from compositional changes and to suggest directions for policymaking to emphasize or de-emphasize the export of certain categories of exports. - Highlights: → India was a net GHG importer (0.064 Gt CO 2 ) in 2003/04. → Emissions from exports and imports were 0.189 and 0.253 Gt CO 2 , respectively. → Prioritizing of exports using IO and RCA shows horticultural exports to be ideal. → Services and gems and jewelry exports were also found suitable. → A composition change in exports leads to reduction in emissions by 30 Mt CO 2 annually.

  20. The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012: An empirical study of input-output structural decomposition analysis

    Wu, Ya; Zhang, Wanying

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy, especially the constant progress in industrialisation and urbanisation, China's energy consumption has increased annually. Coal consumption, which accounts for about 70% of total energy consumption, is of particular concern. Hence, it is crucial to study the driving factors behind coal demand in China. This work uses an input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) model to decompose the increments of coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 into the sum of the weighted average for eight driving factors from three aspects, including: domestic demand, foreign trade and industrial upgrading. Results show that: during the research period, the demand for coal increases by 153.3%, which is increased by 185.4% and 76.4% respectively due to the driving forces of domestic demand and foreign trade; in addition, industrial upgrading can effectively restrain the growth in coal demand with a contribution rate of −108.6%. On this basis, we mainly studied the driving factors of coal demand in six high energy-consuming industries, namely the electrical power, energy processing, metals, mining, building materials and chemical industries. Finally, we proposed targeted policy suggestions for the realisation of energy conservation and emissions reduction in China. - Highlights: •The driving factors behind coal demand in China from 1997 to 2012 are studied. •An input-output structural decomposition analysis is developed. •A fresh perspective of domestic demand, foreign trade, and industrial upgrading is employed. •The influences of these affecting factors on China's coal demand from six high energy-consuming industries are investigated. •Targeted policy suggestions for energy conservation and emissions reduction are suggested.

  1. A consumption-based, regional input-output analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon regional index

    Boyd, Britta; Mangalagiu, Diana; Straatman, Bas

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a consumption-based method accounting for greenhouse gas emissions at regional level based on a multi-region input-output model. The method is based on regional consumption and includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well...

  2. Socio-economic effects of a HYSOL CSP plant located in different countries: An input output analysis

    Corona, B.; López, A.; San Miguel, G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to estimate the socioeconomic effects associated with the production of electricity by a CSP plant with HYSOL configuration, using Input Output Analysis. These effects have been estimated in terms of production of Goods and Services (G&S), multiplier effect, value added,

  3. EXIOBASE 3: Developing a Time Series of Detailed Environmentally Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output Tables

    Stadler, K.; Wood, R.; Bulavskaya, T.; Södersten, C.J.; Simas, M.; Schmidt, S.; Usubiaga, A.; Acosta-Fernández, J.; Kuenen, J.; Bruckner, M.; Giljum, S.; Lutter, S.; Merciai, S.; Schmidt, J.H.; Theurl, M.C.; Plutzar, C.; Kastner, T.; Eisenmenger, N.; Erb, K.H.; Koning, A. de; Tukker, A.

    2018-01-01

    Environmentally extended multiregional input-output (EE MRIO) tables have emerged as a key framework to provide a comprehensive description of the global economy and analyze its effects on the environment. Of the available EE MRIO databases, EXIOBASE stands out as a database compatible with the

  4. Reconstruction of an Input-Output Table for Germany in 1936 : Conceptual and Empirical-Statistical Problems

    Fremdling, Rainer; Staeglin, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this contribution is to present the final results of a long-term research project which aimed at constructing an input-output table for Germany in 1936. Our research can be seen as follow-up of the activities of the German Imperial Statistical Office (Statistisches Reichsamt) which

  5. Computer-Mediated Input, Output and Feedback in the Development of L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    Matthews, Joshua; Cheng, Junyu; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of computer-mediated input, output and feedback on the development of second language (L2) word recognition from speech (WRS). A quasi-experimental pre-test/treatment/post-test research design was used involving three intact tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Classes were either assigned to…

  6. The structures of energy consumption and emissions into air in Finnish economy in 1990. An input-output analysis

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Tervo, H.

    1994-01-01

    The structures of utilization of primary energy, final consumption of electricity, and the main emissions into the air in Finnish economy in 1990 have been derived in this report on the basis of input-output analysis. By using an input-output model it is possible to calculate what is the productional content of different products, i.e. how much in total, directly or indirectly, work of different fields of production is needed for production of commodities. Energy and emissions into air can be assumed as basic inputs of the production. By using input-output analysis it is possible to follow up how the energy inputs and emissions of different branches are bound into commodity flows of economy. Hence a systematic and expiring figure is obtained of energy and emission contents of different branches. The basic matrix for calculation of primary energy and emission coefficients of different branches are made in the chapter no. 2. The formulae for calculation of the energy and emission contents of commodities are derived from common basic formulae of input-output analysis in the chapter no. 3. The branch-based energy and emission coefficients of commodities are presented in the chapter no. 4. The energies bound into household commodities and emissions into the air are presented in the chapter no. 5. The total presentation of the Finnish national product, the gross national product and the energy and emission contents of the main commodities is made in the chapter no. 6. (11 refs.)

  7. Greenhouse gas footprinting for small businesses--the use of input-output data.

    Berners-Lee, M; Howard, D C; Moss, J; Kaivanto, K; Scott, W A

    2011-02-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) must be reduced; their major source is man's use of energy. A key way to manage emissions is for the energy consumer to understand their impact and the consequences of changing their activities. This paper addresses the challenge of delivering relevant, practical and reliable greenhouse gas 'footprint' information for small and medium sized businesses. The tool we describe is capable of ascribing parts of the total footprint to specific actions to which the business can relate and is sensitive enough to reflect the consequences of change. It provides a comprehensive description of all emissions for each business and sets them in the context of local, national and global statistics. It includes the GHG costs of all goods and services irrespective of their origin and without double accounting. We describe the development and use of the tool, which draws upon both national input-output data and process-based life cycle analysis techniques; a hybrid model. The use of national data sets the output in context and makes the results consistent with national and global targets, while the life cycle techniques provide a means of reflecting the dynamics of actions. The model is described in some detail along with a rationale and a short discussion of validity. As the tool is designed for small commercial users, we have taken care to combine rigour with practicality; parameterising from readily available client data whilst being clear about uncertainties. As an additional incentive, we also report on the potential costs or savings of switching activities. For users to benefit from the tool, they need to understand the output and know how much confidence they should place in the results. We not only describe an application of non-parametric statistics to generate confidence intervals, but also offer users the option of and guidance on adjusting figures to examine the sensitivity of the model to its

  8. Influence of active dendritic currents on input-output processing in spinal motoneurons in vivo.

    Lee, R H; Kuo, J J; Jiang, M C; Heckman, C J

    2003-01-01

    The extensive dendritic tree of the adult spinal motoneuron generates a powerful persistent inward current (PIC). We investigated how this dendritic PIC influenced conversion of synaptic input to rhythmic firing. A linearly increasing, predominantly excitatory synaptic input was generated in triceps ankle extensor motoneurons by slow stretch (duration: 2-10 s) of the Achilles tendon in the decerebrate cat preparation. The firing pattern evoked by stretch was measured by injecting a steady current to depolarize the cell to threshold for firing. The effective synaptic current (I(N), the net synaptic current reaching the soma of the cell) evoked by stretch was measured during voltage clamp. Hyperpolarized holding potentials were used to minimize the activation of the dendritic PIC and thus estimate stretch-evoked I(N) for a passive dendritic tree (I(N,PASS)). Depolarized holding potentials that approximated the average membrane potential during rhythmic firing allowed strong activation of the dendritic PIC and thus resulted in marked enhancement of the total stretch-evoked I(N) (I(N,TOT)). The net effect of the dendritic PIC on the generation of rhythmic firing was assessed by plotting stretch-evoked firing (strong PIC activation) versus stretch-evoked I(N,PASS) (minimal PIC activation). The gain of this input-output function for the neuron (I-O(N)) was found to be ~2.7 times as high as for the standard injected frequency current (F-I) function in low-input conductance neurons. However, about halfway through the stretch, firing rate tended to become constant, resulting in a sharp saturation in I-O(N) that was not present in F-I. In addition, the gain of I-O(N) decreased sharply with increasing input conductance, resulting in much lower stretch-evoked firing rates in high-input conductance cells. All three of these phenomena (high initial gain, saturation, and differences in low- and high-input conductance cells) were also readily apparent in the differences between

  9. GAMBARAN UMUM SEKTOR UNGGULAN DAN KONTRIBUSI SEKTOR PERTANIAN DI PROVINSI JAWA TIMUR (OLAH DATA TABEL INPUT-OUTPUT PROVINSI JAWA TIMUR TAHUN 2010

    Azizatun Nurhayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pembangunan daerah dilakukan dengan memaksimalkan potensi sumber daya yang ada di suatu daerah. Karena sebagian besar penduduk Indonesia adalah petani, maka penting untuk mengetahui kontribusi sektor pertanian terhadap perekonomian suatu daerah. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kontribusi sektor pertanian terhadap multiplier output, pengganda pendapatan, dan pengganda tenaga kerja. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Analisis Input Output yang diperoleh dari Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Jawa Timur Tahun 2010. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komoditas tebu berada pada kuadran II, Dari keseluruhan data di atas maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa (1 Komoditas tebu dapat mendorong berkembangnya industri gula di Jawa Timur, (2 di sektor peternakan, subsektor yang dapat dikembangkan adalah pakan ternak, pemotongan hewan, sapi, kambing dan domba, serta ayam (3 di sektor pengolahan subsektor pengolahan es krim, beras, dan penggilingan padi serta rokok. ABSTRACTLocal development is held by maximizing potential resources in a particular region. In addition, most of Indonesian people are farmers so it’s important to identify the agriculural contribution in local economic. The aim of this study are to study the contribution of agriculture  in ouput multiplier, income multiplier, and employment multiplier. The method which was used in this research was input-output analysis based on Badan Pusat Statistik East Java Province’s data in 2010. From the analysis, we can conclude that the sugarcane was formed in the second quadrant, in which (1sugarcane comodity promoted the sugar industry in East Java Province (2 in livestock subsector, the woof of livestock industry, animals truncation, sheeps, goats, and chicken husbandry (poultry were potentially to be developed (3 in processing subsector which was based on agriculture product, ice cream and processing, rice milling and cigarette were potentially to be developed. 

  10. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Saitou, Hiroaki [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  11. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2013-10-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed, as an extended version from the former version FEMAXI-6, for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which are fully disclosed in the code model description published in the form of another JAEA-Data/Code report. The present manual, which is the very counterpart of this description document, gives detailed explanations of files and operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of input/output, sample Input/Output, methods of source code modification, subroutine structure, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform fuel analysis by FEMAXI-7. (author)

  12. Finding identifiable parameter combinations in nonlinear ODE models and the rational reparameterization of their input-output equations.

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; Distefano, Joseph J

    2011-09-01

    When examining the structural identifiability properties of dynamic system models, some parameters can take on an infinite number of values and yet yield identical input-output data. These parameters and the model are then said to be unidentifiable. Finding identifiable combinations of parameters with which to reparameterize the model provides a means for quantitatively analyzing the model and computing solutions in terms of the combinations. In this paper, we revisit and explore the properties of an algorithm for finding identifiable parameter combinations using Gröbner Bases and prove useful theoretical properties of these parameter combinations. We prove a set of M algebraically independent identifiable parameter combinations can be found using this algorithm and that there exists a unique rational reparameterization of the input-output equations over these parameter combinations. We also demonstrate application of the procedure to a nonlinear biomodel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An extended environmental input-output lifecycle assessment model to study the urban food-energy-water nexus

    Sherwood, John; Clabeaux, Raeanne; Carbajales-Dale, Michael

    2017-10-01

    We developed a physically-based environmental account of US food production systems and integrated these data into the environmental-input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) model. The extended model was used to characterize the food, energy, and water (FEW) intensities of every US economic sector. The model was then applied to every Bureau of Economic Analysis metropolitan statistical area (MSA) to determine their FEW usages. The extended EIO-LCA model can determine the water resource use (kGal), energy resource use (TJ), and food resource use in units of mass (kg) or energy content (kcal) of any economic activity within the United States. We analyzed every economic sector to determine its FEW intensities per dollar of economic output. This data was applied to each of the 382 MSAs to determine their total and per dollar of GDP FEW usages by allocating MSA economic production to the corresponding FEW intensities of US economic sectors. Additionally, a longitudinal study was performed for the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA, metropolitan statistical area to examine trends from this singular MSA and compare it to the overall results. Results show a strong correlation between GDP and energy use, and between food and water use across MSAs. There is also a correlation between GDP and greenhouse gas emissions. The longitudinal study indicates that these correlations can shift alongside a shifting industrial composition. Comparing MSAs on a per GDP basis reveals that central and southern California tend to be more resource intensive than many other parts of the country, while much of Florida has abnormally low resource requirements. Results of this study enable a more complete understanding of food, energy, and water as key ingredients to a functioning economy. With the addition of the food data to the EIO-LCA framework, researchers will be able to better study the food-energy-water nexus and gain insight into how these three vital resources are interconnected

  14. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth

    Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr

    2016-01-01

    There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and...

  15. Direct torque and flux regulation of synchronous reluctance motor drives based on input-output feedback linearization

    Abootorabi Zarchi, H.; Arab Markadeh, Gh.R.; Soltani, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear speed tracking controller is introduced for three-phase synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) on the basis of input-output feedback linearization (IOFL), considering the different control strategies (maximum torque per Ampere, high efficiency and minimum KVA rating for the inverter) related to this motor. The proposed control approach is capable of decoupling control of stator flux and motor generated torque. The validity and effectiveness of the method is verified by simulation and experimental results.

  16. Carbon and energy footprints of electric delivery trucks:a hybrid multi-regional input-output life cycle assessment

    Zhao, Yang; Onat, Nuri Cihat; Küçükvar, Murat; Tatari, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    Due to frequent stop-and-go operation and long idling periods when driving in congested urban areas, the electrification of commercial delivery trucks has become an interesting topic nationwide. In this study, environmental impacts of various alternative delivery trucks including battery electric, diesel, diesel-electric hybrid, and compressed natural gas trucks are analyzed. A novel life cycle assessment method, an environmentally-extended multi-region input-output analysis, is utilized to c...

  17. CO2 emissions embodied in China-US trade: Input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio

    Du Huibin; Guo Jianghong; Mao Guozhu; Smith, Alexander M.; Wang Xuxu; Wang, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China-US trade, an input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio (EDR) is used to estimate embodied CO 2 emissions; a structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is employed to analyze the driving factors for changes in CO 2 emissions embodied in China's exports to the US during 2002-2007. The results of the input-output analysis show that net export of CO 2 emissions increased quickly from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. These trends are due to a reduction in total CO 2 emission intensity, a decrease in the exchange rate, and small imports of embodied CO 2 emissions. The results of the SDA demonstrate that total export volume was the largest driving factor for the increase in embodied CO 2 emissions during 2002-2007, followed by intermediate input structure. Direct CO 2 emissions intensity had a negative effect on changes in embodied CO 2 emissions. The results suggest that China should establish a framework for allocating emission responsibilities, enhance energy efficiency, and improve intermediate input structure. - Highlights: → An input-output analysis based on the emergy/dollar ratio estimated embodied CO 2 . → A structural decomposition analysis analyzed the driving factors. → Net export of CO 2 increased from 2002 to 2005 but decreased from 2005 to 2007. → Total export volume was the largest driving factor. → A framework for allocating emission responsibilities.

  18. Spring 2004 Industry Study: Space Industry

    Romano, Anthony F; Brandt, Linda S; Burns, Cynthia Q; Grubbs, Lawrence K; McGee, Anne E; Barzler, Paul M; Bennett, Kathleen R; Bryner, Drew A; Clubb, Timothy L; Flynn, John E

    2004-01-01

    .... These challenges include the complex technologies necessary to safely travel the hazardous environment and great distances of space, as well as the public will and commitment of resources required...

  19. Space Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    2009-01-01

    Space Flight Center, Cocoa Beach, FL Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Cocoa Beach, FL Naval Ordnance Test Unit, Cocoa Beach, FL 50th Space Wing... America .” In 2009, as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of the fulfillment of that vision, it is appropriate to pause and reflect on how far we...value system, providing high-value services to both government and commercial consumers. The estimate of international and U.S. government consumption

  20. A Variable Input-Output Model for Inflation, Growth, and Energy for the Korean Economy.

    1983-12-01

    and the sales price of cukput as determinan -s of the technical coefficients were suggested by Walras [Ref. 4] and many other eco.cmis.s. (Ref. 5] Arrow...34included in manufacturing and construction secter. The other industries include the social and government services. 32 Ii. * 1.’ *. - .-- :~ ~~\\ ~~ v...e3lectricity, government enterprise, and other social commercial industries. The rate of growth of the money suiply and interest ratqs on loans are the key

  1. NewSpace: The Emerging Commercial Space Industry

    Martin, Gary

    2016-01-01

    A lecture to students at the International Space University. Topics include: - We are at a turning point in the history of space exploration and development the cusp of a revolution, new industries are being born that use space in many non-traditional ways - The established military industrial space sector is no longer the only game in town - Increased competition and new capabilities will change the marketplace forever - Everyone interested in working in the space sector will be affected.

  2. A Country-Specific Water Consumption Inventory Considering International Trade in Asian Countries Using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Table

    Yuya Ono

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the impacts of water use in the life cycle of products and services are increasing among various stakeholders. The water footprint is a tool to identify critical and effective points for reducing the impact of water use through the entire life cycle of products, services, and organizations. The purpose of this study was to develop a water consumption inventory database that focused on identifying of Asian water consumption using an input-output (IO framework. An Asia International Input-Output table (AIIO was applied in this study. The amount of water consumption required for agricultural products was estimated by modeling; for other sectors it was estimated from statistical reports. The intensities of direct water consumption in each sector were calculated by dividing the amount of water consumption by the domestic production. Based on the IO analysis using Leontief’s inverse matrix, the intensities of water consumption from cradle to gate were estimated for all goods and services. There was high intensity of water consumption in the primary industry sectors, together with a high dependency on rainwater as an input water source. The water consumption intensities generally showed a larger reduction in secondary sectors, in comparison with the tertiary sectors, due to the use of recycled water. There were differences between this study and previous studies due to the use of site-specific production data and the temporal resolution of crop production. By considering site-specific conditions, it is expected that the dataset developed here can be used for estimating the water footprint of products, services, and organizations in nine countries (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and USA.

  3. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  4. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-10-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  5. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  6. Perubahan Struktur Ekonomi, Dekomposisi Sumber Pertumbuhan Output, dan Pertumbuhan Total Factor Productivity (TFP: Analisis Lanjutan Tabel Input-Output Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, 2000-2010

    Nurul Fajri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth is the target of economic development in each area. Economic development should be prioritized in sectors that can be a major driver of the economy so that the economy can grow faster. Economic growth can be seen from the aggregate demand side, namely consumption, investment, government spending, exports and imports, and the aggregate supply side namely labor growth, capital growth and the growth of TFP (Total Factor Productivity. This study uses South Kalimantan’s Input-Output Tables of 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results showed that although the structure of the value-added of the mining sector remains the main economic pillar, but this sector has low linkages with other sectors. The prime mover and driving economic growth sector are manufacturing sector i.e chemical industry, food, beverages and tobacco industry, rubber and plastics industry, paper, printing and publishing industry and industry of metal, machinery, transport equipment and other manufacturing industries. Based Multiplier Product Matrix, manufacturing industry suggest a leading role in the economy so that it can be said that the province of South Kalimantan are heading toward a change in the economic structure. Decomposition of sources of growth based on the Chenery’s model (1960 showed that the main source of economic growth in South Kalimantan is exports by 67 percent in the period 2000-2005 and 73.72 percent in the period 2005-2010, especially the export of coal. Decomposition of productivity growth made by Namura and Kuroda’s model (2004 and suggests that TFP growth and capital have a strong linear relationship and significant Output growth, while labor productivity have no significant correlation with Output growth. Finally, the wealth of the abundant natural resources, industry-oriented economic growth and sustainable development in South Kalimantan Province is agriculture-based industries and mining-based industries with the main strategy is to

  7. Determination of input/output characteristics of full-bridge AC/DC/DC converter for arc welding

    Stefanov, Goce; Karadzinov, Ljupco; Sarac, Vasilija; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and practical implementation of AC/DC/DC converter in mode of arc welding. An analysis of the operation of AC/DC/DC converter and its input/output characteristics are determined with computer simulations. The practical part is consisted of AC/DC/DC converter prototype for arc welding with output power of 3 kW and switching frequency of 64 kHz. The operation of AC/DC/DC converter is validated with experimental measurements.

  8. Modelling Implicit Communication in Multi-Agent Systems with Hybrid Input/Output Automata

    Marta Capiluppi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose an extension of Hybrid I/O Automata (HIOAs to model agent systems and their implicit communication through perturbation of the environment, like localization of objects or radio signals diffusion and detection. To this end we decided to specialize some variables of the HIOAs whose values are functions both of time and space. We call them world variables. Basically they are treated similarly to the other variables of HIOAs, but they have the function of representing the interaction of each automaton with the surrounding environment, hence they can be output, input or internal variables. Since these special variables have the role of simulating implicit communication, their dynamics are specified both in time and space, because they model the perturbations induced by the agent to the environment, and the perturbations of the environment as perceived by the agent. Parallel composition of world variables is slightly different from parallel composition of the other variables, since their signals are summed. The theory is illustrated through a simple example of agents systems.

  9. Sectoral risk research about input-output structure of the United States

    Zhang, Mao

    2018-02-01

    There exist rare researches about economic risk in sectoral level, which is significantly important for risk prewarning. This paper employed status coefficient to measure the symmetry of economic subnetwork, which is negatively correlated with sectoral risk. Then, we do empirical research in both cross section and time series dimensions. In cross section dimension, we study the correlation between sectoral status coefficient and sectoral volatility, earning rate and Sharpe ratio respectively in the year 2015. Next, in the perspective of time series, we first investigate the correlation change between sectoral status coefficient and annual total output from 1997 to 2015. Then, we divide the 71 sectors in America into agriculture, manufacturing, services and government, compare the trend terms of average sectoral status coefficients of the four industries and illustrate the causes behind it. We also find obvious abnormality in the sector of housing. At last, this paper puts forward some suggestions for the federal government.

  10. Input-output balances of acids, heavy metals and nutrients, and compartments of accumulation and depletion in forest ecosystems

    Mayer, R.

    1989-01-01

    Forest damage and decline are the consequence of several stress factors acting upon forest ecosystems in various combinations and degrees. Impact of atmospheric pollutants is certainly one of the most prominent of these factors. Regional comparion is facilitated by considering groups of atmospheric substances. We distinguish: 1. Acids and acidifying substances, 2. Heavy metals and 3. Nutrients: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S. Forest decline has to be recognized as an expression of changes within the forest ecosystem, changes which must be accompanied by a non-steady state of the material balance. The best way to investigate changes in the material balance is to look at input and output of matter to the ecosystems. A positive balance (input > output) over a period of more than one year means accumulation, negative balance (input < output) means depletion of a substance. Based upon several case studies (Subjects I, K), we come to a typification of the material balance at any individual site which is defined by the immission/deposition situation on the one hand, by the geological-pedological site characteristics on the other hand. (orig.VT)

  11. The Comparative Effects of Comprehensible Input, Output and Corrective Feedback on the Receptive Acquisition of L2 Vocabulary Items

    Mohammad Nowbakht

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the comparative effects of comprehensible input, output and corrective feedback on the receptive acquisition of L2 vocabulary items were investigated. Two groups of beginning EFL learners participated in the study. The control group received comprehensible input only, while the experimental group received input and was required to produce written output. They also received corrective feedback on their lexical errors if any. This could result in the production of modified output. The results of the study indicated that (a the group which produced output and received feedback (if necessary outperformed the group which only received input in the post-test, (b within the experimental group, feedback played a greater role in learners’ better performance than output, (c also a positive correlation between the amount of feedback an individual learner received, and his overall performance in the post-test; and also between the amount of feedback given for a specific word and the correct responses given to its related item in the post-test was found.  The findings of this study provide evidence for the role of output production along with receiving corrective feedback in enhancing L2 processing by drawing further L2 learners’ attention to their output which in turn may result in improving their receptive acquisition of L2 words. Furthermore, as the results suggested, feedback made a more contribution to L2 development than output. Keywords: comprehensible input, output, interaction, corrective feedback, modified output, receptive vocabulary acquisition

  12. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  13. A controls engineering approach for analyzing airplane input-output characteristics

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An engineering approach for analyzing airplane control and output characteristics is presented. State-space matrix equations describing the linear perturbation dynamics are transformed from physical coordinates into scaled coordinates. The scaling is accomplished by applying various transformations to the system to employ prior engineering knowledge of the airplane physics. Two different analysis techniques are then explained. Modal analysis techniques calculate the influence of each system input on each fundamental mode of motion and the distribution of each mode among the system outputs. The optimal steady state response technique computes the blending of steady state control inputs that optimize the steady state response of selected system outputs. Analysis of an example airplane model is presented to demonstrate the described engineering approach.

  14. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  15. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-11-01

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  16. Supply Chain Vulnerability Analysis Using Scenario-Based Input-Output Modeling: Application to Port Operations.

    Thekdi, Shital A; Santos, Joost R

    2016-05-01

    Disruptive events such as natural disasters, loss or reduction of resources, work stoppages, and emergent conditions have potential to propagate economic losses across trade networks. In particular, disruptions to the operation of container port activity can be detrimental for international trade and commerce. Risk assessment should anticipate the impact of port operation disruptions with consideration of how priorities change due to uncertain scenarios and guide investments that are effective and feasible for implementation. Priorities for protective measures and continuity of operations planning must consider the economic impact of such disruptions across a variety of scenarios. This article introduces new performance metrics to characterize resiliency in interdependency modeling and also integrates scenario-based methods to measure economic sensitivity to sudden-onset disruptions. The methods will be demonstrated on a U.S. port responsible for handling $36.1 billion of cargo annually. The methods will be useful to port management, private industry supply chain planning, and transportation infrastructure management. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. New Space Industries for the Next Millennium

    Smitherman, D. V., Jr. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    New Space Industries For the Next Millennium is a final report of the findings from the New Space Industries Workshop held in Washington, DC, in February 1998. The primary purpose of this workshop was to identify what must be done to develop new markets, and to generate plans, milestones and new organizational relationships designed to facilitate the goal of space development. This document provides a summary report on the results of that workshop and is not intended as a statement of NASA or government policy. Previous studies had shown great potential for the development of new markets in space (e.g., travel and entertainment, space solar power, satellite and space transfer services, research and development in space, space manufacturing, and space resources), and a great need for coordination and formation of infrastructures (e.g., space transportation, space business parks, and space utilities), to facilitate the growth of new space businesses. The New Space Industries Workshop brought together government, academia, and industry participants from several previous studies and other professionals interested in the development of space for commercial purposes. Their participation provided input into the role of government and industry in space development as well as the technology needs that will enable space development. The opening of the frontier of space, not just to government missions but to private individuals and commercial business, is a challenge of overarching importance. It is our hope that the workshop and this final report continue in earnest the process of identifying and overcoming the barriers to large-scale public access and development of space in the early years of the next century.

  18. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Høst-Madsen, Niels Karim Høst-Madsen; Schmidt, Jannick H.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO) database...... as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study...... a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results...

  19. Considering capital goods in life cycle assessments by input-output analysis. Offshore wind farm as an application example

    Eickelkamp, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Capital goods are not normally taken into consideration in assessing the sustainability of products on the basis of life cycle assessments. Capital goods are machines and buildings that are used for production purposes over the course of a product's life cycle. Using an offshore wind farm as an example the present study shows how capital goods can be taken into account via a methodologically expanded input-output analysis and thus factored into the life cycle assessment. Besides comparing different calculation methods the author performs a detailed analysis of those parameters with the greatest influence on the outcome. The results show that capital goods have a substantial impact on sustainability in both energy-related and environmental terms. Capital goods should therefore be taken into consideration in life cycle assessments.

  20. Estimating the basilar-membrane input-output function in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    To partly characterize the function of cochlear processing in humans, the basilar membrane (BM) input-output function can be estimated. In recent studies, forward masking has been used to estimate BM compression. If an on-frequency masker is processed compressively, while an off-frequency masker...... is transformed more linearly, the ratio between the slopes of growth of masking (GOM) functions provides an estimate of BM compression at the signal frequency. In this study, this paradigm is extended to also estimate the knee-point of the I/O-function between linear rocessing at low levels and compressive...... processing at medium levels. If a signal can be masked by a low-level on-frequency masker such that signal and masker fall in the linear region of the I/O-function, then a steeper GOM function is expected. The knee-point can then be estimated in the input level region where the GOM changes significantly...

  1. Economic and CO2 mitigation impacts of promoting biomass heating systems: An input-output study for Vorarlberg, Austria

    Madlener, Reinhard; Koller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical investigation about the economic and CO 2 mitigation impacts of bioenergy promotion in the Austrian federal province of Vorarlberg. We study domestic value-added, employment, and fiscal effects by means of a static input-output analysis. The bioenergy systems analysed comprise biomass district heating, pellet heating, and automated wood chip heating systems, as well as logwood stoves and boilers, ceramic stoves, and buffer storage systems. The results indicate that gross economic effects are significant, regarding both investment and operation of the systems, and that the negative economic effects caused by the displacement of conventional decentralised heating systems might be in the order of 20-40%. Finally, CO 2 mitigation effects are substantial, contributing already in 2004 around 35% of the 2010 CO 2 mitigation target of the Land Vorarlberg for all renewable energy sources

  2. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Saitou, Hiroaki [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which has been fully disclosed in the code model description published recently as JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. The present manual, which is the counterpart of this description, gives detailed explanations of operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of Input/Output, methods of source code modification, features of subroutine modules, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform a fuel analysis with FEMAXI-7. This report includes some descriptions which are modified from the original contents of JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  3. Input/output manual of light water reactor fuel performance code FEMAXI-7 and its related codes

    Suzuki, Motoe; Udagawa, Yutaka; Nagase, Fumihisa; Saitou, Hiroaki

    2012-07-01

    A light water reactor fuel analysis code FEMAXI-7 has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the fuel behavior in normal conditions and in anticipated transient conditions. Numerous functional improvements and extensions have been incorporated in FEMAXI-7, which has been fully disclosed in the code model description published recently as JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. The present manual, which is the counterpart of this description, gives detailed explanations of operation method of FEMAXI-7 code and its related codes, methods of Input/Output, methods of source code modification, features of subroutine modules, and internal variables in a specific manner in order to facilitate users to perform a fuel analysis with FEMAXI-7. This report includes some descriptions which are modified from the original contents of JAEA-Data/Code 2010-035. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (author)

  4. Modelo Input-Output de Leontief: teoría de grafos frente a estructuras pretopológicas

    Amo Saus, Mª Elisa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones intersectoriales presentes en el Modelo Input-Output han sido objeto de numerosos análisis matemáticos. En una primera etapa, y debido a su propio planteamiento como un sistema de ecuaciones lineales, W. Leontief y su escuela, haciendo uso del álgebra lineal y el cálculo matricial, consiguieron computar el vector de producciones totales a partir del vector de demandas finales. Posteriormente, autores como Kuhn (1956 ó R. Dorfman, P. Samuelson y R. Solow (1958 emplearon técnicas de programación lineal en la resolución del modelo. Más tarde, C. Ponsard (1969 y R. Lantner(1974, entre otros, profundizaron en el análisis estructural del modelo Input-Output, mediante técnicas de grafos, asignándole un grafo de transferencia. En las VIII Jornadas de ASEPUMA, nosotras mismas, siguiendo el planteamiento de M. Mougeot, G. Duru y J. P. Auray (1977, expusimos cómo ciertas relaciones de interdependencia definidas entre las ramas de producción inducían unas estructuras pretoplógicas que permitían determinar su propensión a comprar o vender al resto. Analizados en profundidad estos dos últimos métodos de análisis, descubrimos grandes analogías en ambos planteamientos en sus aportaciones al estudio de las relaciones de interdependencia en el modelo, y que ahora tratamos de exponer brevemente.

  5. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying the risk of an increase in the prices of non-energy products by combining the portfolio and input-output approaches

    Suzuki, Kengo; Uchiyama, Yohji

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the price of imported fossil fuels indirectly increases the producer price in non-energy sectors; however, this indirect influence cannot be taken into account by the traditional portfolio approach. This study proposes an analytical framework combining the input-output (I-O) model and the portfolio approach that can take the indirect influence into account. A risk of an increase in the producer price in Japanese non-energy sectors during the period 1970-2000 is estimated, and the causes of a decrease in the risk through the analysis period are clarified by decomposing an index of the risk. The result indicates that almost all non-energy sectors have decreased this risk during the analysis period. The degree and cause of the decrease depends on a sector's location in the hierarchical structure of Japanese industries. For example, assembly sectors have decreased their risk mainly as the result of improvement in energy usage by upstream sectors, such as material sectors, rather than their own improvements. Proper policies considering such a structure are required to decrease the risk further because the effort taken to do so is seldom motivated by economic profit.

  7. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  8. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    Louise Laumann Kjaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO database as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study 2, the approach was used as basis for an Environmental Profit and Loss account for the healthcare company, Novo Nordisk A/S. Case study 3 used the approach for life cycle assessment of a tanker ship. We conclude that EIO-based analyses offer a holistic view of environmental performance, provide a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results, including how to measure and monitor the effect of the different actions. Thus, future research should include more detailed models to support decision-making.

  9. The impacts of removing energy subsidies on economy-wide rebound effects in China: An input-output analysis

    Li, Ke; Jiang, Zhujun

    2016-01-01

    Facing with the increasing contradiction of economic growth, energy scarcity and environmental deterioration, energy conservation and emissions abatement have been ambitious targets for the Chinese government. Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement is a primary measure to achieve these targets. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. This paper adopted a modified input-output model to estimate the economy-wide energy rebound effects across China's economic sectors with the consideration of energy subsidies. The empirical results show that the aggregate rebound effect of China is about 1.9% in 2007–2010, thus technological advancement significantly restrains energy consumption increasing. Removing energy subsidies will cause the aggregate rebound effect declines to 1.53%. Specifically, removing subsidies for coal and nature gas can reduce the rebound effects signifcantly, while removing the subsidies for oil products has a small impact on rebound effect. The existence of rebound effects implies that technological advancement should be cooperated with energy price reform so as to achieve the energy saving target. In addition, the government should consider the diversity of economic sectors and energy types when design the reform schedule. - Highlights: • Rebound effects with the consideration of energy subsidies are estimated in China. • When considering the interactions among sectors, the aggregate rebound effect become small. • Removing subsidies will reduce energy consumption, thereby declining the rebound effects. • Removing subsidies for different energy types has varies effects on rebound effect.

  10. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-01-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation

  11. Carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007: A 135-sector inventory and input-output embodiment

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.

    2010-11-01

    A 135-sector inventory and embodiment analysis for carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007 is presented in this paper by an ecological input-output modeling based on the physical entry scheme. Included emissions and resources belong to six categories as: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O; (2) energy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and firewood; (3) water in terms of freshwater; (4) exergy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, grain, bean, tuber, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, jute, sugarcane, sugar beet, tobacco, silkworm feed, tea, fruits, vegetables, wood, bamboo, pulp, meat, egg, milk, wool, aquatic products, iron ore, copper ore, bauxite, lead ore, zinc ore, pyrite, phosphorite, gypsum, cement, nuclear fuel, and hydropower; (5) and (6) solar and cosmic emergies in terms of sunlight, wind power, deep earth heat, chemical power of rain, geopotential power of rain, chemical power of stream, geopotential power of stream, wave power, geothermal power, tide power, topsoil loss, coal, crude oil, natural gas, ferrous metal ore, non-ferrous metal ore, non-metal ore, cement, and nuclear fuel. Accounted based on the embodied intensities are carbon emissions and resources use embodied in the final use as rural consumption, urban consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, and export, as well as in the international trade balance. The resulted database is basic to environmental account of carbon emissions and resources use at various levels.

  12. Decoupling and Sources of Structural Transformation of East Asian Economies: An International Input-Output Decomposition Analysis

    Jong-Hwan Ko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to answer two questions using input-output decomposition analysis: 1 Have emerging Asian economies decoupled? 2 What are the sources of structural changes in gross outputs and value-added of emerging Asian economies related to the first question? The main findings of the study are as follows: First, since 1990, there has been a trend of increasing dependence on exports to extra-regions such as G3 and the ROW, indicating no sign of "decoupling", but rather an increasing integration of emerging Asian countries into global trade. Second, there is a contrasting feature in the sources of structural changes between non-China emerging Asia and China. Dependence of non-China emerging Asia on intra-regional trade has increased in line with strengthening economic integration in East Asia, whereas China has disintegrated from the region. Therefore, it can be said that China has contributed to no sign of decoupling of emerging Asia as a whole.

  13. The impact on chinese economic growth and energy consumption of the Global Financial Crisis: An input-output analysis

    Yuan, Chaoqing; Liu, Sifeng; Xie, Naiming

    2010-01-01

    The dependence on foreign trade increased sharply in China, and therefore Chinese economy is obviously export-oriented. The Global Financial Crisis will impact the Chinese economic growth violently. Chinese government has recently adopted some effective measures to fight against the Global Financial Crisis. The most important measure is the 4 trillion Yuan ($586 billion) stimulus plan which was announced on November 9, 2008. This paper discusses the influence on energy consumption and economic growth of Global Financial Crisis and the stimulus plan against it by input-output analysis. The results show that the fall of exports caused by the Global Financial Crisis will lead to a decrease of 7.33% in GDP (Gross Domestic Production) and a reduction of 9.21% in energy consumption; the stimulus plan against the Global Financial Crisis will lead to an increase of 4.43% in economic growth and an increase of 1.83% in energy consumption; In the Global Financial Crisis, energy consumption per unit GDP will fall in China. (author)

  14. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei [North Electronic Device Research Institution, P.O. Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  15. Hybrid input-output approach to metal production and its application to the introduction of lead-free solders.

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2008-05-15

    The production process of metals such as copper, lead, and zinc is characterized by mutual interconnections and interdependence, as well as by the occurrence of a large number of byproducts, which include precious or rare metals, such as gold, silver, bismuth, and indium. On the basis of the framework of waste input-output (WIO), we present a hybrid 10 model that takes full account of the mutual interdependence among the metal production processes and the interdependence between them and all the other production sectors of the economy as well. The combination of a comprehensive representation of the whole national economy and the introduction of process knowledge of metal production allows for a detailed analysis of different materials-use scenarios under the consideration of full supply chain effects. For illustration, a hypothetical case study of the introduction of lead-free solder involving the production of silver as a byproduct of copper and lead smelting processes was developed and implemented using Japanese data. To meet the increased demand for the recovery and recycling of silver resources from end-of-life products, the final destination of metal silver in terms of products and user categories was estimated, and the target components with the highest silver concentration were identified.

  16. Estimation of Truck Trips on Large-Scale Irrigation Project: A Combinatory Input-Output Commodity-Based Approach

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the agricultural-based countries, the requirement on transportation infrastructure should not only be limited to accommodate general traffic but also the transportation of crop and agricultural products during the harvest seasons. Most of the past researches focus on the development of truck trip estimation techniques for urban, statewide, or nationwide freight movement but neglect the importance of rural freight movement which contributes to pavement deterioration on rural roads especially during harvest seasons. Recently, the Thai Government initiated a plan to construct a network of reservoirs within the northeastern region, aiming at improving existing irrigation system particularly in the areas where a more effective irrigation system is needed. It is expected to bring in new opportunities on expanding the cultivation areas, increasing the economy of scale and enlarging the extent market of area. As a consequence, its effects on truck trip generation needed to be investigated to assure the service quality of related transportation infrastructure. This paper proposes a combinatory input-output commodity-based approach to estimate truck trips on rural highway infrastructure network. The large-scale irrigation project for the northeastern of Thailand is demonstrated as a case study.

  17. NASDA and the Space Industry in Japan

    Takamatsu, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    With over 30 years of history in space activities, Japan is now recognized as one of space powers in the world. Compared to other countries though, the features of Japanese space development are unique in several aspects. At first, its efforts are directed solely toward peaceful purposes and strictly separated from military uses. Secondly, there are many space related governmental agencies and institutes which are under supervision of different ministries. Thirdly, although the government budget is moderate and sales revenue of space industries is not so large, many large companies in aerospace or electronics industries see the importance of this business and compete each other mainly in the domestic market. NASDA, founded in 1969, is the largest governmental space organization and has played an important role in realizing practical applications of space activities. It has rapidly caught up the technology gap behind leading countries and has achieved remarkable successes with its own launch vehicles and satellites. Space industries, under the guidance of NASDA, have learned much from the U.S. companies and improved their technology levels and enjoyed steady growth during the early stage of Japanese space development. But before they became competitive enough in the world space business, the trade conflict between Japan and the U.S. made the procurement of Japanese non-R&D satellites open to the foreign satellite companies. Furthermore, interruptions of space activities due to recent successive failures of launch vehicles as well as Japanese economic slump have made space industries face hard situations. Under these circumstances, M&A of launch vehicle companies as well as satellite makers took place for the first time in Japanese aero-space history. Also at the government level, reorganization of space agencies is now under process. It is expected as a natural consequence of the merge of the Ministry of Education and the Science an Technology Agency, three space

  18. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-12-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  19. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  20. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  1. The net employment impact of energy transition in France: An input-output analysis of the 'negaWatt' scenario

    Quirion, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    We study the impact on employment in France of the implementation of the energy transition scenario built by negaWatt (2011), which provides a massive development of energy savings (through measures of sufficiency and energy efficiency) and renewable energy between 2012 and 2050. Compared to 2010, this scenario results in a halving of CO 2 emissions from energy sources in France in 2030 and a division by 16 in 2050, without capture and storage of CO 2 , without implementation of new nuclear power plant and closing existing plants after 40 years of operation at maximum. We calculate the effect on employment of the implementation of this scenario compared to a baseline scenario that extends recent developments and considers the policies already decided. The method used to calculate the effect on employment of each scenario is to calculate the cost of the main technical and organizational options used, to allocate these costs among the 118 branches of the French economy and multiply these costs by the employment content of each branch. The latter is estimated by input-output analysis, which enables the recording of jobs generated by the production of all inputs. One of two scenarios being more expensive than the other, one must take into account the negative effect on employment of funding such costs. For this, it is assumed that this additional cost is borne by households and that they decrease their consumption accordingly by the same amount. This avoids biasing the results in favour of the most expensive scenario. The implementation of negaWatt scenario leads to a positive effect on employment, on the order of 240 000 full-time equivalent jobs in 2020 and 630,000 in 2030. We study the sensitivity of results to assumptions on prices of imported energy, the evolution of labour productivity, the distribution of costs between households and governments, and finally the consumption-savings decision. The effect on employment is largely positive in all cases. (author)

  2. Global warming agreements, international trade and energy/carbon embodiments: an input-output approach to the Italian case

    Mongelli, I.; Tassielli, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol the absence of Green House Gases (GHGs) commitments of developing countries (non-Annex I) and the more flexible terms of implementation which are allowed to countries shifting toward a market economy (transition economies) naturally lead to the absence or to less constraining national measures and policies of reduction of the GHGs emissions which, in turn, may determine a comparative advantage in the production of the highest energy/carbon intensive commodities for these countries. These arguments are valid also considering the future implementation of the European Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATS). Thus, developing countries may become a haven for the production of not environmental-friendly commodities; in this case, the so-called Pollution Haven Hypothesis, stating that due to freer international trade the comparative advantage may change the economic structure and consequently the trade patterns of the countries linked by trade relationships, could occur. This would lead to the increase of the transfers of energy and carbon embodied in traded commodities from developing countries and transition economies toward Kyoto or EATS constrained countries. The aim of this paper is to verify if for Italy, as a Kyoto and EATS complying country, evidence of a change in the trade patterns, occurred on the basis of the Pollution Haven Hypothesis, does exist and to estimate the magnitude of the under-estimation of the carbon actually emitted: the carbon leakage. The Input-Output model has been used to calculate the intensities of energy consumption and the related Green House Gases emission, for each Italian economic sector

  3. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  4. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet cross-validated with the input-output method (discussion paper)

    Xu, Z.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Van der Wal, W.; Van den Broeke, M.; Enderlin, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighbouring glaciated regions using a least-squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output

  5. The impact of peak oil on tourism in Spain: An input-output analysis of price, demand and economy-wide effects

    Logar, I.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the potential effects of peak oil on Spanish tourism and indirectly on the rest of the economy. We construct several scenarios of price increases in oil, related fossil fuels and their inflationary effects. These scenarios provide the context for an input-output (I/O) analysis

  6. Value-Addes Tax and Shadow Economy : the Role of Input-Output Linkages (revision of CentER Discussion Paper 2013-036)

    Hoseini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Under the VAT, formal traders report their purchases to the administration for a deduction in their VAT bill. This paper models this third-party reporting feature of the VAT in an input-output economy and quantifies it among different activities using a forward linkages index. The administration can

  7. Influence of current input-output and age of first exposure on phonological acquisition in early bilingual Spanish-English-speaking kindergarteners.

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2016-07-01

    Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current input-output on phonological accuracy in English and Spanish in early bilingual Spanish-English kindergarteners. Also whether parent and teacher ratings of the children's intelligibility are correlated with phonological accuracy and the amount of experience with each language. Data for 91 kindergarteners (mean age = 5;6 years) were selected from a larger dataset focusing on Spanish-English bilingual language development. All children were from Central Texas, spoke a Mexican Spanish dialect and were learning American English. Children completed a single-word phonological assessment with separate forms for English and Spanish. The assessment was analyzed for segmental accuracy: percentage of consonants and vowels correct and percentage of early-, middle- and late-developing (EML) sounds correct were calculated. Children were more accurate on vowel production than consonant production and showed a decrease in accuracy from early to middle to late sounds. The amount of current input-output explained more of the variance in phonological accuracy than age of first English exposure. Although greater current input-output of a language was associated with greater accuracy in that language, English-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in English than Spanish on late sounds, whereas Spanish-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in Spanish than English on early sounds. Higher parent and teacher ratings of intelligibility in Spanish were correlated with greater consonant accuracy in Spanish, but the same did not hold for English. Higher intelligibility ratings in English were correlated with greater current English

  8. Space industrialization - Education. [via communication satellites

    Joels, K. M.

    1978-01-01

    The components of an educational system based on, and perhaps enhanced by, space industrialization communications technology are considered. Satellite technology has introduced a synoptic distribution system for various transmittable educational media. The cost of communications satellite distribution for educational programming has been high. It has, therefore, been proposed to utilize Space Shuttle related technology and Large Space Structures (LSS) to construct a system with a quantum advancement in communication capability and a quantum reduction in user cost. LSS for communications purposes have three basic advantages for both developed and emerging nations, including the ability to distribute signals over wide geographic areas, the reduced cost of satellite communications systems versus installation of land based systems, and the ability of a communication satellite system to create instant educational networks.

  9. Algunas consideraciones sobre el análisis input-output de descomposición estructural aplicado a los casos de Andalucía y Madrid

    José Manuel Rueda Cantuche

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de comparación estructural de una economía a través de la cantidad absoluta de valor añadido y del empleo nos arroja una serie de interrogantes sobre las distintas fuentes de variaciones estructurales en los procesos productivos a nivel sectorial entre dos regiones distintas. El análisis input-output de descomposición estructural estudia dichas fuentes a partir de cuatro diferentes tipos de orígenes: la diferencia de procesos tecnológicos, la demanda final interior, el comercio exterior y la productividad del trabajo. En nuestro documento pretendemos arrojar cierta luz sobre las diferencias estructurales entre regiones caracterizadas por economías de aglomeración Madrid y regiones menos desarrolladas (Andalucía a la luz del análisis input-output.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: an outline of the input--output model and the impact projections methodology. Technical document, socioeconomic portion

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. Besides the WIPP project, the model was also used for several other projects to determine the economic impact of proposed new facilities and developments. Both private and public sectors are covered. Sub-sectors for WIPP below-ground construction, above-ground construction, and operation and transport are included

  11. Aplicación de la teoría de grafos al análisis input-output: Andalucía 1995

    José Antonio Ordaz Sanz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La Economía Aplicada contemporánea resultaría impensable sin el análisis input-output, por su contribución decisiva al conocimiento de las actividades económicas de los países y a la armonización de sus cuentas. Muchas de las políticas sociales y económicas que se llevan a cabo en nuestros días residen en sus fundamentos, y su aplicación resulta esencial en infinidad de campos: contabilidad nacional y regional, comercio, empleo, desarrollo tecnológico, medio ambiente, ... Las Tablas Input-Output de Andalucía de 1995 constituyen un buen exponente actual de la preocupación de los poderes públicos por conocer con el mayor detalle posible la realidad de la actividad económica de sus ámbitos territoriales, lo que contribuye en gran medida a facilitar la toma de decisiones. El análisis matricial y el establecimiento de condiciones destinadas a asegurar la resolución de sistemas de ecuaciones lineales de soluciones no negativas conforman, sin lugar a dudas, la base sobre la que se ha desarrollado el modelo input-output. Sin embargo, no tienen por qué ser la única. La Teoría de grafos se está revelando de forma creciente como una herramienta cada vez más útil en el estudio de problemas de carácter económico, siendo precisamente las tablas input-output uno de los principales ejemplos de ello.

  12. Suborbital industry at the edge of space

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, spaceflight has been the providence of a select corps of astronauts whose missions, in common with all remarkable exploits, were experienced vicariously by the rest of the world via television reports and Internet feeds. These spacefarers risked their lives in the name of science, exploration and adventure, thanks to government-funded manned spaceflight programs. All that is about to change The nascent commercial suborbital spaceflight industry will soon open the space frontier to commercial astronauts, payload specialists and, of course, spaceflight participants. Suborbital explains the tantalizing science opportunities offered when suborbital trips become routine and describes the difference in training and qualification necessary to become either a spaceflight participant or a fully fledged commercial suborbital astronaut. Suborbital also explains how the commercial suborbital spaceflight industry is planning and preparing for the challenges of marketing the hiring of astronauts. It examine...

  13. Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints.

    Acquaye, Adolf; Feng, Kuishuang; Oppon, Eunice; Salhi, Said; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Genovese, Andrea; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO 2 , SO 2 , biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between countries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, direct carbon emissions in the electricity sector across all 27 member states of the EU was estimated to be 1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62

  14. Turizm Sektörünün Türkiye Ekonomisi Üzerindeki Etkisinin Girdi-Çıktı Tablosu Yardımıyla Değerlendirilmesi(The Evaluatin of Tourism Sector’s Effect on Turkish Economy Trough Input-Output Table

    İlkay DİLBER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry is one of the most important industries in the economic development of Turkish economy. In addition to its usual effects on GDP, tourism revenues can help to reduce the current account deficits. Thus, in order to determine the importance of tourism industry for the Turkish economy, this study uses input-output tables of the Turkish tourism industry in 1998. Calculating the industry’s value added and factor intensity and understanding whether the sector is subject to the dynamic external economies are extremely important for future policy suggestions.

  15. A Quantitative Analysis of the Soviet Economy. Volume 1. Expansion of the 1972 Soviet Input-Output Tables

    1982-12-15

    Commercial printing------- Scouring and combing plants ----- Manifold business forms, blank- Cordage and twine --------- books , and binders. Textile goods...and secondhand goodsScrap, used and secondhand goods__ 72 Hotels and lodging places, personal SPECIAL INDUSTRIES and repair services, except automobile

  16. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  17. Biodiesel and employment and income generation: an analysis of input-output; Biodiesel e geracao de emprego e renda: uma analise de insumo-produto

    Lucena, Thomas Krisp de; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Economia], e-mail: thomaskl@ig.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This article analysis the National Program of Biodiesel Production, and presents a methodology to estimate the direct and indirect effects of employment and wages generation using the Input-Output Model developed by Leontief. Four different simulations are carried out, but even in the most optimistic case, the results presented by the Government exceed considerably the estimates obtained using data from the Brazilian national accounts. The main recommendation is that these estimates need to be redone, in order to present more realistic expectations for the job and income generation from the expansion of the bio diesel. (author)

  18. Selection Input Output by Restriction Using DEA Models Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Approach and Expert Information

    Arsad, Roslah; Nasir Abdullah, Mohammad; Alias, Suriana; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Stock evaluation has always been an interesting problem for investors. In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia were made through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). One of the interesting research subjects in DEA is the selection of appropriate input and output parameter. In this study, DEA was used to measure efficiency of stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial ratio to evaluate performance of stocks. Based on previous studies and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), the most important financial ratio was selected. The results indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share, price to earnings and debt to equity were the most important ratios. Using expert information, all the parameter were clarified as inputs and outputs. The main objectives were to identify most critical financial ratio, clarify them based on expert information and compute the relative efficiency scores of stocks as well as rank them in the construction industry and material completely. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian’s model were employed in this study, where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) with the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CSR) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by the Balance Index. The interested data was made for year 2015 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock markets in the construction industry and material (63 companies). According to the ranking, the proposed model can rank completely for 63 companies using selected financial ratio.

  19. Effects of a carbon price in the U.S. on economic sectors, resource use, and emissions: An input-output approach

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Bakshi, Bhavik R.; Haab, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Despite differences in their implementation, most carbon policies aim to have similar outcomes: effectively raising the price of carbon-intensive products relative to non-carbon-intensive products. While it is possible to predict the simple broad-scale economic impacts of raising the price of carbon-intensive products-the demand for non-carbon-intensive products will increase-understanding the economic and environmental impacts of carbon policies throughout the life cycle of both types of products is more difficult. Using the example of a carbon tax, this study proposes a methodology that integrates short-term policy-induced consumer demand changes into the input-output framework to analyze the environmental and economic repercussions of a policy. Environmental repercussions include the direct and the indirect impacts on emissions, materials flow in the economy, and the reliance on various ecosystem goods and services. The approach combines economic data with data about physical flow of fossil fuels between sectors, consumption of natural resources and emissions from each sector. It applies several input-output modeling equations sequentially and uses various levels of aggregation/disaggregation. It is illustrated with the data for the 2002 U.S. economy and physical flows. The framework provides insight into the short-term complex interactions between carbon price and its economic and environmental effects.

  20. Evaluating the economic damages of transport disruptions using a transnational and interregional input-output model for Japan, China, and South Korea

    Irimoto, Hiroshi; Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Yuzuru

    2017-10-01

    Damage to transportation networks as a result of natural disasters can lead to economic losses due to lost trade along those links in addition to the costs of damage to the infrastructure itself. This study evaluates the economic damages of transport disruptions such as highways, tunnels, bridges, and ports using a transnational and interregional Input-Output Model that divides the world into 23 regions: 9 regions in Japan, 7 regions in China, and 4 regions in Korea, Taiwan, ASEAN5, and the USA to allow us to focus on Japan's regional and international links. In our simulation, economic ripple effects of both international and interregional transport disruptions are measured by changes in the trade coefficients in the input-output model. The simulation showed that, in the case of regional links in Japan, a transport disruption in the Kanmon Straits causes the most damage to our targeted world, resulting in economic damage of approximately 36.3 billion. In the case of international links among Japan, China, and Korea, damage to the link between Kanto in Japan and Huabei in China causes economic losses of approximately 31.1 billion. Our result highlights the importance of disaster prevention in the Kanmon Straits, Kanto, and Huabei to help ensure economic resilience.

  1. Study on embodied CO2 transfer between the Jing-Jin-Ji region and other regions in China: a quantification using an interregional input-output model.

    Chen, Mengmeng; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2018-03-08

    Jing-Jin-Ji region (i.e., Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei) is China's key development region, but it is also the leading and most serious air pollution region in China. High fossil fuel consumption is the major source of both carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and air pollutants. Therefore, it is important to reveal the source of CO 2 emissions to control the air pollution in the Jing-Jin-Ji region. In this study, an interregional input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied CO 2 transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji region and other region in China using China's interregional input-output data in 2010. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in the production-based CO 2 emissions in China, and furthermore, the Jing-Jin-Ji region and its surrounding regions were the main regions of the production-based CO 2 emissions in China. Hebei Province exported a large amount of embodied CO 2 to meet the investment, consumption, and export demands of Beijing and Tianjin. The Jing-Jin-Ji regions exported a great deal of embodied CO 2 to the coastal provinces of southeast China and imported it from neighboring provinces.

  2. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  3. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  4. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  5. Stability Analysis and Stabilization of T-S Fuzzy Delta Operator Systems with Time-Varying Delay via an Input-Output Approach

    Zhixiong Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability analysis and stabilization of Takagi-Sugeno (T-S fuzzy delta operator systems with time-varying delay are investigated via an input-output approach. A model transformation method is employed to approximate the time-varying delay. The original system is transformed into a feedback interconnection form which has a forward subsystem with constant delays and a feedback one with uncertainties. By applying the scaled small gain (SSG theorem to deal with this new system, and based on a Lyapunov Krasovskii functional (LKF in delta operator domain, less conservative stability analysis and stabilization conditions are obtained. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  6. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environmental impact report: socioeconomic portion. An outline of the input-output model and the impact projections methodology

    1978-07-01

    A static model in the form of a regional input-output model was constructed for Eddy and Lea Counties, New Mexico. This modeling process has been used to assess the economic impacts of the following activities and for the following agencies: San Juan Generating Units Nos. 1, 3, and 4 for Public Service Company of New Mexico, and general economic impacts (an ongoing process) for the Bureau of Business and Economic Research, University of New Mexico. The regional modeling process adjusts a national model by means of location quotients and aggregating techniques. The national model, or base model, used in this process contains 407 economic categories or subsectors of the economy, 389 of which represent the private economy, and 18 of which represent activities mostly dealing with the public sector. The 389 identified sub-sectors were used in the modeling process; the government impact was computed after the private sector analysis

  7. Dynamic modeling and simulation of an induction motor with adaptive backstepping design of an input-output feedback linearization controller in series hybrid electric vehicle

    Jalalifar Mehran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper using adaptive backstepping approach an adaptive rotor flux observer which provides stator and rotor resistances estimation simultaneously for induction motor used in series hybrid electric vehicle is proposed. The controller of induction motor (IM is designed based on input-output feedback linearization technique. Combining this controller with adaptive backstepping observer the system is robust against rotor and stator resistances uncertainties. In additional, mechanical components of a hybrid electric vehicle are called from the Advanced Vehicle Simulator Software Library and then linked with the electric motor. Finally, a typical series hybrid electric vehicle is modeled and investigated. Various tests, such as acceleration traversing ramp, and fuel consumption and emission are performed on the proposed model of a series hybrid vehicle. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the validity and performance of the proposed IM control approach using for series hybrid electric vehicle.

  8. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  9. Low carbon energy scenarios for sub-Saharan Africa: An input-output analysis on the effects of universal energy access and economic growth

    Hamilton, Thomas Gerard Adam; Kelly, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Meeting Sub-Saharan African (SSA) human development goals will require economic development to be the priority over the coming decades, but economic development ‘at all cost’ may not be acceptable across these goals. This paper aims to explore five development scenarios for the five largest economies in SSA to understand the implications to CO_2-equivalent emissions (CO_2-e) and off-grid energy modernisation in 2030. Within this scope GDP growth; economic structure; availability of energy resources; international trade; and, the development of distributed generation for remote locations are considered. Regional CO_2 emissions were studied using a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. Under the scenarios analysed all five nations will be unable to reduce 2030 CO_2-e emissions below 2012 levels, whilst simultaneously achieving forecast GDP growth and universal access to modernised energy services. 100% off-grid modernisation is estimated to require a three-fold increase in Primary Energy Supply and a 26% (1317 Mt) increase in 2030 CO_2-e emissions. Total regional CO_2-e emissions could be reduced from 45% to 35% by meeting a 50% renewable energy supply target by 2030. Climate Change policy would need to focus on multi-sector reform to reduce regional emissions as the agricultural sector is the largest emitter in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Kenya. - Highlights: • GHG"1 emissions were studied with a Multi-Regional Input-Output Model for Africa. • SSA"2 GDP growth is inextricably linked with access to additional energy supply. • SSA will not attain universal energy access and low carbon growth in parallel. • GHG emissions decline needs both renewable energy adoption and agriculture reform. • SSA Climate Change policy would need to target multiple GHG emitting sector reform.

  10. Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River basin in China.

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Qin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The virtual water strategy which advocates importing water intensive products and exporting products with low water intensity is gradually accepted as one of the options for solving water crisis in severely water scarce regions. However, if we count the virtual water embodied in imported products as the water saved for a region, we might overestimate the saving by including the virtual water that is later re-exported in association with the proceeded products made from the originally imported products. This problem can be avoided by accounting for the saved water through calculating water footprint (WF) in domestic final consumptive products. In this paper, an input-output analysis (IOA) based on the water footprint accounting framework is built to account for WF and virtual water trade of final consumptive products in the water stressed Haihe River basin in China for the year 1997, 2000, and 2002. The input-output transaction tables of the three years are constructed. The results show WF of 46.57, 44.52, and 42.71 billion m(3) for the three years, respectively. These volumes are higher than the water used directly in the corresponding years in the basin. A WF intensity (WFI) indicator is then used to assess if the economic activities in the basin are consistent with the virtual water strategy. The temporal change of the WFI is also decomposed by the index number analysis method. The results showed that the basin was silently importing virtual water through the trade of raw and processed food commodities under the background of the whole economic circulation.

  11. Interface Input/Output Automata

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Building on the theory of interface automata by de Alfaro and Henzinger we design an interface language for Lynch’s I/O, a popular formalism used in the development of distributed asynchronous systems, not addressed by previous interface research. We introduce an explicit separation of assumptions...... a method for solving systems of relativized behavioral inequalities as used in our setup and draw a formal correspondence between our work and interface automata....

  12. Praxis input/output interface

    Shapiro, R.E.; Evans, A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This document is intended as an introduction to the use of RMS facilities via Praxis (this interface hereafter called Praxis-RMS). It is presumed that the reader is familiar with Praxis conventions as well as with RMS use (at the MACRO level). Since Praxis-RMS was designed to be functionally equivalent to MACRO-RMS, the explanations follow the pattern of the DEC MACRO-RMS documentation (particularly the programmer's reference manual). A complete list of the procedures that make up Praxis-RMS appears at the end of this document (with parameters), along with the constants (grouped by type) that can be used as actual parameters

  13. Space education: Deriving benefits from industrial consortia

    Stone, Barbara A.; Page, John R.

    1993-01-01

    As the number of spacefaring nations of the world increases, so does the difficulty of competing in a global economy. The development of high technology products and services for space programs, and the economic exploitation of these technologies for national economic growth, requires professionals versed in both technical and commercial aspects of space. Meeting this requirement academically presents two challenges. On the technical side, enrollment in science and engineering is decreasing in some of the spacefaring nations. From the commerce perspective, very few colleges and universities offer specific courses in space business.

  14. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  15. Programming industrial robots using advanced input-output devices: test-case example using a CAD package and a digital pen based on the Anoto technology

    J. Norberto Pires

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Interaction with robot systems for specification of manufacturing tasks and motions needs to be simple, to enable wide-spread use of robots in SMEs. In the best case, existing practices from manual work could be used, to smoothly let current employees start using robot technology as a natural part of their work. Our aim is to simplify the robot programming task by allowing the user to simply make technical drawings on a sheet of paper. Craftsman use paper and raw sketches for several situations; to share ideas, to get a better imagination or to remember the customer situation. Currently these sketches have either to be interpreted by the worker when producing the final product by hand, or transferred into CAD file using an according tool. The former means that no automation is included, the latter means extra work and much experience in using the CAD tool. Our approach is to use the digital pen and paper from Anoto as input devices for SME robotic tasks, thereby creating simpler and more user friendly alternatives for programming, parameterization and commanding actions. To this end, the basic technology has been investigated and fully working prototypes have been developed to explore the possibilities and limitation in the context of typical SME applications. Based on the encouraging experimental results, we believe that drawings on digital paper will, among other means of human-robot interaction, play

  16. An application of neural networks in microeconomics: input-output mapping in a power generation subsector of the US electricity industry

    Erbas, B.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the artificial neural networks in economics and business goes back to 1950s, while the major bulk of the applications have been developed in more recent years. Reviewing this literature indicates that the field of business benefits from the neural networks in a wide spectrum from

  17. Uncertainty of solute flux estimation in ungauged small streams: potential implications for input-output nutrient mass balances at stream reach scale

    A. Butturini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Input-output mass balances within stream reaches provide in situ estimates of stream nutrient retention/release under a wide spectrum of hydrological conditions. Providing good estimates of the mass balances for nutrients depends on precise hydrological monitoring and good chemical characterisation of stream water at the input and output ends of the stream reach. There is a need to optimise the hydrological monitoring and the frequencies of water sampling to yield precise annual mass balances, so as to avoid undue cost - high resolution monitoring and subsequent chemical analysis can be labour intensive and costly. In this paper, simulation exercises were performed using a data set created to represent the instantaneous discharge and solute dynamics at the input and output ends of a model stream reach during a one year period. At the output end, stream discharge and water chemistry were monitored continuously, while the input end was assumed to be ungauged; water sampling frequency was changed arbitrarily. Instantaneous discharge at the ungauged sampling point was estimated with an empirical power model linking the discharge to the catchment area (Hooper, 1986. The model thus substitutes for the additional gauge station. Simulations showed that 10 days was the longest chemical sampling interval which could provide reach annual mass balances of acceptable precision. Presently, the relationship between discharge and catchment area is usually assumed to be linear but simulations indicate that small departures from the linearity of this relationship could cause dramatic changes in the mass balance estimations.

  18. Multi-Regional Input-Output (MRIO Study of the Provincial Ecological Footprints and Domestic Embodied Footprints Traded among China’s 30 Provinces

    Decun Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development in China has led to imbalances and inequities of ecological resources among the provinces and regions. In this study, an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output (MRIO model was used to analyze the imbalances, inequities and pressures of the ecological footprints (EF of China’s 30 provinces in 2007. In addition, by decomposing the total product consumption coefficients, we calculated the net embodied EF of the flows among the provinces by the total amount, land type and sector. The results showed that most provinces presented EF deficits. Significant differences were observed between the ecological pressure in consumption (EPC and ecological pressure in production (EPP for each province because of the net embodied EF trade; the EPCs of Shanghai (15.16, Beijing (7.81 and Tianjin (7.81 were the largest and presented descending EPPs, whereas the EPCs of Heilongjiang (0.98, Hebei (0.98, Xinjiang (0.98 and Guangxi (0.98 were under the threshold value (1 and presented ascending EPPs. The carbon footprint in the secondary sector was the main embodied EF of the flows among the provinces responsible for inequities. Finally, based on the various conditions of the provinces in different geographical regions, we have provided suggestions for regionally balanced development that can maintain the EPP and EPC values under the threshold for each province.

  19. Analyzing the Effects of the Iranian Energy Subsidy Reform Plan on Short- Run Marginal Generation Cost of Electricity Using Extended Input-Output Price Model

    Zohreh Salimian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidizing energy in Iran has imposed high costs on country's economy. Thus revising energy prices, on the basis of a subsidy reform plan, is a vital remedy to boost up the economy. While the direct consequence of cutting subsidies on electricity generation costs can be determined in a simple way, identifying indirect effects, which reflect higher costs for input factors such as labor, is a challenging problem. In this paper, variables such as compensation of employees and private consumption are endogenized by using extended Input-Output (I-O price model to evaluate direct and indirect effects of electricity and fuel prices increase on economic subsectors. The determination of the short-run marginal generation cost of electricity using I-O technique with taken into account the Iranian targeted subsidy plan's influences is the main goal of this paper. Marginal cost of electricity, in various scenarios of price adjustment of energy, is estimated for three conventional categories of thermal power plants. Our results show that the raising the price of energy leads to an increase in the electricity production costs. Accordingly, the production costs will be higher than 1000 Rials per kWh until 2014 as predicted in the beginning of the reform plan by electricity suppliers.

  20. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  1. The direct and indirect household energy requirements in the Republic of Korea from 1980 to 2000 - An input-output analysis

    Park, Hi-Chun; Heo, Eunnyeong

    2007-01-01

    As energy conservation can be realized through changes in the composition of goods and services consumed, there is a need to assess indirect and total household energy requirements. The Korean household sector was responsible for about 52% of the national primary energy requirement in the period from 1980 to 2000. Of this total, more than 60% of household energy requirement was indirect. Thus, not only direct but also indirect household energy requirement should be the target of energy conservation policies. Electricity became the main fuel in household energy use in 2000. Households consume more and more electricity intensive goods and services, a sign of increasing living standards. Increases in household consumption expenditure were responsible for a relatively high growth of energy consumption. Switching to consumption of less energy intensive products and decrease in energy intensities of products in 1990s contributed substantially to reduce the increase in the total household energy requirement. A future Korean study should apply a hybrid method as to reduce errors occurred by using uniform (average) prices in constructing energy input-output tables and as to make energy intensities of different years more comparable. (author)

  2. Estimating raw material equivalents on a macro-level: comparison of multi-regional input-output analysis and hybrid LCI-IO.

    Schoer, Karl; Wood, Richard; Arto, Iñaki; Weinzettel, Jan

    2013-12-17

    The mass of material consumed by a population has become a useful proxy for measuring environmental pressure. The "raw material equivalents" (RME) metric of material consumption addresses the issue of including the full supply chain (including imports) when calculating national or product level material impacts. The RME calculation suffers from data availability, however, as quantitative data on production practices along the full supply chain (in different regions) is required. Hence, the RME is currently being estimated by three main approaches: (1) assuming domestic technology in foreign economies, (2) utilizing region-specific life-cycle inventories (in a hybrid framework), and (3) utilizing multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis to explicitly cover all regions of the supply chain. While the first approach has been shown to give inaccurate results, this paper focuses on the benefits and costs of the latter two approaches. We analyze results from two key (MRIO and hybrid) projects modeling raw material equivalents, adjusting the models in a stepwise manner in order to quantify the effects of individual conceptual elements. We attempt to isolate the MRIO gap, which denotes the quantitative impact of calculating the RME of imports by an MRIO approach instead of the hybrid model, focusing on the RME of EU external trade imports. While, the models give quantitatively similar results, differences become more pronounced when tracking more detailed material flows. We assess the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches and look forward to ways to further harmonize data and approaches.

  3. Employment impacts of EU biofuels policy. Combining bottom-up technology information and sectoral market simulations in an input-output framework

    Neuwahl, Frederik; Mongelli, Ignazio; Delgado, Luis; Loeschel, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the employment consequences of policies aimed to support biofuels in the European Union. The promotion of biofuel use has been advocated as a means to promote the sustainable use of natural resources and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions originating from transport activities on the one hand, and to reduce dependence on imported oil and thereby increase security of the European energy supply on the other hand. The employment impacts of increasing biofuels shares are calculated by taking into account a set of elements comprising the demand for capital goods required to produce biofuels, the additional demand for agricultural feedstock, higher fuel prices or reduced household budget in the case of price subsidisation, price effects ensuing from a hypothetical world oil price reduction linked to substitution in the EU market, and price impacts on agro-food commodities. The calculations refer to scenarios for the year 2020 targets as set out by the recent Renewable Energy Roadmap. Employment effects are assessed in an input-output framework taking into account bottom-up technology information to specify biofuels activities and linked to partial equilibrium models for the agricultural and energy sectors. The simulations suggest that biofuels targets on the order of 10-15% could be achieved without adverse net employment effects. (author)

  4. Cutting export subsidies, cropping domestic production: input-output analysis of the Swiss dairy sector after abolishment of the ‘Chocolate law’ subsidies

    Seyhan KÂHYA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The `Chocolate law’ in Switzerland enables subsidies for dairy and wheat farmers, bound to the condition that their products are exported after processing (Swiss Federation, 2011. Though the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization has decided in December 2015 that this law has to be abolished by 2021 [WTO, 2015]. Cutting subsidies might lead to a demand shock and consequently a cropped domestic production (Miller and Blair, 1985. We analysed in this study the interdependence of the agro-food sectors by a Leontief input-output model and their linkages to other sectors (Chereny and Watanabe, 1958, Leontief 1986 and additionally, the amount, direction and dispersion of the possible demand shock.  Hence, non-meat food processors and dairy processing were determined as key sectors as they have strong linkage effects and are rather concentrated to few sectors. Both sectors rely strongly on the output of the raw milk producers and have few sectors to sell their products. Outside of the cut sectors, these sectors will be challenged the most from this new policy.

  5. Third Space Weather Summit Held for Industry and Government Agencies

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for space weather effects has been increasing significantly in recent years. For instance, in 2008 airlines flew about 8000 transpolar flights, which experience greater exposure to space weather than nontranspolar flights. This is up from 368 transpolar flights in 2000, and the number of such flights is expected to continue to grow. Transpolar flights are just one example of the diverse technologies susceptible to space weather effects identified by the National Research Council's Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008). To discuss issues related to the increasing need for reliable space weather information, experts from industry and government agencies met at the third summit of the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), held 30 April 2009 during Space Weather Week (SWW), in Boulder, Colo.

  6. Filling the gap in Ca input-output budgets in base-poor forest ecosystems: The contribution of non-crystalline phases evidenced by stable isotopic dilution

    van der Heijden, Gregory; Legout, Arnaud; Mareschal, Louis; Ranger, Jacques; Dambrine, Etienne

    2017-07-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant-available pools of magnesium and calcium are assumed to be stored in the soil as exchangeable cations adsorbed on the surface of mineral and/or organic particles. The pools of exchangeable magnesium and calcium are measured by ion-exchange soil extractions. These pools are sustained in the long term by the weathering of primary minerals in the soil and atmospheric inputs. This conceptual model is the base of input-output budgets from which soil acidification and the sustainability of soil chemical fertility is inferred. However, this model has been questioned by data from long-term forest ecosystem monitoring sites, particularly for calcium. Quantifying the contribution of atmospheric inputs, ion exchange and weathering of both primary, secondary and non-crystalline phases to tree nutrition in the short term is challenging. In this study, we developed and applied a novel isotopic dilution technique using the stable isotopes of magnesium and calcium to study the contribution of the different soil phases to soil solution chemistry in a very acidic soil. The labile pools of Mg and Ca in the soil (pools in equilibrium with the soil solution) were isotopically labeled by spraying a solution enriched in 26Mg and 44Ca on the soil. Labeled soil columns were then percolated with a dilute acid solution during a 3-month period and the isotopic dilution of the tracers was monitored in the leaching solution, in the exchangeable (2 sequential 1 mol L-1 ammonium acetate extractions) and non-crystalline (2 sequential soil digestions: oxalic acid followed by nitric acid) phases. Significant amounts of Mg and Ca isotope tracer were recovered in the non-crystalline soil phases. These phases represented from 5% to 25% and from 24% to 50%, respectively, of the Mg and Ca labile pools during the experiment. Our results show that non-crystalline phases act as both a source and a sink of calcium and magnesium in the soil, and contribute directly to soil

  7. Space Transportation and the Computer Industry: Learning from the Past

    Merriam, M. L.; Rasky, D.

    2002-01-01

    Since the space shuttle began flying in 1981, NASA has made a number of attempts to advance the state of the art in space transportation. In spite of billions of dollars invested, and several concerted attempts, no replacement for the shuttle is expected before 2010. Furthermore, the cost of access to space has dropped very slowly over the last two decades. On the other hand, the same two decades have seen dramatic progress in the computer industry. Computational speeds have increased by about a factor of 1000 and available memory, disk space, and network bandwidth has seen similar increases. At the same time, the cost of computing has dropped by about a factor of 10000. Is the space transportation problem simply harder? Or is there something to be learned from the computer industry? In looking for the answers, this paper reviews the early history of NASA's experience with supercomputers and NASA's visionary course change in supercomputer procurement strategy.

  8. [Spatial temporal differentiation of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions and balance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: an economic input- output analysis].

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the open economic region is the basis for differentiating the emission responsibility, which is attracting increasing attention of decision-makers'attention. The spatial and temporal characteristics of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, as well as carbon balance, in 1997, 2002 and 2007 of JING- JIN-JI region were analyzed by the Economic Input-Output-Life Cycle Assessment model. The results revealed that both the product- based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the region have been increased by about 4% annually. The percentage of CO2 emissions embodied in trade was 30% -83% , to which the domestic trading added the most. The territorial and consumption-based CO2 emissions in Hebei province were the predominant emission in JING-JIN-JI region, and the increasing speed and emission intensity were stronger than those of Beijing and Tianjin. JING-JIN-JI region was a net inflow region of CO2 emissions, and parts of the emission responsibility were transferred. Beijing and Tianjin were the net importers of CO2 emissions, and Hebei was a net outflow area of CO2 emissions. The key CO2 emission departments in the region were concentrated, and the similarity was great. The inter-regional mechanisms could be set up for joint prevention and control work. - Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water and smelting and pressing of metals had the highest reliability on CO2 emissions, and took on the responsibility of other departments. The EIO-LCA model could be used to analyze the product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, which is helpful for the delicate management of regional CO2 emissions reduction and policies making, and stimulating the reduction cooperation at regional scale.

  9. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE PROCESSES IN THE COMPANIES OF SPACE INDUSTRY

    Katrina B. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the proposals to improve the theoretical and methodological base for the development of innovative technologies aerospace industry are made based on an analysis of its current state and the study of the factors influencing this process at every stage, as well as the goals and objectives of the modernization of the Russian economy. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the rocket and space industry is regarded as an important component of sustainable socio-economic development and a guarantee of national security. Having our own space rocket means significantly promotes sound public policy in accordance with the doctrines, strategies, concepts and programs in the political, economic, social, military, environmental, scientific, technological, information and other fields. It was noted that the study of features of the commercialization of innovative technologies of the Russian Federation, the space industry is crucial to determine the factors and conditions for successful implementation of the development industry, the search of promising directions of development of the space industry and the economy as a whole. Emphasis is placed on the formation of the basic elements of innovation infrastructure and the creation of effective mechanisms of commercialization, creation of actual operating business on their basis, investment in the development of the aerospace industry, including using the tools of public-private partnerships and venture financing.

  11. Industrial Engineering Lifts Off at Kennedy Space Center

    Barth, Tim

    1998-01-01

    When the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began the Space Shuttle Program, it did not have an established industrial engineering (IE) capability for several probable reasons. For example, it was easy for some managers to dismiss IE principles as being inapplicable at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). When NASA was formed by the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, most industrial engineers worked in more traditional factory environments. The primary emphasis early in the shuttle program, and during previous human space flight programs such as Mercury and Apollo, was on technical accomplishments. Industrial engineering is sometimes difficult to explain in NASA's highly technical culture. IE is different in many ways from other engineering disciplines because it is devoted to process management and improvement, rather than product design. Images of clipboards and stopwatches still come to the minds of many people when the term industrial engineering is mentioned. The discipline of IE has only recently begun to gain acceptance and understanding in NASA. From an IE perspective today, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are among the most spectacular in the world: safe and successful launches of shuttles and expendable vehicles that carry tremendous payloads into space.

  12. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  13. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  14. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  15. Evaluation tests of industrial vacuum bearings for space use

    Obara, S.; Sasaki, A.; Haraguchi, M.; Imagawa, K.; Nishimura, M.; Kawashima, N.

    2001-09-01

    Tribological performance of industrial vacuum bearings was experimentally evaluated for space use. The bearings selected for investigation were an 8 mm bore-sized deep-groove ball bearing lubricated with a sputtered MoS2 film and that lubricated with an ion-plated Ag film, commercially delivered from three Japanese domestic bearing-manufacturers. Based on survey results of tribological requirements for the existing satellite mechanisms, four types of bearing tests were defined and conducted: a vacuum test at room temperature, an atmosphere-resistant test, a thermal vacuum test and a vibration test. In addition to these tests, variation in tribological performance of the industrial bearings was also investigated. The results of more than eighty tests demonstrated that the industrial vacuum bearings had sufficient lubrication lives with low frictional torque and their data were reasonably repeatable, indicating very good potentiality for space use.

  16. Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies until 2040

    Yuksel, Nurdan; Cifci, Hasan; Cakir, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Being advanced in science and technology is inevitable reality in order to be able to have a voice in the globalized world. Therefore, for the countries, making policies in consistent with their societies' intellectual, economic and political infrastructure and attributing them to the vision having been embraced by all parties of the society is quite crucial for the success. The generated policies are supposed to ensure the usage of countries' resources in the most effective and fastest way, determine the priorities and needs of society and set their goals and related roadmaps. In this sense, technology foresight studies based on justified forecasting in science and technology have critical roles in the process of developing policies. In this article, Foresight Model of Turkey's Defense Industries' Space Studies, which is turned out to be the important part of community life and fundamental background of most technologies, up to 2040 is presented. Turkey got late in space technology studies. Hence, for being fast and efficient to use its national resources in a cost effective way and within national and international collaboration, it should be directed to its pre-set goals. By taking all these factors into consideration, the technology foresight model of Turkey's Defense Industry's Space Studies was presented in the study. In the model, the present condition of space studies in the World and Turkey was analyzed; literature survey and PEST analysis were made. PEST analysis will be the inputs of SWOT analysis and Delphi questionnaire will be used in the study. A two-round Delphi survey will be applied to the participants from universities, public and private organizations operating in space studies at Defense Industry. Critical space technologies will be distinguished according to critical technology measures determined by expert survey; space technology fields and goals will be established according to their importance and feasibility indexes. Finally, for the

  17. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-01-01

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis

  18. Implementing CDIO Approach in preparing engineers for Space Industry

    Daneykin Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to train highly qualified specialists leads to the development of the trajectory that can allow training specialists for the space industry. Several steps have been undertaken to reach this purpose. First, the University founded the Space Instrument Design Center that promotes a wide range of initiatives in the sphere of educating specialists, retraining specialists, carrying out research and collaborating with profiled enterprises. The University introduced Elite Engineering Education system to attract talented specialist and help them to follow individual trajectory to train unique specialist. The paper discusses the targets necessary for achievement to train specialists. Moreover, the paper presents the compliance of the attempts with the CDIO Approach, which is widely used in leading universities to improve engineering programs.

  19. STERN-Educational Benefits for the Space Industry

    Schuttauf, K.; Stamminger, A.; Lappohn, K.; Ciezki, H.; Kitsche, W.

    2015-09-01

    several reviews in which they have to present and defend their rocket design in front of experts. This practically oriented study should prepare the students for life in industry. The DLR Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) and the DLR Institute of Space Propulsion as well as the DLR Space Administration, accompany the students during the reviews and until launch. MORABA has five decades of experience in launching sounding rockets and the Space Propulsion Institute in testing of and research in rocket engines. The reviews as well as special workshops (organized by DLR MORABA and the DLR Institute of Space Propulsion), offer a platform for exchange of technical information. The STERN project provides an opportunity to train the next generation of aerospace engineers.

  20. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. University of Central Florida / Deep Space Industries Asteroid Regolith Simulants

    Britt, Daniel; Covey, Steven D.; Schultz, Cody

    2017-10-01

    Introduction: The University of Central Florida (UCF), in partnership with Deep Space Industries (DSI) are working under a NASA Phase 2 SBIR contract to develop and produce a family of asteroid regolith simulants for use in research, engineering, and mission operations testing. We base simulant formulas on the mineralogy, particle size, and physical characteristics of CI, CR, CM, C2, CV, and L-Chondrite meteorites. The advantage in simulating meteorites is that the vast majority of meteoritic materials are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. While formulas are guided by the meteorites our approach is one of constrained maximization under the limitations of safety, cost, source materials, and ease of handling. In all cases our goal is to deliver a safe, high fidelity analog at moderate cost.Source Materials, Safety, and Biohazards: A critical factor in any useful simulant is to minimize handling risks for biohazards or toxicity. All the terrestrial materials proposed for these simulants were reviewed for potential toxicity. Of particular interest is the organic component of volatile rich carbonaceous chondrites which contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are known carcinogens and mutagens. Our research suggests that we can maintain rough chemical fidelity by substituting much safer sub-bituminous coal as our organic analog. A second safety consideration is the choice of serpentine group materials. While most serpentine polymorphs are quite safe we avoid fibrous chrysotile because of its asbestos content. Terrestrial materials identified as inputs for our simulants are common rock forming minerals that are available in commercial quantities. These include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, smectite, serpentine, saponite, pyrite, and magnetite in amounts that are appropriate for each type. For CI's and CR’s, their olivines tend to be Fo100 which is rare on Earth. We have substituted Fo90 olivine

  2. Relación entre la demanda de transporte de mercancías por carretera y la economía. Resultados de un análisis estructural con tablas input-output

    Alises Pérez, Ana; Vassallo Magro, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    En la mayoría de países industrializados la demanda de transporte de mercancías por carretera ha venido ligada al crecimiento económico. Sin embargo, las últimas décadas se ha visto cómo esta relación se está perdiendo en algunos países y se están registrando caídas del transporte, incluso en periodos de expansión económica. Este artículo propone un análisis Input-Output de descomposición estructural para explicar cuáles son los factores que, además del crecimiento del PIB considerado tradici...

  3. Economic analysis of energy supply and national economy on the basis of general equilibrium models. Applications of the input-output decomposition analysis and the Computable General Equilibrium models shown by the example of Korea

    Ko, Jong-Hwan.

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de

  4. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  5. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  6. Application of computer voice input/output

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  7. The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education

    Shields, Cathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.

  8. Space industries and energy. Uchu sangyo to energy

    Kishimoto, K [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-05

    The following items are described with the problem of assuring energy required in space as the main subject: (1) Supplying energy for transportation in the space has no other way but to depent on combustion of propulsion chemicals, for which liquefied hydrogen and liquefied oxygen preserved in the space would be most suitable. Energy required for spatial position adjustment of a flying object itself, life maintenance and substance manufacturing in the space would be supplied from electricity. (2) To summarize, satisfying the energy requirement in the space would require availability of electricity, hydrogen and oxygen. Electricity could be supplied from photovoltaic generation, but meeting an aggregate power requirement at a certain moment will require an auxiliary battery, for which again hydrogen and oxygen fuel cells would be used. A conception is proposed for the hydrogen and oxygen supply base in the space, that a plant will be built to manufacture hydrogen and oxygen from water transported from the earth using the solar heat. 2 figs.

  9. Automation and robotics - Key to productivity. [in industry and space

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    The automated and robotic systems requirements of the NASA Space Station are prompted by maintenance, repair, servicing and assembly requirements. Trend analyses, fault diagnoses, and subsystem status assessments for the Station's electrical power, guidance, navigation, control, data management and environmental control subsystems will be undertaken by cybernetic expert systems; this will reduce or eliminate on-board or ground facility activities that would otherwise be essential, enhancing system productivity. Additional capabilities may also be obtained through the incorporation of even a limited amount of artificial intelligence in the controllers of the various Space Station systems.

  10. Radon space techniques for the evaluation of industrial tomography systems

    Burge, R.E.; Wombell, R.J.; Belchamber, R.M.; Betteridge, D.; Lilley, T.

    1987-01-01

    Computerised tomography (CT) is a powerful tool in medicine, and would be well suited to a wide range of industrial applications, particularly non-destructive testing. However, the very diversity of uses makes the production of a standardised scanner impossible. Systems for an industrial use will have to be designed with a problem in mind. An approach is presented for the analysis of CT scanning systems to help in the design problem. It first describes a system in terms of the sampling of the Radon transform of the object and then uses this information to produce a spatial description of the performance of a scanning system in terms of data collection. This description is called a resolution map and it is shown how the resolution map can be related to the object under study. (author)

  11. Research on the path of synergetic development between logistics industry and the leading industry in Fujian province

    Mei Qiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics industry is closely related to other industry, the synergetic development between logistics industry and leading industry is benefit for leading industry to reduce costs, improve efficiency and promote industrial upgrading. This book analyzes the association of logistics industry and leading industry on the basis of the input-output tables of Fujian and proposes advises to promote their synergetic development based on the calculation.

  12. A framework to analyze emissions implications of manufacturing shifts in the industrial sector through integrating bottom-up energy models and economic input-output environmental life cycle assessment models

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future unc...

  13. A framework to analyze emissions implications of manufacturing shifts in the industrial sector through integrating bottom-up energy models and economic input/output environmental life cycle assessment models

    Future year emissions depend highly on economic, technological, societal and regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze technology development pathways and changes in consumer preferences, and evaluate resulting emissions growth patterns while considering fut...

  14. The economics of bootstrapping space industries - Development of an analytic computer model

    Goldberg, A. H.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    A simple economic model of 'bootstrapping' industrial growth in space and on the Moon is presented. An initial space manufacturing facility (SMF) is assumed to consume lunar materials to enlarge the productive capacity in space. After reaching a predetermined throughput, the enlarged SMF is devoted to products which generate revenue continuously in proportion to the accumulated output mass (such as space solar power stations). Present discounted value and physical estimates for the general factors of production (transport, capital efficiency, labor, etc.) are combined to explore optimum growth in terms of maximized discounted revenues. It is found that 'bootstrapping' reduces the fractional cost to a space industry of transport off-Earth, permits more efficient use of a given transport fleet. It is concluded that more attention should be given to structuring 'bootstrapping' scenarios in which 'learning while doing' can be more fully incorporated in program analysis.

  15. Space Industry Study Industrial College of the Armed Forces National Defense University

    2002-06-01

    information technologies , especially fiber, cable, and cellular communications, which forced space systems away from old market roles and denied entry to... technologies fill market niches. As technology matures, small satellites have been viewed a partial solution to this cycle, enabling faster programs...years, the largely unforeseen growth in the internet has proven a valuable new market for satellite service providers. And over the past few years

  16. INVESTIGATION OF MARKETING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INNOVATION PROCESS OF ROCKET AND SPACE INDUSTRY

    K. B. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have studied the use of marketing technologies in the innovation process of enterprises of rocket and space industry. The present study specifies the relevance of chosen research topic, as well as the essence of marketing innovations at the enterprises of rocket and space industry, the structuring of marketing and management processes in the innovation process. There are provided the most common analytical instruments in the marketing and there is marked the importance of use of a global strategy for the enterprises of rocket and space industry. The article also specifies a clear example of application of marketing technologies in the innovation process of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise "State Space Research and Production Center named after Khrunichev M.V'.'. At the beginning the role and place of innovation management and innovation process in the strategic management of the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V." are shown. Then there are described the basic marketing methods of program-oriented management of the innovation process in the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V"" and there is highlighted the innovation marketing strategy of the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V.". There are presented the distinctive features of the competitive strategy of the company of the rocket and space industry and the features of formation (development of the innovative enterprise development strategy based on marketing innovation in the FSUE "SSRPC named after Khrunichev M.V.". The conclusion includes the main findings of the study conducted.

  17. Organizing space: Dutch space science between astronomy, industry and the government

    Baneke, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes how scientists, private companies and the government in the Netherlands cooperated in the creation of the new field of space research. It examines especially the role of Philips Electronics and Fokker Aircraft, and the consequences of their different structure and corporate

  18. L'espace articulaire de la Robotique Industrielle est un espace vectorielIndustrial Robotics joint space is a vector space

    Tondu, Bertrand

    2003-05-01

    The mathematical modelling of industrial robots is based on the vectorial nature of the n-dimensional joint space of the robot, defined as a kinematic chain with n degrees of freedom. However, in our opinion, the vectorial nature of the joint space has been insufficiently discussed in the literature. We establish the vectorial nature of the joint space of an industrial robot from the fundamental studies of B. Roth on screws. To cite this article: B. Tondu, C. R. Mecanique 331 (2003).

  19. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  20. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  1. Benefits Awareness: Educating Industry, Finance, and the Public About Space Commercialization

    Powers, Blake; Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph C.; Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For space to be truly commercialized, businesses of all sizes and types must be involved, from foundries to agricultural research initiatives. Achieving this goal, however, requires three separate but integrated educational efforts to support it. The first is to educate industry leaders about the possibilities available through such research, while dispelling some of the myths and misinformation educate the financial community about the economic benefits that result both from the research and the leveraging of private research dollars through the use of space and microgravity research. The third is to educate the public about the tangible benefits that come directly to them from such efforts, the economic benefits to national economies from same, and the other less tangible benefits that will cascade from commercial operations. Together, these steps will educate and provide the framework necessary to help advance space commercialization.

  2. Providing Public Space Continuities in Post-Industrial Areas through Remodelling Land/Water Connections

    Burda, Izabela M.; Nyka, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    This article examines the problem of urban transformation strategies applied in recent years which are based on the creation of new water areas and modification of existing ones. The research is an attempt to prove that modifications of plans of water areas and forms of their borders may play an important role in achieving the best quality public spaces in post-industrial territories. The basis for demonstrating the importance of modifying water borders, and introducing new forms of water-based structures in cities, are theoretical surveys, comparative studies and in-field analyses. It can be seen that post-industrial areas, which used to create voids in the urban fabric, can be perceived as unique but isolated places that should be integrated into the layout of cities. Thus, creating continuity of public spaces that will relate converted areas to their surroundings is a well-known objective of many transformation strategies. This research proves that an effective strategy toward achieving this goal can be based on the modification of relationships between land and water. Namely, the introduction of new water areas, designing new pieces of land that protrude into the water, softening the boundaries of water lines or the opposite, like structuring smaller water flows into well-defined canals, may significantly contribute to the quality of public spaces. As such, all of this fosters the development of sustainable cities and contributes significantly to the emergence of high-quality urban landscapes.

  3. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry: Providing Risk Capital for Space Companies that Provide Investor Returns

    Moore, Roscoe M., III

    2002-01-01

    provided by an institution. Those institutions tend to be Banks, Pension Funds, Insurance Funds, Corporations, and other incorporated entities that are obligated to earn a return on their invested capital. These institutions invest in a venture capital firm for the sole purpose of getting their money back with a healthy profit - within a set period of time. The venture capital firm is responsible for investing in and managing companies whose risk and return are higher than other less risky classes of investment. The venture capital firm's primary skill is its ability to manage the high risk of its venture investments while maintaining the high return potential of its venture investments. to businesses for the purpose of providing the above-mentioned Institutions a substantial return on their invested capital. Institutional Venture Capital for the Space Industry cannot be provided to projects or companies whose philosophy or intention is not to increase shareholder equity value within a set time period. efficiently when tied up in companies that intend to spend billions of dollars before the first dollar of revenue is generated. If 2 billion dollars of venture capital is invested in the equity of a Space Company for a minority equity position, then that Space Company must build that minority shareholder's equity value to a minimum investment return of 4 to 8 billion dollars. There are not many start-up companies that are able to reach public market equity valuations in the tens of billions of dollars within reasonable time horizons. Foundations, Manufacturers, and Strategic Investors can invest in projects that cannot realistically provide a substantial return on their equity to their investors within a reasonable period (5-7 years) of time. Venture Capitalists have to make money. Venture capitalists have made money on Satellite Television, Satellite Radio, Fixed Satellite Services, and other businesses. Venture capitalists have not made money on stand

  4. Model of analyzing and forecasting the dynamics of industrial production and space sector of the Russian Federation

    Dmitriy Yu. Ivanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to carry out a comparative analysis of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of Russia. Methods an asynchronous method of harmonic analysis comparative method. Results the forecasts of the development of rocket and space industry for 2015 and 2016 are obtained which are compared with the data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development. The comparison of the results showed that the analysis and forecast data of the Ministry of Economic Development and the World Bank of Development coincide only partially. The tendency to increase the volumes in rocket and space industry is shown. Scientific novelty the mathematical models are presented for the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation built on the basis of the asynchronous harmonic analysis. The retrospective of the rocketspace complex development is considered. Practical significance using the proposed mathematical models of the dynamics of industrial production and the rocket and space industry of the Russian Federation based on the economy cycles the more accurate forecasts of economic development can be made. nbsp

  5. Women and creation in the videogame industry in Spain: opportunities and difficulties in masculinized spaces

    Aurora Méndez Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Video games are one of the first leisure alternatives in our society and generate millions of euros in profits annually. However, only 17% of its creators are women, which implies an important loss of creative capital and high economic gains that are not equitably distributed in a context of social inequality. Multiple factors, from the content of video games to the social environment, negatively influence women, creating a disaffection for video games. On the other hand, the masculinized environments and the lack of authority of the women around the videogames, curb the pretensions of the players to make the leap toward the professionalization in this industry. The objective of this article, through a bibliographical review, is to begin a research of the causes of the underrepresentation of women in the video game industry, in order to find solutions, create a more sustainable economy for Europe, an increase of equal spaces And greater job opportunities for women.

  6. 78 FR 32241 - U.S. Air Force Seeks Industry Input for National Security Space Launch Assessment

    2013-05-29

    ..., seeks industry views and perspectives to inform an on-going strategic National Security Space Launch... the U.S. Government. 2. What are the critical issues that concern current and prospective launch...

  7. Space-Derived Imagery and a Commercial Remote Sensing Industry: Impossible Dream or Inevitable Reality?

    Murray, Felsher

    Landsat-1 was launched in 1972 as a research satellite. Many of us viewed this satellite as a precursor to remote sensing "commercialization." Indeed since that time, the birth, growth and maturation of a remote sensing "industry" has been an ongoing objective for much of the U.S. private sector engaged in space and ground-segment activities related to the acquisition, analysis, and dissemination of imagery. In September 1999 a U.S. commercial entity, Space Imaging, Inc. launched its 1-meter pan/4-meter multispectral IKONOS sensor. DigitalGlobe, Inc. (nee EarthWatch, Inc.) matched this feat in October 2001. Thus, a full 30 years later, we are finally on the brink of building a true remote sensing information industry based on the global availability of competitively-priced space- derived imagery of the Earth. The upcoming availability of similar imagery from non-U.S. sources as ImageSat and U.S. sources as ORBIMAGE will only strengthen that reality. However, a remote sensing industry can only grow by allowing these entities (in times of peace) unencumbered access to a world market. And that market continues to expand -- up 11% in 2001, with gross revenues of U.S. commercial remote sensing firms alone reaching 2.44 billion, according to a joint NASA/ASPRS industry survey. However, the 30-year gap between the research-labeled Landsat-1 and our current commercial successes was not technology-driven. That lacuna was purely political -- driven by valid concerns related to national security. Although the world's governments have cooperated thoroughly and completely in areas related to satellite telecommunications, cooperation in space-derived image information is still today done cautiously and on a case-by-case basis -- and then only for science- based undertakings. It is still a fact that, except for the United States, all other Earth-imaging satellites/sensors flying today are owned, operated, and their products disseminated, by national governments -- and not private

  8. Parameter and State Estimator for State Space Models

    Ruifeng Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a parameter and state estimator for canonical state space systems from measured input-output data. The key is to solve the system state from the state equation and to substitute it into the output equation, eliminating the state variables, and the resulting equation contains only the system inputs and outputs, and to derive a least squares parameter identification algorithm. Furthermore, the system states are computed from the estimated parameters and the input-output data. Convergence analysis using the martingale convergence theorem indicates that the parameter estimates converge to their true values. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to show that the proposed algorithm is effective.

  9. Mining space and industrial heritage in Mexico: the mineral from Tlalpujahua [Michoacán state

    José Alfredo Uribe Salas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the historical dimension of the economic and social space of Tlalpujahua and El Oro Mining District from the perspective of the Industrial Heritage. The exploration and exploitation in search for precious minerals along the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries articulated a culture of wage labour and facilitated the circulation of new knowledge, technical expertise and an impressive technological innovation in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. With the depletion of gold and silver in the mid-twentieth century, the socio-technical framework disappears but not the memory and industrial vestiges which represents long-term historical processes, and as a social laboratory allows to recognize and analyze the changes in the social relations of different human groups, different nationality and social status — workers, technicians, engineers, businessmen, traders, etc. —, who moved to the minerals in the quest to materialise their own life expectancy. The study and appreciation of the historical and cultural experience ensures the memory of the industrial heritage of Mexicans.

  10. Simulation of obstacles’ effect on industrial robots’ working space using genetic algorithm

    M.F. Aly

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of robot workspace is an interesting problem since its applications are directly related to industry. However, it involves several mathematical complications; Thus, many of the arising questions are left without a definite answer. With the motivation of industrial demand, the need for finding better answers than the existing ones lasts. The workspace (WS determination of a robot with general structural parameters is a complex problem, which cannot be solved in an explicit way. Closed form solutions are only available in some particular cases. Otherwise, computational algorithms and numerical techniques are used. The task becomes even much more complicated by the presence of obstacles in the robot accessible region. Obstacle presence does not only exclude points from the original WS but it affects the whole robot workspace’s shape and size to the extent that it sometimes divides the working space in two or more separate regions that cannot be linked by the same robot. Much research work in the literature is directed toward path planning in the presence of obstacles without having to determine the robot WS. However, a real situation in industry occurs when the knowledge of the WS is of importance in facility layout. This paper presents an approach for the estimation of a generic open-chain robot in the presence of obstacles with any desired number of prismatic and/or revolute joints of any order. Joints’ axes may have any orientation relative to each other. The robot can be placed in free space or in a work cell consisting of a set of Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC machines and some obstacles.

  11. INTEGRATION OF UKRAINIAN INDUSTRY SCIENTIFIC PERIODACLS INTO WORLD SCIENTIFIC INFORMATION SPACE: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    T. O. Kolesnykova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Problem of representation lack of scientists’ publications, including transport scientists, in the international scientometric databases is the urgent one for Ukrainian science. To solve the problem one should study the structure and quality of the information flow of scientific periodicals of railway universities in Ukraine and to determine the integration algorithm of scientific publications of Ukrainian scientists into the world scientific information space. Methodology. Applying the methods of scientific analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison and prediction the author has investigated the problem of scientific knowledge distribution using formal communications. The readiness of Ukrainian railway periodicals to registration procedure in the international scientometric systems was analyzed. The level of representation of articles and authors of Ukrainian railway universities in scientometric database Scopus was studied. Findings. Monitoring of the portals of railway industry universities of Ukraine and the sites of their scientific periodicals and analysis of obtained data prove insufficient readiness of most scientific publications for submission to scientometric database. The ways providing sufficient "visibility" of industry periodicals of Ukrainian universities in the global scientific information space were proposed. Originality. The structure and quality of documentary flow of scientific periodicals in railway transport universities of Ukraine and its reflection in scientometric DB Scopus were first investigated. The basic directions of university activities to integrate the results of transport scientists research into the global scientific digital environment were outlined. It was determined the leading role of university libraries in the integration processes of scientific documentary resources of universities into the global scientific and information communicative space. Practical value. Implementation of the proposed

  12. Commercial Lunar ISRU for the Space Launch Industry: Cruder is Better

    Turner, M.

    2017-09-01

    Lunar ISRU scenarios typically focus on making relatively high-added-value products (such as solar PVs) for off-Earth use only. Discussion of space mining in general focuses on high-value trace substances (e.g. platinum group metals) as exports to Earth, and hydroxyls and other volatiles for use only in space. This paper considers two potential bulk commodities with high availability on the lunar surface: space-weathered basalt fines and the oxygen in metal oxides. Basalt fiber can be produced by a simple process, and is strong enough that a tapered rotating sling could propel payloads at lunar escape velocity. Basalt aerobrakes could be flung to LEO depots to aid in aerocapture, reentry, and thermal protection of upper stages. Lunar oxygen (O2 being most of the mass of most liquid-fueled rockets) could aid in powered descent. In short, abundant substances on the Moon could make cost-saving exports possible sooner than later, for the satellite launch industry.

  13. HAL/S programmer's guide. [for space shuttle project

    Newbold, P. M.; Hotz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The structure and symbology of the HAL/S programming language are described; this language is to be used among the flight software for the space shuttle project. The data declaration, input/output statements, and replace statements are also discussed.

  14. Systems engineering, systems thinking, and learning a case study in space industry

    Moser, Hubert Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on systems engineering, systems thinking, and how that thinking can be learned in practice. It describes a novel analytical framework based on activity theory for understanding how systems thinking evolves and how it can be improved to support multidisciplinary teamwork in the context of system development and systems engineering. This method, developed using data collected over four years from three different small space systems engineering organizations, can be applied in a wide variety of work activities in the context of engineering design and beyond in order to monitor and analyze multidisciplinary interactions in working teams over time. In addition, the book presents a practical strategy called WAVES (Work Activity for a Evolution of Systems engineering and thinking), which fosters the practical learning of systems thinking with the aim of improving process development in different industries. The book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners interested in system...

  15. The Emergence of New Industries in Space: An evolutionary understanding of industry emergence from a geographical perspective

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    of industrial organisational economics (Porter 1980) and in evolutionary economics (Dosi 1984, Nelson, Winter 1982). Second, the paper discusses the particularity that characterizes the temporal scope of industry emergence and it is claimed that the literature often lack attention to periods that precede......, which has characterized the field of economic geography. In particular, the framework builds on a critique of the predominant role previous theories have ascribed to chance events....

  16. Industry

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  17. Cumulative input/output balance of a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant. Comparison of construction material requirements, operating energy expenditure, and the requirement of auxiliary materials in comparison with waste combustion; Kumulative Bilanzierung der mechanisch-biologischen Restabfallbehandlung - Baumaterialien und betrieblicher Energie- und Hilfsstoffaufwand im Vergleich zur Muellverbrennung

    Wallmann, R.; Fricke, K. [Ingenieurgemeinschaft Witzenhausen (Germany); Vogtmann, H. [Hessisches Landesamt fuer Regionalentwicklung und Landwirtschaft, Kassel (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The study strikes a cumulative input/output balance of an existing waste conditioning plant considering not only operating energy demand but also the required construction materials for erecting the plant. In operation since 1996, the waste conditioning plant is entirely state of the art; hence the data obtained are up to date. The results are compared with relevant results for a waste processing plant and evaluated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung erfolgt eine kumulative Bilanzierung einer bestehenden MBA-Anlage, wobei neben den betrieblichen Energieaufwendungen auch die Baumaterialien zur Herstellung der Anlage beruecksichtigt werden. Die seit 1996 in Betrieb befindliche Abfallbehandlungsanlage entspricht weitestgehend dem Stand der Technik der MBA, wodurch die Aktualitaet der Daten gegeben ist. Die Ergebnisse der Bilanzierung werden im Vergleich zu einer MVA dargestellt und bewertet. (orig.)

  18. Output upstreamness and input downstreamness of industries/countries in world production

    Miller, Ronald E.; Temurshoev, Umed

    2013-01-01

    Using the world input-output tables available from the WIOD project (www.wiod.org), we quantify production line positions of 35 industries for 40 countries and the rest of the world region over 1996-2009. In contrast to the previous related literature we do not focus only on the output supply chain,

  19. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  20. Input/output routines for a hybrid computer

    Izume, Akitada; Yodo, Terutaka; Sakama, Iwao; Sakamoto, Akira; Miyake, Osamu

    1976-05-01

    This report is concerned with data processing programs for a hybrid computer system. Especially pre-data processing of magnetic tapes which are recorded during the dynamic experiment by FACOM 270/25 data logging system in the 50 MW steam generator test facility is described in detail. The magnetic tape is a most effective recording medium for data logging, but recording formats of the magnetic tape are different between data logging systems. In our section, the final data analyses are performed by data in the disk of EAI-690 hybrid computer system, and to transfer all required information in magnetic tapes to the disk, the magnetic tape editing and data transit are necessary by sub-computer NEAC-3200 system. This report is written for users as a manual and reference hand book of pre-data processing between different type computers. (auth.)

  1. Input-output theory and institutional aspects of environmental policy

    Steenge, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    National accounting over the years has developed in close interaction with input–output analysis. However, present developments involving core and satellite accounts seem to suggest that this relation will become less close, with possible negative consequences for analysis and policy. In this paper

  2. Interface Input/Output Automata: Splitting Assumptions from Guarantees

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nyman, Ulrik; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    's \\IOAs [11], relying on a context dependent notion of refinement based on relativized language inclusion. There are two main contributions of the work. First, we explicitly separate assumptions from guarantees, increasing the modeling power of the specification language and demonstrating an interesting...

  3. Input-Output Economics : Theory and Applications - Featuring Asian Economies

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thijs ten Raa, author of the acclaimed text The Economics of Input–Output Analysis, now takes the reader to the forefront of the field. This volume collects and unifies his and his co-authors' research papers on national accounting, Input–Output coefficients, economic theory, dynamic models,

  4. Input/Output: hoeveelheid en volume compost in de champignonkweek

    Leyh, Romain; Blok, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous experiment showed that the compost quantity was the most determining parameter for the production volume of mushrooms, despite the addition of hemi cellulose as carbon source to the compost. The present experiment focuses on the mycelium action with regard to the carbon

  5. Application Of Input-Output Analysis In The Health Care

    Jewczak Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage of the economic analysis in the study of the performance of health care system does not surprise anyone nowadays. Trends that are drawn over the years fluctuate from the technology assessment of health programs - in terms of efficiency, costs or utility for patients, through methods to establishing copayment for health services and the demand for medical services. Much of the interest is devoted to analysis of the shape of the health care system: the amount of contributions to the National Health Fund, the managing the system, both at the micro and macro level, or restructuring. Any method that allows to show dependencies, identify weaknesses/strengths of the health care system is appreciated by health policy makers.

  6. Smart mobility solution with multiple input Output interface.

    Sethi, Aartika; Deb, Sujay; Ranjan, Prabhat; Sardar, Arghya

    2017-07-01

    Smart wheelchairs are commonly used to provide solution for mobility impairment. However their usage is limited primarily due to high cost owing from sensors required for giving input, lack of adaptability for different categories of input and limited functionality. In this paper we propose a smart mobility solution using smartphone with inbuilt sensors (accelerometer, camera and speaker) as an input interface. An Emotiv EPOC+ is also used for motor imagery based input control synced with facial expressions in cases of extreme disability. Apart from traction, additional functions like home security and automation are provided using Internet of Things (IoT) and web interfaces. Although preliminary, our results suggest that this system can be used as an integrated and efficient solution for people suffering from mobility impairment. The results also indicate a decent accuracy is obtained for the overall system.

  7. Preliminary Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  8. Controlling Access to Input/Output Peripheral Devices

    E. Y. Rodionov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author proposes a system that manages information security policy on enterprise. Problems related to managing information security policy on enterprise and access to peripheral devices in computer systems functioning under control of Microsoft Windows NT operating systems are considered.

  9. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  10. Input-output interactions and optimal monetary policy

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. Part of the output of each sector serves as a production input in both sectors, in accordance with a realistic input–output structure. Strategic...... complementarities induced by factor demand linkages significantly alter the transmission of shocks and amplify the loss of social welfare under optimal monetary policy, compared to what is observed in standard two-sector models. The distinction between value added and gross output that naturally arises...... in this context is of key importance to explore the welfare properties of the model economy. A flexible inflation targeting regime is close to optimal only if the central bank balances inflation and value added variability. Otherwise, targeting gross output variability entails a substantial increase in the loss...

  11. Multiplier Accounting of Indian Mining Industry: The Application

    Hussain, Azhar; Karmakar, Netai Chandra

    2017-10-01

    In the previous paper (Hussain and Karmakar in Inst Eng India Ser, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s40033-014-0058-0), the concepts of input-output transaction matrix and multiplier were explained in detail. Input-output multipliers are indicators used for predicting the total impact on an economy due to changes in its industrial demand and output which is calculated using transaction matrix. The aim of this paper is to present an application of the concepts with respect to the mining industry, showing progress in different sectors of mining with time and explaining different outcomes from the results obtained. The analysis shows that a few mineral industries saw a significant growth in their multiplier values over the years.

  12. Industrialization

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  13. Industrialization

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  14. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity.

  15. Industry

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. The Near-Term Impacts of Carbon Mitigation Policies on Manufacturing Industries

    Morgenstern, Richard; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Ho, Mun; Zhang, Xuehua

    2002-01-01

    Who will pay for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries is combined with input-output information on interindustry purchases to paint a ...

  17. ROLE OF AGRO-INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH ECONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF LINKAGES AND MULTIPLIERS

    Quddus, Md. Abdul

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of agro-industry in the Bangladesh economy. The latest two input-output tables of the year 1993-94 and 2001-2002 in Bangladesh were used to calculate inter-industry linkage indices and multiplier effects. Agroindustry contributes a significant portion of national income and the prospect of employment generation is increasing at the higher extent for the sectors food processing, tanning and leather finishing, leather industry, saw milling a...

  18. The Tree of Industrial Life

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring forth an interaction between evolutionary economics and industrial systematics. The suggested solution is to reconstruct the "family tree" of the industries. Such a tree is based on similarities, but it may also reflect the evolutionary history in industries....... For this purpose the paper shows how matrices of input-output coefficients can be transformed into binary characteristics matrices and to distance matrices, and it also discusses the possible evolutionary meaning of this translation. Then these derived matrices are used as inputs to algorithms for the heuristic...... finding of optimal industrial trees. The results are presented as taxonomic trees that can easily be compared with the hierarchical structure of existing systems of industrial classification....

  19. Optical Mining of Asteroids, Moons, and Planets to Enable Sustainable Human Exploration and Space Industrialization

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PROBLEM, DEEP SPACE HUMAN EXPLORATION IS UNAFFORDABLE: In 2014 the NASA Advisory Council issued a finding that “The mismatch between NASA’s aspirations for human...

  20. Simulating Emerging Space Industries with Agent-Based Modeling, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) calls for encouraging commercial participation as a top-level objective. Given current and future commercial activities, how...

  1. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  2. Enabling the Commercial Space Transportation Industry at the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport

    2011-09-01

    global recession. This 5 growth is attributed to increased globalization, technology improvements, deregulation , access to previously closed...for space flight. This Final Rule requires insurance and training to ensure all crew members are aware that space flight is inherently dangerous (FAA...overflight (See Figure 7). Minimal land overflight is an important cost advantage when insuring launches. WFF maintains an aeronautical research airport

  3. Conveyor belt of flesh: urban space and proliferation of the industrial labor practices

    BALABAN, Utku Barış

    2011-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century witnessed the worldwide (re)emergence of the
    non-factory forms of industrial labor. Academic studies predominantly emphasize the
    economic and political globalization to explain this phenomenon. This thesis investigates
    the local urban dynamics of this „proliferation of the industrial labor practices‟ with a
    field research in Istanbul, Turkey. 
    The field research focused on the organiza...

  4. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  5. ANALISIS INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA GULA SEMUT UNTUK EKSPOR DI KABUPATEN KULON PROGO DAN PURWOREJO

    Prihtanto, Fransisca Nugraheni Putri; Irham, Irham; Suryantini, Any

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to: 1) measure the feasibility of granular brown sugar household industry for export in Kulon Progo and Purworejo districts, 2) determine the value added of the granular brown sugar, 3) determine differences in income, profits, and value added of both industries, 4) determine the factors that affect value added of granular brown sugar, ·5) analyze the sensitivity of the breakeven point with input, output, and exchange rate. The results indicatesthat the granular brown sugar ho...

  6. Cinema and Geography: Geographic Space, Landscape and Territory in the Film Industry

    Gámir Orueta, Agustín; Manuel Valdés, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This document is a direct translation of the original article in Spanish, published in the 'Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles', 2007, nº 45 pp. 157 - 190. This work presents a theoretical and analytical approach to the relationship between cinema and geographic space. First, special cinematographic qualities are differentiated from those of other means of geographic representation, at the same time identifying the differences between real space and film space. Subsequently, t...

  7. The metalcasting industry and future research on the International Space Station

    Santner, Joe; Overfelt, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Fourteen million tons of castings are used annually in ninety percent of all manufactured goods and in all manufacturing machinery making metalcasting the manufacturing backbone of America. There are approximately 3,000 foundries located in 49 states directly providing employment to 200,000 people and indirectly supporting transportation, petrochemical, construction, and other end-user industries. The Solidification Design Center (SDC) began a pioneering effort to address metalcasting industry technical needs to maintain US global leadership in quality, price, and delivery. While individual companies have interacted in the past with the Auburn University SDC, eighty-percent of the foundries employ less than 100 individuals while only six-percent of the foundries employ more than 250 persons. The American Foundrymen's Society (AFS) formed the Solidification Design and Control Consortium to reach the small businesses in the U.S. metalcasting industry. Over a century of operation has proved the AFS committee structure to be a robust management tool. The recognized metalcasting industry technical needs and the unique opportunities that low earth orbit offers foundry process research are described in the present paper. In addition, the metalcasting approach to prioritize proposals, transfer technology developed within the small business community, and the metalcasting industry concerns regarding working with a government aerospace program are also discussed

  8. Efficiency concept and investigations in insurance industry: A survey

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most recent studies are based on benchmarking analysis allowing the measure of company efficiency relatively to a reference performance. Benchmarking is a helpful tool to analyze and promote efficiency in insurance companies. The fast development of X-efficiency notion makes traditional performance measures (ROA, ROE, etc. obsolete. Indeed, various methods have been used, various input-output measures have been proposed and various research fields have been explored in insurance company investigation. So, after reviewing most known efficiency concepts and their definitions, this section explores the literature review of two principal points of discussion: the first point is focused on the different used techniques to measure efficiency, including the developed approaches to define inputs, outputs and their prices. The second point represents an overview of efficiency investigations in insurance industry.

  9. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  10. Live from the Mars Hotel - Space Locations and the Film Industry

    Sivier, D.

    Space exploration is the subject of intense media interest in a way unparalleled in any other branch of science. It is the subject of countless films and television programmes, both fact and fiction, many using original footage from space. Astronauts have broadcast live from the Moon, and TV journalists have travelled to Mir, similar to the use of exotic terrestrial locations for filming by professional film crews. Although prohibitively expensive at the moment, the next generation of spacecraft may lower launch costs to an affordable level, so that space locations become competitive against computer graphics and model work. The construction of orbital hotels will create the demand for human interest stories similar to those set in holiday locations like the south of France and Italy made just after the Second World War, at a time when mass tourism on foreign holidays was just beginning, aided by the development of large transport aircraft able to cater to the demand for mass flight.

  11. Relevance of the futron/zogby survey conclusions to the current space tourism industry

    Ziliotto, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    Thanks to recent technological achievements such as Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne in 2004, Bigelow's Genesis I in July 2006 and Genesis II in July 2007 and the success of space adventures' flights to the ISS, space tourism is leaving the realm of science-fiction. It is now becoming increasingly familiar to the general public and even recognized by institutional bodies. The Futron/Zogby survey, revised in 2006 and completed with the 2006. Adventurers survey constitutes a good basis to understanding the characteristics of the nascent suborbital market and the profile of the potential customers for both suborbital and orbital travel. The previsions of these studies will be contrasted with recent market and customers' data that was not available at the time.

  12. China's Expansion Into and U.S. Withdrawal from Argentina's Telecommunications and Space Industries and the Implications for U.S. National Security

    Hulse, Janie

    2007-01-01

    ... up. In this monograph, Ms. Janie Hutse, a Latin Amen can specialist based in Buenos Aires, Argentina, argues that increased Chinese investment in regional telecommunications and space industries has implications for U.S. national security...

  13. SMEs, IT, and the Third Space: Colonization and Creativity in the Theatre Industry

    Kendall, Julie E.; Kendall, Kenneth E.

    We examine how small and medium-sized, professional, nonprofit performing arts theatres in the US can improve the strategic use of information technology (IT), as well as other aspects of theatre management for large, commercial theatre productions in the West End of London and on Broadway in New York City. In this article we use the epistemology of the third space developed by Bhabha (1994) and extended by Frenkel (2008). Although both authors were discussing knowledge transfer, we use their conceptualizations to characterize and explore more deeply the transfer process of culture (and thereby useful practices and worthwhile lessons) from small and medium-sized professional, nonprofit theaters to large-scale commercial theatres. We include a discussion of Nonaka’s (1991) concept of ba, and how it relates to the third space. We specifically employ the metaphor of the third space developed by Bhabha (1994) to critique and understand the verbal and nonverbal cultural transmissions between small and large theatres. One of our contributions is to use the conceptualization and metaphor of the third space to understand the complex exchanges and relationships between small to medium-sized nonprofit professional theatres and large commercial theatres, and to identify what large commercial productions can learn from nonprofit theatres from these exchanges.

  14. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical industrial, and space applications

    Tingey, G.L.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    Of the over 2300 isotopes identified to data, more than 1700 are short-lived with half-lives less than one day, 283 are stable, and 333 have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years. It is on this last group that the authors focus for the isotopes with useable radioactivity. Radioisotopes are used in a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine, industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. As for the future, we expect radioisotopes to contribute to a myriad of diverse applications to improve technological, scientific, and industrial endeavors, which include improving the length and quality of life through improved diagnosis and treatment of the human ills

  15. Enhanced power generation in annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell via optimization of electrode spacing using chocolate industry wastewater.

    Noori, Parisa; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2016-05-01

    Development and practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is restricted because of the limitations such as low power output. To overcome low power limitation, the optimization of specific parameters including electrode materials and surface area, electrode spacing, and MFC's cell shape was investigated. To the best of our knowledge, no investigation has been reported in the literature to implement an annular single-chamber microbial fuel cell (ASCMFC) using chocolate industry wastewater. ASCMFC was fabricated via optimization of the stated parameters. The aspects of ASCMFC were comprehensively examined. In this study, the optimization of electrode spacing and its impact on performance of the ASCMFC were conducted. Reduction of electrode spacing by 46.15% (1.3-0.7 cm) resulted in a decrease in internal resistance from 100 to 50 Ω, which enhanced the power density and current output to 22.898 W/m(3) and 6.42 mA, respectively. An optimum electrode spacing of 0.7 cm was determined. Through this paper, the effects of these parameters and the performance of ASCMFC are also evaluated. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Space shuttle general purpose computers (GPCs) (current and future versions)

    1988-01-01

    Current and future versions of general purpose computers (GPCs) for space shuttle orbiters are represented in this frame. The two boxes on the left (AP101B) represent the current GPC configuration, with the input-output processor at far left and the central processing unit (CPU) at its side. The upgraded version combines both elements in a single unit (far right, AP101S).

  17. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial and space applications

    Tingey, G.L.; Dix, G.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  18. Contributions and Future of Radioisotopes in Medical, Industrial and Space Applications

    Tingey, G. L.; Dix, G. P.; Wahlquist, E. J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  19. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial, and space applications

    Tingey, G. L.; Dix, G. P.; Wahlquist, E. J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine, industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production.

  20. Use of diesel engines in industrial trucks operated in enclosed spaces

    Dietrich, W; Reibold, G

    1981-01-01

    Report on emission investigations on a fork-lifter equipped with a low-pollutant MWM-engine, tests were carried out in enclosed spaces. The aim was to clarify if the maximum MPC at a place of work listed in a table of waste gas components can be observed even under unfavourable operating conditions of the fork lifter. The test is described, results are analysed. It is proved that there are no health hazards for the staff even under the extreme conditions chosen for the test.

  1. Industrialization of Space: Microgravity Based Opportunities for Material and Life Science

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Harper, Lynn D.; Rasky, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Alexander; Pittman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity based commercial opportunities are broad, with applications ranging from fiber optics, device-grade semiconductor crystals, space beads, new materials, cell micro encapsulation, 3D tissues and cell cultures, genetic and molecular changes of immune suppression, protein and virus crystal growth, perfume and hair care. To date, primarily the knowledge gained from observing and understanding new end states of systems unraveled in microgravity has been translated into unique technologies and business opportunities on Earth. In some instances existing light qualified hardware is immediately available for commercial RD for small scale in-space manufacturing. Overall products manufactured in microgravity have key properties usually surpassing the best terrestrial counterparts. The talk will address the potential benefits of microgravity research for a variety of terrestrial markets. Our findings originate from discussions with 100+ non-aerospace private companies among the high-tech Silicon Valley ecosystem, show that the opportunities and benefits of using the ISS are largely not considered by experts, primarily due to a lack of awareness of the breadth of terrestrial applications that have been enabled or enhanced by microgravity RD. Based on this dialogue, the concept of microgravity verticals is developed to translate the benefits of the microgravity environment into blue ocean business opportunities for various key US commercial sectors.

  2. International Trade in Intermediate Inputs: The Case of the Automobile Industry

    Markus Diehl

    2001-01-01

    International trade statistics and input-output tables are analyzed in order to test the hypothesis that international production networks have become more relevant. The share of imported inputs in the gross output value of the motor vehicle industry has grown significantly during the last two decades. Moreover, some low-income countries have become strong exporters of automobile parts, but this trade is mainly regional rather than global. Detailed results are presented in case studies on fou...

  3. Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-21

    Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.

  4. Development of an industrialized space-frame system for the support of medium to large solar collector arrays

    1982-11-01

    A low-cost industrialized space-frame system suitable for the economical support of medium to large solar collector arrays was designed following a study of building types, collector interface conditions, structural design requirements, and market and procurement factors. The system consists of a series of welded truss modular sections which may be bolted together in the field to create a support structure with a span capability up to 25 m, thus minimizing expensive structural beams and roof penetrations. Collectors can be readily attached to top and bottom channels. The system meets all current government specifications for collector support. A full-size prototype was built to prove the concept and identify any fabrication and on-site assembly problems. Collectors were attached to test collector interface conditions, and a manufacturing strategy developed. 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. A Historical Legacy Untouched by Time and Space? The Hollowing-out of the Norwegian Model of Industrial Relations

    Ann Cecilie Bergene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian model of industrial relations has received a lot of praise. It is generally thought of as the pinnacle of the welfare state, a reason why Norway is not severely hit by crises, is highly adaptable, and thus still going strong. This article discusses the historical circumstances in which the model arose with a view to analyze the preconditions for its further existence, arguing that the model must be understood as consisting of, and thus dependent upon, shifting historical subjects. This calls for an analysis of the concrete interactions between various agents, and how it has changed over time and space. In this effort, historical accounts are combined with theories developed within the social sciences in order to explain the dynamics of these interactions. We will argue that the contemporary notion of a Norwegian model of industrial relations, and the accompanying praise, is an ahistorical conceptualization verging on a dogma, and that profound reconfigurations of power relations between the agents of labor and capital need to be taken into account.

  6. FINANCIAL DISTRESS AND INDUSTRY STRUCTURE : AN INTER-INDUSTRY APPROACH TO THE LOST DECADE IN JAPAN

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Sterken, Elmer; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to investigating the propagation mechanism of balance sheet deterioration in financial institutions and firms, by extending the input-output analysis. First, we use a unique input-output table augmented by firm size dimension. Second, we link the input-output

  7. Fundamentals and applications of neutron imaging. Application part 3. Application of neutron imaging in aircraft, space rocket, car and gunpowder industries

    Ikeda, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    Neutron imaging is applied to nondestructive test. Four neutron imaging facilities are used in Japan. The application examples of industries are listed in the table: space rocket, aircraft, car, liquid metal, and works of art. Neutron imaging of transportation equipments are illustrated as an application to industry. X-ray radiography testing (XRT) image and neutron radiography testing (NRT) image of turbine blade of aircraft engine, honeycomb structure of aircraft, helicopter rotor blade, trigger tube, separation nut of space rocket, carburetor of car, BMW engine, fireworks and ammunitions are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  8. You Can't be Too Careful: The Challenges of Cybersecurity in the Nuclear Industry

    Henriques, Sasha

    2013-01-01

    The number of computers people use and interact with is growing every year, creating more opportunities for cyberattacks. For example, contemporary automobiles contain no fewer than 12 digital input/output channels to control the engine, transmission, radio, antilock braking, keyless entry, anti-theft, telematics, etc. All of these potentially contain vulnerabilities susceptible to being 'hacked'. Computer and information technology are evolving very quickly, at times outpacing our awareness of possible sources of cyber-vulnerabilities and ultimate attack. Additionally, cyberattacks are not limited to the workplace, but can also target the private lives of individuals. One of the IAEA's main aims in improving cybersecurity is to enhance nuclear security culture, to change how people think, and change how they evaluate not just the adoption, but also the use, of technology. ''If nuclear professionals and their families are more aware of not just their physical space, but their digital space, they will be more cautious with regard to online information sharing and the use of technology. Information that seems innocuous can be combined with other information found elsewhere online and can prove to be very damaging. Google and similar Internet search engines are often the first tool hackers use in developing an attack plan,'' says Dudenhoeffer. Project Officer for the National Coordinator for Counterterrorism and Security of the Netherlands, Ben Govers says, understanding of the threat is slowly permeating the nuclear industry. ''The nuclear industry is facing the challenge of having to both broaden and deepen its existing defences in computer and information networks set against cyberthreats. The industry is - more or less - at the starting point of developing, implementing and expanding robust measures for protecting the information and control systems of nuclear facilities''. ''The IAEA can play a leading role in this dynamic development,'' says Govers

  9. EVALUATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INVESTMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS PARK OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

    Kogan A. B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The author describes a method for estimation the economic efficiency, based on the input-output model. The proposed method develops the author of well-known methods of cost-benefits analysis. The method is used to assess the effectiveness of budget financing the establishment of Industrial logistics Park (PLP in the Novosibirsk region (NSO. The estimation is based on the input-output model developed for the NSO. Economic benefits are assessed on the basis of growth in gross value added (GVA. This takes into account a number of losses GVA, for example, losses due to the displacement of existing producers, losses due to the purchase of imported resources, etc. Economiccosts is estimated as a fulloutput of the economy, necessary for the establishment and operation of the investment project.

  10. Building-up influence: post-war industrialization in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the post-War industrialization process in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais, focusing on one of its desirable outcomes, namely the capacity to generate growth through the impact of strong input-output linkages. This process is placed into historical perspective considering the ideas that permeate the economic development debate throughout the period of analysis. Changes in the regional economic structure are assessed through the use of three input-output tables for the years of 1953, 1980 and 1995. By adopting the fields of influence methodology as the analytical core, it is shown that the efforts towards the creation of a more integrated regional economy have generated stronger influence of the targeted sectors (metal products, transportation equipment, chemical, and services. However, structural changes also contributed to strengthen leakage in the system originated in traditional economic activities.

  11. Energy shocks and detecting influential industries

    Kang, Dongsuk; Lee, Duk Hee

    2017-01-01

    An industry's relationship of supply and demand with the energy sector can be a critical factor in the stability of its economic performance. Furthermore, the patterns of industry dependence on energy industries can be a major characteristic of entire industrial structure. This research evaluates industries' impact scores for their overall influence on other industries and vulnerability to supply and demand shocks from the energy sector. The study utilizes a sample of Korea's industrial input–output tables from 2010 to 2012. Using a chain of complementary methodologies, this study finds that among four clusters, energy, services, and raw materials are key members that can spread energy shocks to other industries. Therefore, governments need to prepare effective energy efficiency policies for these target industries. - Highlights: • We analyze an industry's impact score of its vulnerability to energy shock and inter-industrial effects. • We utilize the sample of input-output tables in Korea from 2010 to 2012. • We implement simulation, PCA, TOPSIS, cluster analysis about energy shock and industrial trades. • Subsectors of energy, services, raw material are subject to energy shock and influential to others. • These bridge industries can be targets that require policies for effective energy efficiency.

  12. Industrializing the near-earth asteroids: Speculations on human activities in space in the latter half of the 21st century

    Sercel, Joel C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of solar system resources for human industry can be viewed as a natural extension of the continual growth of our species' habitat. Motivations for human activities in space can be discussed in terms of five distinct areas: (1) information processing and collection; (2) materials processing; (3) energy production to meet terrestrial power needs; (4) the use of extraterrestrial materials; and (5) disaster avoidance. When considering 21st-Century activities in space, each of these basic motivations must be treated in light of issues likely to be relevant to the 21st-Century earth. Many of the problems facing 21st-Century earth may stem from the need to maintain the world population of 8 to 10 billion people as is projected from expected growth rates. These problems are likely to include managing the impact of industrial processes on the terrestrial biosphere while providing adequate energy production and material goods for the growing population. The most important human activities in space in the latter half of the 21st Century may be associated with harnessing the resources of the near-earth asteroids for industrial processes. These above topics are discussed with an emphasis on space industrialization.

  13. Evolução dos Setores Econômicos do Brasil em 1992, 1995, 1999 e 2000: uma análise insumo-produtoEvolutions of the Economical Sectors in Brazil in the years of 1992,1995,1999 and 2000: an input-output analysisEvolución de los Sectores Económicos de Brasil en 1992, 1995, 1999 y 2000: un análisis insumo-producto

    VIEIRA, Fábio Lopes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOCom base nas tabelas de insumo-produto do Brasil para 1992, 1995, 1999 e 2000, este trabalho destaca um panorama evolutivo dos setores econômicos brasileiros no período. Como corolário, o domínio das relações inter-setoriais na economia brasileira foi dos setores Metalurgia/Siderurgia e Química, corroborados pela tradição de Hirschman/Rasmussen e pelo conceito de campo de influência.ABSTRACTUsing input-output analysis this paper presents for 1992, 1995, 1999 and 2000 a comparative analysis of the Brazilian economics sections in the period. As result, it was verified that the domain of the inter-sector relationships in the Brazilian economy was of the sections Metallurgy of iron and steel and Chemistry, corroborated by the tradition of the influence field concept.RESUMENCon base en las tablas de insumo-producto de Brasil para 1992, 1995, 1999 y 2000, este trabajo destaca el panorama evolutivo de los sectores económicos brasileños en ese período. Como corolario, el dominio de las relaciones intersectoriales en la economía brasileña correspondió a los sectores Metalurgia/Siderurgia y Química, corroborados por la tradición de Hirschman/Rasmussen y por el concepto de campo de influencia.

  14. Analysis of changes in the federal funding trends to higher education for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences compared to government and industry: 1967-1985

    Veasey, C. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories

  15. What the growth of a space tourism industry could contribute to employment, economic growth, environmental protection, education, culture and world peace

    Collins, Patrick; Autino, Adriano

    2010-06-01

    The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".

  16. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-01

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health

  17. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-15

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health.

  18. Actividad económica, consumo final de energía y requerimientos de energía primaria en Cataluña, 1990-2005. Análisis mediante el uso de los balances energéticos desde una perspectiva input-output

    Jordi Roca Jusmet; Vicent Alcántara Escolano; Emilio Padilla Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la evolución de los consumos finales de energía en Cataluña durante el periodo 1990-2005. En conjunto, los consumos finales de energía crecen por encima del crecimiento del PIB en términos reales. La disponibilidad actual de datos permite una desagregación en cinco actividades: sector primario; sector industrial; sector servicios; transporte; y sector doméstico. Los aumentos relativos más importantes se dan en los sectores servicios, doméstico y transporte. Es esta última...

  19. The analysis on dynamic range of industrial CT system

    Wang Huiqian; Wang Jue; Tan Hui

    2011-01-01

    Concerning the limitations of the definition of the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system, it researches the definition, measuring method and influencing factors of the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system from the concept of quantization and system. First, the character of the input-output curve was analyzed, and the method of obtaining the dynamic range of industrial computed tomography (ICT) system was proposed. Then, an experiment model was designed to gain dynamic range, based on 6 MeV high-energy industrial computed tomography (ICT) system. The results show that the larger the photosurface is, the smaller the dynamic range is, when the other parameters are unchanged. (authors)

  20. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  1. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  2. Industrial subdivisions in Aguascalientes State [Mexico]: Valley Region, potential spaces for development in the 21st Century

    Héctor Daniel García Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planning policies of the Mexican urban development oriented to the industrial activities implemented regionally and locally, have responded in different ways. The commitment to the sector led to the need to regulate urban growth and development as a substantial factor in achieving government strategies in the search for equitable sharing of national wealth and potential. The publication in 1976 of the General Law of Human Settlements born with this fundamental purpose. Excessive administrative burden of the Mexican social property and the need to insert in an increasingly globalizing economic activities led, in 1992 and 1994, respectively, the amendments to the Land Act and the signing of the Free Trade Agreement between North America, Canada, United States and Mexico. In the West Central Region, consisting of the metropolitan areas of Guadalajara, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Guanajuato and Aguascalientes, spatial area in which a third of the country's inhabitants is based, and hosts the 100% extension territorial state of Aguascalientes, have been exploited discontinuously the natural and man-made resources available in the area. In the Valley of Aguascalientes, north-south strip of the state territory, have been authorized industrial subdivisions under plans and urban development programs that have accelerated or inhibited impulses, according to the vision and expectations of government power in turn; the different rhythms and changes of strategy applied to organize the disorder potential of the rural and urban environment express divergences in the reaches of consolidation and longed purposes. Research indicates and identifies the dynamics with which the last eight administrations of the Mexican State have acted in shaping the industrial potential of the Valley, which the south side hosts industrial city, Nissan I, Nissan II and Automotive Logistics Industrial Park, industrial settlements seeking to consolidate the region

  3. Full‐factorial design space exploration approach for multi‐criteria decision making of the design of industrial halls

    Lee, B. (Bruno); Pourmousavian, N. (Navid); Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial halls pose high energy saving potential that is not yet explored under current design practice. Common design approaches such as parametric study or optimization are largely constrained by the assumptions and do not promote flexibility in the decision making process. Based on the unique

  4. Developing a model system for simulation of changes induced by more effective circular flow concepts in industry and energy management. Systems technology and economic modelling aspects shown with the example of the materials flow in the paper industry; Entwicklung eines Modellsystems zur Simulation der energiewirtschaftlichen und strukturellen Veraenderungen einer verstaerkten Kreislaufwirtschaft. Systemtechnische und oekonomische Modellierung am Beispiel des Stoffstroms 'Papier'

    Nathani, C.

    2000-02-01

    The impacts of a long-term change from our present industrial society to an economy based on circular flow concepts approaching the characteristics of the concept of sustainable development have to be taken into account in macroeconomic modelling as well, or else there is no appropriate basis for examination and assessment of the effects of various resource management policy options on the economy. One possible methodological approach is to link single, process-oriented models of sectors of the industry with input-output models and macroeconomic models. This study presents an approach using as an example the pulp and paper industry of Germany, covering the period from 1995 until 2020. The results are found to improve the methodological perspective between the process models and the MIS model of the family of IKARUS models and also offer an additional advantage in that they may serve as a data source for other input-output models and macroeconomic modelling. (orig./CB) [German] Diese Einfluesse eines langfristigen Wandels von einer heutigen Industriegesellschaft zu einer Kreislaufwirtschaft mit Merkmalen einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung muessen sich auch in den Strukturen makrooekonomischer Modelle wiederfinden, um die Auswirkungen verschiedener ressourcenpolitischer Optionen auf die Wirtschaft angemessen pruefen zu koennen. Ein methodischer Weg zu dieser Aufgabe ist die Verknuepfung einzelner prozessorientierter Branchenmodelle mit Input-Output-Modellen und makrooekonomischen Modellen. Der vorliegende Bericht will hierzu einen Baustein am Beispiel der Zellstoff- und Papierindustrie fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die Zeitperiode 1995-2020 beitragen. Diese Ergebnisse verbessern nicht nur die methodische Perspektive zwischen den Prozessmodellen und dem MIS-Modell der IKARUS-Modellfamilie, sondern koennen als Erfahrungs- und Datenquelle fuer andere Input-Output-Modelle und makrooekonomische Modelle genutzt werden. (orig.)

  5. Space heating in buildings: thermal diagnosis of an industrial building; Chauffage des batiments: bilan thermique d`un batiment industriel

    Brunet, R.

    1996-12-31

    The various heat transfer equations used for calculations in thermal diagnosis of an industrial building are reviewed: calculation of the heat losses through walls as a function of building materials, calculation of the energy consumption for heating fresh air (as a function of the air pollution rate in the building), calculation of the total heat losses, the heating energy demand and the annual energy consumption. Data concerning building materials characteristics, insulation and heating loads in the various regions of France, are also presented

  6. Findings From Existing Data on the Department of Defense Industrial Base: Guided Missile and Space Vehicle Manufacturing Example

    2015-04-30

    intermediaries (INSEAD Working Paper). Bitran, G. R., Gurumurthi, S., & Sam, S. L. (2006). Emerging trends in supply chain governance ( MIT Sloan School of...environment: Review of the literature since 2007. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management , 6(3), 751–760. Moore, N. Y., Grammich, C. A...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  7. The topology of inter-industry relations from the Portuguese national accounts

    Araújo, Tanya; Faustino, Rui

    2017-08-01

    In last years, the Portuguese economy has gone through a severe adjustment process, affecting almost all industrial sectors, the building blocks of economic structures. Research on economic structural changes has made use of input/output tables to define networks of industrial relations. Here, these networks are induced from output tables of the Portuguese national accounting system, being each inter-industry relation defined by the output made by any two industries for the products that they both produce. The topological analysis of these networks allows to uncover a particular structure that comes out during the Portuguese adjustment program. The evolution of the industrial networks shows an important structural change in 2011-2014, confirming the usefulness of inducting similarity networks from output tables and the consequent promising power of the graph formulation for the analysis of inter-industry relations.

  8. Chemistry-Climate Interactions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model. 2; New Insights into Modeling the Pre-Industrial Atmosphere

    Grenfell, J. Lee; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D.; Rind, D.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the chemical (hydroxyl and ozone) and dynamical response to changing from present day to pre-industrial conditions in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model (GISS GMC). We identify three main improvements not included by many other works. Firstly, our model includes interactive cloud calculations. Secondly we reduce sulfate aerosol which impacts NOx partitioning hence Ox distributions. Thirdly we reduce sea surface temperatures and increase ocean ice coverage which impact water vapor and ground albedo respectively. Changing the ocean data (hence water vapor and ozone) produces a potentially important feedback between the Hadley circulation and convective cloud cover. Our present day run (run 1, control run) global mean OH value was 9.8 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. For our best estimate of pre-industrial conditions run (run 2) which featured modified chemical emissions, sulfate aerosol and sea surface temperatures/ocean ice, this value changed to 10.2 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing only the chemical emissions to pre-industrial levels in run 1 (run 3) resulted in this value increasing to 10.6 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Reducing the sulfate in run 3 to pre-industrial levels (run 4) resulted in a small increase in global mean OH (10.7 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc). Changing the ocean data in run 4 to pre-industrial levels (run 5) led to a reduction in this value to 10.3 x 10(exp 5) molecules/cc. Mean tropospheric ozone burdens were 262, 181, 180, 180, and 182 Tg for runs 1-5 respectively.

  9. Trade pattern change impact on industrial CO2 emissions in Taiwan

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Chen, Yen-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Input-output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) is applied in this paper to analyze the sources of change in industrial CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 1989 to 2001. Owing to the fact that Taiwan is an export-oriented, trade-dependent economy, the focus is on trade transformation over the past decade and its effect over industrial CO 2 emissions. Change in trade patterns has significantly impacted many aspects of the Taiwan economy, subsequently resulting in various influences on industrial CO 2 emissions, as shown by empirical analysis results. Change in export level increased industrial CO 2 emissions, above all other effects, by 72.1%. However, changes in export mix and import coefficients imposed effects of dragging down industrial CO 2 emissions by 5.7% and 11.7%, respectively. (author)

  10. Study of Modern Approach to Build the Functional Models of Managerial and Engineering Systems in Training Specialists for Space Industry

    N. V. Arhipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The SM8 Chair at Bauman Moscow State Technological University (BMSTU trains specialists majoring not only in design and manufacture, but also in operation and maintenance of space ground-based infrastructure.The learning courses in design, production, and operation of components of the missile and space technology, give much prominence to modeling. The same attention should be given to the modeling of managerial and engineering systems, with which deal both an expert and a leadman. It is important to choose the modeling tools for managerial and engineering systems with which they are to work and to learn how to apply these tools.The study of modern approach to functional modeling of managerial and engineering systems is held in the format of business game in laboratory class. A structural analysis and design technique (IDEFØ is considered as the means of modeling.The article stresses the IDEFØ approach advantages, namely: comprehensible graphical language, applicability to all-types and all-levels-of-hierarchy managerial and engineering systems modeling, popularity, version control means, teamwork tools. Moreover, the IDEFØ allows us to illustrate such notions, as point of view, system bounders, structure, control, feedback as applied to the managerial and engineering systems.The article offers a modified procedure to create an IDEFØ model in the context of training session. It also suggests a step-by-step procedure of the instruction session to be held, as well as of student self-training to have study credits, and a procedure of the work defense (final test.The approach under consideration can be applied to other training courses. The article proves it giving information about positive experience of its application.

  11. Determination of income, production, and employment under pollution control: an input-output approach

    Rhee, J.J.; Miranowski, J.A.

    1984-02-01

    It can be shown that a variation of the multiplier approach solves the Leontief pollution model in a more directly interpretable and computationally efficient manner than the conventional method of directly using the augmented Leontief inverse matrix. The solution of each endogenous variable of the model can be expressed in terms of the non-augmented Leontief inverse, exogenous variables, and two important multipliers, ''the pollution control multiplier'' and ''a modified Keynesian multiplier,'' modified by pollution control. The so-called induced effect and the effect of pollution control on a given economy can be separated from the model. 6 references, 5 footnotes, 1 table.

  12. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  13. The role of household consumption in the Chinese economy : Input-output analyses

    Chen, Quanrun

    2015-01-01

    The export growth that contributed significantly to China’s GDP growth has slowed down since the global financial crisis in 2008. Stimulating the effective domestic demand is regarded as a good measure to cope with the weak foreign demand and as an important driving force of China’s future economic

  14. Input-output Conformance Testing for Channel-based Service Connectors

    N. Kokash (Natallia); F. Arbab (Farhad); B. Changizi (Behnaz); L. Makhnist; L. Aceto (Luca); M.R. Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractService-based systems are software systems composed of autonomous components or services provided by different vendors, deployed on remote machines and accessible through the web. One of the challenges of modern software engineering is to ensure that such a system behaves as intended

  15. Development of Input/Output System for the Reactor Transient Analysis System (RETAS)

    Suh, Jae Seung; Kang, Doo Hyuk; Cho, Yeon Sik; Ahn, Seung Hoon; Cho, Yong Jin

    2009-01-01

    A Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Reactor Transient Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) aims at providing a realistic prediction of core and RCS response to the potential or actual event scenarios in Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). A thermal hydraulic system code MARS is a pivot code of the RETAS, and used to predict thermal hydraulic (TH) behaviors in the core and associated systems. MARS alone can be applied to many types of transients, but is sometimes coupled with the other codes developed for different objectives. Many tools have been developed to aid users in preparing input and displaying the transient information and output data. Output file and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that help prepare input decks, as seen in SNAP (Gitnick, 1998), VISA (K.D. Kim, 2007) and display aids include the eFAST (KINS, 2007). The tools listed above are graphical interfaces. The input deck builders allow the user to create a functional diagram of the plant, pictorially on the screen. The functional diagram, when annotated with control volume and junction numbers, is a nodalization diagram. Data required for an input deck is entered for volumes and junctions through a mouse-driven menu and pop-up dialog; after the information is complete, an input deck is generated. Display GUIs show data from MARS calculations, either during or after the transient. The RETAS requires the user to first generate a set of 'input', two dimensional pictures of the plant on which some of the data is displayed either numerically or with a color map. The RETAS can generate XY-plots of the data. Time histories of plant conditions can be seen via the plots or through the RETAS's replay mode. The user input was combined with design input from MARS developers and experts from both the GUI and ergonomics fields. A partial list of capabilities follows. - 3D display for neutronics. - Easier method (less user time and effort) to generate 'input' for the 3D displays. - Detailed view of data at volume or junction with just a mouse click on the screen. - Interactive MARS run control (start, pause, restart, replay and stop). - Easy access to MARS peripherals. - Easy access to helpful applications such as text editor and spreadsheet. - Portability across workstations (UNIX) and PCs (Windows 98, Me, Xp, 2003 or Vista). - Window/menu/ mouse interfaces. These ideas were used as the basis for the design of RETAS. The result is a fundamentally new kind of GUI in the nuclear power plant analysis field. MARS is no longer the central focus, but rather, the focus becomes doing nuclear safety analyses from a central workspace with an arsenal of tools at the analyst's disposal. The workspace is the same on any PC, but with the native look and feel of the platform. MARS is the principal application; but others are accessible through the workspace and can be used simultaneously and in conjunction with one another to enhance the user's ability to do complicated analyses

  16. Input-output analysis of energy requirements for short rotation, intensive culture, woody biomass

    Strauss, C.H.; Grado, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A production model for short rotation, intensive culture (SRIC) plantations was developed to determine the energy and financial cost of woody biomass. The model was based on hybrid poplars planted on good quality agricultural sites at a density of 2100 cuttings ha -1 , with average annual growth forecast at 16 metric tonne, oven dry (mg(OD)). Energy and financial analyses showed preharvest cost 4381 megajoules (MJ) Mg -1 (OD) and $16 (US) Mg -1 (OD). Harvesting and transportation requirements increased the total costs 6130 MJ Mg -1 (OD) and $39 Mg -1 (OD) for the delivered material. On an energy cost basis, the principal input was land, whereas on a financial basis, costs were more uniformly distributed among equipment, land, labor, and materials and fuel

  17. Replacement of input/output cables of the digital control computers at Gentilly 2

    Melancon, P.; Lafreniere, P.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 annual outage at Gentilly 2 the Preventive Maintenance Program inspections on the digital control computers (DCCs) revealed an alarming degradation of cable insulation at several locations. It was found that approximately 20% of the cable connector assemblies inspected showed signs of degradation. These findings raised the concern of an increased risk of random short-circuit faults at the very heart of the station control system. Given the excellent reliability of the Gentilly 2 DCCs and their inherent design robustness, it was decided to proceed with the replacement of all of the complete cable connector assemblies within a reasonable time frame. It is planned to replace all assemblies of DCCX and DCCY during the 1991 annual outage. The degradation of the insulation was traced to a material incompatibility problem originating during cable manufacture. A migration of the plastifier contained in the PVC of the transparent sheaths, surrounding many of the cable conductors to terminal block connections, resulted in the chemical attack of the conductor insulation. This paper summarizes the problem identification and disposition process followed by Gentilly 2 Technical Unit personnel

  18. GLOBAL MULTIREGIONAL INPUT-OUTPUT FRAMEWORKS : AN INTRODUCTION AND OUTLOOK INTRODUCTION

    Tukker, Arnold; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This review is the introduction to a special issue of Economic Systems Research on the topic of global multiregional inputoutput (GMRIO) tables, models, and analysis. It provides a short historical context of GMRIO development and its applications (many of which deal with environmental extensions)

  19. Behavioral modeling of the dominant dynamics in input-output transfer of linear(ized) circuits

    Beelen, T.G.J.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Sihaloho, H.J.; Eijndhoven, van S.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    We present a powerful procedure for determining both the dominant dynamics of the inputoutput transfer and the corresponding most influential circuit parameters of a linear(ized) circuit. The procedure consists of several steps in which a specific (sub)problem is solved and its solution is used in

  20. Computer code ANISN multiplying media and shielding calculation 2. Code description (input/output)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The new code CCC-0514-ANISN/PC is described, as well as a ''GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ANISN/PC code''. In addition to the ANISN/PC code, the transmittal package includes an interactive input generation programme called APE (ANISN Processor and Evaluator), which facilitates the work of the user in giving input. Also, a 21 group photon cross section master library FLUNGP.LIB in ISOTX format, which can be edited by an executable file LMOD.EXE, is included in the package. The input and output subroutines are reviewed. 6 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Extending the Multi Regional Input-Output framework to labor related impacts

    Hardadi, Gilang; Pizzol, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    -O framework to social impacts. These challenges are addressed in this study where the Exiobase database was extended with new data on five quantitative indicators available from the International Labor Organization: employment; working hours; salary; occupational accident cases; and unemployment....... This required modeling steps, such as the disaggregation of data from sector to product group level, and filling the data gaps for missing countries by primary data collection or interpolation. A characterization step where indicator values are converted into social impacts on human productivity and human well...

  2. Analysis and Application of Quality Economics Based on Input-Output

    Lu, Qiang; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Quality economics analysis is an important research area in the current economic frontier, which has a huge role in promoting the quality-benefit type road development in China. Through the study of quality economics analysis and application, economics of quality and quality economics management are summarized, and theoretical framework of quality economics analysis is constructed. Finally, the quality economics analysis of aerospace equipment is taken as an example to carry on the application research.

  3. Dialog system for automatic data input/output and processing with two BESM-6 computers

    Belyaev, Y.N.; Gorlov, Y.P.; Makarychev, S.V.; Monakov, A.A.; Shcherbakov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a system for conducting experiments with fully automatic processing of data from multichannel recorders in the dialog mode. The system acquires data at a rate of 2.5 . 10 3 readings/sec, processes in real time, and outputs digital and graphical material in a multitasking environment

  4. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  5. Interdicting an Adversary’s Economy Viewed As a Trade Sanction Inoperability Input Output Model

    2017-03-01

    Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing YES $4,578,424,000 2 TTL_C10T14: Mining and quarrying YES $53,345,194,000 3 TTL_C15T16: Food products, beverages ...22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave...Wei, Dong, and Sun (2009) use the IIM to study supply chain risk management and mitigation strategies. They use a method called the “ordered

  6. Oral History in All 50 States; Two Major Openings, Input/Output, 1975.

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Oral History Research Office.

    Statistics show the vigorous growth of oral history programs in the United States since 1965. Recent events at the Oral History Research Office, Columbia University, include the opening of two new memoirs (Francis Perkins and Henry A. Wallace); a successful oral history course; and projects in progress in business, English literature,…

  7. Development of Input/Output System for the Reactor Transient Analysis System (RETAS)

    Suh, Jae Seung; Kang, Doo Hyuk; Cho, Yeon Sik [ENESYS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seung Hoon; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety Reactor Transient Analysis System (KINS-RETAS) aims at providing a realistic prediction of core and RCS response to the potential or actual event scenarios in Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). A thermal hydraulic system code MARS is a pivot code of the RETAS, and used to predict thermal hydraulic (TH) behaviors in the core and associated systems. MARS alone can be applied to many types of transients, but is sometimes coupled with the other codes developed for different objectives. Many tools have been developed to aid users in preparing input and displaying the transient information and output data. Output file and Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that help prepare input decks, as seen in SNAP (Gitnick, 1998), VISA (K.D. Kim, 2007) and display aids include the eFAST (KINS, 2007). The tools listed above are graphical interfaces. The input deck builders allow the user to create a functional diagram of the plant, pictorially on the screen. The functional diagram, when annotated with control volume and junction numbers, is a nodalization diagram. Data required for an input deck is entered for volumes and junctions through a mouse-driven menu and pop-up dialog; after the information is complete, an input deck is generated. Display GUIs show data from MARS calculations, either during or after the transient. The RETAS requires the user to first generate a set of 'input', two dimensional pictures of the plant on which some of the data is displayed either numerically or with a color map. The RETAS can generate XY-plots of the data. Time histories of plant conditions can be seen via the plots or through the RETAS's replay mode. The user input was combined with design input from MARS developers and experts from both the GUI and ergonomics fields. A partial list of capabilities follows. - 3D display for neutronics. - Easier method (less user time and effort) to generate 'input' for the 3D displays. - Detailed view of data at volume or junction with just a mouse click on the screen. - Interactive MARS run control (start, pause, restart, replay and stop). - Easy access to MARS peripherals. - Easy access to helpful applications such as text editor and spreadsheet. - Portability across workstations (UNIX) and PCs (Windows 98, Me, Xp, 2003 or Vista). - Window/menu/ mouse interfaces. These ideas were used as the basis for the design of RETAS. The result is a fundamentally new kind of GUI in the nuclear power plant analysis field. MARS is no longer the central focus, but rather, the focus becomes doing nuclear safety analyses from a central workspace with an arsenal of tools at the analyst's disposal. The workspace is the same on any PC, but with the native look and feel of the platform. MARS is the principal application; but others are accessible through the workspace and can be used simultaneously and in conjunction with one another to enhance the user's ability to do complicated analyses.

  8. Investigating time-efficiency of forward masking paradigms for estimating basilar membrane input-output characteristics

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    -output (I/O) function have been proposed. However, such measures are very time consuming. The present study investigated possible modifications of the temporal masking curve (TMC) paradigm to improve time and measurement efficiency. In experiment 1, estimates of knee point (KP) and compression ratio (CR......”, was tested. In contrast to the standard TMC paradigm, the maker level was kept fixed and the “gap threshold” was obtained, such that the masker just masks a low-level (12 dB sensation level) signal. It is argued that this modification allows for better control of the tested stimulus level range, which...

  9. Arithmetical unit, interrupt hardware and input-output channel for the computer Bel

    Fyroe, Karl-Johan

    1969-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a small general purpose computer using characters, variable word-length and two-address instructions and which is working in decimal (NBCD). We have realized three interruption lines with a fixed priority. The channel is selective and has generally access to the entire memory. Using slow IO-devices, time sharing is possible between the channel and the processor in the central memory buffer area. (author) [fr

  10. Test for Nonlinear Input Output Relations in SISO Systems by Preliminary Data Analysis

    Knudsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses and develops preliminary statistical tests for detecting nonlinearities in the deterministic part of SISO systems with noise. The most referenced method is unreliable for common noise processes as e.g.\\ colored. Therefore two new methods based on superposition and sinus input...

  11. FLIS Procedures Manual. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length). Volume 8.

    1997-04-01

    DATA ELE- MENTS. SEGMENT R MAY BE REPEATED A MAXIMUM OF THREE (3) TIMES IN ORDER TO ACQUIRE THE REQUIRED MIX OF SEGMENTS OR INDIVIDUAL DATA ELEMENTS TO...preceding record. Marketing input DICs. QI Next DRN of appropriate segment will be QF The assigned NSN or PSCN being can- reflected in accordance with Table...Classified KFC Notification of Possible Duplicate (Sub- KRP Characteristics Data mitter) Follow-Up Interrogation LFU Notification of Return, SSR Transaction

  12. How to simplify the analytics for input-output accountability measurements in a reprocessing plant

    Ottmar, H.; Eberle, H.; Matussek, P.; Michel-Piper, I.

    1986-02-01

    An analytical approach to high-performance uranium and plutonium accountancy measurements in reprocessing input and output solutions is presented, which provides larger operational simplicity than the conventionally applied chemical methods. The proposed alternative is based on energy-dispersive absorption edge and fluorescence X-ray spectrometry, using the proven and reliable K-edge densitometry technique as reference method. Two X-ray densitometers developed for accurate and reliable uranium and plutonium analysis in both the feed and product solutions are described. Practical experiences and results from their performance evaluation on actual process solutions from a reprocessing plant are presented and discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparison of squashing and self-consistent input-output models of quantum feedback

    Peřinová, V.; Lukš, A.; Křepelka, J.

    2018-03-01

    The paper (Yanagisawa and Hope, 2010) opens with two ways of analysis of a measurement-based quantum feedback. The scheme of the feedback includes, along with the homodyne detector, a modulator and a beamsplitter, which does not enable one to extract the nonclassical field. In the present scheme, the beamsplitter is replaced by the quantum noise evader, which makes it possible to extract the nonclassical field. We re-approach the comparison of two models related to the same scheme. The first one admits that in the feedback loop between the photon annihilation and creation operators, unusual commutation relations hold. As a consequence, in the feedback loop, squashing of the light occurs. In the second one, the description arrives at the feedback loop via unitary transformations. But it is obvious that the unitary transformation which describes the modulator changes even the annihilation operator of the mode which passes by the modulator which is not natural. The first model could be called "squashing model" and the second one could be named "self-consistent model". Although the predictions of the two models differ only a little and both the ways of analysis have their advantages, they have also their drawbacks and further investigation is possible.

  14. An Analysis of Input/Output Paradigms for Real-Time Systems

    1990-07-01

    timing and concurrency aspects of real - time systems . This paper illustrates how to build a mathematical model of the schedulability of a real-time...various design alternatives. The primary characteristic that distinguishes real-time system from non- real - time systems is the importance of time. The

  15. Relating the environmental impact of consumption to household expenditures : An input-output analysis

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Nonhebel, Sanderine; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the relationships between household expenditures and the environmental impact categories climate change, acidification, eutrophication and smog formation, by combining household expenditures with environmentally extended input–output analysis. Expenditure elasticities are

  16. Low Power Digital Clock Design Using LVCMOS Input/Output Standards on 45nm FPGA

    Pandey, Sujeet; Mehta, Rishabh; Kalia, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    metal oxide semiconductor i.e. LVCMOS and 45nm Spartan-6 FPGA family is used for simulation and amount of total power consumed is noted down. There is 90.02%, 98.88%, 99.86% and 100% reduction in the clock when we scale down frequency from 100GHz to 10GHz, 1GHz, 0.1GHz, and 0.01GHz respectively....

  17. Spectral analysis of the EEG during halothane anaesthesia: Input-output relations

    Silva, F.H. Lopes da; Smith, N. Ty; Zwart, Aart; Nichols, W.W.

    1. 1. The “Halothane-brain compartment” system was investigated in dogs. The input was the inspired concentration of Halothane. The output was the intensity of EEG spectral components. The EEG was analysed by a hybrid system (analogue filters and digital integration in a small computer). For the

  18. Input-Output Decoupling of a Distillation Column LV-Configuration

    Yazdi, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Bahar (fratrådt), Mehrdad

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references.......Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references....

  19. Training spiking neural networks to associate spatio-temporal input-output spike patterns

    Mohemmed, A; Schliebs, S; Matsuda, S; Kasabov, N

    2013-01-01

    In a previous work (Mohemmed et al., Method for training a spiking neuron to associate input–output spike trains) [1] we have proposed a supervised learning algorithm based on temporal coding to train a spiking neuron to associate input spatiotemporal spike patterns to desired output spike patterns. The algorithm is based on the conversion of spike trains into analogue signals and the application of the Widrow–Hoff learning rule. In this paper we present a mathematical formulation of the prop...

  20. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...

  1. Computer code ANISN multiplying media and shielding calculation II. Code description (input/output)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The user manual of the ANISN computer code describing input and output subroutines is presented. ANISN code was developed to solve one-dimensional transport equation for neutron or gamma rays in slab, sphere or cylinder geometry with general anisotropic scattering. The solution technique is the discrete ordinate method. (M.C.K.)

  2. Sensory activity and food intake : a study of input-output relationships in two phytophagous insects

    Blom, F.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships were studied between sensory responses and behavioural responses to the same stimulus. Sensory and behavioural reactions were both quantified according to stimulus type and concentration. Correlations between relative sensory responses and relative behavioural responses

  3. Tempo: A Toolkit for the Timed Input/Output Automata Formalism

    Lynch, Nancy A; Shvartsman, Alex Allister

    2008-01-01

    Report developed under STTR contract for topic AFO4-T023. This Phase II project developed an integrated development environment, called Tempo, for specifying, analyzing, and verifying complex distributed system designs...

  4. Intelligent input/output subsystem for CAMAC and FASTBUS. Phase 1

    Rajala, R.E.

    1986-07-01

    The authors have addressed the need for flexible and easy-to-use data-acquisition equipment for the nuclear/energy physics fields and others requiring high data rates and real-time data acquisition. Presented is the design of an intelligent, expandible I/O system using CAMAC standards and the new generation Digital Equipment Corporation VAXBI bus. The system offers a potential tenfold increase in the speed of data acquisition over current systems. A concentrated design effort is presented for the CAMAC Parallel Branch. However, the basic central processing unit, memory, and VAXBI configuration can also be used for CAMAC Serial, IEEE-488, and FASTBUS. The system uses a microprocessor-based controller, the J11, that preprocesses data prior to transmission to the VAXBI. This frees the central processor for other tasks. The design eliminates the need for special, dedicated design hardware and provides a software migration path for existing systems currently in use

  5. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Economic impacts of industrial wood energy use in the Southeastern U.S.A

    Easterly, J.L.; Boras, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study designed to quantify the conomic impacts associated with industrial/commercial wood energy use in the Southeastern region of the US. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy's Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program, managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The study involved four overall activities: (1) estimation of industrial fuelwood consumption; (2) calculation of economic impact multipliers for the states and region via the use of the US Forest Service input/output model IMPLAN; (3) development of a personal computer-based input/output decision model using Lotus 1-2-3 software, for use in the study, as well as for future use by state planners, and (4) input of all the state data into the decision model and calculation of the state and regional economic impacts. The results of the analysis found net income for the region to be approximately $880 million/year, with 57,000 net jobs generated, as a result of 47.2 million tons of industrial fuelwood consumption in the region in 1987. For the year 2000, regional wood consumption was estimated to be 65.6 million tons, with the resulting net income for the region estimated to be $1.7 billion, resulting in the creation of 97,700 net jobs

  7. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  8. The industrial ecology of steel

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  9. Selected developments and applications of Leontief models in industrial ecology

    Stroemman, Anders Hammer

    2005-01-01

    Thesis Outline: This thesis investigates issues of environmental repercussions on processes of three spatial scales; a single process plant, a regional value chain and the global economy. The first paper investigates environmental repercussions caused by a single process plant using an open Leontief model with combined physical and monetary units in what is commonly referred to as a hybrid life cycle model. Physical capital requirements are treated as any other good. Resources and environmental stressors, thousands in total, are accounted for and assessed by aggregation using standard life cycle impact assessment methods. The second paper presents a methodology for establishing and combining input-output matrices and life-cycle inventories in a hybrid life cycle inventory. Information contained within different requirements matrices are combined and issues of double counting that arise are addressed and methods for eliminating these are developed and presented. The third paper is an extension of the first paper. Here the system analyzed is increased from a single plant and component in the production network to a series of nodes, constituting a value chain. The hybrid framework proposed in paper two is applied to analyze the use of natural gas, methanol and hydrogen as transportation fuels. The fourth paper presents the development of a World Trade Model with Bilateral Trade, an extension of the World Trade Model (Duchin, 2005). The model is based on comparative advantage and is formulated as a linear program. It endogenously determines the regional output of sectors and bilateral trade flows between regions. The model may be considered a Leontief substitution model where substitution of production is allowed between regions. The primal objective of the model requires the minimization of global factor costs. The fifth paper demonstrates how the World Trade Model with Bilateral Trade can be applied to address questions relevant for industrial ecology. The model is

  10. Perceived job insecurity, unemployment risk and international trade: A micro-level analysis of employees in German service industries

    Lurweg, Maren

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigates the impact of international trade on individual labour market outcomes in the German service sector for the period 1995-2006. Combiningmicro-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and industry-level trade data from input-output tables, we examine the impacts of international trade on (1) the individually reported fear of job loss and (2) job-to-unemployment transitions. We therefore apply both a "subjective" and a more "objective" measure of job ...

  11. Industrial ecology: Quantitative methods for exploring a lower carbon future

    Thomas, Valerie M.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative methods for environmental and cost analyses of energy, industrial, and infrastructure systems are briefly introduced and surveyed, with the aim of encouraging broader utilization and development of quantitative methods in sustainable energy research. Material and energy flow analyses can provide an overall system overview. The methods of engineering economics and cost benefit analysis, such as net present values, are the most straightforward approach for evaluating investment options, with the levelized cost of energy being a widely used metric in electricity analyses. Environmental lifecycle assessment has been extensively developed, with both detailed process-based and comprehensive input-output approaches available. Optimization methods provide an opportunity to go beyond engineering economics to develop detailed least-cost or least-impact combinations of many different choices.

  12. Management of Industrial Processes with Programmable Logic Controller

    Marius Tufoi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In a modern economy, automation (the control is primarily to raise the competitiveness of a product, either directly through price or quality, or indirectly through the improvement of working conditions of staff productive. The control of industrial processes involves the management of dynamic systems that have continuous states. These systems are described by differential equations and, in general, analog inputs and outputs. Management of these systems is achieved, in general, with classical automation, by automation or with analog computers which contains modules with input / output analog performance. If states, inputs and outputs of a system can be modeled using binary variables, then these systems can be driven with Programmable Logic Controller.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of the magnetosphere and space weather

    Sharma, A. Surjalal

    1996-01-01

    The solar wind-magnetosphere system exhibits coherence on the global scale and such behavior can arise from nonlinearity on the dynamics. The observational time series data were used together with phase space reconstruction techniques to analyze the magnetospheric dynamics. Analysis of the solar wind, auroral electrojet and Dst indices showed low dimensionality of the dynamics and accurate prediction can be made with an input/output model. The predictability of the magnetosphere in spite of the apparent complexity arises from its dynamical synchronism with the solar wind. The electrodynamic coupling between different regions of the magnetosphere yields its coherent, low dimensional behavior. The data from multiple satellites and ground stations can be used to develop a spatio-temporal model that identifies the coupling between different regions. These nonlinear dynamical models provide space weather forecasting capabilities.

  14. Conceito e espaço da pequena empresa na estrutura industrial: heterogeneidade e formas de inserção Concept and space of small business in the industrial structure: heterogeneity and forms of insertion

    Maria Carolina de Azevedo Ferreira de Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Com base no exame da literatura pertinente, este trabalho busca ampliar o debate sobre o conceito de pequena empresa e identifica as formas de sua inserção na estrutura industrial. Ficou evidenciada a conceituação da pequena empresa como "pequeno capital", cuja posição e desempenho estão estreitamente vinculados ao processo de oligopolização. Nessa direção, procurou-se deixar clara a existência de quatro possíveis trajetórias de inserção para o segmento: disputa de espaço em mercados ainda pouco oligopolizados e com acentuada concorrência em preços; exploração de novos "nichos" de mercado; organização "em rede", com predominância de pequenas empresas e sem liderança explícita de grandes empresas; e inserção em redes de subcontratação comandadas por grandes empresas. Frente a esse conjunto de trajetórias, fica evidente que é inadequado o tratamento das pequenas empresas como um bloco homogêneo (ou como uma "questão geral", seja no que se refere às condições que explicam sua sobrevivência e seu crescimento, seja no âmbito das medidas de política econômica voltadas à sua promoção. O importante passa a ser não o porte, mas antes o potencial de contribuição para a obtenção dos resultados planejados ao se definir medidas de apoio, entre elas a preservação e aumento do emprego.Based on the analysis of the relevant literature, this study amplifies the debate about the concept of small business and identifies the possible space for it in the industrial structure. The concept of small business has been evidenced as "small capital", whose position and performance are closely linked to the process of oligopolization. Along these lines, four possible insertion trajectories for the segment have been sought to be highlighted: struggle for space in markets still not so oligopolized and with emphasized price competition; exploration of new market niches; network organization, with predominance of small business

  15. Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in the toxicity of chemical emissions from the US industrial sector over the 1998-2009 period. Specifically, we employed a multiregional input-output analysis framework and integrated a supply-side index decomposition analysis (IDA) with a demand-side structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to clarify the main drivers of changes in the toxicity of production- and consumption-based chemical emissions. The results showed that toxic emissions from the US industrial sector decreased by 83% over the studied period because of pollution abatement efforts adopted by US industries. A variety of pollution abatement efforts were used by different industries, and cleaner production in the mining sector and the use of alternative materials in the manufacture of transportation equipment represented the most important efforts.

  16. Correlation indices physical space of soil and productivity of fruit tomato industry = Correlação espacial de atributos físicos do solo e produtividade de tomate industrial

    Danilo Gomes de Oliveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With mechanization at all stages of crop management, the soil began to receive a higher surface load, which causes changes in its physical properties with possible production impacts. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the variability and spatial correlation of the physical attributes of a Red Latosol with the productivity of industrial tomatoes. For this, a sample mesh was assembled using a global receiver positioning system (GPS, with 84 pairs of spaced apart 80 x 80 m points. After the mesh construction, samples in the 0.00-0.20 m layer were collected in the field to measure the physical attributes of the soil and plant data. The variables measured were: soil density (Ds, soil penetration resistance (PR, soil texture and tomato productivity. The values obtained were analyzed using geostatistics, and were classified according to the degree of spatial dependence. Then, using the ordinary kriging interpolation method and ordinary cokriging, the values for nonsampled sites were estimated, allowing the mapping of isovalues and the definition of management zones in the field. The spatial correlation of the physical attributes with the production components by the ordinary Cokriging method verified spatial correlation only between attributes (soil x soil density and sand content. The use of geostatistics and the construction of the maps by means of kriging and ordinary cokrigation allowed to identify different management zones, that is, the variability of soil attributes and productivity. = Com a mecanização em todas as etapas de manejo das culturas, o solo passou a receber maior carga superficial, o que provoca mudanças em suas propriedades físicas, com possíveis reflexos na produção. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a variabilidade e a correlação espacial dos atributos físicos de um Latossolo Vermelho com a produtividade de tomate industrial. Para isso, montou-se uma malha amostral utilizando um receptor global

  17. Structure analysis and core community detection of embodied resources networks among regional industries

    He, Xijun; Dong, Yanbo; Wu, Yuying; Wei, Guodan; Xing, Lizhi; Yan, Jia

    2017-08-01

    To address the double pressure of scarce resources and regional industrial isomorphism, this paper applied the concepts of exergy and embodied resources based on economic input-output (I-O) data. We constructed the embodied resources networks among the regional industries of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji) in China. We analyzed the rules of embodied resources consumption in the area's industries, identified the core community structures, and studied the characteristics of industrial homogeneity through regional comparisons. The results showed that the dependence on scarce resources of industrial operations in Beijing was less than in Jin-Ji, while the dependence on finance, technology, information, and other service resources in Beijing was higher than in Jin-Ji. The I-O efficiency of embodied resources among industries and the agglomeration of correlation relationships in industries with large embodied resources were higher than in Jin-Ji. The industrial coincidence degree in the ;bridge; industries and in the core community in Jin-Ji was higher than in Jing-Jin and Jing-Ji, which means the industrial homogeneous competition of Jin-Ji was higher, too. This study makes a significant contribution toward promoting the dislocation development of regional industries, accelerating the coordination of resources, and reducing homogeneity competition.

  18. Space teleoperation research. American Nuclear Society Executive conference: Remote operations and robotics in the nuclear industry; remote maintenance in other hostile environments

    Meintel, A. J., Jr.; Will, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation consists of four sections. The first section is a brief introduction to the NASA Space Program. The second portion summarized the results of a congressionally mandated study of automation and robotics for space station. The third portion presents a number of concepts for space teleoperator systems. The remainder of the presentation describes Langley Research Center's teleoperator/robotic research to support remote space operations.

  19. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  20. Space Commercialization

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  1. Integrated human-machine intelligence in space systems

    Boy, Guy A.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of human and machine intelligence in space systems is outlined with respect to the contributions of artificial intelligence. The current state-of-the-art in intelligent assistant systems (IASs) is reviewed, and the requirements of some real-world applications of the technologies are discussed. A concept of integrated human-machine intelligence is examined in the contexts of: (1) interactive systems that tolerate human errors; (2) systems for the relief of workloads; and (3) interactive systems for solving problems in abnormal situations. Key issues in the development of IASs include the compatibility of the systems with astronauts in terms of inputs/outputs, processing, real-time AI, and knowledge-based system validation. Real-world applications are suggested such as the diagnosis, planning, and control of enginnered systems.

  2. Novel Adaptive Forward Neural MIMO NARX Model for the Identification of Industrial 3-DOF Robot Arm Kinematics

    Ho Pham Huy Anh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel forward adaptive neural MIMO NARX model is used for modelling and identifying the forward kinematics of an industrial 3-DOF robot arm system. The nonlinear features of the forward kinematics of the industrial robot arm drive are thoroughly modelled based on the forward adaptive neural NARX model-based identification process using experimental input-output training data. This paper proposes a novel use of a back propagation (BP algorithm to generate the forward neural MIMO NARX (FNMN model for the forward kinematics of the industrial 3-DOF robot arm. The results show that the proposed adaptive neural NARX model trained by a Back Propagation learning algorithm yields outstanding performance and perfect accuracy.

  3. Analysis of historical series of industrial demand of energy; Analisi delle serie storiche dei consumi energetici dell`industria

    Moauro, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports a short term analysis of the Italian demand for energy fonts and a check of a statistic model supposing the industrial demand for energy fonts as a function of prices and production, according to neoclassic neoclassic micro economic theory. To this pourpose monthly time series of industrial consumption of main energy fonts in 6 sectors, industrial production indexes in the same sectors and indexes of energy prices (coal, natural gas, oil products, electricity) have been used. The statistic methodology refers to modern analysis of time series and specifically to transfer function models. These ones permit rigorous identification and representation of the most important dynamic relations between dependent variables (production and prices), as relation of an input-output system. The results have shown an important positive correlation between energy consumption with prices. Furthermore, it has been shown the reliability of forecasts and their use as monthly energy indicators.

  4. Comparative risk assessment in the energy industry

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers four approaches to risk assessment in the energy industry. The first is a comparison of the primary fuel cycles - coal and nuclear - standardized to 1 GW(e) power-plant year; this gives the societal risk of the production of a standardized amount of electricity. An example from underground coal mining is given to show how these estimates for the fuel cycles were made. The second approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks for different energy cycles per GWy(e). The third approach is a comparison of the societal and individual occupational risks of four different types of photovoltaic cell manufacture; this is an example of an intratechnology comparison. The fourth approach is a risk accounting method of analysis which estimates occupational health impacts for fabrication, construction, operation, and maintenance of energy technologies, and which, through an input-output model of the national economy, includes system-wide impacts as well as direct impacts of building and operating energy facilities

  5. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    Lee, Cheng F.; Lin, Sue J.; Lewis, Charles; Chang, Yih F.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO 2 emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO 2 reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO 2 reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO 2 reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO 2 emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO 2 reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  6. Effects of carbon taxes on different industries by fuzzy goal programming: A case study of the petrochemical-related industries, Taiwan

    Lee, Cheng F. [Diwan University, Tainan (China). Department of Environment and Resources Engineering; Lin, Sue J. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China). Department of Environmental Engineering, SERC; Lewis, Charles [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China). Department of Resources Engineering; Chang, Yih F. [Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan (China). Department of Tourism Management

    2007-08-15

    Implementation of a carbon tax is one of the major ways to mitigate CO{sub 2} emission. However, blanket taxes applied to all industries in a country might not always be fair or successful in CO{sub 2} reduction. This study aims to evaluate the effects of carbon taxes on different industries, and meanwhile to find an optimal carbon tax scenario for Taiwan's petrochemical industry. A fuzzy goal programming approach, integrated with gray prediction and input-output theory, is used to construct a model for simulating the CO{sub 2} reduction capacities and economic impacts of three different tax scenarios. Results indicate that the up-stream industries show improved CO{sub 2} reduction while the down-stream industries fail to achieve their reduction targets. Moreover, under the same reduction target (i.e. return the CO{sub 2} emission amount to year 2000 level by 2020), scenario SWE induces less impact than FIN and EU on industrial GDP. This work provides a valuable approach for researches on model construction and CO{sub 2} reduction, since it applies the gray envelop prediction to determine the boundary values of the fuzzy goal programming model, and furthermore it can take the economic interaction among industries into consideration. (author)

  7. Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency—Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination

    Patrik Thollander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being

  8. South Africa’s Space Programme of the mid-1980s to mid-1990s: Driver towards a South African Titanium Industry

    Du Preez, W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available corrosion resistant - exceeds that of stainless steel and has outstanding corrosion resistance in the human body and in seawater Drivers of the International Titanium Industry © CSIR 2010 Slide 6 Drivers of the International Titanium Industry Cold War... for Airbus Growth of >50% expected over the next decade Cold War: Titanium in Military Aircraft of the USA The SR-71 Blackbird Designed & built in 1959 - 1963 Fastest airplane ever: Mach 3.2 (3700 km/h) at 80 000 ft ~ 24 km New York - Londen: 1h 55min...

  9. 21 reports of future industry

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with 21 reports on future industry, which contain revolution of digital educations, genetic engineering, the newest medical device, environmental industry, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, bio-green revolution, energy of the future, advanced concept computer, e-commerce, digital cash, game industry, information technology for future, next DRAM, information protection industry, robot to replace manpower, medium for information display, navigation systems, a space development, design industry and, home automation.

  10. The Second Space Race

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  11. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  12. Estimating Power Outage Cost based on a Survey for Industrial Customers

    Yoshida, Yoshikuni; Matsuhashi, Ryuji

    A survey was conducted on power outage cost for industrial customers. 5139 factories, which are designated energy management factories in Japan, answered their power consumption and the loss of production value due to the power outage in an hour in summer weekday. The median of unit cost of power outage of whole sectors is estimated as 672 yen/kWh. The sector of services for amusement and hobbies and the sector of manufacture of information and communication electronics equipment relatively have higher unit cost of power outage. Direct damage cost from power outage in whole sectors reaches 77 billion yen. Then utilizing input-output analysis, we estimated indirect damage cost that is caused by the repercussion of production halt. Indirect damage cost in whole sectors reaches 91 billion yen. The sector of wholesale and retail trade has the largest direct damage cost. The sector of manufacture of transportation equipment has the largest indirect damage cost.

  13. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  14. The Haendeloe area in Norrkoeping, Sweden: Does it fit for Industrial Symbiosis development?

    Hatefipour, Saeid; Baas, Leenard; Eklund, Mats (Div. of Environmental Technology and Management - Dept. of Management and Engineering, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: saeid.hatefipour@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    Today, sustainable cities/regions are playing an important role in sustainable development projects. The overall aim of the current paper is to demonstrate an Industrial Symbiosis development in the Haendeloe area of Norrkoeping city in the Oestergoetland county of Sweden. It is part of a research program called 'Sustainable Norrkoeping' focusing on developing links between the industrial and the urban part of the city. As analysis of the current situation is important for understanding the future development, the paper tries to map the current industrial symbiosis links and symbiotic network to identify potentials exist. To achieve this, paper gives a general view of how this area has been developed, constructed, and grown. The next stage is devoted to an inventory of different actors, stakeholders, and companies, their processes and relationships in the form of energy, materials and by-products exchanges, flows and streams into and out of the Haendeloe area considering the Haendeloe/Norrkoeping as system boundaries. In addition, by describing different tools, elements and approaches of industrial symbiosis and considering and applying two main key tools as industrial inventories and input/output matching the paper also tries to show that whether the already industrial activities formed inside the Haendeloe fits for an industrial symbiosis development

  15. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  16. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of 131 I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of 125 I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The 125 I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the 131 I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of 131 I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure

  17. Industrial Dynamics and Economic Geography

    Capasso, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314016627; Stam, Erik|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370; Cefis, Elena|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/274516233

    2015-01-01

    Capasso M., Stam E. and Cefis E. Industrial dynamics and economic geography, Regional Studies. How do industries emerge and evolve over space? In this special issue the fields of industrial dynamics and economic geography are brought together in order to achieve a richer and more fundamental

  18. The near-term impacts of carbon mitigation policies on manufacturing industries

    Morgenstern, Richard D.; Ho Mun; Shih, J.-S.; Zhang Xuehua

    2004-01-01

    Who pays for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries are combined with input-output information on inter-industry purchases to paint a detailed picture of carbon use, including effects on final demand. Regional information on electricity supply and use by region is also incorporated. A relatively simple model is developed which yields estimates of the relative burdens within the manufacturing sector of alternative carbon policies. Overall, the principal conclusion is that within the manufacturing sector (which by definition excludes coal production and electricity generation), only a small number of industries would bear a disproportionate short-term burden of a carbon tax or similar policy. Not surprisingly, an electricity-only policy affects very different manufacturing industries than an economy-wide carbon tax

  19. A conceptual model for analysing input-output coefficients in arable farming systems: from diagnosis towards design

    Koeijer, de T.J.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Struik, P.C.; Renkema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental legislation is forcing a rethink about desirable crop production systems. The development of new production systems that meet economic and environmental objectives demands knowledge about which input–output combinations are feasible and optimal in practice. A review of concepts in

  20. Age-Related Interference between the Selection of Input-Output Modality Mappings and Postural Control—a Pilot Study

    Stelzel, Christine; Schauenburg, Gesche; Rapp, Michael A.; Heinzel, Stephan; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Age-related decline in executive functions and postural control due to degenerative processes in the central nervous system have been related to increased fall-risk in old age. Many studies have shown cognitive-postural dual-task interference in old adults, but research on the role of specific executive functions in this context has just begun. In this study, we addressed the question whether postural control is impaired depending on the coordination of concurrent response-selection processes related to the compatibility of input and output modality mappings as compared to impairments related to working-memory load in the comparison of cognitive dual and single tasks. Specifically, we measured total center of pressure (CoP) displacements in healthy female participants aged 19–30 and 66–84 years while they performed different versions of a spatial one-back working memory task during semi-tandem stance on an unstable surface (i.e., balance pad) while standing on a force plate. The specific working-memory tasks comprised: (i) modality compatible single tasks (i.e., visual-manual or auditory-vocal tasks), (ii) modality compatible dual tasks (i.e., visual-manual and auditory-vocal tasks), (iii) modality incompatible single tasks (i.e., visual-vocal or auditory-manual tasks), and (iv) modality incompatible dual tasks (i.e., visual-vocal and auditory-manual tasks). In addition, participants performed the same tasks while sitting. As expected from previous research, old adults showed generally impaired performance under high working-memory load (i.e., dual vs. single one-back task). In addition, modality compatibility affected one-back performance in dual-task but not in single-task conditions with strikingly pronounced impairments in old adults. Notably, the modality incompatible dual task also resulted in a selective increase in total CoP displacements compared to the modality compatible dual task in the old but not in the young participants. These results suggest that in addition to effects of working-memory load, processes related to simultaneously overcoming special linkages between input- and output modalities interfere with postural control in old but not in young female adults. Our preliminary data provide further evidence for the involvement of cognitive control processes in postural tasks. PMID:28484411